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Sample records for linearly polarized formula

  1. Polarized Electrons for Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Clendenin, J E; Garwin, E L; Kirby, R E; Luh, D A; Maruyama, T; Prescott, C Y; Sheppard, J C; Turner, J; Prepost, R

    2005-01-01

    Future electron-positron linear colliders require a highly polarized electron beam with a pulse structure that depends primarily on whether the acceleration utilizes warm or superconducting rf structures. The International Linear Collider (ILC) will use cold structures for the main linac. It is shown that a dc-biased polarized photoelectron source such as successfully used for the SLC can meet the charge requirements for the ILC micropulse with a polarization approaching 90%.

  2. Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury Formula for Linear Integrodifferential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula is a powerful device for calculating the inverse of a square matrix. The paper finds that the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula can be extended to the linear integrodifferential equation, which results in an unified scheme to decompose the linear integrodifferential equation into sets of differential equations and one integral equation. Two examples are presented to illustrate the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula for the linear integrodifferential equation.

  3. Polarization Ratio Determination with Two Identical Linearly Polarized Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Polarization Ratio Determination with Two Identical Linearly Polarized Antennas Herbert M. Aumann1, Francis G. Willwerth2 and Kristan A. Tuttle2...maine.edu Abstract— This paper describes a method for determining the complex polarization ratio using two identical, linearly polarized antennas. By...present paper it will be shown that the later technique can also be used to determine the polarization ratio of a linearly polarized antenna. II

  4. Mesoscopic formulas of linear and angular momentum fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruleux, Antoine; Sekimoto, Ken

    2016-07-01

    Many approaches of coarse graining have been developed under the names of Cosserat theory or polar-fluid theory for those materials in which some component elements undergo nonaffine deformations, such as elastic materials with inclusions or granular matters. For the complex elements such as living cells, however, the microscopic variables and their dynamics are often unknown, and there has been no systematic theory of coarse graining from the microscales nor the formulas like the Irving-Kirkwood formula that constitutes the macroscopic stress or couple stress in terms of some microscale quantities. We show that, for the quasi-steady states, the coarse-graining procedure must generally provide us with the Cosserat-type balance equations as long as the procedure keeps track of the conservation of linear and angular momenta, and that the fluxes of these conserved quantities should generally be expressed in the Irving-Kirkwood-type formulas, where the interparticle distance or forces and torques should be replaced by those associated to the pair of neighboring coarse-graining volumes. This framework, which refers to no particular microvariables or dynamics, is valid for active complex matters out of equilibrium and with any multibody interactions.

  5. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-10-01

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  6. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  7. Testing Linear Temporal Logic Formulae on Finite Execution Traces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an algorithm for efficiently testing Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulae on finite execution traces. The standard models of LTL are infinite traces, reflecting the behavior of reactive and concurrent systems which conceptually may be continuously alive. In most past applications of LTL. theorem provers and model checkers have been used to formally prove that down-scaled models satisfy such LTL specifications. Our goal is instead to use LTL for up-scaled testing of real software applications. Such tests correspond to analyzing the conformance of finite traces against LTL formulae. We first describe what it means for a finite trace to satisfy an LTL property. We then suggest an optimized algorithm based on transforming LTL formulae. The work is done using the Maude rewriting system. which turns out to provide a perfect notation and an efficient rewriting engine for performing these experiments.

  8. X-ray linear dichroism dependence on ferroelectric polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisetty, S; Zhou, J; Karthik, J; Damodaran, A R; Chen, D; Scholl, A; Martin, L W; Holcomb, M

    2012-06-20

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoemission electron microscopy are techniques commonly used to determine the magnetic properties of thin films, crystals, and heterostructures. Recently, these methods have been used in the study of magnetoelectrics and multiferroics. The analysis of such materials has been compromised by the presence of multiple order parameters and the lack of information on how to separate these coupled properties. In this work, we shed light on the manifestation of dichroism from ferroelectric polarization and atomic structure using photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Linear dichroism arising from the ferroelectric order in the PbZr0:2Ti0:8O3 thin films was studied as a function of incident x-ray polarization and geometry to unambiguously determine the angular dependence of the ferroelectric contribution to the dichroism. These measurements allow us to examine the contribution of surface charges and ferroelectric polarization as potential mechanisms for linear dichroism. The x-ray linear dichroism from ferroelectric order revealed an angular dependence based on the angle between the ferroelectric polarization direction and the x-ray polarization axis, allowing a formula for linear dichroism in ferroelectric samples to be defined.

  9. LINEARLY POLARIZED PROBES OF SURFACE CHIRALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERBIEST, T; KAURANEN, M; MAKI, JJ; TEERENSTRA, MN; SCHOUTEN, AJ; NOLTE, RJM; PERSOONS, A

    1995-01-01

    We present a new nonlinear optical technique to study surface chirality. We demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency of second-harmonic generation from isotropic chiral surfaces is different for excitation with fundamental light that is +45 degrees and -45 degrees linearly polarized with respe

  10. LINEARLY POLARIZED PROBES OF SURFACE CHIRALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERBIEST, T; KAURANEN, M; MAKI, JJ; TEERENSTRA, MN; SCHOUTEN, AJ; NOLTE, RJM; PERSOONS, A

    1995-01-01

    We present a new nonlinear optical technique to study surface chirality. We demonstrate experimentally that the efficiency of second-harmonic generation from isotropic chiral surfaces is different for excitation with fundamental light that is +45 degrees and -45 degrees linearly polarized with respe

  11. Plasmonic metamaterial as broadband absorptive linear polarizer

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Chunrui

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the broadband and huge transmittance difference between orthogonally linear polarizations in the visible range through a novel plasmonic nanowire array made by shadowing vapor deposition method. The broadband transmittance difference is due to the selective absorption of particular polarization, up to 60% in preferential direction averaged from 500 to 850 nm, by plasmonic excitations at distinct wavelengths in different metallic elements of Ag short-long nanowire array. The most significant resonance from the bottom Ag strip can contribute ~ 90% absorption around the resonance frequency which simultaneously leads to a reflection valley. By manipulating the separation between the two short wires, the resonances as well as the optical properties can be tuned. The plasmonic nanostructure has potential applications as broadband linear polarizer or anti-reflective coating in both optics and photovoltaic fields.

  12. Faraday rotation assisted by linearly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jai Min; Kim, Jang Myun; Cho, D.

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate a type of chiral effect of an atomic medium. Polarization rotation of a probe beam is observed only when both a magnetic field and a linearly polarized coupling beam are present. We compare it with other chiral effects like optical activity, the Faraday effect, and the optically induced Faraday effect from the viewpoint of spatial inversion and time reversal transformations. As a theoretical model we consider a five-level configuration involving the cesium D2 transition. We use spin-polarized cold cesium atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap to measure the polarization rotation versus probe detuning. The result shows reasonable agreement with a calculation from the master equation of the five-level configuration.

  13. Robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Richard; Northen, Trent R

    2013-10-15

    Untargeted metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled via electrospray ionization is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products, metabolic capabilities, and biomarkers. However, the elucidation of the identities of uncharacterized metabolites from spectral features remains challenging. A critical step in the metabolite identification workflow is the assignment of redundant spectral features (adducts, fragments, multimers) and calculation of the underlying chemical formula. Inspection of the data by experts using computational tools solving partial problems (e.g., chemical formula calculation for individual ions) can be performed to disambiguate alternative solutions and provide reliable results. However, manual curation is tedious and not readily scalable or standardized. Here we describe an automated procedure for the robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming optimization (RAMSI). Chemical rules among related ions are expressed as linear constraints and both the spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation are performed in a single optimization step. This approach is unbiased in that it does not require predefined sets of neutral losses and positive and negative polarity spectra can be combined in a single optimization. The procedure was evaluated with 30 experimental mass spectra and was found to effectively identify the protonated or deprotonated molecule ([M + H](+) or [M - H](-)) while being robust to the presence of background ions. RAMSI provides a much-needed standardized tool for interpreting ions for subsequent identification in untargeted metabolomics workflows.

  14. Measuring the continuum linear polarization with ESPaDOnS

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, A; Martioli, E

    2014-01-01

    Our goal is to test the feasibility to obtain accurate measurements of the continuum linear polarization from high-resolution spectra using the spectropolarimetric mode of ESPaDOnS. We used the new pipeline OPERA to reduce recent and archived ESPaDOnS data. A couple of standard polarization stars and several science objects were tested. Synthetic broad-band polarization was computed from the ESPaDOnS continuum linear polarization spectra and compared with published values to quantify the accuracy of the instrument. The continuum linear polarization measured by ESPaDOnS is consistent with the broad-band polarimetry measurements available in the literature. The polarization degree accuracy is better than 0.2% considering the full sample. The accuracy in polarization position angle using the most polarized objects is better than 5deg. Our results suggest that measurements of the continuum linear polarization using ESPaDOnS are viable.

  15. Detection of endometrial lesions by degree of linear polarization maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Walsh, Joseph T.

    2010-02-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain and infertility and is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity. A novel laparoscopic polarization imaging system was designed to detect endometriosis by imaging endometrial lesions. Linearly polarized light with varying incident polarization angles illuminated endometrial lesions. Degree of linear polarization image maps of endometrial lesions were constructed by using remitted polarized light. The image maps were compared with regular laparoscopy image. The degree of linear polarization map contributed to the detection of endometriosis by revealing structures inside the lesion. The utilization of rotating incident polarization angle (IPA) for the linearly polarized light provides extended understanding of endometrial lesions. The developed polarization system with varying IPA and the collected image maps could provide improved characterization of endometrial lesions via higher visibility of the structure of the lesions and thereby improve diagnosis of endometriosis.

  16. Broadband Linear Polarization of Jupiter Trojans

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnulo, S; Stinson, A; Christou, A; Borisov, G B

    2016-01-01

    Trojan asteroids orbit in the Lagrange points of the system Sun-planet-asteroid. Their dynamical stability make their physical properties important proxies for the early evolution of our solar system. To study their origin, we want to characterize the surfaces of Jupiter Trojan asteroids and check possible similarities with objects of the main belt and of the Kuiper Belt. We have obtained high-accuracy broad-band linear polarization measurements of six Jupiter Trojans of the L4 population and tried to estimate the main features of their polarimetric behaviour. We have compared the polarimetric properties of our targets among themselves, and with those of other atmosphere-less bodies of our solar system. Our sample show approximately homogeneous polarimetric behaviour, although some distinct features are found between them. In general, the polarimetric properties of Trojan asteroids are similar to those of D- and P-type main-belt asteroids. No sign of coma activity is detected in any of the observed objects. A...

  17. Linearly polarized photons at MAMI (Mainz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, D.; Peise, J.; Ahrens, J.; Anthony, I.; Arends, H.-J.; Beck, R.; Crawford, R.; Hünger, A.; Kaiser, K. H.; Kellie, J. D.; Klümper, Ch.; Krahn, P.; Kraus, A.; Ludwig, U.; Schumacher, M.; Selke, O.; Schmitz, M.; Schneider, M.; Wissmann, F.; Wolf, S.

    1994-04-01

    Coherent bremsstrahlung is produced using the 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz three-stage racetrack microtron MAMI and a diamond crystal inserted as a radiator into the MAMI tagging system. By counting only the electrons on the tagger ladder an intensity spectrum ranging from 50 MeV to 800 MeV was obtained with good statistical accuracy in a running time of 2 s. This short running time makes it possible to measure a complete intensity pattern versus photon energy for different orientations of the diamond crystal in about 15 minutes. By comparing these measured intensity patterns with calculations it becomes possible to precisely align the crystal axes with respect to the axes of the goniometer. Relative intensities of coherent bremsstrahlung are determined experimentally by normalizing the diamond data to data obtained with an amorphous Ni radiator. Good agreement is obtained between experiment and prediction when taking into account the beam divergence, multiple scattering of electrons in the radiator, the Z dependence of the bremsstrahlung spectrum and the finite Debye temperature of diamond. With a collimated photon beam having an aperture of half the characteristic angle degrees of linear polarization appear to be possible ranging from 80% at 200 MeV over 65% at 300 MeV and 55% at 400 MeV to 35% at 500 MeV.

  18. Using logical functions for constructing non-linear analytical formulae in combinatorics and number theory

    OpenAIRE

    Chebrakov, Yu. V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss techniques suitable for translating the verbal descriptions of computative algorithms into a set of mathematical formulae and demonstrate that logical functions can be used effectively in order to create non-linear analytical formulae, describing a set of combinatorial and number-theoretic computative algorithms.

  19. The spatial relation between EUV cavities and linear polarization signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak-Stȩślicka, Urszula; Gibson, Sarah E.; Fan, Yuhong; Bethge, Christian; Forland, Blake; Rachmeler, Laurel A.

    2014-01-01

    Solar coronal cavities are regions of rarefied density and elliptical cross-section. The Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) obtains daily full-Sun coronal observations in linear polarization, allowing a systematic analysis of the coronal magnetic field in polar-crown prominence cavities. These cavities commonly possess a characteristic ``lagomorphic'' signature in linear polarization that may be explained by a magnetic flux-rope model. We analyze the spatial relation between the EUV cavity and the CoMP linear polarization signature.

  20. Direct Probes of Linearly Polarized Gluons inside Unpolarized Hadrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    We show that linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be directly probed in jet or heavy quark pair production in electron-hadron collisions. We discuss the simplest cos2 phi asymmetries and estimate their maximal value, concluding that measurements of the unknown linearly polarized

  1. Accessing the distribution of linearly polarized gluons in unpolarized hadrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniël; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mulders, Piet J.; Pisano, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    Gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be linearly polarized provided they have a nonzero transverse momentum. The simplest and theoretically safest way to probe this distribution of linearly polarized gluons is through cos(2 phi) asymmetries in heavy quark pair or dijet production in electron-hadron

  2. Cavity-based linear polarizer immune to the polarization direction of an incident plane wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang; Shen, Zhongxiang; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Wen

    2016-01-15

    We herein report a linear polarizer based on a 2D array of substrate integrated waveguide cavities, which can convert an arbitrary linearly polarized (LP) incident wave into an outgoing LP wave in a specified polarization direction with constant transmittance. Two orthogonal slots etched on the front surface of the cavity are utilized to couple a wave of arbitrary polarization into the cavity, while another slot on the back side helps to couple the field out along a desired polarization direction. Microwave experiments are performed as a proof of concept. The proposed polarizer exhibits very good performance with stable transmittance as 50% and a polarization extinction ratio over 45 dB. The new polarizer is potentially useful in novel polarization-selective devices that are immune to the polarization direction of an incident plane wave.

  3. Completely monolithic linearly polarized high-power fiber laser oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belke, Steffen; Becker, Frank; Neumann, Benjamin; Ruppik, Stefan; Hefter, Ulrich

    2014-03-01

    We have demonstrated a linearly polarized cw all-in-fiber oscillator providing 1 kW of output power and a polarization extinction ratio (PER) of up to 21.7 dB. The design of the laser oscillator is simple and consists of an Ytterbium-doped polarization maintaining large mode area (PLMA) fiber and suitable fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) in matching PLMA fibers. The oscillator has nearly diffraction-limited beam quality (M² high power 6+1:1 pump coupler. The slope efficiency of the laser is 75 %. The electro/optical efficiency of the complete laser system is ~30 % and hence in the range of Rofin's cw non-polarized fiber lasers. Choosing an adequate bending diameter for the Yb-doped PLMA fiber, one polarization mode as well as higher order modes are sufficiently supressed1. Resulting in a compact and robust linearly polarized high power single mode laser without external polarizing components. Linearly polarized lasers are well established for one dimensional cutting or welding applications. Using beam shaping optics radially polarized laser light can be generated to be independent from the angle of incident to the processing surface. Furthermore, high power linearly polarized laser light is fundamental for nonlinear frequency conversion of nonlinear materials.

  4. Nonadiabatic tunneling in circularly polarized laser fields: Derivation of formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    We provide detailed analysis of strong field ionization of degenerate valence p orbitals by circularly polarized fields. Our analytical approach is conceptually equivalent to the Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev (PPT) theory and is virtually exact for short range potentials. After benchmarking our results against the PPT theory for s orbitals, we obtain the results for p orbitals. We also show that, as long as the dipole approximation is valid, both the PPT method and our results are gauge invariant, in contrast with widely used strong field approximation (SFA). Our main result, which has already been briefly outlined in [I. Barth and O. Smirnova, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063415 (2011)], is that strong field ionization preferentially removes electrons counter-rotating to the circularly polarized laser field. The result is illustrated using the example of Kr atom. Strong, up to one order of magnitude, sensitivity of strong field ionization to the sense of electron rotation in the initial state is one of the key signatu...

  5. Metamaterial optical diodes for linearly and circularly polarized light

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, E; Zheludev, N I

    2010-01-01

    The total intensity of light transmitted at non-normal incidence thorough planar metamaterials can be different for forward and backward propagation. For metamaterial patterns of different symmetries we observe this effect for circularly or linearly polarized light.

  6. Variable linear polarization from an X-ray undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A T; Arenholz, E; Marks, S; Schlueter, R; Steier, C; Padmore, H A; Hitchcock, A P; Castner, D G

    2002-07-01

    A new X-ray undulator has been designed and constructed which produces linearly polarized X-rays in which the plane of polarization can be oriented to a user selectable angle, from horizontal to vertical. Based on the Apple-II elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU), the undulator rotates the angle of the linear polarization by a simple longitudinal motion of the undulator magnets. Combined with the circular and elliptical polarization capabilities of the EPU operating in the standard mode, this new undulator produces soft X-ray radiation with versatile polarization control. This paper describes the magnetic structure of the device and presents an analysis of the magnetic field with varying undulator parameters. The variable linear polarization capability is then exhibited by measuring the X-ray absorption spectrum of an oriented polytetrafluoroethylene thin film. This experiment, which measures the linear dichroism of the sample at two peaks near the C 1s absorption edge, demonstrates the continuous polarization rotation capabilities of the undulator.

  7. A new formula for some linear stochastic equations with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kella, Offer; 10.1214/09-AAP637

    2010-01-01

    We give a representation of the solution for a stochastic linear equation of the form $X_t=Y_t+\\int_{(0,t]}X_{s-} \\mathrm {d}{Z}_s$ where $Z$ is a c\\'adl\\'ag semimartingale and $Y$ is a c\\'adl\\'ag adapted process with bounded variation on finite intervals. As an application we study the case where $Y$ and $-Z$ are nondecreasing, jointly have stationary increments and the jumps of $-Z$ are bounded by 1. Special cases of this process are shot-noise processes, growth collapse (additive increase, multiplicative decrease) processes and clearing processes. When $Y$ and $Z$ are, in addition, independent L\\'evy processes, the resulting $X$ is called a generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.

  8. Orthogonally linear polarized lasers(Ⅰ)--principle and devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shulian; XU Ting

    2005-01-01

    Two kinds of orthogonally polarized lasers, i.e. Zeeman dual-frequency lasers and four-frequency ring lasers (laser gyros) have been developed since the invention of lasers, in which circularly polarized lights oscillate. This paper summarizes recent progress of the study on orthogonally linear polarized lasers with the standing wave cavity. Firstly, the expression of producing orthogonally linear polarized lights in standing wave cavity, i.e. laser frequency splitting, is given. Almost all the birefringence effects made in laser cavity are used to produce orthogonally linear polarized lights. The effect includes quartz crystal birefringence effect, calcite birefringence effect,stress (photo-elastic) birefringence effect and electro-optical birefringence effect. Secondly, several physical phenomena of orthogonally linear polarized lasers are discovered such as aberrance of frequency splitting curves caused by optical activity of quartz crystal, order-passing of longitudinal modes with frequency splitting and strong modes competition. Finally, because the traditional Zeeman dual frequency laser cannot output frequency difference larger than 3 MHz, the approaches of obtaining larger frequency difference are studied. The sequential results, several kinds of orthogonally polarized lasers, are described, such as birefringence dual frequency lasers outputting a frequency difference from 40 MHz to hundreds of megahertz, birefringence-Zeeman dual frequency lasers outputting a frequency difference from 1 MHz to hundreds of megahertz, the LD pumped YAG birefringence dual frequency laser outputting frequency difference of several gigahertz, and the lasers whose longitudinal mode spacing is c/4L instead of c/2L.

  9. Elliptical polarization of near-resonant linearly polarized probe light in optically pumped alkali metal vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingying; Wang, Zhiguo; Jin, Shilong; Yuan, Jie; Luo, Hui

    2017-02-20

    Optically pumped alkali metal atoms currently provide a sensitive solution for magnetic microscopic measurements. As the most practicable plan, Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light is extensively used in spin polarization measurements of alkali metal atoms. In some cases, near-resonant Faraday rotation is applied to improve the sensitivity. However, the near-resonant linearly polarized probe light is elliptically polarized after passing through optically pumped alkali metal vapor. The ellipticity of transmitted near-resonant probe light is numerically calculated and experimentally measured. In addition, we also analyze the negative impact of elliptical polarization on Faraday rotation measurements. From our theoretical estimate and experimental results, the elliptical polarization forms an inevitable error in spin polarization measurements.

  10. Linearly polarized photon beam at MAX-lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganenko, V., E-mail: ganenko@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Brudvik, J. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Burdeinyi, D. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Fissum, K. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hansen, K. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Isaksson, L. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Livingston, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Lundin, M. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Morokhovskii, V. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Nilsson, B.; Pugachov, D. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Schroder, B. [MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Vashchenko, G. [National Science Center, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2014-11-01

    A linearly polarized photon beam has been produced at MAX-lab using the coherent bremsstrahlung of electrons with an energy of 192.6 MeV in a 0.1 mm thick diamond crystal. The intensity and shape of the coherent maxima and their dependence on the crystal orientation are similar to the features observed at higher electron energies (∼ 1 GeV) and are well described by coherent bremsstrahlung theory. The linear polarization of the uncollimated beam at the coherent peak energy ≈50–60 MeV is about 20% and can be increased to 40–45% if collimation of half the characteristic angle is used. At present the degree of polarization is high enough to allow the study of polarization observables in photo-nuclear reactions at MAX-lab in the energy range from Giant Dipole Resonance up to ≈80 MeV. -- Highlights: •A linearly polarized tagged photon beam has been produced at the MAX-lab facility. •The coherent bremsstrahlung spectra were measured for various crystal orientations. •The measured spectra are well described by the coherent bremsstrahlung theory. •The photon beam polarization can reach 50% at the Giant Resonance region. •Polarized beam provides performing nuclear experiments in the energy range 10–90 MeV.

  11. A formula on linear complexity of highest coordinate sequences from maximal periodic sequences over Galois rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lei; SUN Nigang

    2006-01-01

    Using a polynomial expression of the highest coordinate map, we deduce an exact formula on the linear complexity of the highest coordinate sequence derived from a maximal periodic sequence over an arbitrary Galois ring of characteristic p2 , where p is a prime. This generalizes the known result of Udaya and Siddiqi for the case that the Galois ring is Z4.

  12. High harmonic generation with fully tunable polarization by train of linearly polarized pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Ofer; Bordo, Eliyahu; Fleischer, Avner; Cohen, Oren

    2017-02-01

    We propose and demonstrate, analytically and numerically, a scheme for generation of high-order harmonics with fully tunable polarization, from circular through elliptic to linear, while barely changing the other properties of the high harmonic radiation and where the ellipticity values of all the harmonic orders essentially coincide. The high harmonics are driven by a train of quasi-monochromatic linearly polarized pulses that are identical except for their polarization angles, which is the tuning knob. This system gives rise to full control over the polarization of the harmonics while largely preserving the single-cycle, single-atom and macroscopic physics of ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation, where both the driver and high harmonics are linearly polarized.

  13. Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, E. Y. S.; Sheppard, C. J. R.

    2007-07-01

    Second harmonic generation microscopy was conducted on rat-tail tendons with linearly and radially polarized beams. Transverse and axial field components were generated in the focal region through tight focusing of linearly and radially polarized. It was found that the generated SHG signals could not be qualitatively explained with a scalar approximation to the electric field at the focus. Only by accounting for the interactions of the axial and transverse components of the electric field interacting through the nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) tensor could the SHG images be explained. For the case of collagen we find that the SHG signal varies as a function of the analyzer angle with a cos2 or sin2 dependency for linearly polarized beams. For tightly focused radially polarized beams we find that the output SHG is radially polarized after collimation and is independent of the analyzer angle.

  14. Complete description of polarization effects in the nonlinear Compton scattering. II. Linearly polarized laser photons

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, D Y; Serbo, V G

    2003-01-01

    We consider emission of a photon by an electron in the field of a strong laser wave. Polarization effects in this process are important for a number of physical problems. We discuss a probability of this process for linearly polarized laser photons and for arbitrary polarization of all other particles. We obtain the complete set of functions which describe such a probability in a compact form.

  15. Polarization effects in the non-linear Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, D Y; Serbo, V G

    2005-01-01

    We consider emission of a photon by an electron in the field of a strong laser wave. A probability of this process for circularly or linearly polarized laser photons and for arbitrary polarization of all other particles is calculated. We obtain the complete set of functions which describe such a probability in a compact invariant form. Besides, we discuss in some detail the polarization effects in the kinematics relevant to the problem of electron to photon conversion at photon-photon and electron-photon colliders.

  16. Direct probes of linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Daniël; Brodsky, Stanley J; Mulders, Piet J; Pisano, Cristian

    2011-04-01

    We show that linearly polarized gluons inside unpolarized hadrons can be directly probed in jet or heavy quark pair production in electron-hadron collisions. We discuss the simplest cos2ϕ asymmetries and estimate their maximal value, concluding that measurements of the unknown linearly polarized gluon distribution in the proton should be feasible in future Electron-Ion Collider or Large Hadron electron Collider experiments. Analogous asymmetries in hadron-hadron collisions suffer from factorization breaking contributions and would allow us to quantify the importance of initial- and final-state interactions.

  17. Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Tsonko

    2011-01-01

    A technique that is useful in the study of pharmaceutical products and biological molecules, polarization IR spectroscopy has undergone continuous development since it first emerged almost 100 years ago. Capturing the state of the science as it exists today, "Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis" demonstrates how the technique can be properly utilized to obtain important information about the structure and spectral properties of oriented compounds. The book starts with the theoretical basis of linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscop

  18. Derivation of Oguri's linear conductance formula for interacting fermions within the Keldysh formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyder, Jan; Bauer, Florian; Schimmel, Dennis; von Delft, Jan

    2017-09-01

    We present a Keldysh-based derivation of a formula, previously obtained by Oguri using the Matsubara formalism, for the linear conductance through a central, interacting region coupled to noninteracting fermionic leads. Our starting point is the well-known Meir-Wingreen formula for the current, whose derivative with respect to the source-drain voltage yields the conductance. We perform this derivative analytically by exploiting an exact flow equation from the functional renormalization group, which expresses the flow with respect to voltage of the self-energy in terms of the two-particle vertex. This yields a Keldysh-based formulation of Oguri's formula for the linear conductance, which facilitates applying it in the context of approximation schemes formulated in the Keldysh formalism. (Generalizing our approach to the nonlinear conductance is straightforward, but not pursued here.) We illustrate our linear conductance formula within the context of a model that has previously been shown to capture the essential physics of a quantum point contact in the regime of the 0.7 anomaly. The model involves a tight-binding chain with a one-dimensional potential barrier and onsite interactions, which we treat using second-order perturbation theory. We show that numerical costs can be reduced significantly by using a nonuniform lattice spacing, chosen such that the occurrence of artificial bound states close to the upper band edge is avoided.

  19. Linearly Polarized Gluons and the Higgs Transverse Momentum Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; den Dunnen, Wilco J.; Pisano, Cristian; Schlegel, Marc; Vogelsang, Werner

    2012-01-01

    We study how gluons carrying linear polarization inside an unpolarized hadron contribute to the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs bosons produced in hadronic collisions. They modify the distribution produced by unpolarized gluons in a characteristic way that could be used to determine whethe

  20. Linear polarization of gluons and photons in unpolarized collider experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisano, Cristian; Boer, Daniel; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Buffing, Maarten G. A.; Mulders, Piet J.

    2013-01-01

    We study azimuthal asymmetries in heavy quark pair production in unpolarized electron-proton and proton-proton collisions, where the asymmetries originate from the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized hadrons. We provide cross section expressions and study the maximal asymmetries allowed

  1. Multiband Circular Polarizer Based on Fission Transmission of Linearly Polarized Wave for X-Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Mangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiband circular polarizer based on fission transmission of linearly polarized wave for x-band application is proposed, which is constructed of 2 × 2 metallic strips array. The linear-to-circular polarization conversion is obtained by decomposing the linearly incident x-polarized wave into two orthogonal vector components of equal amplitude and 90° phase difference between them. The innovative approach of “fission transmission of linear-to-circular polarized wave” is firstly introduced to obtain giant circular dichroism based on decomposition of orthogonal vector components through the structure. It means that the incident linearly polarized wave is converted into two orthogonal components through lower printed metallic strips layer and two transmitted waves impinge on the upper printed strips layer to convert into four orthogonal vector components at the end of structure. This projection and transmission sequence of orthogonal components sustain the chain transmission of electromagnetic wave and can achieve giant circular dichroism. Theoretical analysis and microwave experiments are presented to validate the performance of the structure. The measured results are in good agreement with simulation results. In addition, the proposed circular polarizer exhibits the optimal performance with respect to the normal incidence. The right handed circularly polarized wave is emitted ranging from 10.08 GHz to 10.53 GHz and 10.78 GHz to 11.12 GHz, while the left handed circular polarized wave is excited at 10.54 GHz–10.70 GHz and 11.13 GHz–11.14 GHz, respectively.

  2. Multiple Linear Polarization Lidar with Improved Polarization Retrievals for Enhanced Atmospheric Observation in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Robert; Neely, Ryan; Thayer, Jeffrey; O'Neill, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of orthogonal polarization planes from laser light scattered by clouds and aerosols is a common technique to classify cloud conditions or aerosol types using lidar. Increasingly, polarization measurements are evolving from qualitative assessments of liquid-to-ice phase transitions in clouds to more precise quantitative measurements of mixed phase clouds, cloud particle orientation, and aerosol type classifications. Viewing polarization retrievals in a more quantitative way can enhance the information content related to cloud or aerosol particles but requires a precise understanding of system and scattering effects. Herein, measurements of multiple, non-orthogonal, planes of linear polarization are implemented to advance the use of quantitative assessment of lidar polarization methods for cloud and aerosol studies. Results from the Clouds Aerosols Polarization and Backscatter (CAPABL) Lidar, located at Summit Camp, Greenland (72.35'N, 38.25'W), will be presented to examine the advantages of using multiple planes of linear polarization. The advantages demonstrated are enhanced signal dynamic range, reduced system effects due to signal saturation, ability to independently measure horizontal orientation of ice crystals, and self-calibration of retrievals. Data from the recently upgraded system will be presented to demonstrate these advantages, which allow CAPABL to adjust and increase signal dynamic range by approximately an order of magnitude while simplifying calibration and reducing systematic errors. These enhancements facilitate a more quantitative retrieval to describe mixed phase clouds and horizontally oriented ice crystals, both, of which, have important implications to Greenland's mass and energy budgets by modulating cloud scattering properties.

  3. Polarization-free Quantization of Linear Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lanéry, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that there exist infinitely-many inequivalent representations of the canonical (anti)-commutation relations of Quantum Field Theory (QFT). A way out, suggested by Algebraic QFT, is to instead define the quantum theory as encompassing all possible (abstract) states. In the present paper, we describe a quantization scheme for general linear (aka. free) field theories that can be seen as intermediate between traditional Fock quantization and full Algebraic QFT, in the sense that: * it provides a constructive, explicit description of the resulting space of quantum states; * it does not require the choice of a polarization, aka. the splitting of classical solutions into positive vs. negative-frequency modes: in fact, any Fock representation corresponding to a "reasonable" choice of polarization is naturally embedded; * it supports the implementation of a "large enough" class of linear symplectomorphisms of the classical, infinite-dimensional phase space. The proposed quantization (like Algebraic Q...

  4. Linear polarization sensitivity of SeGA detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, D; Moeller, V; Starosta, K; Vaman, C; Weisshaar, D

    2006-01-01

    Parity is a key observable in nuclear spectroscopy. Linear polarization measurements of $\\gamma$-rays are a probe to access the parities of energy levels. Utilizing the segmentation of detectors in the Segmented Germanium Array (SeGA) at the NSCL and analyzing the positions of interaction therein allows the detectors to be used as Compton polarimeters. Unlike other segmented detectors, SeGA detectors are irradiated from the side to utilize the transversal segmentation for better Doppler corrections. Sensitivity in such an orientation has previously been untested. A linear polarization sensitivity $Q \\approx 0.14$ has been measured in the 350-keV energy range for SeGA detectors using $\\alpha$-$\\gamma$ correlations from a \

  5. Chiral Huygens metasurfaces for nonlinear structuring of linearly polarized light

    CERN Document Server

    Lesina, A Calà; Ramunno, L

    2016-01-01

    We report on a chiral nanostructure, which we term a "butterfly nanoantenna," that, when used in a metasurface, allows the direct conversion of a linearly polarized beam into a nonlinear optical far-field of arbitrary complexity. The butterfly nanoantenna exhibits field enhancement in its gap for every incident linear polarization, which can be exploited to drive nonlinear optical emitters within the gap, for the structuring of light within a frequency range not accessible by linear plasmonics. As the polarization, phase and amplitude of the field in the gap are highly controlled, nonlinear emitters within the gap behave as an idealized Huygens source. A general framework is thereby proposed wherein the butterfly nanoantennas can be arranged on a surface to produce a highly structured far-field nonlinear optical beam with high purity. A third harmonic Laguerre-Gauss beam carrying an optical orbital angular momentum of 41 is demonstrated as an example, through large-scale simulations on a high-performance comp...

  6. Scattering of linearly polarized Bessel beams by dielectric spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorian, Hamed

    2017-09-01

    The scattering of a Linearly Polarized Bessel Beam (LPBB) by an isotropic and homogenous dielectric sphere is investigated. Using analytical relation between the cylindrical and the spherical vector wave functions, all the closed- form analytical expressions, in terms of spherical wave-functions expansions, are derived for the scattered field. It is shown that in the case of conical angle of incident Bessel beam is equal to zero, the Linearly Polarized Bessel Beam becomes a plane wave and its scattering coefficients become the same as the expansion coefficients of plane wave in Mie theory. The transverse Cartesian and spherical components of the electric field, scattered by a sphere are shown in the z-plane for different cases, moreover the intensity of the incident Bessel beam and the effects of its conical angle on the scattered field and the field inside the sphere are investigated. To quantitatively study the scattering phenomenon and the variations of the fields inside and outside of the sphere, the scattering and absorption efficiencies are obtained for the scattering of the linearly-polarized Bessel beam, and are compared with those of the plane wave scattering.

  7. Linear polarization to left/right-handed circular polarization conversion using ultrathin planar chiral metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahong; Luo, Yang; Liu, Congcong; Song, Kun; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2017-09-01

    We propose ultrathin planar chiral metamaterials (CMs) based on square split rings (SSRs), which can change linearly polarized (LP) electromagnetic (EM) wave to circularly polarized (CP) EM wave at will. The EM resonant properties of the proposed CMs including magnitude, phase, retrieved electromagnetic parameters, and chirality are demonstrated. According to the polarization property of the proposed CMs, a CP patch antenna using the proposed CMs is constructed. Placing the proposed CMs in the presence of a conventional LP patch antenna, the antenna polarization mode can be changed from LP mode to CP mode. The antenna performances are investigated numerically and experimentally. A simple method for realizing CP antenna is provided using the present CMs. It can be expected that the proposed CP antenna can be used in electronic reconnaissance and jamming, mobile communication, and global position system.

  8. Lobatto and Radau positive quadrature formulas for linear combinations of Jacobi polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, Jorge; Martíez-Cruz, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    For a given $\\theta\\in (-1,1)$, we find out all parameters $\\alpha,\\beta\\in \\{0,1\\}$ such that, there exists a linear combination of Jacobi polynomials $J_{n+1}^{(\\alpha,\\beta)}(x)-C J_{n}^{(\\alpha,\\beta)}(x)$ which generates a Lobatto (Radau) positive quadrature formula of degree of exactness \\textcolor{red}{$2n+2$ ($2n+1$)} and contains the point $\\theta$ as a node. These positive quadratures are very useful in studying problems in one-sided polynomial $L_1$ approximation.

  9. A new perspective on turbulent Galactic magnetic fields through comparison of linear polarization decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, J.-F.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Carretti, E.; Gaensler, B. M.; McEwen, J. D.; Leistedt, B.; Haverkorn, M.; Bernardi, G.; Kesteven, M. J.; Poppi, S.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2017-07-01

    We compare two rotationally invariant decomposition techniques on linear polarization data: the spin-2 spherical harmonic decomposition in two opposite parities, the E- and B-mode, and the multiscale analysis of the gradient of linear polarization, |\

  10. Detecting chirality in molecules by linearly polarized laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Yachmenev, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    A new scheme for enantiomer differentiation of chiral molecules using a pair of linearly polarized intense ultrashort laser pulses with skewed mutual polarization is presented. The technique relies on the fact that the off-diagonal anisotropic contributions to the electric polarizability tensor for two enantiomers have different signs. Exploiting this property, we are able to excite a coherent unidirectional rotation of two enantiomers with a {\\pi} phase difference in the molecular electric dipole moment. The approach is robust and suitable for relatively high temperatures of molecular samples, making it applicable for selective chiral analysis of mixtures, and to chiral molecules with low barriers between enantiomers. As an illustration, we present nanosecond laser-driven dynamics of a tetratomic non-rigid chiral molecule with short-lived chirality. The ultrafast time scale of the proposed technique is well suited to study parity violation in molecular systems in short-lived chiral states.

  11. In vivo characterization of human pigmented lesions by degree of linear polarization image maps using incident linearly polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; John, Raheel; Wu, Paul J; Martini, Mary C; Walsh, Joseph T

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer and often appears as an evolving multicolored skin growth. It is well documented that pre-existing atypical or dysplastic nevi can evolve into a melanoma. The development of an in vivo imaging system to characterize benign and malignant nevi has been emphasized to aid in early detection of melanoma. The goal of this study is to utilize a novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system for the characterization of pigmented lesions, and to evaluate the SPI system in comparison to dermoscopy and histology images. Linearly polarized light with varying incident polarization angles (IPA) illuminated various types of pigmented lesions. The melanocytic nesting patterns of pigmented lesions were characterized by constructing the degree-of-linear-polarization (DOLP) image map with comparison to dermoscopy and histology. The incident polarized light was filtered by visible filters for spectral imaging and incident deeply penetrating red light was used to correlate the SPI image with histopathological examination. The DOLP images with varying IPA at different visible wavelengths were used to characterize various kinds of pigmented lesions by showing subsurface melanocytic nesting distribution as well as morphological information with better resolution and contrast. In correlation with dermoscopy and histology, various defining features such as compound, junctional, lentiginous, reticular, globular patterns of melanocytic nests were identified. When imaging pigmented melanocytic lesions, the SPI system with varying IPA at the red light wavelength can better define the melanocytic nesting patterns in both the dermal epidermal junction and the dermis. The SPI system has the potential to be an effective in vivo method of detecting pre-malignant nevi and melanoma.

  12. Fission of heavy nuclei by linearly polarized photons

    CERN Document Server

    Khvastunov, V M; Kasyan, S V; Likhachev, V P; Paschuk, S A

    2002-01-01

    Analysing power SIGMA data from photofission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, sup 2 sup 3 sup 3 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U at the region of giant resonance have been measured using linearly polarized photons. The polarized photons were obtained by plane channelling of electrons in a silicon single crystal. The analysing power SIGMA dependence of the mass number of even-even nucleus has been discovered. Comparison of the analysing power SIGMA values with the data from other experiments with both polarized and unpolarized photon beams was made. It is shown that the analysing power SIGMA values agree with the modern knowledge of E1 transitions but cannot be explain by domination any one of them. It is supposed that analysing power SIGMA is very sensitive to different relative inner and outer fission barrier heights and this affects on SIGMA values for even-even nuclei with the same Z.

  13. Linear polarization of gluons and photons in unpolarized collider experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, Cristian; Boer, Daniël; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Buffing, Maarten G. A.; Mulders, Piet J.

    2013-10-01

    We study azimuthal asymmetries in heavy quark pair production in unpolarized electron-proton and proton-proton collisions, where the asymmetries originate from the linear polarization of gluons inside unpolarized hadrons. We provide cross section expressions and study the maximal asymmetries allowed by positivity, for both charm and bottom quark pair production. The upper bounds on the asymmetries are shown to be very large depending on the transverse momentum of the heavy quarks, which is promising especially for their measurements at a possible future Electron-Ion Collider or a Large Hadron electron Collider. We also study the analogous processes and asymmetries in muon pair production as a means to probe linearly polarized photons inside unpolarized protons. For increasing invariant mass of the muon pair the asymmetries become very similar to the heavy quark pair ones. Finally, we discuss the process dependence of the results that arises due to differences in color flow and address the problem with factorization in case of proton-proton collisions.

  14. Use of Linear and Circular Polarization: The Secret LCD Screen and 3D Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtberg, Stefan; Girwidz, Raimund

    2017-10-01

    References to everyday life are important for teaching physics. Discussing polarization phenomena, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and 3D cinemas provide such references. In this paper we describe experiments to support students' understanding of linearly polarized light as well as the phenomenon of inverted colors using a secret LCD screen. Moreover we explain how 3D glasses work (when using polarizers) and introduce some experiments to point out why 3D cinemas use circularly polarized light instead of linearly polarized light. When using linearly polarized light, viewers must keep their head level all the time. Using circularly polarized light, this is not necessary.

  15. A linearly and circularly polarized active integrated antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshniat, Ali

    This thesis work presents a new harmonic suppression technique for microstrip patch antennas. Harmonic suppression in active integrated antennas is known as an effective method to improve the efficiency of amplifiers in transmitter side. In the proposed design, the antenna works as the radiating element and, at the same time, as the tuning load for the amplifier circuit that is directly matched to the antenna. The proposed active antenna architecture is easy to fabricate and is symmetric, so it can be conveniently mass-produced and designed to have circular polarization, which is preferred in many applications such as satellite communications. The antenna simulations were performed using Ansoft High Frequency System Simulator (HFSS) and all amplifier design steps were simulated by Advanced Design System (ADS). The final prototypes of the linearly polarized active integrated antenna and the circularly polarized active integrated antenna were fabricated using a circuit board milling machine. The antenna radiation pattern was measured inside Utah State University's anechoic chamber and the results were satisfactory. Power measurements for the amplifiers' performance were carried out inside the chamber and calculated by using the Friis transmission equation. It is seen that a significant improvement in the efficiency is achieved compared to the reference antenna without harmonic suppression. Based on the success in the single element active antenna design, the thesis also presents a feasibility of applying the active integrated antenna in array configuration, in particular, in scanning array design to yield a low-profile, low-cost alternative to the parabolic antenna transmitter of satellite communication systems.

  16. Monte Carlo based studies of a polarized positron source for international linear collider (ILC).

    OpenAIRE

    Schälicke, A.; Dollan, R.; Laihem, K.

    2006-01-01

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of an International Linear Collider (ILC) requires the development of a polarized positron beam. New concepts of polarized positron sources are based on the development of circularly polarized photon sources. The polarized photons create electron-positron pairs in a thin target and transfer their polarization state to the outgoing leptons. To achieve a high level of positron polarization the understanding of the production mechanisms in the targe...

  17. Stokes tomography of radio pulsar magnetospheres. I. Linear polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, C T Y

    2010-01-01

    Polarimetric studies of pulsar radio emission traditionally concentrate on how the Stokes vector (I, Q, U, V) varies with pulse longitude, with special emphasis on the position angle (PA) swing of the linearly polarized component. The interpretation of the PA swing in terms of the rotating vector model is limited by the assumption of an axisymmetric magnetic field and the degeneracy of the output with respect to the orientation and magnetic geometry of the pulsar; different combinations of the latter two properties can produce similar PA swings. This paper introduces Stokes phase portraits as a supplementary diagnostic tool with which the orientation and magnetic geometry can be inferred more accurately. The Stokes phase portraits feature unique patterns in the I-Q, I-U, and Q-U planes, whose shapes depend sensitively on the magnetic geometry, inclination angle, beam and polarization patterns, and emission altitude. We construct look-up tables of Stokes phase portraits and PA swings for pure and current-modif...

  18. DOA and polarization estimation via signal reconstruction with linear polarization-sensitive arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhangmeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA and polarization estimation with polarization sensitive arrays (PSA, which has been a hot topic in the area of array signal processing during the past two or three decades. The sparse Bayesian learning (SBL technique is introduced to exploit the sparsity of the incident signals in space to solve this problem and a new method is proposed by reconstructing the signals from the array outputs first and then exploiting the reconstructed signals to realize parameter estimation. Only 1-D searching and numerical calculations are contained in the proposed method, which makes the proposed method computationally much efficient. Based on a linear array consisting of identically structured sensors, the proposed method can be used with slight modifications in PSA with different polarization structures. It also performs well in the presence of coherent signals or signals with different degrees of polarization. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the parameter estimation precision of the proposed method.

  19. Measuring glioma volumes: A comparison of linear measurement based formulae with the manual image segmentation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev A Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Manual region of interest-based image segmentation is the standard technique for measuring glioma volumes. For routine clinical use, the simple formula v = abc/2 (or the formula for volume of an ellipsoid could be used as alternatives.

  20. Broadband linear polarization conversion based on the coupling of bilayer metamaterials in the terahertz region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rui; Jing, Xufeng; Zhu, Huihui; Wang, Weimin; Tian, Ying; Hong, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    A linear polarization converter composed of metal patch arrays and metal chiral metamaterial in the terahertz region is designed and analyzed, which can convert linearly polarized wave to its cross polarization in the transmission mode. Compared with other polarization conversion devices, this device has the advantages of broadband and highly efficiency. The in-depth analysis of physical mechanism is illustrated by using simulated surface current and electrical field distributions.

  1. Conversion from linear to circular polarization in FPGA

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Koyel; Keller, R; Tuccari, G

    2011-01-01

    Context: Radio astronomical receivers are now expanding their frequency range to cover large (octave) fractional bandwidths for sensitivity and spectral flexibility, which makes the design of good analogue circular polarizers challenging. Better polarization purity requires a flatter phase response over increasingly wide bandwidth, which is most easily achieved with digital techniques. They offer the ability to form circular polarization with perfect polarization purity over arbitrarily wide fractional bandwidths, due to the ease of introducing a perfect quadrature phase shift. Further, the rapid improvements in field programmable gate arrays provide the high processing power, low cost, portability and reconfigurability needed to make practical the implementation of the formation of circular polarization digitally. Aims: Here we explore the performance of a circular polarizer implemented with digital techniques. Methods: We designed a digital circular polarizer in which the intermediate frequency signals from...

  2. Linearly polarized light emission from quantum dots with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Mengxin; Chen, Mo; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Junku; Pi, Biao; Zhang, Xinzheng; Li, Qunqing; Fan, Shoushan; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-05-13

    Polarizers provide convenience in generating polarized light, meanwhile their adoption raises problems of extra weight, cost, and energy loss. Aiming to realize polarizer-free polarized light sources, herein, we present a plasmonic approach to achieve direct generation of linearly polarized optical waves at the nanometer scale. Periodic slot nanoantenna arrays are fabricated, which are driven by the transition dipole moments of luminescent semiconductor quantum dots. By harnessing interactions between quantum dots and scattered fields from the nanoantennas, spontaneous emission with a high degree of linear polarization is achieved from such hybrid antenna system with polarization perpendicular to antenna slot. We also demonstrate that the polarization is engineerable in aspects of both spectrum and magnitude by tailoring plasmonic resonance of the antenna arrays. Our findings will establish a basis for the development of innovative polarized light-emitting devices, which are useful in optical displays, spectroscopic techniques, optical telecommunications, and so forth.

  3. Non-Linear N-Parameter Spacetime Perturbations: Gauge Transformations through the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff Formula

    CERN Document Server

    Sopuerta, C F; Gualtieri, L; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Bruni, Marco; Gualtieri, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    We present a new way of deriving gauge transformations in non--linear relativistic perturbation theory. The main ingredient in this formulation is the use of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. The associated formal machinery allows us to generalize one-parameter perturbation theory to an arbitrary number of parameters, and to prove the main results concerning the consistency of the scheme to any order in the perturbations. Gauge transformations at any required order can then be directly derived from a generating exponential formula via a simple Taylor expansion. We outline the relation between our novel formulation and previous results.

  4. Polarization holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters with linear and circular photoanisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Ludmila; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, Mario Tonev

    1996-01-01

    We investigate thin phase polarization holographic gratings recorded with two waves with orthogonal linear polarizations in materials in which illumination with linearly/circularly polarized light gives rise to linear/circular birefringence. The theoretical analysis shows that the presence...... of circular photoanisotropy changes significantly the diffraction characteristics of the gratings. The intensities of the waves diffracted in the +1 and -1 orders of diffraction and their ratio depend substantially on the reconstructing-wave polarization. Experiments with films of side-chain liquid......-crystalline azobenzene polyester that is a photoanisotropic material of the considered type confirm the unusual polarization properties. It is shown that polarization holography may be used for real-time simultaneous measurement of photoinduced linear and circular birefringence....

  5. Discovery of a complex linearly polarized spectrum of Betelgeuse dominated by depolarization of the continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Aurière, M; Ariste, López; Mathias, P; Lèbre, A; Josselin, E; Montargès, M; Petit, P; Chiavassa, A; Paletou, F; Fabas, N; Konstantinova-Antova, R; Donati, J -F; Grunhut, J H; Wade, G A; Herpin, F; Kervella, P; Perrin, G; Tessore, B

    2016-01-01

    Betelgeuse is an M supergiant that harbors spots and giant granules at its surface and presents linear polarization of its continuum. We have previously discovered linear polarization signatures associated with individual lines in the spectra of cool and evolved stars. Here, we investigate whether a similar linearly polarized spectrum exists for Betelgeuse. We used the spectropolarimeter Narval, combining multiple polarimetric sequences to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of individual lines, as well as the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) approach. We have discovered the existence of a linearly polarized spectrum for Betelgeuse, detecting a rather strong signal (at a few times 10$^{-4}$ of the continuum intensity level), both in individual lines and in the LSD profiles. Studying its properties and the signal observed for the resonant \\ion{Na}{i}\\,D lines, we conclude that we are mainly observing depolarization of the continuum by the absorption lines. The linear polarization of the Betelgeuse conti...

  6. Vectorial Structure of Non-Paraxial Linearly Polarized Gaussian Beam in Far Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guo-Quan; CHEN Liang; NI Yong-Zhou

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to the vectorial structure of non-paraxial electromagnetic beams and the method of stationary phase,the analytical TE and TM terms of non-paraxial linearly polarized Gaussian beam are presented in the far field.The influence of linearly polarized angle on the relative energy flux distributions of the whole beam and its TE and TM terms is studied. The beam spot of the TE term is perpendicular to the direction of linearly polarized angle, while that of the TM term coincides with the direction of linearly polarized angle. The whole beam spot is elliptical, and the long axis is located at the direction of linearly polarized angle. The relative energy flux distribution of the TE term is relatively centralized in the direction perpendicular to the linearly polarized angle.While that of the TM term is relatively centralized in the direction of linearly polarized angle. To obtain the isolated TM and TE terms, a polarizer should be put at the long and the short axis of the whole beam. spot,respectively.

  7. A New Entropy Formula and Gradient Estimates for the Linear Heat Equation on Static Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Abolarinwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove a new monotonicity formula for the heat equation via a generalized family of entropy functionals. This family of entropy formulas generalizes both Perelman’s entropy for evolving metric and Ni’s entropy on static manifold. We show that this entropy satisfies a pointwise differential inequality for heat kernel. The consequences of which are various gradient and Harnack estimates for all positive solutions to the heat equation on compact manifold.

  8. A Formula of Solution for a Class of Linear Recurence with Two Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Changan

    2006-01-01

    It is very difficult, sometimes impossible, to get a formula solution of recurrence relation, even for the case of homogeneous recurrence with one indice. In this paper, according to the principle of soluting algebraic equation, we present the formula of solution for a class of recurrnce relations with two indices by appling iteration and induction. It provides a concrete model to solve the concerning problems with modem computing tools.

  9. Creating a non-linear total sediment load formula using polynomial best subset regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okcu, Davut; Pektas, Ali Osman; Uyumaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to derive a new total sediment load formula which is more accurate and which has less application constraints than the well-known formulae of the literature. 5 most known stream power concept sediment formulae which are approved by ASCE are used for benchmarking on a wide range of datasets that includes both field and flume (lab) observations. The dimensionless parameters of these widely used formulae are used as inputs in a new regression approach. The new approach is called Polynomial Best subset regression (PBSR) analysis. The aim of the PBRS analysis is fitting and testing all possible combinations of the input variables and selecting the best subset. Whole the input variables with their second and third powers are included in the regression to test the possible relation between the explanatory variables and the dependent variable. While selecting the best subset a multistep approach is used that depends on significance values and also the multicollinearity degrees of inputs. The new formula is compared to others in a holdout dataset and detailed performance investigations are conducted for field and lab datasets within this holdout data. Different goodness of fit statistics are used as they represent different perspectives of the model accuracy. After the detailed comparisons are carried out we figured out the most accurate equation that is also applicable on both flume and river data. Especially, on field dataset the prediction performance of the proposed formula outperformed the benchmark formulations.

  10. Striking dynamics of II-VI microcavity polaritons after linearly polarized excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.D.; Ballarini, D.; Amo, A.; Klopotowsi, L.; Vina, L. [Grupo de Semiconductores (SEMICUAM), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Kavokin, A.V. [Laboratoire des Sciences et Materiaux pour l' Electronique, et d' Automatique, Universite Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Andre, R. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique (CNRS UMR5588), Universite Joseph Fourier, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2005-11-01

    We present a detailed study of the polariton spin dynamics in a II-VI microcavity after linearly polarized excitation. We have found that the vertically polarized (i.e. TE) emission is systematically larger than the horizontally polarized one (i.e. TM) for both, vertically and horizontally polarized excitation. Furthermore, a persistent difference between the two components of the emission is observed, leading to a net and constant (within the duration of the emission) linear polarization degree. Additionally, we have observed marked oscillations of the linear polarization degree once the excitation power is raised above the polariton-polariton stimulated scattering threshold. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Microwave linear polarization rotator in a bilayered chiral metasurface based on strong asymmetric transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. L.; Zhang, Q.; Qin, F. F.; Liu, Z. Z.; Piao, Y. P.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    We propose and study a kind of bilayered chiral metasurface (BCM) composed of complementary L-shaped resonators with a lossless dielectric spacer that can realize linear polarization rotation with ultrahigh conversion efficiency. We present a theoretical analysis of the BCM with specific chiral geometry that enables asymmetric transmission for linear polarization only. Numerical results show that the proposed metasurface has dual-band asymmetric transmission with nearly 100% cross-polarization conversion efficiency when the loss is ignored. More importantly, depending on the incident direction, only one of the cross-polarization transmissions can approach unity while all the remaining transmissions are close to zero. As a result, nearly perfect linear polarization rotation is achieved for a particular polarization direction. We further show that the working frequency and the bandwidth of the proposed BCM can be tuned by adjusting the geometric size and spatial arrangement of the unit cell.

  12. Dye alignment in luminescent solar concentrators: II. Horizontal alignment for energy harvesting in linear polarizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, C L; Reusswig, P D; Beyler, A P; Kim, H; Rotschild, C; Baldo, M A

    2010-04-26

    We describe Linearly Polarized Luminescent Solar Concentrators (LP-LSCs) to replace conventional, purely absorptive, linear polarizers in energy harvesting applications. As a proof of concept, we align 3-(2-Benzothiazolyl)-N,N-diethylumbelliferylamine (Coumarin 6) and 4-dicyanomethyl-6-dimethylaminostiryl-4H-pyran (DCM) dye molecules linearly in the plane of the substrate using a polymerizable liquid crystal host. We show that up to 38% of the photons polarized on the long axis of the dye molecules can be coupled to the edge of the device for an LP-LSC based on Coumarin 6 with an order parameter of 0.52.

  13. Spectrally tunable linear polarization rotation using stacked metallic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Xavier; Baida, Fadi I.; Boyer, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    We make a theoretical study of the transmission properties of a stack of metallic metamaterials and show that is able to achieve a perfect transmission selectively exhibiting broadband (Q {10}5) polarization rotation. We especially highlight how the arrangement of the stacked structure, as well as the metamaterial unit cell geometry, has a large influence on transmission in the spectral domain. For this purpose, we use an extended analytical Jones formalism that allows us to obtain a rigorous and analytical expression of the transmission. Such versatile structures could find potential applications in polarimetry or in the control of light polarization for THz waves.

  14. Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization of current-carrying orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunlong; Barth, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    We derive the analytical formula of the ratio of the ionization rates of degenerate valence π± orbitals of prealigned linear molecules in strong circularly polarized (CP) laser fields. Interestingly, our theory shows that the ionization ratio for molecular orbitals with opposite azimuthal quantum numbers ±|m | (e.g., π±) is identical to that for atomic orbitals with the same ±|m | (e.g., p±). In general, the electron counter-rotating to the CP laser field tunnels more easily, not only for atoms but also for linear molecules. Our theoretical predictions are then verified by numerically solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the ionization of the prealigned nitric oxide (NO) molecule in strong CP laser fields. Due to the spin-orbital coupling in the electronic ground state of NO and the sensitivity of ionization to the sense of electron rotation, the ionization of NO in CP fields can produce spin-polarized photoelectrons with high controllability of spin polarization up to 100 % .

  15. Single- and dual-wavelength switchable linear polarized Yb(3+)-doped double-clad fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanxiu; Feng, Dejun

    2015-05-10

    A single- and dual-wavelength switchable linear polarized Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser is proposed, in which the resonance cavity was composed of a fiber Bragg grating fabricated in a polarization-maintaining fiber and a dichromatic mirror with high reflectivity. The polarization hole burning is enhanced through selective polarization feedback by the polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating. The switchover of single and dual wavelengths is realized by tuning the rotation angle of a cubic polarization beam splitter that is inserted between the dichromatic mirror and the collimator in the cavity. The laser features wavelengths of 1070.08 and 1070.39 nm, output power of 1.0 W, signal to noise ratio of 45 dB, and slope efficiency of 34%, as well as a very narrow linewidth of 0.022 nm. The polarization characteristics are analyzed by measuring the laser power transmitted through a Glan-Thomson polarizer during rotation.

  16. Non-azimuthal linear polarization in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Canovas, H; de Boer, J; Pinte, C; Avenhaus, H; Schreiber, M R

    2015-01-01

    Several studies discussing imaging polarimetry observations of protoplanetary disks use the so-called radial Stokes parameters Q_phi and U_phi to discuss the results. This approach has the advantage of providing a direct measure of the noise in the polarized images under the assumption that the polarization is azimuthal only, i.e., perpendicular to the direction towards the illuminating source. However, a detailed study of the validity of this assumption is currently missing. We aim to test whether departures from azimuthal polarization can naturally be produced by scattering processes in optically thick protoplanetary disks at near infrared wavelengths. We use the radiative transfer code MCFOST to create a generic model of a transition disk using different grain size distributions and dust masses. From these models we generate synthetic polarized images at 2.2\\mum. We find that even for moderate inclinations (e.g., i = 40degr), multiple scattering alone can produce significant (up to ~4.5% of the Q_phi image...

  17. Revealing Fundamental Interactions: the Role of Polarized Positrons and Electrons at the Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke,; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottman, K.; Frass, H.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Colorado U. /Tel-Aviv

    2005-07-06

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.

  18. Ultra-wideband and broad-angle linear polarization conversion metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hengyi; Gu, Changqing; Chen, Xinlei; Li, Zhuo; Liu, Liangliang; Martín, Ferran

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a metasurface acting as a linear polarization rotator, that can efficiently convert linearly polarized electromagnetic waves to cross polarized waves within an ultra wide frequency band and with a broad incident angle, is proposed. Based on the electric and magnetic resonant features of the unit cell, composed by a double-head arrow, a cut-wire, and two short V-shaped wire structures, three resonances, which lead to the bandwidth expansion of cross-polarization reflections, are generated. The simulation results show that an average polarization conversion ratio of 90% from 17.3 GHz to 42.2 GHz can be achieved. Furthermore, the designed metasurface exhibits polarization insensitivity within a broad incident angle, from 0° to 50°. The experiments conducted on the fabricated metasurface are in good agreement with the simulations. The proposed metasurface can find potential applications in reflector antennas, imaging systems, and remote sensors operating at microwave frequencies.

  19. The Role of polarized positrons and electrons in revealing fundamental interactions at the linear collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moortgat-Pick, G.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP; Abe, T.; Alexander, G.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Babich, A.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Barber, D.; Bartl, A.; Brachmann, A.; Chen, S.; Clarke,; Clendenin, J.E.; Dainton, J.; Desch, K.; Diehl, M.; Dobos, B.; Dorland, T.; Eberl, H.; Ellis, John R.; Flottman, K.; Frass, H.; /CERN /Durham U., IPPP /Colorado U. /Tel-Aviv

    2005-07-01

    The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) is well-suited for discovering physics beyond the Standard Model and for precisely unraveling the structure of the underlying physics. The physics return can be maximized by the use of polarized beams. This report shows the paramount role of polarized beams and summarizes the benefits obtained from polarizing the positron beam, as well as the electron beam. The physics case for this option is illustrated explicitly by analyzing reference reactions in different physics scenarios. The results show that positron polarization, combined with the clean experimental environment provided by the linear collider, allows to improve strongly the potential of searches for new particles and the identification of their dynamics, which opens the road to resolve shortcomings of the Standard Model. The report also presents an overview of possible designs for polarizing both beams at the ILC, as well as for measuring their polarization.

  20. Circular Dichroism Microscopy Free from Commingling Linear Dichroism via Discretely Modulated Circular Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2016-10-20

    In this work, we developed a circular dichroism (CD) imaging microscope with a device to suppress the commingling of linear birefringence (LB) and linear dichroism (LD) signals. CD signals are, in principle, free from the commingling influence of LD and LB if the sample is illuminated with pure circularly polarized light, with no linear polarization contribution. Based on this idea, we here propose a novel circular polarization modulation method to suppress the contribution of linear polarization, which enables high-sensitivity CD detection (10(-4) level in optical density unit or mdeg level in ellipticity) for microscopic imaging at a nearly diffraction limited spatial resolution (sub-μm level). The highly sensitive, diffraction-limited local CD detection will make direct analyses of chiral structures and spatial mappings of optical activity feasible for μm- to sub-μm-sized materials and may yield a number of applications as a unique optical imaging method.

  1. MgII Linear Polarization Measurements Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayahsi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (SUMI) sounding rocket program, with emphasis on the polarization characteristics of the VUV optics and their spectral, spatial and polarization resolution. SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria and this paper will describe the data that was acquired with emphasis on the MgII linear polarization measurements.

  2. MgII Linear Polarization Measurements Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) sounding rocket program, with emphasis on the polarization characteristics of the VUV optics and their spectral, spatial and polarization resolution. SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria and this paper will describe the data that was acquired with emphasis on the MgII linear polarization measurements.

  3. Non-linear vacuum polarization in strong fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1981-07-01

    The Wichmann-Kroll formalism for calculating the vacuum polarization density to first order in ..cap alpha.. but to all orders in Z..cap alpha.. is derived. The most essential quantity is shown to be the electrons Green's function in these calculations. The method of constructing that Green's function in the field of finite radius nuclei is then presented.

  4. One-way absorber for linearly polarized electromagnetic wave utilizing composite metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junming; Sun, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Feng, Yijun

    2015-02-23

    This paper presents the proposal and practical design of a one-way absorber for selective linearly polarized electromagnetic (EM) wave. The EM wave polarization rotation property has been combined with polarization selective absorption utilizing a composite metamaterial slab. The energy of certain linearly polarized EM wave can be absorbed along one particular incident direction, but will be fully transmitted through the opposite direction. For the cross polarized wave, the direction dependent propagation properties are totally reversed. A prototype designed with a total slab thickness of only one-sixth of the operating wavelength is verified through both full-wave simulation and experimental measurement in the microwave regime. It achieves absorption efficiency over 83% along one direction, while transmission efficiency over 83% along the opposite direction for one particular linearly polarized wave. The proposed one-way absorber can be applied in EM devices achieving asymmetric transmission for linearly polarized wave or polarization control. The composite metamaterial that combines different functionalities into one design may provide more potential in metamaterial designs for various applications.

  5. Monte-Carlo-based studies of a polarized positron source for International Linear Collider (ILC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollan, Ralph; Laihem, Karim; Schälicke, Andreas

    2006-04-01

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of an International Linear Collider (ILC) requires the development of a polarized positron beam. New concepts of polarized positron sources are based on the development of circularly polarized photon sources. The polarized photons create electron-positron pairs in a thin target and transfer their polarization state to the outgoing leptons. To achieve a high level of positron polarization the understanding of the production mechanisms in the target is crucial. Therefore, a general framework for the simulation of polarized processes with GEANT4 is under development. In this contribution the current status of the project and its application to a study of the positron production process for the ILC is presented.

  6. Direct generation of linearly polarized single photons with a deterministic axis in quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Puchtler, Tim J.; Patra, Saroj K.; Zhu, Tongtong; Ali, Muhammad; Badcock, Tom J.; Ding, Tao; Oliver, Rachel A.; Schulz, Stefan; Taylor, Robert A.

    2017-08-01

    We report the direct generation of linearly polarized single photons with a deterministic polarization axis in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs), achieved by the use of non-polar InGaN without complex device geometry engineering. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the polarization properties of these QDs and their origin with statistically significant experimental data and rigorous k·p modeling. The experimental study of 180 individual QDs allows us to compute an average polarization degree of 0.90, with a standard deviation of only 0.08. When coupled with theoretical insights, we show that these QDs are highly insensitive to size differences, shape anisotropies, and material content variations. Furthermore, 91% of the studied QDs exhibit a polarization axis along the crystal [1-100] axis, with the other 9% polarized orthogonal to this direction. These features give non-polar InGaN QDs unique advantages in polarization control over other materials, such as conventional polar nitride, InAs, or CdSe QDs. Hence, the ability to generate single photons with polarization control makes non-polar InGaN QDs highly attractive for quantum cryptography protocols.

  7. Color multiplexing using directional holographic gratings and linear polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, L I; Rodriguez, A; Ramirez, G; Guel, S; Nunez, O F, E-mail: roca@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO) Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (UASLP) (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system of multiplexing and de-multiplexing, which uses a holographic diffraction grating to compel modulated light of different colors to be sent through an optical fiber. Diffraction gratings were fabricated specifically to pick the desired direction in which we wanted the light of different wavelengths to impinge the optic fiber, and also to be separated at the output. It was been found that the system preserves the polarization of light, which give us a one more freedom degree, allowing us to process twice the original information amount.

  8. Testing the existence of optical linear polarization in young brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjavacas, E.; Miles-Páez, P. A.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Goldman, B.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Pallé, E.; Fang, M.

    2017-07-01

    Linear polarization can be used as a probe of the existence of atmospheric condensates in ultracool dwarfs. Models predict that the observed linear polarization increases with the degree of oblateness, which is inversely proportional to the surface gravity. We aimed to test the existence of optical linear polarization in a sample of bright young brown dwarfs, with spectral types between M6 and L2, observable from the Calar Alto Observatory, and cataloged previously as low gravity objects using spectroscopy. Linear polarimetric images were collected in I and R band using CAFOS at the 2.2-m telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (Spain). The flux ratio method was employed to determine the linear polarization degrees. With a confidence of 3σ, our data indicate that all targets have a linear polarimetry degree in average below 0.69 per cent in the I band, and below 1.0 per cent in the R band, at the time they were observed. We detected significant (i.e. P/σ ≥ 3) linear polarization for the young M6 dwarf 2MASS J04221413+1530525 in the R band, with a degree of p* = 0.81 ± 0.17 per cent.

  9. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  10. Angular switching of the linear polarization of the emission in InGaAs microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amo, A.; Martin, M.D.; Ballarini, D.; Vina, L. [Grupo de Semiconductores (SEMICUAM), Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Sanvitto, D.; Skolnick, M.S. [Dept. of Physics, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Roberts, J.S. [Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, 3JD, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The angular dependence of the degree of linear polarization of the emission is presented for an InGaAs microcavity at several detunings. For emission angles close to the growth direction, polarizations as high as +80% for lower branch polaritons at negative detuning are found. This polarization degree abruptly switches to negative values (up to -90%) for emission angles outside a narrow cone of about {+-}2 . A similar behaviour, with smaller values of the polarization, is found at 0 and positive detunings. The relation between these effects and cavity birefringence is discussed. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Fast polarization-state tracking scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanfu; Cao, Guoliang; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Xian; Yao, Yong; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2015-07-27

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fast polarization tracking scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter. It has the advantages of fast convergence and is inherently insensitive to phase noise and frequency offset effects. The scheme is experimentally compared to conventional polarization tracking methods on the polarization rotation angular frequency. The results show that better tracking capability with more than one order of magnitude improvement is obtained in the cases of polarization multiplexed QPSK and 16QAM signals. The influences of the filter tuning parameters on tracking performance are also investigated in detail.

  12. Comparison of linear polarization degree in healthy and wounded rat skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Martha S.; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Silva, Daniela F.; Zezell, Denise M.; Pellegrini, Cleusa M. R.; Costa, Fabiano G.; Zorn, Telma M. T.

    2001-10-01

    Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) with adequate wavelength, intensity, and dose can accelerate tissue repair. However, there is still disperse information about light characteristics. Several works indicate that laser polarization plays an important role on the wound healing process. This study was conducted to verify the degree of linear polarization in normal and pathological rat skin samples. Artificial burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N2 on the back of the animals. The degree of polarization was measured in normal and pathological skin samples. It was verified that linearly polarized light can survive in the superficial layers of skin and it can be more preserved in skin under pathological condition when compared with health skin. The present study supports the hypothesis that polarized laser radiation can be used to treat open wounds and improve the healing.

  13. In-line phase retarder and polarimeter for conversion of linear to circular polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Smith, N.V.; Denlinger, J.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    An in-line polarimeter including phase retarder and linear polarizer was designed and commissioned on undulator beamline 7.0 for the purpose of converting linear to circular polarization for experiments downstream. In commissioning studies, Mo/Si multilayers at 95 eV were used both as the upstream, freestanding phase retarder and the downstream linear polarized. The polarization properties of the phase retarder were characterized by direct polarimetry and by collecting MCD spectra in photoemission from Gd and other magnetic surfaces. The resonant birefringence of transmission multilayers results from differing distributions of s- and p-component wave fields in the multilayer when operating near a structural (Bragg) interference condition. The resulting phase retardation is especially strong when the interference is at or near the Brewster angle, which is roughly 45{degrees} in the EUV and soft x-ray ranges.

  14. Optical asymmetric cryptography based on elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao; Shen, Xueju; Wang, Zhisong; Zhao, Cheng

    2014-06-20

    We demonstrate a novel optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on the principle of elliptical polarized light linear truncation and a numerical reconstruction technique. The device of an array of linear polarizers is introduced to achieve linear truncation on the spatially resolved elliptical polarization distribution during image encryption. This encoding process can be characterized as confusion-based optical cryptography that involves no Fourier lens and diffusion operation. Based on the Jones matrix formalism, the intensity transmittance for this truncation is deduced to perform elliptical polarized light reconstruction based on two intensity measurements. Use of a quick response code makes the proposed cryptosystem practical, with versatile key sensitivity and fault tolerance. Both simulation and preliminary experimental results that support theoretical analysis are presented. An analysis of the resistance of the proposed method on a known public key attack is also provided.

  15. Local circular polarizations in nanostructures induced by linear polarization via optical near-fields

    CERN Document Server

    Naruse, Makoto; Inoue, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Hideki; Hori, Hirokazu; Naya, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported [Naruse, et al. Sci. Rep. 4, 6077, 2014] that the geometrical randomness of disk-shaped silver nanoparticles, which exhibit high reflection at near-infrared wavelengths, serves as the origin of a particle-dependent localization and hierarchical distribution of optical near-fields in the vicinity of the nanostructure. In this study, we show that the induced polarizations are circular, particularly at resonant wavelengths. We formulate optical near-field processes between nanostructures, accounting for their polarizations and geometries, and attribute circular polarization to the layout-dependent phase difference between the electrical susceptibilities associated with longitudinal and transverse-electric components. This study clarifies the fundamental optical properties of random nanostructured matter and offers generic theoretical concepts for implementing nanoscale polarizations of optical near-fields.

  16. The lizard celestial compass detects linearly polarized light in the blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrami, Giulia; Parretta, Antonio; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Buttini, Paola; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Foà, Augusto

    2012-09-15

    The present study first examined whether ruin lizards, Podarcis sicula, are able to orientate using plane-polarized light produced by an LCD screen. Ruin lizards were trained and tested indoors, inside a hexagonal Morris water maze positioned under an LCD screen producing white polarized light with a single E-vector, which provided an axial cue. White polarized light did not include wavelengths in the UV. Lizards orientated correctly either when tested with E-vector parallel to the training axis or after 90 deg rotation of the E-vector direction, thus validating the apparatus. Further experiments examined whether there is a preferential region of the light spectrum to perceive the E-vector direction of polarized light. For this purpose, lizards reaching learning criteria under white polarized light were subdivided into four experimental groups. Each group was tested for orientation under a different spectrum of plane-polarized light (red, green, cyan and blue) with equalized photon flux density. Lizards tested under blue polarized light orientated correctly, whereas lizards tested under red polarized light were completely disoriented. Green polarized light was barely discernible by lizards, and thus insufficient for a correct functioning of their compass. When exposed to cyan polarized light, lizard orientation performances were optimal, indistinguishable from lizards detecting blue polarized light. Overall, the present results demonstrate that perception of linear polarization in the blue is necessary - and sufficient - for a proper functioning of the sky polarization compass of ruin lizards. This may be adaptively important, as detection of polarized light in the blue improves functioning of the polarization compass under cloudy skies, i.e. when the alternative celestial compass based on detection of the sun disk is rendered useless because the sun is obscured by clouds.

  17. Birefringence-dependent linearly-polarized emission in a liquid crystalline organic light emitting polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Myoung; Lee, You-Jin; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Yu, Chang-Jae

    2017-02-20

    We investigated the linearly polarized emission of uniformly aligned poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3]thia-diazol-4,8-diyl) (F8BT) with a liquid crystalline phase on a rubbed alignment layer. The polarization ratio, defined by the ratio of luminous intensities polarized parallel and perpendicular to the rubbed direction, gradually decreased with increasing thickness of the F8BT film. In the photoluminescence (PL) process, the polarized light is emitted throughout the whole F8BT film, while in the electroluminescence (EL) process, the polarized light is emitted at a certain region within the F8BT film. The thickness-dependent polarization ratios in both PL and EL processes were successfully described based on a simple model wherein the mean optical birefringence was expressed as a function of the thickness of the F8BT film.

  18. Linearly polarized, single-frequency, widely tunable Er:Yb bulk laser at around 1550 nm wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taccheo, S.; Laporta, P.; Svelto, O. [Centro di Elettronica Quantistica e Strumentazione Elettronica del CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, P.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    We report on a 36 nm tunable, single-frequency, linearly polarized Er:Yb:glass laser. A tuning range from 1528 to 1564 nm, with output power ranging from 1 to 8 mW, is achieved. Wavelength tuning and linearly polarized output are simultaneously obtained by using a special polarizing etalon with anisotropic absorption losses. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. The Steiner Formula and the Polar Moment of Inertia for the Closed Planar Homothetic Motions in Complex Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Tutar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Steiner area formula and the polar moment of inertia were expressed during one-parameter closed planar homothetic motions in complex plane. The Steiner point or Steiner normal concepts were described according to whether rotation number was different from zero or equal to zero, respectively. The moving pole point was given with its components and its relation between Steiner point or Steiner normal was specified. The sagittal motion of a winch was considered as an example. This motion was described by a double hinge consisting of the fixed control panel of winch and the moving arm of winch. The results obtained in the second section of this study were applied for this motion.

  20. Discovery of a complex linearly polarized spectrum of Betelgeuse dominated by depolarization of the continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurière, M.; López Ariste, A.; Mathias, P.; Lèbre, A.; Josselin, E.; Montargès, M.; Petit, P.; Chiavassa, A.; Paletou, F.; Fabas, N.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Donati, J.-F.; Grunhut, J. H.; Wade, G. A.; Herpin, F.; Kervella, P.; Perrin, G.; Tessore, B.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Betelgeuse is an M supergiant that harbors spots and giant granules at its surface and presents linear polarization of its continuum. Aims: We have previously discovered linear polarization signatures associated with individual lines in the spectra of cool and evolved stars. Here, we investigate whether a similar linearly polarized spectrum exists for Betelgeuse. Methods: We used the spectropolarimeter Narval, combining multiple polarimetric sequences to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of individual lines, as well as the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) approach, to investigate the presence of an averaged linearly polarized profile for the photospheric lines. Results: We have discovered the existence of a linearly polarized spectrum for Betelgeuse, detecting a rather strong signal (at a few times 10-4 of the continuum intensity level), both in individual lines and in the LSD profiles. Studying its properties and the signal observed for the resonant Na i D lines, we conclude that we are mainly observing depolarization of the continuum by the absorption lines. The linear polarization of the Betelgeuse continuum is due to the anisotropy of the radiation field induced by brightness spots at the surface and Rayleigh scattering in the atmosphere. We have developed a geometrical model to interpret the observed polarization, from which we infer the presence of two brightness spots and their positions on the surface of Betelgeuse. We show that applying the model to each velocity bin along the Stokes Q and U profiles allows the derivation of a map of the bright spots. We use the Narval linear polarization observations of Betelgeuse obtained over a period of 1.4 yr to study the evolution of the spots and of the atmosphere. Conclusions: Our study of the linearly polarized spectrum of Betelgeuse provides a novel method for studying the evolution of brightness spots at its surface and complements quasi-simultaneous observations obtained with PIONIER at the

  1. Improvement of speckle noise suppression in digital holography by rotating linear polarization state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xiao; Jing Zhang; Lu Rong; Feng Pan; Shuo Liu; Fanjing Wang; Aga He

    2011-01-01

    An improved polarization recording approach to reduce speckle noise in digital holography is proposed.Multiple off-axis holograms are obtained by rotating the linear polarization state of both illumination and reference wave simultaneously. By averaging the intensity fields, the speckle noise in the reconstructed images is well suppressed. Statistical evaluation of the experimental results shows the effectiveness and improvement of the proposed method.%@@ An improved polarization recording approach to reduce speckle noise in digital holography is proposed.Multiple off-axis holograms are obtained by rotating the linear polarization state of both illumination and reference wave simultaneously.By averaging the intensity fields, the speckle noise in the reconstructed images is well suppressed.Statistical evaluation of the experimental results shows the effectiveness and improvement of the proposed method.

  2. Observation of the effective linear polarization induced by the asymmetrical Raman gain of YVO4 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Fengjiang; Lin, Zhiyang; Zhu, Siqi

    2016-10-01

    We originally present a linearly polarized Raman radiation emitted from an actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/YVO4 laser. An 1175.25 nm Raman output was achieved using a uniaxial a-cut YVO4 crystal in a Z-shape laser cavity. The stable Raman power of 1.8 W was obtained, corresponding conversion efficiency of 8.8% from 1064 nm to 1175 nm. The Raman radiation with a polarization extinction ratio of 10.4-dB was observed for the first time. Our experimental results demonstrate that the asymmetrical Raman crystal gain can result in a uniform linear polarization and permit emitting orthogonal polarization radiation in a cascaded Raman laser.

  3. A Multibeam Dual-Band Orthogonal Linearly Polarized Antenna Array for Satellite Communication on the Move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and simulation of a 10 × 8 multibeam dual-band orthogonal linearly polarized antenna array operating at Ku-band are presented for transmit-receive applications. By using patches with different coupling methods as elements, both perpendicular polarization in 12.25–12.75 GHz band and horizontal polarization in 14.0–14.5 GHz band are realized in a shared antenna aperture. A microstrip Rotman lens is employed as the beamforming network with 7 input ports, which can generate a corresponding number of beams to cover −30°–30° with 5 dB beamwidth along one dimension. This type of multibeam orthogonal linearly polarized planar antenna is a good candidate for satellite communication (SatCom.

  4. Enantioselective synthesis of helical polydiacetylene by application of linearly polarized light and magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangyang; Yang, Guang; Xia, Hongyan; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Gao, Jiangang

    2014-09-23

    Magnetic optical activity, which can occur in all media and is induced by longitudinal magnetic field, causes the difference in absorption coefficients of left and right circularly polarized light and has the potential for magnetically induced enantioselectivity in chemical reactions. Compared with the well-established technique with circularly polarized light, there are few reports on the production of helical conjugated polymers in a photochemical reaction based on above magnetochiral anisotropy mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that the enantioselective polymerization of diacetylene derivative can be achieved in the liquid crystal phase by application of linearly polarized light under a parallel or antiparallel magnetic field. The screw direction of predominant helical polydiacetylene chain can be rigorously controlled with the relative orientation of linearly polarized light and the magnetic field. Moreover, the prepared helical polydiacetylene assemblies can serve as a direct visual probe for the enantioselective recognition of D- or L-lysine.

  5. First detection of linear polarization in the line profiles of active cool stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Snik, F; Jeffers, S V; Johns-Krull, C M; Keller, C U; Rodenhuis, M; Valenti, J A

    2011-01-01

    The application of high-resolution spectropolarimetry has led to major progress in understanding the magnetism and activity of late-type stars. During the last decade, magnetic fields have been discovered and mapped for many types of active cool stars using spectropolarimetric data. However, these observations and modeling attempts are fundamentally incomplete since they are based on the interpretation of the circular polarization alone. Taking advantage of the newly built HARPS polarimeter, we have obtained the first systematic observations of several cool active stars in all four Stokes parameters. Here we report the detection of magnetically-induced linear polarization for the primary component of the very active RS CVn binary HR 1099 and for the moderately active K dwarf epsilon Eri. For both stars the amplitude of linear polarization signatures is measured to be ~10^{-4} of the unpolarized continuum, which is approximately a factor of ten lower than for circular polarization. This is the first detection ...

  6. Probing space-time structure of new physics with polarized beams at the international linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Ananthanarayan

    2007-11-01

    At the international linear collider large beam polarization of both the electron and positron beams will enhance the signature of physics due to interactions that are beyond the standard model. Here we review our recently obtained results on a general model-independent method of determining for an arbitary one-particle inclusive state the space-time structure of such new physics through the beam polarization dependence and angular distribution of the final state particle.

  7. State-insensitive trapping of Rb atoms: linearly versus circularly polarized lights

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Bindiya

    2012-01-01

    We study the cancellation of differential ac Stark shifts in the 5s and 5p states of rubidium atom using the linearly and circularly polarized lights by calculating their dynamic polarizabilities. Matrix elements were calculated using a relativistic coupled-cluster method at the single, double and important valence triple excitations approximation including all possible non-linear correlation terms. Some of the important matrix elements were further optimized using the experimental results available for the lifetimes and static polarizabilities of atomic states. "Magic wavelengths" are determined from the differential Stark shifts and results for the linearly polarized light are compared with the previously available results. Possible scope of facilitating state-insensitive optical trapping schemes using the magic wavelengths for circularly polarized light are discussed. Using the optimized matrix elements, the lifetimes of the 4d and 6s states of this atom are ameliorated.

  8. Chiral resolution of spin angular momentum in linearly polarized and unpolarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, R J; Mazzulla, A; Provenzano, C; Pagliusi, P; Cipparrone, G

    2015-11-20

    Linearly polarized (LP) and unpolarized (UP) light are racemic entities since they can be described as superposition of opposite circularly polarized (CP) components of equal amplitude. As a consequence they do not carry spin angular momentum. Chiral resolution of a racemate, i.e. separation of their chiral components, is usually performed via asymmetric interaction with a chiral entity. In this paper we provide an experimental evidence of the chiral resolution of linearly polarized and unpolarized Gaussian beams through the transfer of spin angular momentum to chiral microparticles. Due to the interplay between linear and angular momentum exchange, basic manipulation tasks, as trapping, spinning or orbiting of micro-objects, can be performed by light with zero helicity. The results might broaden the perspectives for development of miniaturized and cost-effective devices.

  9. Rotatable high-resolution ARPES system for tunable linear-polarization geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, H.; Schwier, E. F.; Zheng, M.; Kojima, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Jiang, J.; Higashiguchi, M.; Aiura, Y.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.

    2017-01-01

    A rotatable high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) system has been developed to utilize tunable linear-polarization geometries on the linear undulator beamline (BL-1) at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center. By rotating the whole ARPES measurement system, the photoelectron detection plane can be continuously changed from parallel to normal against the electric field vector of linearly polarized undulator radiation. This polarization tunability enables us to identify the symmetry of the initial electronic states with respect to the mirror planes, and to selectively observe the electronic states based on the dipole selection rule in the photoemission process. Specifications of the rotatable high-resolution ARPES system are described, as well as its capabilities with some representative experimental results. PMID:28664891

  10. Realization of beam polarization at the linear collider and its application to EW processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco-Sollova, F.

    2006-07-15

    The use of beam polarization at the future ILC e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider will benefit the physics program significantly. This thesis explores three aspects of beam polarization: the application of beam polarization to the study of electroweak processes, the precise measurement of the beam polarization, and finally, the production of polarized positrons at a test beam experiment. In the first part of the thesis the importance of beam polarization at the future ILC is exhibited: the benefits of employing transverse beam polarization (in both beams) for the measurement of triple gauge boson couplings (TGCs) in the W-pair production process are studied. The sensitivity to anomalous TGC values is compared for the cases of transverse and longitudinal beam polarization at a center of mass energy of 500 GeV. Due to the suppressed contribution of the t-channel {nu} exchange, the sensitivity is higher for longitudinal polarization. For some physics analyses the usual polarimetry techniques do not provide the required accuracy for the measurement of the beam polarization (around 0.25% with Compton polarimetry). The second part of the thesis deals with a complementary method to measure the beam polarization employing physics data acquired with two polarization modes. The process of single-W production is chosen due to its high cross section. The expected precision for 500 fb{sup -1} and W{yields}{mu}{nu} decays only, is {delta}P{sub e{sup -}}/P{sub e{sup -}}=0.26% and {delta}P{sub e{sup +}}/P{sub e{sup +}}=0.33%, which can be further improved by employing additional W-decay channels. The first results of an attempt to produce polarized positrons at the E-166 experiment are shown in the last part of the thesis. The E-166 experiment, located at the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC's LINAC employs a helical undulator to induce the emission of circularly polarized gamma rays by the beam electrons. These gamma rays are converted into longitudinally polarized electron

  11. An L-Band Polarized Electron PWT Photoinjector for the International Linear Collider (ILC)

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, David; Chen Ping; Lundquist, Martin; Luo, Yan; Smirnov, Alexei Yu

    2005-01-01

    A multi-cell, standing-wave, L-band, p-mode, plane-wave-transformer (PWT) photoinjector with an integrated photocathode in a novel linac structure is proposed by DULY Research Inc. as a polarized electron source. The PWT photoinjector is capable of operation in ultra high vacuum and moderate field gradient. Expected performance of an L-band polarized electron PWT injector operating under the parameters for the International Linear Collider is presented. The projected normalized transverse rms emittance is an order of magnitude lower than that produced with a polarized electron dc gun followed by subharmonic bunchers.

  12. Stochastic Heating of Ions by Linear Polarized Alfvén Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Xiang; LI Yi; WANG Shui

    2007-01-01

    The ion motion in the presence of linear polarized Alfvén waves is studied. For a linearly polarized wave,nonlinear resonances can occur when the amplitude of Alfvén wave is large enough. Under certain conditions, these resonances can overlap and thus make the ion motion chaotic. In this process, the plasma can be heated without the limitation of cyclotron resonant condition. Taking into account ofa spectrum of waves, the stochastic condition can decrease largely. In addition, the preferential heating can be found in the perpendicular direction.

  13. Spectral behavior of the linear polarization degree at right-angle scattering configuration for nanoparticle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setien, B; Albella, P; Saiz, J M; Gonzalez, F; Moreno, F, E-mail: morenof@unican.e [Grupo de Optica, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda de los Castros S/N, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    We present a numerical study of the spectral evolution of the linear polarization degree at right-angle scattering configuration (P{sub L}(90{sup 0})) for two different particle systems: an isolated nanosphere and a nanodimer composed of two finite size spherical particles separated by a gap distance d. We shall focus on the influence of charge oscillation modes other than the dipolar on the linear polarization degree of the scattered light. The possibility of using this alternative parameter for characterizing nanoparticle systems and particle interaction is analyzed.

  14. Linearly polarized gluons in charmonium and bottomonium production in color octet model

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Asmita

    2016-01-01

    We study the possibility to probe the unpolarized and linearly polarized transverse momentum- dependent gluon distributions in unpolarized pp collision in charmonium and bottomonium produc- tion, employing non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) based color octet model within transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization framework. The transverse momentum (p T ) and rapidity distributions of J/{\\psi} and {\\Upsilon}(1S) at LHCb, RHIC and AFTER energies are estimated. Significant modulations in transverse momentum spectrum of quarkonium in the low p T region is obtained when contributions of linearly polarized gluons inside an unpolarized proton are taken into account. The results of quarko- nium production in color octet model and color evaporation model are compared.

  15. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-{mu}m thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  16. The Linear Inverse Problem of Gravimetry and Magnetometry with Iterative Formulas of Analogs of Wiener-Kalman Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Minenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the improved iterative methods of solution of the inversion linear problems of gravimetry and magnetometry based on analogs of Wiener-Kalman filters applied to two interpretation models obtained in result of subdivision of the field grid on two sub grids containing even and odd profiles respectively. The new iterative formulas provide stable and geologically true interpretation with arbitrary initial conditions and without usage of decisions preliminarily obtained with other methods. It gives two close decisions, independent of solutions of the inverse problem achieved with other methods. Examples of practical implementation of method for processing and interpretation of magnetic data obtained at the area of iron ore deposit, Ukraine, are given.

  17. Linear polarization of binaries II. Phase function : wQ~(?)Q~? (??)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, S. K.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents a method of calculating linear polarizations in close binaries whose surfaces are distorted due to tidal and rotational forces. Limb-darkening effect has been taken into account. Particles of different sizes are embedded in the outer atmosphere. The law of differential rotation of the primary is considered in analytic form: ??=3D b1 + b2 w2 + b3 w4, where b1, b2 and b3 are constants and w is the distance of a point P (r,?,?) from the axis of rotation of the primary. The atmosphere is assumed to be non-grey, plane-parallel and the phase function is wQ~(?)Q~? (??). Calculations are done with respect to rest frame fixed at the centre of the primary star for several functions as : mass-ratio (q) between the secondary and the primary, polar radius (rp) of the primary, wave-length (?) of the incident light, radius of a particle (1) and angle of inclination (?) with respect to the line of sight. It is noticed that polarization increases with an increase of the radius rp steadily; polarization increases with an increase of the radius of the particle (1), polarization increases with an increase of the mass-ratio q. The method of solution has been applied to several late type binaries to calculate disk integrated linear polarization of light emitted by them. When the mass-ratio q = 0, the general problem reduces to the calculation for a rotationally distorted single (primary) star.

  18. Strong Linear Dichroism in Spin-Polarized Photoemission from Spin-Orbit-Coupled Surface States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentmann, H.; Maaß, H.; Krasovskii, E. E.; Peixoto, T. R. F.; Seibel, C.; Leandersson, M.; Balasubramanian, T.; Reinert, F.

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive understanding of spin-polarized photoemission is crucial for accessing the electronic structure of spin-orbit coupled materials. Yet, the impact of the final state in the photoemission process on the photoelectron spin has been difficult to assess in these systems. We present experiments for the spin-orbit split states in a Bi-Ag surface alloy showing that the alteration of the final state with energy may cause a complete reversal of the photoelectron spin polarization. We explain the effect on the basis of ab initio one-step photoemission theory and describe how it originates from linear dichroism in the angular distribution of photoelectrons. Our analysis shows that the modulated photoelectron spin polarization reflects the intrinsic spin density of the surface state being sampled differently depending on the final state, and it indicates linear dichroism as a natural probe of spin-orbit coupling at surfaces.

  19. Efficient generation of linearly polarized Cerenkov radiation in a photonic crystal fiber with suspended rectangle core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xing; Cheng, Lan; Peng, Jinggang; Yang, Luyun; Dai, Nengli; Li, Haiqing; Li, Jinyan

    2017-10-01

    We report high efficiency linearly polarized Cerenkov radiation (CR) generation in a photonic crystal fiber with suspended rectangle core. The frequency up-conversion via the Cerenkov radiation upon pumping of Yb-doped femtosecond fiber laser is discussed in details. Experiment results show that the output spectrum contains, besides the infrared supercontinuum, intense green Cerenkov radiation around 536 nm, which carry about 43% of the pump energy at best. The influence of the high birefringence and dispersion character on the Cerenkov radiation generation is discussed. Experiment and simulation results indicate that the rectangle core photonic crystal fiber acts like single-mode single-polarization fiber at the pump wavelength. Only the pulse component along with the slow axis could be confined in the rectangle core well and release Cerenkov radiation efficiently. The Output green Cerenkov radiation is also demonstrated to be linearly polarized. Experiments results agree well with the theoretical predictions.

  20. Study on an On-line Measurement System of Corrosion Rate by Linear Polarization Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeon Soo; Lee, Jae Kun; Lee, Jae Bong; Park, Pyl Yang [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    The linear polarization resistance method is one of the widely used techniques for the corrosion rate monitoring in the water circulating systems of plants. The measurement is simple and rapid, so that a continuous on-line monitoring is possible without any shutdown of plants. A 2-electrode polarization corrosion rate measurement system was installed in a laboratory using a data acquisition board and PC. The signal processing parameters were optimized for the accurate corrosion rate measurement, and the polarization resistance was compensated with the solution resistance measured by the high frequency sine wave signal of an output channel. The precision of corrosion rate data was greatly improved by removing the initial noise signals on measuring the polarization resistance.

  1. The Nature of Linearly Polarized Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Emission in Sagittarius A*

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Siming; Wu, Xue-Bing; Fryer, Christopher L; Li, Hui

    2007-01-01

    The linearly polarized millimeter and sub-millimeter emission in Sagittarius A* is produced within 10 Schwarzschild radii of the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center. We show that the millimeter emission likely originates from a hot accretion disk, where electrons are heated efficiently by turbulent plasma waves. The observed flux density and polarization requires that the disk have an inclination angle of $\\sim45^\\circ$ and its rotation axis be aligned with the major axis of the intrinsic polarization. The disk also needs to be strongly magnetized with a magnetic field energy density comparable to the thermal energy density of the gas. The high flux density and hard spectrum of the sub-millimeter ($<1$ mm) emission, on the other hand, suggest that it is emitted from small emission regions and therefore associated with flare events occurring either in coronas of the disk or within the last stable orbit. Simultaneous spectrum and polarization measurements will be able to test the model.

  2. Mutual conversion and asymmetric transmission of linearly polarized light in bilayered chiral metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiqun; Shi, Quanchao; Zhu, Zheng; Shi, Jinhui

    2014-10-20

    We propose a kind of planar chiral optical metamaterial consisting of two layers of connected I-shape resonators arranged by a twist angle of 90°. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that our scheme can realize a mutual polarization conversion and dual-band asymmetric transmission for linearly polarized waves in the optical regime. For the forward propagation, the x-to-y and y-to-x polarization conversions in the proposed bilayered metamaterial result from the concentric and eccentric C-shaped dimers, respectively. The current distributions of bilayered metamaterials at the resonant frequencies are presented to interpret the dual-band asymmetric transmission. The polarization conversion efficiency and resonant frequencies can be modified via parametric study.

  3. Bhabha vs. Moeller scattering as a contact-interaction analyzer at a polarized linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Pankov, A A

    2002-01-01

    We discuss electron-electron contact-interaction searches in the processes e sup + e sup -->e sup + e sup - and e sup - e sup -->e sup - e sup - at planned Linear Colliders run in the e sup + e sup - and e sup - e sup - modes with both beams longitudinally polarized. Our analysis is based on the measurement, for the two processes, of polarized differential cross sections, and allows to simultaneously take into account the general set of electron contact interaction couplings as independent, non-zero, parameters thus avoiding the simplifying choice of a model. We evaluate the corresponding model-independent constraints on the contact coupling constants, emphasizing the role of the available beam polarization and the complementarity, as far as the chirality of the constants is concerned, of the two processes in giving the best constraints. We also make a comparison with the potential of e sup + e sup --> mu supmu sup - at the same energy and initial beams polarization.

  4. Mathematical Formula Recognition and Transformation to a Linear Format Suitable for Vocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Nazemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Students with vision impairment encounter barriers in studying mathematics particularly in higher education levels. They must have an equal chance with sighted students in mathematics subjects.Making mathematics accessible to the vision impaired users is a complicated process. This accessibility can be static or dynamic, in static accessibility the user is presented with a representation of the entire mathematic expression passively such as using Braille, dynamic accessibility allows the user to navigate the mathematical content in accordance with its structure interactively such as audio format[1]. MATHSPEAK is an application that accepts objects described in LaTeX and converts it to a linear or sequential representation suitable for vocalization, describing functions to people with severe vision impairment. MATHSPEAK provides interactive dynamic access to mathematic expressions by rendering them to audio format. This paper describes a method to create plain text from images of mathematicalformulae and convert this text to LaTeX which is used in the earlier developed algorithm, “MATHSPEAK”.

  5. The intrinsic and interstellar broadband linear polarization of nearby FGK dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Daniel V.; Marshall, Jonathan P.; Bailey, Jeremy; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bott, Kimberly; Marsden, Stephen C.; Carter, Bradley D.

    2017-01-01

    We present linear polarization measurements of nearby FGK dwarfs to parts-per-million (ppm) precision. Before making any allowance for interstellar polarization, we found that the active stars within the sample have a mean polarization of 28.5 ± 2.2 ppm while the inactive stars have a mean of 9.6 ± 1.5 ppm. Amongst inactive stars we initially found no difference between debris disk host stars (9.1 ± 2.5 ppm) and the other FGK dwarfs (9.9 ± 1.9 ppm). We develop a model for the magnitude and direction of interstellar polarization for nearby stars. When we correct the observations for the estimated interstellar polarization we obtain 23.0 ± 2.2 ppm for the active stars, 7.8 ± 2.9 ppm for the inactive debris disk host stars and 2.9 ± 1.9 ppm for the other inactive stars. The data indicates that whilst some debris disk host stars are intrinsically polarized most inactive FGK dwarfs have negligible intrinsic polarization, but that active dwarfs have intrinsic polarization at levels ranging up to ˜ 45 ppm. We briefly consider a number of mechanisms, and suggest differential saturation of spectral lines in the presence of magnetic fields is the best able to explain the polarization seen in active dwarfs. The results have implications for current attempts to detect polarized reflected light from hot Jupiters by looking at the combined light of the star and planet.

  6. Approach for fast numerical propagation of uniformly polarized random electromagnetic fields in dispersive linearly birefringent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Piotr L; Domanski, Andrzej W

    2013-09-01

    An efficient simulation technique is proposed for computing propagation of uniformly polarized statistically stationary fields in linear nonimage-forming systems that includes dispersion of linear birefringence to all orders. The method is based on the discrete-time Fourier transformation of modified frequency profiles of the spectral Stokes parameters. It works under the condition that all (linearly) birefringent sections present in the system are described by the same phase birefringence dispersion curve, being a monotonic function of the optical frequency within the bandwidth of the light. We demonstrate the technique as a supplement for the Mueller-Stokes matrix formalism extended to any uniformly polarized polychromatic illumination. Accuracy of its numerical implementation has been verified by using parameters of a Lyot depolarizer made of a highly birefringent and dispersive monomode photonic crystal fiber.

  7. Orthogonal linear polarized lasers(Ⅲ) Applications in self-sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shulian; DU Wenhua; LIU Gang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the applications of orthogonal linear polarized lasers in self-sensing are reviewed. The properties for such a laser include the production of a new frequency in one longitudinal mode spacing, the tuning of frequency difference, the change of polarization states as cavity tuning, the control of mode competition intensity, the optical feedback, and so on. The orthogonal polarized lasers have been used as a laser nanometer ruler based on competition between two polarized lights in a HeNe laser and as a displacement measurement tool based on the optical feedback in the orthogonal polarized lasers. They are also used in the phase retardation measurement of a waveplate, the angle measurement, the vibration measurement, the pressure/force measurement, the weak magnetic field measurement,and so on. The structures of these new devices are simple and compact with the great advantages of high resolution and high accuracy.Some of these devices can trace to the source of the laser wavelength. The nanometer laser ruler is an example whose measurement range is 12 mm, resolution is 79 nm and linearity is less than 5×10- 5. The repeatability of the phase retardation measuring system of waveplate can reach 3'.

  8. Magic wavelengths of Ca+ ion for linearly and circularly polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Jiang, Li; Wang, Xia; Shaw, Peter; Zhang, Deng-Hong; Xie, Lu-You; Dong, Chen Zhong

    2017-07-01

    The dynamic dipole polarizabilities of the low-lying states of Ca$^{+}$ for linearly and circularly polarized light are calculated by using relativistic configuration interaction plus core polarization (RCICP) approach. The magic wavelengths, at which the two levels of the transitions have the same ac Stark shifts, for $4s$-$4p_{j,m}$ and $4s$-$3d_{j,m}$ magnetic sublevels transitions are determined. The present magic wavelengths for linearly polarized light agree with the available results excellently. The polarizability for the circularly polarized light has the scalar, vector and tensor components. The dynamic polarizability is different for each of magnetic sublevels of the atomic state. Additional magic wavelengths have been found for the circularly polarized light. We recommend that the measurement of the magic wavelength near 850 nm for $4s-4p_{\\frac32,m=\\pm\\frac32,\\pm\\frac12}$ could be able to determine the oscillator strength ratio of $f_{4p_{\\frac32} \\to 3d_{\\frac32}}$ and $f_{4p_{\\frac32} \\to 3d_{\\frac52}}$.

  9. Continuously rotating chiral liquid crystal droplets in a linearly polarized laser trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Brimicombe, P D; Roberts, N W; Dickinson, M R; Osipov, M; Gleeson, H F

    2008-05-12

    The transfer of optical angular momentum to birefringent particles via circularly polarized light is common. We report here on the unexpected, continuous rotation of chiral nematic liquid crystal droplets in a linearly polarized optical trap. The rotation is non-uniform, occurs over a timescale of seconds, and is observed only for very specific droplet sizes. Synchronized vertical motion of the droplet occurs during the rotation. The motion is the result of photo-induced molecular reorganization, providing a micron sized opto-mechanical transducer that twists and translates.

  10. The focus of light - linear polarization breaks the rotational symmetry of the focal spot

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, R; Leuchs, G; Dorn, Ralf; Quabis, Susanne; Leuchs, Gerd

    2003-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate for the first time that a linearly polarized beam is focussed to an asymmetric spot when using a high-numerical aperture focussing system. This asymmetry was predicted by Richards and Wolf [Proc.R.Soc.London A, 253, 358 (1959)] and can only be measured when a polarization insensitive sensor is placed in the focal region. We used a specially modified photodiode in a knife edge type set up to obtain highly resolved images of the total electric energy density distribution at the focus. The results are in good agreement with the predictions of a vectorial focussing theory.

  11. Linearly polarized intracavity passive Q-switched Yb-doped photonic crystal fibre laser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha Chakravarty; Antony Kuruvilla; Rajpal Singh; B N Upadhyay; K S Bindra; S M Oak

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we report linearly polarized high average power passive Q-switched ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fibre laser with a Cr4+:YAG crystal as a saturable absorber. An average output power of 9.4 W with pulse duration of 64 ns and pulse repetition rate of 57.4 kHz with a slope efficiency of 52% was achieved. Measured polarization extinction ratio (PER) of the Q-switched laser output was 10.5 dB.

  12. Ultrabroadband Design for Linear Polarization Conversion and Asymmetric Transmission Crossing X- and K- Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linbo; Zhou, Peiheng; Chen, Haiyan; Lu, Haipeng; Xie, Haiyan; Zhang, Li; Li, En; Xie, Jianliang; Deng, Longjiang

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a high-efficiency and broadband reflective converter using ultrathin planar metamaterial (MM) composed of single-layered SRR is firstly realized. Numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the cross-polarization conversion reflectance above 0.84 is achieved from 8.6 to 18.6 GHz for linearly polarized (LP) incident waves under normal incidence. Subsequently, a multi-layered MM based on SRR enables a dramatic improvement of the recently demonstrated asymmetric transmission (AT) effect. Theoretical and measured results present that strong one-way transmission of two orthogonally polarized waves crossing C- and K- band has been observed. These two separated AT pass-bands have a function of selective polarization filter, which can be switched on/off by changing the polarization state of incident waves. The physical mechanisms are elucidated by taking advantage of electric fields and current distributions. Considering the broad bandwidth and the dual band, we believe that these two structures will be beneficial for designing polarization-controlled and selective transmission converter.

  13. Design and numerical simulation of a silicon-based linear polarizer with double-layered metallic nano-gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Hu, Jingpei; Wang, Chinhua

    2016-10-01

    With the increasing demand for linearly polarized elements with high performance in many fields and applications, design and fabrication of sub-wavelength metallic linear polarizer have made tremendous progress in recent years. In this paper, we proposed a novel structure of a silicon-based linear polarizer working in the infrared (3-5μm) waveband with a double-layered metallic grating structure. A two-layer metallic grating with a transition layer of low refractive index is fabricated on a silicon substrate. In contrast to those conventional single layer metallic polarizing grating, the multilayer polarizing structure has the advantages of easy fabrication and high performance. Numerical simulation results show that an extinction ratio of linear polarization can be up to 58.5dB and the TM-polarized light transmission is greater than 90%. The behaviors and advantages of the proposed multilayer polarizer are compared with that of a traditional single-layer metallic grating. The proposed silicon-based linear polarizer will have great potential applications in real-time polarization imaging with high extinction ratio and high transmission.

  14. Unique heavy lepton signature at $e^+e^-$ linear collider with polarized beams

    CERN Document Server

    Moortgat-Pick, G; Pankov, A A; Tsytrinov, A V

    2013-01-01

    We explore the effects of neutrino and electron mixing with exotic heavy leptons in the process e^+e^-\\to W^+W^- within E_6 models. We examine the possibility of uniquely distinguishing and identifying such effects of heavy neutral lepton exchange from Z-Z' mixing within the same class of models and also from analogous ones due to competitor models with anomalous trilinear gauge couplings (AGC) that can lead to very similar experimental signatures at the e^+e^- International Linear Collider (ILC) for \\sqrt{s}=350, 500 GeV and 1 TeV. Such clear identification of the model is possible by using a certain double polarization asymmetry. The availability of both beams being polarized plays a crucial role in identifying such exotic-lepton admixture. In addition, the sensitivity of the ILC for probing exotic-lepton admixture is substantially enhanced when the polarization of the produced W^\\pm bosons is considered.

  15. Polarized Uniform Linear Array System: Beam Radiation Pattern, Beamforming Diversity Order, and Channel Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies regarding antenna polarization; however, there have been few publications on the analysis of the channel capacity for polarized antenna systems using the beamforming technique. According to Chung et al., the channel capacity is determined by the density of scatterers and the transmission power, which is obtained based on the assumption that scatterers are uniformly distributed on a 3D spherical scattering model. However, it contradicts the practical scenario, where scatterers may not be uniformly distributed under outdoor environment, and lacks the consideration of fading channel gain. In this study, we derive the channel capacity of polarized uniform linear array (PULA systems using the beamforming technique in a practical scattering environment. The results show that, for PULA systems, the channel capacity, which is boosted by beamforming diversity, can be determined using the channel gain, beam radiation pattern, and beamforming diversity order (BDO, where the BDO is dependent on the antenna characteristics and array configurations.

  16. Linear Polarization Measurements for High-Spin States in 146Gd

    CERN Document Server

    Krishichayan,; Basu, S K; Bhowmik, R K; Chakraborty, A; Chaturvedi, L; Dhal, A; Garg, U; Ghugre, S S; Goswami, R; Jhingan, A; Madhvan, N; Rao, P V Madhusudhana; Mukhopadhyay, S; Muralithar, S; Nath, S; Pattabiraman, N S; Ray, S; Saha, S; Sarkar, M Saha; Sarkar, S; Singh, R; Singh, R P; Sinha, A K; Sinha, R K; Sugathan, P; Yogi, B K

    2013-01-01

    A {\\gamma}-ray linear polarization measurement has been performed to directly determine the parities for the levels in 146Gd nucleus. High-spin states in this nucleus were populated in a reaction 115In + 34S at 140 MeV incident energy. Linearly polarized {\\gamma} - rays emitted from oriented states were measured using a Compton polarimeter consisting of an array of 8 Compton-suppressed Clover detectors. Unambiguous assignments of the spin and parity have been made for most of the observed levels and changes made in the previously reported spin-parity assignments for a few levels. Shell model calculations performed with judicious truncation over the {\\pi}(gdsh) valence space interpret the structure of only the low-lying levels up to J{\\pi} = 19+ and 9-. N = 82 neutron-core breaking is found to be essential for high spin states with excitation energies Ex > 7 MeV.

  17. Mitigating of Modal Instabilities in Linearly-Polarized Fiber Amplifiers by Shifting Pump Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Rumao; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effct of pump wavelength on the modal instabilities (MI) in high power linearly-polarized Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. We built a novel semi-analytical model to determine the frequency coupling characteristics and power threshold of MI, which indicates promising MI suppression through pumping at an appropriate wavelength. By pumping at 915nm, the threshold can be enhanced by a factor of 2.36 as compared to that pumped at 976nm. Based on a high power linearly-polarized fiber amplifier platform, we studied the influence of pump wavelength experimentally. The threshold has been increased by a factor of 2 at 915nm, which agrees with the theoretical calculation and verified our theoretical model. Furthermore, we show that MI suppression by detuning the pump wavelength is weakened for fiber with large core-to-cladding ratio.

  18. Deviations from sorption linearity on soils of polar and nonpolar organic compounds at low relative concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    A series of single-solute and binary-solute sorption data have been obtained on representative samples of polar compounds (substituted ureas and phenolic compounds) and of nonpolar compounds (e.g., EDB and TCE) on a peat soil and a mineral (Woodburn) soil; the data extend to low relative solute concentrations (C(e)/S(w)). At relatively low C(e)/S(w), both the nonpolar and the polar solutes exhibit nonlinear sorption. The sorption nonlinearity approaches apparent saturation at about C(e)/S(w) = 0.010-0.015 for the nonpolar solutes and at about C(e)/S(w) = 0.10-0.13 for the polar solutes; above these C(e)/S(w) regions, the isotherms are practically linear. The nonlinear sorption capacities are greater for polar solutes than for nonpolar solutes and the peat soil shows a greater effect than the Woodburn soil. The small nonlinear sorption capacity for a nonpolar solute is suppressed indiscriminately by either a nonpolar or a polar cosolute at relatively low C(e)/S(w) of the cosolute. By contrast, the abilities of different cosolutes to suppress the nonlinear capacity of a nominal polar solute differ drastically. For polar solutes, a nonpolar cosolute exhibits a limited suppression even at high cosolute C(e)/S(w); effective suppression occurs when the cosolute is relatively polar and at various C(e)/S(w). These differences suggest that more than a single mechanism is required to account for the nonlinear sorption of both nonpolar and polar compounds at low C(e)/S(w). Mechanistic processes consistent with these observations and with soil surface areas are discussed along with other suggested models. Some important consequences of the nonlinear competitive sorption to the behavior of contaminants in natural systems are discussed.A number of conceptual models was postulated to account for the nonlinear solute sorption on soils of significant soil organic matter. A series of single-solute and binary-route sorption data was obtained representing samples of polar compounds of

  19. Synchrotron radiation and absence of linear polarization in the colliding wind binary WR 146

    CERN Document Server

    Hales, C A; del Palacio, S; Romero, G E; Koribalski, B S

    2016-01-01

    Several massive early-type binaries exhibit non-thermal emission which has been attributed to synchrotron radiation from particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in the wind-collision region (WCR). If the magnetic field in the strong shocks is ordered, its component parallel to the shock front should be enhanced, and the resultant synchrotron radiation would be polarized. However, such polarization has never been measured. We performed spatially-unresolved radio continuum observations of WR 146, a well known a WC6+O8 system, at 5 cm and 20 cm with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. No linearly polarized radio emission was detected. The data constrain the fractional linear polarization to less than 0.6% between 1 to 8 GHz. This is compatible with a high level of turbulence and a dominant random component in the magnetic field. In this case the relativistic particles could be produced by turbulent magnetic reconnection (MR). In order for this scenario to satisfy the required non-thermal ene...

  20. 77 GHz MEMS antennas on high-resistivity silicon for linear and circular polarization

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Two new MEMS antennas operating at 77 GHz are presented in this paper. The first antenna is linearly polarized. It possesses a vertical silicon wall that carries a dipole on top of it. The wall is located on top of silicon substrate covered with a ground plane. The other side of the substrate carries a microstrip feeding network in the form of U-turn that causes 180 phase shift. This phase-shifter feeds the arms of the dipole antenna via two vertical Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) that go through the entire wafer. The second antenna is circularly polarized and formed using two linearly polarized antennas spatially rotated with respect to each other by 90 and excited with 90 phase shift. Both antennas are fabricated using novel process flow on a single high-resistivity silicon wafer via bulk micromachining. Only three processing steps are required to fabricate these antennas. The proposed antennas have appealing characteristics, such as high polarization purity, high gain, and high radiation efficiency. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Improvement of the linear polarization resistance method for testing steel corrosion inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faritov, A. T.; Rozhdestvenskii, Yu. G.; Yamshchikova, S. A.; Minnikhanova, E. R.; Tyusenkov, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    The linear polarization resistance method is used to improve the technique of corrosion control in liquid conducting according to GOST 9.514-99 (General Corrosion and Aging Protection System. Corrosion Inhibitors for Metals in Water Systems. Electrochemical Method of Determining the Protective Ability). Corrosion monitoring is shown to be performed by electronic devices with real-time data transfer to industrial controllers and SCADA systems.

  2. Orthogonal linear polarization tunable-beat ring laser with a superluminescent diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Yoshino, T

    1997-09-20

    An orthogonal linear polarization operated ring laser with a superluminescent diode has been demonstrated to generate a tunable optical beat signal. The ring cavity contains a superluminescent diode as the optical gain medium, Faraday rotators, and a variable phase retarder (Babinet-Soleil compensator). By controlling the retarder, we changed the beat frequency in the range from a few tens of megahertz to 100 MHz.

  3. Orthogonal linear polarization tunable-beat ring laser with a superluminescent diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Yoshino, T. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376 (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    An orthogonal linear polarization operated ring laser with a superluminescent diode has been demonstrated to generate a tunable optical beat signal. The ring cavity contains a superluminescent diode as the optical gain medium, Faraday rotators, and a variable phase retarder (Babinet-Soleil compensator). By controlling the retarder, we changed the beat frequency in the range from a few tens of megahertz to 100 MHz. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  4. Effect of linear polarized near-infrared light irradiation and light exercise on muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Tomohiro; Demura, Shinichi; Aoki, Hiroki; Uchida, Yuu; Yamaji, Shunsuke

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of active warm-up by local muscle light exercise and passive warm-up by polarized light irradiation on skin and muscle temperatures and forearm muscle performance (muscle strength, power, endurance, and controlled force-exertion). Ten healthy males performed various grip tests before and after active (local muscle light exercise) and passive (linear polarized near-infrared light irradiation) warm-ups. An active warm-up involved intermittent gripping exercise (contraction: 1 second and relaxation: 1 second) for 10 minutes using a sponge. A passive warm-up consisted of polarized light irradiation to the forearm (superficial digital flexor) for 10 minutes (irradiation: 5 seconds and rest: 1 second). Skin and muscle temperatures were measured during both warm-ups. Skin and muscle temperatures increased significantly after 5 minutes of local muscle light exercise and after 10 minutes of polarized light irradiation. Temperatures were significantly higher after 6 minutes of local muscle light exercise than after 6 minutes of polarized light irradiation. There were no significant differences of muscle strength, power, and controlled force-exertion before and after either warm-up. Average force outputs in all conditions significantly decreased with exertion time, and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds they were higher in both warm-up conditions than in the non-warm-up condition. In conclusion, both warm-ups may contribute to improve muscle endurance performance in the decreasing force phase.

  5. Exploring 2-spin internal linear combinations for the recovery of the CMB polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Cobos, R; Vielva, P; Martínez-González, E; Barreiro, R B

    2016-01-01

    We present a methodology to recover cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization in which the quantity $P = Q+ iU$ is linearly combined at different frequencies using complex coefficients. This is the most general linear combination of the $Q$ and $U$ Stokes parameters which preserves the physical coherence of the residual contribution on the CMB estimation. The approach is applied to the internal linear combination (ILC) and the internal template fitting (ITF) methodologies. The variance of $P$ of the resulting map is minimized to compute the coefficients of the linear combination. One of the key aspects of this procedure is that it serves to account for a global frequency-dependent shift of the polarization phase. Although in the standard case, in which no global E-B transference depending on frequency is expected in the foreground components, minimizing $\\left\\langle |P|^2\\right\\rangle$ is similar to minimizing $\\left\\langle Q^2\\right\\rangle$ and $\\left\\langle U^2\\right\\rangle$ separately (as previous me...

  6. Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide saturable absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Sobon, Grzegorz; Jagiello, Joanna; Kozinski, Rafal; Librant, Krzysztof; Zdrojek, Mariusz; Lipinska, Ludwika; Abramski, Krzysztof M

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate generation of linearly polarized pulses from a passively Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser. The cavity was designed using only polarization maintaining (PM) fibers and components, resulting in linearly polarized output beam with degree of polarization (DOP) at the level of 97.6%. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was used as a saturable absorber for Q-switched operation. The laser was capable of delivering 1.85us pulses with 125nJ pulse energy at 115kHz repetition rate.

  7. Synchrotron radiation and absence of linear polarization in the colliding wind binary WR 146

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, C. A.; Benaglia, P.; del Palacio, S.; Romero, G. E.; Koribalski, B. S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Several massive early-type binaries exhibit non-thermal emission which has been attributed to synchrotron radiation from particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in the wind-collision region (WCR). If the magnetic field in the strong shocks is ordered, its component parallel to the shock front should be enhanced, and the resultant synchrotron radiation would be polarized. However, such polarization has never been measured. Aims: We aim to determine the percentage of linearly polarized emission from the well-known non-thermal radio emitter WR 146, a WC6+O8 system. Methods: We performed spatially-unresolved radio continuum observations of WR 146 at 5 cm and 20 cm with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We constructed a numerical model to investigate a scenario where particles are accelerated by turbulent magnetic reconnection (MR), and we performed a quantitative analysis of possible depolarization effects. Results: No linearly polarized radio emission was detected. The data constrain the fractional linear polarization to less than 0.6% between 1 to 8 GHz. This is compatible with a high level of turbulence and a dominant random component in the magnetic field. In this case the relativistic particles could be produced by turbulent magnetic reconnection. In order for this scenario to satisfy the required non-thermal energy budget, the strength of the magnetic field in the WCR must be as high as 150 mG. However, if the magnetic field is ordered and DSA is ongoing, then a combination of internal and external Faraday rotation could equally account for the depolarization of the emission. Conclusions: The absence of polarization could be caused by a highly turbulent magnetic field, other depolarization mechanisms such as Faraday rotation in the stellar wind, or a combination of these processes. It is not clear whether it is possible to develop the high level of turbulence and strong magnetic fields required for efficient MR in a long

  8. OBSERVATIONS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION IN A SOLAR CORONAL LOOP PROMINENCE SYSTEM OBSERVED NEAR 6173 Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Säm; Bain, Hazel [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schou, Jesper [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Couvidat, Sébastien, E-mail: shilaire@ssl.berkeley.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    White-light observations by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of a loop-prominence system occurring in the aftermath of an X-class flare on 2013 May 13 near the eastern solar limb show a linearly polarized component, reaching up to ∼20% at an altitude of ∼33 Mm, about the maximum amount expected if the emission were due solely to Thomson scattering of photospheric light by the coronal material. The mass associated with the polarized component was 8.2 × 10{sup 14} g. At 15 Mm altitude, the brightest part of the loop was 3(±0.5)% linearly polarized, only about 20% of that expected from pure Thomson scattering, indicating the presence of an additional unpolarized component at wavelengths near Fe I (617.33 nm). We estimate the free electron density of the white-light loop system to possibly be as high as 1.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}.

  9. Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observations of linear polarization from a loop prominence system

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Oliveros, Juan-Carlos Martínez; Hudson, Hugh S; Krucker, Säm; Bain, Hazel; Couvidat, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    White-light observations by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of a loop-prominence system occurring in the aftermath of an X-class flare on 2013 May 13 near the eastern solar limb show a linearly polarized component, reaching up to $\\sim$20% at an altitude of $\\sim$33 Mm, about the maximal amount expected if the emission were due solely to Thomson scattering of photospheric light by the coronal material. The mass associated with the polarized component was 8.2$\\times$10$^{14}$ g. At 15 Mm altitude, the brightest part of the loop was 3(+/-0.5)% linearly polarized, only about 20% of that expected from pure Thomson scattering, indicating the presence of an additional unpolarized component at wavelengths near Fe I (617.33 nm), probably thermal emission. We estimated the free electron density of the white-light loop system to possibly be as high as 1.8$\\times$10$^{12}$ cm$^{-3}$.

  10. A non-linear induced polarization effect on transient electromagnetic soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallbauer-Zadorozhnaya, Valeriya Yu.; Santarato, Giovanni; Abu Zeid, Nasser; Bignardi, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    In a TEM survey conducted for characterizing the subsurface for geothermal purposes, a strong induced polarization effect was recorded in all collected data. Surprisingly, anomalous decay curves were obtained in part of the sites, whose shape depended on the repetition frequency of the exciting square waveform, i.e. on current pulse length. The Cole-Cole model, besides being not directly related to physical parameters of rocks, was found inappropriate to model the observed distortion, due to induced polarization, because this model is linear, i.e. it cannot fit any dependence on current pulse. This phenomenon was investigated and explained as due to the presence of membrane polarization linked to constrictivity of (fresh) water-saturated pores. An algorithm for mathematical modeling of TEM data was then developed to fit this behavior. The case history is then discussed: 1D inversion, which accommodates non-linear effects, produced models that agree quite satisfactorily with resistivity and chargeability models obtained by an electrical resistivity tomography carried out for comparison.

  11. Backscattering of linearly polarized light from turbid tissue-like scattering medium with rough surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, Alexander; Tchvialeva, Lioudmila; Markhvida, Igor; Lee, Tim K.; Meglinski, Igor

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of further development of a unified computational tool for the needs of biomedical optics, we introduce an electric field Monte Carlo (MC) model for simulation of backscattering of coherent linearly polarized light from a turbid tissue-like scattering medium with a rough surface. We consider the laser speckle patterns formation and the role of surface roughness in the depolarization of linearly polarized light backscattered from the medium. The mutual phase shifts due to the photons' pathlength difference within the medium and due to reflection/refraction on the rough surface of the medium are taken into account. The validation of the model includes the creation of the phantoms of various roughness and optical properties, measurements of co- and cross-polarized components of the backscattered/reflected light, its analysis and extensive computer modeling accelerated by parallel computing on the NVIDIA graphics processing units using compute unified device architecture (CUDA). The analysis of the spatial intensity distribution is based on second-order statistics that shows a strong correlation with the surface roughness, both with the results of modeling and experiment. The results of modeling show a good agreement with the results of experimental measurements on phantoms mimicking human skin. The developed MC approach can be used for the direct simulation of light scattered by the turbid scattering medium with various roughness of the surface.

  12. Super-resolution quantum sensing using NV centers based on rotating linear polarized light and Monte-Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hua-Yu; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond has been widely applied for quantum information and sensing in last decade. Based on the laser polarization dependent excitation of fluorescence emission, we propose a super-resolution microscopy of NV center. A series of wide field images of NV centers are taken with different polarizations of the linear polarized excitation laser. The fluorescence intensity of NV center is changed with the relative angle between excitation laser polarization and the orientation of NV center dipole. The images pumped by different excitation laser polarizations are analyzed with Monte Carlo method. Then the symmetry axis and position of NV center are obtained with sub-diffraction resolution.

  13. Photoproduction of $\\Lambda$ and $\\Sigma^0$ hyperons using linearly polarized photons

    CERN Document Server

    Paterson, C A; Livingston, K; McKinnon, B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measurements of polarization observables for the reactions $\\vec{\\gamma} p \\rightarrow K^+ \\Lambda$ and $\\vec{\\gamma} p \\rightarrow K^+ \\Sigma^0$ have been performed. This is part of a programme of measurements designed to study the spectrum of baryon resonances. Purpose: The accurate measurement of several polarization observables provides tight constraints for phenomenological fits. Beam-recoil observables for the $\\vec{\\gamma} p \\rightarrow K^+ \\Sigma^0$ reaction have not been reported before now. Method: The measurements were carried out using linearly polarized photon beams and the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The energy range of the results is 1.71\\,GeV $polarization observables $O_x$ and $O_z$. Conclusions: Comparison with theoretica...

  14. Vector analyses of linearly and circularly polarized Bessel beams using Hertz vector potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxun; Dou, Wenbin; Meng, Hongfu

    2014-04-07

    Using the transverse Hertz vector potentials, vector analyses of linearly and circularly polarized Bessel beams of arbitrary orders are presented in this paper. Expressions for the electric and magnetic fields of vector Bessel beams in free space that are rigorous solutions to the vector Helmholtz equation are derived. Their respective time averaged energy density and Poynting vector are also obtained, in order to exhibit their non-diffracting properties. Polarization patterns and magnitude profiles with different parameters are displayed. Particular emphasis is placed on the cases where the ratio of wave number over its transverse component k/kt approximately equals to one and largely exceeds it, which corresponding to the nonparaxial and paraxial condition, respectively. These results allow us to recognize that the vector Bessel beams exhibit new and important features, compared with the scalar fields.

  15. Linearly polarized single photon antibunching from a site-controlled InGaN quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemsson, Tomas; Machhadani, Houssaine; Karlsson, K. Fredrik; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Holtz, Per-Olof [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Semiconductor Materials, Linköping University, S-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-25

    We report on the observation of linearly polarized single photon antibunching in the excitonic emission from a site-controlled InGaN quantum dot. The measured second order coherence function exhibits a significant dip at zero time difference, corresponding to g{sub m}{sup 2}(0)=0.90 under continuous laser excitation. This relatively high value of g{sub m}{sup 2}(0) is well understood by a model as the combination of short exciton life time (320 ps), limited experimental timing resolution and the presence of an uncorrelated broadband background emission from the sample. Our result provides the first rigorous evidence of InGaN quantum dot formation on hexagonal GaN pyramids, and it highlights a great potential in these dots as fast polarized single photon emitters if the background emission can be eliminated.

  16. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in degree of linear polarization polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Hu, Haofeng; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie

    2016-04-04

    We consider the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) polarimetry system, which performs two intensity measurements at orthogonal polarization states to estimate DOLP. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the DOLP estimator depends on the distribution of integration time for two intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time in an approximate way by employing Delta method and Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analyses and real-world experiments, it is shown that the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased for any value of DOLP. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement accuracy of the polarimetry system.

  17. Wideband Dual-linear Polarized Stacked Patch Antenna with Asymmery Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Lizhong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The narrow working bandwidth of microstrip antennas limits their applications in in radar and communication systems. Staked patch antenna based on aperture coupling and asymmetry feeding technique was proposed in this paper. A cross-shape aperture imbedded in the ground plane with asymmetry feeding structure provided a relative wideband electromagnetic coupling and allowed a high isolation between two orthogonal ports.The asymmetry feeding structure was composed of two microtrip lines locating above and under the ground plane. U-shape microtrip line adjusted microstrip feeding line characteristic impendence with antenna input impendence in a broad band. Experimental results indicated that an impendence bandwidth of 35.3%, better than 4.5dBi antenna gain, better than 30dB isolation and good cross-polarization were available. Measured results proved that stacked patches using asymmetry feeding structure through aperture coupling to expand working frequency and realize dual-linear polarization was effective.

  18. Optical and near-infrared linear polarization of low and intermediate-gravity ultracool dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Páez, P. A.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Pallé, E.; Peña Ramírez, K.

    2017-04-01

    We aim to study the optical and near-infrared linear polarimetric properties of a sample of young M7-L7 dwarfs (≈ 1-500 Myr) with spectroscopic signatures of low- and intermediate-gravity atmospheres. We collected optical (RIZ) and near-infrared (YJHKs) linear polarimetry images on various time-scales from ∼0.2 h to months. Linear polarization degrees in the interval 0-1.5 per cent (I and J bands) were measured with accuracies ranging from ±0.1 to ±0.9 per cent depending on the observing filter and the target brightness. We found that the young field dwarfs in our sample show similar polarimetric degrees at both I and J bands, and that there is no obvious trend with the spectral type. The two Taurus sources in our sample show intense levels of J-band linear polarization probably due to surrounding discs. By compiling data from the literature for high-gravity M7-L7 dwarfs with likely ages ≥500 Myr, we did not observe any apparent difference in the linear polarimetry intensity between the young and old samples that could be ascribed to differing atmospheric gravities. Polarimetric variability with peak to peak amplitudes up to 1.5 per cent is detected on scales of about a rotation in two out of four targets that were monitored over several hours. Long-term polarimetric variability is also detected in nearly all dwarfs of the sample with data spanning months to years.

  19. Results of linearly polarized near-infrared irradiation therapy in patients with intractable anorectal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mibu, Ryuichi; Hotokezaka, Masayuki; Mihara, Shouichi; Tanaka, Masao

    2003-10-01

    Electrogalvanic stimulation and biofeedback therapy for the treatment of intractable anorectal pain have been reported. However, these therapeutic modalities have some disadvantages and insufficient effectiveness. We noticed that digital examination revealed the strongly tender point in both lateral sides of the rectum and introduced linearly polarized near-infrared irradiation therapy to the strongly tender point. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes and estimate its usefulness. A total of 35 consecutive patients complained of vague and deep pain in the anorectum. Fourteen patients had a history of lower abdominal surgery. Eighteen patients had disordered defecation. The linearly polarized near-infrared light was irradiated to the strongly tender point on or a few centimeters apart from the skin for ten minutes. The effect of the therapy was assessed as excellent, good, no change, or worse by the patients themselves. Ten patients had the strongly tender point in the left side, 8 in the right posterior, and 17 in both. Five patients estimated as excellent, 28 as good, and 2 as no change. Mean total number of irradiation was 18.8 (range, 1-235), and mean number of irradiation for relief from pain was 2.5 (range, 1-9). Anorectal pain recurred in four patients, who received the same therapy and improved. Four patients felt hot during the irradiation, and a patient had frequent micturition after the irradiation. These mild complications easily disappeared. The linearly polarized near-infrared irradiation therapy is a simple, safe, and effective modality for relief from intractable anorectal pain and recommended for primary therapy.

  20. Simple Linear Optical 'Binary Measurement Tree' for Single Photonic Polarization Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yang; WU Wei; WU Chun-Wang; CHEN Ping-Xing; LI Cheng-Zu

    2009-01-01

    Positive-operator-value-measurement (POVM) is one of the essential components of quantum information process-ing (QIP). Recently a 'binary measurement tree' (BST) strategy (PRA 77, 052104) is suggested for implementing arbitrary POVM by sequential two-operator POVMs. We present a simple novel two-operator POVM module via linear optics, which is employed as block to construct a 'binary measurement tree' for implementing arbitrary POVM on single photonic polarization qubit. The total complexity of the experimental setup is significantly reduced in contrast to the previous works. As an example, we give the detailed settings of a well-known POVM.

  1. Simulation for Interaction of Linearly Polarized Relativistic Laser Pulses with Foil Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-Bing; TU Qin-Fen; YU Wei; CHEN Zhi-Hua; ZHANG Jie

    2001-01-01

    One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is presented for the interaction of ultra-short, linearly polarized intense laser pulses with thin foil targets. The results indicate that the strong competition between electromagnetic and electrostatic ponderomotive forces produced, respectively, by the laser and the electrostatic fields leads to novel behaviours of target electrons. It shows that the interaction is dominated by the 2ω (ω is laser frequency) component of the electrostatic ponderomotive force as well as that of the electromagnetic ponderomotive force.

  2. Spin transport at the international linear collider and its impact on the measurement of polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Moritz

    2013-12-15

    At the planned International Linear Collider (ILC), the longitudinal beam polarization needs to be determined with an unprecedented precision. For that purpose, the beam delivery systems (BDS) are equipped with two laser Compton polarimeters each, which are foreseen to achieve a systematic uncertainty of {<=} 0.25 %. The polarimeters are located 1.6 km upstream and 150 m downstream of the e{sup +}e{sup -} interaction point (IP). The average luminosity-weighted longitudinal polarization P{sup lumi}{sub z}, which is the decisive quantity for the experiments, has to be determined from these measurements with the best possible precision. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the spin transport in the BDS is mandatory to estimate how precise the longitudinal polarization at the IP is known from the polarimeter measurements. The envisaged precision for the propagation of the measurement value is {<=} 0.1 %. This thesis scrutinizes the spin transport in view of the achievable precision. A detailed beamline simulation for the BDS has been developed, including the simulation of the beam-beam collisions at the IP. The following factors which might limit the achievable precision is investigated: a variation of the beam parameters, the beam alignment precision at the polarimeters and the IP, the bunch rotation at the IP, the detector magnets, the beam-beam collisions, the emission of synchrotron radiation and misalignments of the beamline elements. In absence of collisions, a precision of 0.085% on the propagation of the measured longitudinal polarization has been found achievable. This result however depends mainly on the presumed precisions for the parallel alignment of the beam at the polarimeters and for the alignment of polarization vector. In presence of collisions, the measurement at the downstream polarimeter depends strongly on the intensity of the collision and the size of the polarimeter laser spot. Therefore, a more detailed study of the laser-bunch interaction is

  3. Mixed-field orientation of a thermal ensemble of linear polar molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Omiste, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the impact of an electrostatic field combined with nonresonant linearly polarized laser pulses on the rotational dynamics of a thermal ensemble of linear molecules. We solve the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation within the rigid rotor approximation for several rotational states. Using the carbonyl sulfide (OCS) molecule as a prototype, the mixed-field orientation of a thermal sample is analyzed in detail for experimentally accessible static field strengths and laser pulses. We demonstrate that for the characteristic field configuration used in current mixed-field orientation experiments, a significant orientation is obtained for rotational temperatures below 0.7K or using stronger dc fields.

  4. φ-meson Photoproduction By Using a Beam of Linearly-Polarized Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Julian; Cole, Philip

    2007-05-01

    The observables afforded by linearly-polarized photons provide the necessary means towards delineating the contributions of the various hadronic processes, which give rise to vector meson photoproduction. And in particular, We shall describe how φ meson production affords an incisive tool for exploring the nature of the parity exchange at threshold energies, the strangeness content of proton, as well as extracting signatures for the violation of Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka observation (OZI rule). Our goal will be measure the γ p ->φp reaction, with φ->K^+K^-, in the photon energy range of 1.7G to 2.1 GeV by using the Coherent Linear Bremsstrahlung Facility in Hall B of Jefferson Laboratory (Newport News, VA). The data were collected during the g8b run in the summer of 2005. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.B2.5

  5. φ-meson Photoproduction By Using a Beam of Linearly-Polarized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Julian; Cole, Philip

    2007-10-01

    The observables afforded by linearly-polarized photons are of interest in delineating the contributions of the various hadronic processes giving rise to vector meson photoproduction. And in particular, I shall describe how phi meson production affords an incisive tool for exploring the nature of the parity exchange at threshold energies, the strangeness content of proton, as well as extracting signatures for the violation of Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka observation (OZI rule). Our goal will be measure the γ p ->φp reaction, with φ->K^+K^-, in the photon energy range of 1.7 to 2.1 GeV by using the Coherent Linear Bremsstrahlung Facility in Hall B of Jefferson Laboratory (Newport News, VA). The data were collected during the g8b run in the summer of 2005.

  6. Revisiting the time domain induced polarization technique, from linearization to inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S.; Oldenburg, D.

    2015-12-01

    The induced polarization (IP) technique has been successful in mineral exploration, particularly for finding disseminated sulphide or porphyry deposits, but also in helping solve geotechnical and environmental problems. Electrical induced polarization (EIP) surveys use grounded electrodes and take measurements of the electric field while the current is both "on" and "off". Currently, 2D and 3D inversions of EIP data are generally carried out by first finding a background conductivity from the asymptotic "on-time" measurements. The DC resistivity problem is then linearized about that conductivity to obtain a linear relationship between the off-time data and the "pseudo-chargeability". The distribution of pseudo-chargeability in the earth is then interpreted within the context of the initial geoscience problem pursued. Despite its success, the current EIP implementation does have challenges. A fundamental assumption, that there is no electromagnetic induction (EM) effect, breaks down when the background is conductive. This is especially problematic in regions having conductive overburden. EM induction complicates, and sometimes overwhelms, the IP signal. To ameliorate this effect, we estimate the inductive signal, subtract it from the "off-time" data and invert the resultant IP data using the linearized formulation. We carefully examine the conditions under which this works. We also investigate the potential alterations to the linearized sensitivity function that are needed to allow a linearized inversion to be carried out. Inversions of EIP data recover a "chargeability" but this is not a uniquely defined quantity. There are multiple definitions of this property because there are a diverse number of ways in which an IP datum is defined. In time domain IP surveys, the data might be mV/V or a time-integrated voltage with units of ms. In reality however, data from an EIP survey have many time channels and each one can be inverted separately to produce a chargeability

  7. Unique heavy lepton signature at e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider with polarized beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moortgat-Pick, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Osland, P. [Univ. Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Physics and Technology; Pankov, A.A.; Tsytrinov, A.V. [Technical Univ. Gomel (Belarus). Abdus Salam ICTP Affliated Centre

    2013-03-15

    We explore the effects of neutrino and electron mixing with exotic heavy leptons in the process e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -} within E{sub 6} models. We examine the possibility of uniquely distinguishing and identifying such effects of heavy neutral lepton exchange from Z-Z' mixing within the same class of models and also from analogous ones due to competitor models with anomalous trilinear gauge couplings (AGC) that can lead to very similar experimental signatures at the e{sup +}e{sup -} International Linear Collider (ILC) for {radical}(s)=350, 500 GeV and 1 TeV. Such clear identification of the model is possible by using a certain double polarization asymmetry. The availability of both beams being polarized plays a crucial role in identifying such exotic-lepton admixture. In addition, the sensitivity of the ILC for probing exotic-lepton admixture is substantially enhanced when the polarization of the produced W{sup {+-}} bosons is considered.

  8. Towards radiation pressure acceleration of protons using linearly polarized ultrashort petawatt laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, I Jong; Kim, Chul Min; Kim, Hyung Taek; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Yu, Tae Jun; Choi, Il Woo; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Nam, Kee Hwan; Nickles, Peter V; Jeong, Tae Moon; Lee, Jongmin

    2013-01-01

    Particle acceleration using ultraintense, ultrashort laser pulses is one of the most attractive topics in relativistic laser-plasma research. We report proton/ion acceleration in the intensity range of 5x1019 W/cm2 to 3.3x1020 W/cm2 by irradiating linearly polarized, 30-fs, 1-PW laser pulses on 10- to 100-nm-thick polymer targets. The proton energy scaling with respect to the intensity and target thickness was examined. The experiments demonstrated, for the first time with linearly polarized light, a transition from the target normal sheath acceleration to radiation pressure acceleration and showed a maximum proton energy of 45 MeV when a 10-nm-thick target was irradiated by a laser intensity of 3.3x1020 W/cm2. The experimental results were further supported by two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Based on the deduced proton energy scaling, proton beams having an energy of ~ 200 MeV should be feasible at a laser intensity of 1.5x1021 W/cm2.

  9. Significant and variable linear polarization during the prompt optical flash of GRB 160625B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troja, E.; Lipunov, V. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Butler, N. R.; Watson, A. M.; Kobayashi, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Marshall, F. E.; Ricci, R.; Fruchter, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Kornilov, V.; Kutyrev, A.; Lee, W. H.; Toy, V.; Tyurina, N. V.; Budnev, N. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; González, J.; Gress, O.; Horesh, A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Richer, M. G.; Roman-Zuniga, C.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Yurkov, V.; Gehrels, N.

    2017-07-01

    Newly formed black holes of stellar mass launch collimated outflows (jets) of ionized matter that approach the speed of light. These outflows power prompt, brief and intense flashes of γ-rays known as γ-ray bursts (GRBs), followed by longer-lived afterglow radiation that is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. Measuring the polarization of the observed GRB radiation provides a direct probe of the magnetic fields in the collimated jets. Rapid-response polarimetric observations of newly discovered bursts have probed the initial afterglow phase, and show that, minutes after the prompt emission has ended, the degree of linear polarization can be as high as 30 per cent - consistent with the idea that a stable, globally ordered magnetic field permeates the jet at large distances from the central source. By contrast, optical and γ-ray observations during the prompt phase have led to discordant and often controversial results, and no definitive conclusions have been reached regarding the origin of the prompt radiation or the configuration of the magnetic field. Here we report the detection of substantial (8.3 ± 0.8 per cent from our most conservative simulation), variable linear polarization of a prompt optical flash that accompanied the extremely energetic and long-lived prompt γ-ray emission from GRB 160625B. Our measurements probe the structure of the magnetic field at an early stage of the jet, closer to its central black hole, and show that the prompt phase is produced via fast-cooling synchrotron radiation in a large-scale magnetic field that is advected from the black hole and distorted by dissipation processes within the jet.

  10. Combined study of microwave-power-dependence and linear-polarization-dependence of the microwave-radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han-Chun; Mani, Ramesh; Wegscheider, Werner; Georgia State University Collaboration; ETH Zurich Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations (MRIMOs) represent an interesting electrical property of the high mobility two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at low temperatures in a perpendicular magnetic field and under microwave excitation. Some questions under discussion in this topic include: (a) whether MRIMOs' amplitudes grow linearly with the microwave power and (b) how the MRIMO amplitudes change with the rotation of the microwave polarization with respect to the sample. In this study, we utilize swept microwave power and continuously changed linear polarized microwave polarization angle as two variables in four-terminal low-frequency lock-in magnetoresistance measurements of the 2DEG samples. The results show that amplitude of MRIMOs varies non-linearly with the microwave power. Also, the microwave polarization dependence measurements show that MRIMOs depend sensitively on the polarization angle of the linearly polarized microwaves, while the oscillatory magnetoresistance follows a cosine square function of the polarization angle. We provide a simple model that conveys our understanding of our observations. Basic research at Georgia State University is supported by the DOE-BES, MSE Division under DE-SC0001762. Microwave work is supported by the ARO under W911NF-07-01-0158.

  11. A linear-to-circular polarization converter with half transmission and half reflection using a single-layered metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Tamayama, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Kitano, Masao

    2014-01-01

    A linear-to-circular polarization converter with half transmission and half reflection using a single-layered metamaterial is theoretically and numerically demonstrated. The unit cell of the metamaterial consists of two coupled split-ring resonators with identical dimensions. A theoretical analysis based on an electrical circuit model of the coupled split-ring resonators indicates that the linear-to-circular polarization converter is achieved when the magnetic coupling between the split-ring resonators is set to a certain strength. A finite-difference time-domain simulation reveals that the single-layered metamaterial behaves as the linear-to-circular polarization converter and that the polarization converter has the combined characteristics of a half mirror and a quarter-wave plate.

  12. The E166 experiment: Development of an undulator-based polarized positron source for the international linear collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Kovermann; A Stahl; A A Mikhailichenko; D Scott; G A Moortgat-Pick; V Gharibyan; P Pahl; R Pöschl; K P Schüler; K Laihem; S Riemann; A Schälicke; R Dollan; H Kolanoski; T Lohse; T Schweizer; K T McDonald; Y Batygin; V Bharadwaj; G Bower; F-J Decker; C Hast; R Iverson; J C Sheppard; Z Szalata; D Walz; A Weidemann; G Alexander; E Reinherz-Aronis; S Berridge; W Bugg; Y Efrimenko

    2007-12-01

    A longitudinal polarized positron beam is foreseen for the international linear collider (ILC). A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed in the final focus test beam at SLAC to demonstrate the production of polarized positrons for implementation at the ILC. The E166 experiment uses a 1 m long helical undulator in a 46.6 GeV electron beam to produce a few MeV photons with a high degree of circular polarization. These photons are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized + and -. The positron polarization is measured using a Compton transmission polarimeter. The data analysis has shown asymmetries in the expected vicinity of 3.4% and ∼ 1% for photons and positrons respectively and the expected positron longitudinal polarization is covering a range from 50% to 90%.

  13. Physical Conditions and Variability Processes in AGN Jets through Multi-Frequency Linear and Circular Radio Polarization Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myserlis, Ioannis; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Kraus, Alex; Fuhrmann, Lars; Karamanavis, Vassilis; Zensus, J.

    2016-11-01

    Radio polarimetry is an invaluable tool to investigate the physical conditions and variability processes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets. However, detecting their linear and circular polarization properties is a challenging endeavor due to their low levels and possible depolarization effects. We have developed an end-to-end data analysis methodology to recover the polarization properties of unresolved sources with high accuracy. It has been applied to recover the linear and circular polarization of 87 AGNs measured by the F-GAMMA program from July 2010 to January 2015 with a mean cadence of 1.3 months. Their linear polarization was recovered at four frequencies between 2.64 and 10.45 GHz and the circular polarization at 4.85 and 8.35 GHz. The physical conditions required to reproduce the observed polarization properties and the processes which induce their variability were investigated with a full-Stokes radiative transfer code which emulates the synchrotron emission of modeled jets. The model was used to investigate the conditions needed to reproduce the observed polarization behavior for the blazar 3C 454.3, assuming that the observed variability is attributed to evolving internal shocks propagating downstream.

  14. Optically-driven red blood cell rotor in linearly polarized laser tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manas Khan; Samarendra K Mohanty; A K Sood

    2005-11-01

    We have constructed a dual trap optical tweezers set-up around an inverted microscope where both the traps can be independently controlled and manipulated in all the three dimensions. Here we report our observations on rotation of red blood cells (RBCs) in a linearly polarized optical trap. Red blood cells deform and become twisted in hypertonic phosphate buffer saline and when trapped, experience an unbalanced radiation pressure force. The torque generated from the unbalanced force causes the trapped RBC to rotate. Addition of Ca++ ions in the solution, keeping the osmolarity same, makes the cell membranes stiffer and the cells deform less. Thus the speed of rotation of the red blood cells can be controlled, as less deformation and in turn less asymmetry in shape produces less torque under the radiation pressure resulting in slower rotation at the same laser power.

  15. Properties of electrons scattered on a strong plane electromagnetic wave with a linear polarization: classical treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, O V

    2014-01-01

    The relations among the components of the exit momenta of ultrarelativistic electrons scattered on a strong electromagnetic wave of a low (optical) frequency and linear polarization are established using the exact solutions to the equations of motion with radiation reaction included (the Landau-Lifshitz equation). It is found that the momentum components of the electrons traversed the electromagnetic wave depend weakly on the initial values of the momenta. These electrons are mostly scattered at the small angles to the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic wave. The maximum Lorentz factor of the electrons crossed the electromagnetic wave is proportional to the work done by the electromagnetic field and is independent of the initial momenta. The momentum component parallel to the electric field strength vector of the electromagnetic wave is determined only by the diameter of the laser beam measured in the units of the classical electron radius. As for the reflected electrons, they for the most part l...

  16. Muon pair creation from positronium in a linearly polarized laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Carsten; Keitel, Christoph H

    2008-01-01

    Positronium decay into a muon-antimuon pair by virtue of the interaction with a superintense laser field of linear polarization is considered. The minimum laser intensity required amounts to a few 10^22 W/cm^2 in the near-infrared frequency range. Within the framework of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics, the total reaction rate is calculated and related to the cross section for field-free electron-positron annihilation into muons. The muons are created with ultrarelativistic energies and emitted under narrow angles along the laser propagation direction. The dynamical properties of the muons are interpreted in terms of a classical simple man's model for the production process. We show that the most promising setup for an experimental investigation of the process employs two counterpropagating laser beams impinging on a positronium target, where the advantage of the coherent electron-positron collisions becomes evident.

  17. Ultraviolet Interstellar Linear Polarization: Initial Modeling Efforts for the Astro-2 WUPPE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, M. J.; Anderson, C. M.; Clayton, Geoff; Kim, S.-H.; Martin, P. G.

    1996-05-01

    Prior to the flight of the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE) on Astro-2, studies of ultraviolet (UV) interstellar linear polarization have generally catagorized the wavelength dependence in two ways: that which agrees with an extrapolation of the Serkowski Law into the UV and that which has a polarization greater than the extrapolation (see Clayton et al. 1995 and references within). Only one object (HD 197770) had been reported to deviate from either of these behaviors. It is important to note that earlier work has been limited in scope primarily by the amount of data available (14 published sightlines). However, with the flight of Astro-2, WUPPE has tripled the number of UV interstellar polarization observations (Anderson et al. 1995, 1996). These new data will provide a significant improvement to our ability to test interstellar dust grain models and study the effects of sightline environments. We present the modeling results for several WUPPE (Astro-2) sightlines, including two which clearly depart from the previously mentioned catagorizations: HD 147933 and HD 197770. In addition to "classial" grain modeling technques (series solution, Effective Medium Theory), we also employ the Maximum Entropy Method and the Discrete Dipole Approximate. WUPPE is supported by NASA contract NAS 5-26777. Anderson, C.M., Weitenbach, A.J., & Code, A.D. 1995, Proceedings of the Conference on Polarimetry in the Interstellar Medium, eds. Roberge & Whittet, Troy, NY, June 1995. Anderson, C.M. et al. 1996, ApJ, submitted. Clayton, G. C. et al. 1995, ApJ, 445, 947

  18. Quasi-Linear Polarized Modes in Y-Rotated Piezoelectric GaPO4 Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of both surface and flexural acoustic plate modes along y-rotated x-propagation GaPO4 piezoelectric substrates was studied for several y-cut angles: the phase velocity and coupling coefficient dispersion curves were theoretically calculated for two different electroacoustic coupling configurations. The investigation of the acoustic field profile across the plate thickness revealed the presence of thin plate modes having polarization predominantly oriented along the propagation direction, and hence suitable for operation in liquid environment. These modes include the linearly polarized Anisimkin Jr. and the quasi longitudinal plate modes, AMs and QLs, showing a phase velocity close to that of the longitudinal bulk acoustic wave propagating in the same direction. The temperature coefficient of delay (TCD of these longitudinal modes was investigated in the −20 to 420 °C temperature range, in order to identify thermally stable or low TCD cuts. The power flow angle, i.e., the angle between the phase and group velocity vectors, was also estimated to evaluate the substrate anisotropy effect on the acoustic wave propagation. The GaPO4 intrinsic properties, such as its resistance to high temperature and its chemical inertness, make it especially attractive for the development of acoustic waves-based sensors for applications in harsh liquid environment.

  19. Analyzing power of AGATA triple clusters for gamma-ray linear polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzeti, P.G.; Sona, P.; Melon, B.; Bizzeti-Sona, A.M.; Perego, A. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica, Firenze (Italy); INFN, Firenze (Italy); Michelagnoli, C.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Recchia, F. [INFN, Padova (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova (Italy); Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.; Menegazzo, R.; Ur, C.A. [INFN, Padova (Italy); De Angelis, G.; Gottardo, A.; Napoli, D.R.; Sahin, E.; Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Padova (Italy); Gadea, A. [University of Valencia, IFIC, CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Nannini, A. [INFN, Firenze (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We have investigated the ability of AGATA triple clusters to measure the linear polarization of gamma rays, exploiting the azimuthal-angle dependence of the Compton scattering differential cross section. To this aim, partially polarized gamma rays have been produced by Coulomb excitation of the first excited state of {sup 104}Pd and {sup 108}Pd, which decay to the ground state by emission of gamma rays of 555.8 keV and 433.9 keV, respectively. Pulse-shape analysis and gamma-ray tracking techniques have been used to determine the position and time sequence of the interaction points inside the germanium crystals. Anisotropies in the detection efficiency have been taken into account using 661.6 keV gammas from a {sup 137}Cs radioactive source. We obtain an average analyzing power of 0.451(34) at 433.9 keV and 0.484(24) at 555.8 keV. (orig.)

  20. Optical M0bius Strips in Three Dimensional Ellipse Fields: Lines of Linear Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    The minor axes of, and the normals to, the polarization ellipses that surround singular lines of linear polarization in three dimensional optical ellipse fields are shown to be organized into Mobius strips and into structures we call rippled rings (r-rings). The Mobius strips have two full twists, and can be either right- or left-handed. The major axes of the surrounding ellipses generate cone-like structures. Three orthogonal projections that give rise to 15 indices are used to characterize the different structures. These indices, if independent, could generate 839,808 geometrically and topologically distinct lines; selection rules are presented that reduce the number of lines to 8,248, some 5,562 of which have been observed in a computer simulation. Statistical probabilities are presented for the most important index combinations in random fields. It is argued that it is presently feasible to perform experimental measurements of the Mobius strips, r-rings, and cones described here theoretically.

  1. Optical linear polarization of 74 white dwarfs with the RoboPol polarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Żejmo, M; Krzeszowski, K; Reig, P; Blinov, D

    2016-01-01

    We present the first linear polarimetric survey of white dwarfs (WDs). Our sample consists of WDs of DA and DC spectral types in the SDSS r magnitude range from 13 to 17. We performed polarimetric observations with the RoboPol polarimeter attached to the 1.3-m telescope at the Skinakas Observatory. We have 74 WDs in our sample, of which almost all are low polarized WDs with polarization degree (PD) smaller than 1%, while only 2 have PD higher than 1%. There is an evidence that on average the isolated WDs of DC type have higher PD (with median PD of 0.78%) than the isolated DA type WDs (with median PD of 0.36%). On the other hand, the median PD of isolated DA type WDs is almost the same, i.e. 0.36% as the median PD of DA type white dwarfs in binary systems with red dwarfs (dM type), i.e. 0.33%. This shows, as expected, that there is no contribution to the PD from the companion if the WD companion is the red dwarf, which is the most common situation for WDs binary systems. We do not find differences in the pola...

  2. Linear polarization structures in LOFAR observations of the interstellar medium in the 3C 196 field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelić, V.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Pandey, V. N.; Mevius, M.; Haverkorn, M.; Brentjens, M. A.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Zaroubi, S.; Abdalla, F. B.; Asad, K. M. B.; Bus, S.; Chapman, E.; Ciardi, B.; Fernandez, E. R.; Ghosh, A.; Harker, G.; Iliev, I. T.; Jensen, H.; Kazemi, S.; Mellema, G.; Offringa, A. R.; Patil, A. H.; Vedantham, H. K.; Yatawatta, S.

    2015-11-01

    Aims: This study aims to characterize linear polarization structures in LOFAR observations of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the 3C 196 field, one of the primary fields of the LOFAR-Epoch of Reionization key science project. Methods: We have used the high band antennas (HBA) of LOFAR to image this region and rotation measure (RM) synthesis to unravel the distribution of polarized structures in Faraday depth. Results: The brightness temperature of the detected Galactic emission is 5-15 K in polarized intensity and covers the range from -3 to +8 rad m-2 in Faraday depth. The most interesting morphological feature is a strikingly straight filament at a Faraday depth of +0.5 rad m-2 running from north to south, right through the centre of the field and parallel to the Galactic plane. There is also an interesting system of linear depolarization canals conspicuous in an image showing the peaks of Faraday spectra. We used the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) at 350 MHz to image the same region. For the first time, we see some common morphology in the RM cubes made at 150 and 350 MHz. There is no indication of diffuse emission in total intensity in the interferometric data, in line with results at higher frequencies and previous LOFAR observations. Based on our results, we determined physical parameters of the ISM and proposed a simple model that may explain the observed distribution of the intervening magneto-ionic medium. Conclusions: The mean line-of-sight magnetic field component, B∥, is determined to be 0.3 ± 0.1 μG and its spatial variation across the 3C 196 field is 0.1 μG. The filamentary structure is probably an ionized filament in the ISM, located somewhere within the Local Bubble. This filamentary structure shows an excess in thermal electron density (neB∥> 6.2 cm-3μG) compared to its surroundings. The RM cubes (FITS files) are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  3. Exploring the Top-Higgs FCNC Couplings at Polarized Linear Colliders with Top Spin Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Melić, Blaženka

    2016-01-01

    We study the nature of the flavor changing neutral couplings of the top quark with the Higgs boson and the up/charm quark in the $t\\bar{t}$ production at linear colliders. There are previous bounds on such tqH couplings at both, linear and hadronic colliders, with the assumption that it couples equally to the left and the right handed fermions. In this paper we examine the chirality of the tqH coupling and construct different observables which will be sensitive to it. The kinematics of the emitted q from t $\\rightarrow$ qH in $t\\bar{t}$ production is discussed and it was found that the polar angle distribution of q is sensitive to the chiral nature of tqH couplings. The observables in the context of top-antitop spin correlations, which are sensitive to new physics in the top decay are considered using different spin-quantization bases. It was found that in particular the off-diagonal basis can be useful to distinguish among the chiral tqH couplings. The sensitivity of the unpolarized ILC in probing the coupli...

  4. Exploring the top-Higgs FCNC couplings at polarized linear colliders with top spin observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melić, Blaženka; Patra, Monalisa

    2017-01-01

    We study the nature of flavor changing neutral couplings of the top quark with the Higgs boson and the up/charm quark in the toverline{t} production at linear colliders. There are previous bounds on such tqH couplings at both, linear and hadronic colliders, with the assumption that the top couples equally to the left and the right handed fermions. In this paper we examine chirality of the tqH coupling and construct different observables which will be sensitive to it. The kinematics of the emitted q from t → qH in toverline{t} production is discussed and it was found that the polar angle distribution of q is sensitive to the chiral nature of tqH couplings. The observables in the context of top-antitop spin correlations, which are sensitive to new physics in the top decay are considered using different spin-quantization bases. It was found that in particular the off-diagonal basis can be useful to distinguish among the chiral tqH couplings. The sensitivity of the unpolarized ILC in probing the couplings at the 3 σ level at √{s}=500 GeV and ℒ = 500 fb-1 is also studied, resulting in predicted BR( t → qH) left handed electrons and right handed positrons.

  5. Physical Conditions and Variability Processes in AGN Jets through Multi-Frequency Linear and Circular Radio Polarization Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Myserlis, Ioannis; Kraus, Alex; Fuhrmann, Lars; Karamanavis, Vassilis; Zensus, J Anton

    2016-01-01

    Radio polarimetry is an invaluable tool to investigate the physical conditions and variability processes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets. However, detecting their linear and circular polarization properties is a challenging endeavor due to their low levels and possible depolarization effects. We have developed an end-to-end data analysis methodology to recover the polarization properties of unresolved sources with high accuracy. It has been applied to recover the linear and circular polarization of 87 AGNs measured by the F-GAMMA program from July 2010 to January 2015 with a mean cadence of 1.3 months. Their linear polarization was recovered at four frequencies between 2.64 and 10.45 GHz and the circular polarization at 4.85 and 8.35 GHz. The physical conditions required to reproduce the observed polarization properties and the processes which induce their variability were investigated with a full-Stokes radiative transfer code which emulates the synchrotron emission of modeled jets. The model was used t...

  6. Time-Variable Linear Polarization as a Probe of the Physical Conditions in the Compact Jets of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marscher, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    A single measurement of linear polarization of a nonthermal source provides direct information about the mean direction and level of ordering of the magnetic field. Monitoring of the polarization in blazars, combined with millimeter-wave VLBI imaging in both total and polarized intensity, has the potential to determine the geometry of the magnetic field. This is a key probe of the physical processes in the relativistic jet, such as ordered field components, turbulence, magnetic reconnections, magnetic collimation and acceleration of the jet flow, particle acceleration, and radiative processes that produce extremely luminous, highly variable nonthermal emission. Well-sampled monitoring observations of multi-waveband flux and radio-optical polarization of blazars show a variety of behavior. In some cases, the observed polarization patterns appear systematic, while in others randomness dominates. Explanations involve helical magnetic fields, turbulence, and perhaps particle acceleration that depends on the angle...

  7. Formulação não-linear geométrica para análise de cascas usando elementos finitos tridimensionais degenerados

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Fernando B.; Landau, Luiz

    2009-01-01

    Apresenta-se neste trabalho uma formulas50 Lagrangeana total para análise nao-linear geométrica de estruturas de cascas utilizando-se elementos'finitos tridimensionais degenerados. A geometria do elemento é representada pelas normais e coordenadas dos nós da superficie média. O campo de deslocamentos permite a considerasáo de grandes rotasoes, e é descrito a partir das transla~oesd os nós da superficie média e de duas rotasoes das normais em torno de eixos locais. Emprega-se um esquema de ...

  8. Effects of R-Parity Violating Supersymmetry in Top Pair Production at Linear Colliders with Polarized Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation, the lepton number violating top quark interactions can contribute to the top pair production at a linear collider via tree-level u-channel squark exchange diagrams. We calculate such contributions and find that in the allowed range of these R-violating couplings, the top pair production rate as well as the top quark polarization and the forward-backward asymmetry can be significantly altered.By comparing the unpolarized beams with the polarized beams, we find that the polarized beams are more powerful in probing such new physics.

  9. The E166 experiment: Development of an Undulator-Based Polarized Positron Source for the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovermann, J.; Stahl, A.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Mikhailichenko, A.A.; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Scott, D.; /Daresbury; Moortgat-Pick, G.A.; /Durham U.; Gharibyan, V.; Pahl, P.; Poschl, R.; Schuler, K.P.; /DESY; Laihem, K.; Riemann, S.; Schalicke, A.; /DESY, Zeuthen; Dollan, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Lohse, T.; Schweizer, T.; /Humboldt U., Berlin; McDonald, K.T.; /Princeton U.; Batygin, Y.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bower, G.; Decker, F.J.; /SLAC /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U.

    2011-11-14

    A longitudinal polarized positron beam is foreseen for the international linear collider (ILC). A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed in the final focus test beam at SLAC to demonstrate the production of polarized positrons for implementation at the ILC. The E166 experiment uses a 1 m long helical undulator in a 46.6 GeV electron beam to produce a few MeV photons with a high degree of circular polarization. These photons are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized e{sup +} and e{sup -}. The positron polarization is measured using a Compton transmission polarimeter. The data analysis has shown asymmetries in the expected vicinity of 3.4% and {approx}1% for photons and positrons respectively and the expected positron longitudinal polarization is covering a range from 50% to 90%. The full exploitation of the physics potential of an international linear collider (ILC) will require the development of polarized positron beams. Having both e{sup +} and e{sup -} beams polarized will provide new insight into structures of couplings and thus give access to physics beyond the standard model [1]. The concept for a polarized positron source is based on circularly polarized photon sources. These photons are then converted to longitudinally polarized e{sup +} and e{sup -} pairs. While in an experiment at KEK [1a], Compton backscattering is used [2], the E166 experiment uses a helical undulator to produce polarized photons. An undulator-based positron source for the ILC has been proposed in [3,4]. The proposed scheme for an ILC positron source is illustrated in figure 1. In this scheme, a 150 GeV electron beam passes through a 120 m long helical undulator to produce an intense photon beam with a high degree of circular polarization. These photons are converted in a thin target to e{sup +} e{sup -} pairs. The polarized positrons are then collected, pre-accelerated to the damping ring and injected to the main linac. The E166 experiment is

  10. Optical linear polarization of 74 white dwarfs with the RoboPol polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żejmo, Michał; Słowikowska, Aga; Krzeszowski, Krzysztof; Reig, Pablo; Blinov, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    We present the first linear polarimetric survey of white dwarfs (WDs). Our sample consists of WDs of DA and DC spectral types in the SDSS r magnitude range from 13 to 17. We performed polarimetric observations using the RoboPol polarimeter attached to the 1.3-m telescope at Skinakas Observatory. We have 74 WDs in our sample, of which almost all are low-polarized WDs with a polarization degree (PD) lower than 1 per cent; only two have a PD higher than 1 per cent. There is evidence that on average isolated DC-type WDs have a higher PD (with a median PD of 0.78 per cent) than isolated DA-type WDs (with a median PD of 0.36 per cent). On the other hand, the median PD of isolated DA-type WDs is almost the same (i.e. 0.36 per cent) as the median PD of DA-type WDs in binary systems with red dwarfs (dM type; i.e. 0.33 per cent). This shows, as expected, that there is no contribution to the PD from the companion if the WD companion is a red dwarf, which is the most common situation for WD binary systems. We do not find differences in the PD between magnetic and non-magnetic WDs. Because 97 per cent of WDs in our sample have a PD lower than 1 per cent, they can be used as faint zero-polarized standard stars in the magnitude range from 13 to 17 of the SDSS r filter. They cover the Northern sky between 13h and 23h in right ascension and between -11° and 78° in declination. In addition, we found that for low extinction values (<0.04), the best model that describes the dependence of the PD on E(B - V) is given by the equation PDmax, ISM[per cent] = 0.65 E(B - V)0.12.

  11. Formulação de rações para frangos de corte com o uso da programação linear e não linear

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Maria Leoni

    2016-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de formulações de rações para frangos de corte utilizando programação linear e não linear sobre desempenho, características de carcaça e aspectos econômicos. Um mil e oitenta machos da linhagem Cobb 500™, com um dia de idade, foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de 30 aves cada. Os tratamentos foram: 1) ração formulada por programação linear com exigência nutricional das Tabelas Bra...

  12. A Design Of Feeding Network For A Dual-Linear Polarization, Stacked, Probe-Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, G.; Krozer, Viktor

    2004-01-01

    Components of multilayer feed network are presented for application in broad-band dual-linear polarized stacked C-band antenna. Measurement results of wide band matching circuits and different types of power divider networks constituting parts of BFN demonstrate wideband operation. Suitable...

  13. Neutron angular distribution in (γ, n) reactions with linearly polarized γ-ray beam generated by laser Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Mochizuki, T.; Amano, S. [University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan); Li, D.; Imasaki, K.; Izawa, Y. [Institute for Laser Technology, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ogata, K. [Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Chiba, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hayakawa, T., E-mail: hayakawa.takehito@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-10-07

    In 1957, Agodi predicted that the neutron angular distribution in (γ, n) reactions with a 100% linearly polarized γ-ray beam for dipole excitation should be anisotropic and universally described by the simple function of a+b⋅cos⁡(2ϕ) at the polar angle θ=90°, where ϕ is the azimuthal angle. However, this prediction has not been experimentally confirmed in over half a century. We have verified experimentally this angular distribution in the (γ, n) reaction for {sup 197}Au, {sup 127}I, and natural Cu targets using linearly polarized laser Compton scattering γ-rays. The result suggests that the (γ{sup →}, n) reaction is a novel tool to study nuclear physics in the giant dipole resonance region.

  14. Polarization-Independent High-Speed Switching in a Standard Non-Linear Optical Loop Mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a scheme which allows polarization-independent switching in a standard NOLM. Experimental verification is performed by switching 10 Gbit/s data with 0.2 dB polarization-dependence and by error-free demultiplexing of polarization-scrambled 320 Gbit/s OTDM data....

  15. Effects of Linear-Polarized Near-Infrared Light Irradiation on Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the efficacy of linear-polarized near-infrared light irradiation (LPNIR on relieving chronic pain in conjunction with nerve block (NB or local block (LB, a 3-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the pre- and post-therapy pain intensity. Visual analogue scales (VASs were measured in all patients before and 6 months after therapy visiting the pain clinic during the period of August 2007 to January 2008. A total of 52 patients with either shoulder periarthritis or myofascial pain syndrome or lateral epicondylitis were randomly assigned into two groups by drawing lots. Patients in Group I were treated with NB or LB plus LPNIR; Group II patients, for their part, were treated with the same procedures as in Group I, but not using LPNIR. In both groups, the pain intensity (VAS score decreased significantly immediately after therapy as compared to therapy. There was a significant difference between the test and control groups immediately after therapy (P<0.05, while no effect 6 months later. No side effects were observed. It is concluded that LPNIR is an effective and safe modality to treat various chronic pains, which has synergic effects with NB or LB.

  16. Properties of electrons scattered by a strong plane electromagnetic wave with a linear polarization: Semiclassical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, O. V.; Kazinski, P. O.

    2015-02-01

    The problem of scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons by a strong plane electromagnetic wave of a low (optical) frequency and linear polarization is solved in the semiclassical approximation, when the electron wave packet size is much smaller than the wavelength of electromagnetic wave. The exit momenta of ultrarelativistic electrons scattered are found using the exact solutions to the equations of motion with radiation reaction included (the Landau-Lifshitz equation). It is found that the momentum components of electrons traversed the electromagnetic wave depend weakly on the initial values of momenta. These electrons are mostly scattered at small angles to the propagation direction of the electromagnetic wave. The maximum Lorentz factor of electrons crossed the electromagnetic wave is proportional to the work done by the electromagnetic field and is independent of the initial momentum. The momentum component parallel to the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is determined solely by the laser beam diameter measured in the units of the classical electron radius. As for the reflected electrons, they for the most part lose the energy, but remain relativistic. A reflection law that relates the incident and reflection angles and is independent of any parameters is found.

  17. Effects of linear-polarized near-infrared light irradiation on chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong; Gu, Yong-Hong; Liao, Qin; Yan, Xue-Bin; Zhu, Shai-Hong; Gao, Chang-Qing

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the efficacy of linear-polarized near-infrared light irradiation (LPNIR) on relieving chronic pain in conjunction with nerve block (NB) or local block (LB), a 3-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the pre- and post-therapy pain intensity. Visual analogue scales (VASs) were measured in all patients before and 6 months after therapy visiting the pain clinic during the period of August 2007 to January 2008. A total of 52 patients with either shoulder periarthritis or myofascial pain syndrome or lateral epicondylitis were randomly assigned into two groups by drawing lots. Patients in Group I were treated with NB or LB plus LPNIR; Group II patients, for their part, were treated with the same procedures as in Group I, but not using LPNIR. In both groups, the pain intensity (VAS score) decreased significantly immediately after therapy as compared to therapy. There was a significant difference between the test and control groups immediately after therapy (P < 0.05), while no effect 6 months later. No side effects were observed. It is concluded that LPNIR is an effective and safe modality to treat various chronic pains, which has synergic effects with NB or LB.

  18. Reduction of IL-20 Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis by Linear Polarized Infrared Light Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Asayo; Zhang, Lin; Kuboyama, Noboru; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2014-07-01

    Low-level laser is being evaluated for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, the linear polarized infrared light (Super Lizer, SL) irradiation may also be useful for RA treatment. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effectiveness of SL on RA is unclear. It has been IL-20 may involved in RA disease progression. To understand how SL action, we constructed the experimental model in vitro using human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte (MH7A) and collagen induced (CIA) RA rat in vivo. We examined the effect of SL irradiation on IL-20 gene expression in MH7A and IL-20 protein production in CIA) rat joints. MH7A was cultured and challenged with IL-1ß, then examined IL-20 and IL-20R mRNA level by DNA microarray. IL-20 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody against rat IL-20. Scatter plot analysis demonstrated that an increase in IL-20 gene expression by IL-1ß was reduced by SL irradiation, but IL-20R did not show a significant change. The Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a strong IL-20 staining in synovial membrane tissue of CIA rat joint, and SL irradiation significantly reduced the staining. Since IL-20 has been identified as an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of RA, the reduction of IL-20 expression by SL irradiation may be one of mechanisms in reduction of inflammation in RA joints by SL irradiation suggesting that SL irradiation may be useful for RA therapy.

  19. A dead-zone free ⁴He atomic magnetometer with intensity-modulated linearly polarized light and a liquid crystal polarization rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Peng, X; Lin, Z; Guo, H

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical (4)He atomic magnetometer experimental scheme based on an original Bell-Bloom configuration. A single intensity-modulated linearly polarized laser beam is used both for generating spin polarization within a single (4)He vapor and probing the spin precessing under a static magnetic field. The transmitted light signal from the vapor is then phase-sensitively detected at the modulation frequency and its harmonics, which lead to the atomic magnetic resonance signals. Based on this structure, a liquid crystal is added in our magnetometer system and constitutes a polarization rotator. By controlling the voltage applied on the liquid crystal, the light linear polarization vector can be kept perpendicular with the ambient magnetic field direction, which in turn provides the maximum resonance signal amplitude. Moreover, the system exhibits a magnetic-field noise floor of about 2pT/√Hz, which is not degraded due to the presence of the liquid crystal and varying magnetic field direction. The experiment results prove that our method can eliminate the dead-zone effect, improve the system spatial isotropy, and thus be suitable in mobile applications.

  20. Metasurface integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Xu, Fuyang; Lin, Yu; Cao, Bing; Chen, Linghua; Wang, Chinhua; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke

    2017-07-06

    We proposed and demonstrated an integrated high energy efficient and high linearly polarized InGaN/GaN green LED grown on (0001) oriented sapphire with combined metasurface polarizing converter and polarizer system. It is different from those conventional polarized light emissions generated with plasmonic metallic grating in which at least 50% high energy loss occurs inherently due to high reflection of the transverse electric (TE) component of an electric field. A reflecting metasurface, with a two dimensional elliptic metal cylinder array (EMCA) that functions as a half-wave plate, was integrated at the bottom of a LED such that the back-reflected TE component, that is otherwise lost by a dielectric/metal bi-layered wire grids (DMBiWG) polarizer on the top emitting surface of the LED, can be converted to desired transverse magnetic (TM) polarized emission after reflecting from the metasurface. This significantly enhances the polarized light emission efficiency. Experimental results show that extraction efficiency of the polarized emission can be increased by 40% on average in a wide angle of ±60° compared to that with the naked bottom of sapphire substrate, or 20% compared to reflecting Al film on the bottom of a sapphire substrate. An extinction ratio (ER) of average value 20 dB within an angle of ±60° can be simultaneously obtained directly from an InGaN/GaN LED. Our results show the possibility of simultaneously achieving a high degree of polarization and high polarization extraction efficiency at the integrated device level. This advances the field of GaN LED toward energy efficiency, multi-functional applications in illumination, display, medicine, and light manipulation.

  1. Evolution of the linear-polarization-angle-dependence of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance-oscillations with microwave power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States); Wegscheider, W. [Laboratorium für Festkörperphysik, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-11-10

    We examine the role of the microwave power in the linear polarization angle dependence of the microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system. The diagonal resistance R{sub xx} was measured at the fixed magnetic fields of the photo-excited oscillatory extrema of R{sub xx} as a function of both the microwave power, P, and the linear polarization angle, θ. Color contour plots of such measurements demonstrate the evolution of the lineshape of R{sub xx} versus θ with increasing microwave power. We report that the non-linear power dependence of the amplitude of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations distorts the cosine-square relation between R{sub xx} and θ at high power.

  2. Detection of optical linear polarization in the SN2006aj/GRB060218 non-spherical expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Gorosabel, J; Castro-Tirado, A J; Guziy, S; Larionova, L; Olmo, A D; Martínez, M A; Cepa, J; Cedres, B; De Postigo, A U; Jelinek, M; Bogdanov, O; Llorente, A

    2006-01-01

    We have performed optical polarimetric observations of the SN2006aj associated to the gamma-ray burst (GRB) of February 18, 2006, GRB060218 that provide information on its expansion geometry. The data were acquired in the R-band with the 0.7m telescope of Crimea, 2.5m Nordic Optical Telescope and the 2.2m of Calar Alto. We report the detection of linear polarization between 3 and 39 days after the gamma-ray event (t-t_0). This represents the first polarization detection of a Ic supernova (SN) associated to an X-ray flash. Our data exhibit a degree of linear polarization (P) around P~4% at t-t_0 ~ 3-5 days, followed by a constant polarization phase with P~1.4% at 13.7 < t-t_0 < 39 days. Our data suggest a decay in P, and more interestingly, show a position angle (\\theta) rotation of ~100 degrees comparing data taken before and after the R-band lightcurve peak. The reported polarization measurements can be explained by the evolution of an asymmetric SN expansion. We discuss on several ingredients that cou...

  3. γ-ray linear polarization measurements and (g9/2)-3 neutron alignment in 91Ru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; de France, G.; Clément, E.; Dijon, A.; Cederwall, B.; Wadsworth, R.; Bäck, T.; Ghazi Moradi, F.; Jaworski, G.; Nyakó, B. M.; Nyberg, J.; Palacz, M.; Al-Azri, H.; de Angelis, G.; Atac, A.; Aktaş, Ö.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Brock, T.; Davies, P. J.; Di Nitto, A.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Gadea, A.; Gál, J.; Joshi, P.; Juhász, K.; Julin, R.; Jungclaus, A.; Kalinka, G.; Kownacki, J.; La Rana, G.; Lenzi, S. M.; Molnár, J.; Moro, R.; Napoli, D. R.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Persson, A.; Recchia, F.; Sandzelius, M.; Scheurer, J.-N.; Sletten, G.; Sohler, D.; Söderström, P.-A.; Taylor, M. J.; Timár, J.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Vardaci, E.

    2013-04-01

    Linear polarization measurements have been performed for γ rays in 91Ru produced with the 58Ni(36Ar, 2p1nγ)91Ru reaction at a beam energy of 111 MeV. The EXOGAM Ge clover array has been used to measure the γ-γ coincidences, γ-ray linear polarization, and γ-ray angular distributions. The polarization sensitivity of the EXOGAM clover detectors acting as Compton polarimeters has been determined in the energy range 0.3-1.3 MeV. Several transitions have been observed for the first time. Measurements of linear polarization and angular distribution have led to the firm assignments of spin differences and parity of high-spin states in 91Ru. More specifically, calculations using a semiempirical shell model were performed to understand the structures of the first and second (21/2+) and (17/2+) levels. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, supporting the interpretation of the nonyrast (21/2+) and (17/2+) states in terms of the Jmax and Jmax-2 members of the seniority-three ν(g9/2)-3 multiplet.

  4. $\\gamma$-ray linear polarization measurements and $(g_{9/2})^{-3}$ neutron alignment in $^{91}$Ru

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Y; Clément, E; Dijon, A; Cederwall, B; Wadsworth, R; Bäck, T; Moradi, F Ghazi; Jaworski, G; Nyakó, B M; Nyberg, J; Palacz, M; Al-Azri, H; de Angelis, G; Atac, A; Aktaş, Ö; Bhattacharyya, S; Brock, T; Davies, P J; Di Nitto, A; Dombradi, Zs; Gadea, A; Gal, J; Joshi, P; Juhasz, K; Julin, R; Jungclaus, A; Kalinka, G; Kownacki, J; La Rana, G; Lenzi, S M; Molnar, J; Moro, R; Napoli, D R; Singh, B S Nara; Persson, A; Recchia, F; Sandzelius, M; Scheurer, J -N; Sletten, G; Sohler, D; Söderström, P -A; Taylor, M J; Timar, J; Valiente-Dobon, J J; Vardaci, E

    2013-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements have been performed for $\\gamma$-rays in $^{91}$Ru produced with the $^{58}$Ni($^{36}$Ar, $2p1n$$\\gamma$)$^{91}$Ru reaction at a beam energy of 111 MeV. The EXOGAM Ge clover array has been used to measure the $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ coincidences, $\\gamma$-ray linear polarization and $\\gamma$-ray angular distributions. The polarization sensitivity of the EXOGAM clover detectors acting as Compton polarimeters has been determined in the energy range 0.3$-$1.3 MeV. Several transitions have been observed for the first time. Measurements of linear polarization and angular distribution have led to the firm assignments of spin differences and parity of high-spin states in $^{91}$Ru. More specifically, calculations using a semi-empirical shell model were performed to understand the structures of the first and second (21/2$^{+}$) and (17/2$^{+}$) levels. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, supporting the interpretation of the non yrast (21/2$^{+}$) and (17/2$^{+}$) s...

  5. Analysis of the COS B data for evidence of linear polarization of Vela pulsar gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, John R.; Mayer-Hasselwander, Hans A.; Strong, Andy W.

    1990-01-01

    The COS B spark chamber telescope observations of the Vela pulsar were analyzed for gamma-ray polarization. No significant quadrupole moment is found in the azimuthal distribution of the electron-positron pair production planes. However, analysis of the sensitivity indicates that even 100-percent polarization would not be detected. Therefore, the null result does not constrain the polarization of the Vela pulsar gamma-ray emission. This result contradicts the report of Caraveo et al. (1988) of possible evidence for polarization of the Vela pulsar gamma rays.

  6. Linear polarization Yb3+-doped fiber laser with novel innerclad structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Pinon, F.; Alvarez-Chavez, J.A.; Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.; Cruz-May, de la L.; Offerhaus, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Results on high radiance Yb3+-doped fiber lasers with novel double innerclad structures (double-D clad and four hole) and polarized output at ≈1090 nm are presented. We have demonstrated >40% of the total output power being polarized, making the fiber laser suitable for LIDAR and second-harmonic gen

  7. Dynamic plasmonic beam shaping by vector beams with arbitrary locally linear polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man, Z.; Du, L.; Min, C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhu, S.; Urbach, H.P.; Yuan, X.C.

    2014-01-01

    Vector beams, which have space-variant state of polarization (SOP) comparing with scalar beams with spatially homogeneous SOP, are used to manipulate surface plasmon polarizations (SPPs). We find that the excitation, orientation, and distribution of the focused SPPs excited in a high numerical apert

  8. Linear polarization Yb3+-doped fiber laser with novel innerclad structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Pinon, F.; Alvarez-Chavez, J.A.; Jaramillo Vigueras, D.; de la Cruz-May, L.; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2008-01-01

    Results on high radiance Yb3+-doped fiber lasers with novel double innerclad structures (double-D clad and four hole) and polarized output at ≈1090 nm are presented. We have demonstrated >40% of the total output power being polarized, making the fiber laser suitable for LIDAR and second-harmonic gen

  9. Using dual-band asymmetric transmission effect of 2D metamaterial to manipulate linear polarization state of electromagnetic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun-Yong Pan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a two-dimensional (2D bilayered metamaterial that exhibits dual-band asymmetric transmission (AT effect for linear polarization. The measured cross-polarization transmissions are 0.88 at 5.68 GHz and 0.92 at 10.7 GHz in one direction, while the corresponding cross-polarization transmissions are suppressed down to 0.17 and 0.18 in the opposite direction, and the AT parameters Δx/Δy reach 0.73/−0.73 and 0.80/−0.80 respectively. The simulated surface current distributions reveal that the underlying physics originates from the induced magnetic coupling. The simulated resonant electric/magnetic field distributions show that the proposed structure follows the principle of metamaterials’ subwavelength.

  10. High-power linearly-polarized picosecond thulium-doped all-fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Liu, Chen; Shi, Hongxing; Wang, Pu

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrated a linearly-polarized picosecond thulium-doped all-fiber-integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier system, which yielded 240 W of average output power at 127 MHz repetition rate. The seed source is a passively mode-locked polarization-maintaining thulium-doped all-fiber oscillator with a nearly transform-limited pulse duration of 10 ps. In combination with a pre-chirp fiber having a positive group velocity dispersion and a three stage polarization-maintaining thulium-doped all-fiber amplifier, output pulse energies up to 1.89 µJ with 42 kW pulse peak power are obtained without the need of complex free-space stretcher or compressor setups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average output power ever reported for a picosecond all-fiber-integrated laser at 2 µm wavelength region.

  11. Measurement of Coherent Emission and Linear Polarization of Photons by Electrons in the Strong Fields of Aligned Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A; Badelek, B; Ballestrero, S; Biino, C; Birol, I; Cenci, P; Connell, S H; Eichblatt, S; Fonseca, T; Freund, A; Gorini, B; Groess, R; Ispirian, K; Ketel, T; Kononets, Yu V; López, A; Mangiarotti, A; Van Rens, B; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Shieh, M; Sona, P; Strakhovenko, V M; Uggerhøj, Erik; Uggerhøj, U; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vilakazi, Z Z; Wessely, O; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2004-01-01

    We present new results regarding the features of high energy photon emission by an electron beam of 178 GeV penetrating a 1.5 cm thick single Si crystal aligned at the Strings-Of-Strings (SOS) orientation. This concerns a special case of coherent bremsstrahlung where the electron interacts with the strong fields of successive atomic strings in a plane and for which the largest enhancement of the highest energy photons is expected. The polarization of the resulting photon beam was measured by the asymmetry of electron-positron pair production in an aligned diamond crystal analyzer. By the selection of a single pair the energy and the polarization of individual photons could be measured in an the environment of multiple photons produced in the radiator crystal. Photons in the high energy region show less than 20% linear polarization at the 90% confidence level.

  12. Determining particle size distribution and refractive index in a two-layer tissue phantom by linearly polarized light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Deng; Qiang Lu; Qingming Luo

    2006-01-01

    We report a new method for measuring particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index of the top layer in a two-layer tissue phantom simulated epithelium tissue by varying the azimuth angle of incident linearly polarized light. The polarization gating technique is used to decouple the single and multiple scattering components in the returned signal. The theoretical model based on Mie theory is presented and a nonlinear inversion method - floating genetic algorithm - is applied to inverting the azimuth dependence of component of polarization light backscattered. The experiment results demonstrate that the size distribution and refractive index of the scatters of the top layer can be determined by measuring and analyzing the differential signal of the parallel and perpendicular components from a two-layer tissue phantom. The method implies to detect precancerous changes in human epithelial tissue.

  13. First Detection of Sign-reversed Linear Polarization from the Forbidden [O I] 630.03 nm Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wijn, A. G.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Vitas, N.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the detection of linear polarization of the forbidden [O i] 630.03 nm spectral line. The observations were carried out in the broader context of the determination of the solar oxygen abundance, an important problem in astrophysics that still remains unresolved. We obtained spectro-polarimetric data of the forbidden [O i] line at 630.03 nm as well as other neighboring permitted lines with the Solar Optical Telescope of the Hinode satellite. A novel averaging technique was used, yielding very high signal-to-noise ratios in excess of 105. We confirm that the linear polarization is sign-reversed compared to permitted lines as a result of the line being dominated by a magnetic dipole transition. Our observations open a new window for solar oxygen abundance studies, offering an alternative method to disentangle the Ni i blend from the [O i] line at 630.03 nm that has the advantage of simple LTE formation physics.

  14. Linearly Polarized Millimeter and Submillimeter Continuum Emission of Sgr A* Constrained by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Ho, Paul T P; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Martín, Sergio; Falcke, Heino; Matsushita, Satoki; Martí-Vidal, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at $\\sim$100 (3.0 mm), $\\sim$230 (1.3 mm), $\\sim$345 (0.87 mm), $\\sim$500 (0.6 mm), and $\\sim$700 GHz (0.43 mm). We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at the above frequency bands, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from ALMA single pointing and mosaic observations. We performed sinusoidal fittings to the observed (XX-YY)/I intensity ratios, to derive the polarization position angles and polarization percentages. We successfully detect polarized continuum emission from all observed frequency bands. We observed lower Stokes I intensity at $\\sim$700 GHz than that at $\\sim$500 GHz, which suggests that emission at $\\gtrsim$500 GHz is from optically thin part of a synchrotron emission spectrum. Both the Stokes I intensity and the polarization position angle at our highest observin...

  15. Orthogonally Linearly Polarized Dual Frequency Nd:YAG Lasers with Tunable Frequency Difference and Its Application in Precision Angle Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yi-Dong; ZHANG Shu-Lian

    2007-01-01

    The orthogonally linearly polarized dual frequency Nd:YAG lasers with two quarter wave plates in laser resonator are proposed. The intra-cavity variable birefringence, which is caused by relative rotation of these two wave plates in laser inner cavity, results in the frequency difference of the dual frequency laser also changeable. The theory model based on the Jones matrix is presented, as well as experimental results. The potential application of this phenomenon in precision roll-angle measurement is also discussed.

  16. Imaging a linearly or circularly polarized scene: micro-components and shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemme, S. A.; Scrymgeour, D. A.; Ellis, A. R.; Cruz-Cabrera, A. A.; Boye, R. R.; Wendt, J. R.; Carter, T. R.; Samora, S.

    2011-06-01

    Polarimetric imaging captures the polarization state of light from all the points of a scene. Snapshot polarimetric imaging collects the Stokes' parameters spatial distribution simultaneously. We will discuss state-of-the-art achievements and some fundamental diffraction limitations in polarimetric imaging with an array of micro-components. We will also look at the natural vision system of the mantis shrimp, with many of these same sensing abilities. The evolved and exquisite vision system possesses a recently-discovered circular polarization capability. This comprehensive polarization vision may enable imaging/communicating advantages in the underwater environment as well as more general turbid environments such as smoke and fog.

  17. Comparison of soliton robustness with respect to polarization-mode dispersion with first-order polarization-mode dispersion compensated linear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C; Karlsson, M; Sunnerud, H; Andrekson, P A

    2001-05-15

    Soliton robustness to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) is compared, both analytically and numerically, with that of linear pulses that use first-order PMD compensation. It is found that soliton robustness to PMD is comparable with first-order PMD compensation and in some cases is even better. The effects of soliton control methods on soliton robustness to PMD were also investigated, and it was found that soliton control methods can significantly improve the soliton's robustness to PMD, particularly for long-distance systems.

  18. Evidence for anomalous optical transition radiation linear polarization effects in beam-profile monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Lumpkin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of the effects of optical transition radiation (OTR polarization components on beam profiles are presented. The transverse profiles are examined using the OTR perpendicular and parallel polarization components with respect to the dimension of interest. We observed ∼15% projected profile size reductions with the perpendicularly polarized components on a 65-μm beam image size case at 14 MeV, a 150-μm beam image size at 4.5 GeV, and a 1100-μm beam image size at 7 GeV. These effects are all several times larger than expected (and anomalous in this sense when compared to the standard OTR point-spread function calculations. We propose the time-averaged induced-current distribution which generates the OTR represents the actual beam size more faithfully with the perpendicular polarization component and recommend its routine use and subsequent deconvolution.

  19. Principle for the Realization of Dual-Orthogonal Linearly Polarized Antennas for UWB Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Adamiuk

    2011-01-01

    The presented method introduces a superior possibility of an extension of typical UWB technique to fully polarized systems, which improves significantly performance in, for example, UWB-MIMO or UWB-Radar.

  20. Orthogonal linear polarized lasers (Ⅱ)--Study on the physical phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shulian; LIU Gang

    2005-01-01

    The physical phenomena and corresponding theoretical analysis of orthogonal polarized laser are reviewed. Four lasers (or systems) with orthogonal polarized beams are involved. For the birefringence dual frequency laser, its physical phenomena discussed include the alternation between strong mode competition and medium mode competition in cavity tuning; the range of frequency difference of strong mode competition (about 0-40 MHz); four polarization statuses (o-light oscillating but e-light extinguishing, both o-light and elight oscillating, e-light oscillating but o-light extinguishing, both o-light and e-light extinguishing) in cavity tuning; the tuning curves of frequency difference; the influence of optical activity of quartz crystal on polarization direction; and the aberrance of frequency splitting.For the Birefringence-Zeeman dual frequency laser, we focus on its intensity tuning and frequency difference tuning. For the feedback system of orthogonally polarized laser, we discuss the mutual suppression between two orthogonal frequencies, intensity exchange between two orthogonal frequencies and double of intensity fringe frequency. For orthogonally polarized LD-pumped Nd: YAG microchip laser, its property of the dependence of intensity sensitivity on frequency difference is described.

  1. Low frequency observations of linearly polarized structures in the interstellar medium near the south Galactic pole

    CERN Document Server

    Lenc, Emil; Sun, X H; Sadler, E M; Willis, A G; Barry, N; Beardsley, A P; Bell, M E; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Callingham, J R; Cappallo, R J; Carroll, P; Corey, B E; de Oliveira-Costa, A; Deshpande, A A; Dillon, J S; Dwarkanath, K S; Emrich, D; Ewall-Wice, A; Feng, L; For, B -Q; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hancock, P; Hazelton, B J; Hewitt, J N; Hindson, L; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Jacobs, D C; Kapinska, A D; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kim, H -S; Kratzenberg, E; Line, J; Loeb, A; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Morgan, J; Murphy, T; Neben, A R; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Paul, S; Pindor, B; Pober, J C; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Shankar, N Udaya; Sethi, S K; Srivani, K S; Staveley-Smith, L; Subrahmanyan, R; Sullivan, I S; Tegmark, M; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Tingay, S J; Trott, C; Waterson, M; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wu, C; Wyithe, J S B; Zheng, Q

    2016-01-01

    We present deep polarimetric observations at 154 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), covering 625 deg^2 centered on RA=0 h, Dec=-27 deg. The sensitivity available in our deep observations allows an in-band, frequency-dependent analysis of polarized structure for the first time at long wavelengths. Our analysis suggests that the polarized structures are dominated by intrinsic emission but may also have a foreground Faraday screen component. At these wavelengths, the compactness of the MWA baseline distribution provides excellent snapshot sensitivity to large-scale structure. The observations are sensitive to diffuse polarized emission at ~54' resolution with a sensitivity of 5.9 mJy beam^-1 and compact polarized sources at ~2.4' resolution with a sensitivity of 2.3 mJy beam^-1 for a subset (400 deg^2) of this field. The sensitivity allows the effect of ionospheric Faraday rotation to be spatially and temporally measured directly from the diffuse polarized background. Our observations reveal large-sca...

  2. Orientation of the linear polarization plane of H-alpha emission in prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Suyunova, E Z; Osokin, A R

    2015-01-01

    2D distributions of deviations of the polarization plane from the direction tangential to the solar limb (angle \\chi) and the sign of \\chi are presented for H{\\alpha} prominences of March 29, 2006. The obtained values of \\chi are in agreement with non-eclipse coronagraphic measurements and indicate the existence of longitudinal magnetic fields. The 2D distributions of the sign of \\chi show the existence of both {\\guillemotleft}+{\\guillemotright} and {\\guillemotleft}-{\\guillemotright} polarities for each prominence. An interpretation in the frame of the existence of oppositely directed magnetic fields is noted.

  3. Compact Circular/Linear Polarization Dual-Band Prime-Focus Feed for Space Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Galuscak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel, compact, prime-focus antenna feed for space communication. The feed requires full-wave simulator optimization for a given parabolic reflector and is designed to operate simultaneously on two bands, offering LHC/RHC polarizations for the 13 cm band and V/H polarizations for the 70 cm band. With performance results confirmed by measurement, it has been verified in practice that this compact feed is suitable for use in a low-noise Earth-Moon-Earth communication link.

  4. Nonlinear reflection process of linearly-polarized, broadband Alfv\\'en waves in the fast solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Shoda, Munehito

    2016-01-01

    Using one-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the elementary process of Alfv\\'{e}n wave reflection in a uniform medium, including nonlinear effects. In the linear regime, Alfv\\'{e}n wave reflection is triggered only by the inhomogeneity of the medium, whereas in the nonlinear regime, it can occur via nonlinear wave-wave interactions. Such nonlinear reflection (backscattering) is typified by decay instability. In most studies of decay instabilities, the initial condition has been a circularly polarized Alfv\\'{e}n wave. In this study we consider a linearly polarized Alfv\\'en wave, which drives density fluctuations by its magnetic pressure force. For generality, we also assume a broadband wave with a red-noise spectrum. In the data analysis, we decompose the fluctuations into characteristic variables using local eigenvectors, thus revealing the behaviors of the individual modes. Different from circular-polarization case, we find that the wave steepening produces a new energy channel from the parent Alfv\\...

  5. Walking Drosophila align with the e-vector of linearly polarized light through directed modulation of angular acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Mariel M; Wernet, Mathias F; Clark, Damon A; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that link sensory stimuli to animal behavior is a central challenge in neuroscience. The quantitative description of behavioral responses to defined stimuli has led to a rich understanding of different behavioral strategies in many species. One important navigational cue perceived by many vertebrates and insects is the e-vector orientation of linearly polarized light. Drosophila manifests an innate orientation response to this cue ('polarotaxis'), aligning its body axis with the e-vector field. We have established a population-based behavioral paradigm for the genetic dissection of neural circuits guiding polarotaxis to both celestial as well as reflected polarized stimuli. However, the behavioral mechanisms by which flies align with a linearly polarized stimulus remain unknown. Here, we present a detailed quantitative description of Drosophila polarotaxis, systematically measuring behavioral parameters that are modulated by the stimulus. We show that angular acceleration is modulated during alignment, and this single parameter may be sufficient for alignment. Furthermore, using monocular deprivation, we show that each eye is necessary for modulating turns in the ipsilateral direction. This analysis lays the foundation for understanding how neural circuits guide these important visual behaviors.

  6. An orthogonal return method for linearly polarized beam based on the Faraday effect and its application in interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Benyong; Zhang, Enzheng; Yan, Liping; Liu, Yanna

    2014-10-01

    Correct return of the measuring beam is essential for laser interferometers to carry out measurement. In the actual situation, because the measured object inevitably rotates or laterally moves, not only the measurement accuracy will decrease, or even the measurement will be impossibly performed. To solve this problem, a novel orthogonal return method for linearly polarized beam based on the Faraday effect is presented. The orthogonal return of incident linearly polarized beam is realized by using a Faraday rotator with the rotational angle of 45°. The optical configuration of the method is designed and analyzed in detail. To verify its practicability in polarization interferometry, a laser heterodyne interferometer based on this method was constructed and precision displacement measurement experiments were performed. These results show that the advantage of the method is that the correct return of the incident measuring beam is ensured when large lateral displacement or angular rotation of the measured object occurs and then the implementation of interferometric measurement can be ensured.

  7. Non-planar electron motion during direct laser acceleration by a linearly/circularly polarized laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudik, Vladimir; Arefiev, Alexey; Zhang, Xi; Shvets, Gennady

    2016-10-01

    Direct Laser Acceleration (DLA) of electrons in plasma bubbles or ion channels is investigated in the general case of arbitrary polarization of laser pulse. When the laser pulse is linearly polarized, the laser electromagnetic field drives electron oscillations in the polarization plane, intuitively suggesting that the electron trajectory lies in the same plane. We show that strong modulations of the relativistic gamma-factor cause the free oscillations perpendicular to the plane of the driven motion to become unstable. As a consequence, out of plane displacements grow and the electron trajectory becomes strongly three-dimensional, even if it starts out planar during the early stage of the acceleration. For a circularly polarized laser pulse, electron end up moving along a helical trajectory with slowly changing helix radius. By deriving a set of dimensionless equations for paraxial ultra-relativistic electron motion, we have found an estimate for the maximum attainable electron energy for arbitrary laser and plasma parameters. This work was supported by DOE Grants DESC0007889 and DE-SC0010622, and by an AFOSR Grant FA9550-14-1-0045.

  8. Scattering and Extinction Torques: How Plasmon Resonances Affect the Orientation Behavior of a Nanorod in Linearly Polarized Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohao; Cheng, Chang; Zhang, Yao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun

    2016-01-21

    Linearly polarized light can exert an orienting torque on plasmonic nanorods. The torque direction has generally been considered to change when the light wavelength passes through a plasmon longitudinal resonance. Here, we use the Maxwell stress tensor to evaluate this torque in general terms. According to distinct light-matter interaction processes, the total torque is decomposed into scattering and extinction torques. The scattering torque tends to orient plasmonic nanorods parallel to the light polarization, independent of the choice of light wavelength. The direction of the extinction torque is not only closely tied to the excitation of plasmon resonance but also depends on the specific plasmon mode around which the light wavelength is tuned. Our findings show that the conventional wisdom that simply associates the total torque with the plasmon longitudinal resonances needs to be replaced with an understanding based on the different torque components and the details of spectral distribution.

  9. Facile synthesis of single-crystalline microwires based on anthracene derivative and their efficient optical waveguides and linearly polarized emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Dan; Wang, Juan-Ye; Liu, Zheng-Hui; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2016-05-01

    The well-defined single-crystalline microwires of a solid-emissive organic functional molecule, 2-(anthracen-9-yl)-4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidozole (ADPI) were successfully prepared by a facile solution process without the use of surfactant or additional templates. In addition, the optical loss coefficient is as low as 0.1 dB μm-1 for the as-prepared ADPI microwires, which is lower than most previous reported organic optical waveguides. Meanwhile, these microwires also show optically uniaxial properties as demonstrated by the linearly polarized emission, providing potentially orientation-sensitive applications as optical waveguides with low optical loss.

  10. The mechanisms for linear polarization loss of in-plane photoluminescence of InGaAs/GaAs quantum well and quantum dot structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleshkin, VY; Zvonkov, BN; Malkina, IG; Chernov, AL; Romanov, YA

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms for linear polarization loss of photoluminescence from quantum wells and quantum dots in InGaAs/GaAs structures observed from cleavages have been investigated. It is found that the mechanisms for polarization loss of in-plane photoluminescence are different for OD and 2D hole states.

  11. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  12. Four-Wave Mixing Crosstalk Suppression Based on the Pairing Combinations of Differently Linear-Polarized Optical Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to suppressing the four-wave mixing (FWM crosstalk by using the pairing combinations of differently linear-polarized optical signals was investigated. The simulation was conducted using a four-channel system, and the total data rate was 40 Gb/s. A comparative study on the suppression of FWM for existing and suggested techniques was conducted by varying the input power from 2 dBm to 14 dBm. The robustness of the proposed technique was examined with two types of optical fiber, namely, single-mode fiber (SMF and dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF. The FWM power drastically reduced to less than −68 and −25 dBm at an input power of 14 dBm, when the polarization technique was conducted for SMF and DSF, respectively. With the conventional method, the FWM powers were, respectively, −56 and −20 dBm. The system performance greatly improved with the proposed polarization approach, where the bit error rates (BERs at the first channel were 2.57×10-40 and 3.47×10-29 at received powers of −4.90 and −13.84 dBm for SMF and DSF, respectively.

  13. 1.3kW monolithic linearly-polarized single-mode MOPA and strategies for mitigating mode instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Rumao; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2014-01-01

    We report on the high power amplification of 1064nm linearly-polarized laser in all-fiber polarization-maintained MOPA, which can operate at output power level of 1.3kW. The main amplifier was pumped with six 915nm laser diodes, and the slope efficiency is 65.3%. The beam quality (M2) was measured to be <1.2 at full power operation. The polarization extinction rate of the fiber amplifier was measured to be above 94% before mode instabilities (MI) sets in, which reduced to about 90% after the onset of MI. Power scaling capability of strategies for suppressing MI is analyzed based on a novel semi-analytical model, the theoretical results of which agree with the experimental results. It shows that mitigating MI by coiling the gain fiber is an effective and practical way in standard double-cladding large mode area fiber, and, by tight coiling of the gain fiber to the radius of 5.5cm, the MI threshold can be increased to 3 times higher than that without coiling or loose coiling. Experimental study has been carr...

  14. Linear optical and electronic properties of the polar metallic ruthenate (Sr,Ca)Ru2O6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggioni, Danilo; Rondinelli, James M

    2014-07-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we compute the linear optical properties for cation ordered (Sr,Ca)Ru2O6. Our calculations show that this polar ferromagnetic metallic oxide exhibits optical anisotropy along the principal directions of the optical indicatrix owing to the absence of inversion symmetry in the crystal structure. The calculated reflectivity is used to locate the onset of the inter-band transitions at an energy of 1.3 eV. Comparing the optical conductivity with the electronic band structure, we identify the possible optical transitions. Finally, we apply the generalized Drude model to deduce an enhancement of the effective mass, m(*) ∼ 4.9m(e), in ordered (Sr,Ca)Ru2O6. Moreover, we show that removal of the polar distortions decrease the effective mass to m(*) ∼ 4.4m(e), suggesting that control over the amplitude of the polar displacements could be used to tune the degree of electronic correlation in oxide conductors without inversion symmetry.

  15. Discovery of the Sub-second Linearly Polarized Spikes of Synchrotron Origin in the UV Ceti Giant Optical Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskin, G.; Karpov, S.; Plokhotnichenko, V.; Stepanov, A.; Tsap, Yu.

    2017-01-01

    During our optical monitoring of UV Ceti, iconic late-type flaring star, with high temporal resolution using the Russian 6-m telescope in 2008, we detected a giant flare with the amplitude of about 3 magnitudes in U band. Near flare maximum, more than a dozen of spike bursts have been discovered with triangular shapes and durations from 0.6 to 1.2 s and maximal luminosities in the range (1.5-8) × 1027 erg s-1. For the half of these events, the linear polarization exceeds 35% with significance better than 5σ. We argue that these events are synchrotron emission of electron streams with the energies of several hundred MeV moving in the magnetic field of about 1.4 kG. Emission from such ultra-relativistic (with energies far exceeding 10 MeV) particles is being routinely observed in solar flares, but has never been detected from UV Ceti-type stars. This is the first ever detection of linearly polarized optical light from the UV Ceti-type stars which indicates that at least some fraction of the flaring events on these stars is powered by a non-thermal synchrotron emission mechanism.

  16. Makeham's Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    Makeham's formula is an actuarial formula expressing the present value of a payment stream in terms of its repayments instead of the payments themselves. The formula is largely neglected in the finance literature, but -- as this paper shows -- it has a number of useful applications in fixed income...... analysis. We use Makeham's formula to decompose the return on a bond investment into interest payments, realized capital gains and accrued capital gains for a variety of accounting rules for measuring accruals in order to study the theoretical properties of these accounting rules, their taxation...

  17. Astrophysical formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    1978-01-01

    This volume is a reference source of fundamental formulae in physics and astrophysics. In contrast to most of the usual compendia it carefully explains the physical assumptions entering the formulae. All the important results of physical theories are covered: electrodynamics, hydrodynamics, general relativity, atomic and nuclear physics, and so on. Over 2100 formulae are included, and the original papers for the formulae are cited together with papers on modern applications in a bibliography of over 1900 entries. For this new edition, a chapter on space, time, matter and cosmology has been included and the other chapters have been carefully revised.

  18. Observer-dependent sign inversions of polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2014-10-15

    We describe observer-dependent sign inversions of the topological charges of vector field polarization singularities: C points (points of circular polarization), L points (points of linear polarization), and two virtually unknown singularities we call γ(C) and α(L) points. In all cases, the sign of the charge seen by an observer can change as she changes the direction from which she views the singularity. Analytic formulas are given for all C and all L point sign inversions.

  19. The photoproduction of φ-mesons off protons by using a beam of linearly polarized photons at threshold energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca Bernal, Julian Andres

    Observables from vector meson photoproduction by linearly-polarized photons can be expressed in term of bilinear combinations of helicity amplitudes parameterized by the Spin Density Matrix Elements (SDMEs). These SDMEs give straightforward relations for understanding the nature of the parity exchange at threshold energies, as well as for extracting signatures of the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka violation. Measurement of SDMEs for g⃗ p →φp in the photon energy range of 1.7 to 1.9 GeV (momentum transfer squared t range of -1.2 to -0.25 GeV2) and 1.9 to 2.1 GeV (t range of -1.4 to -0.25 GeV 2) from the g8b experimental data collected in the summer of 2005 in the Hall B of Jefferson Lab are reported herein.

  20. Observation of M1 resonance in sup 2 sup 0 sup 6 Pb using a highly linear polarized photon beam

    CERN Document Server

    Ohgaki, H; Noguchi, T; Sugiyama, S; Mikado, T; Yamada, K; Suzuki, R; Ohdaira, T; Sei, N; Yamazaki, T

    1999-01-01

    More than twenty M1 states were discovered in sup 2 sup 0 sup 6 Pb from 6.5 to 8.1 MeV with a high-resolution NRF experiment that used a highly linear-polarized photon beam generated by laser-Compton backscattering. The total reduced transition probability of sigma B(M1 arrow up) = 17.4+-5.6 mu sup 2 sub N agreed well with QPM calculation (16.1 mu sup 2 sub N) and previous tagged photon experiment (19 +- 2 mu sup 2 sub N). A fine structure of two bumps at 7.2 and 7.9 MeV which was reproduced reasonably by the QPM calculation was clearly observed in the isovector M1 strength distribution.

  1. Efficient and stable proton acceleration by irradiating a two-layer target with a linearly polarized laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. Y.; Yan, X. Q.; Chen, J. E.; He, X. T. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ma, W. J.; Bin, J. H.; Schreiber, J.; Tajima, T.; Habs, D. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    We report an efficient and stable scheme to generate {approx}200 MeV proton bunch by irradiating a two-layer targets (near-critical density layer+solid density layer with heavy ions and protons) with a linearly polarized Gaussian pulse at intensity of 6.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Due to self-focusing of laser and directly accelerated electrons in the near-critical density layer, the proton energy is enhanced by a factor of 3 compared to single-layer solid targets. The energy spread of proton is also remarkably reduced. Such scheme is attractive for applications relevant to tumor therapy.

  2. Electron acceleration in vacuum by a linearly-polarized ultra-short tightly-focused THz pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Yousef I.

    2017-09-01

    The analytic expressions for the electric and magnetic fields of an ultra-short, tightly-focused, linearly-polarized laser pulse propagating in vacuum, derived elsewhere (Salamin, 2015) [13] to lowest-order of a truncated power-series expansion from vector and scalar potentials, are employed here for single electron acceleration calculations by THz radiation. It is shown that, while currently available THz peak powers cannot accelerate electrons appreciably, yet they result in substantial energy gradients. The field equations are used to show that an electron can be accelerated, in vacuum, from rest to 4.83 MeV by interaction with a single THz pulse of 1 TW power. Similarly, a 1 GW power pulse focused to sub-wavelength waist radius at focus is shown to accelerate the electron from rest to 5.76 keV.

  3. Measurement of the Second Order Non-linear Susceptibility of Collagen using Polarization Modulation and Phase-sensitive Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, P; Kim, B-M; Rubenchik, A M; Reiser, K M; Da Silva, L B

    2001-03-03

    The measurement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility of collagen in various biological tissues has potential applications in the detection of structural changes which are related to different pathological conditions. We investigate second harmonic generation in rat-tail tendon, a highly organized collagen structure consisting of parallel fibers. Using an electro-optic modulator and a quarter-wave plate, we modulate the linear polarization of an ultra-short pulse laser beam that is used to measure second harmonic generation (SHG) in a confocal microscopy setup. Phase-sensitive detection of the generated signal, coupled with a simple model of the collagen protein structures, allows us to measure a parameter {gamma} related to nonlinear susceptibility and to determine the relative orientation of the structures. Our preliminary results indicate that it may be possible to use this parameter to characterize the structure.

  4. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braicovich, L., E-mail: lucio.braicovich@polimi.it; Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G. [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Le Tacon, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38043 (France); Supruangnet, R. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  5. The growth of α-sexithiophene films on Ag(111) studied by means of PEEM with linearly polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thorsten; Ghanbari, Ebrahim; Huber, Daniel; Zeppenfeld, Peter

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we used photo electron emission microscopy (PEEM) to investigate the growth of α-sexithiophene (α-6 T) on Ag(111) surfaces. The experiments were carried out with linearly polarized ultraviolet-light (Hg lamp with hν=4.9 eV) in order to probe the alignment of the molecules on the surface. In particular, we acquired images before, during, and after growth while changing the polarization in a stepwise manner. For the stationary states of the clean and the α-6 T covered surfaces, we monitored the local electron yield and the intensity of the ultraviolet C-light (100-280 nm) reflected from the whole sample using PEEM and a photodiode, respectively. Due to the high ionization potential (IP>5 eV), there is no direct photoelectron emission from the organic crystallites. However, the photoelectron emission of the metal/organic interface is influenced by anisotropic absorption of the incident light beam, since the adsorbed molecules act as dichroic filters with distinct orientations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Braicovich, L; Dellea, G; Tacon, M Le; Sala, M Moretti; Morawe, C; Peffen, J-Ch; Supruangnet, R; Yakhou, F; Ghiringhelli, G; Brookes, N B

    2014-01-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B4C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF; it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L3 edge on a high-Tc superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the ...

  7. 100μJ-level single frequency linearly-polarized nanosecond pulsed laser at 775 nm (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Fang, Qiang; Fan, Jingli; Cui, Xuelong; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Jinhui; Zhou, Guoqing

    2017-02-01

    We report a single frequency, linearly polarized, near diffraction-limited, pulsed laser source at 775 nm by frequency doubling a single frequency nanosecond pulsed all fiber based master oscillator-power amplifier, seeded by a fiber coupled semiconductor DFB laser diode at 1550 nm. The laser diode was driven by a pulsed laser driver to generate 5 ns laser pulses at 260 Hz repetition rate with 50 pJ pulse energy. The pulse energy was boosted to 200 μJ using two stages of core-pumped fiber amplifiers and two stages of cladding-pumped fiber amplifiers. The multi-stage synchronous pulse pumping technique was adopted in the four stages of fiber amplifiers to mitigate the ASE. The frequency doubling is implemented in a single pass configuration using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. The crystal is 3 mm long, 1.4 mm wide, 1 mm thick, with a 19.36 μm domain period chosen for quasi-phase matching at 33°C. It was AR coated at both 1550 nm and 775 nm. The maximum pulse energy of 97 μJ was achieved when 189 μJ fundamental laser was launched. The corresponding conversion efficiency is about 51.3%. The pulse duration was measured to be 4.8 ns. So the peak power of the generated 775 nm laser pulses reached 20 kW. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a 100 μJ-level, tens of kilowatts-peak-power-level single frequency linearly polarized 775 nm laser based on the frequency doubling of the fiber lasers.

  8. Analytical theory for the time-resolved dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect under circularly polarized light

    CERN Document Server

    Otobe, T

    2016-01-01

    We report here the analytical formula for the time-resolved dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect (Tr-DFKE) under circularly polarized light. We assume the Houston function as the time-dependent wave function of the parabolic two-band system. Our formula shows that the sub-cycle change of the optical properties disappears, which is a significant feature of the Tr-DFKE under linear polarized light and is different from the static Franz-Keldysh effect.

  9. High-contrast dark resonances with linearly polarized light on the D1 line of alkali atoms with large nuclear spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Ken-Ichi; Ikegami, Takeshi; Takamizawa, Akifumi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Ohshima, Shin-Ichi; Knappe, Svenja

    2009-02-20

    High-contrast coherent population trapping signals were observed on the Cs D1 line by use of a bichromatic linear polarized light (lin‖lin field). A maximum absorption contrast of about 10% was obtained. This was nearly twice as high as that measured with the standard configuration of bichromatic circularly polarized light (σ-σ field). The results are compared with density matrix calculations of 4 and 5 level systems.

  10. Measurement of the positron polarization at an helical undulator based positron source for the international linear collider ILC. The E-166 experiment at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Laihem

    2008-06-05

    A helical undulator based polarized positron source is forseen at a future International Linear Collider (ILC). The E-166 experiment has tested this scheme using a one meter long, short-period, pulsed helical undulator installed in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. A low-emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam passing through this undulator generated circularly polarized photons with energies up to about 8 MeV. The generated photons of several MeV with circular polarization are then converted in a relatively thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at 5 different energies of the positrons. In addition electron polarization has been determined for one energy point. For a comparison of the measured asymmetries with the expectations detailed simulations were necessary. This required upgrading GEANT4 to include the dominant polarization dependent interactions of electrons, positrons and photons in matter. The measured polarization of the positrons agrees with the expectations and is for the energy point with the highest polarization at 6MeV about 80%. (orig.)

  11. Scattering of a cross-polarized linear wave by a soliton at an optical event horizon in a birefringent nanophotonic waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Ciret, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The scattering of a linear wave on an optical event horizon, induced by a cross polarized soliton, is experimentally and numerically investigated in integrated structures. The experiments are performed in a dispersion-engineered birefringent silicon nanophotonic waveguide. In stark contrast with co-polarized waves, the large difference between the group velocity of the two cross-polarized waves enables a frequency conversion almost independent on the soliton wavelength. It is shown that the generated idler is only shifted by 10 nm around 1550 nm over a pump tuning range of 350 nm. Simulations using two coupled full vectorial nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations fully support the experimental results.

  12. Compulsion of a linear equation system to the development of analytic formulas for the sumsof some finite series with the help of special computer programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenev Vladimir Stepanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a convincing system of mathematical reasoning allowing us to pass over the stages of recurrent formulas as well as the induction methods in the process of developing analytic formulas using computer programs. The article elaborates the ideas on how to make the computer derive analytic formulas. The author offers us a generalization consisting in using the method of summing up to the more wide range of series, as well as finding approximate specific solutions to some differential equations and summarizations, which can occur, for example, in finite element method. The suggested method of summing the degrees with the coefficient is generalized to:a The total formulas for the powers degrees of real numbers which are not the rational numbers. This will lead to approximate results.b The representation of sums is connected to the solutions of certain differential equations (Cauchy problem, where we can obtain the partial equations in the form of power series with rational coefficients.

  13. Effects of geometry and linearly polarized cavity photons on charge and spin currents in a quantum ring with spin-orbit interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thorsten; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar

    2014-05-01

    We calculate the persistent charge and spin polarization current inside a finite-width quantum ring of realistic geometry as a function of the strength of the Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction. The time evolution in the transient regime of the two-dimensional (2D) quantum ring connected to electrically biased semi-infinite leads is governed by a time-convolutionless non-Markovian generalized master equation. The electrons are correlated via Coulomb interaction. In addition, the ring is embedded in a photon cavity with a single mode of linearly polarized photon field, which is polarized either perpendicular or parallel to the charge transport direction. To analyze carefully the physical effects, we compare to the analytical results of the toy model of a one-dimensional (1D) ring of non-interacting electrons with spin-orbit coupling. We find a pronounced charge current dip associated with many-electron level crossings at the Aharonov-Casher phase ΔΦ = π, which can be disguised by linearly polarized light. Qualitative agreement is found for the spin polarization currents of the 1D and 2D ring. Quantitatively, however, the spin polarization currents are weaker in the more realistic 2D ring, especially for weak spin-orbit interaction, but can be considerably enhanced with the aid of a linearly polarized electromagnetic field. Specific spin polarization current symmetries relating the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction case to the Rashba one are found to hold for the 2D ring, which is embedded in the photon cavity.

  14. Polarization developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1993-07-01

    Recent developments in laser-driven photoemission sources of polarized electrons have made prospects for highly polarized electron beams in a future linear collider very promising. This talk discusses the experiences with the SLC polarized electron source, the recent progress with research into gallium arsenide and strained gallium arsenide as a photocathode material, and the suitability of these cathode materials for a future linear collider based on the parameters of the several linear collider designs that exist.

  15. Diode-pumped Nd : YAG laser with linear and orthogonal polarized components of a radiation at the wavelength 0.532 mu m

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrovskiy, V. N.; Prokopova, N. M.; Protesenko, E. D.; Yermachenko, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    A diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser with two linear and mutually orthogonal polarized components of radiation at a wavelength 0.532 mu m is studied theoretically and experimentally. The cavity confirmation for the realization of generation in this region is suggested. Stable lasting wit two

  16. Performance of low-cost few-mode fiber Bragg grating sensor systems: polarization sensitivity and linearity of temperature and strain response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis; Rose, Bjarke; Bang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate whether 850 nm fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems can use low-cost 1550 nm telecom fibers; in other words, how detrimental the influence of higher-order modes is to the polarization stability and linearity of the strain and temperature response. We do this by comparing...... polarization sensitivity of a few-mode 850 nm FBG sensor to a strictly single-mode 850 nm FBG sensor system using 850 nm single-mode fibers. We also compare the performance of the FBGs in strain and temperature tests. Our results show that the polarization stability and the linearity of the response degrade...... due to the presence of the higher-order modes. We demonstrate that, by using simple coiling of the 1550 nm fiber, one can regain the performance of the few-mode system and make it usable for high precision measurements....

  17. Fast scaling of energetic protons generated in the interaction of linearly polarized femtosecond petawatt laser pulses with ultrathin targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, I. Jong; Pae, Ki Hong; Kim, Chul Min; Kim, Hyung Taek; Choi, Il Woo; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Singhal, Himanshu; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Lee, Hwang Woon; Nickles, Peter V.; Jeong, Tae Moon; Nam, Chang Hee

    2015-12-01

    Laser-driven proton/ion acceleration is a rapidly developing research field attractive for both fundamental physics and applications such as hadron therapy, radiography, inertial confinement fusion, and nuclear/particle physics. Laser-driven proton/ion beams, compared to those obtained in conventional accelerators, have outstanding features such as low emittance, small source size, ultra-short duration and huge acceleration gradient of ∼1 MeV μm-1. We report proton acceleration from ultrathin polymer targets irradiated with linearly polarized, 30-fs, 1-PW Ti:sapphire laser pulses. A maximum proton energy of 45 MeV with a broad and modulated profile was obtained when a 10-nm-thick target was irradiated at a laser intensity of 3.3 × 1020 W/cm2. The transition from slow (I1/2) to fast scaling (I) of maximum proton energy with respect to laser intensity I was observed and explained by the hybrid acceleration mechanism including target normal sheath acceleration and radiation pressure acceleration in the acceleration stage and Coulomb-explosion-assisted free expansion in the post acceleration stage.

  18. Linear least square (LLS) method for pixel-resolution analysis of polarization dependent SHG images of collagen fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouède, Denis; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Bomo, Jérémy; Baffet, Georges; Tiaho, François

    2015-05-18

    A linear least square (LLS) method is proposed to process polarization dependent SHG intensity analysis at pixel-resolution level in order to provide an analytic solution of nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) coefficients and of fibril orientation. This model is applicable to fibrils with identical orientation in the excitation volume. It has been validated on type I collagen fibrils from cell-free gel, tendon and extracellular matrix of F1 biliary epithelial cells. LLS is fast (a few hundred milliseconds for a 512 × 512 pixel image) and very easy to perform for non-expert in numerical signal processing. Theoretical simulation highlights the importance of signal to noise ratio for accurate determination of nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) coefficients. The results also suggest that, in addition to the peptide group, a second molecular nonlinear optical hyperpolarizability β contributes to the SHG signal. Finally from fibril orientation analysis, results show that F1 cells remodel extracellular matrix collagen fibrils by changing fibril orientation, which might have important physiological function in cell migration and communication.

  19. Linear response of heat conductivity of normal-superfluid interface of a polarized Fermi gas to orbital magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimian, N., E-mail: n.ebrahimian@aut.ac.ir [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrafarin, M., E-mail: mehrafar@aut.ac.ir [Physics Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afzali, R., E-mail: afzali@kntu.ac.ir [Physics Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran 15418 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    Using perturbed Bogoliubov equations, we study the linear response to a weak orbital magnetic field of the heat conductivity of the normal-superfluid interface of a polarized Fermi gas at sufficiently low temperature. We consider the various scattering regions of the BCS regime and analytically obtain the transmission coefficients and the heat conductivity across the interface in an arbitrary weak orbital field. For a definite choice of the field, we consider various values of the scattering length in the BCS range and numerically obtain the allowed values of the average and species-imbalance chemical potentials. Thus, taking Andreev reflection into account, we describe how the heat conductivity is affected by the field and the species imbalance. In particular, we show that the additional heat conductivity due to the orbital field increases with the species imbalance, which is more noticeable at higher temperatures. Our results indicate how the heat conductivity may be controlled, which is relevant to sensitive magnetic field sensors/regulators at the interface.

  20. Generalized Klein-Nishina formula

    CERN Document Server

    Krajewska, K; Kamiński, J Z

    2015-01-01

    The generalized Klein-Nishina formula for Compton scattering of charged particles by a finite train of pulses is derived in the framework of quantum electrodynamics. The formula also applies to classical Thomson scattering provided that frequencies of generated radiation are smaller that the cut-off frequency. The validity of the formula for incident pulses of different durations is illustrated by numerical examples. The positions of the well-resolved Compton peaks, with the clear labeling by integer orders, opens up the possibility of the precise diagnostics of properties of relativistically intense, short laser pulses. This includes their peak intensity, the carrier-envelope phase, and their polarization properties.

  1. Improved linearity in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors with nonlinear polarization dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Tao [Fundamental Science on EHF Laboratory, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 611731 (China); Science and Technology on Monolithic Integrated Circuits and Modules Laboratory, Nanjing Electronic Devices Institute, Nanjing 210016 (China); Xu, Ruimin [Fundamental Science on EHF Laboratory, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 611731 (China); Kong, Yuechan, E-mail: kycfly@163.com; Zhou, Jianjun; Kong, Cen; Dong, Xun; Chen, Tangsheng [Science and Technology on Monolithic Integrated Circuits and Modules Laboratory, Nanjing Electronic Devices Institute, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate highly improved linearity in a nonlinear ferroelectric of Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})-gated AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT). Distinct double-hump feature in the transconductance-gate voltage (g{sub m}-V{sub g}) curve is observed, yielding remarkable enhancement in gate voltage swing as compared to MIS-HEMT with conventional linear gate dielectric. By incorporating the ferroelectric polarization into a self-consistent calculation, it is disclosed that in addition to the common hump corresponding to the onset of electron accumulation, the second hump at high current level is originated from the nonlinear polar nature of ferroelectric, which enhances the gate capacitance by increasing equivalent dielectric constant nonlinearly. This work paves a way for design of high linearity GaN MIS-HEMT by exploiting the nonlinear properties of dielectric.

  2. Ionization and Dissociation of N2 from 17.5 to 36.5 eV by Linearly and Circularly Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, J. E.; Gay, T. J.; Gould, H.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Machacek, J. R.; McLaughlin, K. W.

    2007-06-01

    We have measured the linear ( P1 ) and circular ( P3 ) polarization of the fluorescence emitted in the , ^2σu^+ ->, ^2σg^+ ;( ν'=0,ν''=0 ) transition (391.4 nm) of N2^+ after photoionization of N2 by both linearly and circularly polarized VUV radiation. The value of P1 for linearly polarized excitation is in qualitative agreement with previous results [1]. Results for circularly-polarized excitation show significantly different energy dependence. In this energy range, photofragmentation into neutral atoms caused by the predissociation of doubly-excited Rydberg states via non-Rydberg doubly-excited resonances competes with photoionization [2]. We have measured the intensity and a distinct non-zero P3 of the fluorescence from the NI,p,^4P^o->3s,^4P,transition (818 nm) between 22.5 and 25 eV which corresponds to the initial excitation of the N2 Rydberg R(C) states. [1] J. A. Guest et al., Phys. Rev. A 28, 2217 (1983) [2] P. Erman et al., Phys. Rev. A 60, 426 (1999) Support provided by the NSF (Grant PHY-0354946), the DOE (LBNL/ALS) and the ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  3. Anisotropy and linear polarization of radiative processes in energetic ion-atom collisions; Untersuchung zur Anisotropie und linearen Polarisation radiativer Prozesse in energiereichen Ion-Atom-Stoessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Guenter

    2010-06-16

    In the present thesis the linear polarization of radiation emitted in energetic ion-atom collisions at the ESR storage ring was measured by applying a novel type of position, timing and energy sensitive X-ray detector as a Compton polarimeter. In contrast to previous measurements, that mainly concentrate on studies of the spectral and angular distribution, the new detectors allowed the first polarization study of the Ly-{alpha}{sub 1} radiation (2p{sub 3/2}{yields}1s{sub 1/2}) in U{sup 91+}. Owing to the high precision of the polarimeters applied here, the experimental results indicate a significant depolarization of the Ly-{alpha}{sub 1} radiation caused by the interference of the E1 and M2 transition branches. Moreover, the current investigation shows that measurements of the linear polarization in combination with angular distribution studies provide a model-independent probe for the ratio of the E1 and M2 transition amplitudes and, consequently, of the corresponding transition probabilities. In addition, a first measurement of the linear polarization as well as an angular distribution study of the electron-nucleus Bremsstrahlung arising from ion-atom collisions was performed. The experimental results obtained were compared to exact relativistic calculations and, in case of the Bremsstrahlung, to a semirelativistic treatment. In general, good agreement was found between theoretical predictions and experimental findings. (orig.)

  4. An unsuccessful attempt to elicit orientation responses to linearly polarized light in hatchling loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Limpus, Colin J; Fritsches, Kerstin A

    2011-03-12

    Sea turtles undertake long migrations in the open ocean, during which they rely at least partly on magnetic cues for navigation. In principle, sensitivity to polarized light might be an additional sensory capability that aids navigation. Furthermore, polarization sensitivity has been linked to ultraviolet (UV) light perception which is present in sea turtles. Here, we tested the ability of hatchling loggerheads (Caretta caretta) to maintain a swimming direction in the presence of broad-spectrum polarized light. At the start of each trial, hatchling turtles, with their magnetic sense temporarily impaired by magnets, successfully established a steady course towards a light-emitting diode (LED) light source while the polarized light field was present. When the LED was removed, however, hatchlings failed to maintain a steady swimming direction, even though the polarized light field remained. Our results have failed to provide evidence for polarized light perception in young sea turtles and suggest that alternative cues guide the initial migration offshore.

  5. Induction of unidirectional π-electron rotations in low-symmetry aromatic ring molecules using two linearly polarized stationary lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Hirobumi; Yamaki, Masahiro; Kim, Gap-Sue; Teranishi, Yoshiaki; Lin, Sheng Hsien; Fujimura, Yuichi

    2016-09-29

    A new laser-control scenario of unidirectional π-electron rotations in a low-symmetry aromatic ring molecule having no degenerate excited states is proposed. This scenario is based on dynamic Stark shifts of two relevant excited states using two linearly polarized stationary lasers. Each laser is set to selectively interact with one of the two electronic states, the lower and higher excited states are shifted up and down with the same rate, respectively, and the two excited states become degenerate at their midpoint. One of the four control parameters of the two lasers, i.e. two frequencies and two intensities, determines the values of all the other parameters. The direction of π-electron rotations, clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation, depends on the sign of the relative phase of the two lasers at the initial time. An analytical expression for the time-dependent expectation value of the rotational angular momentum operator is derived using the rotating wave approximation (RWA). The control scenario depends on the initial condition of the electronic states. The control scenario with the ground state as the initial condition was applied to toluene molecules. The derived time-dependent angular momentum consists of a train of unidirectional angular momentum pulses. The validity of the RWA was checked by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The simulation results suggest an experimental realization of the induction of unidirectional π-electron rotations in low-symmetry aromatic ring molecules without using any intricate quantum-optimal control procedure. This may open up an effective generation method of ring currents and current-induced magnetic fields in biomolecules such as amino acids having aromatic ring molecules for searching their interactions.

  6. XTE J1752-223 in outburst: a persistent radio jet, dramatic flaring, multiple ejections and linear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocksopp, C.; Corbel, S.; Tzioumis, A.; Broderick, J. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Yang, J.; Fender, R. P.; Paragi, Z.

    2013-06-01

    The black hole candidate, XTE J1752-223, was discovered in 2009 October when it entered an outburst. We obtained radio data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array for the duration of the ˜9 month event. The light curves show that the radio emission from the compact jet persisted for the duration of an extended hard state and through the transition to the intermediate state. The flux then rose rapidly by a factor of 10 and the radio source entered a series of at least seven maxima, the first of which was likely to be emission associated with the compact jet. The subsequent six flares were accompanied by variable behaviour in terms of radio spectrum, degree of linear polarization, morphology and associated X-ray behaviour. They were, however, remarkably similar in terms of the estimated minimum power required to launch such an ejection event. We compare the timing of radio peaks with the location of the ejecta, imaged by contemporaneous Very Long Baseline Interferometry experiments. We then discuss the mechanism behind the events, in terms of whether discrete ejections are the most likely description of the behaviour. One ejection, at least, appears to be travelling with apparent superluminal motion. The range of properties, however, suggests that multiple mechanisms may be relevant and that at least some of the emission is coming from shocked interactions amongst the ejecta and between the ejecta and the interstellar medium. We also compare the radio flux density with the X-ray source during the hard state and conclude that XTE J1752-223 is a radio-weak/X-ray-bright outlier on the universal correlation for black hole transient sources.

  7. Highly linearly polarized white light emission from InGaN light-emitting diode with nanograting-integrated fluorescent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghua; Wang, Miao; Cao, Bing; Zhou, Shengming; Lin, Yu; Hu, Jingpei; Wang, Chinhua; Wang, Jianfeng; Sun, Qian; Xu, Ke

    2017-01-01

    We proposed and demonstrated a linearly polarized white light emission from an InGaN light-emitting diode with nanograting-integrated fluorescent ceramics. By incorporating a dielectric layer with low refractive index between multilayer nanogratings and a fluorescent ceramic, both high TM transmission (TMT) and high extinction ratio (ER) were effectively achieved across the entire range of white light. An ER higher than 20 dB and a TMT of 60% were obtained experimentally for a GaN/fluorescent-ceramic-integrated white LED with a multilayer grating of 150 nm period. The fluorescent-ceramic-integrated structure showed possibilities of implementing a polarized white LED with high performance.

  8. Optical anisotropy of polyimide and polymethacrylate containing photocrosslinkable chalcone group in the side chain under irradiation of a linearly polarized UV light

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, D H

    2002-01-01

    Photocrosslinkable soluble polyimide and polymethacrylate compound were synthesized for studying the optically induced anisotropy of the thin films. Chalcone group was introduced into the side chain unit of two polymers. We observed a photodimerization behavior between the double bonds in the chalcone group and an optical anisotropy of these materials by irradiation of a linearly polarized UV light (LPL). Optical anisotropy of the thin film was also investigated by using polarized UV absorption spectroscopy.The dynamic property of optical anisotropy in photoreactive polyimide was compared to that in polymethacrylate containing chalcone group in the side chain.

  9. Efficiency of four-wave mixing between orthogonally polarized linear waves and solitons in a birefringent fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas Arabí, C.; Bessin, F.; Kudlinski, A.; Mussot, A.; Skryabin, D.; Conforti, M.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the interaction between orthogonally polarized solitons and dispersive waves via four-wave mixing in a birefringent fiber. We calculate analytically the efficiency of the phase-sensitive scattering between orthogonally polarized solitons and dispersive waves. Experiments performed by using a photonic crystal fiber perfectly match the analytical predictions.

  10. Selective observation of Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Federov shifts in partial reflection via optimized weak measurements in linear and elliptical polarization basis

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, S; Pal, M; Nandi, A; Panigrahi, P K; Ghosh, N

    2015-01-01

    The spatial and the angular variants of the Goos-H\\"anchen (GH) and the Imbert-Federov (IF) beam shifts contribute in a complex interrelated way to the resultant beam shift in partial reflection at planar dielectric interfaces. Here, we show that the angular GH and the two variants of the IF effects can be decoupled, amplified and separately observed by weak value amplification and subsequent conversion of spatial$\\leftrightarrow$angular nature of the beam shifts using appropriate pre and post selection of polarization states. We experimentally demonstrate such decoupling and illustrate various other intriguing manifestations of weak measurements by employing optimized pre and post selections (based on the eigen polarization states of the shifts) elliptical and / or linear polarization basis. The demonstrated ability to amplify, controllably decouple or combine the beam shifts via weak measurements may prove to be valuable for understanding the different physical contributions of the effects and for their app...

  11. Two-, three-, and four-photon ionization of Mg in the circularly and linearly polarized laser fields: Comparative study using the Hartree-Fock and model potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Buica, Gabriela; 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.05.004

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study multiphoton ionization of Mg in the circularly as well as the linearly polarized laser fields. Specifically two-, three-, and four-photon ionization cross sections from the ground and first excited states are calculated as a function of photon energy. Calculations are performed using the frozen-core Hartree-Fock and also the model potential approaches and the results are compared. We find that the model potential approach provide results as good as or even slightly better than those by the frozen-core Hartree-Fock approach. We also report the relative ratios of the ionization cross sections by the circularly and linearly polarized laser fields as a function of photon energy, which exhibit clear effects of electron correlations.

  12. Photo-alignment of low-molecular mass nematic liquid crystals on photochemically bifunctional chalcone-epoxy film by irradiation of a linearly polarized UV light

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, D H

    2002-01-01

    Photocrosslinkable chalcone-epoxy compound comprising 1,3-bis-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propenone was synthesized for fabricating the photo-alignment layer of liquid crystals. Chalcone group was introduced into the main chain unit of the epoxy oligomer. We observed a photodimerization behavior and an optical anisotropy of this material by irradiation of a linearly polarized UV(LP-UV) light. With a trace amount of cationic photo initiator (TRS-HFA), polymerization of epoxy groups was also conducted at the similar wavelength range used for photodimerization . Linearly polarized UV irradiation on the chalcone-epoxy films with cationic photoinitiator induced optical anisotropy of the film and the resultant film can be used for alignment layers for low molecular weight nematic liquid crystals.

  13. Algebraic Proofs over Noncommutative Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    We study possible formulations of algebraic propositional proof systems operating with noncommutative formulas. We observe that a simple formulation gives rise to systems at least as strong as Frege---yielding a semantic way to define a Cook-Reckhow (i.e., polynomially verifiable) algebraic analogue of Frege proofs, different from that given in [BIKPRS96,GH03]. We then turn to an apparently weaker system, namely, polynomial calculus (PC) where polynomials are written as ordered formulas ("PC over ordered formulas", for short). This is an algebraic propositional proof system that operates with noncommutative polynomials in which the order of products in all monomials respects a fixed linear order on the variables, and where proof-lines are written as noncommutative formulas. We show that the latter proof system is strictly stronger than resolution, polynomial calculus and polynomial calculus with resolution (PCR) and admits polynomial-size refutations for the pigeonhole principle and the Tseitin's formulas. We...

  14. Controlling Chemical Reactions by Short, Intense Mid-Infrared Laser Pulses: Comparison of Linear and Circularly Polarized Light in Simulations of ClCHO(+) Fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuetao; Thapa, Bishnu; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2016-02-25

    Enhanced mode selective fragmentation of oriented ClCHO(+) → Cl + HCO(+), H + ClCO(+), HCl(+) + CO with linear polarized intense mid-IR pulses was demonstrated in our previous computational study ( J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012 , 3 , 2541 ). Simulations of angle-dependent strong field ionization of ClCHO indicate the ionization rate in the molecular plane is nearly twice as large as perpendicular to the plane, suggesting a degree of planar alignment can be obtained experimentally for ClCHO(+), starting from neutral molecules. Classical trajectory calculations with a 4 cycle 7 μm laser pulse (peak intensity of 1.26 × 10(14) W/cm(2)) show that circularly polarized light with the electric field in the plane of the molecule deposits more energy and yields larger branching ratios for higher energy fragmentation channels than linearly polarized light with the same maximum field strength. These results suggest circularly polarized mid-IR pulses can not only achieve control on reactions but also provide an experimentally accessible implementation.

  15. Incomplete degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants in Brazilian surface waters and pursuit of their polar metabolites in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Peter; Rodrigues, Silvana V; Baumann, Wolfram; Knepper, Thomas P

    2002-02-04

    In Brazil more than 90% of the population are not connected to municipal wastewater treatment plants. As a consequence, surface waters receive continuously considerable amounts of untreated domestic sewage containing surfactants as a major constituent. Such polluted waters gave rise to special interest if they are used as a source for the production of drinking water. In this work, the river Rio Macacu (State Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was monitored for the occurrence of the most widely used anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) together with its main degradative product, sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPC). In order to pursue the fate of both compounds after emission into the river, samples were collected at several locations along the river bank, and analyzed applying liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after enrichment by solid-phase extraction. The LAS concentrations ranged between 14 and 155 microg l(-1) and the levels of their metabolic intermediates were found from 1.2 to 14 microg l(-1). The self-purification capacity of the water was impressively demonstrated in the upper course of the river downstream of a town considered as one major discharge point, whereas in the lower course the relative constant concentrations of both analytes were detected which was explained with an overall increasing level of pollution. Furthermore, a series of drinking water samples from Niterói and São Gonçalo, supplied by the same waterworks treating surface waters from the Rio Macacu, were taken during two sampling periods and examined for the presence of the strongly polar SPC which is suspected of by-passing the purification processes. The levels detected in the drinking water ranged between 1.6 and 3.3 microg l(-1). For the analyses of drinking and surface waters the peak pattern of a selected SPC homologue composed by several positional isomers served as an indicator to describe the progression of SPC degradation occurred in the river and could be used to

  16. Linearly polarized pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for Ince-Gaussian laser modes with controllable orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Sen; Zhang, Ming-Ming; Dong, Jun; Ueda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    A tilted, linearly polarized laser diode end-pumped Cr4+:YAG passively Q-switched a-cut Nd:YVO4 microchip laser for generating numerous Ince-Gaussian (IG) laser modes with controllable orientations has been demonstrated by selecting the crystalline orientation of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal. The same IG laser mode with different orientations has been achieved with the same absorbed pump power in a passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 microchip laser under linearly polarized pumping when the incident pump power and the crystalline orientation of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal are both properly selected. The significant improvement of pulsed laser performance of controllable IG modes has been achieved by selecting the crystalline orientation of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal. The maximum pulse energy is obtained along the a-axis of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal and the highest peak power is achieved along the c-axis of an a-cut Nd:YVO4 crystal, respectively, which has potential applications on quantum computation and optical manipulation. The generation of controllable IG laser modes in microchip lasers under linearly polarized pumping provides a convenient and universal way to control IG laser mode numbers with anisotropic crystal as a gain medium.

  17. Measurement of proton polarization in. pi. /sup 0/ photoproduction at theta/sub. pi. //sub =/* = 70/sup 0/ in a linearly polarized photon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, R.O.; Avakyan, E.O.; Avetisyan, A.E.; Agaronyan, A.V.; Asatryan, R.A.; Bagdasaryan, A.S.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Gavalyan, V.G.; Garibyan, Y.A.; Dallakyan, K.R.; and others

    1987-11-01

    The energy dependence of the P/sub x//sub z/ and P/sub y/ components of the polarization vector of the recoil protons has been measured in the photoproduction of ..pi../sup 0/ mesons in hydrogen for an angle theta/sub ..pi..//sub =/* = 70/sup 0/ in the energy range E/sub ..gamma../ = 0.78--1.17 GeV. The results of the measurements are compared with the predictions of various theoretical analyses

  18. Plasmon excitation and electron emission of a carbon nanotube under a linearly polarized laser: A real-time first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kazuki; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2017-09-01

    We study the properties of electron excitation and emission of a finite carbon nanotube (CNT) under a linearly polarized femtosecond laser using real-time time-dependent density-functional theory. We find a plasmon resonance in the near-infrared region of the optical absorption spectrum that is highly sensitive to the laser polarization direction. The laser polarization direction dependence of the plasmon excitation obtained in the present study is consistent with the properties of polarized optical absorption observed in experiments. In electron emission that occurs subsequent to electronic excitation, the yield of emitted electrons also shows a laser polarization direction dependence, and the kinetic energy spectrum of the emitted electrons is broadened in the high-energy regime due to the electron acceleration caused by plasmon-induced electric-field enhancement. The findings of the present study are of crucial importance for understanding the laser-CNT interaction, which is a prerequisite for applications of CNTs in electron emitters, nanodevices, and optoelectronic components and sensors.

  19. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  20. An Empiric Linear Formula between the Internal Tetrahedron Symmetric Stretch Frequency and the Al Content in the Framework of KL Molecular Sieves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nong Yue HE; Chun YANG; Jian Xin TANG; Peng Feng XIAO; Hong CHEN

    2003-01-01

    KL molecular sieves with different framework compositions were secondarily synthesized by substituting Si for Al with a solution of (NH4)2SiF6. The internal tetrahedron symmetric stretch frequency, at ν770 cm-1, is linear with the molar fraction of Al (XAl= Al/(Si+Al)) in the framework of KL samples: XAl = -7.309×10-3 (υ770-760) + 0.3242.

  1. Exact formulae for Higgs production through $e\\gamma \\to eH$ in the non-linear $R_{\\xi}$-gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Cotti, U; Toscano, J J

    1997-01-01

    We study the production of the SM Higgs boson (H^0) at future e gamma colliders, through the reaction e gamma --> e H^0. The amplitude is evaluated using the non-linear R_\\xi gauge, which greatly simplifies the calculation. Complete analytical expressions for the amplitudes are presented, which include the contributions from 1-loop triangles "gamma gamma^* H^0" and "gamma Z^* H^0" as well as the W- and Z-boxes with their related $eeH^0$ triangle graphs. The resulting cross section for this mechanism indicates that it could be used to detect the Higgs signal and to test its properties.

  2. Metallic layer-by-layer photonic crystals for linearly-polarized thermal emission and thermophotovoltaic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P.

    2016-07-26

    Metallic thermal emitters consisting of two layers of differently structured nickel gratings on a homogeneous nickel layer are fabricated by soft lithography and studied for polarized thermal radiation. A thermal emitter in combination with a sub-wavelength grating shows a high extinction ratio, with a maximum value close to 5, in a wide mid-infrared range from 3.2 to 7.8 .mu.m, as well as high emissivity up to 0.65 at a wavelength of 3.7 .mu.m. All measurements show good agreement with theoretical predictions. Numerical simulations reveal that a high electric field exists within the localized air space surrounded by the gratings and the intensified electric-field is only observed for the polarizations perpendicular to the top sub-wavelength grating. This result suggests how the emissivity of a metal can be selectively enhanced at a certain range of wavelengths for a given polarization.

  3. Metallic layer-by-layer photonic crystals for linearly-polarized thermal emission and thermophotovoltaic device including same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P.

    2016-07-26

    Metallic thermal emitters consisting of two layers of differently structured nickel gratings on a homogeneous nickel layer are fabricated by soft lithography and studied for polarized thermal radiation. A thermal emitter in combination with a sub-wavelength grating shows a high extinction ratio, with a maximum value close to 5, in a wide mid-infrared range from 3.2 to 7.8 .mu.m, as well as high emissivity up to 0.65 at a wavelength of 3.7 .mu.m. All measurements show good agreement with theoretical predictions. Numerical simulations reveal that a high electric field exists within the localized air space surrounded by the gratings and the intensified electric-field is only observed for the polarizations perpendicular to the top sub-wavelength grating. This result suggests how the emissivity of a metal can be selectively enhanced at a certain range of wavelengths for a given polarization.

  4. High-precision broad-band linear polarimetry of early-type binaries I. Discovery of variable, phase-locked polarization in HD 48099

    CERN Document Server

    Berdyugin, A; Sadegi, S; Tsygankov, S; Sakanoi, T; Kagitani, M; Yoneda, M; Okano, S; Poutanen, J

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the O-type binary system HD 48099 by measuring linear polarization that arises due to light scattering process. Linear polarization measurements of HD 48099 in the B, V and R passbands with the high-precision Dipol-2 polarimeter have been carried out. The data have been obtained with the 60 cm KVA (Observatory Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain) and T60 (Haleakala, Hawaii, USA) remotely controlled telescopes during 31 observing nights. Polarimetry in the optical wavelengths has been complemented by observations in the X-rays with the SWIFT space observatory. Optical polarimetry revealed small intrinsic polarization in HD 48099 with 0.1% peak to peak variation over the orbital period of 3.08 days. The variability pattern is typical for binary systems, showing strong second harmonic of the orbital period. We apply our model code for the electron scattering in the circumstellar matter to put constraints on the system geometry. A good model fit is obtained for scattering of li...

  5. Non-linear spin wave theory results for the frustrated [Formula: see text] Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a body-centered cubic lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kingshuk; Datta, Trinanjan

    2009-10-07

    At zero temperature the sublattice magnetization of the quantum spin- 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a body-centered cubic lattice with competing first and second neighbor exchange (J(1) and J(2)) is investigated using the non-linear spin wave theory. The zero temperature phases of the model consist of a two sublattice Néel phase for small J(2) (AF(1)) and a collinear phase at large J(2) (AF(2)). We show that quartic corrections due to spin wave interactions enhance the sublattice magnetization in both the AF(1) and the AF(2) phase. The magnetization corrections are prominent near the classical transition point of the model and in the J(2)>J(1) regime. The ground state energy with quartic interactions is also calculated. It is found that up to quartic corrections the first order phase transition (previously observed in this model) between the AF(1) and the AF(2) phase survives.

  6. Detection of Linearly Polarized 6.9 mm Continuum Emission from the Class 0 Young Stellar Object NGC1333 IRAS4A

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Naomi; Rao, Ramprasad; Li, I-Hsiu; Fukagawa, Misato; Girart, Josep M; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We report new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), 0$"$.5 angular resolution observations of linearly polarized continuum emission at 6.9 mm, towards the Class 0 young stellar object (YSO) NGC1333 IRAS4A. This target source is a collapsing dense molecular core, which was resolved at short wavelengths to have hourglass shaped B-field configuration. We compare these 6.9 mm observations with previous polarization Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 0.88 mm, which have comparable angular resolution ($\\sim$0$"$7). We found that at the same resolution, the observed polarization position angles at 6.9 mm are slightly deviated from those observed at 0.88 mm. Due to the lower optical depth of the emission at 6.9 mm, and the potential effect of dust grain growth, the new JVLA observations are likely probing B-field alignments in regions interior to those sampled by the previous polarization observations at higher frequencies. Our understanding can be improved by more sensitive observations, and observations fo...

  7. Detection of Linearly Polarized 6.9 mm Continuum Emission from the Class 0 Young Stellar Object NGC 1333 IRAS4A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Naomi; Rao, Ramprasad; Li, I.-Hsiu; Fukagawa, Misato; Girart, Josep M.; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.

    2016-04-01

    We report new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), 0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_farcs;5 angular resolution observations of linearly polarized continuum emission at 6.9 mm, toward the class 0 young stellar object NGC 1333 IRAS4A. This target source is a collapsing dense molecular core that was resolved at short wavelengths to have an hourglass shaped B-field configuration. We compare these 6.9 mm observations with previous polarization Submillimeter Array observations at 0.88 mm, which have a comparable angular resolution (∼0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_farcs;7). We find that at the same resolution, the observed polarization position angles at 6.9 mm are slightly deviated from those observed at 0.88 mm. Due to the lower optical depth of the emission at 6.9 mm, and the potential effect of dust grain growth, the new JVLA observations are likely probing B-field alignments in regions interior to those sampled by the previous polarization observations at higher frequencies. Our understanding can be improved with more sensitive observations, and with observations for the more extended spatial scales.

  8. Linearly polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN quantum well structure with high indium composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hooyoung; Kim, Eun Kyu; Han, Il Ki; Lee, Sung-Ho; Hwang, Sung-Min

    2011-10-01

    We fabricated yellow (575 nm) emitting a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode (LED). Microstructure and stress relaxation of the InGaN well layer were observed from the images of dark field transmission electron microscopy. The LED chip was operated at 3.7 V, 20 mA, and the polarization-free characteristic in nonpolar InGaN layer was confirmed from a small blue-shift of approximaely 1.7 nm with increase of current density. The high photoluminescence (PL) efficiency of 30.4% showed that this non-polar InGaN layer has a potential of application to green-red long wavelength light emitters. The PL polarization ratio at 290 K was 0.25 and the energy difference between two subbands was estimated to be 40.2 meV. The low values of polarization and energy difference were due to the stress relaxation of InGaN well layer.

  9. Analysis of straightening formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devadatta M. Kulkarni

    1988-01-01

    standard bitableaux (or the set of standard monomials in minors gives a free basis for a polynomial ring in a matrix of indeterminates over a field. The straightening formula expresses a nonstandard bitableau as an integral linear cobmbination of standard bitableaux. In this paper we analyse the exchanges in the process of straightening a nonstandard pure tableau of depth two. We give precisely the number of steps required to straighten a given violation of a nonstandard tableau. We also characterise the violation which is eliminated in a single step.

  10. Time-resolved dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect under elliptically polarized laser

    CERN Document Server

    Otobe, T

    2016-01-01

    The analytical formula for the time-resolved dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect (Tr-DFKE) under an elliptically polarized laser in sub-femtosecond time-scale is reported. The Houston function is assumed as the time-dependent wave function of the parabolic two-band system. The resulting formula shows the sub-cycle change of the optical properties for elliptically polarization; the modulation of the dielectric function becomes smaller than that of linear polarization. On the other hand, the subcycle modulation of the dielectric function disappears for a circularly polarized laser, which is a significant feature of the Tr-DFKE. This analytical formulas show good qualitative agreement with the first-principle calculation employing the time-dependent density functional theory for diamond.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of four different dental gel formulas on cariogenic bacteria evaluated using the linear regression method Atividade antimicrobiana de quatro formulações diferentes de géis dentais em bactérias cariogênicas avaliada pelo método de regressão linear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Araci Bou-Chacra

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of four different dental gel formulas was evaluated on three microorganisms associated with cariogenesis: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei and Actinomyces viscosus. The preliminary antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed using an agar diffusion method. In addition, the formulas were challenged using each microorganism with subsequent determinations of survivors at time intervals of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The decimal reduction time (D-value calculated from the obtained curves (logCFU/mL vs. time was employed for the antimicrobial activity comparison of the formulas. The selected method for survivor enumeration was validated according to official compendia. Results revealed intense bactericidal activity, even at 1:2 dilution, on S. mutans and L. casei. The data concerning A. viscosus showed the absence of microbial reduction in the challenge employing diluted formulas at the selected time interval. The obtained D-values were 0.21, 2.08, 1.93 and 5.79 minutes for formulas 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. After comparing the obtained results, formula 1 can be considered to have the highest bactericidal activity.A atividade antimicrobiana de quatro diferentes fórmulas de gel dental foi avaliada empregando três microrganismos associados à cariogênese: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei e Actinomyces viscosus. A avaliação preliminar foi efetuada utilizando método por difusão em ágar. Além disso, as fórmulas foram desafiadas empregando cada microrganismo e as determinações relativas aos sobreviventes foram efetuadas após 1, 5, 10, 20 e 30 minutos do desafio. O tempo de redução decimal (valor-D foi calculado por meio das curvas obtidas (UFC/mL x tempo, objetivando a comparação da atividade antimicrobiana entre as fórmulas. O método selecionado para a enumeração dos sobreviventes foi validado de acordo com compêndio oficial. Os resultados revelaram intensa atividade antimicrobiana

  12. Transformation hardening by linear-polarized laser beam. Report 2. Development of novel laser beam shaping optics and its applications to materials processing; Chokusen henko reza wo mochiiru hentai koka. 2. Atarashii reza shaping kogakukei no kaihatsu to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, I.; Maruo, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-08-05

    Shape variable laser beam shaping optics for which linear polarized beam is utilized is applied to the hardening of carbon steel by CO2 laser beam to analyze the absorptivity. In addition, linear polarized beam is irradiated to inclined materials for laser hardening to analyze the depth of hardening and the distribution of temperature. The absorptivity of random polarized beam by the bare specimens is as low as 20%. It is as high as above 40% with the graphite coated specimen, but is nearly constant with no dependence on the angle of incidence. The absorptivity in p-polarization increases with the increase in the angle of incidence. When linear polarized beam is used, the total efficiency of the bare specimen becomes high by about 1.5 times that of the graphite coated specimen subjected to random polarized beam. Hardening of bear material by laser beam is quite possible when p-polarization is employed. An approximation equation is derived with which the temperature distribution and hardened depth can be obtained easily if beam distribution and absorptivity are given, and it is applied to the evaluation of laser hardening of inclined specimens using linear polarized beam. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. On corrected formula for irradiated graphene quantum conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsova, N. E.

    2017-09-01

    Graphene membrane irradiated by weak activating periodic electric field in terahertz range is considered. The corrected formula for the graphene quantum conductivity is found. The obtained formula gives complex conjugate results when radiation polarization direction is clockwise or it is opposite clockwise. The found formula allows us to see that the graphene membrane is an oscillating contour. Its eigen frequency coincides with a singularity point of the conductivity and depends on the electrons concentration. So the graphene membrane could be used as an antenna or a transistor and its eigen frequency could be tuned by doping in a large terahertz-infrared frequency range. The obtained formula allows us also to calculate the graphene membrane quantum inductivity and capacitance. The found dependence on electrons concentration is consistent with experiments. The method of the proof is based on study of the time-dependent density matrix. The exact solution of von Neumann equation for density matrix is found for our case in linear approximation on the external field. On this basis the induced current is studied and then the formula for quantum conductivity as a function of external field frequency and temperature is obtained. The method of the proof suggested in this paper could be used to study other problems. The found formula for quantum conductivity can be used to correct the SPPs Dispersion Relation and for the description of radiation process. It would be useful to take the obtained results into account when constructing devices containing graphene membrane nanoantenna. Such project could make it possible to create wireless communications among nanosystems. This would be promising research area of energy harvesting applications.

  14. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child. Does using infant formula increase risk for dental fluorosis? Because most infant formulas contain low levels of ... I use affect my child’s chance of getting dental fluorosis? Three types of infant formula are available in ...

  15. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  16. Application of linear polarized light for the discrimination of frozen and liquid droplets in ice nucleation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Clauss

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development and test results of the new optical particle counter TOPS-Ice (Thermo-stabilized Optical Particle Spectrometer for the detection of Ice. The instrument uses measurements of the cross-polarized scattered light by single particles into the near-forward direction (42.5° ± 12.7° to distinguish between spherical and non-spherical particles. This approach allows the differentiation between liquid water droplets (spherical and ice particles (non-spherical having similar volume-equivalent sizes and therefore can be used to determine the fraction of frozen droplets in a typical immersion freezing experiment. We show that the numerical simulation of the light scattered on non-spherical particles (spheroids in random orientation considering the actual scattering geometry used in the instrument supports the validity of the approach, even though the cross-polarized component of the light scattered by spherical droplets does not vanish in this scattering angle. For the separation of the ice particle mode from the liquid droplet mode, we use the width of the pulse detected in the depolarization channel instead of the pulse height. Exploiting the intrinsic relationship between pulse height and pulse width for Gaussian pulses allows us to calculate the fraction of frozen droplets even if the liquid droplet mode dominates the particle ensemble. We present test results obtained with TOPS-Ice in the immersion freezing experiments at the laminar diffusion chamber LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator and demonstrate the excellent agreement with the data obtained in similar experiments with a different optical instrument. Finally, the advantages of using the cross-polarized light measurements for the differentiation of liquid and frozen droplets in the realistic immersion freezing experiments are discussed.

  17. Linearly polarized, Q-switched, erbium-doped fiber laser incorporating a bulk-structured bismuth telluride/polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinho; Lee, Junsu; Koo, Joonhoi; Chung, Hojai; Lee, Ju Han

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a linearly polarized, passively Q-switched, erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser using a saturable absorber (SA) based on a composite consisting of a bulk-structured bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator (TI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The SA was constructed on a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber ferrule platform, which had a sandwich structure. Its saturation intensity and modulation depth were measured to be ˜ and ˜4.1%, respectively. Using the prepared Bi2Te3/PVA SA in a PM Er-doped fiber ring laser, stable Q-switched pulses with a degree of polarization of ˜98.6% and an azimuth angle of ˜-0.34 deg were demonstrated. The minimum pulse width was measured to be ˜1.58 μs at a repetition rate of 47.1 kHz. This experimental demonstration verifies that a thin film based on a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 TI can fit into a sandwich-structured SA based on PM fiber ferrules.

  18. Development and Testing of a Linear Polarization Resistance Corrosion Rate Probe for Ductile Iron Pipe (Web Report 4361)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North American water and wastewater community has hundreds of millions of feet of ductile iron pipe in service. Only a portion of the inventory has any form of external corrosion control. Ductile iron pipe, in certain environments, is subject to external corrosion.Linear Pola...

  19. Isomorphic Formulae in Classical Propositional Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2009-01-01

    Isomorphism between formulae is defined with respect to categories formalizing equality of deductions in classical propositional logic and in the multiplicative fragment of classical linear propositional logic caught by proof nets. This equality is motivated by generality of deductions. Characterizations are given for pairs of isomorphic formulae, which lead to decision procedures for this isomorphism.

  20. The study of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the magnetic sensors with linear sensitivity using polarized neutron reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T.

    2016-04-01

    The CoFeB sandwiched by Ta and MgO layers enables a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and provides a pathway for such application. In this paper, we reported the origin of PMA in CoFeB using the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR). From PNR experiments, we obtained the details of the magnetic and structural depth profiles inside the film. It is found that the PMA properties of CoFeB layers deposited above and under MgO layer are different and PNR measurements confirmed that a large PMA in the CoFeB above MgO layer is related to its low magnetization. Based on this PMA mechanism, we obtain a high sensitivity of AHE in the perpendicular CoFeB, which opens a new avenue to detect ultralow magnetic field.

  1. Application of linear polarized light for the discrimination of frozen and liquid droplets in ice nucleation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Clauss

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development and test results of the new optical particle counter TOPS-Ice (Thermostabilized Optical Particle Spectrometer for the detection of Ice particles. The instrument uses measurements of the depolarized component of light scattered by single particles into the near-forward direction (42.5° ± 12.7° to distinguish between spherical and non-spherical particles. This approach allows the differentiation between liquid water droplets (spherical and ice particles (non-spherical having similar volume equivalent sizes and therefore can be used to determine the fraction of frozen droplets in a typical immersion freezing experiment. We show that the numerical simulation of the light scattering on non-spherical particles (ellipsoids in random orientation with account for the actual scattering geometry used in the instrument supports the validity of the approach, even though the cross polarized component of the light scattered by spherical droplets is not vanishing in this scattering angle. For the separation of the ice particle mode from the liquid droplet mode, we use the width of the pulse detected in the depolarization channel instead of the pulse height. Exploiting the intrinsic relationship between pulse height and pulse width for Gaussian pulses allows us to calculate the fraction of frozen droplets even if the liquid droplet mode dominates the particle ensemble. We present test results obtained with TOPS-Ice in the immersion freezing experiments at the laminar diffusion chamber LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator and demonstrate the excellent agreement with the data obtained in the same experiment with a different optical instrument. Finally, the advantages of using the cross-polarized light measurements for the differentiation of liquid and frozen droplets in the realistic immersion freezing experiments are discussed.

  2. Manipulation with Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>An equation which gives a general rule for a particular type of problem is called a formula. Frequently it is convenient to transform a formula,that is,express the formula with a dif- ferent subject.Consider the formula C=2πr;the subject is C.However,if we divide both sides by 2π:

  3. Polarization of a Helium-Neon Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an experiment that involves measuring the intensity of laser light passed by a linear polarizer. Discusses polarization effects, orthogonal polarizations, instrumentation, and further experiments. (JRH)

  4. The First Attempt at Non-Linear in Silico Prediction of Sampling Rates for Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and prediction of polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) sampling rates (Rs) for 73 compounds using artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented for the first time. Two models were constructed: the first was developed ab initio using a genetic algorithm (GSD-model) to shortlist 24 descriptors covering constitutional, topological, geometrical and physicochemical properties and the second model was adapted for Rs prediction from a previous chromatographic retention model (RTD-model). Mechanistic evaluation of descriptors showed that models did not require comprehensive a priori information to predict Rs. Average predicted errors for the verification and blind test sets were 0.03 ± 0.02 L d–1 (RTD-model) and 0.03 ± 0.03 L d–1 (GSD-model) relative to experimentally determined Rs. Prediction variability in replicated models was the same or less than for measured Rs. Networks were externally validated using a measured Rs data set of six benzodiazepines. The RTD-model performed best in comparison to the GSD-model for these compounds (average absolute errors of 0.0145 ± 0.008 L d–1 and 0.0437 ± 0.02 L d–1, respectively). Improvements to generalizability of modeling approaches will be reliant on the need for standardized guidelines for Rs measurement. The use of in silico tools for Rs determination represents a more economical approach than laboratory calibrations. PMID:27363449

  5. Toward the Kelvin’s Formula Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    According to the Kelvins formula paradox , a polarized body will be accelerated by its own electrostatic or magnetostatic field. This paradoxical ...a general approach allowing to get rid of this paradox . However, the approach leads to quite complex formulae. Needless to say, a simpler resolution...of the paradox , if possible, would be highly desirable. A potentially simpler resolution of the paradox was recently suggested by our colleagues

  6. Studies of linear correlation factor of dielectric polarization and excess dipolar free energies of amides in apolar solvents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Malathi; R Sabesan; S Krishnan

    2005-09-01

    The Kirkwood–Frohlich correlation factor (), Eyring's parameters and * and the dipolar excess free energies of dilute solutions of formamide, acetamide, -methyl acetamide, , -dimethyl formamide and , -dimethyl acetamide in 1,4-dioxan/benzene were obtained from a measurement of their static dielectric permittivities at 308 K. The fluid structure of these amides is discussed. Both in formamide and acetamide a dimeric linear chain with the individual dipoles more or less parallely oriented is preferred. In -methyl acetamide, the antiparallel orientation of dipoles at lower concentrations turns into a parallel orientation with increase of concentration. In tertiary amides, with increase of concentration, parallel orientation of dipoles with global value of tending to unity is observed. The dipolar excess free energy of mixing in a given solvent is of the order primary amide > secondary amide > tertiary amide.

  7. High power, picosecond green laser based on a frequency-doubled, all-fiber, narrow-bandwidth, linearly polarized, Yb-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenyan; Isyanova, Yelena; Stegeman, Robert; Huang, Ye; Chieffo, Logan R.; Moulton, Peter F.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the development of an all-fiber, 68-kW-peak-power, 16-ps-pulse-width, narrow-bandwidth, linearly polarized, 1064-nm fiber laser suitable for high-power, picosecond-pulse-width, green-light generation. Our 1064-nm fiber laser delivered an average power of up to 110 W at a repetition of 100- MHz in a narrow bandwidth, with minimal nonlinear distortion. We developed a high-power, picosecond green source at 532 nm through use of single-pass frequency-doubling of our 1064-nm fiber laser in lithium triborate (LBO). Using a 15-mm long LBO crystal, we have generated 30 W of average power in the second harmonic with 73-W of fundamental average power, for a conversion efficiency of 41%.

  8. Stable single-polarization single-longitudinal-mode linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on structured chirped fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bin; Liu, Zhibo; Feng, Suchun; Bai, Yunlong; Li, Haisu; Jian, Shuisheng

    2015-01-01

    A novel linear cavity erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser based on a structured chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) filter is proposed for stable single-polarization (SP) single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) operation. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a structured CFBG filter with an ultranarrow transmission band which is generated by tapering directly on CFBG is used to select the laser longitudinal mode. The SLM operation is obtained by using the structured CFBG together with an unpumped EDF acting as a saturable absorber. The fluctuations of the laser peak power and center wavelength are less than 0.07 dB and 1 pm in 1 h, respectively. The stable SP operation is achieved by using the inline broadband polarizer. The measured 20 dB laser linewidth is about 27.7 kHz, which indicates the laser linewidth is approximately 1.39 kHz FWHM.

  9. Indoor radio channel modeling and mitigation of fading effects using linear and circular polarized antennas in combination for smart home system at 868 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, S.; Welpot, M.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    The markets for smart home products and services are expected to grow over the next years, driven by the increasing demands of homeowners considering energy monitoring, management, environmental controls and security. Many of these new systems will be installed in existing homes and offices and therefore using radio based systems for cost reduction. A drawback of radio based systems in indoor environments are fading effects which lead to a high variance of the received signal strength and thereby to a difficult predictability of the encountered path loss of the various communication links. For that reason it is necessary to derive a statistical path loss model which can be used to plan a reliable and cost effective radio network. This paper presents the results of a measurement campaign, which was performed in six buildings to deduce realistic radio channel models for a high variety of indoor radio propagation scenarios in the short range devices (SRD) band at 868 MHz. Furthermore, a potential concept to reduce the variance of the received signal strength using a circular polarized (CP) patch antenna in combination with a linear polarized antenna in an one-to-one communication link is presented.

  10. Antinociceptive effect of linear polarized 0.6 to 1.6 microm irradiation of lumbar sympathetic ganglia in chronic constriction injury rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneshige, Hiroshi; Toda, Katsuhiro; Ma, Dianli; Kimura, Hiroaki; Asou, Tomohiro; Ikuta, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Linear polarized near-infrared light created with linear polarized near-infrared light therapy equipment (Super Lizer HA-550, Tokyo Iken Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) has been used for the treatment of various painful disorders in Japan. Irradiation near the stellate ganglion with a Super Lizer (ISGL) is an especially notable therapeutic method used with stellate ganglion block (SGB) or substitutes for SGB. ISGL is a safe, simple, well-tolerated, and effective treatment. We examined the effects of irradiation with a Super Lizer applied to an area near the lumbar sympathetic ganglia on the ligated side in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, which is believed to be an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Rats showing thermal hyperalgesia in a radiant heat test 1 wk postoperatively were used in Experiments 1 and 2: (1) Thermal hyperalgesia of irradiation group (n = 11) was less than that of the control or nonirradiation (n = 11) group at 1, 3, and 8 h after irradiation; however, the effect disappeared 12 h after irradiation. (2) Daily irradiation (n = 16) and 1 wk (n = 14) from 7 days after nerve ligation significantly shortened the interval from thermal hyperalgesia until recovery. Rats showing mechanical hyperalgesia in the von Frey hair test 1 wk postoperatively were used in Experiment 3: 1 wk irradiation beginning 7 days after nerve ligation (n = 9) did not promote the recovery from mechanical hyperalgesia. We speculate that repeated ISGL may be more effective than a single ISGL in alleviating pain in CRPS patients. We cannot explain the discrepancy between the results obtained in Experiments 2 and 3. We believe the results of this study are relevant to the effect of ISGL for patients with upper-limb CRPS: irradiation near the lumbar sympathetic ganglia of the rat is effective for thermal but not mechanical pain in CCI.

  11. Measurement of polarization observables in the reaction {gamma}p{yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} using linearly polarized photons with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhoyan, Vahe

    2012-07-27

    The spectrum and the properties of baryon resonances can be studied using photons with energies appropriate to excite baryonic states. Double meson photoproduction allows access to cascading resonance decays via other excited states. Also, at higher energies the importance of the double meson photoproduction increases due to higher cross-sections in comparison to single meson photoproduction. To study baryon resonances, the measurement of polarization observables as well as the measurement of differential cross-sections plays a very important role. In this work the three-body polarization observables I{sup s}, I{sup c} and the respective twobody asymmetry {Sigma} were measured for the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} in an incoming photon energy range of E{sub {gamma}} = 970 - 1650 MeV. The data were acquired with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment located at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn, using a linearly polarized photon beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. The observables I{sup s} and I{sup c} which occur in two-meson final states are measured for the first time in the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}. The corresponding two-body asymmetry {Sigma} is measured in an extended energy range in comparison to already existing data. A comparison with theoretical models shows that the polarization observables provide valuable input to study resonance contributions and their decay modes. The D{sub 33}(1700) {yields} {Delta}{pi} decay is studied based on the comparison of the Bonn-Gatchina Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) predictions with the data. Furthermore, a comparison of the data with the Bonn-Gatchina PWA and the Fix isobar model predictions allows to distinguish between these two models. Additionally, band-like structures and peaks are observed in the mass ranges of {Delta}(1232), D{sub 13}(1520), F{sub 15}(1680), f{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 2}(1270) in the according Dalitz plots and invariant mass distributions. The contributions of these

  12. Excel 2013 formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2013-01-01

    Maximize the power of Excel 2013 formulas with this must-have Excel reference John Walkenbach, known as ""Mr. Spreadsheet,"" is a master at deciphering complex technical topics and Excel formulas are no exception. This fully updated book delivers more than 800 pages of Excel 2013 tips, tricks, and techniques for creating formulas that calculate, developing custom worksheet functions with VBA, debugging formulas, and much more. Demonstrates how to use all the latest features in Excel 2013 Shows how to create financial formulas and tap into the power of array formulas

  13. Theory of the Robin quantum wall in a linear potential. I. Energy spectrum, polarization and quantum-information measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendski, O.

    2016-12-01

    Information-theoretical concepts are employed for the analysis of the interplay between a transverse electric field $\\mathscr{E}$ applied to a one-dimensional surface and Robin boundary condition (BC), which with the help of the extrapolation length $\\Lambda$ zeroes at the interface a linear combination of the quantum mechanical wave function and its spatial derivative, and its influence on the properties of the structure. For doing this, exact analytical solutions of the corresponding Schr\\"{o}dinger equation are derived and used for calculating energies, dipole moments, position $S_x$ and momentum $S_k$ quantum information entropies and their Fisher information $I_x$ and $I_k$ and Onicescu information energies $O_x$ and $O_k$ counterparts. It is shown that the weak (strong) electric field changes the Robin wall into the Dirichlet, $\\Lambda=0$ (Neumann, $\\Lambda=\\infty$), surface. This transformation of the energy spectrum and associated waveforms in the growing field defines an evolution of the quantum-information measures; for example, it is proved that for the Dirichlet and Neumann BCs the position (momentum) quantum information entropy varies as a positive (negative) natural logarithm of the electric intensity what results in their field-independent sum $S_x+S_k$. Analogously, at $\\Lambda=0$ and $\\Lambda=\\infty$ the position and momentum Fisher informations (Onicescu energies) depend on the applied voltage as $\\mathscr{E}^{2/3}$ ($\\mathscr{E}^{1/3}$) and its inverse, respectively, leading to the field-independent product $I_xI_k$ ($O_xO_k$). Peculiarities of their transformations at the finite nonzero $\\Lambda$ are discussed and similarities and differences between the three quantum-information measures in the electric field are highlighted with the special attention being paid to the configuration with the negative extrapolation length.

  14. The Callias index formula revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gesztesy, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    These lecture notes aim at providing a purely analytical and accessible proof of the Callias index formula. In various branches of mathematics (particularly, linear and nonlinear partial differential operators, singular integral operators, etc.) and theoretical physics (e.g., nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics, condensed matter physics, and quantum field theory), there is much interest in computing Fredholm indices of certain linear partial differential operators. In the late 1970’s, Constantine Callias found a formula for the Fredholm index of a particular first-order differential operator (intimately connected to a supersymmetric Dirac-type operator) additively perturbed by a potential, shedding additional light on the Fedosov-Hörmander Index Theorem. As a byproduct of our proof we also offer a glimpse at special non-Fredholm situations employing a generalized Witten index.

  15. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based formulas. These formulas are made with cow's milk protein that has been changed to be more like ... be helpful for infants who have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or wheezing ...

  16. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas,Yvan; DE GREEF, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  17. Designing State Aid Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  18. Excel2003 Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Walkenbach, John

    2011-01-01

    Everything you need to know about* Mastering operators, error values, naming techniques, and absolute versus relative references* Debugging formulas and using the auditing tools* Importing and exporting XML files and mapping the data to specific cells* Using Excel 2003's rights management feature* Working magic with array formulas* Developing custom formulas to produce the results you needHere's the formula for Excel excellenceFormulas are the lifeblood of spreadsheets, and no one can bring a spreadsheet to life like John Walkenbach. In this detailed reference guide, he delves deeply into unde

  19. Coherent π-electron dynamics of (P)-2,2'-biphenol induced by ultrashort linearly polarized UV pulses: angular momentum and ring current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, H; Lin, S H; Fujimura, Y

    2013-02-21

    The results of a theoretical investigation of coherent π-electron dynamics for nonplanar (P)-2,2'-biphenol induced by ultrashort linearly polarized UV pulses are presented. Expressions for the time-dependent coherent angular momentum and ring current are derived by using the density matrix method. The time dependence of these coherences is determined by the off-diagonal density matrix element, which can be obtained by solving the coupled equations of motion of the electronic-state density matrix. Dephasing effects on coherent angular momentum and ring current are taken into account within the Markov approximation. The magnitudes of the electronic angular momentum and current are expressed as the sum of expectation values of the corresponding operators in the two phenol rings (L and R rings). Here, L (R) denotes the phenol ring in the left (right)-hand side of (P)-2,2'-biphenol. We define the bond current between the nearest neighbor carbon atoms Ci and Cj as an electric current through a half plane perpendicular to the Ci-Cj bond. The bond current can be expressed in terms of the inter-atomic bond current. The inter-atomic bond current (bond current) depends on the position of the half plane on the bond and has the maximum value at the center. The coherent ring current in each ring is defined by averaging over the bond currents. Since (P)-2,2'-biphenol is nonplanar, the resultant angular momentum is not one-dimensional. Simulations of the time-dependent coherent angular momentum and ring current of (P)-2,2'-biphenol excited by ultrashort linearly polarized UV pulses are carried out using the molecular parameters obtained by the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method. Oscillatory behaviors in the time-dependent angular momentum (ring current), which can be called angular momentum (ring current) quantum beats, are classified by the symmetry of the coherent state, symmetric or antisymmetric. The bond current of the bridge bond linking the L and R

  20. Radiative Transfer Modeling of Radio-band Linear Polarization Observations as a Probe of the Physical Conditions in the Jets of Gamma-ray Flaring Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, Margo F; Aller, Hugh D; Hovatta, Talvikki; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s the shock-in-jet model has been the preferred paradigm to explain radio-band flaring in blazar jets. We describe our radiative transfer model incorporating relativistically-propagating shocks, and illustrate how the 4.8, 8, and 14.5 GHz linear polarization and total flux density data from the University of Michigan monitoring program, in combination with the model, constrain jet flow conditions and shock attributes. Results from strong Fermi-era flares in 4 blazars with widely-ranging properties are presented. Additionally, to investigate jet evolution on decadal time scales we analyze 3 outbursts in OT 081 spanning nearly 3 decades and find intrinsic changes attributable to flow changes at a common spatial location, or, alternatively, to a change in the jet segment viewed. The model's success in reproducing these data supports a scenario in which relativistic shocks compress a plasma with an embedded passive, initially-turbulent magnetic field, with additional ordered magnetic field compo...

  1. Elucidation of structure-function relationships in photosynthetic light-harvesting antenna complexes by non-linear polarization spectroscopy in the frequency domain (NLPF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokstein, Heiko; Krikunova, Maria; Teuchner, Klaus; Voigt, Bernd

    2011-08-15

    Photosynthetically active pigments are usually organized into pigment-protein complexes. These include light-harvesting antenna complexes (LHCs) and reaction centers. Site energies of the bound pigments are determined by interactions with their environment, i.e., by pigment-protein as well as pigment-pigment interactions. Thus, resolution of spectral substructures of the pigment-protein complexes may provide valuable insight into structure-function relationships. By means of conventional (linear) and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, however, it is often difficult to resolve the spectral substructures of complex pigment-protein assemblies. Nonlinear polarization spectroscopy in the frequency domain (NLPF) is shown to be a valuable technique in this regard. Based on initial experimental work with purple bacterial antenna complexes as well as model systems NLPF has been extended to analyse the substructure(s) of very complex spectra, including analyses of interactions between chlorophylls and "optically dark" states of carotenoids in LHCs. The paper reviews previous work and outlines perspectives regarding the application of NLPF spectroscopy to disentangle structure-function relationships in pigment-protein complexes.

  2. Effects of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays and stretching on muscle tone in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nobuyuki; Takezako, Nobuhiro; Shimonishi, Yuko; Usuda, Shigeru

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays (HI-LPNR) and stretching on hypertonia in cerebrovascular disease patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 cerebrovascular disease patients with hypertonia of the ankle joint plantar flexor muscle. The subjects were randomly allocated to groups undergoing treatment with HI-LPNR irradiation (HI-LPNR group), stretching (stretching group), HI-LPNR irradiation followed by stretching (combination group), and control group (10 subjects each). In all groups, the passive range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and passive resistive joint torque of ankle dorsiflexion were measured before and after the specified intervention. [Results] The changes in passive range of motion, significant increase in the stretching and combination groups compared with that in the control group. The changes in passive resistive joint torque, significant decrease in HI-LPNR, stretching, and combination groups compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has effect of decrease muscle tone. However, combination of HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has no multiplier effect.

  3. The parsec-scale distributions of intensity, linear polarization and Faraday rotation in the core and jet of Mrk501 at 8.4-1.6 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croke, S. M.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Gabuzda, D. C.

    2010-02-01

    Previous very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the nearby (z = 0.0337) active galactic nucleus (AGN) Mrk501 have revealed a complex total-intensity structure with an approximately 90° misalignment between the jet orientations on parsec and kiloparsec scales. The jet displays a `spine' of magnetic field orthogonal to the jet surrounded by a `sheath' of magnetic field aligned with the jet. Mrk501 is also one of a handful of AGN that are regularly detected at TeV energies, indicating the presence of high-energy phenomena in the core. However, multi-epoch analyses of the VLBI total-intensity structure have yielded only very modest apparent speeds for features in the VLBI jet. We investigate the total-intensity and linear-polarization structures of the parsec- to decaparsec-scale jet of Mrk501 using VLBA observations at 8.4, 5, 2.2 and 1.6 GHz. The rotation-measure distribution displays the presence of a Faraday rotation gradient across an extended stretch of the jet, providing new evidence for a helical magnetic field associated with the jet of this AGN. The position of the radio core from the base of the jet follows the law rcore(ν) ~ ν-1.1+/-0.2, consistent with the compact inner jet region being in equipartition. Hence, we estimate a magnetic field strength of ~40 mG at a distance of 1 pc.

  4. Compton polarimetry detection of small circularly and linearly polarized impurities in Mössbauer 8.4 keV (3/2-1/2) M1 γ-transition of 169Tm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinoev, V.; Cherepanov, V.; Shuvalov, V.; Balysh, A.; Gabbasov, R.

    2016-12-01

    The arrangement of an experiment to detect the P-odd and P, T-odd polarized part of the Mössbauer (+3/2- +1/2) gamma transition of a deformed 169Tm nucleus with an energy of 8.4 keV by Compton polarimetry is discussed. Tm 2O3 single crystal with a quadrupolarly split Mössbauer spectrum is proposed as a resonance polarizer. A Be-scatterer-based Compton polarimeter and a synchronously detecting system will be used to measure the P-odd circular polarization P C and P, T-odd linear polarization P L .The expected accuracy of measuring the relative magnitude of the P, T-odd contribution is about 1% of the magnitude of usual weak nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  5. Compton polarimetry detection of small circularly and linearly polarized impurities in Mössbauer 8.4 keV (3/2-1/2) M1 γ-transition of {sup 169}Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsinoev, V.; Cherepanov, V.; Shuvalov, V.; Balysh, A.; Gabbasov, R., E-mail: graul@list.ru [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The arrangement of an experiment to detect the P−odd and P, T−odd polarized part of the Mössbauer ({sup +}3/2– {sup +}1/2) gamma transition of a deformed {sup 169}Tm nucleus with an energy of 8.4 keV by Compton polarimetry is discussed. Tm {sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal with a quadrupolarly split Mössbauer spectrum is proposed as a resonance polarizer. A Be-scatterer-based Compton polarimeter and a synchronously detecting system will be used to measure the P-odd circular polarization P{sub C}and P, T-odd linear polarization P{sub L}.The expected accuracy of measuring the relative magnitude of the P, T-odd contribution is about 1% of the magnitude of usual weak nucleon–nucleon interaction.

  6. Polarization dependence of Z-scan measurement: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2009-04-13

    Here we report on an extension of common Z-scan method to arbitrary polarized incidence light for measurements of anisotropic third-order nonlinear susceptibility in isotropic medium. The normalized transmittance formulas of closed-aperture Z-scan are obtained for linearly, elliptically and circularly polarized incidence beam. The theoretical analysis is examined experimentally by studying third-order nonlinear susceptibility of CS2 liquid. Results show that the elliptically polarized light Z-scan method can be used to measure simultaneously the two third-order nonlinear susceptibility components chi(3)(xyyx) and chi(3)(xxyy). Furthermore, the elliptically polarized light Z-scan measurements of large nonlinear phase shift are also analyzed theoretically and experimentally.

  7. Quasi-linearly polarized hybrid modes in tapered and metal-coated tips with circular apertures: understanding the functionality of aperture tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugchin, B. N.; Janunts, N.; Steinert, M.; Dietrich, K.; Kley, E. B.; Tünnermann, A.; Pertsch, T.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigate analytically and experimentally the roles of quasi-linearly polarized (LP), hybrid, plasmonic and photonic modes in optical detection and excitation with aperture tips in scanning near-field optical microscopy. Aperture tips are tapered and metal-coated optical fibers where small circular apertures are made at the apex. In aperture tips, there exist plasmonic modes that are bound at the interface of the metal cladding to the inner dielectric fiber and photonic modes that are guided in the area of the increased index in the dielectric fiber core. The fundamental photonic mode, although excited by the free-space Gaussian beam, experiences cutoff and turns into an evanescent mode. The photonic mode also becomes lossier than the plasmonic mode toward the tip aperture, and its power decay due to absorption and reflection is expected to be at least 10-9. In contrast, the fundamental plasmonic mode has no cutoff and thus reaches all the way to the tip aperture. Due to the non-adiabaticity of both modes’ propagations through the taper below a core radius of 600 nm, there occurs coupling between the modes. The transmission efficiency of the plasmonic mode, including the coupling efficiency and the propagation loss, is expected to be about 10-6 that is at least 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the photonic mode. Toward the tip aperture, the longitudinal field of the photonic mode becomes stronger than the transverse ones while the transverse fields always dominate for the plasmonic mode. Experimentally, we obtain polarization resolved images of the near-field at the tip aperture and compare with the x- and y-components of the fundamental quasi-LP plasmonic and photonic modes. The results show that not only the pattern but also the intensity ratios of the x- and y-components of the aperture near-field match with that of the fundamental plasmonic mode. Consequently, we conclude that only the plasmonic mode reaches the tip aperture and

  8. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  9. China's Formula,Go!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ On the first day of November,when Jenson Button cheered his first Formula I World Championship 2009 at the final race of the season in Abu Dhabi,Chinese young university students were busy preparing for their own Formula event.According to a press conference on October 19,2009 in Beijing,the first Formula SAE-China (FSAE) event has set off,and will be officially launch its final race next year from October 14 to October 17 at Shanghai International Circuit,where will also be the Formula 12010 China stop again in next April.

  10. Tube formula, Berezinians, and Dwork formula

    CERN Document Server

    Khudaverdian, Hovhannes M

    2007-01-01

    We consider an example of tubes of hypersurfaces in Euclidean space and generalise the tube formula to supercase. By this we assign to a point of the hypersurface in superspace a rational characteristic function. Does this rational function appear when we calculate the zeta-function of an arithmetic variety?

  11. Reduction of interleukin-6 expression in human synoviocytes and rheumatoid arthritis rat joints by linear polarized near infrared light (Superlizer) irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Imaoka, Asayo; Kuboyama, Noboru; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that involves inflammation and pain of joints. Low-level laser irradiation is being evaluated for treating RA, however, the effectiveness of linear polarized near infrared light (SuperLizer; SL) irradiation is unclear. It has been reported that interleukin 6 (IL-6) plays a key role in the progression of RA. In our previous study, using DNA microarray analysis, we examined the gene expression profiling of human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A in response to IL-1ß administration and SL irradiation. As a result, IL-6 was listed in altered gene as increased by IL-1ß and decreased by SL irradiation. The reduction of IL-6 gene expression in MH7A by SL irradiation was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Effect of SL irradiation on the RA inflammation in the collagen induced arthritis (CIA) rats was also studied by measuring temperature. IL-6 production in knee joint of rats was analyzed by immunohisto-chemistry. Scatter plot analysis demonstrated that an increase in IL-6 gene expression by IL-1ß was reduced by SL irradiation. The reduction of IL-6 mRNA level by SL irradiation was successfully confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. SL irradiation treated CIA rat decreased the temperature of knee joints. The immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a strong IL-6 staining in synovial membrane tissue of CIA rat joint, and SL irradiation significantly reduced the staining. Since IL-6 has been identified to be an important proinflarnmatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of RA, the reduction of IL-6 expression is one of mechanisms in reduction of inflammation in RA joints by SL irradiation suggesting that SL irradiation may be useful for RA therapy. SL irradiation reduced IL-6 gene expression in MH7A, and reduced inflammation and IL-6 protein expression in knee joint of CIA rats.

  12. General forecasting correcting formula

    OpenAIRE

    Harin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A general forecasting correcting formula, as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts, is created. The formula provides new forecasting resources and new possibilities for expansion of forecasting including economic forecasting into the areas of municipal needs, middle-size and small-size business and, even, to individual forecasting.

  13. Perfect IFG-formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Allen L

    2008-01-01

    IFG logic is a variant of the independence-friendly logic of Hintikka and Sandu. We answer the question: ``Which IFG-formulas are equivalent to ordinary first-order formulas?'' We use the answer to show that the ordinary cylindric set algebra over a structure can be embedded into a reduct of the IFG-cylindric set algebra over the structure.

  14. Formula misasi?! / Sten Soomlais

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomlais, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Formula Student on kõrgkoolide masinaehituse ja/või autotehnika tudengite meeskondade vaheline iga-aastane tootearendusvõistlus, mis kujutab endast väikese vormelauto projekteerimist, ehitamist ja võidusõitmist ringrajal. Lisa: Formula Student Eestis

  15. General forecasting correcting formula

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A general forecasting correcting formula, as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts, is created. The formula provides new forecasting resources and new possibilities for expansion of forecasting including economic forecasting into the areas of municipal needs, middle-size and small-size business and, even, to individual forecasting.

  16. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  17. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  18. Formula misasi?! / Sten Soomlais

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomlais, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Formula Student on kõrgkoolide masinaehituse ja/või autotehnika tudengite meeskondade vaheline iga-aastane tootearendusvõistlus, mis kujutab endast väikese vormelauto projekteerimist, ehitamist ja võidusõitmist ringrajal. Lisa: Formula Student Eestis

  19. New formulae between Jacobi polynomials and some fractional Jacobi functions generalizing some connection formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhameed, W. M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a new formula relating Jacobi polynomials of arbitrary parameters with the squares of certain fractional Jacobi functions is derived. The derived formula is expressed in terms of a certain terminating hypergeometric function of the type _4F3(1) . With the aid of some standard reduction formulae such as Pfaff-Saalschütz's and Watson's identities, the derived formula can be reduced in simple forms which are free of any hypergeometric functions for certain choices of the involved parameters of the Jacobi polynomials and the Jacobi functions. Some other simplified formulae are obtained via employing some computer algebra algorithms such as the algorithms of Zeilberger, Petkovsek and van Hoeij. Some connection formulae between some Jacobi polynomials are deduced. From these connection formulae, some other linearization formulae of Chebyshev polynomials are obtained. As an application to some of the introduced formulae, a numerical algorithm for solving nonlinear Riccati differential equation is presented and implemented by applying a suitable spectral method.

  20. FORMULAS OF TENSION OF CONTINUOUS ROLLING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Z. Zhang; X.P. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The development of computer controlled continuous rolling process calls for a mathematicalexpression that can express the inequality condition of "constant flow". Tension is the link of thecontinuous rolling process. From the condition of dynamic equilibrium, a differential equation oftension is given out. On the basis of the physical rules established from the industrial practice andexperimental studies, the law of volume constancy, the linear relation of forward slip and tension,the state equation of continuous rolling, the formula of dynamic tension, and the formula of statictension have been obtained. These formulae reflect the functional relations between tensions,thickness, roll velocity, and time in the continuous rolling process. It is implied that the continuousrolling process is a gradually steady, controllable, and measurable dynamic system. An assumptionof predicting the thickness of a steel plate using these tension formulae is also put forward.

  1. Theory of solvation in polar nematics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapko, V; Kapko, Vitaly; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a linear response theory of solvation of ionic and dipolar solutes in anisotropic, axially symmetric polar solvents. The theory is applied to solvation in polar nematic liquid crystals. The formal theory constructs the solvation response function from projections of the solvent dipolar susceptibility on rotational invariants. These projections are obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of a fluid of dipolar spherocylinders which can exist both in the isotropic and nematic phase. Based on the properties of the solvent susceptibility from simulations and the formal solution, we have obtained a formula for the solvation free energy which incorporates experimentally available properties of nematics and the length of correlation between the dipoles in the liquid crystal. Illustrative calculations are presented for the Stokes shift and Stokes shift correlation function of coumarin-153 in 4-n-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) and 4,4-n-heptyl-cyanopiphenyl (7CB) solvents as a function of temperature in both th...

  2. A Translational Polarization Rotator

    CERN Document Server

    Chuss, David T; Pisano, Giampaolo; Ackiss, Sheridan; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ng, Ming wah

    2012-01-01

    We explore a free-space polarization modulator in which a variable phase introduction between right- and left-handed circular polarization components is used to rotate the linear polarization of the outgoing beam relative to that of the incoming beam. In this device, the polarization states are separated by a circular polarizer that consists of a quarter-wave plate in combination with a wire grid. A movable mirror is positioned behind and parallel to the circular polarizer. As the polarizer-mirror distance is separated, an incident linear polarization will be rotated through an angle that is proportional to the introduced phase delay. We demonstrate a prototype device that modulates Stokes Q and U over a 20% bandwidth.

  3. Laser beam splitting by polarization encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chenhao

    2015-03-20

    A scheme is proposed to design a polarization grating that splits an incident linearly polarized beam to an array of linearly polarized beams of identical intensity distribution and various azimuth angles of linear polarization. The grating is equivalent to a wave plate with space-variant azimuth angle and space-variant phase retardation. The linear polarization states of all split beams make the grating suitable for coherent beam combining architectures based on Dammann gratings.

  4. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  5. A universal formula for network functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelboe, Stig

    1975-01-01

    A linear electrical network can be described in a convenient way by means of the node equations. This letter presents a universal formula which expresses any network function as the quotient of two determinants. The determinants belong to matrices derived from the indefinite nodal admittance...

  6. Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygiel, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)

  7. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  8. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  9. Geometrization of Trace Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Following our joint work arXiv:1003.4578 with Robert Langlands, we make the first steps toward developing geometric methods for analyzing trace formulas in the case of the function field of a curve defined over a finite field. We also suggest a conjectural framework of geometric trace formulas for curves defined over the complex field, which exploits the categorical version of the geometric Langlands correspondence.

  10. Modified elliptically polarized light Z-scan method for studying third-order nonlinear susceptibility components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Zang, Wei-Ping; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2010-05-10

    The normal elliptically polarized light Z-scan method is modified by adding a quarter-wave plate and an analyzer before the detector. The normalized transmittance formulas of modified elliptically polarized light Z-scan are obtained for media with negligible nonlinear absorption. Compared with normal linearly and elliptically polarized light Z-scan methods, an increase of sensitivity by a factor of larger than 4 is achieved for the real part of third-order susceptibility component's measurements using this modified elliptically polarized light Z-scan method. The analytical results are verified by studying the real part of independent susceptibility components of CS(2) liquid. Moreover, the potential application for cross-polarized wave generation is discussed. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  11. A Formula for the Logarithm of the KZ Associator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Enriquez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the logarithm of a group-like element in a free algebra coincides with its image by a certain linear map. We use this result and the formula of Le and Murakami for the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov (KZ associator Φ to derive a formula for log(Φ in terms of MZV's (multiple zeta values.

  12. Polarized beam splitting effect in inhomogeneously magnetized magnetooptic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, M

    1989-10-15

    Linearly polarized light passing through a several micron thick magnetooptic film in the inhomogeneous magnetization state is split into a linearly polarized central beam and linearly polarized first and higher order diverging rings. The polarization of the central output beam lies in the same direction as the linearly polarized input, while the polarization of the diverging rings lies in a direction orthogonal to the input plane of polarization. The effect is described, and applications of the effect are discussed.

  13. Doubling the spectrum of time-domain induced polarization: removal of non-linear self-potential drift, harmonic noise and spikes, tapered gating, and uncertainty estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Per-Ivar; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Larsen, Jakob Juul;

    This paper presents an advanced signal processing scheme for time-domain induced polarization full waveform data. The scheme includes several steps with an improved induced polarization (IP) response gating design using convolution with tapered windows to suppress high frequency noise...... of noise model parameters for each segment, a full harmonic noise model is subtracted. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the background drift removal is estimated which together with the gating uncertainty estimate and a uniform uncertainty gives a total, data-driven, error estimate for each IP gate...

  14. Importance of the alignment of polar π conjugated molecules inside carbon nanotubes in determining second-order non-linear optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumura, Takashi; Yamamoto, Wataru

    2017-09-20

    We employed density functional theory (DFT) calculations with dispersion corrections to investigate energetically preferred alignments of certain p,p'-dimethylaminonitrostilbene (DANS) molecules inside an armchair (m,m) carbon nanotube (n × DANS@(m,m)), where the number of inner molecules (n) is no greater than 3. Here, three types of alignments of DANS are considered: a linear alignment in a parallel fashion and stacking alignments in parallel and antiparallel fashions. According to DFT calculations, a threshold tube diameter for containing DANS molecules in linear or stacking alignments was found to be approximately 1.0 nm. Nanotubes with diameters smaller than 1.0 nm result in the selective formation of linearly aligned DANS molecules due to strong confinement effects within the nanotubes. By contrast, larger diameter nanotubes allow DANS molecules to align in a stacking and linear fashion. The type of alignment adopted by the DANS molecules inside a nanotube is responsible for their second-order non-linear optical properties represented by their static hyperpolarizability (β0 values). In fact, we computed β0 values of DANS assemblies taken from optimized n × DANS@(m,m) structures, and their values were compared with those of a single DANS molecule. DFT calculations showed that β0 values of DANS molecules depend on their alignment, which decrease in the following order: linear alignment > parallel stacking alignment > antiparallel stacking alignment. In particular, a linear alignment has a β0 value more significant than that of the same number of isolated molecules. Therefore, the linear alignment of DANS molecules, which is only allowed inside smaller diameter nanotubes, can strongly enhance their second-order non-linear optical properties. Since the nanotube confinement determines the alignment of DANS molecules, a restricted nanospace can be utilized to control their second-order non-linear optical properties. These DFT findings can assist in the design

  15. Photoproduction of Λ and Σ0 hyperons using linearly polarized photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, C. A.; Ireland, D. G.; Livingston, K.; McKinnon, B.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Akbar, Z.; Amaryan, M.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Badui, R. A.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chetry, T.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Fanchini, E.; Fedotov, G.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Glazier, D. I.; Gleason, C.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; Mayer, C. A.; McCracken, M. E.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Torayev, B.; Tucker, R.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.

    2016-06-01

    Background: Measurements of polarization observables for the reactions (gamma) over right arrowp -> K+ Lambda and (gamma) over right arrowp -> K+ Sigma(0) have been performed. This is part of a program of measurements designed to study the spectrum of baryon resonances in particular, and nonperturbative QCD in general. Purpose: The accurate measurement of several polarization observables provides tight constraints for phenomenological fits, which allow the study of strangeness in nucleon and nuclear systems. Beam-recoil observables for the (gamma) over right arrowp -> K+ Sigma(0) reaction have not been reported before now. Method: Themeasurements were carried out using linearly polarized photon beams incident on a liquid hydrogen target, and the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The energy range of the results is 1.71 < W < 2.19 GeV, with an angular range -0.75 < cos theta(K)* < +0.85. Results: The observables extracted for both reactions are beam asymmetry Sigma, target asymmetry T, and the beam-recoil double polarization observables O-x and O-z. Conclusions: Comparison with theoretical fits indicates that, in the regions where no previous data existed, the new data contain significant new information, and strengthen the evidence for the set of resonances used in the latest Bonn-Gatchina fit.

  16. The Pico's formula Generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sergiu Cataranciuc; Marina Holban

    2007-01-01

    The Pico formula generalizations are obtained for area calculation of a polygon P through the determination of special nodes of the network in which this P is placed. The case of the polygon with rational coordinates of its vertexes is examined, as well as the case of the polygon with holes. In the case of three-dimensional space a formula of volume calculation for some polyhedrons, such as prism and tetrahedron is presented. On the basis of theoretic outcomes an algorithm that can be applied...

  17. The Pico's formula Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Cataranciuc

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Pico formula generalizations are obtained for area calculation of a polygon P through the determination of special nodes of the network in which this P is placed. The case of the polygon with rational coordinates of its vertexes is examined, as well as the case of the polygon with holes. In the case of three-dimensional space a formula of volume calculation for some polyhedrons, such as prism and tetrahedron is presented. On the basis of theoretic outcomes an algorithm that can be applied in calculation for areas of plane figure is elaborated.

  18. The radio-on-fiber-wavelength-division-multiplexed-passive-optical network (WDM-RoF-PON) for wireless and wire layout with linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and carrier reusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Chang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we design a WDM-RoF-PON based on linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and CSRZ-DPSK, which can achieve wire-line and wireless access synchronously. With the CSRZ-DPSK modulation, the wireless access in ONU can save RF source and the frequency of radio carrier can be controlled by OLT. The dual-wavelength fiber laser is the union light source of WDM-PON with polarization multiplexing. By the RSOA and downstream light source reusing, the ONU can save omit laser source and makes the WDM-PON to be colorless. The networking has the credible transmission property, including wireless access and fiber transmission. The networking also has excellent covering range.

  19. Research Timeline: Formulaic language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

  20. Formula Based Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Doug; Picus, Lawrence O.

    1999-01-01

    Recognizing that traditional salary bargaining is divisive and that teacher salaries should remain competitive, Temple City (California) Unified School District has been experimenting with formula-based compensation for the past four years. Primary benefits are lack of conflict over salary increases, which are determined before negotiating other…

  1. The Formula Essay Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluska, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

  2. Amplification of electromagnetic field in the course of the nonrelativistic electron scattering by ion in the presence of the field of the medium-intensity elliptically polarized light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshchupkin, S. P.

    2009-08-01

    The amplification factor of the electromagnetic field is theoretically studied for the scattering of nonrelativistic electrons by ions in the presence of the field of the elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave. A simple analytical formula for the gain is derived for the medium-intensity range. The formula supplements and extends the domain of applicability of the known Marcuse formula for the linear polarization in the presence of a weak field. It is demonstrated that the maximum gain is reached when the initial electron velocities belong to the polarization plane of the electromagnetic wave. In the range of optical frequencies, the amplification factor of the laser radiation can be significant for relatively high powers of electron beams.

  3. Case Study: Enteral formula: Selecting the right formula for your ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renée Blaauw, Division of Human Nutrition, Stellenbosch University. Anna-Lena du Toit, Dietetics .... standard enteral formulae require specialized renal formulae. Respiratory. • Modified .... not yet referred for renal replacement therapy (RRT).

  4. Non-Linear Approximation of Bayesian Update

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2016-06-23

    We develop a non-linear approximation of expensive Bayesian formula. This non-linear approximation is applied directly to Polynomial Chaos Coefficients. In this way, we avoid Monte Carlo sampling and sampling error. We can show that the famous Kalman Update formula is a particular case of this update.

  5. Measurement of proton polarization in the reaction. gamma. /ital p//r arrow//ital p/. pi. /sup 0/ at an angle theta/sup *//sub. pi. /sup 0//=80/degree/ in a linearly polarized photon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, R. O.; Avakyan, E. O.; Avetisyan, A. E.; Aivazyan, R. B.; Arestakesyan, G. A.; Bagdasryan, A. S.; Vartapetyan, G. A.; Garibyan, Y. A.; Eganov, V. S.; Karapetyan, A. P.; and others

    1988-12-01

    Measurements are reported of the energy dependence of the /ital p//sub /ital xz// and /ital P//sub /ital y// components of the polarization vector of the recoil protons in the reaction ..gamma../ital p//r arrow//ital p/..pi../sup 0/ for a ..pi../sup 0/-meson production angle theta/sup *//sub ..pi../sup 0// =80/degree/ in the c.m.s. in the ..gamma..-ray energy range /ital E//sub ..gamma../=730--1066 MeV. The experimental data are compared with the results of various phenomenological analyses.

  6. Temperature dependent polarization of the thermal radiation emitted by thin, hot tungsten wires

    CERN Document Server

    Borghesani, A F; Ruoso, G

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements of the temperature $T $ dependence of the linear polarization $ $ of the thermal radiation emitted by thin, incandescent tungsten wires. We investigate an interval ranging from a little above room temperature up to melting, $T_m= 3695\\,$K. These are the first measurements in such wide a range. We found that $ $ decreases with increasing temperature. We obtained a satisfactory agreement with the theoretical predictions based on the Kirchhoff's law by using a Drude-type formula for the optical properties of tungsten. This formula was tested and its parameters were assessed as valid for $T\\leq 2400 \\,$K and for wavelengths in the range from visible up to $\\lambda\\approx 2.6\\,\\mu$m. We have extended the range of validity of this formula for $T$ up to $T_m$ and for $\\lambda$ up to $\\approx 12\\,\\mu$m.

  7. Formulas of Revised MRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bregni

    2013-04-01

    innovation to the main process functioning. As a result, the proposed algorithm copes better with demand uncertainty, lowers the system nervousness and also removes the need for continuous forecast adjustments, thereby improving the ease in managing the material flow, allowing the development of new forms of collaboration among different supply chain partners and the creation of new business networks. The algorithm is presented in formulas to describe in detail each procedure step and calculations.

  8. Non-linearly phased 2-D array transducers arranged on a cylindrical-polar grid for real time guided wave mode control and steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannajosyula, H.; Lissenden, C. J.; Rose, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave mode control and steering using phased array transducers (PATs) is studied. A PAT with elements arranged on a cylindrical-polar grid is proposed to overcome the problem of large side-lodes associated with a rectangular grid PAT. The PAT is visualized as a spatio-temporal filter to calculate phase delays. Wavenumber bands resulting from the radial rows enable constructive interfere only in the vicinity of the desired wavenumber and angle of propagation. Finite element simulations are presented to study PAT performance.

  9. The Physics of Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2015-10-01

    The introductory lecture that has been delivered at this Symposium is a condensed version of an extended course held by the author at the XII Canary Island Winter School from November 13 to November 21, 2000. The full series of lectures can be found in Landi Degl'Innocenti (2002). The original reference is organized in 20 Sections that are here itemized: 1. Introduction, 2. Description of polarized radiation, 3. Polarization and optical devices: Jones calculus and Muller matrices, 4. The Fresnel equations, 5. Dichroism and anomalous dispersion, 6. Polarization in everyday life, 7. Polarization due to radiating charges, 8. The linear antenna, 9. Thomson scattering, 10. Rayleigh scattering, 11. A digression on Mie scattering, 12. Bremsstrahlung radiation, 13. Cyclotron radiation, 14. Synchrotron radiation, 15. Polarization in spectral lines, 16. Density matrix and atomic polarization, 17. Radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations, 18. The amplification condition in polarized radiative transfer, and 19. Coupling radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations.

  10. General correcting formula of forecasting?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A general correcting formula of forecasting (as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts) is proposed. The formula provides new forecasting resources and areas of application including economic forecasting.

  11. General correcting formula of forecasting?

    OpenAIRE

    Harin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A general correcting formula of forecasting (as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts) is proposed. The formula provides new forecasting resources and areas of application including economic forecasting.

  12. Examination of vapor sorption by fullerene, fullerene-coated surface acoustic wave sensors, graphite, and low-polarity polymers using linear solvation energy relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, J.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Abraham, M.H.; Du, C.M. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); McGill, R.A. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Shuely, W.J. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The sorption of vapors by fullerene is compared with the sorption of vapors by an assembled fullerene thin film on a surface acoustic wave vapor sensor. A linear solvation energy relationship derived for solid fullerene at 298 K was used to calculate gas/solid partition coefficients for the same vapors as those examined using the vapor sensor. This relationship correctly predicted the relative vapor sensitivities observed with the vapor sensor. A new linear solvation energy relationship for vapor adsorption by graphite at 298 K has been determined, and solid fullerene and solid graphite are found to be quite similar in their vapor sorption properties. Comparisons have also been made with linear organic and inorganic polymers, including poly(isobutylene), poly(epichorophydrin), OV25, and OV202. In all cases, sorption is driven primarily by dispersion interactions. The assembled fullerene material is generally similar in vapor selectivity to the other nonpolar sorbent materials considered but yields less sensitive vapor sensors than linear organic polymers. 39 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Substrate-mediated sub-diffraction guiding of optical signals through a linear chain of metal nanoparticles : Polarization dependence and the role of the dispersion relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaijen, P.J.; Malyshev, V.A.; Knoester, J.

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the efficiency of transmitting optical signals through a linear chain consisting of identical and equidistantly spaced silver nanoparticles in the presence of a reflecting substrate. The energy exchange between surface plasmon polaritons of the chain and the substrate ca

  14. Twisting formula of epsilon factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAZZAD ALI BISWAS

    2017-09-01

    For characters of a non-Archimedean local field we have explicit formula for epsilon factors. But in general, we do not have any generalized twisting formula of epsilon factors. In this paper, we give a generalized twisting formula of epsilon factorsvia local Jacobi sums.

  15. Modelagem não-linear e análise dinâmica de sistemas de transmissão por correias pela formulação de coordenadas nodais absolutas

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Leandro Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Sistemas de acionamento mecânico por correia serpentina são amplamente usados em aplicações automotivas e industriais para transmissão de torque e potência. Tais sistemas estão sujeitos a variações de tensão na correia devido à carga dinâmica nos acessórios, que levam ao desgaste prematuro e redução da vida útil dos componentes. A análise do comportamento dinâmico do conjunto é fundamental na fase de projeto e requer a modelagem não-linear do sistema incluindo polias, auto-tensionador, correi...

  16. Measurement of prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Zykunov, V; Shumeiko, N; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Ruan, M; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Susa, T; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Tsiakkouri, D; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Assran, Y; Elkafrawy, T; Mahrous, A; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Arleo, F; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Miné, P; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sabes, D; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Khvedelidze, A; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Preuten, M; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Verlage, T; Albert, A; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hamer, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Knutzen, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the measurement of [Formula: see text] meson production in proton-proton ([Formula: see text]) and proton-lead ([Formula: see text]) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of [Formula: see text] by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The data samples used in the analysis correspond to integrated luminosities of 28[Formula: see text] and 35[Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] collisions, respectively. Prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] mesons, the latter produced in the decay of [Formula: see text] hadrons, are measured in their dimuon decay channels. Differential cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range of [Formula: see text], and center-of-mass rapidity ranges of [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The nuclear modification factor, [Formula: see text], is measured as a function of both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Small modifications to the [Formula: see text] cross sections are observed in [Formula: see text] relative to [Formula: see text] collisions. The ratio of [Formula: see text] production cross sections in [Formula: see text]-going and Pb-going directions, [Formula: see text], studied as functions of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], shows a significant decrease for increasing transverse energy deposited at large pseudorapidities. These results, which cover a wide kinematic range, provide new insight on the role of cold nuclear matter effects on prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production.

  17. Polarization at SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1988-07-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been designed to readily accommodate polarized electron beams. Considerable effort has been made to implement a polarized source, a spin rotation system, and a system to monitor the beam polarization. Nearly all major components have been fabricated. At the current time, several source and polarimeter components have been installed. The installation and commissioning of the entire system will take place during available machine shutdown periods as the commissioning of SLC progresses. It is expected that a beam polarization of 45% will be achieved with no loss in luminosity. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  18. Influence of polarization state, baud rate and PMD on non-linear impairments in WDM systems with mixed PM (D)QPSK and OOK channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Mohsan Niaz; Forzati, Marco; Mårtensson, Jonas; Rafique, Danish

    2012-03-26

    In this paper we numerically investigate nonlinear impairments in a WDM system with mixed PM (D)QPSK and OOK channels. First we analyze the dependence of XPM and XPolM on SOP and baud rate in absence of PMD. In this case we find that the nonlinear impairments are highly dependent on relative SOP between the PM (D)QPSK and neighbouring OOK channels. The dependence on relative SOP is more pronounced in differential detection than in coherent detection. However, with increasing values of PMD this dependence decreases, and non-linear tolerance improves.

  19. No Evidence of Intrinsic Optical/Near-Infrared Linear Polarization for V404 Cygni During its Bright Outburst in 2015: Broadband Modeling and Constraint on Jet Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Y T; Uemura, M; Inoue, Y; Cheung, C C; Watanabe, M; Kawabata, K S; Fukazawa, Y; Yatsu, Y; Yoshii, T; Tachibana, Y; Fujiwara, T; Saito, Y; Kawai, N; Kimura, M; Isogai, K; Kato, T; Akitaya, M; Kawabata, M; Nakaoka, T; Shiki, K; Takaki, K; Yoshida, M; Imai, M; Gouda, S; Gouda, Y; Akimoto, H; Honda, S; Hosoya, K; Ikebe, A; Morihana, K; Ohshima, T; Takagi, Y; Takahashi, J; Watanabe, K; Kuroda, D; Morokuma, T; Murata, K; Nagayama, T; Nogami, D; Oasa, Y; Sekiguchi, K

    2016-01-01

    We present simultaneous optical and near-infrared (NIR) polarimetric results for the black hole binary V404 Cygni spanning the duration of its 7-day long optically-brightest phase of its 2015 June outburst. The simultaneous R and Ks-band light curves showed almost the same temporal variation except for the isolated (~30 min duration) orphan Ks-band flare observed at MJD 57193.54. We did not find any significant temporal variation of polarization degree (PD) and position angle (PA) in both R and Ks bands throughout our observations, including the duration of the orphan NIR flare. We show that the observed PD and PA are predominantly interstellar in origin by comparing the V404 Cyg polarimetric results with those of the surrounding sources within the 7'x7' field-of-view. The low intrinsic PD (less than a few percent) implies that the optical and NIR emissions are dominated by either disk or optically-thick synchrotron emission, or both. We also present the broadband spectra of V404 Cyg during the orphan NIR fla...

  20. A generalized Allwright formula and the vector Riccati equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kurt Munk; Sandqvist, Allan

    2010-01-01

    A classical formula of Allwright on the general solution of a scalar differential equation is generalized to a system of differential equations by means of the Kronecker product.The Allwright formula is connected with the Riccati equation, and in a similar way the generalized formula is connected...... with a special type of a differential system called a vector Riccati equation. Moreover,the classical result that a scalar differential equation is a Riccati equation if and only if its general solution is a fractional linear function of the starting value, is also generalized to a differential system....

  1. A generalized Allwright formula and the vector Riccati equation

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Kurt Munk

    2010-01-01

    A classical formula of Allwright on the general solution of a scalar differential equation is generalized to a system of differential equations by means of the Kronecker product.The Allwright formula is connected with the Riccati equation, and in a similar way the generalized formula is connected with a special type of a differential system called a vector Riccati equation. Moreover,the classical result that a scalar differential equation is a Riccati equation if and only if its general solution is a fractional linear function of the starting value, is also generalized to a differential system.

  2. A generalized Allwright formula and the vector Riccati equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kurt Munk; Sandqvist, Allan

    2010-01-01

    with a special type of a differential system called a vector Riccati equation. Moreover,the classical result that a scalar differential equation is a Riccati equation if and only if its general solution is a fractional linear function of the starting value, is also generalized to a differential system.......A classical formula of Allwright on the general solution of a scalar differential equation is generalized to a system of differential equations by means of the Kronecker product.The Allwright formula is connected with the Riccati equation, and in a similar way the generalized formula is connected...

  3. Kinetics of polarization gratings assisted with polarized violet light in bacteriorhodopsin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianghua; Gao, Peng; Yao, Baoli; Lei, Ming; Rupp, Romano

    2013-09-01

    Polarization gratings can be recorded in bacteriorhodopsin films by an orthogonal pair of linearly or circularly polarized beams. If a linearly polarized auxiliary violet light is added during the grating formation, the grating becomes polarization-sensitive. A theoretical model based on the two-state photochromic theory is proposed to calculate the diffraction efficiency kinetics of these polarization gratings. In both cases, the additional linearly polarized auxiliary violet irradiation improves the steady-state diffraction efficiency and leads to a cosine modulation of the steady-state diffraction efficiency by the polarization orientation of the readout beam. Experiment results demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical model.

  4. Study of small partial-wave contributions in the neighbourhood of dominating resonance states of the proton by linearly polarized photons; Untersuchung kleiner Partialwellenbeitraege in der Naehe dominierender Resonanzzustaende des Protons mit linear polarisierten Photonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, D.

    2007-04-15

    The reaction p(e, e'p){pi}{sup 0} has been studied at Q{sup 2}=0.2 (GeV/c){sup 2} in the region of W=1232 MeV. From measurements left and right of (vector)q cross section asymmetries {rho}{sub LT} have been obtained in forward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}{sup 0}}{sup cm}=20 )=(-11.68{+-}2.36{sub stat}{+-}2.36{sub sys}) and backward {rho}{sub LT}({theta}{sub {pi}}{sub {sup 0}}{sup cm}=160)=(12.18{+-}0.27{sub stat}{+-}0.82{sub sys}) {pi}{sup 0} kinematics, from which R{l_brace}S{sub 1+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} and R{l_brace}S{sub 0+}{sup *}M{sub 1+}{r_brace}/ vertical stroke M{sub 1+} vertical stroke {sup 2} could be determined. Using linear polarised tagged photon beams of energy up to E{sub {gamma}}{approx_equal}1.5 GeV the photon beam asymmetry {sigma} has been measured in the reaction p((vector){gamma}, {eta})p. Based on coherent bremsstrahlung off a diamond crystal a maximum polarisation of P{sub {gamma}}=49% has been achieved at E{sub {gamma}}=1305 MeV. The beam asymmetry has been extracted from the azimuthal modulation of the cross section using both decay modes of the {eta} into two photons and 3{pi}{sup 0}. Large asymmetries up to 80% are observed, in agreement with previous measurements where already available. There is also agreement with standard model calculations. However, the required partial waves to describe the measurements differ significantly. (orig.)

  5. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Bojanov, Borislav

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Feynman formulae for evolution semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. A. Butko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper systematically describes an approach to solution of initial and initial-boundary value problems for evolution equations based on the representation of the corresponding evolution semigroups with the help of Feynman formulae. The article discusses some of the methods of constructing Feynman formulae for different evolution semigroups, presents specific examples of solutions of evolution equations. In particular, Feynman formula is obtained for evolution semigroups generated by multiplicative perturbations of generators of some initial semigroups. In this case semigroups on a Banach space of continuous functions defined on an arbitrary metric space are considered; Feynman formulae are constructed with the help of operator families, which are Chernoff equivalent to the initial unperturbed semigroups. The present result generalizes the author's paper \\Feynman formula for semigroups with multiplicative perturbed generators" and some of the results of the joint with O.G. Smolyanov and R.L. Schilling paper \\Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Feynman formulae for some Feller processes and their perturbations". The approach to the construction of Feynman formulae for semigroups with multiplicative and additive perturbed generators is illustrated with examples of the Cauchy problem for the Schrodinger equation, the approximation of transition probabilities of some Markov processes.Further, a wider class of additive and multiplicative perturbations of a particular generator | the Laplace operator | is considered in the paper. And Feynman formula for the solution of the Cauchy problem for a second order parabolic equation with unbounded variable coefficients is proved. In addition, the article describes a method for constructing Feynman formulae for solutions of the Cauchy | Dirichlet problem for parabolic differential equations. The method is also illustrated by a second order parabolic equation with variable coefficients. These results generalize some

  7. Digital Repository of Mathematical Formulae

    OpenAIRE

    Howard S. Cohl; McClain, Marjorie A.; Saunders, Bonita V.; Schubotz, Moritz; Williams, Janelle C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the NIST Digital Repository of Mathematical Formulae (DRMF) is to create a digital compendium of mathematical formulae for orthogonal polynomials and special functions (OPSF) and of associated mathematical data. The DRMF addresses needs of working mathematicians, physicists and engineers: providing a platform for publication and interaction with OPSF formulae on the web. Using MediaWiki extensions and other existing technology (such as software and macro collections developed f...

  8. Polar Shapelets

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, R; Massey, Richard; Refregier, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    The shapelets method for astronomical image analysis is based around the decomposition of localised objects into a series of orthogonal components with particularly convenient mathematical properties. We extend the "Cartesian shapelet" formalism from earlier work, and construct "polar shapelet" basis functions that separate an image into components with explicit rotational symmetries. This provides a more compact representation of typical galaxy shapes, and its physical interpretation is frequently more intuitive. Linear coordinate transformations can be simply expressed using this basis set, and shape measures (including object photometry, astrometry and galaxy morphology estimators) take a naturally elegant form. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of astronomical survey images, and we test shapelet techniques with real data from the Hubble Space Telescope. We present a practical method to automatically optimise the quality of an arbitrary shapelet decomposition in the presence of noise, pixellisat...

  9. Formula vs. Fractured Formula in Contest Persuasive Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christina L.

    In the past decade, contest persuasive speaking has become a product that student competitors produce and perform. A perversion of the contest formula has removed the element of persuasion from the formula. Competition rules suggest that a student's purposes in participating in forensics events should include inspiring, reinforcing, or changing…

  10. Invariants of polarization transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A

    2007-05-20

    The use of polarization-sensitive sensors is being explored in a variety of applications. Polarization diversity has been shown to improve the performance of the automatic target detection and recognition in a significant way. However, it also brings out the problems associated with processing and storing more data and the problem of polarization distortion during transmission. We present a technique for extracting attributes that are invariant under polarization transformations. The polarimetric signatures are represented in terms of the components of the Stokes vectors. Invariant algebra is then used to extract a set of signature-related attributes that are invariant under linear transformation of the Stokes vectors. Experimental results using polarimetric infrared signatures of a number of manmade and natural objects undergoing systematic linear transformations support the invariancy of these attributes.

  11. 并行单型规范分片线性函数极坐标数字预失真器%Parallel polar digital predistorter based on simplicial canonical piecewise linear function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔潇维; 夏威; 何子述

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种并行的基于单型规范分片线性(SCPWL)函数的极坐标数字预失真器模型.首先根据分片线性拟合原理引入绝对值型的单型规范分片线性函数,建立模型解析方程并推导出模型参数的最小二乘解,然后根据模型特点设计了数字预失真器的并行实现架构,并对模型架构的工作顺序和参数提取过程进行了介绍.仿真结果表明SCPWL极坐标预失真器远远优于传统的功率回退线性化技术,且与常用的复多项式预失真器相比较,尤其是在过饱和非线性失真情况下,其线性补偿能力要优于后者.%This paper presents a parallel polar digital predistorter by Simplicial Canonical Piece Wise Linear (SCPWL) func-tion.Firstly,the paper introduces an absolute value model SCPWL function that based on piecewise linear approximation theory, and derives the least square solution of the function.Then, according to the characteristic of the SCPWL model,parallel polar digital predistorter architecture is designed.And also the operation order and parameters extraction process of the predistorter structures are introduced.Lastly, the simulation experiment is carried out and the simulation results prove the SCPWL predistorter is far superior to the traditional power back-off linearization technique.Compared with complex polynomials predistorter, the nonlinear compensation capability of the SCPWL predistorter outperform the polynomials,especially in the supersaturated nonlinear distortion of PA.

  12. Analysis of the collagen birefringence and the relative attenuation coefficient of health and burned skin irradiated with linearly polarized He-Ne laser; Analise da birrefringencia do colageno e do coeficiente de atenuacao de amostras de pele sadia e queimada irradiadas pelo laser de He-Ne linearmente polarizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniela de Fatima Teixeira da

    2002-07-01

    Low-intensity laser therapy is characterized by its ability to induce athermic effects and nondestructive photobiological processes. Although it has been in use for more than 40 years, this phototherapy is still not an established therapeutic modality. The objectives of this study were: to quantify the collagen fibers organization by polarized light microscopy in normal and burned skin samples at day 17 post-injury considering preferential axis as the animal's spinal column and aligning the linear laser polarization in two directions of polarization, parallel or perpendicular to this axis; to determine the relative attenuation coefficient for the intensity light by the technique of imaging the light distribution in normal and burned skin during wound healing process taking only parallel direction of polarization. To reach the objectives, burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N{sub 2} on the back of the rats and the lesions were irradiated on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding, D= 1 J/cm{sup 2}, to investigate the effects of low-intensity linearly polarized He-Ne laser beam on skin wounds healing. Control lesions were not irradiated. The results have demonstrated that: the skin samples irradiated with linearly parallel polarized He-Ne laser beam showed collagen fibers more organized; burned skin samples presents a higher attenuation coefficient than normal skin samples. These results are important to optimize low intensity laser therapy dosimetry on acceleration wound healing. (author)

  13. Matrix calculus for axially symmetric polarized beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shigeki

    2011-06-20

    The Jones calculus is a well known method for analyzing the polarization of a fully polarized beam. It deals with a beam having spatially homogeneous polarization. In recent years, axially symmetric polarized beams, where the polarization is not homogeneous in its cross section, have attracted great interest. In the present article, we show the formula for the rotation of beams and optical elements on the angularly variant term-added Jones calculus, which is required for analyzing axially symmetric beams. In addition, we introduce an extension of the Jones calculus: use of the polar coordinate basis. With this calculus, the representation of some angularly variant beams and optical elements are simplified and become intuitive. We show definitions, examples, and conversion formulas between different notations.

  14. TWO REMARKS ON SCHWARZ FORMULA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Xiaqi; Luo Peizhu

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses two problems. Firstly the authors give the Schwarz formula for a holomorphic function in unit disc when the boundary value of its real part is in the class H of generalized functions in the sense of Hua. Secondly the authors use the classical Schwarz formula to give a new proof of the zero free region of the Riemann zeta-function.

  15. The Riemann-Hurwitz formula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, F.

    2016-01-01

    Let ϕ : S → T be a surjective holomorphic map between compact Riemann surfaces. There is a formula relating the various invariants involved: the genus of S, the genus of T, the degree of ϕ and the amount of ramification. Riemann used this formula in case T has genus zero. Contemporaries referred to

  16. ON IMMERSION FORMULAS FOR SOLITON SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Michel Grundland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to a study of the connections between three different analytic descriptions for the immersion functions of 2D-surfaces corresponding to the following three types of symmetries: gauge symmetries of the linear spectral problem, conformal transformations in the spectral parameter and generalized symmetries of the associated integrable system. After a brief exposition of the theory of soliton surfaces and of the main tool used to study classical and generalized Lie symmetries, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions under which the immersion formulas associated with these symmetries are linked by gauge transformations. We illustrate the theoretical results by examples involving the sigma model.

  17. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico

    2016-05-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  18. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    CERN Document Server

    She, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristi...

  19. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yokojima, Satoshi, E-mail: yokojima@toyaku.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukaminato, Tuyoshi [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20, W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ohtani, Hiroyuki [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro, E-mail: snakamura@riken.jp [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-04-21

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  20. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2015-04-21

    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  1. Generalized Expression for Polarization Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Wang and T.S. Hahm

    2009-04-23

    A general polarization density which consists of classical and neoclassical parts is system-atically derived via modern gyrokinetics and bounce-kinetics by employing a phase-space Lagrangian Lie-transform perturbation method. The origins of polarization density are further elucidated. Extending the work on neoclassical polarization for long wavelength compared to ion banana width [M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)], an analytical formula for the generalized neoclassical polarization including both finite-banana-width (FBW) and finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) effects for arbitrary radial wavelength in comparison to banana width and gyroradius is derived. In additional to the contribution from trapped particles, the contribution of passing particles to the neoclassical polarization is also explicitly calculated. Our analytic expression agrees very well with the previous numerical results for a wide range of radial wavelength.

  2. Pocket book of integrals and mathematical formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Tallarida, Ronald J

    1999-01-01

    Elementary Algebra and GeometryFundamental Properties (Real Numbers)ExponentsFractional ExponentsIrrational ExponentsLogarithmsFactorialsBinomial TheoremFactors and ExpansionProgressionsComplex NumbersPolar FormPermutationsCombinationsAlgebraic EquationsGeometryDeterminants, Matrices, and Systems of EquationsDeterminantsEvaluation by CofactorsProperties of DeterminantsMatricesOperationsPropertiesTransposeIdentity MatrixAdjointInverse MatrixSystems of Linear EquationsMatrix Solution

  3. On the linear programming bound for linear Lee codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astola, Helena; Tabus, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Based on an invariance-type property of the Lee-compositions of a linear Lee code, additional equality constraints can be introduced to the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. In this paper, we formulate this property in terms of an action of the multiplicative group of the field [Formula: see text] on the set of Lee-compositions. We show some useful properties of certain sums of Lee-numbers, which are the eigenvalues of the Lee association scheme, appearing in the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. Using the additional equality constraints, we formulate the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes in a very compact form, leading to a fast execution, which allows to efficiently compute the bounds for large parameter values of the linear codes.

  4. Linear polarimetric study of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clocchiatti, A.; Mendez, M.; Benvenuto, O.; Feinstein, C.; Marraco, H.

    Linear polarization measurements of SN 1987A were made with 0.83-m and a 2.15-m telescopes. It is found that the polarization decreases with time (Benvenuto et al., 1987) Because the polarization produced by the interstellar matter is time independent and the wavelength dependence of the observed polarization is far from the interstellar relation (Serkowski et al., 1975) it is suggested that the time dependent characteristic is due to an intrinsic polarization vector.

  5. The Formula of Plague Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2015-01-01

    it is possible to establish a stable formula for plague narratives despite the spread over centuries and in different text types, and to explain this formula and possible variations of it. The initial and tentative hypothesis is that a formulaic narrative structure exists for accounts, both documentary...... and fictional, of epidemics. The samples include: Exodus, History of the Peloponnesian War, Samuel Pepys’ Diary, A Journal of the Plague Year, The Last Man, The Plague in Bergamo, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Doomsday, The Dead Zone, World War Z. An Oral History of the Zombie War, Pandemic...

  6. Methods of Writing Constitutional Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical formulas, as well as any linguistic entity, have to fulfill two basic requirements – expressiveness and economy, i.e. they have to express the maximal meaning with minimal means. Besides, chemical formula, being a scientific notation, has not to convey vague and scientifically unapproved meanings. This article presents the development of various kinds of chemical formulas and discusses their meaning in the historical context. Special attention is paid to line notation, developed for computers (WLN, SMILES, InChI etc.. We also discuss Seymour B. Elk's "biparametric nomenclature", based on the concept of 3-simplex, which was claimed to be universally applicable to all classes of compounds.

  7. APPLICABILITY OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT FORMULAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chih Ted YANG; Caian HUANG

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides a comprehensive testing of the applicability of 13 sediment transport formulas under different flow and sediment conditions. The dimensionless parameters used for testing the reliability and sensitivity of formulas are dimensionless particle diameter, relative depth, Froude number, relative shear velocity, dimensionless unit stream power, and sediment concentration. A total of 3,391 sets of laboratory and river data are used in the tests. Engineers may find the test results useful to their selection of formulas under different flow and sediment conditions.

  8. Review of atomic mass formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Wapstra and Audi`s Table is famous for evaluation of experimental data of atomic nuclear masses (1993/1995 version) which estimated about 2000 kinds of nuclei. The error of atomic mass of formula is 0.3 MeV-0.8 MeV. Four kinds of atomic mass formula: JM (Jaenecke and Masson), TUYY (Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada), FRDM (Moeller, Nix, Myers and Swiatecki) and ETFSI (Aboussir, Pearson, Dutta and Tondeur) and their properties (number of parameter and error etc.) were explained. An estimation method of theoretical error of mass formula was presented. It was estimated by the theoretical error of other surrounding nuclei. (S.Y.)

  9. Quasar polarization with ultralight (pseudo-)scalars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ki-Young choi; Subhayan Mandal; Chang Sub Shin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that the absence of circular polarization of visible light from quasars severely constrains the interpretation of axion-like particles (ALPs) as a solution for the generation of linear polarization. Furthermore, the new observation of linear polarization in radio wavelength from quasars, similar to the earlier observation performed in the optical bands, makes the ALPs scenario inconsistent with at least one of the two observations. In this study, we extend this scenario by including more scalars. We find that the effects from scalar and pseudoscalar neutralize each other, thereby suppressing the circular polarization, while preserving consistent linear polarization, as observed in both the visible and radio wave bands.

  10. A Simple Capacity Formula for Correlated Diversity Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xing-qing; SU Shu-chun; LI Dao-ben

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The system capacity can be considerably increased if we appropriately exploit the randomness of multipath propagation. A simple average capacity formula is derived for correlated diversity Rayleigh fading channels through linear transformation method.Numerical results that illustrate the effect of correlation parameter and diversity order on the diversitycapacity are also presented.

  11. The Koppelman-Leray formula on complex Finsler manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Chunhui; ZHONG Tongde

    2005-01-01

    By means of the invariant integral kernel (the Berndtsson kernel), the complex Finsler metric and the non-linear connection associated with the Chern-Finsler connection to research into the integral representation theory on complex Finsler manifolds, theKoppelman and Koppelman-Leray formulas are obtained, and the - -equations are solved.

  12. Secret Sharing and Secure Computing from Monotone Formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kölker, Jonas; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    We present a construction of log-depth formulae for various threshold functions based on atomic threshold gates of constant size. From this, we build a new family of linear secret sharing schemes that are multiplicative, scale well as the number of players increases and allows to raise a shared...

  13. Polarization in heavy quark decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimujiang, K.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis I concentrate on the angular correlations in top quark decays and their next.to.leading order (NLO) QCD corrections. I also discuss the leading.order (LO) angular correlations in unpolarized and polarized hyperon decays. In the first part of the thesis I calculate the angular correlation between the top quark spin and the momentum of decay products in the rest frame decay of a polarized top quark into a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark in Two-Higgs-Doublet-Models: t({up_arrow}) {yields} b + H{sup +}. I provide closed form formulae for the O({alpha}{sub s}) radiative corrections to the unpolarized and the polar correlation functions for m{sub b}{ne}0 and m{sub b}=0. In the second part I concentrate on the semileptonic rest frame decay of a polarized top quark into a bottom quark and a lepton pair: t({up_arrow}){yields}X{sub b}+l{sup +}+{nu}{sub l}. I present closed form expressions for the O({alpha}{sub s}) radiative corrections to the unpolarized part and the polar and azimuthal correlations for m{sub b}{ne}0 and m{sub b}=0. In the last part I turn to the angular distribution in semileptonic hyperon decays. Using the helicity method I derive complete formulas for the leading order joint angular decay distributions occurring in semileptonic hyperon decays including lepton mass and polarization effects. (orig.)

  14. A Bayes Formula for Nonlinear Filtering with Gaussian and Cox Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar Mandrekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Bayes-type formula is derived for the nonlinear filter where the observation contains both general Gaussian noise as well as Cox noise whose jump intensity depends on the signal. This formula extends the well-known Kallianpur-Striebel formula in the classical non-linear filter setting. We also discuss Zakai-type equations for both the unnormalized conditional distribution as well as unnormalized conditional density in case the signal is a Markovian jump diffusion.

  15. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Yi-jian; Wu, Yong-shi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl support the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula reproduces the Parke-Taylor formula for Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for gravitational amplitudes. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly M\\"obius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other $(n-3)!-1$ solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes.

  16. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  17. Explicit Formulas for Meixner Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Kruchinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using notions of composita and composition of generating functions, we show an easy way to obtain explicit formulas for some current polynomials. Particularly, we consider the Meixner polynomials of the first and second kinds.

  18. On generalizations of Verlinde's formula

    CERN Document Server

    Bántay, P

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that traces of mapping classes of finite order may be expressed by Verlinde-like formulae. The 3D topological argument is explained, and the resulting trace identities for modular matrix elements are presented.

  19. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  20. Methods of Writing Constitutional Formulas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raos, N; Miličević, A

    2012-01-01

    ... – expressiveness and economy, i.e. they have to express the maximal meaning with minimal means. Besides, chemical formula, being a scientific notation, has not to convey vague and scientifically unapproved meanings...

  1. Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeot, B; Giraud, O

    2008-04-01

    We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.

  2. Propagation of partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams through aligned and misaligned optical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈迪; 蔡阳健; 林强

    2005-01-01

    By use of a tensor method, the transform formulae for the beam coherence-polarization matrix of the partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams through aligned and misaligned optical systems are derived. As an example, the propagation properties of the partially polarized GSM beam passing through a misaligned thin lens are illustrated numerically and discussed in detail. The derived formulae provide a convenient way to study the propagation properties of the partially polarized GSM beams through aligned and misaligned optical systems.

  3. Relationship of O(+) Field-Aligned Flows and Densities to Convection Speed in the Polar Cap at 5000 km Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, B. A.; Horwitz, J. L.; Creel, B.; Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Su, Y. J.; Moore, T. E.; Craven, P. D.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of thermal O(+) ion number fluxes, densities, field-aligned velocities, and convective velocities from the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) on POLAR obtained near 5000 km altitude over the Southern hemisphere are examined. We find that the O(+) parallel velocities and densities are strongly related to the convection speeds. The polar cap densities decrease rapidly with convection speed, with a linear least square fit formula to bin averaged data giving the relationship log(N(sub (sub _)O(+))) = -0.33* V(sub (sub _)conv)) + 0.07, with a linear regression coefficient of r = -0.96. The parallel bulk flow velocities are on average slightly downward (0 - 2 km/s) for V(sub (sub _)conv) km/s, but tend to be upward (0 - 4 km/s) for average V(sub (sub _)conv) > 2.5 km/s. We interpret these relationships in terms of the Cleft Ion Fountain paradigm [e.g., Horwitz and Lockwood, 1985]. The densities decline with convection speed owing to increased spreading and resulting dilution from the restricted cleft source over the polar cap area with convection speed. The parallel velocities tend to be downward for low convection speeds because they fall earthward after initial cleft injection at shorter distances into the polar cap for low convection speeds. At the higher convection speeds, the initially-upward flows are transported further into the polar cap and thus occupy a larger area of the polar cap.

  4. Directivity of basic linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1970-01-01

    For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...

  5. Linearization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildeberto S. Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of linear control systems based on exact feedback linearization and approximate feedback linearization. As exact feedback linearization is applied, a linear controller can perform the control objectives. The approximate feedback linearization is required when a nonlinear system presents a noninvolutive property. It uses a Taylor series expansion in order to compute a nonlinear transformation of coordinates to satisfy the involutivity conditions.

  6. New supplements to infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  7. The Bajnok-Janik formula and wrapping corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Balog, Janos(Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, 1525, Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49, Hungary); Hegedus, Arpad

    2010-01-01

    We write down the simplified TBA equations of the $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ string sigma-model for minimal energy twist-two operators in the sl(2) sector of the model. By using the linearized version of these TBA equations it is shown that the wrapping corrected Bethe equations for these states are identical, up to O(g^8), to the Bethe equations calculated in the generalized L\\"uscher approach (Bajnok-Janik formula). Applications of the Bajnok-Janik formula to relativistic integrable models, the non...

  8. Positive Formulas in Intuitionistic and Minimal Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, D.; Zhao, Z.; Aher, M.; Hole, D.; Jeřábek, E.; Kupke, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the positive, i.e. ¬,⊥-free formulas of intuitionistic propositional and predicate logic, IPC and IQC, and minimal logic, MPC and MQC. For each formula φ of IQC we define the positive formula φ+ that represents the positive content of φ. The formulas φ and φ+ exhibit t

  9. Two Notes on Numerical Differentiation Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hua-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Some new conclusions on asymptotic properties and inverse problems of numerical differentiation formulae have been drawn in this paper.In the first place,several asymptotic properties of intermediate points of numerical differentiation formulae are presented by using Taylor's formula.And then,based on the ideas of algebraic accuracy,several inverse problems of numerical differentiation formulae are given.

  10. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  11. Linear Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwalla Arun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear psoriasis, inflammatory linear varrucous epidermal naevus (ILVEN. Lichen straitus, linear lichen planus and invasion of epidermal naevi by psoriasis have clinical and histopathological overlap. We report two young male patients of true linear psoriasis without classical lesions elsewhere which were proved histopathologically. Seasonal variation and good response to topical antipsoriatic treatment supported the diagnosis.

  12. A Stronger LP Bound for Formula Size Lower Bounds via Clique Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Ueno, Kenya

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new technique proving formula size lower bounds based on the linear programming bound originally introduced by Karchmer, Kushilevitz and Nisan [11] and the theory of stable set polytope. We apply it to majority functions and prove their formula size lower bounds improved from the classical result of Khrapchenko [13]. Moreover, we introduce a notion of unbalanced recursive ternary majority functions motivated by a decomposition theory of monotone self-dual functions and give integrally matching upper and lower bounds of their formula size. We also show monotone formula size lower bounds of balanced recursive ternary majority functions improved from the quantum adversary bound of Laplante, Lee and Szegedy [15].

  13. The several transformation formula in several complex variables and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,by the method of global analysis,the authors give a new global integral transformation formula and obtain the Plemelj formula with Hadamard principal value of higher-order partial derivatives for the integral of Bochner-Martinelli type on a closed piecewise smooth orientable manifold Cn.Moreover,the authors obtain the composition formula,Poincar’e-Bertrand extended formula of the corresponding singular integral.As the application of some results,the authors also study a higher-order Cauchy boundary problem and a regularization problem of higher-order linear complex differential singular integral equation with variable coefficients.

  14. The Formula of Plague Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2015-01-01

    The article is a narratological investigation of a selection of plague tales. The selection spans millennia and different text types, technologies and genres, from The Bible to apocalyptical films, iPhone games and testimonials from Médecins Sans Frontières. The research question is whether...... it is possible to establish a stable formula for plague narratives despite the spread over centuries and in different text types, and to explain this formula and possible variations of it. The initial and tentative hypothesis is that a formulaic narrative structure exists for accounts, both documentary...... and fictional, of epidemics. The samples include: Exodus, History of the Peloponnesian War, Samuel Pepys’ Diary, A Journal of the Plague Year, The Last Man, The Plague in Bergamo, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, Doomsday, The Dead Zone, World War Z. An Oral History of the Zombie War, Pandemic...

  15. Effects of linear polarized infrared light irradiation on the transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression in IL-1beta-stimulated human rheumatoid synoviocytes involves phosphorylation of the NF-kappaB RelA subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yasuko; Araki, Hidefumi; Oshitani, Toshiyuki; Imaoka, Asayo; Matsui, Masaru; Miyazawa, Keiji; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2009-03-03

    Although recent clinical studies have shown that laser therapy acts as an anti-inflammatory effector in the treatment of some diseases, little is known about the mechanism by which it acts in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The purpose of our work was to examine how irradiation with linear polarized infrared light (LPIL) suppresses inflammatory responses in the MH7A rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte cell line. We initially confirmed the effects of two disease-modifying anti-rheumatic treatments, LPIL irradiation and dexamethasone (Dex) administration, under experimental inflammatory conditions using gene chip technology. We found that LPIL exerted a smaller effect on gene transcription than Dex; however, IL-1beta-inducible target genes such as the CXCL type chemokines IL-8, IL-1beta and IL-6 were all clearly suppressed by LPIL to the same degree as by Dex. We also found that IL-1beta-induced release of IL-8 from MH7A cells was completely blocked by pretreatment with the (IL-8) inhibitor Bay11-7085, indicating that activation of NF-kappaB signaling plays an important role in the secretion of IL-8. Although the levels of NFKB1 and RELA transcription were unaffected by IL-1beta stimulation, phosphorylation of RelA S276 was suppressed by both LPIL and Dex. Thus LPIL likely exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the release of the inflammatory chemokine IL-8. A fuller understanding of the anti-inflammatory mechanism of LPIL in rheumatoid synoviocytes could serve as the basis for improved treatment of RA patients in the future.

  16. Reasoning on Schemata of Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Echenim, Mnacho

    2012-01-01

    A logic is presented for reasoning on iterated sequences of formulae over some given base language. The considered sequences, or "schemata", are defined inductively, on some algebraic structure (for instance the natural numbers, the lists, the trees etc.). A proof procedure is proposed to relate the satisfiability problem for schemata to that of finite disjunctions of base formulae. It is shown that this procedure is sound, complete and terminating, hence the basic computational properties of the base language can be carried over to schemata.

  17. CHY formulae in 4d

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a rather general way to reduce integrands with polarisation involved in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae, such as the reduced Pfaffian and its compactification, as well as the new object for F3 amplitude. We prove that the reduced Pfaffian vanishes unless on a certain set of solutions. It leads us to build up the 4d CHY formulae using spinors, which strains off many useless solutions. The supersymmetrization is straightforward and may provide a hint to understanding ambitwistor string in 4d.

  18. Geometric formula for prism deflection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva G Wagh; Veer Chand Rakhecha

    2004-08-01

    While studying neutron deflections produced by a magnetic prism, we have stumbled upon a simple `geometric' formula. For a prism of refractive index close to unity, the deflection simply equals the product of the refractive power − 1 and the base-to-height ratio of the prism, regardless of the apex angle. The base and height of the prism are measured respectively along and perpendicular to the direction of beam propagation within the prism. The geometric formula greatly simplifies the optimisation of prism parameters to suit any specific experiment.

  19. Cubature formulas on combinatorial graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Pesenson, Isaac Z

    2011-01-01

    Many contemporary applications, for example, cataloging of galaxies, document analysis, face recognition, learning theory, image processing, operate with a large amount of data which is often represented as a graph embedded into a high dimensional Euclidean space. The variety of problems arising in contemporary data processing requires development on graphs such topics of the classical harmonic analysis as Shannon sampling, splines, wavelets, cubature formulas. The goal of the paper is to establish cubature formulas on finite combinatorial graphs. The results have direct applications to problems that arise in connection with data filtering, data denoising and data dimension reduction.

  20. Polarization chaos in an optically pumped laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, C; Kul'minskii, A; Vilaseca, R; Corbalán, R

    1995-06-15

    We study the steady-state and dynamic behavior of an optically pumped J = 0 ? J = 1 ? J = 0 laser operating with an isotropic ring cavity and an axial magnetic field. The gain anisotropy induced by a linearly polarized pump-laser f ield leads, in the steady state, to locking of the two circularly polarized components of the laser field, which acquires a linear polarization parallel to that of the pump field. In the presence of laser intensity instabilities, however, locking does not occur, and polarization instabilities appear. For the f irst time to our knowledge, polarization chaos has been found in a laser system.

  1. Crosstalk Model and Estimation Formula for VLSI Interconnect Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We develop an interconnect crosstalk estimation model on the assumption of linearity for CMOS device. First, we analyze the terminal response of RC model on the worst condition from the S field to the time domain. The exact 3 order coefficients in S field are obtained due to the interconnect tree model. Based on this, a crosstalk peak estimation formula is presented. Unlike other crosstalk equations in the literature, this formula is only used coupled capacitance and grand capacitance as parameter. Experimental results show that, compared with the SPICE results, the estimation formulae are simple and accurate. So the model is expected to be used in such fields as layout-driven logic and high level synthesis, performance-driven floorplanning and interconnect planning.

  2. Determination of choline in infant formula by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikhtman, M; Rohrer, J S

    1999-01-01

    Choline was determined in infant formula by ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection. Samples were digested with 1M hydrochloric acid, filtered, diluted, and injected into the chromatographic system. Choline and the alkali and alkaline earth metals were separated on a high-resolution cation-exchange column and detected by suppressed conductivity. The method was linear between 2 and 200 mg/L (r2 = 0.9999), the concentration range of the diluted samples. This method accurately determined choline in powdered, concentrated, and ready-to-feed infant formulas. Recoveries of choline spikes into powdered infant formula at approximately 1, 0.8, 0.5, and 0.2 times the labeled value ranged from 85 to 114%. This method had good agreement for 8 blind duplicates. The values determined for these samples, which were used in an AOAC collaborative study of an enzymatic method, were consistent with the values determined by the enzymatic method.

  3. Calibration of mixed-polarization interferometric observations

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Conway, John; Zensus, Anton J

    2016-01-01

    Heterodyne receivers register the sky signal on either a circular polarization basis (where it is split into left-hand and right-hand circular polarization) or a linear polarization basis (where it is split into horizontal and vertical linear polarization). We study the problem of interferometric observations performed with telescopes that observe on different polarization bases, hence producing visibilities that we call "mixed basis" (i.e., linear in one telescope and circular in the other). We present novel algorithms for the proper calibration and treatment of such interferometric observations and test our algorithms with both simulations and real data. The use of our algorithms will be important for the optimum calibration of forthcoming observations with the Atacama Large mm/submm Array (ALMA) in very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) mode. Our algorithms will also allow us to optimally calibrate future VLBI observations at very high data rates (i.e., wide bandwidths), where linear-polarization feeds w...

  4. Entropy Formulas For Dynamical Systems With Mistakes

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseau, Jerome; Zhao, Yun

    2010-01-01

    We study the recurrence to mistake dynamical balls, that is, dynamical balls that admit some errors and whose proportion of errors decrease tends to zero with the length of the dynamical ball. We prove, under mild assumptions, that the measure-theoretic entropy coincides with the exponential growth rate of return times to mistake dynamical balls and that minimal return times to mistake dynamical balls grow linearly with respect to its length.Moreover we obtain averaged recurrence formula for subshifts of finite type and suspension semiflows. Applications include $\\beta$-transformations, Axiom A flows and suspension semiflows of maps with a mild specification property. In particular we extend some results from [4, 9, 17] for mistake dynamical balls.

  5. Polarimetric investigation of materials with both linear and circular anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naydenova, I.; Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.;

    1997-01-01

    We investigate light propagation through materials with both linear and circular anisotropy and find the relation of the amplitude and polarization transfer functions to the four anisotropic characteristics: linear circular birefringence, and linear and circular dichroism. We determine these four...

  6. Pocket book of integrals and mathematical formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Tallarida, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Preface to the Fifth EditionPreface to the Fourth EditionPreface to the Third EditionPreface to the Second EditionPreface to the First EditionAuthorGreek LettersElementary Algebra and GeometryFundamental Properties (Real Numbers)ExponentsFractional ExponentsIrrational ExponentsLogarithmsFactorialsBinomial TheoremFactors and ExpansionProgressionComplex NumbersPolar FormPermutationsCombinationsAlgebraic EquationsGeometryPythagorean TheoremDeterminants, Matrices, and Linear Systems of EquationsDeterminantsEvaluation by CofactorsProperties of DeterminantsMatricesOperationsPropertiesTransposeIdenti

  7. Developing the Vertex Formula Meaningfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebesniak, Amy L.; Burgoa, A. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    As teachers working with students in entry-level algebra classes, authors Amy Nebesniak and A. Aaron Burgoa realized that their instruction was a major factor in how their students viewed mathematics. They often presented students with abstract formulas that seemed to appear out of thin air. One instance occurred while they were teaching students…

  8. Recurrence Formulas for Fibonacci Sums

    CERN Document Server

    Brandao, Adilson J V

    2008-01-01

    In this article we present a new recurrence formula for a finite sum involving the Fibonacci sequence. Furthermore, we state an algorithm to compute the sum of a power series related to Fibonacci series, without the use of term-by-term differentiation theorem

  9. Angular dependence, blackness and polarization effects in integral conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajti, Sz., E-mail: sajti.szilard@wigner.mta.hu; Tanczikó, F.; Deák, L.; Nagy, D.L.; Bottyán, L.

    2015-01-01

    General expressions of the electron yield in {sup 57}Fe integral conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy were derived depending on the glancing angle of the γ photons, on the source polarization and on the isotopic abundance of the source and the absorber (blackness effects) using an exponential escape function of the electrons originating from all Mössbauer-resonance-related processes. The present approach provides a firm theoretical basis to determine the alignment and direction of magnetization in the absorber. The intensity formulae were justified by least squares fits of α-{sup 57}Fe spectral intensities measured in linearly and elliptically polarized source and absorber geometries. The fits reproduce the experimentally set angles with high accuracy. Limits of the current approach and its relation to other, less complete treatments in the literature are discussed.

  10. Axioms and Models of Linear Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    1990-01-01

    Girard's recent system of linear logic is presented in a way that avoids the two-level structure of formulae and sequents, and that minimises the number of primitive function symbols. A deduction theorem is proved concerning the classical implication as embedded in linear logic. The Hilbert-style ax

  11. Undulator-based production of polarized positrons

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, G.; Barley, J; Batygin, Y.; Berridge, S.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bower, G; Bugg, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Dollan, R.; Efremenko, Y; K. Flöttmann; Gharibyan, V.; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Kolanoski, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full exploitation of the physics potential of a future International Linear Collider will require the use of polarized electron and positron beams. Experiment E166 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which an electron beam passes through a helical undulator to generate photons (whose first-harmonic spectrum extended to 7.9MeV) with circular polarization, which are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons and elect...

  12. Energy balance, nitrogen balance, and growth in preterm infants fed expressed breast milk, a premature infant formula, and two low-solute adapted formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, O G; Wood, C; Barley, J

    1982-12-01

    Energy balance, nitrogen balance, and growth studies were done in 37 preterm infants (20 of very low birthweight) who were fed on expressed breast milk or on one of 3 formulae each of different composition, including a special premature formula and a highly adapted 'humanised' formula. The variability of breast milk composition was such that it would have been difficult to predict the infants' protein and energy intakes under normal nursing conditions. All measured parameters of nutritional performance were best in infants fed on the 'premature' formula and were reflected in greater weight gain, linear growth, and head growth. The nitrogen balance data suggest that the highly adapted formula, which had a protein content comparable with that of mature human milk, contained too little protein for small preterm infants.

  13. Polarization, political

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wojcieszak

    2015-01-01

    Polarization has been studied in three different forms: on a social, group, and individual level. This entry first focuses on the undisputed phenomenon of elite polarization (i.e., increasing adherence of policy positions among the elites) and also outlines different approaches to assessing mass pol

  14. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  15. Radiative effects in scattering of polarized leptons by polarized nucleons and light nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Akushevich, I V; Shumeiko, N M

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of radiative effects in polarized lepton-nuclear scattering are reviewed. The processes of inclusive, semi-inclusive, diffractive and elastic scattering are considered. The explicit formulae obtained within the covariant approach are discussed. FORTRAN codes POLRAD, RADGEN, HAPRAD, DIFFRAD and MASCARAD created on the basis of the formulae are briefly described. Applications for data analysis of the current experiments on lepton-nuclear scattering at CERN, DESY, SLAC and TJNAF are illustrated by numerical results.

  16. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  17. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication......Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  18. Baryon spectroscopy with polarization observables from CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Steffen [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Meson photoproduction is an important tool in the study of baryon resonances. The spectrum of broad and overlapping nucleon excitations can be greatly clarified by use of polarization observables. The N* program at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) includes experimental studies with linearly and circularly polarized tagged photon beams, longitudinally and transversely polarized nucleon targets, and recoil polarizations. An overview of these experimental studies and recent results will be given.

  19. Polarization dynamics in dissipative soliton fiber lasers mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingjie; Xiao, Xiaosheng; Yang, Changxi

    2011-09-12

    We numerically studied the polarization dynamics in dissipative soliton lasers mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR). It was found that the polarization states of the intracavity dissipative soliton vary with time across the pulse. Depending on output coupling ratios, the polarization states of the pulse peak before the polarizer can be either nearly circular or nearly linear polarizations. The polarization dependent component in NPR is found to play a role of spectral filter under high and medium output coupling. However, NPR may work as a weak optical limiter under low output coupling, when additional spectral filtering is necessary to maintain steady mode-locking state.

  20. Coherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurface

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    We describe the mechanism by which a metamaterial surface can act as an ideal phase-controlled rotatable linear polarizer. With equal-power linearly polarized beams incident on each side of the surface, varying the relative phase rotates the polarization angles of the output beams, while keeping the polarization exactly linear. The explanation is based on coupled-mode theory and the idea of coherent perfect absorption into auxiliary polarization channels. The polarization-rotating behavior occurs at a critical point of the coupled-mode theory, which can be associated with the exceptional point of a parity-time (PT) symmetric effective Hamiltonian.

  1. Koide's Mass Formula for Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannen, Carl

    2006-05-01

    We derive Koide's mass formula as an eigenvector equation. We show that to within current experimental error, the square roots of the masses of the charged leptons follow the simple equation (m^-n)^0.5 = μ1(1 + √2(δ1+ 2nπ/3)) where δ1 is the interesting number .22222204717(48) and μ1 is a constant. Next we generalize the Koide formula to the neutrinos by assuming that the square root of the mass of the smallest neutrino must be taken to be negative. Then masses of the simple form (m^0n)^0.5 = μ0(1 + √2(δ1+ π/12 + 2nπ/3)) where 3;μ0= 3^12 ;μ1, satisfy recent neutrino oscillation measurements close to the centers of the error bars. Finally, we discuss the preon model for the fermions that led to the above discovery.

  2. Blackhole formula and example relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Philip

    Black hole formula 1) Second dimension (x,y) f(x)=y Energy E=m*c2 2) Third dimension (x,y,z) really x=y=z Black hole formula Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) As mass go the velocity of light, mass become black hole so there are energy as multiply by mass. Example relativity When E=m*c2 1) Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) 2) 3*c*Root(c2)=3*c*Root(E/m)=3*c2 From 1) to 2) as an example, As velocity is faster, mass increased. It means when velocity is increased, sec(time) is slower, and m(distance) is increased. The number is good to study physics.

  3. Establishment and assessment of new formulas for energy consumption estimation in adult burn patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xi

    Full Text Available An accurate knowledge of energy consumption in burn patients is a prerequisite for rational nutrition therapy. This study sought to create a formula that accounts for the metabolic characteristics of adult burn patients to accurately estimate energy consumption of patients with different areas and extents of burn and at different times after injury.Resting energy expenditure (REE data on 66 burn patients, with total body surface area (TBSA of burns ranging from 4% to 96%, were evaluated at different times after injury. REE values were determined in patients using indirect calorimetry at days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after injury. We then constructed a mathematical model of REE changes post-burn. Next, established two new formulas (one non-linear and the other linear for energy consumption estimation using model-based analytical solution and regression analysis. The new formulas were compared with measured REE and commonly used formulas including those of Carlson, Xie, Curreri, and Milner to determine accuracy and reliability.Comparative analysis showed that the new formulas offered significantly higher accuracy and reliability than the Milner formula, which is considered the most accurate of commonly used burn energy consumption estimate formulas. The accuracy of the new nonlinear formula (94.29% and that of the linear formula (91.43% were significantly higher than that of Milner formula (72.86% when compared to measured REE (χ2  =  11.706, P  =  0.001; χ2  =  8.230, P  =  0.004, respectively. The reliabilities of the new estimation formulas were both 100% and that of Milner formula was 74.24% (χ2  =  19.513, P  =  0.000.The new formulas constructed in this study provide reliable simulation of the impact of the degree of burn and post-burn days on energy consumption and offer notably higher accuracy and reliability than other formulas. These formulas will help determine nutritional needs of burn patients.The study

  4. Multi-dimensional versions of a formula of Popoviciu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an explicit formulation for multivariate truncated power functions of degree one is given firstly. Based on multivariate truncated power functions of degree one, a formulation is presented which counts the number of non-negative integer solutions of s×(s + 1) linear Diophantine equations and it can be considered as a multi-dimensional versions of the formula counting the number of non-negative integer solutions of ax + by = n which is given by Popoviciu in 1953.

  5. Multi-dimensional versions of a formula of Popoviciu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang XU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an explicit formulation for multivariate truncated power functions of degree one is given firstly. Based on multivariate truncated power functions of degree one, a formulation is presented which counts the number of non-negative integer solutions of s × (s + 1) linear Diophantine equations and it can be considered as a multi-dimensional versions of the formula counting the number of non-negative integer solutions of ax + by = n which is given by Popoviciu in 1953.

  6. Koppelman formulas on flag manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Samuelsson, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    We construct Koppelman formulas on manifolds of flags in $\\C^N$ for forms with values in any holomorphic line bundle as well as in the tautological vector bundles and their duals. As an application we obtain new explicit proofs of some vanishing theorems of the Bott-Borel-Weil type by solving the corresponding $\\debar$-equation. We also construct reproducing kernels for harmonic $(p,q)$-forms in the case of Grassmannians.

  7. Analyzing Walksat on random formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Coja-Oghlan, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Let F be a uniformly distributed random k-SAT formula with n variables and m clauses. We prove that the Walksat algorithm from Papadimitriou (FOCS 1991)/Schoning (FOCS 1999) finds a satisfying assignment of F in polynomial time w.h.p. if m/n0. This is an improvement by a factor of $\\Theta(k)$ over the best previous analysis of Walksat from Coja-Oghlan, Feige, Frieze, Krivelevich, Vilenchik (SODA 2009).

  8. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000805.htm How to Save Money on Infant Formula To use the sharing features ... several months. Here are some ways you can save money on infant formula . Money-Saving Ideas Here are ...

  9. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids ... When can I start giving my baby cow's milk? Before their first birthday, babies still need the ...

  10. McLean's second variation formula revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Hông Vân; Vanžura, Jiří

    2017-03-01

    We revisit McLean's second variation formulas for calibrated submanifolds in exceptional geometries, and correct his formulas concerning associative submanifolds and Cayley submanifolds, using a unified treatment based on the (relative) calibration method and Harvey-Lawson's identities.

  11. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  12. Formulaic speech in disorders of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sidtis

    2014-04-01

    Formulaic language studies remain less well recognized in language disorders. Profiles of differential formulaic language abilities in neurological disease have implications for cerebral models of language and for clinical evaluation and treatment of neurogenic language disorders.

  13. Some results on numerical divided difference formulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Xinghua; Wang; Heyu; Ming-Jun; Lai

    2005-01-01

    The remainder estimates of numerical divided difference formula are given for the functions of lower and higher smoothness, respectively. Then several divided difference formulas with super-convergence are derived with their remainder expressions.

  14. Lefschetz Formulae for p-Adic Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, Lefschetz formulae for torus actions on p-adic groups are proven.These are similar to comparable formulae for real Lie groups. Applications lie in the realm of dynamical zeta functions.

  15. Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

  16. Solutions of the motivic ADHM recursion formula

    CERN Document Server

    Mozgovoy, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We give an explicit solution of the ADHM recursion formula conjectured by Chuang, Diaconescu, and Pan. This solution is closely related to the formula for the Hodge polynomials of Higgs moduli spaces conjectured by Hausel and Rodriguez-Villegas. We solve also the twisted motivic ADHM recursion formula. As a byproduct we obtain a conjectural formula for the motives of twisted Higgs moduli spaces, which generalizes the conjecture of Hausel and Rodriguez-Villegas.

  17. Polarizing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    People categorize themselves and others, creating ingroup and outgroup distinctions. In American politics, parties constitute the in- and outgroups, and party leaders hold sway in articulating party positions. A party leader's endorsement of a policy can be persuasive, inducing co-partisans to take the same position. In contrast, a party leader's endorsement may polarize opinion, inducing out-party identifiers to take a contrary position. Using survey experiments from the 2008 presidential election, I examine whether in- and out-party candidate cues—John McCain and Barack Obama—affected partisan opinion. The results indicate that in-party leader cues do not persuade but that out-party leader cues polarize. This finding holds in an experiment featuring President Bush in which his endorsement did not persuade Republicans but it polarized Democrats. Lastly, I compare the effect of party leader cues to party label cues. The results suggest that politicians, not parties, function as polarizing cues.

  18. The Sobolev-P method - A generalization of the Sobolev method for the treatment of the polarization state of radiation and the polarizing effect of resonance line scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, D.J. (Oklahoma Univ., Norman (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The Sobolev-P method, a generalization of the Sobolev method, is developed for the treatment of the polarization state of radiation and the polarizing effect of resonance line scattering. The polarization state of the radiation is described by the Stokes parameters. The photon angular redistribution is described by a linear combination of the Rayleigh and isotropic phase matrices. Using this form of photon redistribution the Sobolev-P method formulas are derived for the case of axisymmetric systems. For continuum radiative transfer it is shown that quantitatively accurate calculations can be done using the Sobolev-P method and a discretized continuous opacity approximation. Sample synthetic flux and polarization spectra for model axisymmetric supernova systems calculated using Sobolev-P method are reported. A comparison of these sample results with spectropolarimetric data for SN 1987A shows some qualitative agreement of the features and indicates that it is pausible that SN 1987A has a length-width asymmetry of order 20 percent. 68 refs.

  19. Relations Among Some Fuzzy Entropy Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿铭

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy entropy has been widely used to analyze and design fuzzy systems, and many fuzzy entropy formulae have been proposed. For further in-deepth analysis of fuzzy entropy, the axioms and some important formulae of fuzzy entropy are introduced. Some equivalence results among these fuzzy entropy formulae are proved, and it is shown that fuzzy entropy is a special distance measurement.

  20. Concerning Two Formulaic Classes in Computational Combinatorics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leetsch C. HSU

    2012-01-01

    Here introduced and studied are two formulaic classes consisting of various combinatorial algebraic identities and series summation formulas.The basic ideas include utilizing properly the △-operator and Stirling numbers for some series transformations.A variety of classic formulas and remarkable identities are shown to be the members of the classes.

  1. AN EXTREMAL APPROACH TO BIRKHOFF QUADRATURE FORMULAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-guang Shi

    2001-01-01

    As we know, a solution of an extremal problem with Hermite interpolation constraints is a system of nodes of corresponding Gaussian Hermite quadrature formula (the so-called Jacobi approach). But this conclusion is violated for a Birkhoff quadrature formula. In this paper an extremal problem with Birkhoff interpolation constraints is discussed, from which a large class of Birkhoff quadrature formulas may be derived.

  2. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    . This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula...

  3. The Verlinde formula for Higgs bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Pei, Du

    2016-01-01

    We propose and prove the Verlinde formula for the quantization of the Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks for any simple and simply-connected group. This generalizes the equivariant Verlinde formula for the case of $SU(n)$ proposed previously by the second and third author. We further establish a Verlinde formula for the quantization of parabolic Higgs bundle moduli spaces and stacks.

  4. A bromine-based dichroic X-ray polarization analyser

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, S P; Brown, S D; Thompson, P

    2001-01-01

    We have demonstrated the advantages offered by dichroic X-ray polarization filters for linear polarization analysis, and describe such a device, based on a dibromoalkane/urea inclusion compound. The polarizer has been successfully tested by analysing the polarization of magnetic diffraction from holmium.

  5. Bryant J. correction formula; Formula corregida de J. Bryant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A

    1990-03-15

    For the practical application of the method proposed by J. Bryant, the authors carried out a series of small corrections, related with the bottom, the dead time of the detectors and channels, with the resolution time of the coincidences, with the accidental coincidences, with the decay scheme and with the gamma efficiency of the beta detector beta and the beta efficiency beta of the gamma detector. The calculation of the correction formula is presented in the development of the present report, being presented 25 combinations of the probability of the first existent state at once of one disintegration and the second state at once of the following disintegration. (Author)

  6. Firey linear combinations of convex bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Ge; XIAO Qi-ming; CHEUNG Wing-Sum

    2009-01-01

    For convex bodies, the Firey linear combinations were introduced and studied in several papers. In this paper the mean width of the Firey linear combinations of convex bodies is studied, and the lower bound of the mean width of the Firey linear combinations of convex body and its polar body is given.

  7. Suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of prompt and nonprompt [Formula: see text] production in PbPb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Zykunov, V; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Sharma, A; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Chagas, E Belchior Batista Das; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; De Souza, S Fonseca; Guativa, L M Huertas; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Susa, T; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Tsiakkouri, D; Finger, M; Finger, M; Jarrin, E Carrera; Kamel, A Ellithi; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Zghiche, A; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Miné, P; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Le Bihan, A-C; Skovpen, K; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sabes, D; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Lomidze, D; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Heister, A; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Ostapchuk, A; Preuten, M; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Verlage, T; Weber, H; Zhukov, V; Albert, A; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear modification factor [Formula: see text] and the azimuthal anisotropy coefficient [Formula: see text] of prompt and nonprompt (i.e. those from decays of b hadrons) [Formula: see text] mesons, measured from PbPb and pp collisions at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] at the LHC, are reported. The results are presented in several event centrality intervals and several kinematic regions, for transverse momenta [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text], extending down to [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] in the [Formula: see text] range. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] is found to be nonzero, but with no strong dependence on centrality, rapidity, or [Formula: see text] over the full kinematic range studied. The measured [Formula: see text] of nonprompt [Formula: see text] is consistent with zero. The [Formula: see text] of prompt [Formula: see text] exhibits a suppression that increases from peripheral to central collisions but does not vary strongly as a function of either y or [Formula: see text] in the fiducial range. The nonprompt [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] shows a suppression which becomes stronger as rapidity or [Formula: see text] increases. The [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of open and hidden charm, and of open charm and beauty, are compared.

  8. Applications of Matrices Multiplication to Determinant and Rotations formulas in $\\setR^n$

    CERN Document Server

    Goldvard, Alex

    2010-01-01

    This note deals with two topics of linear algebra. We give a simple and short proof of the multiplicative property of the determinant and provide a constructive formula for rotations. The derivation of the rotation matrix relies on simple matrix calculations and thus can be presented in an elementary linear algebra course. We also classify all invariant subspaces of equiangular rotations in 4D.

  9. Polarization signals in mantis shrimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Roberts, Nicholas; Marshall, Justin

    2009-08-01

    While color signals are well known as a form of animal communication, a number of animals communicate using signals based on patterns of polarized light reflected from specialized body parts or structures. Mantis shrimps, a group of marine crustaceans, have evolved a great diversity of such signals, several of which are based on photonic structures. These include resonant scattering devices, structures based on layered dichroic molecules, and structures that use birefringent layers to produce circular polarization. Such biological polarizers operate in different spectral regions ranging from the near-UV to medium wavelengths of visible light. In addition to the structures that are specialized for signal production, the eyes of many species of mantis shrimp are adapted to detect linearly polarized light in the ultraviolet and in the green, using specialized sets of photoreceptors with oriented, dichroic visual pigments. Finally, a few mantis shrimp species produce biophotonic retarders within their photoreceptors that permit the detection of circularly polarized light and are thus the only animals known to sense this form of polarization. Mantis shrimps use polarized light in species-specific signals related to mating and territorial defense, and their means of manipulating light's polarization can inspire designs for artificial polarizers and achromatic retarders.

  10. Linear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a series of seminars at Rome Air Development Center with the content equivalent to an intense course in Linear Systems . Material...is slanted toward the practicing engineer and introduces some of the fundamental concepts and techniques for analyzing linear systems . Techniques for

  11. A novel mathematical formula for retrieval algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A method is proposed to retrieve mathematical formula in LaTeX documents. Firstly, we represent the retrieved mathematical formula by binary tree according to its LaTeX description, normalize the structure of the binary tree, and obtain the structure code and then search the mathematical formula table that is named by the structure code and the formula elements of the first two levels of the binary tree in the mathematical formula database. If the table exists, then we search the normalizing ...

  12. Whiteness formula in CIELAB uniform color space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxin He; Mingxun Zhou

    2007-01-01

    @@ Many attempts have been made to standardize the calculation of whiteness. Whiteness formulas currently in use satisfactorily characterize the appearance of commercial whiteness. However, they have poor correlations with the observers' evaluations, and are often unsuccessful in assessing tinted white samples.A whiteness formula in the CIELAB uniform color space is developed in this paper. Several whiteness formulas are analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that the whiteness formula in the CIELAB uniform color space agrees well with the visual ranking, and it is superior to the CIE whiteness formula and the others in visual correlativity, uniformity and applicability.

  13. POlarized Light Angle Reflectance Instrument I Polarized Incidence (POLAR:I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto, Anthony W.; Woldemar, Christopher M.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1989-01-01

    The light scattering properties of leaves are used as input data for models which mathematically describe the transport of photons within plant canopies. Polarization measurements may aid in the investigation of these properties. This paper describes an instrument for rapidly determining the bidirectional light scattering properties of leaves illuminated by linearly polarized light. Results for one species, magnolia, show large differences in the bidirectional light scattering properties depending whether or not the electric vector E is parallel to the foliage surface.

  14. Differential Cross Section and Polarization of Radiative Recombination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ze-Qing; LI Yue-Ming; DUAN Bin; ZHANG Hong; YAN Jun

    2009-01-01

    The formulae of photon angular distribution and polarization degree for radiative recombination are presented to include the contribution of multipoles and their correlations.A fully relativistic code is then developed to calculate the photon angular distribution and polarization.The calculated polarization degree and differential cross-sections agree well with that of Scofild's results within 10%.The effects of multipoles on polarization and angular distribution are investigated.The polarization and the angular distribution become asymmetric when the multipoles are accounted as the electron energy increases.

  15. Quality Control of Differential Propagation Phase Shift for Dual Linear Polarization Radar%双线偏振雷达差分传播相移的质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜牧云; 刘黎平; 胡志群; 余蓉

    2012-01-01

    Data processing and quality control is the foundation of the application of dual-linear polarization Doppler radar. Based on the observation in field experiments by a Cband Polarization Doppler Radar on Wheel (CPDRW), the difference of differential propagation phase shift ΦDP between precipitation and ground clutter and its relationship with signal-to-noise ratio SNR are analyzed and a new data analyzing and processing methodology is suggested. According to this new method, the useless ΦDP data can be given up and the KDP data with higher accuracy can be acquired. Analysis indicates that ΦDP data are vulnerable to the influence of the non-meteorological target like ground clutter and usually appears large fluctuations. Φ DP data are also sensitive to the variability of SNR and cross-correlation coefficient ρ Hv(0) , especially the latter. It appears abnormal fluctuations with the quality of related SNR and ρ Hv(0) becomes poor and that will affect the quality of the estimation of KDP data if no appropriate quality control scheme is adopted. U-sing this kind of KDP data, obvious errors in the quantitative application of precipitation estimation and precipitation particle morphology recognition can be obtained. In this new method, the abnormal volatility of ΦDP data combining with reflectivity factor ZH and radial velocity VT information is used to isolate the ground clutter, and then improper data are eliminated in the quantitative application such as quantitative precipitation estimation or attenuation correction. According to SNR and ρHV(0), the meteorological data is divided into good, poor and bad categories. For the good data, the fluctuation is smaller, the increasing trend with distances which accords with theoretical expectations is evident, so the preprocessing algorithms and estimate KDP data can be used directly; for the poor data, although the fluctuation is more pronounced than the good data, the data continuity begins to become poor and there

  16. Magical Formulae for Market Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Markets are often portrayed as being organized by way of rationalized knowledge, objective reasoning, and the fluctuations of demand and supply. In parallel, and often mixed with this modality of knowledge, magical beliefs and practices are prevalent. Business leaders, management consultants......, and financial advisors are often savvy in the art of creatively blending the ‘objective facts’ of markets with magical formulae, rites, and imaginaries of the future. This article looks at the World Economic Forum's yearly Davos meeting as a large-scale ritual that engages senior executives of global...

  17. Polarization Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chun, Donghoon; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    2002-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a nearly square patch antenna integrated with a novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator for reconfiguring the polarization. Experimental results demonstrate that at a fixed frequency, the polarization can be reconfigured, from circular to linear.

  18. Normalized doubly coprime factorizations for infinite-dimensional linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, RF; Opmeer, MR

    2006-01-01

    We obtain explicit formulas for normalized doubly coprime factorizations of the transfer functions of the following class of linear systems: the input and output operators are vector-valued, but bounded, and the system is input and output stabilizable. Moreover, we give explicit formulas for the Bez

  19. The applicability of the dubois height weight formula for measurement of body surface of Indian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ramaswami

    1953-07-01

    Full Text Available The body surface area of 18 healthy adult Indian subjects was measured by taking part by part linear measurements for the whole body with the help of Anthropometry Beam Calipers and applying Du Bois linear formula method. The surface area values computed from Du Bois Height-weight formula were compared with the measured values. The average error in the eighteen cases is 1.5 percent. The standard deviation of the errors is 1.8 percent about the mean error of -0.5 percent. The errors are not statistically significant. As the original Du Bois formula itself is stated to have an average error of 1.5 percent, the present work confirms that the accuracy, with which Du Bois formula predicts body surface, is not sensibly different for Indians as against Europeans

  20. The Ryu-Takayanagi Formula from Quantum Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    I argue that a version of the quantum-corrected Ryu-Takayanagi formula holds in any quantum error-correcting code. I present this result as a series of theorems of increasing generality, with the final statement expressed in the language of operator-algebra quantum error correction. In AdS/CFT this gives a "purely boundary" interpretation of the formula. I also extend a recent theorem, which established entanglement-wedge reconstruction in AdS/CFT, when interpreted as a subsystem code, to the more general, and I argue more physical, case of subalgebra codes. For completeness, I include a self-contained presentation of the theory of von Neumann algebras on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, as well as the algebraic definition of entropy. The results confirm a close relationship between bulk gauge transformations, edge-modes/soft-hair on black holes, and the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. They also suggest a new perspective on the homology constraint, which basically is to get rid of it in a way that preserves the validity of the formula, but which removes any tension with the linearity of quantum mechanics. Moreover, they suggest a boundary interpretation of the "bit threads" recently introduced by Freedman and Headrick.