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Sample records for linear vertical foot

  1. Relationship between sagittal plane kinematics, foot morphology and vertical forces applied to three regions of the foot

    Hannah, I.; Sawacha, Z.; Guiotto, A.; Mazza, C.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic analysis of human motion with a multi-segment musculoskeletal foot model requires the distribution of loading applied to the modeled foot segments to be determined. This work thus examines the existence of any correlation between intersegmental foot kinematics, foot morphology, and the distribution of vertical loading in a multi-segment foot model. Gait analysis trials were performed by 20 healthy subjects at a self-selected speed with intersegmental foot joint angles and the distribu...

  2. Vertical Slot Convection: A linear study

    McAllister, A.; Steinolfson, R.; Tajima, T.

    1992-11-01

    The linear stability properties of fluid convection in a vertical slot were studied. We use a Fourier-Chebychev decomposition was used to set up the linear eigenvalue problems for the Vertical Slot Convection and Benard problems. The eigenvalues, neutral stability curves, and critical point values of the Grashof number, G, and the wavenumber were determined. Plots of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenvalues as functions of G and α are given for a wide range of the Prandtl number, Pr, and special note is made of the complex mode that becomes linearly unstable above Pr ∼ 12.5. A discussion comparing different special cases facilitates the physical understanding of the VSC equations, especially the interaction of the shear-flow and buoyancy induced physics. Making use of the real and imaginary eigenvalues and the phase properties of the eigenmodes, the eigenmodes were characterized. One finds that the mode structure becomes progressively simpler with increasing Pr, with the greatest complexity in the mid ranges where the terms in the heat equation are of roughly the same size

  3. Running quietly reduces ground reaction force and vertical loading rate and alters foot strike technique.

    Phan, Xuan; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wernli, Kevin; Stearne, Sarah M; Davey, Paul; Ng, Leo

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine if a quantifiable relationship exists between the peak sound amplitude and peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and vertical loading rate during running. It also investigated whether differences in peak sound amplitude, contact time, lower limb kinematics, kinetics and foot strike technique existed when participants were verbally instructed to run quietly compared to their normal running. A total of 26 males completed running trials for two sound conditions: normal running and quiet running. Simple linear regressions revealed no significant relationships between impact sound and peak vGRF in the normal and quiet conditions and vertical loading rate in the normal condition. t-Tests revealed significant within-subject decreases in peak sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate during the quiet compared to the normal running condition. During the normal running condition, 15.4% of participants utilised a non-rearfoot strike technique compared to 76.9% in the quiet condition, which was corroborated by an increased ankle plantarflexion angle at initial contact. This study demonstrated that quieter impact sound is not directly associated with a lower peak vGRF or vertical loading rate. However, given the instructions to run quietly, participants effectively reduced peak impact sound, peak vGRF and vertical loading rate.

  4. Vertical Profunda Artery Perforator Flap for Plantar Foot Wound Closure: A New Application.

    Alfonso, Allyson R; Mayo, James L; Sharma, Vishal K; Allen, Robert J; Chiu, Ernest S

    2018-02-01

    Plantar foot reconstruction requires special consideration of both form and function. There are several fasciocutaneous flap options, each with indications and reservations. This case presents a new application of the vertical profunda artery perforator flap for definitive closure of a neuropathic foot ulcer in a young woman with spina bifida. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the flap survived completely. The surgical and donor sites were without wound recurrence at 5-month follow-up. Understanding the variability of foot flap options is important because of unique cases such as the one presented where the wound was caused by specific and less commonly observed foot anatomy. The specific choice to use the vertical profunda artery perforator flap for this patient and her neuropathic wound type was made based on its excellent flexibility, durability, and donor site appeal. The vertical profunda artery perforator flap has adequate surface area and bulk and a favorable pedicle length and caliber, can be thinned, and leaves a donor scar in a less conspicuous area than other popular free flaps for lower-extremity reconstruction. For these reasons, it should be considered a first-line therapy for free flap coverage of selected foot wounds.

  5. A comparison of two landing styles in a two-foot vertical jump.

    Gutiérrez-Davila, Marcos; Campos, José; Navarro, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    In team sports, such as basketball and volleyball, the players use different takeoff styles to make the vertical jump. The two-foot vertical jump styles have been classified according to the landing style and identified as hop style, when both feet touch the ground at the same time, and step-close style, when there is a slight delay between the first and second foot making contact with the ground. The aim of this research is to identify the differences between the two styles. Twenty-three subjects participated in the study, of whom 14 were volleyball players and 9 were basketball players. The jumps were video recorded and synchronized with two force platforms at 250 Hz. Two temporal periods of the takeoff were defined according to the reduction or increase in the radial distance between the center of gravity (CG) and the foot support (T - RDCG and T + RDCG, respectively). The findings produced no specific advantages when both styles were compared with respect to takeoff velocity and, consequently, to jump height, but takeoff time was significantly shorter (p vertical velocity of CG at the beginning of the takeoff is significantly lower. Moreover, the mean vertical force developed during T - RDCG was reduced by -627.7 +/- 251.1 N, thus lessening impact on landing. Horizontal velocity at the end of the takeoff is less when the step-close style is used (p jumps where it is necessary to move horizontally during the flight against an opponent.

  6. Perception of the dynamic visual vertical during sinusoidal linear motion.

    Pomante, A; Selen, L P J; Medendorp, W P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system provides information for spatial orientation. However, this information is ambiguous: because the otoliths sense the gravitoinertial force, they cannot distinguish gravitational and inertial components. As a consequence, prolonged linear acceleration of the head can be interpreted as tilt, referred to as the somatogravic effect. Previous modeling work suggests that the brain disambiguates the otolith signal according to the rules of Bayesian inference, combining noisy canal cues with the a priori assumption that prolonged linear accelerations are unlikely. Within this modeling framework the noise of the vestibular signals affects the dynamic characteristics of the tilt percept during linear whole-body motion. To test this prediction, we devised a novel paradigm to psychometrically characterize the dynamic visual vertical-as a proxy for the tilt percept-during passive sinusoidal linear motion along the interaural axis (0.33 Hz motion frequency, 1.75 m/s 2 peak acceleration, 80 cm displacement). While subjects ( n =10) kept fixation on a central body-fixed light, a line was briefly flashed (5 ms) at different phases of the motion, the orientation of which had to be judged relative to gravity. Consistent with the model's prediction, subjects showed a phase-dependent modulation of the dynamic visual vertical, with a subject-specific phase shift with respect to the imposed acceleration signal. The magnitude of this modulation was smaller than predicted, suggesting a contribution of nonvestibular signals to the dynamic visual vertical. Despite their dampening effect, our findings may point to a link between the noise components in the vestibular system and the characteristics of dynamic visual vertical. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A fundamental question in neuroscience is how the brain processes vestibular signals to infer the orientation of the body and objects in space. We show that, under sinusoidal linear motion, systematic error patterns appear in the

  7. Prenatal congenital vertical talus (rocker bottom foot). A marker for multisystem anomalies

    Rubio, Eva I.; Blask, Anna R.; Bulas, Dorothy I. [Children' s National Health System, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Mehta, Nimisha [George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Congenital vertical talus is a rare foot anomaly characterized by a prominent calcaneus and rigid forefoot dorsiflexion. While congenital vertical talus has been associated with anomalies such as trisomy 18, myelomeningocele and arthrogryposis, postnatal series have reported cases of isolated congenital vertical talus. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of isolated congenital vertical talus prenatally and identify the most common anomalies associated with this finding. A retrospective review was performed of congenital vertical talus cases identified in our fetal center from 2006 to 2015. The prenatal US and MR imaging appearance of congenital vertical talus was evaluated and differentiation from congenital talipes equinovarus was assessed. Studies were evaluated for additional abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, face, limbs, viscera, growth and amniotic fluid. Imaging findings were recorded and correlated with outcomes when available. Twenty-four cases of congenital vertical talus were identified prenatally (gestational age: 19-36 weeks). All 24 had prenatal US and 21 also underwent fetal MRI on the same day. There were no isolated cases of congenital vertical talus in this series; all 24 had additional anomalies identified prenatally. Sixteen cases had bilateral congenital vertical talus (67%). Additional anomalies were identified in the brain (15), spine (11), face (6), abdominal wall (3), heart (8) and other limbs (12). Chromosomal abnormalities were identified in 6 of 20 patients who underwent genetic testing. Overall, US held some advantage in detecting the abnormality: in 10 cases, US depicted congenital vertical talus more clearly than MRI; in 8 cases, US and MRI were equal in detection and in 3 cases, MRI was superior. In 9/15 cases with intracranial abnormalities, MRI was superior to US in demonstrating structural anomalies. Outcomes included termination (11), intrauterine fetal demise (1), stillbirth or immediate

  8. Prenatal congenital vertical talus (rocker bottom foot). A marker for multisystem anomalies

    Rubio, Eva I.; Blask, Anna R.; Bulas, Dorothy I.; Mehta, Nimisha

    2017-01-01

    Congenital vertical talus is a rare foot anomaly characterized by a prominent calcaneus and rigid forefoot dorsiflexion. While congenital vertical talus has been associated with anomalies such as trisomy 18, myelomeningocele and arthrogryposis, postnatal series have reported cases of isolated congenital vertical talus. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of isolated congenital vertical talus prenatally and identify the most common anomalies associated with this finding. A retrospective review was performed of congenital vertical talus cases identified in our fetal center from 2006 to 2015. The prenatal US and MR imaging appearance of congenital vertical talus was evaluated and differentiation from congenital talipes equinovarus was assessed. Studies were evaluated for additional abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, face, limbs, viscera, growth and amniotic fluid. Imaging findings were recorded and correlated with outcomes when available. Twenty-four cases of congenital vertical talus were identified prenatally (gestational age: 19-36 weeks). All 24 had prenatal US and 21 also underwent fetal MRI on the same day. There were no isolated cases of congenital vertical talus in this series; all 24 had additional anomalies identified prenatally. Sixteen cases had bilateral congenital vertical talus (67%). Additional anomalies were identified in the brain (15), spine (11), face (6), abdominal wall (3), heart (8) and other limbs (12). Chromosomal abnormalities were identified in 6 of 20 patients who underwent genetic testing. Overall, US held some advantage in detecting the abnormality: in 10 cases, US depicted congenital vertical talus more clearly than MRI; in 8 cases, US and MRI were equal in detection and in 3 cases, MRI was superior. In 9/15 cases with intracranial abnormalities, MRI was superior to US in demonstrating structural anomalies. Outcomes included termination (11), intrauterine fetal demise (1), stillbirth or immediate

  9. Linear theory of beam depolarization due to vertical betatron motion

    Chao, A.W.; Schwitters, R.F.

    1976-06-01

    It is well known that vertical betatron motion in the presence of quantum fluctuations leads to some degree of depolarization of a transversely polarized beam in electron-positron storage rings even for energies away from spin resonances. Analytic formulations of this problem, which require the use of simplifying assumptions, generally have shown that there exist operating energies where typical storage rings should exhibit significant beam polarization. Due to the importance of beam polarization in many experiments, we present here a complete calculation of the depolarization rate to lowest order in the perturbing fields, which are taken to be linear functions of the betatron motion about the equilibrium orbit. The results are applicable to most high energy storage rings. Explicit calculations are given for SPEAR and PEP. 7 refs., 8 figs

  10. A T-shape linear piezoelectric motor with single foot.

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Yang, Xiaohui; Liu, Junkao

    2015-02-01

    A new T-shape piezoelectric motor using the hybrid of two orthogonal longitudinal vibrations is proposed in this work. Six pieces of PZT ceramic plates are bonded on the upside and downside surfaces of a T-shape duralumin alloy base respectively to form the proposed motor. Elliptical movement can be generated on the driving tip by applying sine and cosine voltages to the PZT elements. The horizontal displacement of the driving tip will push the runner while the vertical displacement can overcome the preload. Finite element method is used to accomplish the design and analysis process. The resonance frequencies of the two vibration modes are tuned to be close by modal analysis, while the motion trajectory of the driving tip is observed by transient analysis. After the fabrication of a prototype, the vibration characteristics and mechanical output ability are measured. The no-load speed and the maximum output thrust force of the proposed motor are tested to be 718 mm/s and 3.5 N under an exciting frequency of 53.1 kHz. The proposed T-shape piezoelectric motor exhibits merits of simple structure, easy to realize miniaturization, easy to be fabricated, and high power-to-weight ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Two-family compensation of linear horizontal/vertical coupling

    Peterson, J.

    1991-10-01

    Many existing circular accelerators have been able to adequately compensate their horizontal/vertical coupling by one or two families of skew-quadrupole corrector magnets. For example, the HERA proton storage ring at DESY has used just two skew quadrupoles correctors, the SPS at CERN can operate with just one skew quadrupole corrector, and the Tevatron at Fermilab with two families of skew quadrupoles. At first sight just two corrector families seem unlikely to be enough, since there are four independent horizontal/vertical coupling coefficients in the 4 x 4 transfer from one point to any other in the ring. Thus, for the general case four families of correctors would seem to be necessary. It will be shown that the adequacy of two-family correction for storage rings in a consequence of operating near the diagonal of the tune diagram

  12. A seismic vertical vibrator driven by linear synchronous motors

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Dams, J.; Jenneskens, R.

    2015-01-01

    A linear synchronous motor (LSM) is an electric motor that can produce large controllable forces and is therefore suitable as a driving engine for a seismic vibrator. This motor consists of two independent elements, a magnet track and a coil track, allowing practically unlimited motor displacements.

  13. Identification of a serotype-independent linear epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Yang, Baolin; Wang, Mingxia; Liu, Wenming; Xu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Haiwei; Yang, Decheng; Ma, Wenge; Zhou, Guohui; Yu, Li

    2017-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. VP2 is a structural protein of FMDV. In this study, an FMDV serotype-independent monoclonal antibody (MAb), 10B10, against the viral capsid protein VP2 was generated, and a series of GST fusion proteins expressing a truncated peptide of VP2 was subjected to Western blot analysis using MAb 10B10. Their results indicated that the peptide 8 TLLEDRILT 16 of VP2 is the minimal requirement of the epitope recognized by MAb 10B10. Importantly, this linear epitope was highly conserved among all seven serotypes of FMDV in a sequence alignment analysis. Subsequent alanine-scanning mutagenesis analysis revealed that the residues Thr 8 and Asp 12 of the epitope were crucial for MAb-10B10 binding. Furthermore, Western blot analysis also revealed that the MAb 10B10-directed epitope could be recognized by positive sera from FMDV-infected cattle. The discovery that MAb 10B10 recognizes a serotype-independent linear epitope of FMDV suggests potential applications for this MAb in the development of serotype-independent tests for FMDV.

  14. Vertical Jump Height Estimation Algorithm Based on Takeoff and Landing Identification Via Foot-Worn Inertial Sensing.

    Wang, Jianren; Xu, Junkai; Shull, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Vertical jump height is widely used for assessing motor development, functional ability, and motor capacity. Traditional methods for estimating vertical jump height rely on force plates or optical marker-based motion capture systems limiting assessment to people with access to specialized laboratories. Current wearable designs need to be attached to the skin or strapped to an appendage which can potentially be uncomfortable and inconvenient to use. This paper presents a novel algorithm for estimating vertical jump height based on foot-worn inertial sensors. Twenty healthy subjects performed countermovement jumping trials and maximum jump height was determined via inertial sensors located above the toe and under the heel and was compared with the gold standard maximum jump height estimation via optical marker-based motion capture. Average vertical jump height estimation errors from inertial sensing at the toe and heel were -2.2±2.1 cm and -0.4±3.8 cm, respectively. Vertical jump height estimation with the presented algorithm via inertial sensing showed excellent reliability at the toe (ICC(2,1)=0.98) and heel (ICC(2,1)=0.97). There was no significant bias in the inertial sensing at the toe, but proportional bias (b=1.22) and fixed bias (a=-10.23cm) were detected in inertial sensing at the heel. These results indicate that the presented algorithm could be applied to foot-worn inertial sensors to estimate maximum jump height enabling assessment outside of traditional laboratory settings, and to avoid bias errors, the toe may be a more suitable location for inertial sensor placement than the heel.

  15. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading

    Kingma, I.; Bosch, T.; Bruins, L.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined

  16. The Quasi-Linear Solution of Vertical Infiltration; La solucion cuasi-lineal de la infiltracion vertical

    Fuentes, Carlos [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Parlangue, Jean-Yves [Departamento de Agricultura e Ingenieria Biologica (United States); Haverkamp, Randel; Vauclin, Michael [Laboratorio de Estudio de las Transferencias en Hidrologia y Medio ambiente (France)

    2001-12-01

    The exact solution of the one-dimensional vertical infiltration equation is deducted, when the hydraulic diffusivity is considered constant and the hydraulic conductivity is a combination of both a linear and quadratic functions of the soil water content. This quasi-linear solution includes as particular cases, both the classical solution known as linear soil and the Knight solution. The cumulative infiltrated water as a function of time provided by the quasi-linear solution has been compared with the cumulative infiltrated water obtained from the numerical solution of the Richards equation on three different soils of contrasting hydrodynamic properties. The good agreement between the two solutions has shown that the quasi-linear solution can be used on soils where the accepted hypothesis, on hydraulic diffusivity and hydraulic conductivity, for its deduction is not satisfied. [Spanish] Se deduce la solucion exacta de la ecuacion de la infiltracion unidimensional vertical cuando la difusividad hidraulica es considerada constante y la conductividad hidraulica es una combinacion de una funcion lineal y una cuadratica del contenido volumetrico de agua. Esta solucion cuasi-lineal de la infiltracion contiene, como casos particulares, la solucion clasica conocida como suelo lineal y la solucion de Knight. La lamina infiltrada acumulada en funcion del tiempo proporcionada por la solucion cuasi-lineal se ha comparado con la lamina infiltrada proporcionada por la solucion numerica de la ecuacion de Richards en tres suelos de propiedades hidrodinamicas contrastantes. El buen acuerdo entre las laminas infiltradas ha mostrado que la solucion cuasi-lineal puede utilizarse en suelos donde la difusividad y la conductividad hidraulicas no satisfacen los supuestos de la deduccion.

  17. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading

    Kingma, I.; Bosch, T.; Bruins, L.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined with an EMG assisted trunk muscle model to quantify kinematics and low back loading in 10 subjects performing 19 different lifting movements, using 10.5 kg boxes without handles. When lifting from...

  18. Non-linear finite element model to assess the effect of tendon forces on the foot-ankle complex.

    Morales-Orcajo, Enrique; Souza, Thales R; Bayod, Javier; Barbosa de Las Casas, Estevam

    2017-11-01

    A three-dimensional foot finite element model with actual geometry and non-linear behavior of tendons is presented. The model is intended for analysis of the lower limb tendon forces effect in the inner foot structure. The geometry of the model was obtained from computational tomographies and magnetic resonance images. Tendon tissue was characterized with the first order Ogden material model based on experimental data from human foot tendons. Kinetic data was employed to set the load conditions. After model validation, a force sensitivity study of the five major foot extrinsic tendons was conducted to evaluate the function of each tendon. A synergic work of the inversion-eversion tendons was predicted. Pulling from a peroneus or tibialis tendon stressed the antagonist tendons while reducing the stress in the agonist. Similar paired action was predicted for the Achilles tendon with the tibialis anterior. This behavior explains the complex control motion performed by the foot. Furthermore, the stress state at the plantar fascia, the talocrural joint cartilage, the plantar soft tissue and the tendons were estimated in the early and late midstance phase of walking. These estimations will help in the understanding of the functional role of the extrinsic muscle-tendon-units in foot pronation-supination. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Foot positioning instruction, initial vertical load position and lifting technique: effects on low back loading.

    Kingma, Idsart; Bosch, Tim; Bruins, Louis; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2004-10-22

    This study investigated the effects of initial load height and foot placement instruction in four lifting techniques: free, stoop (bending the back), squat (bending the knees) and a modified squat technique (bending the knees and rotating them outward). A 2D dynamic linked segment model was combined with an EMG assisted trunk muscle model to quantify kinematics and low back loading in 10 subjects performing 19 different lifting movements, using 10.5 kg boxes without handles. When lifting from a 0.05 m height with the feet behind the box, squat lifting resulted in 19.9% (SD 8.7%) higher net moments (p squat and stoop lifts, as well as the interaction with lifting height, could to a large extent be explained by changes in the horizontal L5/S1 intervertebral joint position relative to the load, the upper body acceleration, and lumbar flexion. Rotating the knees outward during squat lifts resulted in moments and compression forces that were smaller than in squat lifting but larger than in stoop lifting. Shear forces were small ( < 300 N) at the L4/L5 joint and substantial (1100 - 1400 N) but unaffected by lifting technique at the L5/S1 joint. The present results show that the effects of lifting technique on low back loading depend on the task context.

  20. Analysis by numerical simulations of non-linear phenomenons in vertical pump rotor dynamic

    Bediou, J.; Pasqualini, G.

    1992-01-01

    Controlling dynamical behavior of main coolant pumps shaftlines is an interesting subject for the user and the constructor. The first is mainly concerned by the interpretation of on field observed behavior, monitoring, reliability and preventive maintenance of his machines. The second must in addition manage with sometimes contradictory requirements related to mechanical design and performances optimization (shaft diameter reduction, clearance,...). The use of numerical modeling is now a classical technique for simple analysis (rough prediction of critical speeds for instance) but is still limited, in particular for vertical shaftline especially when equipped with hydrodynamic bearings, due to the complexity of encountered phenomenons in that type of machine. The vertical position of the shaftline seems to be the origin of non linear dynamical behavior, the analysis of which, as presented in the following discussion, requires specific modelization of fluid film, particularly for hydrodynamic bearings. The low static load generally no longer allows use of stiffness and damping coefficients classically calculated by linearizing fluid film equations near a stable static equilibrium position. For the analysis of such machines, specific numerical models have been developed at Electricite de France in a package for general rotordynamics analysis. Numerical models are briefly described. Then an example is precisely presented and discussed to illustrate some considered phenomenons and their consequences on machine behavior. In this example, the authors interpret the observed behavior by using numerical models, and demonstrate the advantage of such analysis for better understanding of vertical pumps rotordynamic

  1. An electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper motor fabricated by vertical trench isolation technology

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    We present the design, microfabrication and characterization of an electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper micromotor constructed with vertical trench isolation technology. This suitable technology was used to create a monolithic stepper motor with high-aspect-ratio poles and an integrated 3-phase electrical network in the bulk of a standard single-crystal silicon wafer. The shuttle of the stepper motor is suspended by a flexure to avoid any mechanical contact during operation, enhancing the precision, repeatability and reliability of the stepping motion. The prototype is capable of a maximum travel of +/−26 µm (52 µm) at an actuation voltage of 30 V and a step size of 1.4 µm during a half-stepping sequence

  2. An electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper motor fabricated by vertical trench isolation technology

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-07-01

    We present the design, microfabrication and characterization of an electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper micromotor constructed with vertical trench isolation technology. This suitable technology was used to create a monolithic stepper motor with high-aspect-ratio poles and an integrated 3-phase electrical network in the bulk of a standard single-crystal silicon wafer. The shuttle of the stepper motor is suspended by a flexure to avoid any mechanical contact during operation, enhancing the precision, repeatability and reliability of the stepping motion. The prototype is capable of a maximum travel of +/-26 µm (52 µm) at an actuation voltage of 30 V and a step size of 1.4 µm during a half-stepping sequence. This work was presented in part at the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME), 28-30 September 2008, Aachen, Germany.

  3. Preliminary experiments of a tubular linear actuator in the vertical direction using YBCO bulk

    Sugawara, A; Ueda, H; Ishiyama, A [Department of Electrical Engineering and Bioscience, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    We have been developing a new type of active-maglev system composed of field-cooled disc-shaped YBCO bulk and multiple ring-shaped electromagnets, which are vertically piled up. One of the useful features of the active-maglev system is that the levitation height is adjustable by varying the operating current through an electromagnet. Maximum levitation height in stable levitation, however, is restricted by the magnetic field distribution produced by the electromagnet. To enhance the levitation height, we have fabricated and tested an active-maglev system with multiple ring-shaped electromagnets instead of using a larger single electromagnet. Up to now, we have reported the experimental results in a model active-maglev system composed of five electromagnets and showed that the levitation height, as well as stability, can be remarkably improved by adjusting the operating current of each electromagnet individually. In this study, we constructed a model system operated as a tubular linear synchronous actuator in the vertical direction in expectation of it being applied in factory automation upgrading. The primary consists of six ring-shaped copper-winding coils without iron core and is supplied with three-phase sinusoidal excitation. A disc-shaped YBCO bulk, which was magnetized by a field-cooling process, was adopted as a secondary (mover). We carried out preliminary experiments to confirm the feasibility of synchronous operation and also numerically investigated the electromagnetic phenomenon within the bulk superconductor by a developed computer program based on the finite element method.

  4. Preliminary experiments of a tubular linear actuator in the vertical direction using YBCO bulk

    Sugawara, A; Ueda, H; Ishiyama, A

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing a new type of active-maglev system composed of field-cooled disc-shaped YBCO bulk and multiple ring-shaped electromagnets, which are vertically piled up. One of the useful features of the active-maglev system is that the levitation height is adjustable by varying the operating current through an electromagnet. Maximum levitation height in stable levitation, however, is restricted by the magnetic field distribution produced by the electromagnet. To enhance the levitation height, we have fabricated and tested an active-maglev system with multiple ring-shaped electromagnets instead of using a larger single electromagnet. Up to now, we have reported the experimental results in a model active-maglev system composed of five electromagnets and showed that the levitation height, as well as stability, can be remarkably improved by adjusting the operating current of each electromagnet individually. In this study, we constructed a model system operated as a tubular linear synchronous actuator in the vertical direction in expectation of it being applied in factory automation upgrading. The primary consists of six ring-shaped copper-winding coils without iron core and is supplied with three-phase sinusoidal excitation. A disc-shaped YBCO bulk, which was magnetized by a field-cooling process, was adopted as a secondary (mover). We carried out preliminary experiments to confirm the feasibility of synchronous operation and also numerically investigated the electromagnetic phenomenon within the bulk superconductor by a developed computer program based on the finite element method

  5. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size

  6. Electron-related linear and nonlinear optical responses in vertically coupled triangular quantum dots

    Martínez-Orozco, J.C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060. Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-11-01

    The conduction band states of GaAs-based vertically coupled double triangular quantum dots in two dimensions are investigated within the effective mass and parabolic approximation, using a diagonalization procedure to solve the corresponding Schrödinger-like equation. The effect of an externally applied static electric field is included in the calculation, and the variation of the lowest confined energy levels as a result of the change of the field strength is reported for different geometrical setups. The linear and nonlinear optical absorptions and the relative change of the refractive index, associated with the energy transition between the ground and the first excited state in the system, are studied as a function of the incident light frequency for distinct configurations of inter-dot distance and electric field intensities. The blueshift of the resonant absorption peaks is detected as a consequence of the increment in the field intensity, whereas the opposite effect is obtained from the increase of inter-dot vertical distance. It is also shown that for large enough values of the electric field there is a quenching of the optical absorption due to field-induced change of symmetry of the first excited state wavefunction, in the case of triangular dots of equal shape and size.

  7. A linear complementarity method for the solution of vertical vehicle-track interaction

    Zhang, Jian; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Feng; Zhong, Wan-Xie

    2018-02-01

    A new method is proposed for the solution of the vertical vehicle-track interaction including a separation between wheel and rail. The vehicle is modelled as a multi-body system using rigid bodies, and the track is treated as a three-layer beam model in which the rail is considered as an Euler-Bernoulli beam and both the sleepers and the ballast are represented by lumped masses. A linear complementarity formulation is directly established using a combination of the wheel-rail normal contact condition and the generalised-α method. This linear complementarity problem is solved using the Lemke algorithm, and the wheel-rail contact force can be obtained. Then the dynamic responses of the vehicle and the track are solved without iteration based on the generalised-α method. The same equations of motion for the vehicle and track are adopted at the different wheel-rail contact situations. This method can remove some restrictions, that is, time-dependent mass, damping and stiffness matrices of the coupled system, multiple equations of motion for the different contact situations and the effect of the contact stiffness. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for simulating the vehicle-track interaction including a separation between wheel and rail.

  8. Non-linear hydrodynamic instability and turbulence in eccentric astrophysical discs with vertical structure

    Wienkers, A. F.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2018-04-01

    Non-linear evolution of the parametric instability of inertial waves inherent to eccentric discs is studied by way of a new local numerical model. Mode coupling of tidal deformation with the disc eccentricity is known to produce exponentially growing eccentricities at certain mean-motion resonances. However, the details of an efficient saturation mechanism balancing this growth still are not fully understood. This paper develops a local numerical model for an eccentric quasi-axisymmetric shearing box which generalises the often-used cartesian shearing box model. The numerical method is an overall second order well-balanced finite volume method which maintains the stratified and oscillatory steady-state solution by construction. This implementation is employed to study the non-linear outcome of the parametric instability in eccentric discs with vertical structure. Stratification is found to constrain the perturbation energy near the mid-plane and localise the effective region of inertial wave breaking that sources turbulence. A saturated marginally sonic turbulent state results from the non-linear breaking of inertial waves and is subsequently unstable to large-scale axisymmetric zonal flow structures. This resulting limit-cycle behaviour reduces access to the eccentric energy source and prevents substantial transport of angular momentum radially through the disc. Still, the saturation of this parametric instability of inertial waves is shown to damp eccentricity on a time-scale of a thousand orbital periods. It may thus be a promising mechanism for intermittently regaining balance with the exponential growth of eccentricity from the eccentric Lindblad resonances and may also help explain the occurrence of "bursty" dynamics such as the superhump phenomenon.

  9. Linear and nonlinear instability in vertical counter-current laminar gas-liquid flows

    Schmidt, Patrick; Ó Náraigh, Lennon; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-04-01

    We consider the genesis and dynamics of interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid flows, using as a model the two-dimensional channel flow of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas. The methodology is linear stability theory (Orr-Sommerfeld analysis) together with direct numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We investigate the influence of two main flow parameters on the interfacial dynamics, namely the film thickness and pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream. To make contact with existing studies in the literature, the effect of various density contrasts is also examined. Energy budget analyses based on the Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal various coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrasts, which results in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. A study of absolute and convective instability for low density contrast shows that the system is absolutely unstable for all but two narrow regions of the investigated parameter space. Direct numerical simulations of the same system (low density contrast) show that linear theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. For high density contrasts, corresponding more closely to an air-water-type system, linear stability theory is also successful at determining the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times. Nevertheless, the short waves selected by the linear theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic motion. The same linear stability theory predicts when the direction of travel of the waves changes — from downwards to upwards. We outline the practical implications of this change in terms of loading and flooding. The change in direction of the

  10. Linear and nonlinear instability in vertical counter-current laminar gas-liquid flows

    Schmidt, Patrick; Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Valluri, Prashant; Ó Náraigh, Lennon

    2016-01-01

    We consider the genesis and dynamics of interfacial instability in vertical gas-liquid flows, using as a model the two-dimensional channel flow of a thin falling film sheared by counter-current gas. The methodology is linear stability theory (Orr-Sommerfeld analysis) together with direct numerical simulation of the two-phase flow in the case of nonlinear disturbances. We investigate the influence of two main flow parameters on the interfacial dynamics, namely the film thickness and pressure drop applied to drive the gas stream. To make contact with existing studies in the literature, the effect of various density contrasts is also examined. Energy budget analyses based on the Orr-Sommerfeld theory reveal various coexisting unstable modes (interfacial, shear, internal) in the case of high density contrasts, which results in mode coalescence and mode competition, but only one dynamically relevant unstable interfacial mode for low density contrast. A study of absolute and convective instability for low density contrast shows that the system is absolutely unstable for all but two narrow regions of the investigated parameter space. Direct numerical simulations of the same system (low density contrast) show that linear theory holds up remarkably well upon the onset of large-amplitude waves as well as the existence of weakly nonlinear waves. For high density contrasts, corresponding more closely to an air-water-type system, linear stability theory is also successful at determining the most-dominant features in the interfacial wave dynamics at early-to-intermediate times. Nevertheless, the short waves selected by the linear theory undergo secondary instability and the wave train is no longer regular but rather exhibits chaotic motion. The same linear stability theory predicts when the direction of travel of the waves changes — from downwards to upwards. We outline the practical implications of this change in terms of loading and flooding. The change in direction of the

  11. Vertical distribution of paracalanus crassirostris (copepoda, calanoidea: analysis by the general linear model

    Ana Milstein

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of each developmental stage of Paracalanus crassirostris was studied in a shallow water station at Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º30'S-45º07'W. Samples were collected monthly at the surface, 2m and near bottom levels . Salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, tide height, light penetration arid solar radiation were also recorded. Data were analysed by the general linear model. It showed that the amount of individuals at any developmental stage is affected diversely by hour, depth, hour-depth interaction and environmental factors throughout the year and that these effects are stronger in summer. All developmental stages were spread in the water column showing no regular vertical migrations. On the other hand, the number of organisms caught in a particular hour seemed to dependmore on the tide than on the animals behaviour. The results of the present paper showed, as observed by some other authors, the lack of vertical migration of a coastal copepod which is a grazer of fine particles throughout its life.A distribuição vertical dos diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento de P. crassirostris foi estudada durante um ano (junho 1976 - maio 1977, numa estação pouco profunda (5 m em Ubatuba. As amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, em tres profundidades, cada quatro horas, com garrafa van Dorn de 9 l registrando-se dados ambientais. Os dados foram processados com a técnica dos Mínimos Quadrados, na forma de uma Aralise de Regressão de um Modelo Linear que inclui covariáveis. O modelo foi construído a priori, considerando densidade de organismos por amostra, fatores ambientais, diferenças entre amostras procedentes de diferentes profundidades e horas, também como interações entre hora e profundidade. Para cada estádio de P. crassirostris, o modelo foi repetido 9 vezes, com os dados de dois meses cada vez, a fim de obter a variação das respostas no ano. Os resultados do modelo indicaram que a quantidade de indiv

  12. Multiple linear regression approach for the analysis of the relationships between joints mobility and regional pressure-based parameters in the normal-arched foot.

    Caravaggi, Paolo; Leardini, Alberto; Giacomozzi, Claudia

    2016-10-03

    Plantar load can be considered as a measure of the foot ability to transmit forces at the foot/ground, or foot/footwear interface during ambulatory activities via the lower limb kinematic chain. While morphological and functional measures have been shown to be correlated with plantar load, no exhaustive data are currently available on the possible relationships between range of motion of foot joints and plantar load regional parameters. Joints' kinematics from a validated multi-segmental foot model were recorded together with plantar pressure parameters in 21 normal-arched healthy subjects during three barefoot walking trials. Plantar pressure maps were divided into six anatomically-based regions of interest associated to corresponding foot segments. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationships between pressure-based parameters, joints range of motion and normalized walking speed (speed/subject height). Sagittal- and frontal-plane joint motion were those most correlated to plantar load. Foot joints' range of motion and normalized walking speed explained between 6% and 43% of the model variance (adjusted R 2 ) for pressure-based parameters. In general, those joints' presenting lower mobility during stance were associated to lower vertical force at forefoot and to larger mean and peak pressure at hindfoot and forefoot. Normalized walking speed was always positively correlated to mean and peak pressure at hindfoot and forefoot. While a large variance in plantar pressure data is still not accounted for by the present models, this study provides statistical corroboration of the close relationship between joint mobility and plantar pressure during stance in the normal healthy foot. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-associated abortion and vertical transmission following acute infection in cattle under natural conditions

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic as well as more than 70 wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. T...

  14. Effect of the delay of the second foot on the total impulse in a vertical jump with run Efecto del retraso del segundo apoyo sobre el impulso en la batida del salto vertical

    J. Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper aims to identify the influence that the delay of the second foot in a vertical jump with run up approach, has on the total impulse, impulse absorption, impulse acceleration, and on the percentage participation of each foot during the takeoff phase. Twenty three physical education undergraduates students participated in the study recruited among university basketball and volleyball players (mean height: 179 ± 6.1 cm; mean mass: 70.96 ± 8.82 kg. Two force platforms were used, one for each foot support (Dinascan – IBV at 250 Hz frequency and time-synchronized to one another and to a high speed video camera (Redlake Motion Space 1000 S. Results showed that the lower the time between the first and second contact foot, the lesser the takeoff time (p<0.001, although this reduction is only attributed to the negative period. The impulse of acceleration was not affected by the delay of the second foot, so that there would not be advantages regarding jump height. There is a bigger reduction of the horizontal velocity when the time between the first and the second contact foot is increased (p<0.01.

     

    El propósito de este trabajo ha sido determinar la importancia que tiene el retraso del segundo apoyo en la batida del salto vertical cuando se realiza una carrera previa, sobre las componentes del impulso total, impulso de frenado e impulso de aceleración, así como su relación con el porcentaje de participación ejercido por cada apoyo durante las fases que determinan la batida. Han participado 23 estudiantes de educación física, especialistas en voleibol y baloncesto (talla media: 179 ± 6.1 cm.; masa media: 70.96 ± 8.82 kg. Para el registro de los datos se han utilizado dos plataformas de fuerza, (Dinascan – IBV, una para cada apoyo, a una frecuencia de 250 Hz y sincronizadas temporalmente a una cámara de v

  15. Effect of nozzle and vertical-tail variables on the performance of a 3-surface F-15 model at transonic Mach numbers. [Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel

    Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.; Bare, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel to determine the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of twin two dimensional nozzles and twin baseline axisymmetric nozzles installed on a fully metric 0.047 scale model of the F-15 three surface configuration (canards, wing, horizontal tails). The effects on performance of two dimensional nozzle in flight thrust reversing, locations and orientation of the vertical tails, and deflections of the horizontal tails were also determined. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 over an angle of attack range from -2 deg to 15 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to about 6.5.

  16. Solve: a non linear least-squares code and its application to the optimal placement of torsatron vertical field coils

    Aspinall, J.

    1982-01-01

    A computational method was developed which alleviates the need for lengthy parametric scans as part of a design process. The method makes use of a least squares algorithm to find the optimal value of a parameter vector. Optimal is defined in terms of a utility function prescribed by the user. The placement of the vertical field coils of a torsatron is such a non linear problem

  17. Comparison of lower limb kinetics during vertical jumps in turnout and neutral foot positions by classical ballet dancers.

    Imura, Akiko; Iino, Yoichi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hip external rotation (turnout) on lower limb kinetics during vertical jumps by classical ballet dancers. Vertical jumps in a turnout (TJ) and a neutral hip position (NJ) performed by 12 classical female ballet dancers were analysed through motion capture, recording of the ground reaction forces, and inverse dynamics analysis. At push-off, the lower trunk leaned forward 18.2° and 20.1° in the TJ and NJ, respectively. The dancers jumped lower in the TJ than in the NJ. The knee extensor and hip abductor torques were smaller, whereas the hip external rotator torque was larger in the TJ than in the NJ. The work done by the hip joint moments in the sagittal plane was 0.28 J/(Body mass*Height) and 0.33 J/(Body mass*Height) in the TJ and NJ, respectively. The joint work done by the lower limbs were not different between the two jumps. These differences resulted from different planes in which the lower limb flexion-extension occurred, i.e. in the sagittal or frontal plane. This would prevent the forward lean of the trunk by decreasing the hip joint work in the sagittal plane and reduce the knee extensor torque in the jump.

  18. An Interval-Parameter Fuzzy Linear Programming with Stochastic Vertices Model for Water Resources Management under Uncertainty

    Yan Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An interval-parameter fuzzy linear programming with stochastic vertices (IFLPSV method is developed for water resources management under uncertainty by coupling interval-parameter fuzzy linear programming (IFLP with stochastic programming (SP. As an extension of existing interval parameter fuzzy linear programming, the developed IFLPSV approach has advantages in dealing with dual uncertainty optimization problems, which uncertainty presents as interval parameter with stochastic vertices in both of the objective functions and constraints. The developed IFLPSV method improves upon the IFLP method by allowing dual uncertainty parameters to be incorporated into the optimization processes. A hybrid intelligent algorithm based on genetic algorithm and artificial neural network is used to solve the developed model. The developed method is then applied to water resources allocation in Beijing city of China in 2020, where water resources shortage is a challenging issue. The results indicate that reasonable solutions have been obtained, which are helpful and useful for decision makers. Although the amount of water supply from Guanting and Miyun reservoirs is declining with rainfall reduction, water supply from the South-to-North Water Transfer project will have important impact on water supply structure of Beijing city, particularly in dry year and extraordinary dry year.

  19. Wear behaviors of pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy (AA2024-T4) under variable vertical loads and linear speeds

    Jung, Jeki; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cho, Yi Je; Park, Yong Ho

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transition of wear behavior for pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy 2024-T4 (AA2024-T4). The wear test was carried using a ball-on-disc wear testing machine at various vertical loads and linear speeds. The transition of wear behaviors was analyzed based on the microstructure, wear tracks, wear cross-section, and wear debris. The critical wear rates for each material are occurred at lower linear speed for each vertical load. The transition of wear behavior was observed in which abrasion wears with the generation of an oxide layer, fracture of oxide layer, adhesion wear, severe adhesion wear, and the generation of seizure occurred in sequence. In case of the pure aluminum, the change of wear debris occurred in the order of blocky, flake, and needle-like debris. Cutting chip, flake-like, and coarse flake-like debris was occurred in sequence for the extruded AA2024-T4. The transition in the wear behavior of extruded AA2024-T4 occurred slower than in pure aluminum.

  20. Dynamic stability of a vertically excited non-linear continuous system

    Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 155, July (2015), s. 106-114 ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : non-linear systems * auto-parametric systems * semi-trivial solution * dynamic stability * system recovery * post- critical response Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045794915000024

  1. Study of horizontal-vertical interactive Sway Rocking (SR) model for basemat uplift. Part 2: non-linear response analysis and validation

    Momma, T.; Shirahama, K.; Suzuki, K.; Ogihara, M.

    1995-01-01

    Non-linear earthquake response analyses of a BWR MARK-II type nuclear reactor building are conducted by using a Sway Rocking model (SR model) proposed in Part 1 considering the interaction between horizontal and vertical motion. The results are compared with those of accurate mathematical model using the Green Function method. Horizontal response of the SR model agrees very well with that of the Green Function model. The floor response spectra of induced vertical motions by both methods are also corresponding well in periodic characteristics as well as peak-levels. From these results, it is confirmed that the horizontal-vertical interactive SR model is applicable to non-linear response analyses considering basemat uplift. Based on the comparison of the induced vertical motions due to basemat uplift by both methods, an application limit of the horizontal-vertical interactive SR model is set up at the ground contact ratio of about 50%. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Linear correlation between fractal dimension of surface EMG signal from Rectus Femoris and height of vertical jump

    Ancillao, Andrea; Galli, Manuela; Rigoldi, Chiara; Albertini, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Fractal dimension was demonstrated to be able to characterize the complexity of biological signals. The EMG time series are well known to have a complex behavior and some other studies already tried to characterize these signals by their fractal dimension. This paper is aimed at studying the correlation between the fractal dimension of surface EMG signal recorded over Rectus Femoris muscles during a vertical jump and the height reached in that jump. Healthy subjects performed vertical jumps at different heights. Surface EMG from Rectus Femoris was recorded and the height of each jump was measured by an optoelectronic motion capture system. Fractal dimension of sEMG was computed and the correlation between fractal dimension and eight of the jump was studied. Linear regression analysis showed a very high correlation coefficient between the fractal dimension and the height of the jump for all the subjects. The results of this study show that the fractal dimension is able to characterize the EMG signal and it can be related to the performance of the jump. Fractal dimension is therefore an useful tool for EMG interpretation

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF THE MANUFACTURING POSSIBILITY OF SPECIAL ANKLE FOOT ORTHOSIS COMPONENTS BY OMPARISON BETWEEN THE REQUIRED PRECISION AND THE VAILABLE PRECISION ON A VERTICAL MACHINING CENTER PROGRAMED WITH TOPSOLID

    Alexandru STANIMIR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation of different solutions adopted to achieve new ankle foot orthosis involves among others their prototyping. In these paper we developed a representative part for two axis machining that requires the use of the main features of TopSolid Cad and Cam modules, and that assumes the use of the main manufacturing processes that usually may be met on a vertical machining center. Also, in order to determine the dimensional and geometrical deviations of the part this was done on the YMC 1050 machining center. After comparing the measured deviations with the requirements of various components of orthesis, we concluded that the available precision meets the requirements and that the machining center with TopSolid software that we have will enable us to realize special ankle foot orthosis of quality, for experimental research .

  4. Evolution of Metallic Trace Elements in Contaminated River Sediments: Geochemical Variation Along River Linear and Vertical Profile

    Kanbar, Hussein; Montarges-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Losson, Benoit; Manceau, Luc; Bauer, Allan; Bihannic, Isabelle; Gley, Renaud; El Samrani, Antoine; Kobaissi, Ahmad; Kazpard, Veronique; Villieras, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Metal pollution in riverine systems poses a serious threat that jeopardizes water and sediment quality, and hence river dwelling biota. Since those metallic pollutants can be transported for long distances via river flow, river management has become a great necessity, especially in times where industrial activities and global climate change are causing metal release and spreading (by flooding events). These changes are able to modify river hydrodynamics, and as a consequence natural physico-chemical status of different aquatic system compartments, which in turn alter metal mobility, availability and speciation. Vertical profiles of sediments hold the archive of what has been deposited for several tenths of years, thus they are used as a tool to study what had been deposited in rivers beds. The studied area lies in the Orne river, northeastern France. This river had been strongly modified physically and affected by steelmaking industrial activities that had boosted in the middle of the last century. This study focuses on several sites along the linear of the Orne river, as well as vertical profiles of sediments. Sediment cores were collected at sites where sedimentation is favoured, and in particular upstream two dams, built in the second half of the XXth century for industrial purposes. Sediment cores were sliced into 2-5cm layers, according to suitability, and analysed for physical and physico-chemical properties, elemental content and mineralogy. Data of the vertical profile in a sediment core is important to show the evolution of sediments as a function of depth, and hence age, in terms of nature, size and constituents. The physical properties include particle size distribution (PSD) and water content. In addition, the physico-chemical properties, such as pH and oxido-reduction potential (ORP) of interstitial water from undisturbed cores were also detected. Total elemental content of sediment and available ones of extracted interstitial waters was detected using

  5. The development of remote controlled linear guide and mast vertical guide of repair robot for RV head CRDM nozzle region in NPP

    Kim, Seung Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Sung Uk; Jung, Kyung Min

    2006-11-01

    Reactor vessel which is core instrument in NPP must maintains integrity in the high temperature, high pressure and high radiation environment. Therefore RV must be inspected periodically. If there is defect, the RV must be repaired. A remote controlled linear guide and a vertical guide were developed for a welding repair robot of the RV head CRDM nozzle region. During inspection/maintenance, the RV head is placed RV head storage which is a double circled concrete structure. A linear guide was developed to provide a linear motion to the repair robot, which locates the robot under the RV head. The linear guide also provides a strong support to the robot not to overturn when the robot repairs the RV head. The robot needs lifting about 2m to reach the CRDM nozzle, therefore a vertical guide was developed. For easy traveling, the linear guide is designed 4 parts and the vertical guide is designed 3 parts. A control system was developed to remotely control the guide system which is composed of a connecter box, cables, control box, a computer and a control program. A monitoring system was developed to monitor operation of the guide system

  6. The development of remote controlled linear guide and mast vertical guide of repair robot for RV head CRDM nozzle region in NPP

    Kim, Seung Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Sung Uk; Jung, Kyung Min

    2006-11-15

    Reactor vessel which is core instrument in NPP must maintains integrity in the high temperature, high pressure and high radiation environment. Therefore RV must be inspected periodically. If there is defect, the RV must be repaired. A remote controlled linear guide and a vertical guide were developed for a welding repair robot of the RV head CRDM nozzle region. During inspection/maintenance, the RV head is placed RV head storage which is a double circled concrete structure. A linear guide was developed to provide a linear motion to the repair robot, which locates the robot under the RV head. The linear guide also provides a strong support to the robot not to overturn when the robot repairs the RV head. The robot needs lifting about 2m to reach the CRDM nozzle, therefore a vertical guide was developed. For easy traveling, the linear guide is designed 4 parts and the vertical guide is designed 3 parts. A control system was developed to remotely control the guide system which is composed of a connecter box, cables, control box, a computer and a control program. A monitoring system was developed to monitor operation of the guide system.

  7. Vertical linear feeder to elliptical igneous saucer-shaped sills: evidences from structural observations, geochemistry and experimental modeling

    Galerne, C. Y.; Galland, O.; Neumann, E. R.; Planke, S.

    2009-12-01

    The structural relationships between sills and their feeders are poorly documented because they are rarely observed in the field and difficult to image on seismic data. For instance, it is unclear whether sills are fed by pipes, dikes or other sills. Nevertheless, the geometrical relationships between sills and their feeders provide first-order constraints on magma emplacement mechanisms. Here, we investigate the structural and geochemical relationships between sills and potential feeder dikes in a remarkably well-preserved and exposed sill complex, the Golden Valley Sill Complex (GVSC), Karoo Basin, South Africa. The GVSC consists of five major saucer-shaped sills and six dikes. The Golden Valley sill itself is an elliptical saucer, with a N-S trend. A one meter thick dike (D4) crops out underneath the southern tip of the Golden Valley sill. The strike of this dike is parallel to the long axis of the Golden Valley sill. Detailed sampling and geochemical analyses of the GVSC show that each sill and dike exhibits a specific geochemical signature. The Golden Valley sill and its underlying dike D4 have identical signatures. Although there is no clear structural evidence, the consistent geometrical and geochemical relationships between the Golden Valley sill and the D4 dike suggest that this vertical linear structure is the feeder of the overlying saucer-shaped sill. In order to investigate the relationships between sills and feeders, we resorted to scaled laboratory experiments. The experiments consisted of a low-viscosity vegetable oil representing magma and a cohesive fine-grained silica flour representing brittle rocks. We placed a horizontal weak layer into the silica flour, just above the top of the inlet, to simulate strata. Such a weak layer controlled the formation of horizontal sill that subsequently turned into a transgressive sheet leading to the formation of a saucer geometry. We ran experiments with varying inlet shapes: 1) a point inlet representing a

  8. Modeling of Geometric Error in Linear Guide Way to Improved the vertical three-axis CNC Milling machine’s accuracy

    Kwintarini, Widiyanti; Wibowo, Agung; Arthaya, Bagus M.; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of three-axis CNC Milling Vertical engines with a general approach by using mathematical modeling methods of machine tool geometric errors. The inaccuracy of CNC machines can be caused by geometric errors that are an important factor during the manufacturing process and during the assembly phase, and are factors for being able to build machines with high-accuracy. To improve the accuracy of the three-axis vertical milling machine, by knowing geometric errors and identifying the error position parameters in the machine tool by arranging the mathematical modeling. The geometric error in the machine tool consists of twenty-one error parameters consisting of nine linear error parameters, nine angle error parameters and three perpendicular error parameters. The mathematical modeling approach of geometric error with the calculated alignment error and angle error in the supporting components of the machine motion is linear guide way and linear motion. The purpose of using this mathematical modeling approach is the identification of geometric errors that can be helpful as reference during the design, assembly and maintenance stages to improve the accuracy of CNC machines. Mathematically modeling geometric errors in CNC machine tools can illustrate the relationship between alignment error, position and angle on a linear guide way of three-axis vertical milling machines.

  9. Foot Health

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  10. Design and optimization of a novel reverse transcription linear-after-the-exponential PCR for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Pierce, K E; Mistry, R; Reid, S M; Bharya, S; Dukes, J P; Hartshorn, C; King, D P; Wangh, L J

    2010-07-01

    A novel molecular assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was developed using linear-after-the-exponential polymerase chain reaction (LATE-PCR). Pilot experiments using synthetic DNA targets demonstrated the ability of LATE-PCR to quantify initial target concentration through endpoint detection. A two-step protocol involving reverse transcription (RT) followed by LATE-PCR was then used to confirm the ability of the assay to detect FMDV RNA. Finally, RT and LATE-PCR were combined in a one-step duplex assay for co-amplification of an FMDV RNA segment and an internal control comprised of an Armored RNA. In that form, each of the excess primers in the reaction mixture hybridize to their respective RNA targets during a short pre-incubation, then generate cDNA strands during a 3-min RT step at 60°C, and the resulting cDNA is amplified by LATE-PCR without intervening sample processing. The RT-LATE-PCR assay generates fluorescent signals at endpoint that are proportional to the starting number of RNA targets and can detect a range of sequence variants using a single mismatch-tolerant probe. In addition to offering improvements over current laboratory-based molecular diagnostic assays for FMDV, this new assay is compatible with a novel portable ('point-of-care') device, the BioSeeq II, designed for the rapid diagnosis of FMD in the field. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Non-linear realization of PSU(2,2 vertical bar 4) on the light-cone

    Ananth, Sudarshan; Brink, Lars; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ramond, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The symmetries of the N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory on the light-cone are discussed, solely in terms of its physical degrees of freedom. We derive explicit expressions for the generators of the PSU(2,2 vertical bar 4) superalgebra, both in the free theory, and to all orders in the gauge coupling of the classical theory. We use these symmetries to construct its Hamiltonian, and show that it can be written as a quadratic form of a fermionic superfield

  12. Observation of linear I-V curves on vertical GaAs nanowires with atomic force microscope

    Geydt, P.; Alekseev, P. A.; Dunaevskiy, M.; Lähderanta, E.; Haggrén, T.; Kakko, J.-P.; Lipsanen, H.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we demonstrate the possibility of studying the current-voltage characteristics for single vertically standing semiconductor nanowires on standard AFM equipped by current measuring module in PeakForce Tapping mode. On the basis of research of eight different samples of p-doped GaAs nanowires grown on different GaAs substrates, peculiar electrical effects were revealed. It was found how covering of substrate surface by SiOx layer increases the current, as well as phosphorous passivation of the grown nanowires. Elimination of the Schottky barrier between golden cap and the top parts of nanowires was observed. It was additionally studied that charge accumulation on the shell of single nanowires affects its resistivity and causes the hysteresis loops on I-V curves.

  13. Charcot Foot

    ... damage (neuropathy). The bones are weakened enough to fracture, and with continued walking, the foot eventually changes ... difference. Advanced therapies for foot wounds are saving limbs, restoring ... in the feet come from the lower back. Pressure or chemical change in the nerve ...

  14. linear time algorithm for finding the convex ropes between two vertices of a simple polygon without triangulation

    Phan Thanh An

    2008-06-01

    The convex rope problem, posed by Peshkin and Sanderson in IEEE J. Robotics Automat, 2 (1986) pp. 53-58, is to find the counterclockwise and clockwise convex ropes starting at the vertex a and ending at the vertex b of a simple polygon, where a is on the boundary of the convex hull of the polygon and b is visible from infinity. In this paper, we present a linear time algorithm for solving this problem without resorting to a linear-time triangulation algorithm and without resorting to a convex hull algorithm for the polygon. The counterclockwise (clockwise, respectively) convex rope consists of two polylines obtained in a basic incremental strategy described in convex hull algorithms for the polylines forming the polygon from a to b. (author)

  15. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  16. Estimation of hull girder vertical bending moments including non-linear and flexibility effects using closed form expressions

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    A simple but rational procedure for prediction of extreme wave-induced hull girder bending moment is presented. The procedure takes into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient, forward speed and hull flexibility. The wave......-linear strip theory calculations and supplemented with new closed form results for the hogging bending moment. Focus is on the extreme hull girder hogging bending moment. Due to the few input parameters this procedure can be used to estimate the wave-induced bending moments at the conceptual design phase....... Another application area is for novel single hull ship types not presently covered by the rules of the classification societies. As one application example the container ship M/S Napoli is considered....

  17. Analysis of two-phase flow instability in vertical boiling channels I: development of a linear model for the inlet velocity perturbation

    Hwang, D.H.; Yoo, Y.J.; Kim, K.K.

    1998-08-01

    A linear model, named ALFS, is developed for the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities caused by density wave oscillation and flow excursion in a vertical boiling channel with constant pressure drop conditions. The ALFS code can take into account the effect of the phase velocity difference and the thermally non-equilibrium phenomena, and the neutral boundary of the two-phase flow instability was analyzed by D-partition method. Three representative two-phase flow models ( i.e. HEM, DEM, and DNEM) were examined to investigate the effects on the stability analysis. As the results, it reveals that HEM shows the most conservative prediction of heat flux at the onset of flow instability. three linear models, Ishiis DEM, Sahas DNEM, and ALFS model, were applied to Sahas experimental data of density wave oscillation, and as the result, the mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-measured heat flux at the onset of instability were calculated as 0.93/0.162, 0.79/0.112, and 0.95/0.143, respectively. For the long test section, however, ALFS model tends to predict the heat fluxes about 30 % lower than the measured values. (author). 14 refs

  18. Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of healthy foot shape: a proof of concept study.

    Stanković, Kristina; Booth, Brian G; Danckaers, Femke; Burg, Fien; Vermaelen, Philippe; Duerinck, Saartje; Sijbers, Jan; Huysmans, Toon

    2018-01-01

    Foot morphology has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researches and footwear manufacturers. Usually, the morphology of the foot is quantified by 2D footprints. However, footprint quantification ignores the foot's vertical dimension and hence, does not allow accurate quantification of complex 3D foot shape. The shape variation of healthy 3D feet in a population of 31 adult women and 31 adult men who live in Belgium was studied using geometric morphometric methods. The effect of different factors such as sex, age, shoe size, frequency of sport activity, Body Mass Index (BMI), foot asymmetry, and foot loading on foot shape was investigated. Correlation between these factors and foot shape was examined using multivariate linear regression. The complex nature of a foot's 3D shape leads to high variability in healthy populations. After normalizing for scale, the major axes of variation in foot morphology are (in order of decreasing variance): arch height, combined ball width and inter-toe distance, global foot width, hallux bone orientation (valgus-varus), foot type (e.g. Egyptian, Greek), and midfoot width. These first six modes of variation capture 92.59% of the total shape variation. Higher BMI results in increased ankle width, Achilles tendon width, heel width and a thicker forefoot along the dorsoplantar axis. Age was found to be associated with heel width, Achilles tendon width, toe height and hallux orientation. A bigger shoe size was found to be associated with a narrow Achilles tendon, a hallux varus, a narrow heel, heel expansion along the posterior direction, and a lower arch compared to smaller shoe size. Sex was found to be associated with differences in ankle width, Achilles tendon width, and heel width. Frequency of sport activity was associated with Achilles tendon width and toe height. A detailed analysis of the 3D foot shape, allowed by geometric morphometrics, provides insights in foot variations in three dimensions that can not be

  19. Foot Problems

    ... early. Start OverDiagnosisThe cause may be FEMORAL ANTEVERSION, TIBIAL TORSION or METATARSUS ADDUCTUS, commonly called intoeing. Self CareSee your doctor. Start OverDiagnosisYou may have a STRESS FRACTURE of the bones in your foot. The pain ...

  20. Foot pain

    ... that you were born with or develops later Injury Shoes that fit poorly or do not have much cushioning Too much walking or other sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, which becomes red, swollen, ...

  1. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerable...... limitations regarding reliability and validity. METHODS: One hundred thirty subjects with mean foot size 44 (41-50 European size) participated. Two examiners, blinded to each other's measurements, measured the right foot of the subjects twice and the left foot once. The position of the most medial aspect...... of the navicular in the mediolateral direction was projected vertically onto a piece of paper placed under the subject's foot, and compared to the position of the forefoot and hindfoot to obtain the FLT value. RESULTS: FLT values ranged from -8 to 14 mm, with a mean (+/-SD) of 3.7 +/- 3.4 mm. The intratester...

  2. Modified Vertical Bearing Capacity for Circular Foundations in Sand Using Reduced Friction Angle

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin; Larsen, Kim André

    2012-01-01

    Recently Bucket foundation as a large cylindrical structure that is open as the base and closed at the top, has attracted much attention in offshore projects. In order to present relationship between vertical bearing capacity of a bucket foundation relative to the corresponding capacity of a circ......Recently Bucket foundation as a large cylindrical structure that is open as the base and closed at the top, has attracted much attention in offshore projects. In order to present relationship between vertical bearing capacity of a bucket foundation relative to the corresponding capacity...... of a circular plate, several loading tests on small scale bucket foundations including the circular surface footings are performed at Aalborg University. In current research, the vertical bearing capacity of circular surface footings is investigated using reduced friction angle. It is also presented a linear...

  3. Application of 3D reconstruction system in diabetic foot ulcer injury assessment

    Li, Jun; Jiang, Li; Li, Tianjian; Liang, Xiaoyao

    2018-04-01

    To deal with the considerable deviation of transparency tracing method and digital planimetry method used in current clinical diabetic foot ulcer injury assessment, this paper proposes a 3D reconstruction system which can be used to get foot model with good quality texture, then injury assessment is done by measuring the reconstructed model. The system uses the Intel RealSense SR300 depth camera which is based on infrared structured-light as input device, the required data from different view is collected by moving the camera around the scanned object. The geometry model is reconstructed by fusing the collected data, then the mesh is sub-divided to increase the number of mesh vertices and the color of each vertex is determined using a non-linear optimization, all colored vertices compose the surface texture of the reconstructed model. Experimental results indicate that the reconstructed model has millimeter-level geometric accuracy and texture with few artificial effect.

  4. Mycetoma foot

    Somnath Gooptu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infective disease of the skin, dermis and subcutaneous tissues predominantly seen in tropical countries. A patient presented to our hospital with the swelling of the left foot with a healed sinus and a painful nodule. He gave a history of sinuses in the left foot from which there was discharge of yellow granules. Culture of the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed growths of Nocardia species. The patient was treated with a multi-drug therapy along with debridement of the painful nodule. He experienced symptomatic relief and a regression of the swelling within the three months of follow-up so far. Due to the relatively slow progression of the disease, patients are diagnosed at a late stage. Hence, emphasis should be placed on health education and the importance of wearing footwear.

  5. Dimensões lineares da folha e seu uso na determinação do perfil vertical foliar de gladíolo

    Natalia Teixeira Schwab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O gladíolo, importante flor de corte, é uma planta herbácea e suas folhas apresentam formato de lança. Os objetivos do trabalho foram determinar um modelo matemático empírico que melhor estima a área da folha do gladíolo a partir de dimensões lineares e aplicar o modelo matemático para determinar o perfil vertical da área das folhas de diferentes posições na planta. Para isso foi realizado um experimento de campo em Santa Maria com quatro cultivares de gladíolo (Peter Pears, Rose Friendship, Jester e Amsterdã, sendo coletadas 50 folhas de cada cultivar, das quais mensuraram-se o comprimento (C e a maior largura (L. Em seguida, fotocopiou-se cada folha em um scanner, calculando-se a área individual (AF com auxílio de um software. A relação entre área e as dimensões das folhas foi ajustada no modelo potência e a capacidade preditiva das equações foi avaliada por várias estatísticas. Resultados indicam que o modelo AF = a (C.L é o mais indicado para a estimativa da área foliar em gladíolo, podendo-se utilizar a = 0,644 para as quatro cultivares testadas. As menores folhas estão nas posições basais e apicais e as maiores, na posição intermediária da planta.

  6. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  7. Characterizing the Vertical Profile of Aerosol Particle Extinction and Linear Depolarization over Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent: The 2007-2009 View from CALIOP

    Campbell, James R.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Jianglong; Tackett, Jason L.; Chew, Boon Ning; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Aoki, Kazuma; hide

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of 0.532 µm aerosol particle extinction coefficient and linear volume depolarization ratio are described for Southeast Asia and the Maritime Continent. Quality-screened and cloud-cleared Version 3.01 Level 2 NASA Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 5-km Aerosol Profile datasets are analyzed from 2007 to 2009. Numerical simulations from the U.S. Naval Aerosol Analysis and Predictive System (NAAPS), featuring two-dimensional variational assimilation of NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Multi-angle Imaging Spectro- Radiometer quality-assured datasets, combined with regional ground-based lidar measurements, are considered for assessing CALIOP retrieval performance, identifying bias, and evaluating regional representativeness. CALIOP retrievals of aerosol particle extinction coefficient and aerosol optical depth (AOD) are high over land and low over open waters relative to NAAPS (0.412/0.312 over land for all data points inclusive, 0.310/0.235 when the per bin average is used and each is treated as single data points; 0.102/0.151 and 0.086/0.124, respectively, over ocean). Regional means, however, are very similar (0.180/0.193 for all data points and 0.155/0.159 when averaged per normalized bin), as the two factors offset one another. The land/ocean offset is investigated, and discrepancies attributed to interpretation of particle composition and a-priori assignment of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio ("lidar ratio") necessary for retrieving the extinction coefficient from CALIOP signals. Over land, NAAPS indicates more dust present than CALIOP algorithms are identifying, indicating a likely assignment of a higher lidar ratio representative of more absorptive particles. NAAPS resolvesmore smoke overwater than identified with CALIOP, indicating likely usage of a lidar ratio characteristic of less absorptive particles to be applied that biases low AOD there. Over open waters except within the Bay of Bengal

  8. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  9. Assessment of Lumped-Parameter Models for Rigid Footings

    Andersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    and vertical translations as well as torsion and rocking, and the necessity of coupling between horizontal sliding and rocking is discussed. Most of the analyses are carried out for hexagonal footings; but in order to generalise the conclusions to a broader variety of footings, comparisons are made...

  10. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  11. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Foot morphometric phenomena.

    Agić, Ante

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  13. Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of healthy foot shape : A proof of concept study

    Stanković, Kristina; Booth, Brian G.; Danckaers, Femke; Burg, Fien; Vermaelen, Philippe; Duerinck, Saartje; Sijbers, Jan; Huysmans, T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Foot morphology has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researches and footwear manufacturers. Usually, the morphology of the foot is quantified by 2D footprints. However, footprint quantification ignores the foot's vertical dimension and hence, does not allow

  14. Effect of simulated in-flight thrust reversing on vertical-tail loads of F-18 and F-15 airplane models. [conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel

    Bare, E. A.; Berrier, B. L.; Capone, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to provide data on a 0.10-scale model of the prototype F-18 airplane and a 0.047-scale model of the F-15 three-surface configuration (canard, wing, and horizontal tails). Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.2 over an angle-of-attack range from 2 deg to 15 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet off to about 8.0.

  15. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Development of a Robotic Assembly for Analyzing the Instantaneous Axis of Rotation of the Foot Ankle Complex

    Kelly N. Salb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankle instantaneous axis of rotation (IAR measurements represent a more complete parameter for characterizing joint motion. However, few studies have implemented this measurement to study normal, injured, or pathological foot ankle biomechanics. A novel testing protocol was developed to simulate aspects of in vivo foot ankle mechanics during mid-stance gait in a human cadaveric specimen. A lower leg was mounted in a robotic testing platform with the tibia upright and foot flat on the baseplate. Axial tibia loads (ATLs were controlled as a function of a vertical ground reaction force (vGRF set at half body weight (356 N and a 50% vGRF (178 N Achilles tendon load. Two specimens were repetitively loaded over 10 degrees of dorsiflexion and 20 degrees of plantar flexion. Platform axes were controlled within 2 microns and 0.008 degrees resulting in ATL measurements within ±2 N of target conditions. Mean ATLs and IAR values were not significantly different between cycles of motion, but IAR values were significantly different between dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. A linear regression analysis showed no significant differences between slopes of plantar flexion paths. The customized robotic platform and advanced testing protocol produced repeatable and accurate measurements of the IAR, useful for assessing foot ankle biomechanics under different loading scenarios and foot conditions.

  17. Source of ultra-short laser pulses at 1,55μm in vertical-external-cavity for linear optical sampling applications

    Khadour, A.

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this thesis were, in a first step, to develop and implement VECSEL structures containing an active zone formed by GaAlInAs/InP quantum wells located at the anti-nodes of the resonant electric field, positioned on a Bragg mirror, all this being bonded to a substrate of good thermal conductivity. For this, we have designed structures optimizing the evacuation of heat generated in the active zone. This has greatly improved the VECSEL performances, especially their output power. The VECSEL performances were evaluated in a simple cavity with two mirrors (plane-concave). The second point was to develop and implement SESAM structures which, owing to their nonlinear characteristics, would allow a passively mode-locked laser operation. The structures contained InGaAsN/GaAs quantum wells. The studied parameters were the number of quantum wells, and the resonant or anti-resonant behavior of the structure. The linear and nonlinear optical characterizations were used to optimize the SESAM structure and estimate their performances. Finally, the compatibility between the VECSEL and SESAM structures, in terms of modulation depth and resonance wavelength, made it possible to obtain the passive mode locking operation. The obtained pulses show two different behaviors depending on the dispersion properties of the structures. With low dispersion, we have made the first demonstration of a passively mode-locked VECSEL at 1550 nm, operating at room temperature. An all-optical sampling device implementing the linear optical sampling technique using short laser pulses has been realized and tested. This device will allow displaying eye diagrams and constellation diagrams with an expected sensitivity around -20 dBm of average power. Testing the device allowed to visualize the acquisition of very high repetition rate signals (40 Gb/s). (author)

  18. The foot and ankle

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Imaging of the foot and ankle can be difficult because of the complex anatomy. Familiarity with the bony and ligamentous anatomy is essential for proper evaluation of radiographic findings. Therefore, pertinent anatomy is discussed as it applies to specific injuries. Special views, tomography, arthrography, and other techniques may be indicated for complete evaluation of foot and ankle trauma

  19. Vertical integration

    Antill, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the trend in international energy companies towards vertical integration in the gas chain from wellhead to power generation, horizontal integration in refining and marketing businesses, and the search for larger projects with lower upstream costs. The shape of the petroleum industry in the next millennium, the creation of super-major oil companies, and the relationship between size and risk are discussed. The dynamics of vertical integration, present events and future developments are considered. (UK)

  20. Development of a Subject-Specific Foot-Ground Contact Model for Walking.

    Jackson, Jennifer N; Hass, Chris J; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2016-09-01

    Computational walking simulations could facilitate the development of improved treatments for clinical conditions affecting walking ability. Since an effective treatment is likely to change a patient's foot-ground contact pattern and timing, such simulations should ideally utilize deformable foot-ground contact models tailored to the patient's foot anatomy and footwear. However, no study has reported a deformable modeling approach that can reproduce all six ground reaction quantities (expressed as three reaction force components, two center of pressure (CoP) coordinates, and a free reaction moment) for an individual subject during walking. This study proposes such an approach for use in predictive optimizations of walking. To minimize complexity, we modeled each foot as two rigid segments-a hindfoot (HF) segment and a forefoot (FF) segment-connected by a pin joint representing the toes flexion-extension axis. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) and moments acting on each segment were generated by a grid of linear springs with nonlinear damping and Coulomb friction spread across the bottom of each segment. The stiffness and damping of each spring and common friction parameter values for all springs were calibrated for both feet simultaneously via a novel three-stage optimization process that used motion capture and ground reaction data collected from a single walking trial. The sequential three-stage process involved matching (1) the vertical force component, (2) all three force components, and finally (3) all six ground reaction quantities. The calibrated model was tested using four additional walking trials excluded from calibration. With only small changes in input kinematics, the calibrated model reproduced all six ground reaction quantities closely (root mean square (RMS) errors less than 13 N for all three forces, 25 mm for anterior-posterior (AP) CoP, 8 mm for medial-lateral (ML) CoP, and 2 N·m for the free moment) for both feet in all walking trials. The

  1. Foot Function, Foot Pain, and Falls in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study.

    Awale, Arunima; Hagedorn, Thomas J; Dufour, Alyssa B; Menz, Hylton B; Casey, Virginia A; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-01-01

    Although foot pain has been linked to fall risk, contributions of pain severity, foot posture, or foot function are unclear. These factors were examined in a cohort of older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of foot pain, severity of foot pain, and measures of foot posture and dynamic foot function with reported falls in a large, well-described cohort of older adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Foot pain, posture, and function were collected from Framingham Foot Study participants who were queried about falls over the past year (0, 1, and ≥2 falls). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of falls with foot pain, pain severity, foot posture, and foot function adjusting for covariates. The mean age of the 1,375 participants was 69 years; 57% were female, and 21% reported foot pain (40% mild pain, 47% moderate pain, and 13% severe pain). One-third reported falls in the past year (1 fall: n = 263, ≥2 falls: n = 152). Foot pain was associated with a 62% increased odds of recurrent falls. Those with moderate and severe foot pain showed increased odds of ≥2 falls (OR 1.78, CI 1.06-2.99, and OR 3.25, CI 1.65-7.48, respectively) compared to those with no foot pain. Foot function was not associated with falls. Compared to normal foot posture, those with planus foot posture had 78% higher odds of ≥2 falls. Higher odds of recurrent falls were observed in individuals with foot pain, especially severe foot pain, as well as in individuals with planus foot posture, indicating that both foot pain and foot posture may play a role in increasing the risk of falls among older adults. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Predicting timing of foot strike during running, independent of striking technique, using principal component analysis of joint angles.

    Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Leitch, Jessica; Ferber, Reed

    2014-08-22

    As 3-dimensional (3D) motion-capture for clinical gait analysis continues to evolve, new methods must be developed to improve the detection of gait cycle events based on kinematic data. Recently, the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to gait data has shown promise in detecting important biomechanical features. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define a new foot strike detection method for a continuum of striking techniques, by applying PCA to joint angle waveforms. In accordance with Newtonian mechanics, it was hypothesized that transient features in the sagittal-plane accelerations of the lower extremity would be linked with the impulsive application of force to the foot at foot strike. Kinematic and kinetic data from treadmill running were selected for 154 subjects, from a database of gait biomechanics. Ankle, knee and hip sagittal plane angular acceleration kinematic curves were chained together to form a row input to a PCA matrix. A linear polynomial was calculated based on PCA scores, and a 10-fold cross-validation was performed to evaluate prediction accuracy against gold-standard foot strike as determined by a 10 N rise in the vertical ground reaction force. Results show 89-94% of all predicted foot strikes were within 4 frames (20 ms) of the gold standard with the largest error being 28 ms. It is concluded that this new foot strike detection is an improvement on existing methods and can be applied regardless of whether the runner exhibits a rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  4. The diabetic foot

    Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The diabetic foot presents a complex interplay of neuropathic, macrovascular, and microvascular disease on an abnormal metabolic background, complicated by an increased susceptibility to mechanical, thermal, and chemical injury and decreased healing ability. The abnormalities of diabetes, once present, are not curable. But most severe foot abnormalities in the diabetic are due to neglect of injury and are mostly preventable. The physician must ensure that the diabetic patient learns the princ...

  5. Athlete's Foot: Clinical Update.

    Ramsey, M L

    1989-10-01

    In brief: Athletes are particularly prone to athlete's foot because they are generally more exposed than others to conditions that encourage fungal growth, eg, communal showers and locker rooms. Diagnosis of athlete's foot rests on clinical suspicion and laboratory testing. Treatment may consist of topical antifungal agents and, for more resistant cases, oral griseofulvin. Preventive measures include keeping the feet dry, wearing nonocclusive leather shoes or sandals and absorbent cotton socks, and applying talcum or antifungal powder at least twice daily.

  6. [Minor foot amputations in diabetic foot syndrome].

    Biehl, C; Eckhard, M; Szalay, G; Heiss, C

    2016-10-01

    The treatment strategy for diabetic foot syndrome must take into account protective sensibility of the foot, open wounds, infection status, and the rules of septic bone surgery. Interventions are classified as elective, prophylactic, curative, or emergency. Amputations in the forefoot and midfoot region are performed as ray amputations (including metatarsal), which can often be carried out as "inner" amputations. Gentle tissue treatment mandatory because of greater risk of revision with re-amputation compared to classical amputation. Good demarcation of infection, acute osteomyelitis, osteolytic lesions, neurotropic ulcer, arterial and venous blood flow to the other toes, gangrene of other toes with metatarsal affection. Arterial occlusive disease, infection of neighboring areas, avoidable amputations, poorly healing ulcers on the lower leg. Primary dorsal approach; minimal incisional distance (5 cm) to minimize skin necrosis risk. Atraumatic preparation, minimize hemostasis to not compromise the borderline perfusion situation. In amputations, plantar skin preparation and longer seams placed as dorsal as possible, either disarticulated and maintain cartilage, or round the cortical metatarsal bone after resection. Diabetes control. Braun splint, mobilization in a shoe with forefoot decompression and hindfoot support, physiotherapy. Antibiotics based on resistance testing. If no complications, dressing change on postoperative day 1. Optimal wound drainage by lowering foot several times a day; drainage removal after 12-24 h. Insoles and footwear optimization. Amputations require continued attention and if necessary treatment to avoid sequelae. Insufficient treatment associated with recurrent ulceration and altered anatomy.

  7. Education for diabetic foot

    Fabio Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to stratify the risk in a consecutive group of diabetic patients presenting, for the first time, in a diabetic foot clinic. Additional aims were to investigate the preventive measures in the local health system and to evaluate the level of patient’s awareness about diabetic foot-associated morbidity. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult diabetic patients referred to a Diabetic Foot Clinic of a Municipal Public Hospital comprised the sample for this observational study. The enrollment visit was considered as the first health-system intervention for potential foot morbidity. The average time elapsed since a diagnosis of diabetes among patients was five years. Rresults: At the time of presentation, 94% of sample was not using appropriate footwear. Pedal pulses (dorsalis pedis and/or posterior tibial arteries were palpable in 76% of patients. Thirty subjects (60% had signs of peripheral neuropathy. Twenty-one subjects (42% had clinical deformity. There was a positive correlation between a history of foot ulcer, the presence of peripheral neuropathy, and the presence of foot deformity (p < 0.004 in each correlation. Cconclusions: Informing and educating the patients and those interested in this subject and these problems is essential for favorable outcomes in this scenario.

  8. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Yifang Fan

    Full Text Available There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1 in stance phase, there is a significant difference (p<0.01 in the distributions of VGRF of plantar; (2 in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (p<0.01 in the rate of change of footprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  9. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2011-03-18

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1) in stance phase, there is a significant difference (pplantar; (2) in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (pfootprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  10. Modelling foot height and foot shape-related dimensions.

    Xiong, Shuping; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Witana, Channa P; Lee Au, Emily Yim

    2008-08-01

    The application of foot anthropometry to design good-fitting footwear has been difficult due to the lack of generalised models. This study seeks to model foot dimensions so that the characteristic shapes of feet, especially in the midfoot region, can be understood. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese adults (26 males and 24 females) participated in this study. Their foot lengths, foot widths, ball girths and foot heights were measured and then evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that there were no significant allometry (p > 0.05) effects of foot length on ball girth and foot width. Foot height showed no direct relationship with foot length. However, a normalisation with respect to foot length and foot height resulted in a significant relationship for both males and females with R(2) greater than 0.97. Due to the lack of a direct relationship between foot height and foot length, the current practice of grading shoes with a constant increase in height or proportionate scaling in response to foot length is less than ideal. The results when validated with other populations can be a significant way forward in the design of footwear that has an improved fit in the height dimension.

  11. Imaging of Charcot foot

    Erlemann, Rainer; Schmitz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The onset of a Charcot foot ist a feared complication of a long lasting diabetes mellitus. A peripheral neuropathy and continuous weight bearing of the foot subsequent to repeated traumas depict the conditions. There exist three types of a Charcot foot, an atrophic, a hypertophic and a mixed type. In early stages a differentiation from osteoarthritis is difficult. Subluxation or luxation within the Lisfranc's joint is typical. The joints of the foot could rapidly and extensively be destroyed or may present the morphology of a 'superosteoarthritis'. Often, soft tissue infections or osteomyelitis evolve from ulcers of the skin as entry points. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis necessitate MR imaging as plain radiography offers only low sensitivity for detection of an osteomyelitis. The existence of periosteal reactions is not a proof for osteomyelitis. Bone marrow edema and soft tissue edema also appear in a non infected Charcot foot. The range of soft tissue infections goes from cellulitis over phlegmon to abscesses. The ghost sign is the most suitable diagnostic criterion for osteomyelitis. In addition, the penumbra sign or the existence of a sinus tract between a skin ulcer and the affected bone may be helpful. (orig.)

  12. Pathophysiology diabetic foot ulcer

    Syafril, S.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to have many complications. Diabetes and its complications are rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and one of the most distressing is Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU). Chronic wound complications are a growing concern worldwide, and the effect is a warning to public health and the economy. The etiology of a DFU is multifaceted, and several components cause added together create a sufficient impact on ulceration: neuropathy, vasculopathy, immunopathy, mechanical stress, and neuroarthropathy. There are many classifications of the diabetic foot. About 50% of patients with foot ulcers due to DM present clinical signs of infection. It is essential to manage multifactorial etiology of DFU to get a good outcome.

  13. Foot muscles strengthener

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  14. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  15. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    ... A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...

  16. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    ... too much pressure on your toes. If your feet have changed shape, such as from Charcot’s foot, you may need ... care visit if you have changes in the shape of your feet loss of feeling in your feet peripheral artery ...

  17. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    ... on the ball of the foot when walking, running and jumping. Sesamoid injuries can involve the bones, tendons and/or surrounding ... on the ball of the foot, such as running, basketball, football, golf, tennis and ballet. ... of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of ...

  18. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    ... common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from running and side-to-side cutting, sliding or tackling ...

  19. Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-12-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  20. Settlement Prediction of Footings Using VS

    Hyung Ik CHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity (VS is a key parameter for estimating the deformation characteristics of soil. In order to predict the settlement of shallow footings in granular soil, the VS and the concept of Schmertmann’s framework were adopted. The VS was utilized to represent soil stiffness instead of cone tip resistance (qc because the VS can be directly related to the small-strain shear modulus. By combining the VS measured in the field and the modulus reduction curve measured in the laboratory, the deformation characteristics of soil can be reliably estimated. Vertical stress increments were determined using two different profiles of the strain influence factor (Iz proposed in Schmertmann’s method and that calculated from the theory of elasticity. The corresponding modulus variation was determined by considering the stress level and strain at each depth. This state-dependent stress-strain relationship was utilized to calculate the settlement of footings based on the theory of elasticity. To verify the developed method, geotechnical centrifuge tests were carried out. The VS profiles were measured before each loading test, and the load-settlement curves were obtained during the tests. Comparisons between the measured and estimated load-settlement curves showed that the developed method adequately predicts the settlement of footings, especially for over-consolidated ground conditions.

  1. Biomechanically acquired foot types

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Over the years, orthopedics of the foot has gone through many stages and phases, each of which has spawned a whole vocabulary of its own. According the author, today we are in the biomechanical age, which represents a step forward in understanding the mechanisms governing the functions of the lower extremity. A great deal of scientific research on the various foot types and pathological entities is now being performed. This paper discusses how, from a radiographic point of view, a knowledge of certain angular relationships must be achieved before one can perform a biomechanical evaluation. In order to validate the gross clinical findings, following an examination of a patient, a biomechanical evaluation can be performed on the radiographs taken. It must be remembered, however, that x-rays are never the sole means of making a diagnosis. They are just one of many findings that must be put together to arrive at a pertinent clinical assessment or diagnosis

  2. Elephant's foot phenomenon in liquid storage tanks

    Chen, C.Q.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method for analyzing the seismic response of a flat bottomed cylindrical liquid storage tank to vertical earthquake excitation. Here, vertical earthquake acceleration is considered to correspond to an increase in the density of a stored liquid. Taking into account the vertical and horizontal earthquake loads, hydrostatic pressure, and considering restrictive moment and shear forces at shell-bottom welded joint, the author has calculated circumferential and longitudinal stresses. These are combined to more accurately approximate the stresses at the base shell course. The calculated result closely conforms to the actual damage, termed ''elephant's foot,'' observed in the fuel storage tanks damaged in the Tangshan earthquake. This result shows that the ''elephant's foot'' phenomenon is not caused by buckling of the tank shell due to longitudinal compressive stresses resulting from horizontal earthquake acceleration, but rather by the combined stresses in the base shell course of the storage tank exceeding the yield strength of the shell course material. The effect due to vertical earthquake load is more than the effect from the horizontal load. Finally, some earthquake resistant methods to prevent the ''elephant's foot'' phenomenon are suggested by the author.

  3. The diabetic foot

    Vestring, T.; Fiedler, R.; Greitemann, B.; Sciuk, J.; Peters, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    Familiarity with the spectrum of findings in the different imaging modalities appears essential. Radiographically, significant changes include Charcot joints of the tarsus (destructive type) and bone absorption of the forefoot (mutilating type). In diabetic foot problems, magnetic resonance imaging and leukocyte scintigraphy appear to be the most effective tools for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of both techniques in active, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis. (orig.) [de

  4. Normal foot and ankle

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  5. The effect of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of strip footing supported on reinforced sand

    Mostafa El Sawwaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests on the influence of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of a model strip footing adjacent to the excavation and supported on reinforced granular soil. Initially, the response of the strip footings supported on un-reinforced sand and subjected to vertical loads (which were constant during the test due to adjacent deep excavation-induced lateral soil movement were obtained. Then, the effects of the inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in supporting soil on the model footing behavior under the same conditions were investigated. The studied factors include the value of the sustained footing loads, the location of footing relative to the excavation, the affected depth of soil due to deep excavation, and the relative density of sand. Test results indicate that the inclusion of soil reinforcement in the supporting sand significantly decreases both vertical settlements and the tilts of the footings due to the nearby excavation. However, the improvements in the footing behavior were found to be very dependent on the location of the footing relative to excavation. Based on the test results, the variation of the footing measured vertical settlements with different parameters are presented and discussed.

  6. Foot placement modulation diminishes for perturbations near foot contact

    Vlutters, Mark; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2018-01-01

    Whenever a perturbation occurs during walking we have to maintain our balance using the recovery strategies that are available to us. Foot placement adjustment is often considered an important recovery strategy. However, because this strategy takes time it is likely a poor option if the foot is

  7. Mortality associated with acute Charcot foot and neuropathic foot ulceration

    van Baal, Juliette; Hubbard, Richard; Game, Fran; Jeffcoate, William

    2010-01-01

    To compare the mortality of patients with an acute Charcot foot with a matched population with uninfected neuropathic foot ulcers (NFUs). Data were extracted from a specialist departmental database, supplemented by hospital records. The findings were compared with the results of earlier populations

  8. Monotonic Loading of Circular Surface Footings on Clay

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate modeling of offshore foundations under monotonic loading is a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering. This paper reports experimental and numerical analyses, specifically investigating the response of circular surface footings during monotonic loading and elastoplastic...... behavior during reloading. By using the findings presented in this paper, it is possible to extend the model to simulate the vertical-load displacement response of offshore bucket foundations....

  9. Three-dimensional impact kinetics with foot-strike manipulations during running

    Andrew D. Nordin; Janet S. Dufek; John A. Mercer

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lack of an observable vertical impact peak in fore/mid-foot running has been suggested as a means of reducing lower extremity impact forces, although it is unclear if impact characteristics exist in other axes. The purpose of the investigation was to compare three-dimensional (3D) impact kinetics among foot-strike conditions in over-ground running using instantaneous loading rate–time profiles. Methods: Impact characteristics were assessed by identifying peak loading rates in e...

  10. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking.

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C; Skouby, S O; Byskov, A G

    2009-08-01

    Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and alcohol consumption influence embryonic and fetal foot growth is also lacking. Embryonic tissue from 102 first-trimester legal abortions (aged 35-69 days p.c.) were collected. All women answered a questionnaire concerning smoking and drinking habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two collections correlated well. Foot length was independent of gender, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. Foot length correlated linearly to embryonic and foetal age, and was unaffected by gender, ETS, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.

  11. Mobility and Balance and Their Correlation with Physiological Factors in Elderly with Different Foot Postures

    Aisyah Mohd Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines (1 the correlation between mobility and balance performances with physiological factors and (2 the relationship between foot postures with anthropometric characteristics and lower limb characteristics among elderly with neutral, pronated, and supinated foot. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in community-dwelling elderly (age: 69.86 ± 5.62 years. Participants were grouped into neutral (n=16, pronated (n=14, and supinated (n=14 foot based on the foot posture index classification. Anthropometric data (height, weight, and BMI, lower limb strength (5-STS and endurance (30 s chair rise test, mobility (TUG, and balance (FSST were determined. Data were analyzed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Body weight was negatively and moderately correlated (rs=-0.552, P<0.05 with mobility in supinated foot; moderate-to-high positive linear rank correlation was found between lower limb strength and mobility (rs=0.551 to 0.804, P<0.05 for pronated and neutral foot. Lower limb endurance was negatively and linearly correlated with mobility in pronated (rs=-0.699 and neutral (rs=-0.573 foot. No correlation was observed in balance performance with physiological factors in any of the foot postures. We can conclude that muscle function may be the most important feature to make movement possible in older persons regardless of the type of foot postures.

  12. Does a 4–6 Week Shoeing Interval Promote Optimal Foot Balance in the Working Equine?

    Kirsty Leśniak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Variation in equine hoof conformation between farriery interventions lacks research, despite associations with distal limb injuries. This study aimed to determine linear and angular hoof variations pre- and post-farriery within a four to six week shoeing/trimming interval. Seventeen hoof and distal limb measurements were drawn from lateral and anterior digital photographs from 26 horses pre- and post-farriery. Most lateral view variables changed significantly. Reductions of the dorsal wall, and weight bearing and coronary band lengths resulted in an increased vertical orientation of the hoof. The increased dorsal hoof wall angle, heel angle, and heel height illustrated this further, improving dorsopalmar alignment. Mediolateral measurements of coronary band and weight bearing lengths reduced, whilst medial and lateral wall lengths from the 2D images increased, indicating an increased vertical hoof alignment. Additionally, dorsopalmar balance improved. However, the results demonstrated that a four to six week interval is sufficient for a palmer shift in the centre of pressure, increasing the loading on acutely inclined heels, altering DIP angulation, and increasing the load on susceptible structures (e.g., DDFT. Mediolateral variable asymmetries suit the lateral hoof landing and unrollment pattern of the foot during landing. The results support regular (four to six week farriery intervals for the optimal prevention of excess loading of palmar limb structures, reducing long-term injury risks through cumulative, excessive loading.

  13. What is the diabetic foot?

    increase in the complications related to diabetes as a result of this increasing ... A number of contributory factors work together to cause foot ... neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot deformities, external ... it is usually a combination of problems rather than a single risk ... This results in increased oxidative stress.

  14. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.

  15. Avoiding foot complications in diabetes

    preceded by a foot ulcer.1,2 Every 30 seconds a lower limb or part of a lower limb is ... of foot ulcers are peripheral neuropathy, deformity, peripheral vascular disease and ... Repetitive stresses cause hyperkeratosis, followed by subcutaneous ...

  16. Foot-and-mouth disease

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  17. Self-efficacy of foot care behaviour of elderly patients with diabetes

    Maizatul Nadwa Mohd Razi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elderly patients with diabetes are at a high risk of contracting diabetic foot problems. Self-efficacy is essential to help improve foot care behaviour. Aim: To identify levels of self-efficacy and foot care behaviour and their relationship with demographic characteristics in elderly patients with diabetes Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two general hospitals in Malaysia from May to June 2015. Diabetes patients aged 60 years with specific inclusion criteria were invited to participate in this study. The respondents were interviewed using a set of validated questionnaires. Data were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics (multiple linear regression using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. Results: Levels of foot self-efficacy (mean+31.39; standard deviation=7.76 and foot care behaviour (mean=25.37; SD=5.88 were high. There was a positive significant relationship between foot selfefficacy (β = 0.41, p < 0.001 and gender (β = 0.30, p < 0.001 with foot care behaviour. Conclusion: Self-efficacy can be incorporated in diabetes education to improve foot care behaviour. High-risk patients should be taught proper foot inspection and protection as well as the merits of skin care to prevent the occurrence of diabetic foot problems.

  18. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C

    2009-01-01

    habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. RESULTS: Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.......c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two...

  19. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  20. Combined diabetic foot infections treatment, complicated by foot phlegmon

    Yavruyan O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article shows the analysis of treatment results of 163 patients with diabetic foot infections, complicated by foot phlegmon. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The control group received traditional treatment and had an autopsy deep plantar space done and then, during the second phase, cytokine-rich autoplatelet concentrate had been applied. The research results confirmed a significant decrease in the duration of treatment and hospitalization of patients in the hospital.

  1. Foot Placement Modification for a Biped Humanoid Robot with Narrow Feet

    Kenji Hashimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a walking stabilization control for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet. Most humanoid robots have larger feet than human beings to maintain their stability during walking. If robot’s feet are as narrow as humans, it is difficult to realize a stable walk by using conventional stabilization controls. The proposed control modifies a foot placement according to the robot's attitude angle. If a robot tends to fall down, a foot angle is modified about the roll axis so that a swing foot contacts the ground horizontally. And a foot-landing point is also changed laterally to inhibit the robot from falling to the outside. To reduce a foot-landing impact, a virtual compliance control is applied to the vertical axis and the roll and pitch axes of the foot. Verification of the proposed method is conducted through experiments with a biped humanoid robot WABIAN-2R. WABIAN-2R realized a knee-bended walking with 30 mm breadth feet. Moreover, WABIAN-2R mounted on a human-like foot mechanism mimicking a human's foot arch structure realized a stable walking with the knee-stretched, heel-contact, and toe-off motion.

  2. The influence of valgus heel position on foot loading in a child's gait

    Eliška Martinásková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flat foot is a typical clinical sign in childhood, expressed as valgus positioning of the heel during vertical foot loading. This may lead to medial deviation of the foot axis and cause overloading of some foot areas. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of valgus position of the heel (both bilateral and unilateral on foot loading during gait. METHODS: An experimental group consisting of children with bilateral heel valgus deformity (16 children, age 5.3 ± 1.3 years and children with unilateral heel valgus deformity (14 children, age 5.6 ± 1.6 years. The control group comprised of 14 children (age 4.5 ± 1.2 years. For measuring foot loading during gait, the Footscan (RSScan International, Olen, Belgium pressure plate was used. Each subject went through 8 trials of gait measurement. From each trial, 8 foot areas were evaluated. Data processing with mean values for each subject was performed by non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, Spearman correlation in the STATISTICA programme (StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, USA. RESULTS: Pressure peak and pressure impulse in the first metatarsal was greater for the bilateral valgus group (p CONCLUSION: The results show that valgus positioning of the heel influences foot loading in children during gait. The findings of this study suggest the necessity of a complex solution to the problem of preventing further progression of pathological changes.

  3. Linear algebra

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  4. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical

  5. Tolerances for the vertical emittance in damping rings

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Future damping rings for linear colliders will need to have very small vertical emittances. In the limit of low beam current, the vertical emittance is primarily determined by the vertical dispersion and the betatron coupling. In this paper, the contributions to these effects from random misalignments are calculated and tolerances are derived to limit the vertical emittance with a 95% confidence level. 10 refs., 5 figs

  6. The influence of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot on the biomechanics characteristics of foot of children of pre-school age

    Bychuk I.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article is defined linear and angular biomechanics descriptions of children's foot of senior preschool age. It is analysed the dynamics and increase of the explored indexes during realization of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot in the teaching process. In experiment took part teachers and instructors of physical culture; control and experimental group consist of 20 children at the age of 5-6 years old. Efficiency of the offered program of prophylaxis of flat foot is proved.

  7. Imaging the diabetic foot

    Gold, R.H.; Tong, D.T.F.; Crim, J.R.; Seeger, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase 99m Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal 99m Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a 111 In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  8. Imaging the diabetic foot

    Gold, R.H. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tong, D.T.F. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crim, J.R. [Durham Radiology Associates, Durham, NC (United States); Seeger, L.L. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a {sup 111}In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  9. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  10. Flat Foot in a Random Population and its Impact on Quality of Life and Functionality.

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Gonzalez-Martin, Cristina; Alonso-Tajes, Francisco; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Perez-Garcia, Sergio; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanesa

    2017-04-01

    Flat foot is a common deformity in adults. It is characterized by medial rotation and plantar flexion of the talus, eversion of the calcaneus, collapsed medial arch and abduction of the forefoot. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot and its impact on quality of life, dependence, foot pain, disability and functional limitation among random population of 40-year-old and above. A cross-sectional study in a random population sample from Cambre (A Coruña-Spain) (n=835) was performed (α =0.05; Precision=±3.4%). The diagnosis of flat foot was stablished by the study of the footprint obtained with a pedograph. Anthropometric variables were studied, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, function and state of foot (Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ)), quality of life (SF-36), and dependence for activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index). A logistic and linear multiple regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of flat foot was 26.62%. Patients with flat foot were significantly older (65.73±11.04 vs 61.03±11.45-year-old), showed a higher comorbidity index (0.92±1.49 vs 0.50±0.98), had a greater BMI (31.45±5.55 vs 28.40±4.17) and greater foot size (25.16±1.66 vs 24.82±1.65). The presence of flat foot diminishes the quality of life, as measured by the FHSQ, and foot function, measured by the FFI. The presence of flat foot does not alter the physical and mental dimension of the SF-36 or the degree of dependence. Flat foot was associated with age, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, BMI and foot size. The SF-36, Barthel and Lawton questionnaires remained unaltered by the presence of flat foot. The FHSQ and FFI questionnaires did prove to be sensitive to the presence of flat foot in a significant manner.

  11. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Backus, Sherry I; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2013-03-01

    Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n=12), rectus (n=27) and planus (n=22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10-37% of the model variance (adjusted R(2)) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R(2) increased to 45-77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7-47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16-64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (pFoot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. [Which foot deformities should be radiologist be familiar with?

    von Stillfried, E

    2018-05-01

    Most deformities of the foot are visible at birth and can be diagnosed without imaging. They can be divided into congenital flexible, congenital structural and acquired foot deformities. The most common congenital flexible foot deformity in children is the metatarsus adductus, which usually requires no long-term therapy. Regarding congenital structural deformities, such as the clubfoot and talus verticalis, plaster therapy should be started during the first week of life, so that by the end of the first year of life and the beginning of the verticalization, a pain-free resilient foot with normal function is present. Imaging is usually only necessary if a relapse arises. Coalitio of the tarsal bones is often visible only in the course of growth through the development of a rigid flatfoot and always requires imaging to confirm the diagnosis. This article is intended to give the radiologist an overview of the most important deformities and to inform about their course and therapy.

  14. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  15. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  16. THE EFFECT OF STEP RATE MANIPULATION ON FOOT STRIKE PATTERN OF LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS.

    Allen, Darrell J; Heisler, Hollie; Mooney, Jennifer; Kring, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Running gait retraining to change foot strike pattern in runners from a heel strike pattern to a non heel- strike pattern has been shown to reduce impact forces and may help to reduce running related injuries. Step rate manipulation above preferred is known to help decrease step length, foot inclination angle, and vertical mass excursion, but has not yet been evaluated as a method to change foot strike pattern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of step rate manipulation on foot strike pattern in shod recreational runners who run with a heel strike pattern. A secondary purpose was to describe the effect of step rate manipulation at specific percentages above preferred on foot inclination angle at initial contact. Forty volunteer runners, who were self-reported heel strikers and had a weekly running mileage of at least 10 miles, were recruited. Runners were confirmed to be heel strikers during the warm up period on the treadmill. The subject's step rate was determined at their preferred running pace. A metronome was used to increase step rate above the preferred step rate by 5%, 10% and 15%. 2D video motion analysis was utilized to determine foot strike pattern and to measure foot inclination angle at initial contact for each step rate condition. There was a statistically significant change in foot strike pattern from a heel strike pattern to a mid-foot or forefoot strike pattern at both 10% and 15% step rates above preferred. Seven of the 40 subjects (17.5%) changed from a heel- strike pattern to a non- heel strike pattern at +10% and 12 of the 40 subjects (30%) changed to a non-heel strike pattern at +15%. Mean foot inclination angle at initial contact showed a statistically significant change (reduction) as step rate increased. Step rate manipulation of 10% or greater may be enough to change foot strike pattern from a heel strike to a mid-foot or forefoot strike pattern in a small percentage of recreational runners who run in traditional

  17. The Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    Frykberg, Robert G.; Armstrong, David G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B.; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K.; Uccioli, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

  18. Diabetic gangrene of the foot

    Tanaka, Junji; Hoshi, Makoto; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo; Kimura, Masakata; Ichinohe, Hitomoto.

    1983-01-01

    A case of severe diabetic gangrene was reported. Angiography showed no evidence of ischemic changes in the foot, except for mild atherosclerosis in the femoral and popliteal arteries. Tc-99m labelled macroagglugated albumine (MAA) was injected transcatheterally into the abdominal aorta to see the blood perfusion of the lower extremities, which showed increased blood flow of the foot as well as the presence of micro arteriovenous shuntings shown by the appearance of both lungs. Damages of the microcirculation are thought to have much influences on the formation of diabetic gangrene. Histopathological findings supported above. (author)

  19. Fleet of Foot: Adolescent Foot and Ankle Mobility

    Legacy, Kelly Bromley

    2018-01-01

    In today's world of advanced technologies, accessible transportation, and fingertip talking, adolescents are spending too many hours each day sedentary. The purpose of this article is to underscore the importance of foot and ankle mobility in an adolescent population that spends very little time on their feet. Physical educators and athletic…

  20. Linear gate

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  1. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  2. Muscular activity and torque of the foot dorsiflexor muscles during decremental isometric test: A cross-sectional study.

    Ruiz-Muñoz, Maria; González-Sánchez, Manuel; Martín-Martín, Jaime; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the torque variation level that could be explained by the muscle activation (EMG) amplitude of the three major foot dorsiflexor muscles (tibialis anterior (TA), extensor digitorum longus (EDL), extensor hallucis longus (EHL)) during isometric foot dorsiflexion at different intensities. In a cross-sectional study, forty-one subjects performed foot dorsiflexion at 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) with the hip and knee flexed 90° and the ankle in neutral position (90° between leg and foot). Three foot dorsiflexions were performed for each intensity. Outcome variables were: maximum (100% MVC) and relative torque (75%, 50%, 25% MVC), maximum and relative EMG amplitude. A linear regression analysis was calculated for each intensity of the isometric foot dorsiflexion. The degree of torque variation (dependent variable) from the independent variables explain (EMG amplitude of the three major foot dorsiflexor muscles) the increases when the foot dorsiflexion intensity is increased, with values of R 2 that range from 0.194 (during 25% MVC) to 0.753 (during 100% MVC). The reliability of the outcome variables was excellent. The EMG amplitude of the three main foot dorsiflexors exhibited more variance in the dependent variable (torque) when foot dorsiflexion intensity increases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  4. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb...

  5. New devices for measuring forces on the kayak foot bar and on the seat during flat-water kayak paddling: a technical report.

    Nilsson, Johnny E; Rosdahl, Hans G

    2014-03-01

    The purpose was to develop and validate portable force-measurement devices for recording push and pull forces applied by each foot to the foot bar of a kayak and the horizontal force at the seat. A foot plate on a single-point force transducer mounted on the kayak foot bar underneath each foot allowed the push and pull forces to be recorded. Two metal frames interconnected with 4 linear ball bearings, and a force transducer allowed recording of horizontal seat force. The foot-bar-force device was calibrated by loading each foot plate with weights in the push-pull direction perpendicular to the foot plate surface, while the seat-force device was calibrated to horizontal forces with and without weights on the seat. A strong linearity (r2 = .99-1.0) was found between transducer output signal and load force in the push and pull directions for both foot-bar transducers perpendicular to the foot plate and the seat-force-measuring device. Reliability of both devices was tested by means of a test-retest design. The coefficient of variation (CV) for foot-bar push and pull forces ranged from 0.1% to 1.1%, and the CV for the seat forces varied from 0.6% to 2.2%. The current study opens up a field for new investigations of the forces generated in the kayak and ways to optimize kayak-paddling performance.

  6. Exploitation of Stereophotogrammetric Measurement of a Foot in Analysis of Plantar Pressure Distribution

    Pankova, B.; Koudelka, T.; Pavelka, K.; Janura, M.; Jelen, K.

    2016-06-01

    Stereophotogrammetry as a method for the surface scanning can be used to capture some properties of the human body parts. The objective of this study is to quantify the foot stress distribution in 3D during its quasi-static stand using a footprint into an imprinting material when knowing its mechanical properties. One foot of a female, having the mass of 65kg, was chosen for the FEM foot model construction. After obtaining her foot imprint to the dental imprinting material, its positive plaster cast was created, whose surface was possible to scan using stereophotogrammetry. The imprint surface digital model was prepared with the help of the Konica-Minolta Vivid 9i triangulation scanner. This procedure provides the measured object models in a high resolution. The resulting surface mesh of the foot imprint involved 9.600 nodes and 14.000 triangles, approximately, after reduction due to the FEM analysis. Simulation of foot imprint was solved as the 3D time dependent nonlinear mechanical problem in the ADINA software. The sum of vertical reactions calculated at the contact area nodes was 320.5 N, which corresponds to the mass of 32.67 kg. This value is in a good agreement with the subject half weight - the load of one foot during its quasi-static stand. The partial pressures resulting from this mathematical model match the real pressures on the interface of the foot and imprinting material quite closely. Principally, these simulations can be used to assess the contact pressures in practical cases, e.g., between a foot and its footwear.

  7. A generic analytical foot rollover model for predicting translational ankle kinematics in gait simulation studies.

    Ren, Lei; Howard, David; Ren, Luquan; Nester, Chris; Tian, Limei

    2010-01-19

    The objective of this paper is to develop an analytical framework to representing the ankle-foot kinematics by modelling the foot as a rollover rocker, which cannot only be used as a generic tool for general gait simulation but also allows for case-specific modelling if required. Previously, the rollover models used in gait simulation have often been based on specific functions that have usually been of a simple form. In contrast, the analytical model described here is in a general form that the effective foot rollover shape can be represented by any polar function rho=rho(phi). Furthermore, a normalized generic foot rollover model has been established based on a normative foot rollover shape dataset of 12 normal healthy subjects. To evaluate model accuracy, the predicted ankle motions and the centre of pressure (CoP) were compared with measurement data for both subject-specific and general cases. The results demonstrated that the ankle joint motions in both vertical and horizontal directions (relative RMSE approximately 10%) and CoP (relative RMSE approximately 15% for most of the subjects) are accurately predicted over most of the stance phase (from 10% to 90% of stance). However, we found that the foot cannot be very accurately represented by a rollover model just after heel strike (HS) and just before toe off (TO), probably due to shear deformation of foot plantar tissues (ankle motion can occur without any foot rotation). The proposed foot rollover model can be used in both inverse and forward dynamics gait simulation studies and may also find applications in rehabilitation engineering. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  9. Dynamically adjustable foot-ground contact model to estimate ground reaction force during walking and running.

    Jung, Yihwan; Jung, Moonki; Ryu, Jiseon; Yoon, Sukhoon; Park, Sang-Kyoon; Koo, Seungbum

    2016-03-01

    Human dynamic models have been used to estimate joint kinetics during various activities. Kinetics estimation is in demand in sports and clinical applications where data on external forces, such as the ground reaction force (GRF), are not available. The purpose of this study was to estimate the GRF during gait by utilizing distance- and velocity-dependent force models between the foot and ground in an inverse-dynamics-based optimization. Ten males were tested as they walked at four different speeds on a force plate-embedded treadmill system. The full-GRF model whose foot-ground reaction elements were dynamically adjusted according to vertical displacement and anterior-posterior speed between the foot and ground was implemented in a full-body skeletal model. The model estimated the vertical and shear forces of the GRF from body kinematics. The shear-GRF model with dynamically adjustable shear reaction elements according to the input vertical force was also implemented in the foot of a full-body skeletal model. Shear forces of the GRF were estimated from body kinematics, vertical GRF, and center of pressure. The estimated full GRF had the lowest root mean square (RMS) errors at the slow walking speed (1.0m/s) with 4.2, 1.3, and 5.7% BW for anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and vertical forces, respectively. The estimated shear forces were not significantly different between the full-GRF and shear-GRF models, but the RMS errors of the estimated knee joint kinetics were significantly lower for the shear-GRF model. Providing COP and vertical GRF with sensors, such as an insole-type pressure mat, can help estimate shear forces of the GRF and increase accuracy for estimation of joint kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of diabetic foot infections

    Jamil, M.; Amin, Z.; Chaudhary, T. H.; Shaheen, J.; Alvi, Z. R.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the infecting agent in diabetic food infection with the susceptibility pattern, and to evaluate the effect of wound infection, was culopathy, neuropathy and control of diabetes mellitus on the outcome of the patients. Design: A descriptive and observational study. Place and duration of study: Patients with diabetic foot, admitted in surgical unit 1, B.V. Hospital Bahawalpur, from April 1999 to April 2000, were included in this study. Subject and methods: A total of 60 known diabetic patients were studied, out of these 47 were males and 13 females. They were assessed for angiopathy, neuropathy and extend of foot involvement. Necessary investigations, including x-ray foot, ECG, serum urea and creatinine, pus culture and sensitivity were carried out. Diabetes was controlled on insulin of the basis of serum sugar and urine sugar chart and treated accordingly. Results: The most common age of foot involvement was between 40-70 years. Right side was involved more often than the left (67%: 37%). Most of the infections were due to staphylococcus (50%), pseudomonas (25%) and streptococci (8%). Antibiotic was started based on sensitivity report. Fluoro quinolone plus clindamycin was used in 50%, fluoro quinolone plus metronidazole in 20% and amoxicillin/clavulanate in 23%. Most of the patients (61.7%) were in grade iii or iv of Meggit wagner classification of diabetic foot. Three patients (5%) were treated by below knee amputations while 1.7% patient by above knee amputation. In twenty-four (40%) patients some form of to amputation/ray amputation had to be done,while 32(53.3%) patients had complete healing of would without any amputation. Mortality was 3.33% all the 4 patients (6.7%) who presented late, having uncontrolled diabetes, with angiopathy (absent foot pulses), neuropathy, infection of the foot (grade iii or above) resulted in major amputation sooner or latter. The 32 patients (53.3%) having controlled diabetes mellitus with no angiopathy or

  11. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115... protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear foot protection equipment when potential foot injury may result from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    2010-04-01

    ... reinforcing steel in cast-in-place concrete footings. (2) Pressure-treated wood. (i) Pressure-treated wood footings must consist of a minimum of two layers of nominal 2-inch thick pressure-treated wood, a single... values listed have been reduced by the dead load of the concrete footing. 4. Concrete block piers must...

  13. Linear algebra

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  14. Kinesiology-Based Robot Foot Design for Human-Like Walking

    SangJoo Kwon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the conventional flat foot, the flexible foot is advantageous in implementing human-like walking and much reduces energy consumption. In this paper, from an anatomical and kinesiological point of view, a flexible foot with toes and heels is investigated for a bipedal robot and three critical design parameters for walking stability are drawn, which include stiffness of toes and heels, frontal toe position, and ankle joint position. In addition, a human-like walking trajectory compatible with the flexible foot is proposed by mimicking a human walking pattern. First of all, the zero moment point (ZMP trajectory continuously moves forward without stopping, even in the single support phase. Secondly, the centre of mass (CoM trajectory includes vertical motion similar to that seen in human beings. Thirdly, the ankle trajectory follows the rotational motion of a human foot while being lifted from and landing on the ground. Through the simulation study, it is shown that the suggested design parameters can be applied as useful indices for the mechanical design of biped feet; interestingly, the vertical motion of the centre of mass tends to compensate for the transient response in the initial walking step.

  15. Diabetes: foot ulcers and amputations.

    Hunt, Dereck L

    2011-08-26

    Diabetic foot ulceration is full-thickness penetration of the dermis of the foot in a person with diabetes. Severity is classified using the Wagner system, which grades it from 1 to 5. The annual incidence of ulcers among people with diabetes is 2.5% to 10.7% in resource-rich countries, and the annual incidence of amputation for any reason is 0.25% to 1.8%. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent foot ulcers and amputations in people with diabetes? What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetes with foot ulceration? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 50 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: debridement, human cultured dermis, human skin equivalent, patient education, pressure off-loading with felted foam or pressure-relief half-shoe, pressure off-loading with total-contact or non-removable casts, screening and referral to foot-care clinics, systemic hyperbaric oxygen for non-infected ulcers, systemic hyperbaric oxygen in infected ulcers, therapeutic footwear, topical growth factors, and wound dressings.

  16. Vertical pump assembly

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  17. Foot Problems in a Group of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Unmet Need for Foot Care

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. Patients and Methods: A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapie...

  18. Linear algebra

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  19. Linear programming

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  20. Linear algebra

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  1. Linear algebra

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  2. Linear Models

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  3. The effect of a knee ankle foot orthosis incorporating an active knee mechanism on gait of a person with poliomyelitis.

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Chitsazan, Ahmad; Bani, Monireh Ahmadi; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Ghomshe, Farhad Tabatabai; Hutchins, Stephen W

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this case study was to identify the effect of a powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis on the kinematics and temporospatial parameters of walking by a person with poliomyelitis when compared to a knee ankle foot orthosis. A knee ankle foot orthosis was initially manufactured by incorporating drop lock knee joints and custom molded ankle foot orthoses and fitted to a person with poliomyelitis. The orthosis was then adapted by adding electrically activated powered knee joints to provide knee extension torque during stance and also flexion torque in swing phase. Lower limb kinematic and kinetic data plus data for temporospatial parameters were acquired from three test walks using each orthosis. Walking speed, step length, and vertical and horizontal displacement of the pelvis decreased when walking with the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis compared to the knee ankle foot orthosis. When using the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis, the knee flexion achieved during swing and also the overall pattern of walking more closely matched that of normal human walking. The reduced walking speed may have caused the smaller compensatory motions detected when the powered stance control knee ankle foot orthosis was used. The new powered SCKAFO facilitated controlled knee flexion and extension during ambulation for a volunteer poliomyelitis person.

  4. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  5. Integrated pressure-force-kinematics measuring system for the characterisation of plantar foot loading during locomotion.

    Giacomozzi, C; Macellari, V; Leardini, A; Benedetti, M G

    2000-03-01

    Plantar pressure, ground reaction force and body-segment kinematics measurements are largely used in gait analysis to characterise normal and abnormal function of the human foot. The combination of all these data together provides a more exhaustive, detailed and accurate view of foot loading during activities than traditional measurement systems alone do. A prototype system is presented that integrates a pressure platform, a force platform and a 3D anatomical tracking system to acquire combined information about foot function and loading. A stereophotogrammetric system and an anatomically based protocol for foot segment kinematics is included in a previously devised piezo-dynamometric system that combines pressure and force measurements. Experimental validation tests are carried out to check for both spatial and time synchronisation. Misalignment of the three systems is found to be within 6.0, 5.0 and 1.5 mm for the stereophotogrammetric system, force platform and pressure platform, respectively. The combination of position and pressure data allows for a more accurate selection of plantar foot subareas on the footprint. Measurements are also taken on five healthy volunteers during level walking to verify the feasibility of the overall experimental protocol. Four main subareas are defined and identified, and the relevant vertical and shear force data are computed. The integrated system is effective when there is a need for loading measurements in specific plantar foot subareas. This is attractive both in clinical assessment and in biomechanics research.

  6. Standing Height and its Estimation Utilizing Foot Length Measurements in Adolescents from Western Region in Kosovo

    Stevo Popović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine standing height in both Kosovan genders in the Western Region as well as its association with foot length, as an alternative to estimating standing height. A total of 664 individuals (338 male and 326 female participated in this research. The anthropometric measurements were taken according to the protocol of ISAK. The relationships between body height and foot length were determined using simple correlation coefficients at a ninety-five percent confidence interval. A comparison of means of standing height and foot length between genders was performed using a t-test. After that a linear regression analysis were carried out to examine extent to which foot length can reliably predict standing height. Results displayed that Western Kosovan male are 179.71±6.00cm tall and have a foot length of 26.73±1.20cm, while Western Kosovan female are 166.26±5.23cm tall and have a foot length of 23.66±1.06cm. The results have shown that both genders made Western-Kosovans a tall group, a little bit taller that general Kosovan population. Moreover, the foot length reliably predicts standing height in both genders; but, not reliably enough as arm span. This study also confirms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo as the results from Western-Kosovans don’t correspond to the general values.

  7. Accuracy of Plantar Electrodes Compared with Hand and Foot Electrodes in Fat-free-mass Measurement

    Michel Y. Jaffrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the measurement of fat-free mass (FFM by bioimpedance using foot-to-foot impedancemeters (FFI with plantar electrodes measuring the foot-to-foot resistance R34 and hand-to-foot medical impedancemeters. FFM measurements were compared with corresponding data using Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Equations giving FFM were established using linear multiple regression on DXA data in a first group of 170 subjects. For validation, these equations were used on a second group of 86 subjects, and FFM were compared with DXA data; no significant difference was observed. The same protocol was repeated, but using electrodes on the right hand and foot in standing position to measure the hand to-foot resistance R13. Mean differences with DXA were higher for R13 than for R34. Effect of electrode size and feet position on resistance was also investigated. R34 decreased when electrode area increased or if feet were moved forward. It decreased if feet were moved backward. A proper configuration of contact electrodes can improve measurement accuracy and reproducibility of FFI.

  8. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Grubman, Marvin J.; Baxt, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the reemergence of FMD in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control s...

  10. Coordination in vertical jumping

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  11. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  12. Linear regression

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  13. Linear Colliders

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  14. Linear algebra

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  15. Foot shape and its relationship with somatic characteristics in pre-school children

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The preschool period, characterised by high intensity of ontogenetic developmental changes, is considered to be the most important regarding formation of the foot. Getting to know the issue of the foot anatomy in children in this period is the main problem, which is the starting point towards proper prevention, examination, or correction of its deformities. Aim of the research: To analyse the shape of children’s feet and its relationship with chosen somatic characteristics in pre-school children. Material and methods : The study group comprised 80 five-year-old children recruited from randomly selected pre-schools in the Podkarpackie region. A CQ-ST podoscope was used as the research tool. In order to evaluate intersex differences at the average level of the tested variables, we used the Student’s t test or alternatively the Mann-Whitney U test. The relations between tested variables was assessed using Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s rank correlation. Results : A low percentage of foot deformities in the children was found. In girls, statistically significant relationships were seen between Clarke’s angle in the right foot and body mass index as well as between Wejsflog index in the right foot and body weight and height. In the case of boys, Clarke’s angle and Wejsflog index in the left foot correlated with body mass index. Conclusions: We can therefore assume that most of the surveyed girls and boys had correctly longitudinally and transversely arched feet and toes positioned correctly. Excessive weight was a factor distorting the foot shape in children; it caused a deterioration of longitudinal and transverse arch of the right foot in girls, and left foot flattening occurred in boys.

  16. Seismic bearing capacity of strip footings on rock masses using the Hoek–Brown failure criterion

    Amin Keshavarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the bearing capacity of strip footings on rock masses has been studied in the seismic case. The stress characteristics or slip line method was used for analysis. The problem was analyzed in the plane strain condition using the Hoek–Brown failure criterion. First, the equilibrium equations along the stress characteristics were obtained and the rock failure criterion was applied. Then, the equations were solved using the finite difference method. A computer code has been provided for analysis. Given the footing and rock parameters, the code can calculate the stress characteristics network and obtain the stress distribution under the footing. The seismic effects have been applied as the horizontal and vertical pseudo-static coefficients. The results of this paper are very close to those of the other studies. The seismic bearing capacity of weightless rock masses can be obtained using the proposed equations and graphs without calculating the whole stress characteristics network.

  17. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  18. Serial casting for neuromuscular flatfoot and vertical talus in an adolescent with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Sweet, Laurene A; OʼNeill, Lindsey M; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore assessment and serial casting intervention for painful rigid flatfoot deformities with vertical talus in an adolescent girl with hereditary spastic paraplegia who was nonambulatory. The participant's right foot underwent 2 phases of casting with correction first toward hindfoot inversion and then dorsiflexion. Because of a vertical talus, her left foot required an intermediate casting toward plantar flexion, inversion, and forefoot adduction prior to casting toward dorsiflexion. The patient improved despite the underlying progressive neuromuscular disorder. Pain ameliorated and she returned to supported standing and transfers. Spasticity decreased bilaterally and the flexibility of her foot deformities improved to allow orthotic fabrication in subtalar neutral. Results were maintained at 12 and 16 months. Individualized multiphase serial casting requires further investigation with patients such as those with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

  19. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  20. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  1. Sex-related differences in foot shape.

    Krauss, I; Grau, S; Mauch, M; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in foot morphology. In total, 847 subjects were scanned using a 3-D-footscanner. Three different analysis methods were used: (1) comparisons were made for absolute foot measures within 250-270 mm foot length (FL); (2) and for averaged measures (% FL) across all sizes; (3) the feet were then classified using a cluster analysis. Within 250-270 mm FL, male feet were wider and higher (mean differences (MD) 1.3-5.9 mm). No relevant sex-related differences could be found in the comparison of averaged measures (MD 0.3-0.6% FL). Foot types were categorised into voluminous, flat-pointed and slender. Shorter feet were more often voluminous, longer feet were more likely to be narrow and flat. However, the definition of 'short' and 'long' was sex-related; thus, allometry of foot measures was different. For shoe design, measures should be derived for each size and sex separately. Different foot types should be considered to account for the variety in foot shape. Improper footwear can cause foot pain and deformity. Therefore, knowledge of sex-related differences in foot measures is important to assist proper shoe fit in both men and women. The present study supplements the field of knowledge within this context with recommendations for the manufacturing of shoes.

  2. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  3. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; T?rholm, S?ren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A.; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Methods ...

  4. A review of the biomechanics of the diabetic foot

    van Schie, C. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    In general, diabetic foot ulcers result from abnormal mechanical loading of the foot, such as repetitive moderate pressure applied to the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes changes in foot structure, affecting foot function and subsequently leading to

  5. Linear programming

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  6. Stress Fractures of the Foot.

    Hossain, Munier; Clutton, Juliet; Ridgewell, Mark; Lyons, Kathleen; Perera, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Stress fractures of the foot and ankle may be more common among athletes than previously reported. A low threshold for investigation is warranted and further imaging may be appropriate if initial radiographs remain inconclusive. Most of these fractures can be treated conservatively with a period of non-weight-bearing mobilization followed by gradual return to activity. Early surgery augmented by bone graft may allow athletes to return to sports earlier. Risk of delayed union, nonunion, and recurrent fracture is high. Many of the patients may also have risk factors for injury that should be modified for a successful outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Overuse syndromes of the foot

    Kainberger, F.; Peloschek, P.; Weidekamm, C.; Uffmann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Overuse syndromes due to lifestyle problems or sporting activities commonly lead to foot abnormalities. The tendons of the long flexor and extensor muscles are specifically prone to degeneration. The various disorders may be classified by a grading system that includes peritendinous inflammation, degenerative tendon disease, and ruptures. Bone marrow edema is another typical manifestation of overuse. It may be differentiated from inflammatory or traumatic forms of edema by its anatomic distribution. Systematic pattern recognition is based on the concept of musculotendinous and osseous kinetic chains. (orig.) [de

  8. Footwear Matters: Influence of Footwear and Foot Strike on Load Rates during Running.

    Rice, Hannah M; Jamison, Steve T; Davis, Irene S

    2016-12-01

    Running with a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of overuse running injuries, due to a reduced vertical load rate compared with rearfoot strike (RFS) running. However, resultant load rate has been reported to be similar between foot strikes when running in traditional shoes, leading to questions regarding the value of running with a FFS. The influence of minimal footwear on the resultant load rate has not been considered. This study aimed to compare component and resultant instantaneous loading rate (ILR) between runners with different foot strike patterns in their habitual footwear conditions. Twenty-nine injury-free participants (22 men, seven women) ran at 3.13 m·s along a 30-m runway, with their habitual foot strike and footwear condition. Ground reaction force data were collected. Peak ILR values were compared between three conditions; those who habitually run with an RFS in standard shoes, with an FFS in standard shoes, and with an FFS in minimal shoes. Peak resultant, vertical, lateral, and medial ILR were lower (P strike. When running with an FFS, peak posterior ILR were lower (P strike. Therefore, it appears that footwear alters the load rates during running, even with similar foot strike patterns.

  9. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E. V. B.; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Sjef G.; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared

  10. A new method to normalize plantar pressure measurements for foot size and foot progression angle.

    Keijsers, N.L.; Stolwijk, N.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement provides important information about the structure and function of the foot and is a helpful tool to evaluate patients with foot complaints. In general, average and maximum plantar pressure of 6-11 areas under the foot are used to compare groups of subjects. However,

  11. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    Introduction The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in

  12. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Vertical market participation

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra......Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids...

  14. Vertical Protocol Composition

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  15. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running.

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Fiers, Pieter; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s -1 while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7.2 ± 3.5°) and positive foot angle (20.4 ± 4.8°) at initial contact while MFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-10.4 ± 6.3°) and more horizontal foot (1.6 ± 3.1°). Atypical RFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-3.1 ± 4.4°) and a small foot angle (7.0 ± 5.1°) at initial contact and had the highest VILR. For the RFS (Typical and Atypical RFS), foot angle at initial contact showed the highest correlation with VILR (r = -0.68). The observed higher VILR in Atypical RFS could be related to both ankle and foot kinematics and global running style that indicate a limited use of known kinematic impact absorbing "strategies" such as initial ankle dorsiflexion in MFS or initial ankle plantar flexion in Typical RFS.

  17. Load eccentricity effects on behavior of circular footings reinforced with geogrid sheets

    Ehsan Badakhshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study for an eccentrically loaded circular footing, resting on a geogrid reinforced sand bed, is performed. To achieve this aim, the steel model footing of 120 mm in diameter and sand in relative density of 60% are used. Also, the effects of depth of first and second geogrid layers and number of reinforcement layers (1–4 on the settlement-load response and tilt of footing under various load eccentricities (0 cm, 0.75 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.25 cm and 3 cm are investigated. Test results indicate that ultimate bearing capacity increases in comparison with unreinforced condition. It is observed that when the reinforcements are placed in the optimum embedment depth (u/D = 0.42 and h/D = 0.42, the bearing capacity ratio (BCR increases with increasing load eccentricity to the core boundary of footing, and that with further increase of load eccentricity, the BCR decreases. Besides, the tilt of footing increases linearly with increasing settlement. Finally, by reinforcing the sand bed, the tilt of footing decreases at 2 layers of reinforcement and then increases by increasing the number of reinforcement layers.

  18. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    Keywords: preventative foot care; diabetes; risk stratification: self care. Introduction ... diabetes is considered to be a key indicator of the quality of foot ... loss of protective sensation, the importance of foot monitoring on a daily basis, the proper ...

  19. Vertical Search Engines

    Curran, Kevin; Mc Glinchey, Jude

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the growth in popularity of vertical search engines, their origins, the differences between them and well-known broad based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. We also discuss their use in business-to-business, their marketing and advertising costs, what the revenue streams are and who uses them.

  20. Vertical cavity laser

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index...

  1. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection,” and ASTM F... footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be...

  3. VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE IN DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT

    Moganakannan; `Prema; Arun Sundara Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Comparision of vacuum assisted closure vs conventional dressing in management of diabetic foot patients. 30 patients were taken in that 15 underwent vacuum therapy and remaining 15 underwent conventional dressing.They were analysed by the development of granulation tissue and wound healing.The study showed Vac therapy is the best modality for management of diabetic foot patients.

  4. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  5. Preventing Diabetic Foot Complications : Strategic Recommendations

    The diabetic foot is the commonest cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation in the developed and developing nations. Several risk factors predispose the diabetic patient to foot ulceration and peripheral neuropathy, with peripheral vascular disease are the commonest risk factors. Clinical examination for these risk ...

  6. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (Pfoot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  8. Research Paper: Evaluation of the Effects of Two Types of Foot Rockers on the Temporal-Spatial Gait Parameters in Diabetic Patients

    Zeinab Rezaeian

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion The results of this study showed that the force-time integral of vertical component of the ground reaction force increased significantly in subjects with diabetes, which is the main cause of foot ulcers. Although, heel and toe rockers did not influence the force applied to the foot or the force-time integral, it is recommended to use rocker shoes with wide base of support to increase the dynamic stability while decreasing the foot pressure. The main limitation is that the immediate effect of use of rocker was studies in this study . It is recommended to check the effect of rockers interventions after a certain period of their use.

  9. Growth factors for treating diabetic foot ulcers

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Gluud, Christian; Nicola, Susana

    2015-01-01

    following treatment for diabetic foot ulcers (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.94; P value 0.56, low quality of evidence)Although 11 trials reported time to complete healing of the foot ulcers in people with diabetes , meta-analysis was not possible for this outcome due to the unique comparisons within each trial...... (minimum of one toe), complete healing of the foot ulcer, and time to complete healing of the diabetic foot ulcer as the primary outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Independently, we selected randomised clinical trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data in duplicate. We estimated risk ratios......BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers are a major complication of diabetes mellitus, often leading to amputation. Growth factors derived from blood platelets, endothelium, or macrophages could potentially be an important treatment for these wounds but they may also confer risks. OBJECTIVES: To assess...

  10. Vertical dispersion produced by random closed orbit distortions and sextupoles

    Suzuki, Toshio.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical dispersion appears even in a machine designed with plane symmetry because of vertical closed orbit distortions, linear coupling and coupling due to sextupoles. This gives rise to several undesirable effects in an electron-positron storage ring such as PEP. Vertical dispersion at the interaction point will increase beam height and reduce luminosity. Vertical dispersion around the ring will modify vertical emittance and partition numbers for synchrotron radiation damping. It will also induce betatron-synchrotron resonance and affect chromaticity correction. Vertical dispersion due to random closed orbit distortions and sextupoles has been studied by Piwinski, and he has indicated that correction of chromaticity and chromatic change of β-function is important. However, he has assumed one error element and evaluated the dispersion at the position of the element. We generalize his argument to a more realistic case and derive more precise criteria for the correction of vertical dispersion. Horizontal dispersion due to perturbations is also studied. Vertical dispersion due to linear coupling is neglected in this note, since it has been studied by other authors. 7 refs

  11. Foot problems in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an unmet need for foot care.

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapies were determined by the questionnaire. Radiological changes were assessed according to modified Larsen scoring system. The scores of disease activity scale of 28 joints and Health Assessment Questionnaire indicating the functional status of RA patients were collected from patient files. A total of 100 RA patients (90 female, 10 male) with a mean age of 52.5 ±10.9 years were enrolled to the study. Eighty-nine of the 100 patients had experienced foot complaints/symptoms in the past or currently. Foot pain and foot symptoms were reported as the first site of involvement in 14 patients. Thirty-six patients had ankle pain and the most common sites of the foot symptoms were ankle (36%) and forefoot (30%) followed by hindfoot (17%) and midfoot (7%) currently. Forty-nine of the patients described that they had difficulty in performing their foot care. Insoles and orthopedic shoes were prescribed in 39 patients, but only 14 of them continued to use them. The main reasons for not wearing them were; 17 not helpful (43%), 5 made foot pain worse (12.8%), and 3 did not fit (7.6%). Foot symptoms were reported to be decreased in 24 % of the subjects after the medical treatment and 6 patients indicated that they had underwent foot surgery. Current foot pain was significantly associated with higher body mass index and longer disease duration, and duration of morning stiffness. The radiological scores did not correlate with duration of foot symptoms and current foot pain (p>0.05) but the total number of foot deformities was

  12. Relationship between running speed and initial foot contact patterns.

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed initial foot contact patterns (IFCP) in a large group of distance runners and the effect of speed on the IFCP. We determined the strike index to classify the runners in IFCP groups, at four speeds (3.2, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.2 m·s), by measuring center of pressure (COP) with a 2-m plantar pressure plate. Such a system allows a direct localization of the COP on the plantar footprint and has a low threshold value (2.7 N·cm), resulting in more accurate COP data at low ground reaction forces than when obtained from force plate. The IFCP distribution evolves from mostly initial rearfoot contact (IRFC) (82%) at 3.2 m·s to more anterior foot contacts with an approximately equal distribution of IRFC (46%) and initial midfoot or forefoot contact (54%) at 6.2 m·s. Approximately 44% of the IRFC runners showed atypical COP patterns with a fast anterior displacement of the COP along the lateral shoe margin. Apart from the different COP patterns, these atypical IRFC were also characterized by a significantly higher instantaneous vertical loading rate than the typical IRFC patterns. The IFCP distribution changes were due to intraindividual alterations in IFCP at higher speeds. That is, 45% of the runners made one or even two "transitions" toward a more anterior IFCP (and 3% shows some other type of transition between initial foot contact styles as speed increases). However, 52% of the runners remained with the same IFCP.

  13. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics.

    Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Mikelson, Lisa R; Noffal, Guillermo J; Judelson, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foot strike patterns and converted foot strike patterns on lower limb kinematics and kinetics at the hip, knee, and ankle during a shod condition. Subjects were videotaped with a high speed camera while running a 5km at self-selected pace on a treadmill to determine natural foot strike pattern on day one. Preferred forefoot group (PFFG, n = 10) and preferred rear foot group (PRFG, n = 11) subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m). On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern -forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS]) x 2 (Group - PFFG, PRFG) mixed model ANOVAs (p strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait. Key pointsFootstrike pattern changes should be individually considered and implemented based on individual histories/abilitiesForefoot strike patterns increase external dorsiflexion momentsRearfoot strike patterns increase external knee flexion momentsRecreational shod runners are able to mimic habitual mechanics of different foot strike patterns.

  14. Heel-toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force.

    Mercer, John A; Horsch, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    It is important to understand the factors that influence the impact force observed during running, since the impact force is likely to be related to overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact force during running when participants were instructed to use different foot strike patterns: obvious heel strike (Obvious-HS), subtle heel strike (Subtle-HS), midfoot strike (Mid-FS), and fore foot strike (Fore-FS) patterns. Participants ( n  = 10, 25 ± 5.7 years, 70.2 ± 12.1 kg, 174.6 ± 7.2 cm) completed four foot strike patterns while running over ground: Obvious-HS, Subtle-HS, Mid-FS, and Fore-FS. Speed was controlled between conditions (random order). Vertical ground reaction forces were recorded (1000 Hz) along with the impact force, peak force, and stance time for analysis. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare each variable across foot strike instructions, with post hoc comparisons contrasting Obvious-HS to each of the other conditions. Impact force was influenced by foot strike instructions, with Obvious-HS being greater than Subtle-HS and Fore-FS ( p   0.05). The peak force was not influenced by foot strike instructions ( p  > 0.05); stance time was longer during Obvious-HS than during Mid-FS or Fore-FS ( p   0.05). The unique observation of this study was that impact force was different when participants were instructed to run with either an Obvious-HS or a Subtle-HS at contact. Both these foot strike patterns would have been considered rear foot strike patterns, suggesting that something other than which specific part of the foot strikes the ground initially influenced impact force.

  15. Peak Vertical Ground Reaction Force during Two-Leg Landing: A Systematic Review and Mathematical Modeling

    Wenxin Niu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To systematically review peak vertical ground reaction force (PvGRF during two-leg drop landing from specific drop height (DH, (2 to construct a mathematical model describing correlations between PvGRF and DH, and (3 to analyze the effects of some factors on the pooled PvGRF regardless of DH. Methods. A computerized bibliographical search was conducted to extract PvGRF data on a single foot when participants landed with both feet from various DHs. An innovative mathematical model was constructed to analyze effects of gender, landing type, shoes, ankle stabilizers, surface stiffness and sample frequency on PvGRF based on the pooled data. Results. Pooled PvGRF and DH data of 26 articles showed that the square root function fits their relationship well. An experimental validation was also done on the regression equation for the medicum frequency. The PvGRF was not significantly affected by surface stiffness, but was significantly higher in men than women, the platform than suspended landing, the barefoot than shod condition, and ankle stabilizer than control condition, and higher than lower frequencies. Conclusions. The PvGRF and root DH showed a linear relationship. The mathematical modeling method with systematic review is helpful to analyze the influence factors during landing movement without considering DH.

  16. Holistic management of diabetic foot

    Lindarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the most costly and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus, which affect 15% of diabetic patients during their lifetime. DFUs are complex, chronic wounds, which have a major long-term impact on the morbidity, mortality and quality of patients’ lives. Individuals who develop a DFU are at greater risk of premature death, myocardial infarction and fatal stroke than those without a history of DFU. Unlike other chronic wounds, the development and progression of DFU is often complicated by wideranging diabetic changes, such as neuropathy and vascular disease. The management of DFU should be optimized by using a multidisciplinary team, due to a holistic approach to wound management is required. Based on studies, blood sugar control, wound debridement, advanced dressings and offloading modalities should always be a part of DFU management. Furthermore, surgery to heal chronic ulcer and prevent recurrence should be considered as an essential component of management in some cases.

  17. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  18. Vertical steam generator

    Cuda, F.; Kondr, M.; Kresta, M.; Kusak, V.; Manek, O.; Turon, S.

    1982-01-01

    A vertical steam generator for nuclear power plants and dual purpose power plants consists of a cylindrical vessel in which are placed heating tubes in the form upside-down U. The heating tubes lead to the jacket of the cylindrical collector placed in the lower part of the steam generator perpendicularly to its vertical axis. The cylindrical collector is divided by a longitudinal partition into the inlet and outlet primary water sections of the heating tubes. One ends of the heating tube leads to the jacket of the collector for primary water feeding and the second ends of the heating tubes into the jacket of the collector which feeds and offtakes primary water from the heating tubes. (B.S.)

  19. Vertical organic transistors.

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  20. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  1. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  2. Linear wind generator

    Kozarov, A.; Petrov, O.; Antonov, J.; Sotirova, S.; Petrova, B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the linear wind-power generator described in this article is to decrease the following disadvantages of the common wind-powered turbine: 1) large bending and twisting moments to the blades and the shaft, especially when strong winds and turbulence exist; 2) significant values of the natural oscillation period of the construction result in the possibility of occurrence of destroying resonance oscillations; 3) high velocity of the peripheral parts of the rotor creating a danger for birds; 4) difficulties, connected with the installation and the operation on the mountain ridges and passages where the wind energy potential is the largest. The working surfaces of the generator in questions driven by the wind are not connected with a joint shaft but each moves along a railway track with few oscillations. So the sizes of each component are small and their number can be rather large. The mechanical trajectory is not a circle but a closed outline in a vertical plain, which consists of two rectilinear sectors, one above the other, connected in their ends by semi-circumferences. The mechanical energy of each component turns into electrical on the principle of the linear electrical generator. A regulation is provided when the direction of the wind is perpendicular to the route. A possibility of effectiveness is shown through aiming of additional quantities of air to the movable components by static barriers

  3. Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks.

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Wattanarojanaporn, Thongaek; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks have not been explored. This is an unshod population, and its members have a unique lifestyle living among others in our modern era. Beginning at their ordainment, they follow strict rules about barefoot walking, the amount of daily walking, and their sitting position, practices that theoretically can increase their risk of developing foot and ankle problems. To evaluate the prevalence ofcommon foot and ankle problems in Thai monks. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in combination with foot and ankle examinations of monks living in northern Thailand Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. Results of the interviews and the foot and ankle examinations were evaluated. Two hundred and nine monks from 28 temples were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found included callosity (70.8%), toe deformities (18.2%), plantar fasciitis (13.4%), metatarsalgia (3.8%), and numbness (2.9%). Callosity and toe deformities were associated with prolonged barefoot walking over extended periods since ordainment (p < 0.05). The callosity was found on the forefoot (47.3%), lateral malleolus (40.7%), and heel (12%). Arch types were considered normal in 66.4% of cases, high in 21.6%, and low in 12%. No association was found between arch type and foot and ankle problems. Callosity and toe deformity were the most common foot and ankle problems found in Thai monks, especially those with prolonged period of barefoot walking and long-term duration ofordainment. The unique pattern of walking and sitting of Thai monks may have contributed to the development of those feet and ankle problems.

  4. Thyrotoxicosis Presenting as Unilateral Drop Foot.

    Hara, Kenju; Miyata, Hajime; Motegi, Takahide; Shibano, Ken; Ishiguro, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders associated with hyperthyroidism have several variations in their clinical phenotype, such as ophthalmopathy, periodic paralysis, and thyrotoxic myopathy. We herein report an unusual case of thyrotoxic myopathy presenting as unilateral drop foot. Histopathological examinations of the left tibialis anterior muscle showed marked variation in the fiber size, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrotic and regenerated muscle fibers with predominantly type 1 fiber atrophy. Medical treatment with propylthiouracil resulted in complete improvement of the left drop foot. This case expands the phenotype of thyrotoxicosis and suggests that thyrotoxicosis be considered as a possible cause of unilateral drop foot.

  5. Diabetic foot syndrome as an interdisciplinary problem

    Emilia Rymkiewicz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disease of the growing maturity. Diabetic foot syndrome is a chronic complications of diabetes. In neuropathic sensory disorders, ischemia of the lower limbs, and improper alignment metabolic control may occur in minor injuries around the foot, giving rise to a difficult healing ulcers. Even minor wounds rapidly infection by pathogenic bacteria, which significantly hinders their treatment. Health and life-saving solution in situations of persistent symptoms of infection is amputation of the lower limb. Doing so, however, does not solve the problem of diabetic and should be the final proceedings after having exhausted all possible treatments for diabetic foot syndrome.

  6. Is the foot elevation the optimal position for wound healing of a diabetic foot?

    Park, D J; Han, S K; Kim, W K

    2010-03-01

    In managing diabetic foot ulcers, foot elevation has generally been recommended to reduce oedema and prevent other sequential problems. However, foot elevation may decrease tissue oxygenation of the foot more than the dependent position since the dependent position is known to increase blood flow within the arterial system. In addition, diabetic foot ulcers, which have peripheral vascular insufficiency, generally have less oedema than other wounds. Therefore, we argue that foot elevation may not be helpful for healing of vascularly compromised diabetic foot ulcers since adequate tissue oxygenation is an essential factor in diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of foot height on tissue oxygenation and to determine the optimal foot position to accelerate wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers. This study included 122 cases (73 males and 47 females; two males had bilateral disease) of diabetic foot ulcer patients aged 40-93 years. Trans-cutaneous partial oxygen tension (TcpO(2)) values of diabetic feet were measured before and after foot elevation (n=21). Elevation was achieved by placing a foot over four cushions. We also measured foot TcpO(2) values before and after lowering the feet (n=122). Feet were lowered to the patient's tibial height, approximately 30-35 cm, beside a bed handrail. Due to the large number of lowering measurements, we divided them into five sub-groups according to initial TcpO(2.) Tissue oxygenation values were compared. Foot-elevation-lowered TcpO(2) values before and after elevation were 32.5+/-22.2 and 23.8+/-23.1 mmHg (pFoot-lowering-augmented TcpO(2) values before and after lowering were 44.6+/-23.8 and 58.0+/-25.9 mmHg (pfoot lowering, rather than elevation, significantly augments TcpO(2) and may stimulate healing of diabetic foot ulcers. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of mid-foot contact area ratio on lower body kinetics/kinematics in sagittal plane during stair descent in women.

    Lee, Jinkyu; Hong, Yoon No Gregory; Shin, Choongsoo S

    2016-07-01

    The mid-foot contact area relative to the total foot contact area can facilitate foot arch structure evaluation. A stair descent motion consistently provides initial fore-foot contact and utilizes the foot arch more actively for energy absorption. The purpose of this study was to compare ankle and knee joint angle, moment, and work in sagittal plane during stair descending between low and high Mid-Foot-Contact-Area (MFCA) ratio group. The twenty-two female subjects were tested and classified into two groups (high MFCA and low MFCA) using their static MFCA ratios. The ground reaction force (GRF) and kinematics of ankle and knee joints were measured while stair descending. During the period between initial contact and the first peak in vertical GRF (early absorption phase), ankle negative work for the low MFCA ratio group was 33% higher than that for the high MFCA ratio group (pcontact and peak dorsiflexion angle (early absorption phase+late absorption phase). The peak ankle dorsiflexion angle was smaller in the low MFCA ratio group (p<0.05). Our results suggest that strategy of energy absorption at the ankle and foot differs depending upon foot arch types classified by MFCA. The low MFCA ratio group seemed to absorb more impact energy using strain in the planar fascia during early absorption phase, whereas the high MFCA ratio group absorbed more impact energy using increased dorsiflexion during late absorption phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Pfefferlé, D.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-02-01

    The vertical motion of a tokamak plasma is analytically modelled during its non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod inductively coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires or a cylindrical conducting shell. The solutions capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the surrounding vacuum vessel. The plasma shape and profiles are assumed not to vary during the vertical drifting phase such that the plasma column behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented to come in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers created by the induced Eddy currents. Resistivity in the wall allows the equilibrium point to drift towards the vessel on the slow timescale of flux penetration. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, understood as a resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear "sinking" behaviour shown to be algebraic and decelerating. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus concluded to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma, and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current.

  9. Do post-stroke patients benefit from robotic verticalization? A pilot-study focusing on?a?novel neurophysiological approach

    Calabr?, Rocco Salvatore; Naro, Antonino; Russo, Margherita; Leo, Antonino; Balletta, Tina; Sacc?, Ileana; De Luca, Rosaria; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tilt-table equipped with the dynamic foot-support (ERIGO) and the functional electric stimulation could be a safe and suitable device for stabilization of vital signs, increasing patient?s motivation for further recovery, decreasing the duration of hospitalization, and accelerating the adaptation to vertical posture in bedridden patients with brain-injury. Moreover, it is conceivable that verticalization may improve cognitive functions, and induce plastic changes at senso...

  10. ONLINE MINIMIZATION OF VERTICAL BEAM SIZES AT APS

    Sun, Yipeng

    2017-06-25

    In this paper, online minimization of vertical beam sizes along the APS (Advanced Photon Source) storage ring is presented. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed and employed for the online optimization in the APS storage ring. A total of 59 families of skew quadrupole magnets were employed as knobs to adjust the coupling and the vertical dispersion in the APS storage ring. Starting from initially zero current skew quadrupoles, small vertical beam sizes along the APS storage ring were achieved in a short optimization time of one hour. The optimization results from this method are briefly compared with the one from LOCO (Linear Optics from Closed Orbits) response matrix correction.

  11. Gender differences of foot characteristics in older Japanese adults using a 3D foot scanner.

    Saghazadeh, Mahshid; Kitano, Naruki; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of gender differences in foot shape assists shoe manufactures with designing appropriate shoes for men and women. Although gender differences in foot shapes are relatively known among young men and women, less is known about how the older men and women's feet differ in shape. A recent development in foot shape assessment is the use of 3D foot scanners. To our knowledge this technology has yet to be used to examine gender differences in foot shape of Japanese older adults. This cross-sectional study included 151 older men (74.5 ± 5.6 years) and 140 older women (73.9 ± 5.1 years) recruited in Kasama City, Japan. Foot variables were measured in sitting and standing positions using Dream GP Incorporated's 3D foot scanner, Footstep PRO (Osaka, Japan). Scores were analyzed as both raw and normalized to truncated foot length using independent samples t-test and analysis of covariance, respectively. In men, the measurement values for navicular height, first and fifth toe and instep heights, ball and heel width, ball girth, arch height index (just standing), arch rigidity index and instep girth were significantly greater than the women's, whereas the first toe angle, in both sitting and standing positions was significantly smaller. However, after normalizing, the differences in ball width, heel width, height of first and fifth toes in both sitting and standing and ball girth in sitting position were nonsignificant. According to Cohen's d, among all the foot variables, the following had large effect sizes in both sitting and standing positions: truncated foot length, instep, navicular height, foot length, ball girth, ball width, heel width and instep girth. This study provides evidence of anthropometric foot variations between older men and women. These differences need to be considered when manufacturing shoes for older adults.

  12. Foot Placement Characteristics and Plantar Pressure Distribution Patterns during Stepping on Ground in Neonates

    F. Sylos-Labini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stepping on ground can be evoked in human neonates, though it is rather irregular and stereotyped heel-to-toe roll-over pattern is lacking. Such investigations can provide insights into the role of contact- or load-related proprioceptive feedback during early development of locomotion. However, the detailed characteristics of foot placements and their association with motor patterns are still incompletely documented. We elicited stepping in 33 neonates supported on a table. Unilateral limb kinematics, bilateral plantar pressure distribution and EMG activity from up to 11 ipsilateral leg muscles were recorded. Foot placement characteristics in neonates showed a wide variation. In ~25% of steps, the swinging foot stepped onto the contralateral foot due to generally small step width. In the remaining steps with separate foot placements, the stance phase could start with forefoot (28%, midfoot (47%, or heel (25% touchdowns. Despite forefoot or heel initial contacts, the kinematic and loading patterns markedly differed relatively to toe-walking or adult-like two-peaked vertical force profile. Furthermore, while the general stepping parameters (cycle duration, step length, range of motion of proximal joints were similar, the initial foot contact was consistently associated with specific center-of-pressure excursion, range of motion in the ankle joint, and the center-of-activity of extensor muscles (being shifted by ~5% of cycle toward the end of stance in the “heel” relative to “forefoot” condition. In sum, we found a variety of footfall patterns in conjunction with associated changes in motor patterns. These findings suggest the potential contribution of load-related proprioceptive feedback and/or the expression of variations in the locomotor program already during early manifestations of stepping on ground in human babies.

  13. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  14. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects

  15. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...

  16. Clinical and functional correlates of foot pain in diabetic patients.

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Dekker, E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: patients with diabetes mellitus frequently suffer from foot pain. This pain seems to be a neglected area in studies on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables associated with foot pain in diabetic patients. In addition, the relationships between foot

  17. Increased plantar foot pressure in persons affected by leprosy

    Slim, Frederik J.; van Schie, Carine H.; Keukenkamp, Renske; Faber, William R.; Nollet, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Although foot pressure has been reported to be increased in people affected by leprosy, studies on foot pressure and its determinants are limited. Therefore, the aim was to assess barefoot plantar foot pressure and to identify clinical determinants of increased plantar foot pressure in leprosy

  18. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Krishan Kewal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, foot breadth at ball (BBAL and foot breadth at heel (BHEL were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p p-value Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.

  19. Vertical axis wind turbine

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  20. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    ... feature story, podcast, and other CDC resources about personal hygiene... Prevention People infected with hand, foot, and mouth ... these countries can protect themselves by practicing good personal hygiene. Learn more . To learn more about outbreaks occurring ...

  1. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  2. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  3. Glossary of Foot and Ankle Terms

    ... long bones of the fingers or toes. Plantar fascia - Plantar fascia is a thin layer of tough tissue supporting ... the foot. Plantar fasciitis - An inflammation of the plantar fascia. Symptoms are usually pain at the bottom of ...

  4. The chicken foot digital replant training model.

    Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung

    2015-01-01

    A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.

  5. On-the-Job Foot Health

    ... improves your efficiency and keeps you on the job. Your podiatric physician and surgeon is a specialist ... 20814 FP-65M-4/96 2014 ON-THE-JOB FOOT HEALTH YOUR PODIATRIC PHYSICIAN TALKS ABOUT ON- ...

  6. 130 DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS: CURRENT TRENDS IN ...

    drclement

    *Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ... well as patient education will markedly .... broad spectrum antibiotic therapy only .... Discuss any foot powders with a healthcare professional prior to use. 2.

  7. Angiography in the region of the foot

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-06-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg.

  8. Angiography in the region of the foot

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg. (orig.) [de

  9. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2010-01-01

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indic...

  10. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot.

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; Tørholm, Søren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Segmented CT data from one healthy subject was used to create a template Glasgow-Maastricht foot model (GM-model). Following this, the template was scaled to produce subject-specific models for five additional healthy participants using a surface scan of the foot and ankle. Forty-three skin mounted markers, mainly positioned around the foot and ankle, were used to capture the stance phase of the right foot of the six healthy participants during walking. The GM-model was then applied to calculate the intrinsic foot kinematics. Distinct motion patterns where found for all joints. The variability in outcome depended on the location of the joint, with reasonable results for sagittal plane motions and poor results for transverse plane motions. The results of the GM-model were comparable with existing literature, including bone pin studies, with respect to the range of motion, motion pattern and timing of the motion in the studied joints. This novel model is the most complete kinematic model to date. Further evaluation of the model is warranted.

  11. [Foot growth and foot types in children and adolescents: a narrative review].

    Xu, Miaomiao; Wang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Foot shape and size are important for footwear design and production. Information about important foot characteristics helps not only to improve shoe comfort but to maintain the proper physiological development of the feet. What's more, plenty of studies have suggested that the shape of the shoe must closely resemble the shape of the foot to create a properly fitted shoe. This means that the differences between various populations should be considered and that footwear should be designed according to the measurements of users. Childhood and adolescent are important periods of human growth. During these periods, foot shape changes with human growth and can be influenced by extrinsic factors. Therefore, the foot shape characteristics of children and adolescents should be investigated. The results from these investigations can contribute to developing appropriate shoe for children and adolescents, improving perceived comfort of children shoes and preventing pedopathy among children and adolescents. This review aims to discuss measuring methods of foot shape, types of foot shape, and factors influencing foot shape. The results of the review can provide recommendations for investigating growth development of foot shape and useful information for consumers and shoe manufacturers.

  12. Genetic parameters and correlations among linear type traits in the ...

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and relationships of 10 linear type traits in the first lactation of Holstein dairy cows. 3274 records for type traits was used (Ag, angularity; Sta, stature; Bdp, body depth; Rw, rump width; Rs, rear leg side view; Fa, foot angle; Fu, fore udder attachment; Ruh, ...

  13. Foot Marching, Load Carriage, and Injury Risk

    2016-05-01

    Foot blisters: Though not a musculoskeletal injury , past studies and reviews have described foot blisters as one of the most common marching... injuries were the highest among all activities in these studies, ranging from 36 to 69 limited duty days per injury .23, 24 The top three most common ...Knapik, and J.J. 1994. Exercise, training and injuries . Sports Med 18(3): 202-1. 35. APHC (Prov) Blister Prevention Factsheet. 2015. Available at

  14. Postoperative infection in the foot and ankle.

    Chan, Victoria O

    2012-07-01

    Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  15. CLINICOMICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Nirmal Kumar Palaniappan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors affecting all organs in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the common and serious long-term complications of diabetes leads to recurrent and chronic infections, which results in limb loss when treatment is delayed. The aim of this study is to find out the clinical outcome and microbiological profile in patients admitted with diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study conducted between November 2008 to November 2009 over 50 patients with history of foot ulceration and diabetes. 50 patients were admitted with diabetic foot ulcer over a period of one year between November 2008-2009. They were studied after getting written consent. A predesigned pro forma was used to get the parameters comprising age, gender, duration, type of diabetes mellitus, presence of neuropathy, nephropathy (serum creatinine, urine albumin, retinopathy (screening funduscopy by ophthalmologist. RESULTS Among 50 patients admitted and treated for diabetic foot ulcers with mean stay of 18 days, 29 (58% had complete healing on conservative management, 18 (36% underwent minor amputation (toes, 3 (6% had major amputation (below knee/above knee. No mortality among the study groups encountered. Gram-negative aerobes E. coli (36%, Pseudomonas (52%, Klebsiella (28%, Proteus vulgaris (20% and Acinetobacter (16% were most frequently isolated followed by gram-positive aerobes MRSA (14%, Enterococcus (6%, Strep pyogenes (4% and no anaerobic growth. CONCLUSION Diabetic foot infections are frequently polymicrobial and predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacteria at presentation. Multidrug resistance pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA in diabetic foot ulcer is at its emergence and life threatening. Initial aggressive multimodal approach with surgical intervention, culture specific and sensitive targeted combined broad-spectrum antibiotics decreases the morbidity and mortality

  16. Vertical vector face lift.

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Vertical organic transistors

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  18. Contributions of foot muscles and plantar fascia morphology to foot posture.

    Angin, Salih; Mickle, Karen J; Nester, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    The plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia differ between different foot postures. However, how each individual plantar structure contribute to foot posture has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between static foot posture and morphology of plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia and thus the contributions of these structures to static foot posture. A total of 111 participants were recruited, 43 were classified as having pes planus and 68 as having normal foot posture using Foot Posture Index assessment tool. Images from the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), peroneus longus and brevis (PER), flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles, and the calcaneal (PF1), middle (PF2) and metatarsal (PF3) regions of the plantar fascia were obtained using a Venue 40 ultrasound system with a 5-13 MHz transducer. In order of decreasing contribution, PF3 > FHB > FHL > PER > FDB were all associated with FPI and able to explain 69% of the change in FPI scores. PF3 was the highest contributor explaining 52% of increases in FPI score. Decreased thickness was associated with increased FPI score. Smaller cross sectional area (CSA) in FHB and PER muscles explained 20% and 8% of increase in FPI score. Larger CSA of FDB and FHL muscles explained 4% and 14% increase in FPI score respectively. The medial plantar structures and the plantar fascia appear to be the major contributors to static foot posture. Elucidating the individual contribution of multiple muscles of the foot could provide insight about their role in the foot posture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Taiwanese adult foot shape classification using 3D scanning data.

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Wang, Mao-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    This study classifies the foot shapes of Taiwanese using 3D foot scanning data from 2000 males and 1000 females. Nine foot dimensions relative to foot length and absolute measures in the common foot length categories were applied to compare the gender differences. Using foot breadth in % foot length (% FL), ball of foot length in % FL and arch height in % FL as feature parameters, three foot shape types for males and females can be classified. Significant gender differences were found in seven of the nine foot dimensions. Females had greater ball of foot length than males (0.2% FL). When comparing feet of the same foot length, males had greater breadth, girth and height dimensions than females, except for toe height. In addition, ethnic differences in foot shape were also observed. The findings can provide very useful information for building gender-specific shoe lasts and designing footwear insoles. 3D foot scanning data of 2000 males and 1000 females were classified into three different footshapes for males and females, respectively. Gender and ethnic differences on foot shape were also compared. The finding scan provide very useful information for gender-specific shoe last design and footwear production.

  20. Horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant

    Ikonomou, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a study for the horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant with a base isolation system, developed by the author, called the Alexisismon. This system -- which comprises different schemes for horizontal or vertical or both horizontal and vertical isolation -- is a linear system based on the principle of separation of functions. That is, horizontal and vertical isolation are realized through different components and act independently from each other. As far as horizontal isolation is concerned, the role of transmitting vertical loads is uncoupled from the role of inducing horizontal restoring forces so that both functions can be performed without instability. It is possible either to provide both horizontal and vertical isolation to the whole nuclear plant or to isolate the whole plant horizontally and to provide vertical isolation to sensitive and costly equipment only. When the fundamental period of the plant or equipment is 2 seconds and when the vertical displacements are of the order of + or - 20 inches, the structure or equipment are protected against earthquakes up to 1.10 and 1.30 g for actual and 0.60 and 1.50 g for artificial accelerograms. In both cases all the isolation elements behave elastically up to these acceleration limits as well as the superstructure and equipment

  1. Reliability of ultrasound for measurement of selected foot structures.

    Crofts, G; Angin, S; Mickle, K J; Hill, S; Nester, C J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between the lower leg muscles, foot structures and function is essential to explain how disease or injury may relate to changes in foot function and clinical pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-operator reliability of an ultrasound protocol to quantify features of: rear, mid and forefoot sections of the plantar fascia (PF); flexor hallucis brevis (FHB); flexor digitorum brevis (FDB); abductor hallucis (AbH); flexor digitorum longus (FDL); flexor hallucis longus (FHL); tibialis anterior (TA); and peroneus longus and brevis (PER). A sample of 6 females and 4 males (mean age 29.1 ± 7.2 years, mean BMI 25.5 ± 4.8) was recruited from a university student and staff population. Scans were obtained using a portable Venue 40 musculoskeletal ultrasound system (GE Healthcare UK) with a 5-13 MHz wideband linear array probe with a 12.7 mm × 47.1mm footprint by two operators in the same scanning session. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) values for muscle thickness (ICC range 0.90-0.97), plantar fascia thickness (ICC range 0.94-0.98) and cross sectional muscle measurements (ICC range 0.91-0.98) revealed excellent inter-operator reliability. The limits of agreement, relative to structure size, ranged from 9.0% to 17.5% for muscle thickness, 11.0-18.0% for plantar fascia, and 11.0-26.0% for cross sectional area measurements. The ultrasound protocol implemented in this work has been shown to be reliable. It therefore offers the opportunity to quantify the structures concerned and better understand their contributions to foot function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. On Graph C*-Algebras with a Linear Ideal Lattice

    Eilers, Søren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren

    2010-01-01

    At the cost of restricting the nature of the involved K-groups, we prove a classication result for a hitherto unexplored class of graph C-algebras, allowing us to classify all graph C-algebras on nitely many vertices with a nite linear ideal lattice if all pair of vertices are connected by innitely...

  3. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  4. In-hospital costs of diabetic foot disease treated by a multidisciplinary foot team

    Rinkel, Willem D.; Luiten, Jacky; van Dongen, Jelle; Kuppens, Bram; Van Neck, Johan W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Castro Cabezas, Manuel; Coert, J. Henk

    2017-01-01

    Background The diabetic foot imposes significant burden on healthcare systems. Obtaining knowledge on the extent of the costs of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is of value to health care researchers investigating cost-effectiveness of interventions that prevent these costly complications. Objectives To

  5. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model for Kinematic Gait Analysis of the Foot and Ankle

    van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a

  6. COMPARISON OF GAIT USING A MULTIFLEX FOOT VERSUS A QUANTUM FOOT IN KNEE DISARTICULATION AMPUTEES

    BOONSTRA, AM; FIDLER, [No Value; SPITS, GMA; HOF, AL; Tuil, P.

    The subjective responses and gait patterns of unilateral knee disarticulation amputees wearing prostheses fitted first with the Multiflex foot and then with the Quantum foot were studied. Nine amputees were included in the trial. A questionnaire asked the amputees about their preference for one of

  7. From the diabetic foot ulcer and beyond: how do foot infections spread in patients with diabetes?

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose Luis; Pulido-Duque, Juan; Maynar, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A diabetic foot infection is usually the result of a pre-existing foot ulceration and is the leading cause of lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. It is widely accepted that diabetic foot infections may be challenging to treat for several reasons. The devastating effects of hyperglycemia on host defense, ischemia, multi-drug resistant bacteria and spreading of infection through the foot may complicate the course of diabetic foot infections. Understanding the ways in which infections spread through the diabetic foot is a pivotal factor in order to decide the best approach for the patient's treatment. The ways in which infections spread can be explained by the anatomical division of the foot into compartments, the tendons included in the compartments, the initial location of the point of entry of the infection and the type of infection that the patient has. The aim of this paper is to further comment on the existed and proposed anatomical principles of the spread of infection through the foot in patients with diabetes. PMID:23050067

  8. The validity and accuracy in foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance ...

    The validity and accuracy in foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis measuring models referenced by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in body composition in standing position. KC Hsieh, HK Lu, CH Chen, TR Jang, YY Chen, MF Kao ...

  9. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  10. Vertical ground reaction forces in patients after calcaneal trauma surgery.

    van Hoeve, S; Verbruggen, J; Willems, P; Meijer, K; Poeze, M

    2017-10-01

    Vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs) are altered in patients after foot trauma. It is not known if this correlates with ankle kinematics. The aim of this study was to analyze VGRFs in patients after calcaneal trauma and correlate them to patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), radiographic findings and kinematic analysis, using a multi-segment foot model. In addition, we determined the predictive value of VGRFs to identify patients with altered foot kinematics. Thirteen patients (13 feet) with displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures, were included an average of two years after trauma surgery. PROMs, radiographic findings on postoperative computed tomography scans, gait analysis using the Oxford foot model and VGRFs were analysed during gait. Results were compared with those of 11 healthy subjects (20 feet). Speed was equal in both groups, with healthy subjects walking at self-selected slow speed (0.94±0.18m/s) and patients after surgery walking at self-selected normal speed (0.94±0.29m/s). ROC curves were used to determine the predictive value. Patients after calcaneal surgery showed a lower minimum force during midstance (p=0.004) and a lower maximum force during toe-off (p=0.011). This parameter correlated significantly with the range of motion in the sagittal plane during the push-off phase (r 0.523, p=0.002), as well as with PROMs and with postoperative residual step-off (r 0.423, p=0.016). Combining these two parameters yielded a cut-off value of 193% (ppush-off correlated significantly with PROMs, range of motion in the sagittal plane during push-off and radiographic postoperative residual step-off in the posterior facet of the calcaneal bone. VGRFs are a valuable screening tool for identifying patients with altered gait patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  12. Beyond the Bottom of the Foot: Topographic Organization of the Foot Dorsum in Walking.

    Klarner, Taryn; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Sun, Yao; Barss, Trevor S; Kaupp, Chelsea; Munro, Bridget; Frank, Nick; Zehr, E Paul

    2017-12-01

    Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking. Muscle activity from muscles acting at the ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder were recorded along with ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetic information from forces under the foot. All data were sorted on the basis of stimulus occurrence in 12 step cycle phases, before being averaged together within a phase for subsequent analysis. Results reveal dynamic changes in reflex amplitudes and kinematics that are site specific and phase dependent. Most responses from discrete sites on the foot dorsum were seen in the swing phase suggesting function to conform foot trajectory to maintain stability of the moving limb. In general, responses from lateral stimulation differed from medial stimulation, and effects were largest from stimulation at the distal end of the foot at the metatarsals; that is, in anatomical locations where actual impact with an object in the environment is most likely during swing. Responses to stimulation extend to include muscles at the hip and shoulder. We reveal that afferent feedback from specific cutaneous locations on the foot dorsum influences stance and swing phase corrective responses. This emphasizes the critical importance of feedback from the entire foot surface in locomotor control and has application for rehabilitation after neurological injury and in footwear development.

  13. Treatment options for diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Senneville, Eric; Robineau, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Diabetic foot osteomyelitis therapeutical options are based on antibiotic therapy and surgical resection of the infected bone(s). Surgical and medical approaches of patients suffering from a diabetic foot osteomyelitis do not oppose but are complementary and need to be discussed as a tailored manner. Areas covered: The aim of the present article is to discuss data issued from the most recent guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot on the management of the diabetic foot infection and from a search in the current literature using the terms diabetic foot osteomyelitis and treatment/therapy/therapeutical in both PubMed and Medline, restricted to the last five years. Expert opinion: Surgical removal of the entire infected bone(s) has been considered in the past as the standard treatment but medical approach of these patients has now proven efficacy in selected situations. The current emergence of bacteria, especially among Gram negative rods, resistant to almost all the available antibiotics gradually augments the complexity of the management of these patients and is likely to decrease the place of the medical approach and to worsen the outcome of these infections in the next future.

  14. [Foot reflexology massage: a clinical study].

    Kesselring, A

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible usefulness of foot reflexology on the recovery after a surgical intervention. 130 patients participated in the study. They underwent abdominal surgery under full anesthesia for different, but exclusively gynecological reasons. Foot reflexology investigated in this study was applied only for a few days for each patient. The following parameters were recorded: the subjective, self-assessed, general condition, pain intensity, movement of the bowels, micturition and sleep, beginning on the day before operation until day 10. Two other treatments served as controls, a simple massage of the foot or a personal conversation. The simple massage turned out to be a relaxing, positive experience, whereas foot reflexology had various effects, some of them were even negative. The conclusion was that foot reflexology is not recommended for acute, abdominal postsurgical situations in gynecology because it can occasionally trigger abdominal pain. This project is one of the few studies planned, conducted and performed by the nursing staff.

  15. Vertical Silicon Nanowire Platform for Low Power Electronics and Clean Energy Applications

    D.-L. Kwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the progress of the vertical top-down nanowire technology platform developed to explore novel device architectures and integration schemes for green electronics and clean energy applications. Under electronics domain, besides having ultimate scaling potential, the vertical wire offers (1 CMOS circuits with much smaller foot print as compared to planar transistor at the same technology node, (2 a natural platform for tunneling FETs, and (3 a route to fabricate stacked nonvolatile memory cells. Under clean energy harvesting area, vertical wires could provide (1 cost reduction in photovoltaic energy conversion through enhanced light trapping and (2 a fully CMOS compatible thermoelectric engine converting waste-heat into electricity. In addition to progress review, we discuss the challenges and future prospects with vertical nanowires platform.

  16. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  17. Iambic Feet in Paumari and the Theory of Foot Structure

    Daniel L. Everett

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes stress and moraic constituencies in Paumari, an endangered language of the Arawan family of the Brazilian Amazon. It argues that Paumari feet are quantity-insensitive iambs, built from right-to-left within the prosodic word. Both of these latter claims are theoretically important because they violate some proposed universals of foot structure. The paper also discusses more general implications of the Paumari data for theories of foot size and shape, proposing two constraints on foot size, Foot Maximality and Foot Minimality, to replace the less fine-tuned constraint Foot Binarity.

  18. The F-SCAN system of foot pressure analysis.

    Young, C R

    1993-07-01

    The age of computerized gait analysis is here. There are several systems available to meet the needs of the podiatric practitioner. This author believes that the F-SCAN technology system makes a significant contribution to the practice of podiatric medicine. The system is user friendly, accurate, reproducible, and affordable. Its graphic display capabilities are colorfully attractive and easily understood. The primary focus of the F-SCAN system is that of peak pressure distribution over time. Vertical plantar pressure dispersion across the plantar surface of the foot is recorded, processed, and graphically displayed in terms of sequential gait changes. The system further allows for the manipulation of the accumulated data to present it in a more comprehensive manner. Future updates on the F-SCAN software are already close at hand and are expected to enhance the diagnostic capabilities of the system further. The four primary areas of clinical application for F-SCAN have been identified and briefly discussed. The recognition of certain biomechanical abnormalities, monitoring preorthotic and postorthotic use, evaluation of the diabetic or neuropathic foot, and presurgical and postsurgical functional examinations constitute this group. The F-SCAN system largely helps to remove some of the unavoidable guess work from essential diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. As we increase our understanding of the pathomechanics of these clinical problems, so too will we improve our management of the associated complications. Years ago, at the time when computerized gait analysis was being introduced to the podiatric profession, a frequently asked question was: What does it tell me that I don't already know or can't see by watching the patient walk?(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion.

    Nesti, Alessandro; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Macneilage, Paul R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 participants in darkness. Absolute and differential thresholds are measured for upward and downward translations independently at 5 different peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2 m/s(2). Overall vertical differential thresholds are higher than horizontal differential thresholds found in the literature. Psychometric functions are fit in linear and logarithmic space, with goodness of fit being similar in both cases. Differential thresholds are higher for upward as compared to downward motion and increase with stimulus intensity following a trend best described by two power laws. The power laws' exponents of 0.60 and 0.42 for upward and downward motion, respectively, deviate from Weber's Law in that thresholds increase less than expected at high stimulus intensity. We speculate that increased sensitivity at high accelerations and greater sensitivity to downward than upward self-motion may reflect adaptations to avoid falling.

  20. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons - vertical vibrations

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.; Andersen, Lars

    2006-12-15

    The dynamic response of offshore wind turbines are affected by the properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model. Comparisons are made with known analytical and numerical solutions in order to evaluate the static and dynamic behaviour of the Boundary Element/Finite Element model. The vertical frequency dependent stiffness has been determined for different combinations of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio and the ratio between soil stiffness and skirt stiffness. Finally the dynamic behaviour at high frequencies is investigated. (au)

  1. Spiral density waves and vertical circulation in protoplanetary discs

    Riols, A.; Latter, H.

    2018-06-01

    Spiral density waves dominate several facets of accretion disc dynamics - planet-disc interactions and gravitational instability (GI) most prominently. Though they have been examined thoroughly in two-dimensional simulations, their vertical structures in the non-linear regime are somewhat unexplored. This neglect is unwarranted given that any strong vertical motions associated with these waves could profoundly impact dust dynamics, dust sedimentation, planet formation, and the emissivity of the disc surface. In this paper, we combine linear calculations and shearing box simulations in order to investigate the vertical structure of spiral waves for various polytropic stratifications and wave amplitudes. For sub-adiabatic profiles, we find that spiral waves develop a pair of counter-rotating poloidal rolls. Particularly strong in the non-linear regime, these vortical structures issue from the baroclinicity supported by the background vertical entropy gradient. They are also intimately connected to the disc's g modes which appear to interact non-linearly with the density waves. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the poloidal rolls are ubiquitous in gravitoturbulence, emerging in the vicinity of GI spiral wakes, and potentially transporting grains off the disc mid-plane. Other than hindering sedimentation and planet formation, this phenomena may bear on observations of the disc's scattered infrared luminosity. The vortical features could also impact on the turbulent dynamo operating in young protoplanetary discs subject to GI, or possibly even galactic discs.

  2. Modelling and Predicting Backstroke Start Performance Using Non-Linear and Linear Models.

    de Jesus, Karla; Ayala, Helon V H; de Jesus, Kelly; Coelho, Leandro Dos S; Medeiros, Alexandre I A; Abraldes, José A; Vaz, Mário A P; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2018-03-01

    Our aim was to compare non-linear and linear mathematical model responses for backstroke start performance prediction. Ten swimmers randomly completed eight 15 m backstroke starts with feet over the wedge, four with hands on the highest horizontal and four on the vertical handgrip. Swimmers were videotaped using a dual media camera set-up, with the starts being performed over an instrumented block with four force plates. Artificial neural networks were applied to predict 5 m start time using kinematic and kinetic variables and to determine the accuracy of the mean absolute percentage error. Artificial neural networks predicted start time more robustly than the linear model with respect to changing training to the validation dataset for the vertical handgrip (3.95 ± 1.67 vs. 5.92 ± 3.27%). Artificial neural networks obtained a smaller mean absolute percentage error than the linear model in the horizontal (0.43 ± 0.19 vs. 0.98 ± 0.19%) and vertical handgrip (0.45 ± 0.19 vs. 1.38 ± 0.30%) using all input data. The best artificial neural network validation revealed a smaller mean absolute error than the linear model for the horizontal (0.007 vs. 0.04 s) and vertical handgrip (0.01 vs. 0.03 s). Artificial neural networks should be used for backstroke 5 m start time prediction due to the quite small differences among the elite level performances.

  3. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION

    Vipman Tandjiria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  4. Foot placement strategy in pushing and pulling.

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    Pushing and pulling tasks are very common in daily and industrial workplaces. They are one major source of musculoskeletal complaints. This study aimed to examine the foot placement strategy while pushing and pulling. Thirteen young males and ten young females were recruited as participants. A two (pushing and pulling) by four (48 cm, 84 cm, 120 cm, and 156 cm) factorial design was used. Exertion direction and exertion height significantly affected foot placement strategy. Pushing task needed more anteroposterior space than pulling task. The percentages of female/male for trailing foot position ranged from 77% to 90% (pushing) and from 80% to 93% (pulling) across the exertion heights. Practitioners should provide an anteroposterior space approximately to 70% body stature for workers to exert their maximum pulling and pushing strengths.

  5. Vertical guidance of shearers

    Pocock, J.

    1985-01-01

    Mining Engineers have always been aware of the basic need to avoid contamination of the mined product, by controlling the cutting horizon at the coal face. The ability to maintain the optimum cutting horizon results in more effective roof control and ensures a safer and more efficient working environment, for men and machinery. The cost of treatment in the surface coal preparation plant is reduced. Transportation through the total mine system of material finally destined for the spoil heap is minimised. A reduction in product contamination is achieved and makes more effective use of the mine capacity. These benefits make possible significant improvements in productivity and financial returns. Exploitation of micro computer based systems has enabled the successful development of equipment which employs sensors to detect the very low natural gamma radiation from roof strata; to determine and allow control of the position of the cut relative to the roof and floor. This paper reviews the experience gained by the National Coal Board, particularly in South Yorkshire Area, with the vertical steering of ranging drum shearers. It outlines the benefits and considers the future for this technology and its contribution to total coal face automation

  6. Performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells

    Birdsell, K.H.; Roseberg, N.D.; Edlund, K.M.

    1994-06-01

    Vapor extraction wells used for site remediation of volatile organic chemicals in the vadose zone are typically vertical wells. Over the past few years, there has been an increased interest in horizontal wells for environmental remediation. Despite the interest and potential benefits of horizontal wells, there has been little study of the relative performance of horizontal and vertical vapor extraction wells. This study uses numerical simulations to investigate the relative performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells under a variety of conditions. The most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that in a homogeneous medium, a single, horizontal vapor extraction well outperforms a single, vertical vapor extraction well (with surface capping) only for long, linear plumes. Guidelines are presented regarding the use of horizontal wells

  7. Effects of ankle-foot orthoses on mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke gait.

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Accurate and precise mediolateral foot placement is important for balance during gait, but is impaired post stroke. Mediolateral foot placement may be improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ankle-foot orthosis improves mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke ambulation. Crossover trial with randomized order of conditions tested. The accuracy and precision of mediolateral foot placement was quantified while subjects targeted four different randomized step widths. Subjects were tested with and without their regular non-rigid ankle-foot orthosis in two separate visits (order randomized). While ankle-foot orthosis use corrected foot and ankle alignment (i.e. significantly decreased mid-swing plantar flexion, p = 0.000), effects of ankle-foot orthosis use on hip hiking (p = 0.545), circumduction (p = 0.179), coronal plane hip range of motion (p = 0.06), and mediolateral foot-placement ability (p = 0.537) were not significant. While ankle-foot orthosis-mediated equinovarus correction of the affected foot and ankle was not associated with improved biomechanics of walking (i.e. proximal ipsilateral hip kinematics or mediolateral foot-placement ability), it may affect other aspects of balance that were not tested in this study (e.g. proprioception, cerebellar, vestibular, and cognitive mechanisms). Studies that investigate the effect of ankle-foot orthosis on gait can help advance stroke rehabilitation by documenting the specific gait benefits of ankle-foot orthosis use. In this study, we investigated the effect of ankle-foot orthosis use on mediolateral foot-placement ability, an aspect of gait important for maintaining balance. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  8. Buneman and ion two-stream instabilities in the foot of collisionless shocks

    Fumio Takahara

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrostatic PIC simulations as well as linear analysis have been made for double periodic boundary conditions mimicking the shock foot region of supernova remnants. We found that modes propagating obliquely to the beam direction grow fast enough so that no surfing acceleration occurs. We also found that a new type of instability called ion two-stream instability is excited after the Buneman instability saturated instead of the ion acoustic instability. Implications for electron heating are shortly discussed. (author)

  9. Metallic Foreign Body in the Foot

    Firat Ozan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A foreign body injury of the foot is a frequently encountered problem. These foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues, and their removal can be difficult and time consuming. Therefore, the removal of a foreign body requires good preoperative preparations. The surgical treatment results of patients with a foreign body, identified as a sewing needle, that had penetrated their foot were evaluated. Material and Method: Thirty-four patients (11 males, 23 females; mean age, 30.2 ± 18.6 years who were surgically treated between 2011 and 2013 were included. Data concerning the affected limb, placement of the needle, imaging techniques, season when the injury occurred, time between medical intervention and injury, anaesthesia type, fluoroscopy of use during surgery and surgical complications were analyzed. Results: A sewing needle had penetrated the right foot of 20 (58.8% patients and the left foot of 14 (41.1% patients. Broken needles were found in the toes of 14 (41.1% patients, in the middle of the foot of 12 (35.2% patients and in the heel area of 8 (23.5% patients. The injuries occurred in summer in 13 (38.2% patients, in winter in seven (20.6% patients, in spring in one (2.9% patient and in autumn in 13 (38.2% patients. Needle penetration had occurred in 28 (82.3% patients at home and 6 (17.6% patients outside of the home environment. The average follow-up time was 8.9 ± 2.8 months. Discussion: Removal of foreign bodies from the foot requires good preoperative preparations. Foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues. It is important to perform detailed physical and radiological examinations to obtain good treatment results in these patients.

  10. Clinical assessment of dynamic coefficient of friction effects in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

    Nima, Jamshidi; Firooz, Salami

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was examining the effect of human factors such as plantar friction, contact period time, and impulse on shoe-sole trituration of drop foot patients. Twenty-five patients with drop foot and twenty normal subjects were recruited in the study. The force plate and its related software's recorded human factor (coefficient of friction, ground reaction force, time of stance phase) as time dependent parameters. Dynamic coefficient of friction patterns were categorized based on their magnitude versus time when the longitudinal axis of the sole was plotted as the Y-axis and the transverse axis of the sole as X-axis during stance phase. The result of this research indicated that the average coefficient of friction among drop foot patients is 77.53 % (p value <0.05) lower than the normal subjects. Also the time of stance phase among drop foot patients is 7.56 % (p value <0.05) greater than normal subjects. There is no difference in the peaks, of vertical ground reaction force between normal and control group. The findings of this research revealed that the time of stance phase has a key role in shoe-sole trituration of patients with drop foot.

  11. Control of the vertical instability in tokamaks

    Lazarus, E.A.; Lister, J.B.; Neilson, G.H.

    1989-05-01

    The problem of control of the vertical instability is formulated for a massless filamentary plasma. The massless approximation is justified by an examination of the role of inertia in the control problem. The system is solved using Laplace transform techniques. The linear system is studied to determine the stability boundaries. It is found that the system can be stabilized up to a critical decay index, which is predominantly a function of the geometry of the passive stabilizing shell. A second, smaller critical index, which is a function of the geometry of the control coils, determines the limit of stability in the absence of derivative gain in the control circuit. The system is also studied numerically in order to incorporate the non-linear effects of power supply dynamics. The power supply bandwidth requirement is determined by the open-loop growth rate of the instability. The system is studied for a number of control coil options which are available on the DIII-D tokamak. It is found that many of the coils will not provide adequate stabilization and that the use of inboard coils is advantageous in stabilizing the system up to the critical index. Experiments carried out on DIII-D confirm the appropriateness of the model. Using the results of the model study, we have stabilized DIII-D plasmas with decay indices up to 98% of the critical index. Measurement of the plasma vertical position is also discussed. (author) 27 figs., 6 refs

  12. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Pfefferle, David; Hirvijoki, Eero

    2017-10-01

    The vertical displacement of tokamak plasmas is modelled during the non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires and a cylindrical conducting shell. The models capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the vacuum vessel. The plasma is assumed not to vary during the VDE such that it behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented from coming in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers by the eddy currents, and will hence oscillate at Alfvénic frequencies about a given force-free position. In addition to damping oscillations, resistivity allows for the column to drift towards the vessel on slow flux penetration timescales. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, i.e. the resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear sinking behaviour, that is shown analytically to be algebraic and decelerative. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus conjectured to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current

  13. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review

    To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and

  14. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review.

    To, Matthew J; Brothers, Thomas D; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and addressing social factors that lead to increased risk

  15. Unilateral Cleft Hand with Cleft Foot

    Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Ahmed, Sheikh Mushtaq; Nazir, Abid

    2009-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the hand form an important class of congenital malformations. They have a huge functional importance because of the part played by the hand in the daily activities of a person. The deformities also have significant cosmetic significance and may also be associated with other anomalies. Amongst the congenital anomalies, central deficiency or cleft hand is relatively rare. The association of cleft foot with cleft hand is an even more rare occurance. We present a case report of a 6 year old child, born of a non-consanginous marriage, having congenital central deficiency of ipsilateral hand and foot. PMID:21475543

  16. MR Imaging of the Diabetic Foot.

    McCarthy, Eoghan; Morrison, William B; Zoga, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of the peripheral nervous, vascular, and immune systems contribute to the development of numerous foot and ankle pathologies in the diabetic population. Although radiographs remain the most practical first-line imaging tool, magnetic resonance (MR) is the tertiary imaging modality of choice, allowing for optimal assessment of bone and soft tissue abnormalities. MR allows for the accurate distinction between osteomyelitis/septic arthritis and neuropathic osteoarthropathy. Furthermore, it provides an excellent presurgical anatomic road map of involved tissues and devitalized skin to ensure successful limited amputations when required. Signal abnormality in the postoperative foot aids in the diagnosis of recurrent infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management.

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  19. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  20. Relationship between timed 25-foot walk and diffusion tensor imaging in multiple sclerosis.

    Klineova, Sylvia; Farber, Rebecca; Saiote, Catarina; Farrell, Colleen; Delman, Bradley N; Tanenbaum, Lawrence N; Friedman, Joshua; Inglese, Matilde; Lublin, Fred D; Krieger, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The majority of multiple sclerosis patients experience impaired walking ability, which impacts quality of life. Timed 25-foot walk is commonly used to gauge gait impairment but results can be broadly variable. Objective biological markers that correlate closely with patients' disability are needed. Diffusion tensor imaging, quantifying fiber tract integrity, might provide such information. In this project we analyzed relationships between timed 25-foot walk, conventional and diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance imaging markers. A cohort of gait impaired multiple sclerosis patients underwent brain and cervical spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging. Diffusion tensor imaging mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured on the brain corticospinal tracts and spinal restricted field of vision at C2/3. We analyzed relationships between baseline timed 25-foot walk, conventional and diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance imaging markers. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between several magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging metrics and timed 25-foot walk: brain mean diffusivity corticospinal tracts (p = 0.004), brain corticospinal tracts axial and radial diffusivity (P = 0.004 and 0.02), grey matter volume (p = 0.05), white matter volume (p = 0.03) and normalized brain volume (P = 0.01). The linear regression model containing mean diffusivity corticospinal tracts and controlled for gait assistance was the best fit model (p = 0.004). Our results suggest an association between diffusion tensor imaging metrics and gait impairment, evidenced by brain mean diffusivity corticospinal tracts and timed 25-foot walk.

  1. A Polytime Algorithm Based on a Primal LP Model for the Scheduling Problem 1 vertical bar pmtn;p(j)=2;r(j)vertical bar Sigma w(j)C(j)

    Bouma, Harmen W.; Goldengorin, Boris; Lagakos, S; Perlovsky, L; Jha, M; Covaci, B; Zaharim, A; Mastorakis, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a Boolean Linear Programming (BLP) model is presented for the single machine scheduling problem 1 vertical bar pmtn; p(j) = 2;r(j)vertical bar Sigma w(j)C(j). The problem is a special case of the open problem 1 vertical bar pmtn; p(j) = p; r(j)vertical bar Sigma wj(g)C(j). We show that

  2. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B r ∼ (10 −4 –10 −2 )(r/ AU) −2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10 −8 M ⊙ yr −1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper

  3. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    Russo, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  4. Radionuclide imaging in diagnosis and therapy of the diabetic foot

    Zhu Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of angiopathy or infection of the diabetic foot is the key to the successful management. Radionuclide imaging is very useful in detecting diabetic microangiopathy, assessing the prognosis of foot ulcers, and diagnosing the osteomyelitis

  5. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  6. Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-03-01

    Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comorbidities associated with Egyptian diabetic foot disease subtypes

    Mary N. Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Special attention should be paid toward the identification of patients who are at risk of foot ulceration to help prevent foot problems. Comorbid conditions must also be identified early and managed aggressively.

  8. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  9. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control.

  10. Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot ...

    Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot: A multidisciplinary approach accounting for the complex pathobiology and biomechanics of the diabetic foot is crucial to decrease the rate of amputations.

  11. Estimates of vertical velocities and eddy coefficients in the Bay of Bengal

    Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

    Vertical velocities and eddy coefficients in the intermediate depths of the Bay of Bengal are calculated from mean hydrographic data for 300 miles-squares. The linear current density (sigma- O) versus log-depth plots show steady balance between...

  12. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  13. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... protective footwear. (1) Protective footwear must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i... in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations... protective footwear complies with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard... above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section. [62...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for... effective as protective footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards...

  16. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We

  17. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS:

  18. Assessment of acute foot and ankle sprains.

    Lynam, Louise

    2006-07-01

    Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening

  19. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...

  20. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER... protection. (a) Personnel working in areas or engaged in activities where there is a reasonable probability...

  1. Ambulatory assessment of ankle and foot dynamics

    Schepers, H. Martin; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    Ground reaction force (GRF) measurement is important in the analysis of human body movements. The main drawback of the existing measurement systems is the restriction to a laboratory environment. This paper proposes an ambulatory system for assessing the dynamics of ankle and foot, which integrates

  2. Ron Rash: One Foot in Eden

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of Ron Rash's novel One Foot in Eden, focusing on his attachment to place and his depiction of the internal conflicts between farmers and townspeople in a small Appalachian community. Rash depicts the contemporary Southerner’s struggle to maintain his or her roots in a time of rapid...

  3. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  4. Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Down syndrome (DS is associated with numerous developmental abnormalities, some of which cause dysfunctions of the posture and the locomotor system. The analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with DS versus their peers without developmental disorders is done. Materials and Methods. The podoscopic examination was performed on 30 boys with DS aged 14-15 years. A control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched peers without DS. Results. The feet of boys with DS are flatter compared to their healthy peers. The hallux valgus angle is not the most important feature differentiating the shape of the foot in the boys with DS and their healthy peers. In terms of the V toe setting, healthy boys had poorer results. Conclusions. Specialized therapeutic treatment in individuals with DS should involve exercises to increase the muscle strength around the foot joints, enhancing the stabilization in the joints and proprioception. Introducing orthotics and proper footwear is also important. It is also necessary to monitor the state of the foot in order to modify undertaken therapies.

  5. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0 to 3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to a significant changes in the impedance related...

  6. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0-3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to significant changes in the impedance related...

  7. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment

  8. A Foot Operated Timeout Room Door Latch.

    Foxx, R. M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a foot operated timeout room door latch that permits staff members to maintain a misbehaving retarded individual in timeout without locking the door. Use of the latch also frees the staff member involved to record behavioral observations or reinforce appropriate behavior. (Author)

  9. Intraarterial tolazoline in angiography of the foot

    Neubauer, B.

    1978-01-01

    Foot angiography was performed in 32 diabetic patients with and without intraarterial injection of tolazoline (Priscoline). The angiographic quality was improved with tolazoline, manifested as an increased flow rate with acceleration of the arteriovenous transit time, a higher incidence of complete arterial filling with contrast medium in clinically important regions, and considerably longer arterial segments demonstrated within defined regions of measurement. (Auth.)

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the diabetic foot

    Bakker, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Common causes for non-healing of diabetic foot ulcers are infection and/or ischaemia. Diabetic patients are compromised hosts as far as wound healing is concerned. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a defective cellular and humoral immunity. In particular, decreased chemotaxis, decreased

  11. Diabetic foot and PAD: the endovascular approach

    Reekers, J. A.; Lammer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is recognized as one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Active revascularisation plays a crucial role in achieving ulcer healing. Non-surgical, minimally invasive, revascularisation options for DFU have expanded over the last decade and have become a

  12. A case of bilateral trench foot.

    Parsons, S L; Leach, I H; Charnley, R M

    1993-12-01

    A case of severe bilateral trench foot is presented in a patient who lived rough for 3 weeks without removing his boots. Non-operative management yielded no clinical improvement and bilateral below-knee amputation was necessary. Histology revealed subcutaneous and muscle necrosis with secondary arterial thrombosis.

  13. Frequency of foot deformity in preschool girls

    Mihajlović Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In order to determine the moment of creation of postural disorders, regardless of the causes of this problem, it is necessary to examine the moment of entry of children into a new environment, ie. in kindergarten or school. There is a weak evidence about the age period when foot deformity occurs, and the type of these deformities. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the occurrence of foot deformities and age characteristics of girls. Methods. The research was conducted in preschools 'Radosno detinjstvo' in the region of Novi Sad, using the method of random selection, on the sample of 272 girls, 4-7 years of age, classified into four strata according to the year of birth. To determine the foot deformities measurement technique using computerized digitized pedografy (CDP was applied. Results. In preschool population girls pes transversoplanus and calcanei valga deformities occurred in a very high percentage (over 90%. Disturbed longitudinal instep ie flat feet also appeared in a high percentage, but we noted the improvement of this deformity according to increasing age. Namely, there was a statistically significant correlation between the age and this deformity. As a child grows older, the deformity is lower. Conclusion. This study confirmed that the formation of foot arches probably does not end at the age of 3-4 years but lasts until school age.

  14. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  15. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find a Foot & Ankle Orthopaedic Surgeon Page Content Who ... your prescribed treatment (surgical and/or non-surgical) ​ Find a Surgeon ​ Click here to find a foot ...

  16. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    Foot ulceration and amputation cause extensive burden on individuals and health care systems. One of the reasons for the poor outcome of foot complications in developing countries is the lack of patient education. Due to the multi-factorial pathology of diabetic foot ulceration, the person with diabetes should receive health ...

  17. Imaging diagnostics of the foot; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fusses

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel [Radiologie in Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, Markus (eds.) [Schoen-Klinik Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Fuss- und Sprunggelenkchirurgie

    2012-11-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  18. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. ... could be used for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian livestock. Keyword: Foot and Mouth Disease ... 2 blended with Incomplete. Seepic Adjuvant (ISA) montanide 206, which.

  19. Multiplication factor versus regression analysis in stature estimation from hand and foot dimensions.

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Abhilasha

    2012-05-01

    Estimation of stature is an important parameter in identification of human remains in forensic examinations. The present study is aimed to compare the reliability and accuracy of stature estimation and to demonstrate the variability in estimated stature and actual stature using multiplication factor and regression analysis methods. The study is based on a sample of 246 subjects (123 males and 123 females) from North India aged between 17 and 20 years. Four anthropometric measurements; hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth taken on the left side in each subject were included in the study. Stature was measured using standard anthropometric techniques. Multiplication factors were calculated and linear regression models were derived for estimation of stature from hand and foot dimensions. Derived multiplication factors and regression formula were applied to the hand and foot measurements in the study sample. The estimated stature from the multiplication factors and regression analysis was compared with the actual stature to find the error in estimated stature. The results indicate that the range of error in estimation of stature from regression analysis method is less than that of multiplication factor method thus, confirming that the regression analysis method is better than multiplication factor analysis in stature estimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Castillo, Eric R; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Sang, Meshack K; Sigei, Timothy K; Ojiambo, Robert; Okutoyi, Paul; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  1. Relationship between Achilles tendon properties and foot strike patterns in long-distance runners.

    Kubo, Keitaro; Miyazaki, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shigeharu; Shimoju, Shozo; Tsunoda, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Achilles tendon properties and foot strike patterns in long-distance runners. Forty-one highly trained male long-distance runners participated in this study. Elongation of the Achilles tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured using ultrasonography, while the participants performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to the voluntary maximum. The relationship between the estimated muscle force and tendon elongation during the ascending phase was fit to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness. In addition, the cross-sectional area of the Achilles tendon was measured using ultrasonography. Foot strike patterns (forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot) during running were determined at submaximal velocity (18 km · h(-1)) on a treadmill. The number of each foot strike runner was 12 for the forefoot (29.3%), 12 for the midfoot (29.3%) and 17 for the rearfoot (41.5%). No significant differences were observed in the variables measured for the Achilles tendon among the three groups. These results suggested that the foot strike pattern during running did not affect the morphological or mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon in long-distance runners.

  2. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Daniel E Lieberman

    Full Text Available Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  3. Estimation of Stature from Foot Dimensions and Stature among South Indian Medical Students Using Regression Models

    Rajesh D. R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: At times fragments of soft tissues are found disposed off in the open, in ditches at the crime scene and the same are brought to forensic experts for the purpose of identification and such type of cases pose a real challenge. Objectives: This study was aimed at developing a methodology which could help in personal identification by studying the relation between foot dimensions and stature among south subjects using regression models. Material and Methods: Stature and foot length of 100 subjects (age range 18-22 years were measured. Linear regression equations for stature estimation were calculated. Result: The correlation coefficients between stature and foot lengths were found to be positive and statistically significant. Height = 98.159 + 3.746 × FLRT (r = 0.821 and Height = 91.242 + 3.284 × FLRT (r = 0.837 are the regression formulas from foot lengths for males and females respectively. Conclusion: The regression equation derived in the study can be used reliably for estimation of stature in a diverse population group thus would be of immense value in the field of personal identification especially from mutilated bodies or fragmentary remains.

  4. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  5. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  6. Ankle and foot tuberculosis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Biswaranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To know the biological behavior of ankle and foot tuberculosis (AFTB and to know the reasons for delay in diagnosis and treatment of AFTB in our population. Materials and Methods: Patients with non-healing ulcers/sinuses/swellings in the ankle and foot region are the subjects of present study. Detailed clinical history, physical examination and relevant investigations were done in all cases. Pus/wound discharge for acid fast bacillus (AFB study and biopsy from wound margin/sinus tract was taken in all the cases. Results: During the period from July 2007-June 2012, 20 cases of AFTB were treated. Out of them five cases were difficult to diagnose and a mean period of 6 month to 5year was elapsed before final diagnosis was established. Out of these five cases - three cases were diabetic with ulcers and sinuses in the heel and ankle region. One case was wrongly diagnosed as angiodysplasia with A-V malformation of foot and diagnosis was delayed for 5 year. In one case of rheumatoid arthritis with abscess in ankle joint, the diagnosis was delayed for 1year. Conclusion: AFTB is very rare condition. AFTB is suspected in cases with long standing pain/swelling/discharging sinus in the foot and thorough investigations is must to differentiate from other foot diseases. Diagnosis is delayed due to lack of clinical suspicion and non-confirmatory biopsy reports. Early diagnosis and ATT for 9-18 months is must in all cases of AFTB to prevent joint involvement and other complications.

  7. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  8. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  9. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications.

    van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Jeff G; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A

    2013-09-01

    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  11. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  12. Adhesive force of a single gecko foot-hair

    Autumn, Kellar; Liang, Yiching A.; Hsieh, S. Tonia; Zesch, Wolfgang; Chan, Wai Pang; Kenny, Thomas W.; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert J.

    2000-06-01

    Geckos are exceptional in their ability to climb rapidly up smooth vertical surfaces. Microscopy has shown that a gecko's foot has nearly five hundred thousand keratinous hairs or setae. Each 30-130µm long seta is only one-tenth the diameter of a human hair and contains hundreds of projections terminating in 0.2-0.5µm spatula-shaped structures. After nearly a century of anatomical description, here we report the first direct measurements of single setal force by using a two-dimensional micro-electro-mechanical systems force sensor and a wire as a force gauge. Measurements revealed that a seta is ten times more effective at adhesion than predicted from maximal estimates on whole animals. Adhesive force values support the hypothesis that individual seta operate by van der Waals forces. The gecko's peculiar behaviour of toe uncurling and peeling led us to discover two aspects of setal function which increase their effectiveness. A unique macroscopic orientation and preloading of the seta increased attachment force 600-fold above that of frictional measurements of the material. Suitably orientated setae reduced the forces necessary to peel the toe by simply detaching above a critical angle with the substratum.

  13. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  14. The SU(2 vertical stroke 3) spin chain sigma model

    Hernandez, R.; Lopez, E.

    2005-01-01

    The one-loop planar dilatation operator of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills is isomorphic to the hamiltonian of an integrable PSU(2,2 vertical stroke 4) spin chain. We construct the non-linear sigma model describing the continuum limit of the SU(2 vertical stroke 3) subsector of the N = 4 chain. We explicitly identify the spin chain sigma model with the one for a superstring moving in AdS 5 x S 5 with large angular momentum along the five-sphere. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  16. Holographic interferometry for early diagnosisof children flat foot

    Oleg Petrovich Bolshakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first experience ofthe use of holographic interferometr y for earlydiagnosis of the flat foot in 4-5 years old children.13 patients were examined. The results of the clinicalexamination, plantography, and of the graphicalreconstruction of the form of the foot arch basedon the interferogramms of the prints on Pedilen areanalyzed. We revealed typical differences betweenthe form of the foot arches in children with flat foot and children with normal status. The use of the proposed method for early detection of congenital pes valgus and of the signs of “flexible flat” foot is being suggested.

  17. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  18. A comparative biomechanical analysis of habitually unshod and shod runners based on a foot morphological difference.

    Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Fu, Weijie; Feng, Neng; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-08-01

    Running is one of the most accessible physical activities and running with and without footwear has attracted extensive attention in the past several years. In this study 18 habitually male unshod runners and 20 habitually male shod runners (all with dominant right feet) participated in a running test. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture the kinematics of each participant's lower limb. The in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system was employed to measure the pressure and force exerted on the pressure sensors of the insole. The function of a separate hallux in unshod runners is analyzed through the comparison of plantar pressure parameters. Owing to the different strike patterns in shod and unshod runners, peak dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were significantly different. Habitually shod runners exhibited a decreased foot strike angle (FSA) under unshod conditions; and the vertical average loading rate (VALR) of shod runners under unshod conditions was larger than that under shod conditions. This suggests that the foot strike pattern is more important than the shod or unshod running style and runners need to acquire the technique. It can be concluded that for habitually unshod runners the separate hallux takes part of the foot loading and reduces loading to the forefoot under shod conditions. The remaining toes of rearfoot strike (RFS) runners function similarly under unshod conditions. These morphological features of shod and unshod runners should be considered in footwear design to improve sport performance and reduce injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A methodological framework for detecting ulcers' risk in diabetic foot subjects by combining gait analysis, a new musculoskeletal foot model and a foot finite element model.

    Scarton, Alessandra; Guiotto, Annamaria; Malaquias, Tiago; Spolaor, Fabiola; Sinigaglia, Giacomo; Cobelli, Claudio; Jonkers, Ilse; Sawacha, Zimi

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the most debilitating complications of diabetes and may lead to plantar ulcers. In the last decade, gait analysis, musculoskeletal modelling (MSM) and finite element modelling (FEM) have shown their ability to contribute to diabetic foot prevention and suggested that the origin of the plantar ulcers is in deeper tissue layers rather than on the plantar surface. Hence the aim of the current work is to develop a methodology that improves FEM-derived foot internal stresses prediction, for diabetic foot prevention applications. A 3D foot FEM was combined with MSM derived force to predict the sites of excessive internal stresses on the foot. In vivo gait analysis data, and an MRI scan of a foot from a healthy subject were acquired and used to develop a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) foot MSM and a 3D subject-specific foot FEM. Ankle kinematics were applied as boundary conditions to the FEM together with: 1. only Ground Reaction Forces (GRFs); 2. OpenSim derived extrinsic muscles forces estimated with a standard OpenSim MSM; 3. extrinsic muscle forces derived through the (6 DOF) foot MSM; 4. intrinsic and extrinsic muscles forces derived through the 6 DOF foot MSM. For model validation purposes, simulated peak pressures were extracted and compared with those measured experimentally. The importance of foot muscles in controlling plantar pressure distribution and internal stresses is confirmed by the improved accuracy in the estimation of the peak pressures obtained with the inclusion of intrinsic and extrinsic muscle forces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS......: This study is based on a questionnaire survey sent out to healthcare professionals, primarily doctors, working with diabetic foot ulcers and Charcot feet in the public sector of the Danish healthcare system. RESULTS: The survey obtained a 52% response rate. A temperature difference of > 2 °C between the two...... and treatment practices of acute diabetic Charcot foot at diabetes foot clinics in Denmark. The responders seem to follow the international recommendations and guidelines on management of the acute diabetic Charcot foot, despite a lack of Danish guidelines. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  2. Design and Development of Hand and Foot Contamination Monitor

    F. Akter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A hand and foot contamination monitor is a health physics instrument to provide detection and measurement of beta-gamma contamination on the palm of each hand and on the bottom surface of both feet/shoes. There are four channels of detection for two hands and two feet. Four G-M detectors have been used in a single unit to cover the whole area of hand and feet. A regulated high voltage DC power supply (900 V has been designed using the PIC12F675 microcontroller to operate the pancake Geiger-Müller detectors. The reading is displayed on a linearly scaled 0-100 Bq/cm2 analog panel meter. The monitor detects beta–gamma radiation emitted by radioactive materials, and if the detected value exceeds a preset level, the monitor sounds an alarm and displays a reading in the respective panel meter. Indicator lamps are used to show the status of contamination. The performance of the system has been tested by using pulse generator and by flat surface radioactive calibration sources. Electronic linearity, detection efficiency, response to the contamination, calibration factor and percentage of error has been measured. Test results were satisfactory and the present system can be used instead of similar imported instruments.

  3. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  4. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity.

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    2018-03-01

    The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in pathological conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of the OFM in children with foot deformity. Intra-tester repeatability was assessed for 45 children (15 typically developing, 15 hemiplegic, 15 clubfoot). Inter-tester repeatability was assessed in the clubfoot population. The mean absolute differences between testers (clubfoot) and sessions (clubfoot and hemiplegic) were calculated for each of 15 clinically relevant, kinematic variables and compared to typically developing children. Children with clubfoot showed a mean difference between visits of 2.9° and a mean difference between raters of 3.6° Mean absolute differences were within one degree for the intra and inter-rater reliability in 12/15 variables. Hindfoot rotation, forefoot/tibia abduction and forefoot supination were the most variable between testers. Overall the clubfoot data were less variable than the typically developing population. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated slightly higher differences between sessions (mean 4.1°), with the most reliable data in the sagittal plane, and largest differences in the transverse plane. The OFM was designed to measure different types of foot deformity. The results of this study show that it provides repeatable results in children with foot deformity. To be distinguished from measurement artifact, changes in foot kinematics as a result of intervention or natural progression over time must be greater than the repeatability reported here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of foot kinematics wearing high heels using the Oxford foot model.

    Wang, Meizi; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien Steven

    2018-04-29

    Wearing high heels is thought to lead to various foot disorders and injuries such as metatarsal pain, Achilles tendon tension, plantar fasciitis and Haglund malformation. However, there is little available information explaining the specific mechanisms and reasons why wearing high heels causes foot deformity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the foot kinematics of high heel wearers and compare any differences with barefoot individuals using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Fifteen healthy women aged 20-25 years were measured while walking barefoot and when wearing high heels. The peak value of angular motion for the hallux with respect to the forefoot, the forefoot with respect to the hind foot, and the hind foot with respect to the tibia were all analyzed. Compared to the barefoot, participants wearing high heels demonstrated larger hallux dorsiflexion (22.55∘± 1.62∘ VS 26.6∘± 2.33∘ for the barefoot; P= 0.001), and less hallux plantarflexion during the initial stance phase (-4.86∘± 2.32∘ VS -8.68∘± 1.13∘; Pfoot demonstrated a larger dorsiflexion in the horizontal plane (16.59∘± 1.69∘ VS 12.08∘± 0.9∘; Pfoot extension rotation (-5.49∘± 0.69∘ VS -10.73∘± 0.42∘; P= 0.001). These findings complement existing kinematic evidence that wearing high heels can lead to foot deformities and injuries.

  6. Continuous, saturation, and discontinuous tokamak plasma vertical position control systems

    Mitrishkin, Yuri V., E-mail: y_mitrishkin@hotmail.com [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Pavlova, Evgeniia A., E-mail: janerigoler@mail.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Evgenii A., E-mail: ea.kuznetsov@mail.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Gaydamaka, Kirill I., E-mail: k.gaydamaka@gmail.com [V. A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Robust new linear state feedback control system for tokamak plasma vertical position. • Plasma vertical position relay control system with voltage inverter in sliding mode. • Design of full models of multiphase rectifier and voltage inverter. • First-order unit approximation of full multiphase rectifier model with high accuracy. • Wider range of unstable plant parameters of stable control system with multiphase rectifier. - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the design and comparison of unstable plasma vertical position control systems in the T-15 tokamak with the application of two types of actuators: a multiphase thyristor rectifier and a transistor voltage inverter. An unstable dynamic element obtained by the identification of plasma-physical DINA code was used as the plasma model. The simplest static feedback state space control law was synthesized as a linear combination of signals accessible to physical measurements, namely the plasma vertical displacement, the current, and the voltage in a horizontal field coil, to solve the pole placement problem for a closed-loop system. Only one system distinctive parameter was used to optimize the performance of the feedback system, viz., a multiple real pole. A first-order inertial unit was used as the rectifier model in the feedback. A system with a complete rectifier model was investigated as well. A system with the voltage inverter model and static linear controller was brought into a sliding mode. As this takes place, real time delays were taken into account in the discontinuous voltage inverter model. The comparison of the linear and sliding mode systems showed that the linear system enjoyed an essentially wider range of the plant model parameters where the feedback system was stable.

  7. Continuous, saturation, and discontinuous tokamak plasma vertical position control systems

    Mitrishkin, Yuri V.; Pavlova, Evgeniia A.; Kuznetsov, Evgenii A.; Gaydamaka, Kirill I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Robust new linear state feedback control system for tokamak plasma vertical position. • Plasma vertical position relay control system with voltage inverter in sliding mode. • Design of full models of multiphase rectifier and voltage inverter. • First-order unit approximation of full multiphase rectifier model with high accuracy. • Wider range of unstable plant parameters of stable control system with multiphase rectifier. - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the design and comparison of unstable plasma vertical position control systems in the T-15 tokamak with the application of two types of actuators: a multiphase thyristor rectifier and a transistor voltage inverter. An unstable dynamic element obtained by the identification of plasma-physical DINA code was used as the plasma model. The simplest static feedback state space control law was synthesized as a linear combination of signals accessible to physical measurements, namely the plasma vertical displacement, the current, and the voltage in a horizontal field coil, to solve the pole placement problem for a closed-loop system. Only one system distinctive parameter was used to optimize the performance of the feedback system, viz., a multiple real pole. A first-order inertial unit was used as the rectifier model in the feedback. A system with a complete rectifier model was investigated as well. A system with the voltage inverter model and static linear controller was brought into a sliding mode. As this takes place, real time delays were taken into account in the discontinuous voltage inverter model. The comparison of the linear and sliding mode systems showed that the linear system enjoyed an essentially wider range of the plant model parameters where the feedback system was stable.

  8. Congenital vertical talus in four generations of the same family

    Levinsohn, E. Mark; Shrimpton, Antony E.; Cady, Robert B.; Packard, David S.; Hootnick, David R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents four generations of a family with radiographically demonstrated congenital vertical talus (CVT) in whom a HOXD10 gene mutation was identified. Some members of the family with this mutation exhibited cavo-varus foot deformity consistent with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT)-like disorder. Physical examination was performed on nearly all of the affected and unaffected family members. DNA was extracted from blood obtained from 14 subjects who showed radiographic and clinical features of CVT (two of whom also had CMT), from two subjects with features of CMT but not CVT, and from 20 related family members who were clinically normal. Radiographs show the appearance of uncorrected CVT in infancy, in childhood, and in adulthood. DNA analysis revealed a mutation in a HOXD10gene located on chromosome 2 in all of the affected but none of the unaffected family members. There is an autosomal-dominant-inherited mutation with complete penetrance which is found in all members of a pedigree with CVT, some of whom exhibit a CMT-like foot disorder. Radiologic findings vary depending on the severity of involvement, treatment provided and age of the patient. (orig.)

  9. Congenital vertical talus in four generations of the same family

    Levinsohn, E. Mark [Crouse Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Syracuse (United States); Shrimpton, Antony E. [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Department of Clinical Pathology, Syracuse (United States); Cady, Robert B. [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Syracuse (United States); Packard, David S. [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Syracuse (United States); Hootnick, David R. [SUNY Upstate Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Syracuse (United States); SUNY Upstate Medical University, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Syracuse (United States); SUNY Upstate Medical University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Syracuse (United States)

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents four generations of a family with radiographically demonstrated congenital vertical talus (CVT) in whom a HOXD10 gene mutation was identified. Some members of the family with this mutation exhibited cavo-varus foot deformity consistent with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT)-like disorder. Physical examination was performed on nearly all of the affected and unaffected family members. DNA was extracted from blood obtained from 14 subjects who showed radiographic and clinical features of CVT (two of whom also had CMT), from two subjects with features of CMT but not CVT, and from 20 related family members who were clinically normal. Radiographs show the appearance of uncorrected CVT in infancy, in childhood, and in adulthood. DNA analysis revealed a mutation in a HOXD10gene located on chromosome 2 in all of the affected but none of the unaffected family members. There is an autosomal-dominant-inherited mutation with complete penetrance which is found in all members of a pedigree with CVT, some of whom exhibit a CMT-like foot disorder. Radiologic findings vary depending on the severity of involvement, treatment provided and age of the patient. (orig.)

  10. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle.

    Welck, M J; Hayes, T; Pastides, P; Khan, W; Rudge, B

    2017-08-01

    Stress fractures occur as a result of microscopic injuries sustained when bone is subjected to repeated submaximal stresses. Overtime, with repeated cycles of loading, accumulation of such injuries can lead to macro-structural failure and frank fracture. There are numerous stress fractures about the foot and ankle of which a trauma and orthopaedic surgeon should be aware. These include: metatarsal, tibia, calcaneus, navicular, fibula, talus, medial malleolus, sesamoid, cuneiform and cuboid. Awareness of these fractures is important as the diagnosis is frequently missed and appropriate treatment delayed. Late identification can be associated with protracted pain and disability, and may predispose to non-union and therefore necessitate operative intervention. This article outlines the epidemiology and risk factors, aetiology, presentation and management of the range of stress fractures in the foot and ankle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recurrent Admissions for Diabetic Foot Complications

    Ang CL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Patients who undergo recurrent admissions for the same diabetic foot problems represent a difficult subgroup to treat. From July 2007 to June 2008, there were 38 such patients who were admitted recurrently. Eighteen patients (47% were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgical treatment. Eighteen patients (47% received treatment as necessary but were still readmitted for recurrent infection at the same wound site. Assessment of patients’ compliance to outpatient treatment was found to be generally lacking. As a significant proportion were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgery, a trained counselor may be suitable in counselling patients for debridement or amputation surgery.

  12. Innovations in diabetic foot reconstruction using supermicrosurgery.

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Weight transfer analysis in adults with hemiplegia using ankle foot orthosis.

    Nolan, Karen J; Yarossi, Mathew

    2011-03-01

    Identifying and understanding the changes in transfer of momentum that are directly affected by orthotic intervention are significant factors related to the improvement of mobility in individuals with hemiplegia. The purpose of this investigation was to use a novel analysis technique to objectively measure weight transfer during double support (DS) in healthy individuals and individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke with and without an ankle foot orthosis. Prospective, Repeated measures, case-controlled trial. Participants included 25 adults with stroke-related hemiplegia >6 months using a prescribed ankle foot orthosis and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Main outcome measures included the weight transfer point timing (WTP, %DS), maximum total force timing (MTF, %DS), timing difference between WTP and MTF (MTF-WTP, %DS) and the linearity of loading (LOL, R(2)) during the DS phase of the gait cycle. The WTP and LOL were significantly different between conditions with and without the ankle foot orthosis for the affected and unaffected limb in post-stroke individuals, p ≤ 0.01. The MTF and difference in timing between MTF-WTP were significantly different during affected limb loading with and without the ankle foot orthosis in the stroke group, p ≤ 0.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively. MTF, MTF-WTP and LOL were significantly different between individuals with stroke (during affected limb loading) and healthy controls (during right limb loading). This research established a systematic method for analysing weight transfer during walking to evaluate the effect of an ankle foot orthosis on loading during double support in hemiplegic gait. This novel method can be used to elucidate biomechanical mechanisms behind orthosis-mediated changes in gait patterns and quantify functional mobility outcomes in rehabilitation. This novel approach to orthotic assessment will provide the clinician with needed objective evidence to select the most effective orthotic

  14. Temperature- and pH-sensitive wearable materials for monitoring foot ulcers

    Salvo P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pietro Salvo,1,2 Nicola Calisi,1 Bernardo Melai,1 Valentina Dini,3 Clara Paoletti,1 Tommaso Lomonaco,1 Andrea Pucci,1 Fabio Di Francesco,1 Alberto Piaggesi,4 Marco Romanelli3 1Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, 2Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, 3Wound Healing Research Unit, Department of Dermatology, University of Pisa, 4Diabetic Foot Section, Department of Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Foot ulcers account for 15% of comorbidities associated with diabetes. Presently, no device allows the status of foot ulcers to be continuously monitored when patients are not hospitalized. In this study, we describe a temperature and a pH sensor capable of monitoring diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers developed in the frame of the seventh framework program European Union project SWAN-iCare (smart wearable and autonomous negative pressure device for wound monitoring and therapy. Temperature is measured by exploiting the variations in the electrical resistance of a nanocomposite consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene. The pH sensor used a graphene oxide (GO layer that changes its electrical potential when pH changes. The temperature sensor has a sensitivity of ~85 Ω/°C in the range 25°C–50°C and a high repeatability (maximum standard deviation of 0.1% over seven repeated measurements. For a GO concentration of 4 mg/mL, the pH sensor has a sensitivity of ~42 mV/pH and high linearity (R2=0.99. Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, wearable sensors, wound temperature, wound pH

  15. Isoline curves obtained from vertical aerophotos

    Barros, Zacarias Xavier de; Campos, Sérgio; Cardoso, Lincoln Gehring; Pollo, Ronaldo Alberto

    2000-01-01

    Objetiva-se, com este trabalho, obter curvas de nível a partir de fotografias aéreas verticais, utilizando-se de gráfico linear de correção, em áreas com diferentes classes de declividade. A análise estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de regressões múltiplas das variáveis, erro horizontal e erro vertical, em função das variáveis independentes: altitude; altitude e declividade. Os erros médios horizontais e verticais pouco dependem da altitude, bem como da altitude e declividade, induz...

  16. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-01-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described

  17. Nuclear medicine imaging of diabetic foot infection

    Capriotti, Gabriela; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Signore, Alberto; Chianelli, Marco; Prandini, Napoleone

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Osteomyelitis of the foot is the most frequent complication in diabetic patients. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in diagnosis and for therapy follow-up, using different tracers. We reviewed 57 papers on diabetic foot imaging (published from 1982 to 2004, 50 original papers and 7 reviews), for a total of 2889 lesions. Data analysis has been carried out to establish which imaging technique could be used as a 'gold standard' for diagnosis of infection and to evaluate the extent of disease and to monitor the efficacy of therapy. Data analysis revealed that three-phase bone-scan is sensitive but not specific whereas specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 99m Tc-WBC scintigraphy is higher than 111 In- WBC scintigraphy. In the forefoot leukocyte scintigraphy may be useful for diagnosis of osteomyelitis and for monitoring the response to medical treatment. In the mid/hind foot the leukocytes uptake is not related only to the presence of infected region, but it is attributed to inflammation, fractures and reparative processes. Other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc/ 111 In-HIG, radiolabelled antibody and their fragments, showed high sensibility, but lower specificity than WBC (96.8/66.5, 95.8/70.2, 91.3/62 vs 85.8/84.5). Conclusion: It emerged that in the forefoot when clinical suspicious of osteomyelitis is low and medical treatment is contemplated, three-phase bon scan is the procedure of choice. A positive test is not diagnostic for osteomyelitis, and radiolabelled WBC scintigraphy is necessary. In the mid/hind foot, diagnosis of neuropathic joint with infection is problematic. Radiolabelled WBC imaging is probably the most accurate test for determining the presence of infection. Although a negative study strongly indicate the absence of osteomyelitis, it is important to note that a positive result requires a complementary study with marrow agent. (author)

  18. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  19. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-07-11

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required.

  20. Conservative management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Acharya, S; Soliman, M; Egun, A; Rajbhandari, S M

    2013-09-01

    In this retrospective study, 130 patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis were analysed. 66.9% of these healed with antibiotic treatment alone and 13.9% needed amputation, of which 1.5% were major. Presence of MRSA was associated with adverse outcome (53.3% vs 21.1%, p=0.04) which was defined as death, amputation and failure to heal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  2. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required

  3. The capillary interaction between two vertical cylinders

    Cooray, Himantha

    2012-06-27

    Particles floating at the surface of a liquid generally deform the liquid surface. Minimizing the energetic cost of these deformations results in an inter-particle force which is usually attractive and causes floating particles to aggregate and form surface clusters. Here we present a numerical method for determining the three-dimensional meniscus around a pair of vertical circular cylinders. This involves the numerical solution of the fully nonlinear Laplace-Young equation using a mesh-free finite difference method. Inter-particle force-separation curves for pairs of vertical cylinders are then calculated for different radii and contact angles. These results are compared with previously published asymptotic and experimental results. For large inter-particle separations and conditions such that the meniscus slope remains small everywhere, good agreement is found between all three approaches (numerical, asymptotic and experimental). This is as expected since the asymptotic results were derived using the linearized Laplace-Young equation. For steeper menisci and smaller inter-particle separations, however, the numerical simulation resolves discrepancies between existing asymptotic and experimental results, demonstrating that this discrepancy was due to the nonlinearity of the Laplace-Young equation. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Biomechanical Differences of Foot-Strike Patterns During Running: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis.

    Almeida, Matheus O; Davis, Irene S; Lopes, Alexandre D

    2015-10-01

    Systematic review with meta-analysis. To determine the biomechanical differences between foot-strike patterns used when running. Strike patterns during running have received attention in the recent literature due to their potential mechanical differences and associated injury risks. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, and SPORTDiscus) were searched through July 2014. Studies (cross-sectional, case-control, prospective, and retrospective) comparing the biomechanical characteristics of foot-strike patterns during running in distance runners at least 18 years of age were included in this review. Two independent reviewers evaluated the risk of bias. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model was used to combine the data from the included studies. Sixteen studies were included in the final analysis. In the meta-analyses of kinematic variables, significant differences between forefoot and rearfoot strikers were found for foot and knee angle at initial contact and knee flexion range of motion. A forefoot-strike pattern resulted in a plantar-flexed ankle position and a more flexed knee position, compared to a dorsiflexed ankle position and a more extended knee position for the rearfoot strikers, at initial contact with the ground. In the comparison of rearfoot and midfoot strikers, midfoot strikers demonstrated greater ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and decreased knee flexion range of motion compared to rearfoot strikers. For kinetic variables, the meta-analysis revealed that rearfoot strikers had higher vertical loading rates compared to forefoot strikers. There are differences in kinematic and kinetic characteristics between foot-strike patterns when running. Clinicians should be aware of these characteristics to help in the management of running injuries and advice on training.

  5. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  6. Diabetic foot infection treatment and care.

    Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Onesti, Maria G; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-04-01

    Foot infections in diabetic patients are a common, complex and costly problem. They are potentially adverse with progression to deeper spaces and tissues and are associated with severe complications. The management of diabetic foot infection (DFI) requires a prompt and systematic approach to achieve more successful outcomes and to ultimately avoid amputations. This study reviews a multi-step treatment for DFIs. Between September 2010 and September 2012, a total of about 37 patients were consulted for DFI. The treatment algorithm included four steps, that is, several types of debridement according to the type of wound, the application of negative pressure therapy (NPT), other advanced dressings, a targeted antibiotic therapy local or systemic as the case may, and, if necessary, reconstructive surgery. This treatment protocol showed excellent outcomes, allowing us to avoid amputation in most difficult cases. Only about 8% of patients require amputation. This treatment protocol and a multidisciplinary approach with a specialised team produced excellent results in the treatment of DFI and in the management of diabetic foot in general, allowing us to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients and also to ensure cost savings. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A large extraskeletal osteochondroma of the foot.

    Estil, Jose Carlos C; Yeo, Eui-Dong; Kim, Hak Jun; Cho, Won Tae; Lee, Jeong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondromas are very common benign tumors composed of cartilage and bone. They are usually found at the end of the growth plate of long bones, most often at the area of the joints, and are contiguous with the medullary cavity. Extraskeletal osteochondromas, the same as their namesake, are composed of cartilage and bone. However, unlike typical osteochondromas, extraskeletal osteochondromas are not contiguous with bone, as their name implies. They usually arise from the synovial tissue and tendon sheaths. Although rare, extraskeletal osteochondromas have been reported to occur within the knee and around the hip; however, they are more commonly reported to occur in the hands and feet. When found in the hands or feet, these new growths are often very small and only occasionally symptomatic. We present the case of a 49-year-old female who had a slow-growing mass of 4 years' duration, located on the plantar aspect of her left foot. The mass was slowly becoming more palpable as it increased in size and was progressively causing pain and discomfort during ambulation. Imaging studies revealed an ossified mass bearing no connection to any other structure on the plantar aspect of her foot. An excision biopsy was performed, and the easily dissectible mass, although much larger than its usual presentation, proved to be an extraskeletal osteochondroma. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.

  9. Flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed for the treatment of foot pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Chuter, Vivienne Helaine; Searle, Angela; Spink, Martin J

    2016-11-11

    Foot pain is a common problem affecting up to 1 in 5 adults and is known to adversely affect activities of daily living and health related quality of life. Orthopaedic footwear interventions are used as a conservative treatment for foot pain, although adherence is known to be low, in part due to the perception of poor comfort and unattractiveness of the footwear. The objective of this trial was to assess the efficacy of flip-flop style footwear (Foot Bio-Tec©) with a moulded foot-bed in reducing foot pain compared to participant's usual footwear. Two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial using computer generated random allocation schedule at an Australian university podiatry clinic. 108 volunteers with disabling foot pain were enrolled after responding to an advertisement and eligibility screening. Participants were randomly allocated to receive footwear education and moulded flip-flop footwear to wear as much as they were comfortable with for the next 12 weeks (n = 54) or footwear education and instructions to wear their normal footwear for the next 12 weeks (n = 54). Primary outcome was the pain domain of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). Secondary outcomes were the foot function and general foot health domains of the FHSQ, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for foot pain and perceived comfort of the intervention footwear. Compared to the control group, the moulded flip-flop group showed a significant improvement in the primary outcome measure of the FHSQ pain domain (adjusted mean difference 8.36 points, 95 % CI 5.58 to 13.27, p footwear and six (footwear group = 4) were lost to follow up. Our results demonstrate that flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed can have a significant effect on foot pain, function and foot health and might be a valuable adjunct therapy for people with foot pain. ACTRN12614000933651 . Retrospectively registered: 01/09/2014.

  10. Classification of the height and flexibility of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.

    Nilsson, Mette Kjærgaard; Friis, Rikke; Michaelsen, Maria Skjoldahl; Jakobsen, Patrick Abildgaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2012-02-17

    The risk of developing injuries during standing work may vary between persons with different foot types. High arched and low arched feet, as well as rigid and flexible feet, are considered to have different injury profiles, while those with normal arches may sustain fewer injuries. However, the cut-off values for maximum values (subtalar position during weight-bearing) and range of motion (ROM) values (difference between subtalar neutral and subtalar resting position in a weight-bearing condition) for the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify cut-off values for maximum values and ROM of the MLA of the foot during static tests and to identify factors influencing foot posture. The participants consisted of 254 volunteers from Central and Northern Denmark (198 m/56 f; age 39.0 ± 11.7 years; BMI 27.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2). Navicular height (NH), longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and Feiss line (FL) were measured for either the left or the right foot in a subtalar neutral position and subtalar resting position. Maximum values and ROM were calculated for each test. The 95% and 68% prediction intervals were used as cut-off limits. Multiple regression analysis was used to detect influencing factors on foot posture. The 68% cut-off values for maximum MLA values and MLA ROM for NH were 3.6 to 5.5 cm and 0.6 to 1.8 cm, respectively, without taking into account the influence of other variables. Normal maximum LAA values were between 131 and 152° and normal LAA ROM was between -1 and 13°. Normal maximum FL values were between -2.6 and -1.2 cm and normal FL ROM was between -0.1 and 0.9 cm. Results from the multivariate linear regression revealed an association between foot size with FL, LAA, and navicular drop. The cut-off values presented in this study can be used to categorize people performing standing work into groups of different foot arch types. The results of this study are important for investigating a possible link between

  11. Classification of the height and flexibility of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot

    Nilsson Mette

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of developing injuries during standing work may vary between persons with different foot types. High arched and low arched feet, as well as rigid and flexible feet, are considered to have different injury profiles, while those with normal arches may sustain fewer injuries. However, the cut-off values for maximum values (subtalar position during weight-bearing and range of motion (ROM values (difference between subtalar neutral and subtalar resting position in a weight-bearing condition for the medial longitudinal arch (MLA are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify cut-off values for maximum values and ROM of the MLA of the foot during static tests and to identify factors influencing foot posture. Methods The participants consisted of 254 volunteers from Central and Northern Denmark (198 m/56 f; age 39.0 ± 11.7 years; BMI 27.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2. Navicular height (NH, longitudinal arch angle (LAA and Feiss line (FL were measured for either the left or the right foot in a subtalar neutral position and subtalar resting position. Maximum values and ROM were calculated for each test. The 95% and 68% prediction intervals were used as cut-off limits. Multiple regression analysis was used to detect influencing factors on foot posture. Results The 68% cut-off values for maximum MLA values and MLA ROM for NH were 3.6 to 5.5 cm and 0.6 to 1.8 cm, respectively, without taking into account the influence of other variables. Normal maximum LAA values were between 131 and 152° and normal LAA ROM was between -1 and 13°. Normal maximum FL values were between -2.6 and -1.2 cm and normal FL ROM was between -0.1 and 0.9 cm. Results from the multivariate linear regression revealed an association between foot size with FL, LAA, and navicular drop. Conclusions The cut-off values presented in this study can be used to categorize people performing standing work into groups of different foot arch types. The results of this

  12. The Hand-Foot Skin Reaction and Quality of Life Questionnaire: An Assessment Tool for Oncology.

    Anderson, Roger T; Keating, Karen N; Doll, Helen A; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-07-01

    Skin toxicity (hand-foot syndrome/hand-foot skin reaction, HFS/R) related to antineoplastic therapy is a significant issue in oncology practice, with potentially large impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQL). A patient-reported questionnaire, the hand-foot skin reaction and quality of life (HF-QoL) questionnaire was developed to measure the HFS/R symptoms associated with cancer therapeutic agents and their effect on daily activities. The validity and reliability of the HF-QoL questionnaire was tested in a randomized trial of capecitabine with sorafenib/placebo in 223 patients with locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Other measures completed included patient ratings of condition severity, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast cancer (FACT-B), and the clinician-rated National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE), version 3.0, hand-foot skin reaction grade. The psychometric properties of the HF-QoL tested included structural validity, internal consistency, construct validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness. Finally, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was estimated. The HF-QoL instrument comprises a 20-item symptom scale and an 18-item daily activity scale. Each scale demonstrated excellent measurement properties and discriminated between NCI-CTCAE grade and patient-rated condition severity with large effect sizes. The daily activity scale had excellent internal consistency and correlated with the FACT-B and HF-QoL symptom scores. Both HF-QoL scale scores increased linearly with increasing patient-rated condition severity. The MCIDs were estimated as 5 units for daily activities and 8 units for symptoms mean scores. The HF-QoL was sensitive to symptoms and HRQL issues associated with HFS/R among participants treated with capecitabine with and without sorafenib. The HF-QoL appears suitable for assessing the HRQL impairment associated with HFS/R to cancer therapies. Skin

  13. Insole optical fiber Bragg grating sensors network for dynamic vertical force monitoring.

    Domingues, Maria Fátima; Tavares, Cátia; Leitão, Cátia; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; Alberto, Nélia; Marques, Carlos; Radwan, Ayman; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Postolache, Octavian; Rocon, Eduardo; André, Paulo; Antunes, Paulo

    2017-09-01

    In an era of unprecedented progress in technology and increase in population age, continuous and close monitoring of elder citizens and patients is becoming more of a necessity than a luxury. Contributing toward this field and enhancing the life quality of elder citizens and patients with disabilities, this work presents the design and implementation of a noninvasive platform and insole fiber Bragg grating sensors network to monitor the vertical ground reaction forces distribution induced in the foot plantar surface during gait and body center of mass displacements. The acquired measurements are a reliable indication of the accuracy and consistency of the proposed solution in monitoring and mapping the vertical forces active on the foot plantar sole, with a sensitivity up to 11.06 ?? pm / N . The acquired measurements can be used to infer the foot structure and health condition, in addition to anomalies related to spine function and other pathologies (e.g., related to diabetes); also its application in rehabilitation robotics field can dramatically reduce the computational burden of exoskeletons’ control strategy. The proposed technology has the advantages of optical fiber sensing (robustness, noninvasiveness, accuracy, and electromagnetic insensitivity) to surpass all drawbacks verified in traditionally used sensing systems (fragility, instability, and inconsistent feedback).

  14. Insole optical fiber Bragg grating sensors network for dynamic vertical force monitoring

    Domingues, Maria Fátima; Tavares, Cátia; Leitão, Cátia; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; Alberto, Nélia; Marques, Carlos; Radwan, Ayman; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Postolache, Octavian; Rocon, Eduardo; André, Paulo; Antunes, Paulo

    2017-09-01

    In an era of unprecedented progress in technology and increase in population age, continuous and close monitoring of elder citizens and patients is becoming more of a necessity than a luxury. Contributing toward this field and enhancing the life quality of elder citizens and patients with disabilities, this work presents the design and implementation of a noninvasive platform and insole fiber Bragg grating sensors network to monitor the vertical ground reaction forces distribution induced in the foot plantar surface during gait and body center of mass displacements. The acquired measurements are a reliable indication of the accuracy and consistency of the proposed solution in monitoring and mapping the vertical forces active on the foot plantar sole, with a sensitivity up to 11.06 pm/N. The acquired measurements can be used to infer the foot structure and health condition, in addition to anomalies related to spine function and other pathologies (e.g., related to diabetes); also its application in rehabilitation robotics field can dramatically reduce the computational burden of exoskeletons' control strategy. The proposed technology has the advantages of optical fiber sensing (robustness, noninvasiveness, accuracy, and electromagnetic insensitivity) to surpass all drawbacks verified in traditionally used sensing systems (fragility, instability, and inconsistent feedback).

  15. The possibilities of linearized inversion of internally scattered seismic data

    Aldawood, Ali; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Zuberi, Mohammad; Turkiyyah, George

    2014-01-01

    Least-square migration is an iterative linearized inversion scheme that tends to suppress the migration artifacts and enhance the spatial resolution of the migrated image. However, standard least-square migration, based on imaging single scattering energy, may not be able to enhance events that are mainly illuminated by internal multiples such as vertical and nearly vertical faults. To alleviate this problem, we propose a linearized inversion framework to migrate internally multiply scattered energy. We applied this least-square migration of internal multiples to image a vertical fault. Tests on synthetic data demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to resolve a vertical fault plane that is poorly resolved by least-square imaging using primaries only. We, also, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed scheme in the presence of white Gaussian random observational noise and in the case of imaging the fault plane using inaccurate migration velocities.

  16. The possibilities of linearized inversion of internally scattered seismic data

    Aldawood, Ali

    2014-08-05

    Least-square migration is an iterative linearized inversion scheme that tends to suppress the migration artifacts and enhance the spatial resolution of the migrated image. However, standard least-square migration, based on imaging single scattering energy, may not be able to enhance events that are mainly illuminated by internal multiples such as vertical and nearly vertical faults. To alleviate this problem, we propose a linearized inversion framework to migrate internally multiply scattered energy. We applied this least-square migration of internal multiples to image a vertical fault. Tests on synthetic data demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to resolve a vertical fault plane that is poorly resolved by least-square imaging using primaries only. We, also, demonstrate the robustness of the proposed scheme in the presence of white Gaussian random observational noise and in the case of imaging the fault plane using inaccurate migration velocities.

  17. The prevalence of diabetic foot disease in the Waikato region.

    O'Shea, C; McClintock, J; Lawrenson, R

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of diabetic foot disease by utilising the retinal eye screening register in the Waikato region of New Zealand. Understanding both the prevalence and the degree of foot disease across the general diabetes population will help to determine what podiatry services are required for people with diabetes. 2192 people aged 15years and over, who attended the Waikato Regional Diabetes Service mobile retinal photo screening service for the six-month period between May and November 2014, consented to a foot screen including testing for sensation and pedal pulses. A digital image was taken of the dorsal and plantar aspect of each foot for review by a registered Podiatrist. Thirteen percent of the study sample was identified as having a high-risk foot including active foot complications. 65% were categorised as low risk and a further 22% at moderate risk of diabetic foot disease. Factors identified as significant included age, type of diabetes, duration of diabetes, and smoking. These factors placed people at greater risk of diabetic foot disease. A significant number of people with diabetes are at risk of diabetic foot disease. This study has highlighted the need for targeted podiatry services to address diabetic foot disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A study of dynamic foot pressure measurement in diabetic patients

    Milka D Madhale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcer is a major source of morbidity and a leading cause of hospitalization. It is estimated that approximately 20% of hospital admissions among patients with diabetes mellitus are due to diabetic foot ulcer. It can lead to infection, gangrene, amputation, and even death if appropriate care is not provided. Overall, the lower limb amputation in diabetic patients is 15 times higher than in non-diabetics. In the majority of cases, the cause for the foot ulcer is the altered architecture of the foot due to neuropathy resulting in abnormal pressure points on the soles. Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner and check its reliability and validity which can help to prevent foot ulceration. Design/Methodology/Approach: In the present study, a low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner is developed, and dynamic plantar pressures in a group of 110 Indian patients with diabetes with or without neuropathy and foot ulcers are measured. Practical Implications: If these pressure points can be detected, ulcers can be prevented by providing offloading footwear. Originality/Value: Differences are found in dynamic foot pressures in different study groups, namely, diabetic patients, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, patients with foot ulcers, and nondiabetics. The differences are significant (P < 0.01, which showed the validity of the tool. Reliability and consistency of the tool was checked by test–retest method. Paper Type: Original Research work. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that the scanner is successfully developed and it can measure foot pressures. It is a novel device to proactively monitor foot health in diabetics in an effort to prevent and reduce diabetic foot complications.

  19. Hallux valgus and plantar pressure loading: the Framingham foot study

    2013-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV), a common structural foot deformity, can cause foot pain and lead to limited mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in plantar pressure and force during gait by HV status in a large population-based cohort of men and women. Methods A trained examiner performed a validated physical examination on participants’ feet and recorded the presence of hallux valgus and other specific foot disorders. Each foot was classified into one of four mutually exclusive groups based on the foot examination. Foot groups were: (i) HV only, (ii) HV and at least one additional foot disorder (FD), (iii) no HV but at least one other FD, and (iv) neither HV nor FD (referent). Biomechanical data for both feet were collected using Tekscan Matscan. Foot posture during quiet standing, using modified arch index (MAI), and foot function during gait, using center of pressure excursion index (CPEI), were calculated per foot. Further, walking scans were masked into eight sub-regions using Novel Automask, and peak pressure and maximum force exerted in each region were calculated. Results There were 3205 participants, contributing 6393 feet with complete foot exam data and valid biomechanical measurements. Participants with HV had lower hallucal loading and higher forces at lesser toes as well as higher MAI and lower CPEI values compared to the referent. Participants with HV and other FDs were also noted to have aberrant rearfoot forces and pressures. Conclusions These results suggest that HV alters foot loading patterns and pressure profiles. Future work should investigate how these changes affect the risk of other foot and lower extremity ailments. PMID:24138804

  20. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    chlorophyll maxima (DCM) to be a general feature in the ocean. Today, it is generally accepted that DCMs occur in most of our oceans still, despite this empirical knowledge, subsurface primary production is still largely ignored in marine science. The work included in this PhD examines the vertical...... each of the three regions combined with 15 years of survey data for the Baltic Sea transition zone. Overall, the results of this PhD work show that the vertical distribution of phytoplankton and their activity is important for the understanding, dynamics and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. It, thus......, emphasizes that future research and modelling exercises aimed at improving understanding of pelagic ecosystems and their role in the global ocean should include a consideration of the vertical heterogeneity in phytoplankton distributions and activity....

  1. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Kamboj, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162154

  2. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Rakesh Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  3. Building a progressive vertical integration

    Charette, D.

    2008-01-01

    AAER Inc. is a Quebec-based company that manufactures turbines using proven European designs. This presentation discussed the company's business model. The company places an emphasis on identifying strategic and key components currently available for its turbines. Market analyses are performed in order to determine ideal suppliers and define business strategies and needs. The company invests in long-term relationships with its suppliers. Business partners for AAER are of a similar size and have a mutual understanding and respect for the company's business practices. Long-term agreements with suppliers are signed in order to ensure reliability and control over costs. Progressive vertical integration has been achieved by progressively manufacturing key components and integrating a North American supply chain. The company's secure supply chain and progressive vertical integration has significantly reduced financial costs and provided better quality control. It was concluded that vertical integration has also allowed AAER to provide better customer service and reduce transportation costs. tabs., figs

  4. [Experience with the Hind Foot Relaxation Boot].

    Zwipp, Hans; Borrmann, Michael; Walter, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to report our experience with hindfoot fractures using our specially developed boot, with a follow-up of 557 cases. This boot works like the well-known Allgöwer-Röck ortheses (ARO), but is a hybrid between a boot and an orthesis. It allows full weightbearing without using crutches and completely protects an acutely operated hind foot fracture, hind foot arthrodesis or a hind foot fracture which is suitable for conservative treatment. In its first generation, this boot was custom made and used in 408 cases, from March 1999 to February 2011. This study was performed exclusively at the Department of Traumatology and Reconstructive Surgery in the University Centre of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, since 2013 at the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital of the Technical University of Dresden (since 2013). The new improved second generation of this boot has been used in 149 patients between March 2011 and February 2016. This model is lighter and safer, due to an aluminium U-profile which is produced in one piece and interposed and fixed with 4 screws into the sole of the boot. The ground reaction forces are transported to the tibial head by this U-profile, to which the dorsal acryl shell for the calf of the Röck system is fixed with 2 screws on both sides, including the free ventral patellar shell. This is closed individually by two quick fastener buckles. This modular system of the second generation boot is now available for all patients in Dresden. These new boots have replaced the use of a wheel-chair for 3 months and are especially useful in bilateral calcaneus fractures - which occur in about 18% of all cases. In these new boots, the whole sole of the boot is in contact with the ground, rather than a surface of 9 × 3 cm as in the Allgöwer-Röck ortheses. As a result, these boots are considered to be superior to the ARO because standing and walking without crutches is much more easier - even for elderly patients. In contrast to

  5. Determination of the onset nonlinearity hydrodynamic characteristics at two-phase flow in parallel vertical channels

    Jovic, V.; Afgan, N.; Jovic, L.; Spasojevic, D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents results of the experimental and theoretical analyses of linear and nonlinear characteristics of adiabatic two-phase water-air flow in vertical parallel channels. Regime character changes and linear to nonlinear dynamic characteristics transfer conditions were defined. (author)

  6. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...... (18, 19) for receiving light from the grating region (11) is formed within or to be connected to the grating region, and functions as an 5 output coupler for the VCL. Thereby, vertical lasing modes (16) are coupled to lateral in-plane modes (17, 20) of the in-plane waveguide formed in the silicon...

  7. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  8. A linear programming manual

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  9. Linear predictions of supercritical flow instability in two parallel channels

    Shah, M.

    2008-01-01

    A steady state linear code that can predict thermo-hydraulic instability boundaries in a two parallel channel system under supercritical conditions has been developed. Linear and non-linear solutions of the instability boundary in a two parallel channel system are also compared. The effect of gravity on the instability boundary in a two parallel channel system, by changing the orientation of the system flow from horizontal flow to vertical up-flow and vertical down-flow has been analyzed. Vertical up-flow is found to be more unstable than horizontal flow and vertical down flow is found to be the most unstable configuration. The type of instability present in each flow-orientation of a parallel channel system has been checked and the density wave oscillation type is observed in horizontal flow and vertical up-flow, while the static type of instability is observed in a vertical down-flow for the cases studied here. The parameters affecting the instability boundary, such as the heating power, inlet temperature, inlet and outlet K-factors are varied to assess their effects. This study is important for the design of future Generation IV nuclear reactors in which supercritical light water is proposed as the primary coolant. (author)

  10. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification. PMID:23705058

  11. Metronome rate and walking foot contact time in young adults.

    Dickstein, Ruth; Plax, Michael

    2012-02-01

    It is assumed that when people walk guided by an audible constant rate, they match foot contact to the external pace. The purpose of this preliminary study was to test that assumption by examining the temporal relationship between audible signals generated by a metronome and foot contact time during gait. Ten healthy young women were tested in walking repetitions guided by metronome rates of 60, 110, and 150 beats/min. Metronome beats and foot contact times were collected in real time. The findings indicated that foot contact was not fully synchronized with the auditory signals; the shortest time interval between the metronome beat and foot contact time was at the prescribed rate of 60 beats/min., while the longest interval was at the rate of 150 beats/min. The correlation between left and right foot contact times was highest with the slowest rate and lowest with the fastest rate.

  12. Painful Lytic Lesions of the Foot : A Case Report

    R Vaishya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lytic lesions in the bones of foot raises a number of diagnostic possibilities ranging from infection, inflammatory pathology to neoplastic conditions. Although the radiological picture is not pathognomonic of any pathology, clinical history and histopathological examination can help to clinch the diagnosis. We present a case of multiple lytic lesions of the foot and discuss possible differential diagnoses. The patient was diagnosed as a case of madura foot and the lesions responded to surgical debridement and anti-fungal treatment with a good functional outcome. Madura foot is an uncommon, chronic granulomatous fungal or bacterial infection with a predilection in people who walk barefoot. Although known for a specific geographical distribution, madura foot should be kept as a possible diagnosis in patients presenting with lytic lesions of the foot due to population emigration across the world.

  13. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  14. Genetics of club foot in Maori and Pacific people

    Chapman, C.; Stott, N; Port, R. V.; Nicol, R.

    2000-01-01

    The role of major gene and multifactorial inheritance in the aetiology of club foot in the New Zealand Polynesian population was studied using 287 New Zealand Maori and Pacific club foot families. The club foot family data were analysed by complex segregation analysis under the mixed model using the computer program POINTER. This analysis shows that the best genetic model for club foot in this population is a single dominant gene with a penetrance of 33% and a predicted gene frequency of 0.9%. These data provide a scientific foundation for molecular studies in the Maori and Polynesian population to identify putative club foot genes.


Keywords: club foot; New Zealand Maori; complex segregation analysis PMID:10978359

  15. Linear shaped charge

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  16. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  17. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    Goetz, G.

    2006-10-01

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS 3 xS 3 xT 4 . Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  18. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    Goetz, G. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Quella, T. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). KdV Institute for Mathematics; Schomerus, V. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xT{sup 4}. Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  19. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  20. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    Jones, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corractive measures taken are also described

  1. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS...... for offloading (83%). All centres use some form of a multidisciplinary team, with the most common permanent members being orthopaedic surgeons (71%), wound specialist nurses (76%), podiatrists (65%), endocrinologists (47%) and diabetes specialist nurses (41%). CONCLUSION: We conducted a survey of the diagnosis...

  2. Are we telling the diabetic patients adequately about foot care

    Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Jadoon, R.J.; Farooq, U.; Alam, M.A.; Qureshi, A.; Shah, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus affects more than 285 million people worldwide. The prevalence is expected to rise to 439 million by the year 2030. Diabetic foot ulcers precede 84 percentage of non-traumatic amputations in diabetics. One lower limb is lost every 30 seconds around the world because of diabetic foot ulceration. Apart from being lengthy, the treatment of diabetic foot is also very expensive. There is very limited emphasis on foot care in diabetic patients. Even in developed countries patients feel that they do not have adequate knowledge about foot care. This study was conducted to find out how much information is imparted by doctors to diabetic patients about foot care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in admitted patients of the Department of Medicine, DHQ Hospital, Abbottabad from May 2014 to June 2015. 139 diabetic patients more than 25 years of age were included by non-probability consecutive sampling. Results: The mean age was 57.17 ( percentage 11.1) years. 35.3 percentage of patients were male and 64.7 percentage were female. The mean duration of diabetes in patients was 8.3 (±6) years. Only 36.7 percentage of patients said that their doctor told them about foot care. Less than 40 percentage of patients knew that they should daily inspect their feet, wash them with gentle warm water, and dry them afterwards. Only 25.2 percentage of the participants knew how to manage corns or calluses on feet. 66.5 percentage of patients knew that they should not walk bare foot. Overall, 63 percentage of our patients had less than 50 percentage knowledge of the 11 points regarding foot care that the investigators asked them. Conclusion: Diabetic foot problems are the one of the costliest, most disabling and disheartening complication of diabetes mellitus. Doctors are not properly telling diabetic patients about foot care. There is a deficiency of knowledge among the diabetic patients regarding foot care. (author)

  3. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  4. Patella dislocation with vertical axis rotation: the "dorsal fin" patella.

    Gamble, David; Otto, Quentin; Carrothers, Andrew D; Khanduja, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented following minor trauma to her right knee. While dancing she externally rotated around a planted foot and felt sudden pain in her right knee. She presented with her knee locked in extension with a "dorsal fin" appearance of the soft tissues tented over the patella. This was diagnosed as a rare case of an intraarticular patella dislocation, which was rotated 90 degrees about the vertical axis. Closed reduction in the emergency room was unsuccessful but was achieved in theatre under general anaesthetic with muscle relaxation. Postreduction arthroscopy demonstrated that no osteochondral or soft tissue damage to the knee had been sustained. In patients presenting with a knee locked in extension with tenting of skin over the patella (the "dorsal fin" appearance), intra-articular patella dislocation should be suspected. Attempts to reduce vertical patella dislocations under sedation with excessive force or repeatedly without success should be avoided to prevent unnecessary damage to the patellofemoral joint. In this clinical situation we recommend closed reduction under general anaesthetic followed by immediate knee arthroscopy under the same anaesthetic to ensure that there is no chondral damage to the patella or femoral trochlea and to rule out an osteochondral fracture.

  5. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  6. Benign and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle

    Singer, Adam D.; Datir, Abhijit; Langley, Travis [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tresley, Jonathan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Clifford, Paul D.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)

  7. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A FOOT VALVE BY USING ANSYS®

    Serdar KARAOĞLU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, main components of a foot valve, being produced by casting, were optimized for minimum weight. The study was focused on the minimization of casting costs by reducing the volumes of two main parts of the foot valve. ANSYS® finite elements package was used in the study. In the optimization stage, parametrical dimensions were determined according to manufacturer's design criteria and related standards. Final design of the foot valve was completed by using the calculated values of optimum dimensions of the main components. Design optimization procedure gave about 8.5% of weight reductions in the main foot valve components.

  8. Changes in Foot Shape after Long-Distance Running

    Fukano, Mako; Iso, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in foot shape during long-distance running may lead to alteration in shoe fit. However, little information is available on changes in foot shape following long-distance running. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in foot shape in experienced runners after a single long-distance run. Data from the right feet of 21 subjects were obtained using a foot scanner before and after running 35 km on an asphalt road. After the run, the dorsal height, navicular height, and arch heigh...

  9. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  10. Clinical workflow for personalized foot pressure ulcer prevention.

    Bucki, M; Luboz, V; Perrier, A; Champion, E; Diot, B; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Foot pressure ulcers are a common complication of diabetes because of patient's lack of sensitivity due to neuropathy. Deep pressure ulcers appear internally when pressures applied on the foot create high internal strains nearby bony structures. Monitoring tissue strains in persons with diabetes is therefore important for an efficient prevention. We propose to use personalized biomechanical foot models to assess strains within the foot and to determine the risk of ulcer formation. Our workflow generates a foot model adapted to a patient's morphology by deforming an atlas model to conform it to the contours of segmented medical images of the patient's foot. Our biomechanical model is composed of rigid bodies for the bones, joined by ligaments and muscles, and a finite element mesh representing the soft tissues. Using our registration algorithm to conform three datasets, three new patient models were created. After applying a pressure load below these foot models, the Von Mises equivalent strains and "cluster volumes" (i.e. volumes of contiguous elements with strains above a given threshold) were measured within eight functionally meaningful foot regions. The results show the variability of both location and strain values among the three considered patients. This study also confirms that the anatomy of the foot has an influence on the risk of pressure ulcer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management.

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment includes prevention of progression ischemia/necrosis, prevention of infection, and considering salvage or amputation. Definitive treatment for salvage includes anatomic reconstruction with stable internal fixation and early soft tissue coverage followed by aggressive rehabilitation. Prognosis after complex injuries is hard to predict. The various stages of the treatment are reviewed and recommendations are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ewing sarcoma of the foot. Radiological findings

    Albisinni, U.; Capanna, R.; Nigrisoli, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) is the most frequent malignant bone tumor of the foot. The radiological picture is characterized, in 14 patients, by a pure osteolytic lesion (9 cases) or by a mixed one (5 cases); the interruption of the cortical bone and swelling of the soft tissues were always present; the periostal reaction was occasional. The radiological aspects cannot be considered typical of the ES and it is suggested that biopsies should always be performed in the presence of structural alteration of the bone

  13. Effects of constrained arm swing on vertical center of mass displacement during walking.

    Yang, Hyung Suk; Atkins, Lee T; Jensen, Daniel B; James, C Roger

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of constraining arm swing on the vertical displacement of the body's center of mass (COM) during treadmill walking and examine several common gait variables that may account for or mask differences in the body's COM motion with and without arm swing. Participants included 20 healthy individuals (10 male, 10 female; age: 27.8 ± 6.8 years). The body's COM displacement, first and second peak vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs), and lowest VGRF during mid-stance, peak summed bilateral VGRF, lower extremity sagittal joint angles, stride length, and foot contact time were measured with and without arm swing during walking at 1.34 m/s. The body's COM displacement was greater with the arms constrained (arm swing: 4.1 ± 1.2 cm, arm constrained: 4.9 ± 1.2 cm, p reaction force data indicated that the COM displacement increased in both double limb and single limb stance. However, kinematic patterns visually appeared similar between conditions. Shortened stride length and foot contact time also were observed, although these do not seem to account for the increased COM displacement. However, a change in arm COM acceleration might have contributed to the difference. These findings indicate that a change in arm swing causes differences in vertical COM displacement, which could increase energy expenditure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of the Effect of Using Stone Column in Clayey Soil on the Behavior of Circular Footing by ANN Model

    Omar Khaleel Ismael Al-Kubaisi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shallow foundations are usually used for structures with light to moderate loads where the soil underneath can carry them. In some cases, soil strength and/or other properties are not adequate and require improvement using one of the ground improvement techniques. Stone column is one of the common improvement techniques in which a column of stone is installed vertically in clayey soils. Stone columns are usually used to increase soil strength and to accelerate soil consolidation by acting as vertical drains. Many researches have been done to estimate the behavior of the improved soil. However, none of them considered the effect of stone column geometry on the behavior of the circular footing. In this research, finite element models have been conducted to evaluate the behavior of a circular footing with different stone column configurations. Moreover, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model has been generated for predicting these effects. The results showed a reduction in the bending moment, the settlement, and the vertical stresses with the increment of the stone column length, while both the horizontal stress and the shear force were increased. ANN model showed a good relationship between the predicted and the calculated results.

  15. A shift in priority in diabetic foot care and research: 75% of foot ulcers are preventable

    Bus, Sicco A.; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a heavy burden on the patient and the healthcare system, but prevention thereof receives little attention. For every euro spent on ulcer prevention, ten are spent on ulcer healing, and for every randomized controlled trial conducted on prevention, ten are conducted on

  16. The reliability and validity of a three-camera foot image system for obtaining foot anthropometrics.

    O'Meara, Damien; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Hunt, Adrienne; Smith, Richard

    2010-08-01

    The purpose was to develop a foot image capture and measurement system with web cameras (the 3-FIS) to provide reliable and valid foot anthropometric measures with efficiency comparable to that of the conventional method of using a handheld anthropometer. Eleven foot measures were obtained from 10 subjects using both methods. Reliability of each method was determined over 3 consecutive days using the intraclass correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE). Reliability was excellent for both the 3-FIS and the handheld anthropometer for the same 10 variables, and good for the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint height. The RMSE values over 3 days ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 mm for the handheld anthropometer, and from 0.8 to 3.6 mm for the 3-FIS. The RMSE values between the 3-FIS and the handheld anthropometer were between 2.3 and 7.4 mm. The 3-FIS required less time to collect and obtain the final variables than the handheld anthropometer. The 3-FIS provided accurate and reproducible results for each of the foot variables and in less time than the conventional approach of a handheld anthropometer.

  17. THE FEASIBILITY OF HIND FOOT AMPUTATION IN SELECTED SARCOMAS OF THE FOOT

    HAM, SJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ; EISMA, WH; OLDHOFF, J; KOOPS, HS

    The treatment of foot sarcomas is generally a below knee amputation. In selected sarcomas of the forefoot, however, a transtarsal amputation according to Chopart, a calcaneotibial arthrodesis according to Pirogoff, or a supramalleolar amputation according to Syme can be considered the treatment of

  18. How common are foot problems among individuals with diabetes? Diabetic foot ulcers in the Dutch population

    Stoekenbroek, Robert M.; Lokin, Joost L. C.; Nielen, Mark M.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Contemporary data on diabetic foot ulcer prevalence are scarce. Most studies were conducted in the 1990s, reporting incidence rates of 1.9-2.6%. Since then the prevalence of diabetes has doubled and the organisation of diabetes care has undergone major changes. Up-to-date data that

  19. Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model protocol in presence of foot deformities.

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Matricali, Giovanni A; Spaepen, Pieter; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-07-01

    Repeatability studies on 3D multi-segment foot models (3DMFMs) have mainly considered healthy participants which contrasts with the widespread application of these models to evaluate foot pathologies. The current study aimed at establishing the repeatability of the 3DMFM described by Leardini et al. in presence of foot deformities. Foot kinematics of eight adult participants were analyzed using a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience. The inter-trial variability was higher compared to the kinematics of healthy subjects. Consideration of relative angles resulted in the lowest inter-session variability. The absolute 3D rotations between the Sha-Cal and Cal-Met seem to have the lowest variability in both therapists. A general trend towards higher σ(sess)/σ(trial) ratios was observed when the midfoot was involved. The current study indicates that not only relative 3D rotations and planar angles can be measured consistently in patients, also a number of absolute parameters can be consistently measured serving as basis for the decision making process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A review of the foot function index and the foot function index – revised

    2013-01-01

    Background The Foot Function Index (FFI) is a self-report, foot-specific instrument measuring pain and disability and has been widely used to measure foot health for over twenty years. A revised FFI (FFI-R) was developed in response to criticism of the FFI. The purpose of this review was to assess the uses of FFI and FFI-R as were reported in medical and surgical literature and address the suggestions found in the literature to improve the metrics of FFI-R. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and Embase databases from October 1991 through December 2010 comprised the main sources of literature. To enrich the bibliography, the search was extended to BioMedLib and Scopus search engines and manual search methods. Search terms included FFI, FFI scores, FFI-R. Requirements included abstracts/full length articles, English-language publications, and articles containing the term "foot complaints/problems." Articles selected were scrutinized; EBM abstracted data from literature and collected into tables designed for this review. EBM analyzed tables, KJC, JM, RMS reviewed and confirmed table contents. KJC and JM reanalyzed the original database of FFI-R to improve metrics. Results Seventy-eight articles qualified for this review, abstracts were compiled into 12 tables. FFI and FFI-R were used in studies of foot and ankle disorders in 4700 people worldwide. FFI Full scale or the Subscales and FFI-R were used as outcome measures in various studies; new instruments were developed based on FFI subscales. FFI Full scale was adapted/translated into other cultures. FFI and FFI-R psychometric properties are reported in this review. Reanalysis of FFI-R subscales' confirmed unidimensionality, and the FFI-R questionnaires' response categories were edited into four responses for ease of use. Conclusion This review was limited to articles published in English in the past twenty years. FFI is used extensively worldwide; this instrument pioneered a quantifiable measure

  1. The ins and outs of modelling vertical displacement events

    Pfefferle, David

    2017-10-01

    Of the many reasons a plasma discharge disrupts, Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) lead to the most severe forces and stresses on the vacuum vessel and Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). After loss of positional control, the plasma column drifts across the vacuum vessel and comes in contact with the first wall, at which point the stored magnetic and thermal energy is abruptly released. The vessel forces have been extensively modelled in 2D but, with the constraint of axisymmetry, the fundamental 3D effects that lead to toroidal peaking, sideways forces, field-line stochastisation and halo current rotation have been vastly overlooked. In this work, we present the main results of an intense VDE modelling activity using the implicit 3D extended MHD code M3D-C1 and share our experience with the multi-domain and highly non-linear physics encountered. At the culmination of code development by the M3D-C1 group over the last decade, highlighted by the inclusion of a finite-thickness resistive vacuum vessel within the computational domain, a series of fully 3D non-linear simulations are performed using realistic transport coefficients based on the reconstruction of so-called NSTX frozen VDEs, where the feedback control was purposely switched off to trigger a vertical instability. The vertical drift phase, the evolution of the current quench and the onset of 3D halo/eddy currents are diagnosed and investigated in detail. The sensitivity of the current quench to parameter changes is assessed via 2D non-linear runs. The growth of individual toroidal modes is monitored via linear-complex runs. The intricate evolution of the plasma, which is decaying to large extent in force-balance with induced halo/wall currents, is carefully resolved via 3D non-linear runs. The location, amplitude and rotation of normal currents and wall forces are analysed and compared with experimental traces.

  2. A Macro-Element Approach for Non-linear Response of Offshore Skirted Footings

    Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2018-01-01

    -hardening plasticity model for the moment and horizontal force resultants associated with the displacements of the offshore suction caissons is herein developed. In addition, in order to better understand the performance of offshore bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loads series of cyclic lateral load tests were...... carried out on small scale models in a special rig developed for the cyclic tests at Aalborg University. The influence of cyclic lateral loads on the bucket lateral secant stiffness is investigated and a function is utilized to investigate it due to permanent displacements. The bucket stiffness increased...

  3. The Influence of Foot-Strike Technique on the Neuromechanical Function of the Foot.

    Kelly, Luke A; Farris, Dominic J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot (RFS; habitual) running technique, whereas kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "midfoot" joint representing motion of the rearfoot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals). An inverse dynamic analysis was performed to estimate joint moments generated about the midfoot, as well as mechanical work and power. The midfoot was more plantar flexed (higher arch) at foot contact when running with a forefoot running technique (RFS 0.2 ± 1.8 vs FFS 6.9 ± 3.0°, effect size (ES) = 2.7); however, there was no difference in peak midfoot dorsiflexion in stance (RFS -11.6 ± 3.0 vs FFS -11.4 ± 3.4°, ES = 0.63). When running with a forefoot technique, participants generated greater moments about the midfoot (27% increase, ES = 1.1) and performed more negative work (240% increase, ES = 2.2) and positive work (42% increase, ES = 1.1) about the midfoot. Average stance-phase muscle activation was greater for flexor digitorum brevis (20% increase, ES = 0.56) and abductor hallucis (17% increase, ES = 0.63) when running with a forefoot technique. Forefoot running increases loading about the longitudinal arch and also increases the mechanical work performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. These findings have substantial implications in terms of injury prevention and management for runners who transition from a rearfoot to a forefoot running technique.

  4. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    Chin Robin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1. Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle.

  5. Foot ulcer risk and location in relation to prospective clinical assessment of foot shape and mobility among persons with diabetes.

    Cowley, Matthew S; Boyko, Edward J; Shofer, Jane B; Ahroni, Jessie H; Ledoux, William R

    2008-11-01

    We assessed baseline clinical foot shape for 2939 feet of diabetic subjects who were monitored prospectively for foot ulceration. Assessments included hammer/claw toes, hallux valgus, hallux limitus, prominent metatarsal heads, bony prominences, Charcot deformity, plantar callus, foot type, muscle atrophy, ankle and hallux mobility, and neuropathy. Risk factors were linked to ulcer occurrence and location via a Cox proportional hazards model. Hammer/claw toes (hazard ratio [HR] (95% confidence interval [CI])=1.43 (1.06, 1.94) p=0.02), marked hammer/claw toes (HR=1.77 (1.18, 2.66) p=0.006), bony prominences (HR=1.38 (1.02, 1.88), p=0.04), and foot type (Charcot or drop foot vs. neutrally aligned) (HR=2.34 (1.33, 4.10), p=0.003) were significant risk factors for ulceration adjusting for age, body mass index, insulin medication, ulcer history and amputation history. With adjustment for neuropathy only hammer/claw toes (HR=1.40 (1.03, 1.90), p=0.03) and foot type (HR=1.76 (1.04, 3.04), p=0.05) were significantly related to ulceration. However, there was no relationship between ulcer location and foot deformity. Certain foot deformities were predictive of ulceration, although there was no relationship between clinical foot deformity and ulcer location.

  6. Plantar tendons of the foot: MR imaging and US.

    Donovan, Andrea; Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka; Bencardino, Jenny T; Velez, Zoraida Restrepo; Blonder, David B; Ciavarra, Gina A; Adler, Ronald Steven

    2013-01-01

    Tendon disorders along the plantar aspect of the foot may lead to significant symptoms but are often clinically misdiagnosed. Familiarity with the normal anatomy of the plantar tendons and its appearance at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ultrasonography (US) is essential for recognizing plantar tendon disorders. At MR imaging, the course of the plantar tendons is optimally visualized with dedicated imaging of the midfoot and forefoot. This imaging should include short-axis images obtained perpendicular to the long axis of the metatarsal shafts, which allows true cross-sectional evaluation of the plantar tendons. Normal plantar tendons appear as low-signal-intensity structures with all MR sequences. At US, accurate evaluation of the tendons requires that the ultrasound beam be perpendicular to the tendon. The normal tendon appears as a compact linear band of echogenic tissue that contains a fine, mixed hypoechoic and hyperechoic internal fibrillar pattern. Tendon injuries can be grouped into six major categories: tendinosis, peritendinosis, tenosynovitis, entrapment, rupture, and instability (subluxation or dislocation) and can be well assessed with both MR imaging and US. The radiologist plays an important role in the diagnosis of plantar tendon disorders, and recognizing their imaging appearances at MR imaging and US is essential.

  7. Can macrocirculation changes predict nonhealing diabetic foot ulcers?

    Lee, Ye-Na; Kim, Hyon-Surk; Kang, Jeong-A; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous partial oxygen tension (TcpO2) is considered the gold standard for assessment of tissue oxygenation, which is an essential factor for wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between macrocirculation and TcpO2 in persons with diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight patients with diabetic foot ulcers participated in the study (61 men and 37 women). The subjects had a mean age of 66.6 years (range, 30-83 years) and were treated at the Diabetic Wound Center of Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Macrocirculation was evaluated using 2 techniques: computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound. Macrocirculation scores were based on the patency of the two tibial arteries in 98 patients. Computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound scores (0-4 points) were given according to intraluminal filling defects and arterial pulse waveform of each vessel, respectively. Tissue oxygenation was measured by TcpO2. Macrocirculation scores were statistically analyzed as a function of the TcpO2. Statistical analysis revealed no significant linear trend between the macrocirculation status and TcpO2. Biavariate analysis using the Fisher exact test, Mantel-Haenszel tests, and McNemar-Bowker tests also found no significant relationship between macrocirculation and TcpO2. Computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound are not sufficiently reliable substitutes for TcpO2 measurements in regard to determining the optimal treatment for diabetic patients.

  8. Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings near Slopes Using Lower Bound Limit Analysis

    Javad Mofidi rouchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stability of foundations near slopes is one of the important and complicated problems in geotechnical engineering, which has been investigated by various methods such as limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip-line, finite element and discrete element. The complexity of this problem is resulted from the combination of two probable failures: foundation failure and overall slope failure. The current paper describes a lower bound solution for estimation of bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes. The solution is based on the finite element formulation and linear programming technique, which lead to a collapse load throughout a statically admissible stress field. Three-nodded triangular stress elements are used for meshing the domain of the problem, and stress discontinuities occur at common edges of adjacent elements. The Mohr-Coulomb yield function and an associated flow rule are adopted for the soil behavior. In this paper, the average limit pressure of strip footings, which are adjacent to slopes, is considered as a function of dimensionless parameters affecting the stability of the footing-on-slope system. These parameters, particularly the friction angle of the soil, are investigated separately and relevant charts are presented consequently. The results are compared to some other solutions that are available in the literature in order to verify the suitability of the methodology used in this research.

  9. Application of a system for measuring foot plantar pressure for evaluation of human mobility

    Klimiec, Ewa; Jasiewicz, Barbara; Zaraska, Krzysztof; Piekarski, Jacek; Guzdek, Piotr; Kołaszczyński, Grzegorz

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents evaluation of human mobility by gait analysis, carried out in natural conditions (outside laboratory). Foot plantar pressure is measured using a shoe insole with 8 sensors placed in different anatomical zones of the foot, and placed inside a sports footwear. Polarized PVDF foil is used as a sensor material. A wireless transmission system is used to transmit voltage values to the computer. Due to linear relationship between force and transducer voltage, energy released during walking in arbitrary units can be calculated as integral of the square of transducer voltage over time. Gait measurements have been done over the next few days on healthy person during normal walking and slow walking. Performed measurements allow determination of walking speed (number of steps per second), gait rhythm and manner of walking (applying force to inside versus outside part of the sole). It is found that switching from normal to slow walk increases gait energy by 25% while the pressure distribution across the anatomical regions of the foot remains unchanged. The results will be used for developing a programme for evaluation of patients with cardiac failure and future integration of actimetry with pulse and spirometry measurements.

  10. PMMA embolization to the left dorsal foot artery during percutaneous vertebroplasty for spinal metastases.

    Iliopoulos, Panagiotis; Panagiotis, Iliopoulos; Korovessis, Panagiotis; Panagiotis, Korovessis; Vitsas, Vasilios; Vasilios, Vitsas

    2014-05-01

    Distal arterial embolization to the foot with PMMA during vertebral augmentation has not been previously reported. We report a rare case of distal PMMA embolization to the dorsal foot artery during ipsilateral percutaneous lumbar vertebral augmentation in a patient with spinal osteolytic metastases. A 68-year-old woman was admitted because of severe disabling low back pain. Plain roentgenograms, MRI and CT-scan revealed osteolysis in the L4 and L5 vertebral bodies with prevertebral soft tissue involvement. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with PMMA was performed in L2 to L5 vertebrae under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, leakage into the segmental vessels L3 and L5 was observed. Four hours after the procedure the clinical diagnosis of acute ischemia and drop foot on the left was made. CT-angiography justified linear cement leakage in the course of the left third lumbar vein and fifth lumbar artery, and to the ipsilateral common iliac artery. The patient was treated with low molecular heparin and the ischemia resolved without further sequelae 1 week postoperatively. PMMA leakage is a complication associated with vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Although the outcome of the PMMA embolization to the vessels resolved without sequelae, in our case spine surgeons and interventional radiologists should be aware on this rare complication in patients with osteolytic vertebral metastases even when contemporary cement containment techniques are used.

  11. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    was defined as absence of hock infection, swollen hock, and bruising. The potential indicators were locomotion and foot and leg conformation, represented by rear leg side view, rear leg rear view, foot angle, and apparent hock quality and bone structure. The study was conducted using records from 429......,877 Danish Holstein cows in first lactation. Binary health traits were divided into 3 subcategories: claw health, leg health, and absence of all claw and leg disorders. Genetic (r(g)) and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate linear sire model and REML. Estimated heritabilities were 0.......01 for all 3 combined claw and leg health traits (on the observed binary scale), 0.09 for locomotion, 0.14 for rear leg rear view, 0.19 for rear leg side view, 0.13 for foot angle, 0.22 for apparent hock quality, and 0.27 for apparent bone structure. Heritabilities were 0.06 and 0.01 for claw health and leg...

  12. Measuring of foot plantar pressure—possible applications in quantitative analysis of human body mobility

    Klimiec, E; Piekarski, J; Zaraska, K; Guzdek, P; Kołaszczyński, G; Jasiewicz, B

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an evaluation of human mobility by gait analysis, carried out in natural conditions (outside of the laboratory). Foot plantar pressure is measured using a shoe insole with 8 sensors placed in different anatomical zones of the foot, and placed inside a sports shoe. Polarized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) foil is used as a sensor material. A wireless transmission system is used to transmit voltage values to the computer. Miniaturization was the priority during the design of the system. Due to the linear relationship between force and transducer voltage, energy and power released during walking in arbitrary units can be calculated as an integral of the square of the transducer voltage over time. Gait measurements were carried out over several days on healthy persons during normal walking and slow walking. The performed measurements allowed for the determination of walking speed (number of steps per second), gait rhythm and manner of walking (applying force to inside versus outside part of the sole). It was found that switching from normal to slow walk increases gait energy by 25% while the pressure distribution across the anatomical regions of the foot remains unchanged. The results will be used to develop a programme for the evaluation of patients with orthopedic diseases or even with cardiac failures, for an estimation of the results of health recovery and training efficiency in many sports activities. (paper)

  13. Automatic classification of thermal patterns in diabetic foot based on morphological pattern spectrum

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Ramirez-Cortes, J.; Renero-Carrillo, F.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to characterize and identify patterns of temperature in thermographic images of the human foot plant in support of early diagnosis and follow-up of diabetic patients. Composed feature vectors based on 3D morphological pattern spectrum (pecstrum) and relative position, allow the system to quantitatively characterize and discriminate non-diabetic (control) and diabetic (DM) groups. Non-linear classification using neural networks is used for that purpose. A classification rate of 94.33% in average was obtained with the composed feature extraction process proposed in this paper. Performance evaluation and obtained results are presented.

  14. Study on electrochemical corrosion mechanism of steel foot of insulators for HVDC lines

    Zheng, Weihua; Sun, Xiaoyu; Fan, Youping

    2017-09-01

    The main content of this paper is the mechanism of electrochemical corrosion of insulator steel foot in HVDC transmission line, and summarizes five commonly used artificial electrochemical corrosion accelerated test methods in the world. Various methods are analyzed and compared, and the simulation test of electrochemical corrosion of insulator steel feet is carried out by water jet method. The experimental results show that the experimental environment simulated by water jet method is close to the real environment. And the three suspension modes of insulators in the actual operation, the most serious corrosion of the V type suspension hardware, followed by the tension string suspension, and the linear string corrosion rate is the slowest.

  15. Healing ulcers and preventing their recurrences in the diabetic foot

    S Raja Sabapathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen percent of people with diabetes develop an ulcer in the course of their lifetime. Eighty-five percent of the major amputations in diabetes mellitus are preceded by an ulcer. Management of ulcers and preventing their recurrence is important for the quality of life of the individual and reducing the cost of care of treatment. The main causative factors of ulceration are neuropathy, vasculopathy and limited joint mobility. Altered bio-mechanics due to the deformities secondary to neuropathy and limited joint mobility leads to focal points of increased pressure, which compromises circulation leading to ulcers. Ulcer management must not only address the healing of ulcers but also should correct the altered bio-mechanics to reduce the focal pressure points and prevent recurrence. An analysis of 700 patients presenting with foot problems to the Diabetic Clinic of Ganga Hospital led to the stratification of these patients into four classes of incremental severity. Class 1 – the foot at risk, Class 2 – superficial ulcers without infection, Class 3 – the crippled foot and Class 4 – the critical foot. Almost 77.5% presented in either Class 3 or 4 with complicated foot ulcers requiring major reconstruction or amputation. Class 1 foot can be managed conservatively with foot care and appropriate foot wear. Class 2 in addition to measures for ulcer healing would need surgery to correct the altered bio-mechanics to prevent the recurrence. The procedures called surgical offloading would depend on the site of the ulcer and would need an in-depth clinical study of the foot. Class 3 would need major reconstructive procedures and Class 4 would need amputation since it may be life-threatening. As clinicians, our main efforts must be focused towards identifying patients in Class 1 and offer advice on foot care and Class 2 where appropriate surgical offloading procedure would help preserve the foot.

  16. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  17. Foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kickboxers.

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.

  18. [Effects of foot reflexology on essential hypertension patients].

    Park, Hyoung-Sook; Cho, Gyoo-Yeong

    2004-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects of foot reflexology on blood pressure, serum lipids level and life satisfaction in essential hypertension patients. The research design used was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Foot Reflexology was used as the experimental treatment from June 23rd, 2003 until August 31st, 2003. Thirty-four subjects were assigned to an experimental group(18) and control group(16). Foot Reflexology was administered twice a week for 6 weeks and self foot Reflexology was administered twice a week for 4 weeks on the experimental group. There was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure but no significant decrease in diastolic pressure in the experimental group compared to the control group. The total cholesterol level in the experimental group compared to the control group was not significantly decreased after foot reflexology. However, the triglyceride level in the experimental group compared to the control group was significantly decreased after foot reflexology. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels in the experimental group compared to the control group was not significantly decreased after foot reflexology. Life satisfaction in the experimental group compared to the control group was significantly improved after foot reflexology. The results proved that foot reflexology was an effective nursing intervention to decrease systolic pressure, and triglyceride but not for the blood cholesterol and to improve life satisfaction. Therefore, blood cholesterol should be further evaluated in a larger group of subjects and for a longer period. Further research is regarded as necessary to evaluate and to compare effects of self-foot reflexology and foot reflexology.

  19. Non linear system become linear system

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  20. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  1. Diagnosis and Management of Common Foot Fractures.

    Bica, David; Sprouse, Ryan A; Armen, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Foot fractures are among the most common foot injuries evaluated by primary care physicians. They most often involve the metatarsals and toes. Patients typically present with varying signs and symptoms, the most common being pain and trouble with ambulation. Diagnosis requires radiographic evaluation, although emerging evidence demonstrates that ultrasonography may be just as accurate. Management is determined by the location of the fracture and its effect on balance and weight bearing. Metatarsal shaft fractures are initially treated with a posterior splint and avoidance of weight-bearing activities; subsequent treatment consists of a short leg walking cast or boot for four to six weeks. Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures have different treatments depending on the location of the fracture. A fifth metatarsal tuberosity avulsion fracture can be treated acutely with a compressive dressing, then the patient can be transitioned to a short leg walking boot for two weeks, with progressive mobility as tolerated after initial immobilization. A Jones fracture has a higher risk of nonunion and requires at least six to eight weeks in a short leg non-weight-bearing cast; healing time can be as long as 10 to 12 weeks. Great toe fractures are treated with a short leg walking boot or cast with toe plate for two to three weeks, then a rigid-sole shoe for an additional three to four weeks. Lesser toe fractures can be treated with buddy taping and a rigid-sole shoe for four to six weeks.

  2. Traumatic Foot Fractures in Hard Working Donkeys

    M.A. Semieka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 45 hard working donkeys suffering from different types of traumatic foot fractures. These animals were selected from the clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Assiut University during the period of 2007-2010. Based on history, clinical signs and radiographic examination, various types of traumatic foot fractures were diagnosed and recorded. These fractures were affect metacarpal bones (N. =16, metatarsal bones (N. =9, proximal phalanx (N. = 13, middle phalanx (N. = 3, distal phalanx (N. = 2 and proximal sesamoid bones (N. = 2. It could be concluded that fractures of the large metacarpal bones are the most common types followed by fractures of the proximal phalanx of the thoracic limb then fractures of the metatarsal bones. Fractures of the middle phalanx, distal phalanx and proximal sesamoid bone are less common in donkeys. Single fractures of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones are more common than comminuted one, in addition diaphyseal fractures of these bones are more common than metaphyseal or epiphyseal fractures. In the proximal phalanx, comminuted fractures are more common than single fractures.

  3. Imaging osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot

    Becker, W.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot is in most of the patients not possible without imaging the bone. The clinical problem is to diagnose infection as early, as reliable and as cheap as possible to prevent the possible longstanding and life-threatening complications. For imaging a lot of different radiological and nuclear medicine methods are available. This article focuses on the possible results of conventional plain radiography and tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as radiological and on bone scan, autologous white blood cell scintigraphy with 111 In-oxin or 99m Tc-HMPAO, antigranulocyte antibodies, 99m Tc/ 111 In-human immunoglobulin, 67 Ga-citrate and 99m Tc-nanocelloids. Different methods after different answers. Radiological methods give detailed pathological answers, nuclear medicine methods answer questions of specificity such as leukocyte infiltration. If osteomyelitis is suspected, plain radiography should be the first, three phase bone scintigraphy the second and infection specific radiopharmaceuticals the third step of examination. Only in negative images with high clinical suspicion CT or MRI should be the final imaging procedure. In the diabetic foot imaging cascade should also start with plain radiography, followed by three phase bone scintigraphy or MRI. If clinically neuropathy is present specific nuclear medicine imaging should be performed

  4. The diabetic foot: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation

    Beltran, J.; Campanini, D.S.; Knight, C.; McCalla, M.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen diabetic patients with suspected foot infection and/or neuropathic joint (Charcot Joint) were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to assess the extent of the infection and also to distinguish infection from the changes seen with neuroarthropathy. The majority of patients with infection had more than one site of involvement and the following diagnoses were made by MRI evaluation: Osteomyelitis (n=8), abscess (n=7), neuropathic joint (n=5), septic arthritis (n=4), and tenosynovitis (n=4). Clinical or surgical/pathological confirmation of the MRI diagnoses was obtained in all but nine sites of infection or cases of neuropathic joint. If the two diagnostic categories of septic arthritis and tenosynovitis are excluded, all but four of the MRI diagnoses were confirmed. A distinctive pattern for neuroarthropathy was identified in five cases, consisting of low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images within the bone marrow space adjacent to the involved joint. We conclude that MRI is a valuable adjunct in the evaluation of the diabetic foot, and that it provides accurate information regarding the presence and extent of infection in this subset of patients. MRI has proven particularly helpful in differentiating neuroarthropathy from osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  5. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot

    Jacobs, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of the foot in the patient with diabetes mellitus is discussed in this paper. According to the author, it can only be of value when the soft tissue and bony and joint pathologic conditions, which occur more frequently in the diabetic patient are also considered and understood. Although not pathognomic for diabetes mellitus, neuroarthopathy, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infection, and some rheumatic disorders are present with greater frequency in diabetic populations than in non-diabetic populations. Frequently, edema, erythema, hyperthermia, and tenderness are present as nonspecific clinical findings, in which case radiographic evaluation is called upon to define the specific etiology of a particular patient's pathology. Unfortunately, many radiographic, computerized tomographic, and radionuclide studies demonstrate less than optimal positive and negative predictive values unless interpreted in view of clinical history and examination and integrated with the results of other laboratory data. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot may be utilized to establish the presence of disease, the extent of pedal involvement, and the response to therapy. The establishment of the nature of disease processes from radiographic findings alone, however, may be problematic. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis, for example, rests on the recovery of the offending microorganisms from bone aspiration or culture

  6. Imaging osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot

    Becker, W. (Gottingen Univ. (Germany). Dep. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot is in most of the patients not possible without imaging the bone. The clinical problem is to diagnose infection as early, as reliable and as cheap as possible to prevent the possible longstanding and life-threatening complications. For imaging a lot of different radiological and nuclear medicine methods are available. This article focuses on the possible results of conventional plain radiography and tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as radiological and on bone scan, autologous white blood cell scintigraphy with [sup 111]In-oxin or [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO, antigranulocyte antibodies, [sup 99m]Tc/[sup 111]In-human immunoglobulin,[sup 67] Ga-citrate and [sup 99m]Tc-nanocelloids. Different methods after different answers. Radiological methods give detailed pathological answers, nuclear medicine methods answer questions of specificity such as leukocyte infiltration. If osteomyelitis is suspected, plain radiography should be the first, three phase bone scintigraphy the second and infection specific radiopharmaceuticals the third step of examination. Only in negative images with high clinical suspicion CT or MRI should be the final imaging procedure. In the diabetic foot imaging cascade should also start with plain radiography, followed by three phase bone scintigraphy or MRI. If clinically neuropathy is present specific nuclear medicine imaging should be performed.

  7. Sweat function in the diabetic foot

    Markendeya Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction, an early manifestation of diabetic neuropathy, presents with altered sweating patterns, leading to dryness and fissuring. We conducted a study to assess the sweat function in the diabetic foot and to determine the interrelation between the duration of diabetes, sensation, fissuring, and sweating. Methods: The sweat function was assessed in 30 diabetic patients, 28 of whom had fissuring of the feet, using Ninhydrin impregnated discs. Results: There was a significant association between fissuring and sensation, but not between the duration of diabetes and fissuring and between loss of sweating and fissuring. In 18 patients (60% there was impairment or absence of sweating in the presence of normal sensation. Conclusion: Although fissuring increases with long-standing diabetes and sweating is reduced in diabetic patients with fissures on the foot, the correlation between these entities was not statistically significant. Since 60% patients had altered sweating in the presence of normal sensations, the sweat test can be used as an early indicator of diabetic neuropathy.

  8. A quasi-linear control theory analysis of timesharing skills

    Agarwal, G. C.; Gottlieb, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    The compliance of the human ankle joint is measured by applying 0 to 50 Hz band-limited gaussian random torques to the foot of a seated human subject. These torques rotate the foot in a plantar-dorsal direction about a horizontal axis at a medial moleolus of the ankle. The applied torques and the resulting angular rotation of the foot are measured, digitized and recorded for off-line processing. Using such a best-fit, second-order model, the effective moment of inertia of the ankle joint, the angular viscosity and the stiffness are calculated. The ankle joint stiffness is shown to be a linear function of the level of tonic muscle contraction, increasing at a rate of 20 to 40 Nm/rad/Kg.m. of active torque. In terms of the muscle physiology, the more muscle fibers that are active, the greater the muscle stiffness. Joint viscosity also increases with activation. Joint stiffness is also a linear function of the joint angle, increasing at a rate of about 0.7 to 1.1 Nm/rad/deg from plantar flexion to dorsiflexion rotation.

  9. Short-term changes in running mechanics and foot strike pattern after introduction to minimalistic footwear.

    Willson, John D; Bjorhus, Jordan S; Williams, D S Blaise; Butler, Robert J; Porcari, John P; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Minimalistic footwear has garnered widespread interest in the running community, based largely on the premise that the footwear may reduce certain running-related injury risk factors through adaptations in running mechanics and foot strike pattern. To examine short-term adaptations in running mechanics among runners who typically run in conventional cushioned heel running shoes as they transition to minimalistic footwear. A 2-week, prospective, observational study. A movement science laboratory. Nineteen female runners with a rear foot strike (RFS) pattern who usually train in conventional running shoes. The participants trained for 20 minutes, 3 times per week for 2 weeks by using minimalistic footwear. Three-dimensional lower extremity running mechanics were analyzed before and after this 2-week period. Hip, knee, and ankle joint kinematics at initial contact; step length; stance time; peak ankle joint moment and joint work; impact peak; vertical ground reaction force loading rate; and foot strike pattern preference were evaluated before and after the intervention. The knee flexion angle at initial contact increased 3.8° (P < .01), but the ankle and hip flexion angles at initial contact did not change after training. No changes in ankle joint kinetics or running temporospatial parameters were observed. The majority of participants (71%), before the intervention, demonstrated an RFS pattern while running in minimalistic footwear. The proportion of runners with an RFS pattern did not decrease after 2 weeks (P = .25). Those runners who chose an RFS pattern in minimalistic shoes experienced a vertical loading rate that was 3 times greater than those who chose to run with a non-RFS pattern. Few systematic changes in running mechanics were observed among participants after 2 weeks of training in minimalistic footwear. The majority of the participants continued to use an RFS pattern after training in minimalistic footwear, and these participants experienced higher

  10. Non-linear seismic analysis of structures coupled with fluid

    Descleve, P.; Derom, P.; Dubois, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method to calculate non-linear structure behaviour under horizontal and vertical seismic excitation, making possible the full non-linear seismic analysis of a reactor vessel. A pseudo forces method is used to introduce non linear effects and the problem is solved by superposition. Two steps are used in the method: - Linear calculation of the complete model. - Non linear analysis of thin shell elements and calculation of seismic induced pressure originating from linear and non linear effects, including permanent loads and thermal stresses. Basic aspects of the mathematical formulation are developed. It has been applied to axi-symmetric shell element using a Fourier series solution. For the fluid interaction effect, a comparison is made with a dynamic test. In an example of application, the displacement and pressure time history are given. (orig./GL)

  11. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  12. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay

    2001-09-01

    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  13. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  14. Interference Lithography for Vertical Photovoltaics

    Balls, Amy; Pei, Lei; Kvavle, Joshua; Sieler, Andrew; Schultz, Stephen; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2009-10-01

    We are exploring low cost approaches for fabricating three dimensional nanoscale structures. These vertical structures could significantly improve the efficiency of devices made from low cost photovoltaic materials. The nanoscale vertical structure provides a way to increase optical absorption in thin photovoltaic films without increasing the electronic carrier separation distance. The target structure is a high temperature transparent template with a dense array of holes on a 400 - 600 nm pitch fabricated by a combination of interference lithography and nanoembossing. First a master was fabricated using ultraviolet light interference lithography and the pattern was transferred into a silicon wafer master by silicon reactive ion etching. Embossing studies were performed with the master on several high temperature polymers.

  15. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  16. Combined versus individual effects of a valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic during stair use in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Moyer, Rebecca; Birmingham, Trevor; Dombroski, Colin; Walsh, Robert; Giffin, J Robert

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined and individual biomechanical effects of a valgus knee brace and a lateral wedge foot orthotic during stair ascent and descent in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Thirty-five patients with varus alignment and medial knee OA were prescribed a custom valgus knee brace and lateral wedge foot orthotic. Knee angles and moments in the frontal and sagittal planes were determined from 3D gait analysis completed under four randomized conditions: (1) control (no knee brace or foot orthotic), (2) knee brace, (3) foot orthotic, and (4) combined knee brace and foot orthotic. Additional measures included the vertical ground reaction force, trunk lean, toe out and gait speed. During the combined use of a knee brace and foot orthotic, significant decreases in the knee adduction angle (2.17, 95%CI: 0.50-3.84, p=0.013) and 2nd peak EKAM (0.35, 95%CI: 0.17-0.52, pstair descent; and significant increases in the EKFM were observed during stair ascent (0.54, 95%CI: 0.30-0.78, pstair descent compared to ascent, except for toe out. Findings suggest greater effects on gait when both knee brace and foot orthotic are used together, resulting in a more normal gait pattern. However, whether or not a true change in knee joint load can be inferred when using these orthoses remains unclear. Further research is required to determine the clinical importance of the observed changes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    2015-03-01

    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...with 32 gigabytes of random access memory and eight processors, General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) CPLEX version 24 (GAMS, 2015) solves this...problem in ten minutes to an integer tolerance of 10%. The GAMS interpreter and CPLEX solver require 75 Megabytes of random access memory for this

  18. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  19. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  20. Linear collider: a preview

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  1. Basic linear algebra

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  2. Linear collider: a preview

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  3. Matrices and linear transformations

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  4. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  5. Numerical simulation of the plantar pressure distribution in the diabetic foot during the push-off stance.

    Actis, Ricardo L; Ventura, Liliana B; Smith, Kirk E; Commean, Paul K; Lott, Donovan J; Pilgram, Thomas K; Mueller, Michael J

    2006-08-01

    The primary objective of conservative care for the diabetic foot is to protect the foot from excessive pressures. Pressure reduction and redistribution may be achieved by designing and fabricating orthotic devices based on foot structure, tissue mechanics, and external loads on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process used for the development of patient-specific mathematical models of the second and third rays of the foot, their solution by the finite element method, and their sensitivity to model parameters and assumptions. We hypothesized that the least complex model to capture the pressure distribution in the region of the metatarsal heads would include the bony structure segmented as toe, metatarsal and support, with cartilage between the bones, plantar fascia and soft tissue. To check the hypothesis, several models were constructed with different levels of details. The process of numerical simulation is comprised of three constituent parts: model definition, numerical solution and prediction. In this paper the main considerations relating model selection and computation of approximate solutions by the finite element method are considered. The fit of forefoot plantar pressures estimated using the FEA models and those explicitly tested were good as evidenced by high Pearson correlations (r=0.70-0.98) and small bias and dispersion. We concluded that incorporating bone support, metatarsal and toes with linear material properties, tendon and fascia with linear material properties, soft tissue with nonlinear material properties, is sufficient for the determination of the pressure distribution in the metatarsal head region in the push-off position, both barefoot and with shoe and total contact insert. Patient-specific examples are presented.

  6. Foot Posture and Patellar Tendon Pain Among Adult Volleyball Players

    de Groot, Reinier; Malliaras, Peter; Munteanu, Shannon; Payne, Craig; Morrissey, Dylan; Maffulli, Nicola

    Objective: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. Design: Observational study. Setting: Field-based study among competing athletes. Participants: Volleyball

  7. Innovations in plantar pressure and foot temperature measurements in diabetes

    Bus, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plantar pressure and temperature measurements in the diabetic foot primarily contribute to identifying abnormal values that increase risk for foot ulceration, and they are becoming increasingly more integrated in clinical practice and daily life of the patient. While plantar pressure measurements

  8. Diabetic foot ulcers – evidence-based wound management: A ...

    Diabetic foot ulcers have a significant impact on the individual patient's quality of life, potential morbidity and even mortality. Diabetic foot ulcers also consume a gradually increasing portion of our health care budget. Whenever possible the focus should be on prevention rather than cure. All diabetic patients must have both ...

  9. Congenital and acquired foot disorders and their roentgenographic examination

    Weber, M.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to general radiologic aspects there are special orthopedic considerations have in interpretation of X-rays of the foot. This is especially important for the diagnosis of orthopedic foot diseases. In clubfoot X-rays are useful for therapeutic planning and control. Even in the first months of life radiographs can show important disturbances of growth of the foot and displacement of the bones of the tarsus. In other congenital foot deformities X-rays are important for diagnostic reasons: they prove luxations or skeletal deformities. The most important acquired foot disease is the pronating foot. X-rays do not only show the amount of joint damage and structural changes of bones but also allow to draw conclusions to be drawn about the causes of static and dynamic changes of the foot skeleton. Functional diagnostic radiological investigation is of decisive importance for evaluation of infantile pronating foot. X-rays allow the differentiation to be made between physiological and pathologic changes. Subtle radiographic investigation is essential while planning operative treatment in childhood, as in adults. (orig.) [de

  10. The Pattern and Surgical Management of Diabetic Foot at Muhimbili ...

    This study aimed at determining the pattern and the surgical management of patients with Diabetic Foot at Muhimbili National Hospital, from March to December 2008. Methods: All in-patients with diabetic foot who were admitted in the hospital during the study period were included into the study. Results: A total of 67 ...

  11. Foot posture and patellar tendon pain among adult volleyball players.

    Groot, R. de; Malliaras, P.; Munteanu, S.; Payne, C.; Morrissey, D.; Maffulli, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Field-based study among competing athletes. PARTICIPANTS: Volleyball

  12. Diabetic foot workshop: Improving technical and educational skills for nurses.

    Aalaa, Maryam; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Shahbazi, Samimeh; Shayeganmehr, Zahra; Abooeirad, Maryam; Amini, Mohammad Reza; Adibi, Hossien; Mehrdad, Neda

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus as one of the most common metabolic disorders has some complications, one of the main ones is diabetic foot (DF). Appropriate care and education prevents 85% of diabetic foot amputations. An ideal management to prevent and treat diabetic foot necessitates a close collaboration between the health team members and the diabetic patient. Therefore, improving nurses' knowledge about DF care and advancement in the quality of care provided by the nurses could significantly improve diabetic foot prevention and management. Therefore, the aim of DF workshop was to improve technical and educational skills of the nurses to prevent and manage diabetic foot. Considering the vital role of the nurses in providing DF care, EMRI decided to conduct Diabetic foot workshop for them. The following five steps were designed for the 14 coordinating sessions in the workshop: Goals definition, deciding about attendees, location selection, creating agenda, and developing a follow-up plan. "Diabetic Foot Workshop for Nurses" provides appropriate training to DF nurses at the national level; and combining theory and practice in this workshop not only increases nurses' knowledge, but also improves their skills in the field of the diabetic foot. Providing education and care to patients by DF nurse specialists instead of general nurses could be an important output of this workshop, which may lead to DF prevention and amputation decrease in the long term.

  13. Bearing capacity of Skirt circular footing on sand

    Amr Z. EL Wakil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skirts are used to improve the bearing capacity of shallow footings on sandy soil by constraining the soil beneath and containing the plastic flow of soil. They are used as an alternative to deep foundations in soils with low strength at the surface. As there has been available little work studying the performance of skirted foundation, we are performing eighteen laboratory experiments on circular steel footings of different diameters and different skirt lengths. The aim of these experiments is to shed some lights on the effects of skirts on the bearing capacity of shallow footings. The effects of skirt length and the relative density of sand on the ultimate load attained were investigated. From the accomplished laboratory tests, it was found that skirts improve appreciably the sustainability of shallow footings to applied load as they increase the ultimate load of shallow footings by some up to 6.25 times for the current study conditions and variables. The performance of skirted footing depends upon the relative density of sand and on the skirt length to footing diameter ratio. Skirts are more beneficial in case of footings on loose sand than in case of medium and dense sand.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus foot syndrome ...

    Background: Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, resulting in major economic consequences for the patients, their families, and thesociety. Diabetic foot ulcers are largely preventable by identifying people at risk of ulceration throughexamination of the feet, education and frequent follow-up of these ...

  15. Role of footcare education in diabetic foot status and glycaemic ...

    Background: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among the adult population is rising globally. As the case detection rates of diabetes increase in adult Nigerians, managing the attendant (foot) complications has become an important health challenge. Poor practice of foot care and poor glycaemic control is potential risk for ...

  16. Diabetic foot care: Self reported knowledge and practice among ...

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) foot complications are a leading cause of mortality in developing countries and the prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase in the next decades in these countries. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practice of foot care among diabetes patients attending ...

  17. Veterinary realities: what is foot and mouth disease?

    Law, J.; Mol, A.

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary science draws on different traditions for knowing and acting, and mobilises different kinds of materials and techniques. This article explores these differences and their tensions for the diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in the UK in 2001. It shows that when they talk of foot and mouth

  18. The prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Firth, Jill; Hale, Claire; Helliwell, Philip; Hill, Jackie; Nelson, E Andrea

    2008-02-15

    To establish the prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in secondary care. A postal survey of all patients with RA (n = 1,130) under the care of rheumatologists in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK was performed. The prevalence data were validated through clinical examination, case-note review, and contact with health professionals. The false-negative rate was investigated in a subsample of patients (n = 70) who denied any history of ulceration. The postal survey achieved a 78% response rate. Following validation, the point prevalence of foot ulceration was 3.39% and the overall prevalence was 9.73%. The false-positive rate was initially high at 21.21%, but use of diagrammatic questionnaire data to exclude leg ulceration reduced the rate to 10.76%. The false-negative rate was 11.76%. The most common sites for ulceration were the dorsal aspect of hammer toes, the metatarsal heads, and the metatarsophalangeal joint in patients with hallux abducto valgus, with 33% of patients reporting multiple sites of ulceration. Patients with open-foot and healed-foot ulceration had significantly longer RA disease duration, reported significantly greater use of special footwear, and had a higher prevalence of foot surgery than ulcer-free patients. Foot ulceration affects a significant proportion of patients with RA. Further work is needed to establish risk factors for foot ulceration in RA and to target foot health provision more effectively.

  19. Diabetic Foot and Risk: How to Prevent Losing Your Leg

    ... in blood flow to the foot. Darkening or loss of hair may indicate that the blood or nerve supply has decreased. Less blood to the foot can ... differences between hot/warm and cold water. Shower water can be first tested ... identify any loss of temperature sensation. Testing for any change in ...

  20. Treatment for Common Running/Walking Foot Injuries

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Haar, Calin; Ihlers, Matt; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Whether you are a weekend warrior or a serious athlete, most runners fear the possibility of being injured. For those who are physically active or stand on their feet all day, healthy feet are important Highly conditioned runners spend many hours performing foot maintenance to prevent unnecessary injuries. Some of the common foot injuries are:…