WorldWideScience

Sample records for linear variable intensity

  1. Intensive variable and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Xinqi; Yuan, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Opening with intensive variables theory, using a combination of static and dynamic GIS and integrating numerical calculation and spatial optimization, this book creates a framework and methodology for evaluating land use effect, among other concepts.

  2. Compact Spectrometers Based on Linear Variable Filters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate a linear-variable spectrometer with an H2RG array. Linear Variable Filter (LVF) spectrometers provide attractive resource benefits – high optical...

  3. Beam-intensity limitations in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent demand for high-intensity beams of various particles has renewed interest in the investigation of beam current and beam quality limits in linear RF and induction accelerators and beam-transport channels. Previous theoretical work is reviewed, and new work on beam matching and stability is outlined. There is a real need for extending the theory to handle the time evolution of beam emittance; some present work toward this goal is described. The role of physical constraints in channel intensity limitation is emphasized. Work on optimizing channel performance, particularly at low particle velocities, has resulted in major technological advances. The opportunities for combining such channels into arrays are discussed. 50 references

  4. Singular Linear Differential Equations in Two Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, B.L.J.; Put, M. van der

    2008-01-01

    The formal and analytic classification of integrable singular linear differential equations has been studied among others by R. Gerard and Y. Sibuya. We provide a simple proof of their main result, namely: For certain irregular systems in two variables there is no Stokes phenomenon, i.e. there is no

  5. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed....... Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal......-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both...

  6. Signal enhancement with variable span linear filters

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper R

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed. Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of ...

  7. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    . Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal...... the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of these filters are analyzed in terms of their noise reduction capabilities and desired signal distortion, and the analyses are validated and further explored in simulations....

  8. High-intensity deuteron linear accelerator (FMIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    For fusion reactors to become operational, one of the many problems to be solved is to find materials able to withstand the intense bombardment of 14-MeV neutrons released by the fusion process. The development of alloys less likely to become damaged by this neutron bombardment will require years of work, making it desirable to begin studies in parallel with other aspects of fusion power generators. The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, to be built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Richland, Washington, will provide a high neutron flux and a neutron energy spectrum representative of fusion reactor conditions in volumes adequate to screen and qualify samples of candidate fusion reactor materials. FMIT's design goal is to provide an irradiation test volume of 10 cm 3 at a neutron flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 -s, and 500 cm 3 at a flux of 10 14 n/cm 2 -s. This will not allow testing of actual components, but samples in the most intense flux region can be subjected to accelerated life testing, accumulating in one year the total number of neutrons seen by a fusion reactor in 10 to 20 years of operation

  9. Linear odd Poisson bracket on Grassmann variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    A linear odd Poisson bracket (antibracket) realized solely in terms of Grassmann variables is suggested. It is revealed that the bracket, which corresponds to a semi-simple Lie group, has at once three Grassmann-odd nilpotent Δ-like differential operators of the first, the second and the third orders with respect to Grassmann derivatives, in contrast with the canonical odd Poisson bracket having the only Grassmann-odd nilpotent differential Δ-operator of the second order. It is shown that these Δ-like operators together with a Grassmann-odd nilpotent Casimir function of this bracket form a finite-dimensional Lie superalgebra. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Laura

    2014-08-13

    Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

  11. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.C.; Frank, J.A.; Liska, D.J.; Potter, R.C.; Schamaun, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder

  12. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  13. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases

  14. Annotated bibliography on high-intensity linear accelerators. [240 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, R.A.; Roybal, E.U.

    1978-01-01

    A technical bibliography covering subjects important to the design of high-intensity beam transport systems and linear accelerators is presented. Space charge and emittance growth are stressed. Subject and author concordances provide cross-reference to detailed citations, which include an abstract and notes on the material. The bibliography resides in a computer database that can be searched for key words and phrases.

  15. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  16. rf coaxial couplers for high-intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, J.J.; Knapp, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Two rf coaxial couplers that are particularly suitable for intertank connection of the disk-and-washer accelerating structure for use in high-intensity linear accelerators have been developed. These devices have very high coupling to the accelerating structure and very low rf power loss at the operating frequency, and they can be designed for any relative particle velocity β > 0.4. Focusing and monitoring devices can be located inside these couplers

  17. High intensity proton linear accelerator development for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Oguri, H.; Ito, N.; Kusano, J.; Okumura, Y.; Murata, H.; Sakogawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA has been proposed for various engineering tests for the transmutation system of nuclear waste by JAERI. The conceptual and optimization studies for this accelerator performed for a proper choice of operating frequency, high b structure, mechanical engineering considerations and RF source aspects are briefly described

  18. How Robust Is Linear Regression with Dummy Variables?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankmeyer, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Researchers in education and the social sciences make extensive use of linear regression models in which the dependent variable is continuous-valued while the explanatory variables are a combination of continuous-valued regressors and dummy variables. The dummies partition the sample into groups, some of which may contain only a few observations.…

  19. Linear latent variable models: the lava-package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Klaus Kähler; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2013-01-01

    are implemented including robust standard errors for clustered correlated data, multigroup analyses, non-linear parameter constraints, inference with incomplete data, maximum likelihood estimation with censored and binary observations, and instrumental variable estimators. In addition an extensive simulation......An R package for specifying and estimating linear latent variable models is presented. The philosophy of the implementation is to separate the model specification from the actual data, which leads to a dynamic and easy way of modeling complex hierarchical structures. Several advanced features...

  20. Linear energy transfer incorporated intensity modulated proton therapy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Khabazian, Azin; Yepes, Pablo P.; Lim, Gino; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David R.; Mohan, Radhe

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating linear energy transfer (LET) into the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. Because increased LET correlates with increased biological effectiveness of protons, high LETs in target volumes and low LETs in critical structures and normal tissues are preferred in an IMPT plan. However, if not explicitly incorporated into the optimization criteria, different IMPT plans may yield similar physical dose distributions but greatly different LET, specifically dose-averaged LET, distributions. Conventionally, the IMPT optimization criteria (or cost function) only includes dose-based objectives in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In this study, we added LET-based objectives for maximizing LET in target volumes and minimizing LET in critical structures and normal tissues. Due to the fractional programming nature of the resulting model, we used a variable reformulation approach so that the optimization process is computationally equivalent to conventional IMPT optimization. In this study, five brain tumor patients who had been treated with proton therapy at our institution were selected. Two plans were created for each patient based on the proposed LET-incorporated optimization (LETOpt) and the conventional dose-based optimization (DoseOpt). The optimized plans were compared in terms of both dose (assuming a constant RBE of 1.1 as adopted in clinical practice) and LET. Both optimization approaches were able to generate comparable dose distributions. The LET-incorporated optimization achieved not only pronounced reduction of LET values in critical organs, such as brainstem and optic chiasm, but also increased LET in target volumes, compared to the conventional dose-based optimization. However, on occasion, there was a need to tradeoff the acceptability of dose and LET distributions. Our conclusion is that the

  1. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.; Potter, James M.; Stovall, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  2. Design of an intense positron source for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, H.; Yamada, K.; Funahashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Japan Linear Collider (JLC) requires an intense positron source of 8x10 11 particles per rf-pulse. A computer simulation reveals the possibility of such an intense positron source using 'conventional' technology. In order to relax the limitation of the incident electron energy density due to thermal stress in the converter target, the incident beam radius is enlarged within the range so as not to reduce the positron capture efficiency. A pre-damping ring and beam transport system to the pre-damping ring, which have a large transverse acceptance, play important roles for a high capture efficiency. A prototype positron source has been designed and installed at downstream of 1.54 GeV S-band linac in Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) in order to carry out experiments to develop the essential technology for JLC. The simulated results will be tested in experiments with the prototype positron source. (author)

  3. A Partitioning and Bounded Variable Algorithm for Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Theodore J.

    2006-01-01

    An interesting new partitioning and bounded variable algorithm (PBVA) is proposed for solving linear programming problems. The PBVA is a variant of the simplex algorithm which uses a modified form of the simplex method followed by the dual simplex method for bounded variables. In contrast to the two-phase method and the big M method, the PBVA does…

  4. A Non-Gaussian Spatial Generalized Linear Latent Variable Model

    KAUST Repository

    Irincheeva, Irina

    2012-08-03

    We consider a spatial generalized linear latent variable model with and without normality distributional assumption on the latent variables. When the latent variables are assumed to be multivariate normal, we apply a Laplace approximation. To relax the assumption of marginal normality in favor of a mixture of normals, we construct a multivariate density with Gaussian spatial dependence and given multivariate margins. We use the pairwise likelihood to estimate the corresponding spatial generalized linear latent variable model. The properties of the resulting estimators are explored by simulations. In the analysis of an air pollution data set the proposed methodology uncovers weather conditions to be a more important source of variability than air pollution in explaining all the causes of non-accidental mortality excluding accidents. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  5. A Non-Gaussian Spatial Generalized Linear Latent Variable Model

    KAUST Repository

    Irincheeva, Irina; Cantoni, Eva; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a spatial generalized linear latent variable model with and without normality distributional assumption on the latent variables. When the latent variables are assumed to be multivariate normal, we apply a Laplace approximation. To relax the assumption of marginal normality in favor of a mixture of normals, we construct a multivariate density with Gaussian spatial dependence and given multivariate margins. We use the pairwise likelihood to estimate the corresponding spatial generalized linear latent variable model. The properties of the resulting estimators are explored by simulations. In the analysis of an air pollution data set the proposed methodology uncovers weather conditions to be a more important source of variability than air pollution in explaining all the causes of non-accidental mortality excluding accidents. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  6. Noise Reduction with Optimal Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of noise reduction is addressed as a linear filtering problem in a novel way by using concepts from subspace-based enhancement methods, resulting in variable span linear filters. This is done by forming the filter coefficients as linear combinations of a number...... included in forming the filter. Using these concepts, a number of different filter designs are considered, like minimum distortion, Wiener, maximum SNR, and tradeoff filters. Interestingly, all these can be expressed as special cases of variable span filters. We also derive expressions for the speech...... demonstrate the advantages and properties of the variable span filter designs, and their potential performance gain compared to widely used speech enhancement methods....

  7. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1998-01-01

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod.

  8. Estimation and variable selection for generalized additive partial linear models

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Li

    2011-08-01

    We study generalized additive partial linear models, proposing the use of polynomial spline smoothing for estimation of nonparametric functions, and deriving quasi-likelihood based estimators for the linear parameters. We establish asymptotic normality for the estimators of the parametric components. The procedure avoids solving large systems of equations as in kernel-based procedures and thus results in gains in computational simplicity. We further develop a class of variable selection procedures for the linear parameters by employing a nonconcave penalized quasi-likelihood, which is shown to have an asymptotic oracle property. Monte Carlo simulations and an empirical example are presented for illustration. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2011.

  9. [Relations between biomedical variables: mathematical analysis or linear algebra?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucher, M; Berlie, J; Brunet, M

    1977-01-01

    The authors, after a short reminder of one pattern's structure, stress on the possible double approach of relations uniting the variables of this pattern: use of fonctions, what is within the mathematical analysis sphere, use of linear algebra profiting by matricial calculation's development and automatiosation. They precise the respective interests on these methods, their bounds and the imperatives for utilization, according to the kind of variables, of data, and the objective for work, understanding phenomenons or helping towards decision.

  10. Intense mesoscale variability in the Sardinia Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Aniello; Borrione, Ines; Falchetti, Silvia; Knoll, Michaela; Fiekas, Heinz-Volker; Heywood, Karen; Oddo, Paolo; Onken, Reiner

    2015-04-01

    From the 6 to 25 June 2014, the REP14-MED sea trial was conducted by CMRE, supported by 20 partners from six different nations. The at-sea activities were carried out onboard the research vessels Alliance (NATO) and Planet (German Ministry of Defense), comprising a marine area of about 110 x 110 km2 to the west of the Sardinian coast. More than 300 CTD casts typically spaced at 10 km were collected; both ships continuously recorded vertical profiles of currents by means of their ADCPs, and a ScanFish® and a CTD chain were towed for almost three days by Alliance and Planet, respectively, following parallel routes. Twelve gliders from different manufacturers (Slocum, SeaGliderTM and SeaExplorer) were continuously sampling the study area following zonal tracks spaced at 10 km. In addition, six moorings, 17 surface drifters and one ARVOR float were deployed. From a first analysis of the observations, several mesoscale features were identified in the survey area, in particular: (i) a warm-core anticyclonic eddy in the southern part of the domain, about 50 km in diameter and with the strongest signal at about 50-m depth (ii) another warm-core anticyclonic eddy of comparable dimensions in the central part of the domain, but extending to greater depth than the former one, and (iii) a small (less than 15 km in diameter) cold-core cyclonic eddy of Winter Intermediate Water in the depth range between 170 m and 370 m. All three eddies showed intensified currents, up to 50 cm s-1. The huge high-resolution observational data set and the variety of observation techniques enabled the mesoscale features and their variability to be tracked for almost three weeks. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the mesoscale dynamic behaviour and their interactions, assimilation studies with an ocean circulation model are underway.

  11. Exhaustive Search for Sparse Variable Selection in Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yasuhiko; Takenaka, Hikaru; Nakanishi-Ohno, Yoshinori; Uemura, Makoto; Ikeda, Shiro; Okada, Masato

    2018-04-01

    We propose a K-sparse exhaustive search (ES-K) method and a K-sparse approximate exhaustive search method (AES-K) for selecting variables in linear regression. With these methods, K-sparse combinations of variables are tested exhaustively assuming that the optimal combination of explanatory variables is K-sparse. By collecting the results of exhaustively computing ES-K, various approximate methods for selecting sparse variables can be summarized as density of states. With this density of states, we can compare different methods for selecting sparse variables such as relaxation and sampling. For large problems where the combinatorial explosion of explanatory variables is crucial, the AES-K method enables density of states to be effectively reconstructed by using the replica-exchange Monte Carlo method and the multiple histogram method. Applying the ES-K and AES-K methods to type Ia supernova data, we confirmed the conventional understanding in astronomy when an appropriate K is given beforehand. However, we found the difficulty to determine K from the data. Using virtual measurement and analysis, we argue that this is caused by data shortage.

  12. LINTAB, Linear Interpolable Tables from any Continuous Variable Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LINTAB is designed to construct linearly interpolable tables from any function. The program will start from any function of a single continuous variable... FUNKY(X). By user input the function can be defined, (1) Over 1 to 100 X ranges. (2) Within each X range the function is defined by 0 to 50 constants. (3) At boundaries between X ranges the function may be continuous or discontinuous (depending on the constants used to define the function within each X range). 2 - Method of solution: LINTAB will construct a table of X and Y values where the tabulated (X,Y) pairs will be exactly equal to the function (Y=FUNKY(X)) and linear interpolation between the tabulated pairs will be within any user specified fractional uncertainty of the function for all values of X within the requested X range

  13. Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    2005-06-01

    A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due to Morawetz [The decay of solutions of the exterior initial-boundary value problem for the wave equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (1961) 561-568]. In order to prove local energy decay, we mainly apply two types of ideas due to Ikehata-Matsuyama [L2-behaviour of solutions to the linear heat and wave equations in exterior domains, Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33-42] and Todorova-Yordanov [Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (2001) 464-489].

  14. Explicit estimating equations for semiparametric generalized linear latent variable models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2010-07-05

    We study generalized linear latent variable models without requiring a distributional assumption of the latent variables. Using a geometric approach, we derive consistent semiparametric estimators. We demonstrate that these models have a property which is similar to that of a sufficient complete statistic, which enables us to simplify the estimating procedure and explicitly to formulate the semiparametric estimating equations. We further show that the explicit estimators have the usual root n consistency and asymptotic normality. We explain the computational implementation of our method and illustrate the numerical performance of the estimators in finite sample situations via extensive simulation studies. The advantage of our estimators over the existing likelihood approach is also shown via numerical comparison. We employ the method to analyse a real data example from economics. © 2010 Royal Statistical Society.

  15. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  16. Cortical Contribution to Linear, Non-linear and Frequency Components of Motor Variability Control during Standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König Ignasiak, Niklas; Habermacher, Lars; Taylor, William R; Singh, Navrag B

    2017-01-01

    Motor variability is an inherent feature of all human movements and reflects the quality of functional task performance. Depending on the requirements of the motor task, the human sensory-motor system is thought to be able to flexibly govern the appropriate level of variability. However, it remains unclear which neurophysiological structures are responsible for the control of motor variability. In this study, we tested the contribution of cortical cognitive resources on the control of motor variability (in this case postural sway) using a dual-task paradigm and furthermore observed potential changes in control strategy by evaluating Ia-afferent integration (H-reflex). Twenty healthy subjects were instructed to stand relaxed on a force plate with eyes open and closed, as well as while trying to minimize sway magnitude and performing a "subtracting-sevens" cognitive task. In total 25 linear and non-linear parameters were used to evaluate postural sway, which were combined using a Principal Components procedure. Neurophysiological response of Ia-afferent reflex loop was quantified using the Hoffman reflex. In order to assess the contribution of the H-reflex on the sway outcome in the different standing conditions multiple mixed-model ANCOVAs were performed. The results suggest that subjects were unable to further minimize their sway, despite actively focusing to do so. The dual-task had a destabilizing effect on PS, which could partly (by 4%) be counter-balanced by increasing reliance on Ia-afferent information. The effect of the dual-task was larger than the protective mechanism of increasing Ia-afferent information. We, therefore, conclude that cortical structures, as compared to peripheral reflex loops, play a dominant role in the control of motor variability.

  17. Spatial variability and trends of the rain intensity over Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambezidis, H. D.; Larissi, I. K.; Nastos, P. T.; Paliatsos, A. G.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of the mean annual rain intensity in Greece are examined during a 41-year period (1962-2002). The meteorological datasets concern monthly rain amounts (mm) and the respective monthly durations (h) recorded at thirty two meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed on Greek territory, in order to calculate the mean monthly rain intensity. All the rain time series used in the analysis were tested by the application of the short-cut Bartlett test of homogeneity. The spatial distribution of the mean annual rain intensity is studied using the Kriging interpolation method, while the temporal variability, concerning the mean annual rain intensity trends along with their significance (Mann-Kendall test), is analysed. The findings of the analysis show that statistically significant negative trends (95% confidence level) appear mainly in the west sub-regions of Greece, while statistically significant positive trends (95% confidence level) appear in the wider area of Athens and the complex of Cyclades Islands. Further analysis concerning the seasonal rain intensity is needed, because there are different seasonal patterns, taking into account that, convective rain in Greece occurs mainly within the summer season.

  18. High-density ionization with an intense linear focus discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.N.

    1975-01-01

    Some experimental results obtained with a linear focus device are described. Measurements include plasma diagnostics made with fast photography, pinhole x-ray photography, and x-ray spectroscopy in the photon energy range of 6 to 35 0 keV. (MOW)

  19. Low-intensity interference effects and hidden-variable theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonomano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica

    1978-05-11

    The double-slit interference experiment and other similar experiments in the low-intensity limit (that is, one photon in the apparatus at a time) are examined in the spirit of Bell's work from the point of view of hidden-variable theories. It is found that there exists a class of hidden-variable theories which disagrees with quantum mechanics for a certain type of interference experiment. A manufactured conceptualization of this class, which is a particle view of interference, is described. An experiment, which appears to be feasible, is proposed to examine this disagreement.

  20. Spatial linear flows of finite length with nonuniform intensity distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Ivan Evgrafovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Irrotational flows produced by spatial linear flows of finite length with different uneven lows of discharge over the flow length are represented in cylindrical coordinate system. Flows with the length 2a are placed in infinite space filled with ideal (inviscid fluid. In “А” variant discharge is fading linearly downward along the length of the flow. In “B” variant in upper half of the flow (length a discharge is fading linearly downward, in lower half of the flow discharge is fading linearly from the middle point to lower end. In “C” variant discharge of the flow is growing linearly from upper and lower ends to middle point.Equations for discharge distribution along the length of the flow are provided for each variant. Equations consist of two terms and include two dimensional parameters and current coordinate that allows integrating on flow length. Analytical expressions are derived for speed potential functions and flow speed components for flow speeds produced by analyzed flows. These analytical expressions consist of dimensional parameters of discharge distribution patterns along the length of the flow. Flow lines equation (meridional sections of flow surfaces for variants “A”, “B”, “C” is unsolvable in quadratures. Flow lines plotting is proposed to be made by finite difference method. Equations for flow line plotting are provided for each variant. Calculations of these equations show that the analyzed flows have the following flow lines: “A” has confocal hyperbolical curves, “B” and “C” have confocal hyperboles. Flow surfaces are confocal hyperboloids produced by rotation of these hyperboles about the axis passing through the flows. In “A” variant the space filled with fluid is separated by vividly horizontal flow surface in two parts. In upper part that includes the smaller part of the flow length flow lines are oriented downward, in lower part – upward. The equation defining coordinate of

  1. Robust best linear estimation for regression analysis using surrogate and instrumental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Y

    2012-04-01

    We investigate methods for regression analysis when covariates are measured with errors. In a subset of the whole cohort, a surrogate variable is available for the true unobserved exposure variable. The surrogate variable satisfies the classical measurement error model, but it may not have repeated measurements. In addition to the surrogate variables that are available among the subjects in the calibration sample, we assume that there is an instrumental variable (IV) that is available for all study subjects. An IV is correlated with the unobserved true exposure variable and hence can be useful in the estimation of the regression coefficients. We propose a robust best linear estimator that uses all the available data, which is the most efficient among a class of consistent estimators. The proposed estimator is shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal under very weak distributional assumptions. For Poisson or linear regression, the proposed estimator is consistent even if the measurement error from the surrogate or IV is heteroscedastic. Finite-sample performance of the proposed estimator is examined and compared with other estimators via intensive simulation studies. The proposed method and other methods are applied to a bladder cancer case-control study.

  2. Generation of intensity duration frequency curves and intensity temporal variability pattern of intense rainfall for Lages/SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Orli Cardoso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the frequency distribution and intensity temporal variability of intense rainfall for Lages/SC from diary pluviograph data. Data on annual series of maximum rainfalls from rain gauges of the CAV-UDESC Weather Station in Lages/SC were used from 2000 to 2009. Gumbel statistic distribution was applied in order to obtain the rainfall height and intensity in the following return periods: 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. Results showed intensity-duration-frequency curves (I-D-F for those return periods, as well as I-D-F equations: i=2050.Tr0,20.(t+30-0,89, where i was the intensity, Tr was the rainfall return periods and t was the rainfall duration. For the intensity of temporal variability pattern along of the rainfall duration time, the convective, or advanced pattern was the predominant, with larger precipitate rainfalls in the first half of the duration. The same pattern presented larger occurrences in the spring and summer stations.

  3. High intensity proton linear accelerator for Neutron Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been proposing the Neutron Science Project (NSP) which will be composed of a high intensity proton accelerator and various research facilities. With an energy of 1.5 GeV and a beam power of 8 MW, the accelerator is required for basic research fields and nuclear waste transmutation studies. The R and D work has been carried out for the components of the accelerator. In the low energy accelerator part, a beam test with an ion source and an RFQ has been performed with a current of 80 mA and a duty factor of 10% at an energy of 2 MeV. A 1 m long high power test model of DTL has been fabricated and tested with a duty factor of 20%. In the high energy accelerator part, a superconducting (SC) linac has been selected as a main option from 100 MeV to 1.5 GeV. A test stand for SC linac cavity with equipment of cryogenics, vacuum, RF source and cavity processing and cleaning system has been prepared to test the fabrication process and physics issues. The vertical tests of β = 0.5 (145 MeV) and β = 0.89 (1.1 GeV) single cell SC cavities have been made resulting in a maximum electric field strength of 44 MV/m and 47 MV/m at 2 K, respectively. (author)

  4. Linear luminescence for thin plastic scintillator under intense soft X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Jiamin; Jiang Shilun; Xu Rongkun; Guo Cun

    2006-01-01

    The basic principle of soft X-ray power meter is introduced in the paper and the experimental process and the result of thin plastic scintillator linear luminescence under intense soft X-ray irradiation are described. A range of flux density of energy for thin plastic scintillator linear luminescence under intense soft X-ray irradiation is included. The upper limit of the flux density is 1.47 x 10 5 W/cm 2 . (authors)

  5. Variability of intensive care admission decisions for the very elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Boumendil

    Full Text Available Although increasing numbers of very elderly patients are requiring intensive care, few large sample studies have investigated ICU admission of very elderly patients. Data on pre triage by physicians from other specialities is limited. This observational cohort study aims at examining inter-hospital variability of ICU admission rates and its association with patients' outcomes. All patients over 80 years possibly qualifying for ICU admission who presented to the emergency departments (ED of 15 hospitals in the Paris (France area during a one-year period were prospectively included in the study. Main outcome measures were ICU eligibility, as assessed by the ED and ICU physicians; in-hospital mortality; and vital and functional status 6 months after the ED visit. 2646 patients (median age 86; interquartile range 83-91 were included in the study. 94% of participants completed follow-up (n = 2495. 12.4% (n = 329 of participants were deemed eligible for ICU admission by ED physicians and intensivists. The overall in-hospital and 6-month mortality rates were respectively 27.2% (n = 717 and 50.7% (n = 1264. At six months, 57.5% (n = 1433 of patients had died or had a functional deterioration. Rates of patients deemed eligible for ICU admission ranged from 5.6% to 38.8% across the participating centers, and this variability persisted after adjustment for patients' characteristics. Despite this variability, we found no association between level of ICU eligibility and either in-hospital death or six-month death or functional deterioration. In France, the likelihood that a very elderly person will be admitted to an ICU varies widely from one hospital to another. Influence of intensive care admission on patients' outcome remains unclear.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00912600.

  6. Linear variable voltage diode capacitor and adaptive matching networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, L.E.; De Vreede, L.C.N.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated variable voltage diode capacitor topology applied to a circuit providing a variable voltage load for controlling variable capacitance. The topology includes a first pair of anti-series varactor diodes, wherein the diode power-law exponent n for the first pair of anti-series varactor

  7. Defining a Family of Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using Log-Linear Models with Latent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Robert A.; Templin, Jonathan L.; Willse, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses log-linear models with latent variables (Hagenaars, in "Loglinear Models with Latent Variables," 1993) to define a family of cognitive diagnosis models. In doing so, the relationship between many common models is explicitly defined and discussed. In addition, because the log-linear model with latent variables is a general model for…

  8. Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Qin, Hao; Alléaume, Romain

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of continuous variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) in dense-wavelength-division multiplexing networks (DWDM), where QKD will typically have to coexist with several co-propagating (forward or backward) C-band classical channels whose launch power is around 0 dBm. We have conducted experimental tests of the coexistence of CV-QKD multiplexed with an intense classical channel, for different input powers and different DWDM wavelengths. Over a 25 km fiber, a CV-QKD operated over the 1530.12 nm channel can tolerate the noise arising from up to 11.5 dBm classical channel at 1550.12 nm in the forward direction (9.7 dBm in backward). A positive key rate (0.49 kbits s −1 ) can be obtained at 75 km with classical channel power of respectively −3 and −9 dBm in forward and backward. Based on these measurements, we have also simulated the excess noise and optimized channel allocation for the integration of CV-QKD in some access networks. We have, for example, shown that CV-QKD could coexist with five pairs of channels (with nominal input powers: 2 dBm forward and 1 dBm backward) over a 25 km WDM-PON network. The obtained results demonstrate the outstanding capacity of CV-QKD to coexist with classical signals of realistic intensity in optical networks. (paper)

  9. Intense beams at the micron level for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1991-08-01

    High brightness beams with sub-micron dimensions are needed to produce a high luminosity for electron-positron collisions in the Next Linear Collider (NLC). To generate these small beam sizes, a large number of issues dealing with intense beams have to be resolved. Over the past few years many have been successfully addressed but most need experimental verification. Some of these issues are beam dynamics, emittance control, instrumentation, collimation, and beam-beam interactions. Recently, the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) has proven the viability of linear collider technology and is an excellent test facility for future linear collider studies

  10. Reconstructing the long-term cosmic ray intensity: linear relations do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mursula

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available It was recently suggested (Lockwood, 2001 that the cosmic ray intensity in the neutron monitor energy range is linearly related to the coronal source flux, and can be reconstructed for the last 130 years using the long-term coronal flux estimated earlier. Moreover, Lockwood (2001 reconstructed the coronal flux for the last 500 years using a similar linear relation between the flux and the concentration of cosmogenic 10 Be isotopes in polar ice. Here we show that the applied linear relations are oversimplified and lead to unphysical results on long time scales. In particular, the cosmic ray intensity reconstructed by Lockwood (2001 for the last 130 years has a steep trend which is considerably larger than the trend estimated from observations during the last 65 years. Accordingly, the reconstructed cosmic ray intensity reaches or even exceeds the local interstellar cosmic ray flux around 1900. We argue that these unphysical results obtained when using linear relations are due to the oversimplified approach which does not take into account the complex and essentially nonlinear nature of long-term cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere. We also compare the long-term cosmic ray intensity based on a linear treatment with the reconstruction based on a recent physical model which predicts a considerably lower cosmic ray intensity around 1900.Key words. Interplanetary physics (cosmic rays; heliopause and solar wind termination – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (time variations, secular and long-term

  11. Variable selection in multiple linear regression: The influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    provide an indication of whether the fit of the selected model improves or ... and calculate M(−i); quantify the influence of case i in terms of a function, f(•), of M and ..... [21] Venter JH & Snyman JLJ, 1997, Linear model selection based on risk ...

  12. Interpreting Multiple Linear Regression: A Guidebook of Variable Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathans, Laura L.; Oswald, Frederick L.; Nimon, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Multiple regression (MR) analyses are commonly employed in social science fields. It is also common for interpretation of results to typically reflect overreliance on beta weights, often resulting in very limited interpretations of variable importance. It appears that few researchers employ other methods to obtain a fuller understanding of what…

  13. Supporting Students' Understanding of Linear Equations with One Variable Using Algebra Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, Sari; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students' understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students…

  14. Short- and long-term variations in non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanters, J K; Højgaard, M V; Agner, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to investigate the short- and long-term variations in the non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability, and to determine the relationships between conventional time and frequency domain methods and the newer non-linear methods of characterizing heart rate...... rate and describes mainly linear correlations. Non-linear predictability is correlated with heart rate variability measured as the standard deviation of the R-R intervals and the respiratory activity expressed as power of the high-frequency band. The dynamics of heart rate variability changes suddenly...

  15. A standardized approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis during low-intensity physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine eSarafian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of current methods: The assessment of human variability in various compartments of daily energy expenditure (EE under standardized conditions is well defined at rest (as basal metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding, and currently under validation for assessing the energy cost of low-intensity dynamic work. However, because physical activities of daily life consist of a combination of both dynamic and isometric work, there is also a need to develop standardized tests for assessing human variability in the energy cost of low-intensity isometric work.Experimental objectives: Development of an approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis by incorporating a protocol of intermittent leg press exercise of varying low-intensity isometric loads with measurements of EE by indirect calorimetry. Results: EE was measured in the seated position with the subject at rest or while intermittently pressing both legs against a press-platform at 5 low-intensity isometric loads (+5, +10, + 15, +20 and +25 kg force, each consisting of a succession of 8 cycles of press (30 s and rest (30 s. EE, integrated over each 8-min period of the intermittent leg press exercise, was found to increase linearly across the 5 isometric loads with a correlation coefficient (r > 0.9 for each individual. The slope of this EE-Load relationship, which provides the energy cost of this standardized isometric exercise expressed per kg force applied intermittently (30 s in every min, was found to show good repeatability when assessed in subjects who repeated the same experimental protocol on 3 separate days: its low intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV of ~ 10% contrasted with its much higher inter-individual CV of 35%; the latter being mass-independent but partly explained by height. Conclusion: This standardized approach to study isometric thermogenesis opens up a new avenue for research in EE phenotyping and metabolic predisposition to obesity

  16. Non-linear variability in geophysics scaling and fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Lovejoy, S

    1991-01-01

    consequences of broken symmetry -here parity-is studied. In this model, turbulence is dominated by a hierarchy of helical (corkscrew) structures. The authors stress the unique features of such pseudo-scalar cascades as well as the extreme nature of the resulting (intermittent) fluctuations. Intermittent turbulent cascades was also the theme of a paper by us in which we show that universality classes exist for continuous cascades (in which an infinite number of cascade steps occur over a finite range of scales). This result is the multiplicative analogue of the familiar central limit theorem for the addition of random variables. Finally, an interesting paper by Pasmanter investigates the scaling associated with anomolous diffusion in a chaotic tidal basin model involving a small number of degrees of freedom. Although the statistical literature is replete with techniques for dealing with those random processes characterized by both exponentially decaying (non-scaling) autocorrelations and exponentially decaying...

  17. Linear Energy Transfer-Guided Optimization in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy: Feasibility Study and Clinical Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula, E-mail: dgiantsoudi@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Grassberger, Clemens; Craft, David; Niemierko, Andrzej; Trofimov, Alexei; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of linear energy transfer (LET) guided plan optimization in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Methods and Materials: A multicriteria optimization (MCO) module was used to generate a series of Pareto-optimal IMPT base plans (BPs), corresponding to defined objectives, for 5 patients with head-and-neck cancer and 2 with pancreatic cancer. A Monte Carlo platform was used to calculate dose and LET distributions for each BP. A custom-designed MCO navigation module allowed the user to interpolate between BPs to produce deliverable Pareto-optimal solutions. Differences among the BPs were evaluated for each patient, based on dose–volume and LET–volume histograms and 3-dimensional distributions. An LET-based relative biological effectiveness (RBE) model was used to evaluate the potential clinical benefit when navigating the space of Pareto-optimal BPs. Results: The mean LET values for the target varied up to 30% among the BPs for the head-and-neck patients and up to 14% for the pancreatic cancer patients. Variations were more prominent in organs at risk (OARs), where mean LET values differed by a factor of up to 2 among the BPs for the same patient. An inverse relation between dose and LET distributions for the OARs was typically observed. Accounting for LET-dependent variable RBE values, a potential improvement on RBE-weighted dose of up to 40%, averaged over several structures under study, was noticed during MCO navigation. Conclusions: We present a novel strategy for optimizing proton therapy to maximize dose-averaged LET in tumor targets while simultaneously minimizing dose-averaged LET in normal tissue structures. MCO BPs show substantial LET variations, leading to potentially significant differences in RBE-weighted doses. Pareto-surface navigation, using both dose and LET distributions for guidance, provides the means for evaluating a large variety of deliverable plans and aids in

  18. Linear Energy Transfer-Guided Optimization in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy: Feasibility Study and Clinical Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Craft, David; Niemierko, Andrzej; Trofimov, Alexei; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and potential clinical benefit of linear energy transfer (LET) guided plan optimization in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Methods and Materials: A multicriteria optimization (MCO) module was used to generate a series of Pareto-optimal IMPT base plans (BPs), corresponding to defined objectives, for 5 patients with head-and-neck cancer and 2 with pancreatic cancer. A Monte Carlo platform was used to calculate dose and LET distributions for each BP. A custom-designed MCO navigation module allowed the user to interpolate between BPs to produce deliverable Pareto-optimal solutions. Differences among the BPs were evaluated for each patient, based on dose–volume and LET–volume histograms and 3-dimensional distributions. An LET-based relative biological effectiveness (RBE) model was used to evaluate the potential clinical benefit when navigating the space of Pareto-optimal BPs. Results: The mean LET values for the target varied up to 30% among the BPs for the head-and-neck patients and up to 14% for the pancreatic cancer patients. Variations were more prominent in organs at risk (OARs), where mean LET values differed by a factor of up to 2 among the BPs for the same patient. An inverse relation between dose and LET distributions for the OARs was typically observed. Accounting for LET-dependent variable RBE values, a potential improvement on RBE-weighted dose of up to 40%, averaged over several structures under study, was noticed during MCO navigation. Conclusions: We present a novel strategy for optimizing proton therapy to maximize dose-averaged LET in tumor targets while simultaneously minimizing dose-averaged LET in normal tissue structures. MCO BPs show substantial LET variations, leading to potentially significant differences in RBE-weighted doses. Pareto-surface navigation, using both dose and LET distributions for guidance, provides the means for evaluating a large variety of deliverable plans and aids in

  19. Classification of acute stress using linear and non-linear heart rate variability analysis derived from sternal ECG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, George; Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Hoppe, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress detection is an important factor in predicting and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. This work is a pilot study with a focus on developing a method for detecting short-term psychophysiological changes through heart rate variability (HRV) features. The purpose of this pilot...... study is to establish and to gain insight on a set of features that could be used to detect psychophysiological changes that occur during chronic stress. This study elicited four different types of arousal by images, sounds, mental tasks and rest, and classified them using linear and non-linear HRV...

  20. Severe linear growth retardation in rural Zambian children: the influence of biological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Kaftwembe, E.M.; Musonda, R.M.; Mwanakasale, V.; Staveren, W.A. van; Hof, M.A. van 't; Sauerwein, R.W.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stunting in preschool children in Zambia is high; stunting has detrimental effects on concurrent psychomotor development and later working capacity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate biological variables that may contribute to linear growth retardation in

  1. SUPPORTING STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING OF LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH ONE VARIABLE USING ALGEBRA TILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Saraswati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students’ understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students use the algebra tiles to find a method to solve linear equations with one variable. Design research was used as an approach in this study. It consists of three phases, namely preliminary design, teaching experiment and retrospective analysis. Video registrations, students’ written works, pre-test, post-test, field notes, and interview are technic to collect data. The data were analyzed by comparing the hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT and the actual learning process. The result shows that algebra tiles could supports students’ understanding to find the formal solution of linear equation with one variable.

  2. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in degree of linear polarization polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Hu, Haofeng; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie

    2016-04-04

    We consider the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) polarimetry system, which performs two intensity measurements at orthogonal polarization states to estimate DOLP. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the DOLP estimator depends on the distribution of integration time for two intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time in an approximate way by employing Delta method and Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analyses and real-world experiments, it is shown that the variance of the DOLP estimator can be decreased for any value of DOLP. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improve the measurement accuracy of the polarimetry system.

  3. Optical fibres sensor based in the intensity switch of a linear laser with two Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basurto P, M.A.; Kuzin, E.A.; Archundia B, C.; Marroquin, E.; May A, M.; Cerecedo N, H.H.; Sanchez M, J.J.; Tentori S, D.; Marquez B, I.; Shliagin, M.; Miridonov, S.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we propose a new configuration for an optical fiber temperature sensor, based on a linear type Er-doped fiber laser. The laser cavity consists of an Er-doped fiber and two identical Bragg gratings at the fiber ends (working as reflectors). Temperature changes are detected by measuring, through one of the gratings, the intensity variations at the system's output. When the temperature of one of the Bragg gratings is modified, a wavelength shift of its spectral reflectivity is observed. Hence, the laser emission intensity of the system is modified. We present experimental results of the intensity switch observed when the temperature difference between the gratings detunes their spectral reflectance. Making use of this effect it is possible to develop limit comparators to bound the temperature range for the object under supervision. This limiting work can be performed with a high sensitivity using a very simple interrogation procedure. (Author)

  4. Nature beyond Linearity: Meteorological Variability and Jensen's Inequality Can Explain Mast Seeding Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fernández-Martínez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mast seeding, the extremely variable and synchronized production of fruits, is a common reproductive behavior in plants. Weather is centrally involved in driving masting. Yet, it is often claimed that it cannot be the sole proximate cause of masting because weather is less variable than fruit production and because the shape of their distributions differ. We used computer simulations to demonstrate that the assumption that weather cannot be the main driver of masting was only valid for linear relationships between weather and fruit production. Non-linear relationships between interannual variability in weather and crop size, however, can account for the differences in their variability and the shape of their distributions because of Jensen's inequality. Exponential relationships with weather can increase the variability of fruit production, and sigmoidal relationships can produce bimodal distributions. These results challenge the idea that meteorological variability cannot be the main proximate driver of mast seeding, returning meteorological variability to the forefront of masting research.

  5. The number of subjects per variable required in linear regression analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Austin (Peter); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To determine the number of independent variables that can be included in a linear regression model. Study Design and Setting We used a series of Monte Carlo simulations to examine the impact of the number of subjects per variable (SPV) on the accuracy of estimated regression

  6. Approximation of functions in two variables by some linear positive operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Skorupka

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some linear positive operators of the Szasz-Mirakjan type in the weighted spaces of continuous functions in two variables. We study the degree of the approximation of functions by these operators. The similar results for functions in one variable are given in [5]. Some operators of the Szasz-Mirakjan type are examined also in [3], [4].

  7. Variables Predicting Foreign Language Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Linear Hypermedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Yavuz

    2007-01-01

    Factors predicting vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced language learners of English in a linear multimedia text were investigated in the current study. Predictor variables of interest were multimedia type, reading proficiency, learning styles, topic interest and background knowledge about the topic. The outcome variables of…

  8. Significant and variable linear polarization during the prompt optical flash of GRB 160625B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troja, E.; Lipunov, V. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Butler, N. R.; Watson, A. M.; Kobayashi, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Marshall, F. E.; Ricci, R.; Fruchter, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Kornilov, V.; Kutyrev, A.; Lee, W. H.; Toy, V.; Tyurina, N. V.; Budnev, N. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; González, J.; Gress, O.; Horesh, A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Richer, M. G.; Roman-Zuniga, C.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Yurkov, V.; Gehrels, N.

    2017-07-01

    Newly formed black holes of stellar mass launch collimated outflows (jets) of ionized matter that approach the speed of light. These outflows power prompt, brief and intense flashes of γ-rays known as γ-ray bursts (GRBs), followed by longer-lived afterglow radiation that is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. Measuring the polarization of the observed GRB radiation provides a direct probe of the magnetic fields in the collimated jets. Rapid-response polarimetric observations of newly discovered bursts have probed the initial afterglow phase, and show that, minutes after the prompt emission has ended, the degree of linear polarization can be as high as 30 per cent - consistent with the idea that a stable, globally ordered magnetic field permeates the jet at large distances from the central source. By contrast, optical and γ-ray observations during the prompt phase have led to discordant and often controversial results, and no definitive conclusions have been reached regarding the origin of the prompt radiation or the configuration of the magnetic field. Here we report the detection of substantial (8.3 ± 0.8 per cent from our most conservative simulation), variable linear polarization of a prompt optical flash that accompanied the extremely energetic and long-lived prompt γ-ray emission from GRB 160625B. Our measurements probe the structure of the magnetic field at an early stage of the jet, closer to its central black hole, and show that the prompt phase is produced via fast-cooling synchrotron radiation in a large-scale magnetic field that is advected from the black hole and distorted by dissipation processes within the jet.

  9. Irradiation of intense characteristic x-rays from weakly ionized linear molybdenum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi

    2003-01-01

    In the plasma flash x-ray generator, a high-voltage main condenser of approximately 200 nF is charged up to 55 kV by a power supply, and electric charges in the condenser are discharged to an x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is a demountable triode that is connected to a turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to a rod molybdenum target of 2.0 mm in diameter by the electric field in the x-ray tube, weakly ionized linear plasma, which consists of molybdenum ions and electrons, forms by target evaporation. At a charging voltage of 55 kV, the maximum tube voltage was almost equal to the charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 20 kA. When the charging voltage was increased, the linear plasma formed, and the K-series characteristic x-ray intensities increased. The K lines were quite sharp and intense, and hardly any bremsstrahlung rays were detected. The x-ray pulse widths were approximately 700 ns, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity had a value of approximately 35 μC/kg at 1.0 m from the x-ray source with a charging voltage of 50 kV. (author)

  10. A novel linear programming approach to fluence map optimization for intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeijn, H Edwin; Ahuja, Ravindra K; Dempsey, James F; Kumar, Arvind; Li, Jonathan G

    2003-01-01

    We present a novel linear programming (LP) based approach for efficiently solving the intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fluence-map optimization (FMO) problem to global optimality. Our model overcomes the apparent limitations of a linear-programming approach by approximating any convex objective function by a piecewise linear convex function. This approach allows us to retain the flexibility offered by general convex objective functions, while allowing us to formulate the FMO problem as a LP problem. In addition, a novel type of partial-volume constraint that bounds the tail averages of the differential dose-volume histograms of structures is imposed while retaining linearity as an alternative approach to improve dose homogeneity in the target volumes, and to attempt to spare as many critical structures as possible. The goal of this work is to develop a very rapid global optimization approach that finds high quality dose distributions. Implementation of this model has demonstrated excellent results. We found globally optimal solutions for eight 7-beam head-and-neck cases in less than 3 min of computational time on a single processor personal computer without the use of partial-volume constraints. Adding such constraints increased the running times by a factor of 2-3, but improved the sparing of critical structures. All cases demonstrated excellent target coverage (>95%), target homogeneity (<10% overdosing and <7% underdosing) and organ sparing using at least one of the two models

  11. Development plan of basic technology for a high intensity proton linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    The national program called OMEGA (Option Making Extra Gains from Actinide and Fission Products) has started with the aim of promoting the research and development of the new technologies for nuclear waste partitioning and transmutation. As a part of this program, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, has laid out several R and D plans for accelerator based actinide transmutation. The present article first outlines the status of the high intensity proton linear accelerator. Then it describes the time schedule for the development of a high intensity proton linac, focusing on the first step development (basic technology accelerator), second step development (engineering test accelerator, and third step development (commercial plant). It also outlines the conceptual design study and preliminary design calculations for basic technology accelerator, focusing on general consideration, ion source, radio frequency quadrupole, drift tube linac, and high beta linac. (N.K.)

  12. Testing nonlinear-QED at the future linear collider with an intense laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartin, Anthony; Porto, Stefano; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid; Hamburg Univ.

    2014-04-01

    The future linear collider will collide dense e + e - bunches at high energies up to 1 TeV, generating very intense electromagnetic fields at the interaction point (IP). These fields are strong enough to lead to nonlinear effects which affect all IP processes and which are described by strong field physics theory. In order to test this theory, we propose an experiment that will focus an intense laser on the LC electron beam post-IP. Similar experiments at SLAC E144 have investigated nonlinear Compton scattering, Breit-Wheeler pair production using an electron beam of 46.6 GeV. The higher beam energies available at the future LC would allow more precise studies of these phenomena. Mass-shift and spin-dependent effects could also be investigated.

  13. SUPPORTING STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING OF LINEAR EQUATIONS WITH ONE VARIABLE USING ALGEBRA TILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Saraswati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students’ understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students use the algebra tiles to find a method to solve linear equations with one variable. Design research was used as an approach in this study. It consists of three phases, namely preliminary design, teaching experiment and retrospective analysis. Video registrations, students’ written works, pre-test, post-test, field notes, and interview are technic to collect data. The data were analyzed by comparing the hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT and the actual learning process. The result shows that algebra tiles could supports students’ understanding to find the formal solution of linear equation with one variable.Keywords: linear equation with one variable, algebra tiles, design research, balancing method, HLT DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.1.2814.19-30

  14. Experimental Analysis of Linear Induction Motor under Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasenjit D. Wakode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete analysis of Linear Induction Motor (LIM under VVVF. The complete variation of LIM air gap flux under ‘blocked Linor’ condition and starting force is analyzed and presented when LIM is given VVVF supply. The analysis of this data is important in further understanding of the equivalent circuit parameters of LIM and to study the magnetic circuit of LIM. The variation of these parameters is important to know the LIM response at different frequencies. The simulation and application of different control strategies such as vector control thus becomes quite easy to apply and understand motor’s response under such strategy of control.

  15. Linear variable differential transformer sensor using glass-covered amorphous wires as active core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriac, H.; Hristoforou, E.; Neagu, Maria; Pieptanariu, M.

    2000-01-01

    Results concerning linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) displacement sensor using as movable core glass-covered amorphous wires are presented. The LVDT response is linear for a displacement of the movable core up to about 14 mm, with an accuracy of 1 μm. LVDT using glass-covered amorphous wire as an active core presents a high sensitivity and good mechanical and corrosion resistance

  16. Increased Protein Requirements in Female Athletes after Variable-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Denise J; Packer, Jeff E; Kato, Hiroyuki; West, Daniel W D; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-11-01

    Protein requirements are primarily studied in the context of resistance or endurance exercise with little research devoted to variable-intensity intermittent exercise characteristic of many team sports. Further, female populations are underrepresented in dietary sports science studies. We aimed to determine a dietary protein requirement in active females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. We hypothesized that these requirements would be greater than current IAAO-derived estimates in nonactive adult males. Six females (21.2 ± 0.8 yr, 68.8 ± 4.1 kg, 47.1 ± 1.2 mL O2·kg·min; mean ± SE) completed five to seven metabolic trials during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Participants performed a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test before consuming eight hourly mixed meals providing the test protein intake (0.2-2.66 g·kg·d), 6 g·kg·d CHO and sufficient energy for resting and exercise-induced energy expenditure. Protein was provided as crystalline amino acid modeling egg protein with [C]phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. Phenylalanine turnover (Q) was determined from urinary [C]phenylalanine enrichment. Breath CO2 excretion (FCO2) was analyzed using mixed effects biphase linear regression with the breakpoint and upper 95% confidence interval approximating the estimated average requirement and recommended dietary allowance, respectively. Protein intake had no effect on Q (68.7 ± 7.3 μmol·kg·h; mean ± SE). FCO2 displayed a robust biphase response (R = 0.66) with an estimated average requirement of 1.41 g·kg·d and recommended dietary allowance of 1.71 g·kg·d. The protein requirement estimate of 1.41 and 1.71 g·kg·d for females performing variable-intensity intermittent exercise is greater than the IAAO-derived estimates of adult males (0.93 and 1.2 g·kg·d) and at the upper range of the American College of Sports Medicine athlete recommendations (1.2-2.0 g·kg·d).

  17. KEELE, Minimization of Nonlinear Function with Linear Constraints, Variable Metric Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westley, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: KEELE is a linearly constrained nonlinear programming algorithm for locating a local minimum of a function of n variables with the variables subject to linear equality and/or inequality constraints. 2 - Method of solution: A variable metric procedure is used where the direction of search at each iteration is obtained by multiplying the negative of the gradient vector by a positive definite matrix which approximates the inverse of the matrix of second partial derivatives associated with the function. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Array dimensions limit the number of variables to 20 and the number of constraints to 50. These can be changed by the user

  18. Variable Linezolid Exposure in Intensive Care Unit Patients-Possible Role of Drug-Drug Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpper, Christoph; Steinbach, Cathérine L; Dorn, Christoph; Kratzer, Alexander; Wicha, Sebastian G; Schleibinger, Michael; Liebchen, Uwe; Kees, Frieder; Salzberger, Bernd; Kees, Martin G

    2016-10-01

    Standard doses of linezolid may not be suitable for all patient groups. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients in particular may be at risk of inadequate concentrations. This study investigated variability of drug exposure and its potential sources in this population. Plasma concentrations of linezolid were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography in a convenience sample of 20 ICU patients treated with intravenous linezolid 600 mg twice daily. Ultrafiltration applying physiological conditions (pH 7.4/37°C) was used to determine the unbound fraction. Individual pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were estimated by population PK modeling. As measures of exposure to linezolid, area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and trough concentrations (Cmin) were calculated and compared with published therapeutic ranges (AUC 200-400 mg*h/L, Cmin 2-10 mg/L). Coadministered inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 and/or P-glycoprotein were noted. Data from 18 patients were included into the PK evaluation. Drug exposure was highly variable (median, range: AUC 185, 48-618 mg*h/L, calculated Cmin 2.92, 0.0062-18.9 mg/L), and only a minority of patients had values within the target ranges (6 and 7, respectively). AUC and Cmin were linearly correlated (R = 0.98), and classification of patients (underexposed/within therapeutic range/overexposed) according to AUC or Cmin was concordant in 15 cases. Coadministration of inhibitors was associated with a trend to higher drug exposure, whereas 3 patients treated with levothyroxine showed exceedingly low drug exposure (AUC ∼60 mg*h/L, Cmin linezolid is highly variable and difficult to predict in ICU patients, and therapeutic drug monitoring seems advisable. PK drug-drug interactions might partly be responsible and should be further investigated; protein binding appears to be stable and irrelevant.

  19. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Jeffrey E; Wooding, Denise J; Kato, Hiroyuki; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 protein), seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O 2 ⋅kg -1 ⋅min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min). Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2-2.6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ) and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ). Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1- 13 C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake) was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13 CO 2 excretion (F 13 CO 2 ) were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F 13 CO 2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake ( P  = 0.45). Bi-phase linear regression ( R 2  = 0.64) of F 13 CO 2 resulted

  20. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Packer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 protein, seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O2⋅kg−1⋅min-1; mean ± SD performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min. Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2–2.6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1-13C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13CO2 excretion (F13CO2 were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F13CO2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake (P = 0.45. Bi-phase linear regression (R2 = 0.64 of F13CO2 resulted in an EAR

  1. Low voltage RF MEMS variable capacitor with linear C-V response

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Ho, Pak Hung; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    .2:1 and was achieved at an actuation DC voltage of 8V only. Further, the linear regression coefficient was 0.98. The variable capacitor was created such that it has both vertical and horizontal capacitances present. As the top suspended plate moves towards the bottom

  2. Non-commutative linear algebra and plurisubharmonic functions of quaternionic variables

    OpenAIRE

    Alesker, Semyon

    2003-01-01

    We recall known and establish new properties of the Dieudonn\\'e and Moore determinants of quaternionic matrices.Using these linear algebraic results we develop a basic theory of plurisubharmonic functions of quaternionic variables. Then we introduce and briefly discuss quaternionic Monge-Amp\\'ere equations.

  3. A Second-Order Conditionally Linear Mixed Effects Model with Observed and Latent Variable Covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R.; Kohli, Nidhi; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Speece, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    A conditionally linear mixed effects model is an appropriate framework for investigating nonlinear change in a continuous latent variable that is repeatedly measured over time. The efficacy of the model is that it allows parameters that enter the specified nonlinear time-response function to be stochastic, whereas those parameters that enter in a…

  4. Low voltage RF MEMS variable capacitor with linear C-V response

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2012-07-23

    An RF MEMS variable capacitor, fabricated in the PolyMUMPS process and tuned electrostatically, possessing a linear capacitance-voltage response is reported. The measured quality factor of the device was 17 at 1GHz, while the tuning range was 1.2:1 and was achieved at an actuation DC voltage of 8V only. Further, the linear regression coefficient was 0.98. The variable capacitor was created such that it has both vertical and horizontal capacitances present. As the top suspended plate moves towards the bottom fixed plate, the vertical capacitance increases whereas the horizontal capacitance decreases simultaneously such that the sum of the two capacitances yields a linear capacitance-voltage relation. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  5. Linear Array Ambient Noise Adjoint Tomography Reveals Intense Crust-Mantle Interactions in North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Yao, Huajian; Liu, Qinya; Zhang, Ping; Yuan, Yanhua O.; Feng, Jikun; Fang, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    We present a 2-D ambient noise adjoint tomography technique for a linear array with a significant reduction in computational cost and show its application to an array in North China. We first convert the observed data for 3-D media, i.e., surface-wave empirical Green's functions (EGFs) to the reconstructed EGFs (REGFs) for 2-D media using a 3-D/2-D transformation scheme. Different from the conventional steps of measuring phase dispersion, this technology refines 2-D shear wave speeds along the profile directly from REGFs. With an initial model based on traditional ambient noise tomography, adjoint tomography updates the model by minimizing the frequency-dependent Rayleigh wave traveltime delays between the REGFs and synthetic Green functions calculated by the spectral-element method. The multitaper traveltime difference measurement is applied in four-period bands: 20-35 s, 15-30 s, 10-20 s, and 6-15 s. The recovered model shows detailed crustal structures including pronounced low-velocity anomalies in the lower crust and a gradual crust-mantle transition zone beneath the northern Trans-North China Orogen, which suggest the possible intense thermo-chemical interactions between mantle-derived upwelling melts and the lower crust, probably associated with the magmatic underplating during the Mesozoic to Cenozoic evolution of this region. To our knowledge, it is the first time that ambient noise adjoint tomography is implemented for a 2-D medium. Compared with the intensive computational cost and storage requirement of 3-D adjoint tomography, this method offers a computationally efficient and inexpensive alternative to imaging fine-scale crustal structures beneath linear arrays.

  6. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  7. Linear solvation energy relationships: "rule of thumb" for estimation of variable values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, James P.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1991-01-01

    For the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER), values are listed for each of the variables (Vi/100, π*, &betam, αm) for fundamental organic structures and functional groups. We give the guidelines to estimate LSER variable values quickly for a vast array of possible organic compounds such as those found in the environment. The difficulty in generating these variables has greatly discouraged the application of this quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. This paper present the first compilation of molecular functional group values together with a utilitarian set of the LSER variable estimation rules. The availability of these variable values and rules should facilitate widespread application of LSER for hazard evaluation of environmental contaminants.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigation of a phase-only control mechanism in the linear intensity regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Elisabeth; Buckup, Tiago; Motzkus, Marcus

    2018-06-07

    Mechanisms and optimal experimental conditions in coherent control still intensely stimulate debates. In this work, a phase-only control mechanism in an open quantum system is investigated experimentally and numerically. Several parameterizations for femtosecond pulse shaping (combination of chirp and multipulses) are exploited in transient absorption of a prototype organic molecule to control population and vibrational coherence in ground and excited states. Experimental results are further numerically simulated and corroborated with a four-level density-matrix model, which reveals a phase-only control mechanism based on the interaction between the tailored phase of the excitation pulse and the induced transient absorption. In spite of performing experiment and numerical simulations in the linear regime of excitation, the control effect amplitude depends non-linearly on the excitation energy and is explained as a pump-dump control mechanism. No evidence of single-photon control is observed with the model. Moreover, our results also show that the control effect on the population and vibrational coherence is highly dependent on the spectral detuning of the excitation spectrum. Contrary to the popular belief in coherent control experiments, spectrally resonant tailored excitation will lead to the control of the excited state only for very specific conditions.

  9. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Cancer Therapy--harnessing its non-linearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Gail ter

    2008-01-01

    In medicine in general, and for cancer treatments in particular, there is a drive to find effective non-invasive therapies. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) represents one such technique. In principle, it is simple--a high energy ultrasound beam is brought to a tight focus within a target which may lie several centimetres below the skin surface (for example, in a tumour of the liver), and is used to destroy a selected tissue volume. The main mechanism for cell killing in a HIFU beam is heat. Ultrasound energy absorption is frequency dependent, the higher frequencies being absorbed most strongly. Significant thermal advantage may therefore be gained from non-linear propagation, which generates higher harmonics, in tissue. Acoustic cavitation and thermal exsolution of gas (boiling) also contribute to tissue damage. This activity leads to the local mechanical disruption of cells. In addition, the non-linear oscillation of these bubbles leads to enhanced energy deposition. The acoustic emissions from such bubbles are characteristic of their behaviour and may be correlated to some extent with the appearance of the disruption produced. The more widespread clinical acceptance of HIFU is awaiting faster, and more efficient, energy delivery and treatment monitoring. A better understanding of the nonlinear aspects of HIFU propagation in tissue is thus important if this technique is to benefit more patients

  10. Production of high intensity electron bunches for the SLAC Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    This thesis describes the design and performance of a high intensity electron injecfor for the SLAC Linear Collider. Motivation for the collider and the specifications for the injector are discussed. An analytic theory of the bunching and capture of electrons by rf fields is discussed in the limit of low space charge and small signal. The design and performance of SLAC's main injector are described to illustrate a successful application of this theory. The bunching and capture of electrons by rf fields are then discussed in the limit of high space charge and large signal, and a description of the design of the collider injector follows. In the limit of high space charge forces and large rf signals, the beam dynamics are considerably more complex and numerical simulations are required to predict particle motion. A computer code which models the longitudinal dynamics of electrons in the presence of space charge and rf fields is described. The results of the simulations, the resulting collider injector design and the various components which make up the collider injector are described. These include the gun, subharmonic bunchers, traveling-wave buncher and velocity-of-light accelerator section. Finally, the performance of the injector is described including the beam intensity, bunch length, transverse emittance and energy spectrum. While the final operating conditions differ somewaht from the design, the performance of the collider injector is in good agreement with the numerical simulations and meets all of the collider specifications. 28 refs

  11. If additional shielding required for the linear accelerator room when modern treatment techniques are intensively used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Albert V.; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Aleknavicius, Eduardas

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction - When the new linear accelerator is to be installed in radiotherapy department the responsible personnel should perform necessary estimations and calculations of the protective barriers for the accelerator treatment room. These methods are described in details in literature. However, if modern treatment techniques are planned to be intensively used on this machine, additional concern rises regarding adequacy of these calculations. The new Saturne-43 linear accelerator with three photon energies of 8, 15 and 25 MV recently installed at our department was, planned to be used for conventional treatment techniques as well as for conformal and total body treatments. The method of conformal therapy generally employs more small fields per one treated patient than conventional techniques. It leads to the use of more linear accelerator monitor units for the average treatment. It was estimated that 'beam on' time of an accelerator to deliver the same dose to the tumor is up to 3 times more than for conventional methods. The total body technique contribute to the extra time on of an accelerator because of extended distance to the dose prescription point. Altogether intensive clinical use of these modern techniques will noticeably increase 'beam on' time of an accelerator and rise question regarding validity of the traditionally calculated shielding of the treatment room. Materials and methods - IAEA-TECDOC-1040 and NCRP Report No 49 suggest considering three main components incident on the protective barriers: direct radiation, scatter radiation and leakage radiation. The formulas for these components are similar and dose equivalent limits are proportional to the workload. For the conventional treatments workloads of direct, scattered and leakage radiation are equal and calculated by the division of total prescribed dose (for all treated per week patients) to the machine isocenter to average tissue maximum ratio. These workloads for conformal and TBI

  12. A linearly-acting variable-reluctance generator for thermoacoustic engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hail, Claudio U.; Knodel, Philip C.; Lang, Jeffrey H.; Brisson, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new design for a linear alternator for thermoacoustic power converters is presented. • A theoretical and semi-empirical model of the generator is developed and validated. • The variable-reluctance generator’s performance is experimentally characterized. • Scaling to higher frequency suggests efficient operation with thermoacoustic engines. - Abstract: A crucial element in a thermoacoustic power converter for reliable small-scale power generation applications is an efficient acoustic-to-electric energy converter. In this work, an acoustic-to-electric transducer for application with a back-to-back standing wave thermoacoustic engine, based on a linearly-acting variable-reluctance generator is proposed, built and experimentally tested. Static and dynamic experiments are performed on one side of the generator on a shaker table at 60 Hz with 5 mm peak-to-peak displacement for performance characterization. A theoretical and empirical model of the variable-reluctance generator are presented and validated with experimental data. A frequency scaling based on the empirical model indicates that a maximum power output of 84 W at 78% generator efficiency is feasible at the thermoacoustic engine’s operating frequency of 250 Hz, not considering power electronic losses. This suggests that the linearly-acting variable-reluctance generator can efficiently convert high frequency small amplitude acoustic oscillations to useful electricity and thus enables its integration into a thermoacoustic power converter

  13. Observations on the variability of linear polarization in late-type dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huovelin, J.; Linnaluoto, S.; Tuominen, I.; Virtanen, H.

    1989-04-01

    Broadband (UBV) linear polarimetric observations of a sample of late-type (F7-K5) dwarfs are reported. The observations include ten stars and extend over a maximum of 20 nights. Seven stars show significant temporal variability of polarization, which could be interpreted as rotational modulation due to slowly varying magnetic regions. Magnetic intensification in saturated Zeeman sensitive absorption lines is suggested as the dominant effect connecting linear polarization with magnetic activity in the most active single late-type dwarfs, while the wavelength dependence in the less active stars could also be due to a combination of Rayleigh and Thomson scattering.

  14. Noiseless Linear Amplifiers in Entanglement-Based Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to improve the performance of two entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols using noiseless linear amplifiers. The two entanglement-based schemes consist of an entanglement distribution protocol with an untrusted source and an entanglement swapping protocol with an untrusted relay. Simulation results show that the noiseless linear amplifiers can improve the performance of these two protocols, in terms of maximal transmission distances, when we consider small amounts of entanglement, as typical in realistic setups.

  15. Linear coupling dependence on intensity and a next step towards a feedback (MD1850)

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Gasior, Marek; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Olexa, Jakub; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Valuch, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Transverse coupling has proven to be an important variable to control beam dynamics and performance in the LHC. In this report, we present the first measurement of transverse coupling vs beam intensity. The analysis shows no dependency within the experimental uncertainties. This study was made possible with the new implementation of an AC-dipole-like excitation using the ADT. It provides the functionality to excite a single bunch in a train. The demonstration of this functionality is also an important step towards creating an automatic coupling correction tool for the LHC. Transverse coupling has been observed to vary with time at injection. In this report, a quantitative measurement of the coupling as a function of time after ramp-down is presented. Turn-by-turn data was also acquired to compare the performance of the new DOROS system to the standard BPMs.

  16. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Armstrong

    Full Text Available Increased left ventricular (LV twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, [Formula: see text]O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT: 32-69% of [Formula: see text]O2peak were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii at 2% above IAT, and, iii at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP. LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05. However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05. Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results.

  17. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Craig; Samuel, Jake; Yarlett, Andrew; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Stembridge, Mike; Stöhr, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, V˙O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT): 32–69% of V˙O2peak) were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i) the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii) at 2% above IAT, and, iii) at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP). LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05). However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05). Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees) of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results. PMID:27100099

  18. EXPLORING THE VARIABLE SKY WITH LINEAR. III. CLASSIFICATION OF PERIODIC LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaversa, Lovro; Eyer, Laurent; Rimoldini, Lorenzo [Observatoire Astronomique de l' Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Ivezić, Željko; Loebman, Sarah; Hunt-Walker, Nicholas; VanderPlas, Jacob; Westman, David; Becker, Andrew C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Ruždjak, Domagoj; Sudar, Davor; Božić, Hrvoje [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Kačićeva 26, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Galin, Mario [Faculty of Geodesy, Kačićeva 26, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kroflin, Andrea; Mesarić, Martina; Munk, Petra; Vrbanec, Dijana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Bijenička cesta 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stuart, J. Scott [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, MA 02420-9108 (United States); Srdoč, Gregor, E-mail: lovro.palaversa@unige.ch [Saršoni 90, 51216 Viškovo (Croatia); and others

    2013-10-01

    We describe the construction of a highly reliable sample of ∼7000 optically faint periodic variable stars with light curves obtained by the asteroid survey LINEAR across 10,000 deg{sup 2} of the northern sky. The majority of these variables have not been cataloged yet. The sample flux limit is several magnitudes fainter than most other wide-angle surveys; the photometric errors range from ∼0.03 mag at r = 15 to ∼0.20 mag at r = 18. Light curves include on average 250 data points, collected over about a decade. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) based photometric recalibration of the LINEAR data for about 25 million objects, we selected ∼200,000 most probable candidate variables with r < 17 and visually confirmed and classified ∼7000 periodic variables using phased light curves. The reliability and uniformity of visual classification across eight human classifiers was calibrated and tested using a catalog of variable stars from the SDSS Stripe 82 region and verified using an unsupervised machine learning approach. The resulting sample of periodic LINEAR variables is dominated by 3900 RR Lyrae stars and 2700 eclipsing binary stars of all subtypes and includes small fractions of relatively rare populations such as asymptotic giant branch stars and SX Phoenicis stars. We discuss the distribution of these mostly uncataloged variables in various diagrams constructed with optical-to-infrared SDSS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry, and with LINEAR light-curve features. We find that the combination of light-curve features and colors enables classification schemes much more powerful than when colors or light curves are each used separately. An interesting side result is a robust and precise quantitative description of a strong correlation between the light-curve period and color/spectral type for close and contact eclipsing binary stars (β Lyrae and W UMa): as the color-based spectral type varies from K4 to F5, the

  19. A Non-linear "Inflation-Relative Prices Variability" Relationship: Evidence from Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Mª Ángeles Caraballo Pou; Carlos Dabús; Diego Caramuta

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on a non-linear "inflation-relative prices variability" relationship in three Latin American countries with very high inflation experiences: Argentina, Brazil and Peru. More precisely, and in contrast to results found in previous literature for similar countries, we find a non-concave relation at higher inflation regimes, i.e. when inflation rate surpasses certain threshold. This non-concavity is mainly explained by the unexpected component of inflation, which sug...

  20. Analysis of intensity variability in multislice and cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Maes, Frederik; Yan, Hua; Couto Souza, Paulo; Pauwels, Ruben; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of intensity values in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging compared with multislice computed tomography Hounsfield units (MSCT HU) in order to assess the reliability of density assessments using CBCT images. A quality control phantom was scanned with an MSCT scanner and five CBCT scanners. In one CBCT scanner, the phantom was scanned repeatedly in the same and in different positions. Images were analyzed using registration to a mathematical model. MSCT images were used as a reference. Density profiles of MSCT showed stable HU values, whereas in CBCT imaging the intensity values were variable over the profile. Repositioning of the phantom resulted in large fluctuations in intensity values. The use of intensity values in CBCT images is not reliable, because the values are influenced by device, imaging parameters and positioning. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Testing concordance of instrumental variable effects in generalized linear models with application to Mendelian randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, James Y.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Hsu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental variable regression is one way to overcome unmeasured confounding and estimate causal effect in observational studies. Built on structural mean models, there has been considerale work recently developed for consistent estimation of causal relative risk and causal odds ratio. Such models can sometimes suffer from identification issues for weak instruments. This hampered the applicability of Mendelian randomization analysis in genetic epidemiology. When there are multiple genetic variants available as instrumental variables, and causal effect is defined in a generalized linear model in the presence of unmeasured confounders, we propose to test concordance between instrumental variable effects on the intermediate exposure and instrumental variable effects on the disease outcome, as a means to test the causal effect. We show that a class of generalized least squares estimators provide valid and consistent tests of causality. For causal effect of a continuous exposure on a dichotomous outcome in logistic models, the proposed estimators are shown to be asymptotically conservative. When the disease outcome is rare, such estimators are consistent due to the log-linear approximation of the logistic function. Optimality of such estimators relative to the well-known two-stage least squares estimator and the double-logistic structural mean model is further discussed. PMID:24863158

  2. A search for time variability and its possible regularities in linear polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L.; Guo, Z.H.; Hsu, J.C.; Huang, L.

    1989-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are presented for 14 Be stars obtained at McDonald Observatory during four observing runs from June to November of 1983. Methods of observation and data reduction are described. Seven of eight program stars which were observed on six or more nights exhibited obvious polarimetric variations on time-scales of days or months. The incidence is estimated as 50% and may be as high as 93%. No connection can be found between polarimetric variability and rapid periodic light or spectroscopic variability for our stars. Ultra-rapid variability on time-scale of minutes was searched for with negative results. In all cases the position angles also show variations indicating that the axis of symmetry of the circumstellar envelope changes its orientation in space. For the Be binary CX Dra the variations in polarization seems to have a period which is just half of the orbital period

  3. Possibility/Necessity-Based Probabilistic Expectation Models for Linear Programming Problems with Discrete Fuzzy Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Katagiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers linear programming problems (LPPs where the objective functions involve discrete fuzzy random variables (fuzzy set-valued discrete random variables. New decision making models, which are useful in fuzzy stochastic environments, are proposed based on both possibility theory and probability theory. In multi-objective cases, Pareto optimal solutions of the proposed models are newly defined. Computational algorithms for obtaining the Pareto optimal solutions of the proposed models are provided. It is shown that problems involving discrete fuzzy random variables can be transformed into deterministic nonlinear mathematical programming problems which can be solved through a conventional mathematical programming solver under practically reasonable assumptions. A numerical example of agriculture production problems is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed models to real-world problems in fuzzy stochastic environments.

  4. Standardizing effect size from linear regression models with log-transformed variables for meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Tobías, Aurelio; Redondo, Daniel; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Sánchez, María José

    2017-03-17

    Meta-analysis is very useful to summarize the effect of a treatment or a risk factor for a given disease. Often studies report results based on log-transformed variables in order to achieve the principal assumptions of a linear regression model. If this is the case for some, but not all studies, the effects need to be homogenized. We derived a set of formulae to transform absolute changes into relative ones, and vice versa, to allow including all results in a meta-analysis. We applied our procedure to all possible combinations of log-transformed independent or dependent variables. We also evaluated it in a simulation based on two variables either normally or asymmetrically distributed. In all the scenarios, and based on different change criteria, the effect size estimated by the derived set of formulae was equivalent to the real effect size. To avoid biased estimates of the effect, this procedure should be used with caution in the case of independent variables with asymmetric distributions that significantly differ from the normal distribution. We illustrate an application of this procedure by an application to a meta-analysis on the potential effects on neurodevelopment in children exposed to arsenic and manganese. The procedure proposed has been shown to be valid and capable of expressing the effect size of a linear regression model based on different change criteria in the variables. Homogenizing the results from different studies beforehand allows them to be combined in a meta-analysis, independently of whether the transformations had been performed on the dependent and/or independent variables.

  5. Supporting second grade lower secondary school students’ understanding of linear equation system in two variables using ethnomathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nursyahidah, F.; Saputro, B. A.; Rubowo, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is to know the students’ understanding of linear equation system in two variables using Ethnomathematics and to acquire learning trajectory of linear equation system in two variables for the second grade of lower secondary school students. This research used methodology of design research that consists of three phases, there are preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis. Subject of this study is 28 second grade students of Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) 37 Semarang. The result of this research shows that the students’ understanding in linear equation system in two variables can be stimulated by using Ethnomathematics in selling buying tradition in Peterongan traditional market in Central Java as a context. All of strategies and model that was applied by students and also their result discussion shows how construction and contribution of students can help them to understand concept of linear equation system in two variables. All the activities that were done by students produce learning trajectory to gain the goal of learning. Each steps of learning trajectory of students have an important role in understanding the concept from informal to the formal level. Learning trajectory using Ethnomathematics that is produced consist of watching video of selling buying activity in Peterongan traditional market to construct linear equation in two variables, determine the solution of linear equation in two variables, construct model of linear equation system in two variables from contextual problem, and solving a contextual problem related to linear equation system in two variables.

  6. Linear ketenimines. Variable structures of C,C-dicyanoketenimines and C,C-bis-sulfonylketenimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Justin; Mitschke, Ullrich; Wentrup, Curt

    2002-02-22

    C,C-dicyanoketenimines 10a-c were generated by flash vacuum thermolysis of ketene N,S-acetals 9a-c or by thermal or photochemical decomposition of alpha-azido-beta-cyanocinnamonitrile 11. In the latter reaction, 3,3-dicyano-2-phenyl-1-azirine 12 is also formed. IR spectroscopy of the keteniminines isolated in Ar matrixes or as neat films, NMR spectroscopy of 10c, and theoretical calculations (B3LYP/6-31G) demonstrate that these ketenimines have variable geometry, being essentially linear along the CCN-R framework in polar media (neat films and solution), but in the gas phase or Ar matrix they are bent, as is usual for ketenimines. Experiments and calculations agree that a single CN substituent as in 13 is not enough to enforce linearity, and sulfonyl groups are less effective that cyano groups in causing linearity. C,C-bis(methylsulfonyl)ketenimines 4-5 and a C-cyano-C-(methylsulfonyl)ketenimine 15 are not linear. The compound p-O2NC6H4N=C=C(COOMe)2 previously reported in the literature is probably somewhat linearized along the CCNR moiety. A computational survey (B3LYP/6-31G) of the inversion barrier at nitrogen indicates that electronegative C-substituents dramatically lower the barrier; this is also true of N-acyl substituents. Increasing polarity causes lower barriers. Although N-alkylbis(methylsulfonyl)ketenimines are not calculated to be linear, the barriers are so low that crystal lattice forces can induce planarity in N-methylbis(methylsulfonyl)ketenimine 3.

  7. Linear optical absorption spectra of mesoscopic structures in intense THz fields: Free-particle properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    We theoretically study the effect of THz radiation on the linear optical absorption spectra of semiconductor structures. A general theoretical framework, based on nonequilibrium Green functions, is formulated and applied to the calculation of linear optical absorption spectrum for several...

  8. Introduction to statistical modelling 2: categorical variables and interactions in linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Mark

    2015-07-01

    In the first article in this series we explored the use of linear regression to predict an outcome variable from a number of predictive factors. It assumed that the predictive factors were measured on an interval scale. However, this article shows how categorical variables can also be included in a linear regression model, enabling predictions to be made separately for different groups and allowing for testing the hypothesis that the outcome differs between groups. The use of interaction terms to measure whether the effect of a particular predictor variable differs between groups is also explained. An alternative approach to testing the difference between groups of the effect of a given predictor, which consists of measuring the effect in each group separately and seeing whether the statistical significance differs between the groups, is shown to be misleading. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-01

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH 4 H 2 O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H 2 O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH) 4 are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components

  10. Reoptimization of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Plans Based on Linear Energy Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkelbach, Jan, E-mail: junkelbach@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Botas, Pablo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Faculty of Physics, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Gorissen, Bram L.; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: We describe a treatment plan optimization method for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) that avoids high values of linear energy transfer (LET) in critical structures located within or near the target volume while limiting degradation of the best possible physical dose distribution. Methods and Materials: To allow fast optimization based on dose and LET, a GPU-based Monte Carlo code was extended to provide dose-averaged LET in addition to dose for all pencil beams. After optimizing an initial IMPT plan based on physical dose, a prioritized optimization scheme is used to modify the LET distribution while constraining the physical dose objectives to values close to the initial plan. The LET optimization step is performed based on objective functions evaluated for the product of LET and physical dose (LET×D). To first approximation, LET×D represents a measure of the additional biological dose that is caused by high LET. Results: The method is effective for treatments where serial critical structures with maximum dose constraints are located within or near the target. We report on 5 patients with intracranial tumors (high-grade meningiomas, base-of-skull chordomas, ependymomas) in whom the target volume overlaps with the brainstem and optic structures. In all cases, high LET×D in critical structures could be avoided while minimally compromising physical dose planning objectives. Conclusion: LET-based reoptimization of IMPT plans represents a pragmatic approach to bridge the gap between purely physical dose-based and relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-based planning. The method makes IMPT treatments safer by mitigating a potentially increased risk of side effects resulting from elevated RBE of proton beams near the end of range.

  11. Steady nanofluid flow with variable fluid possessions over a linearly extending surface: A Lie group exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidas Das

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The temperament of stream characteristic, heat and mass transfer of MHD forced convective flow over a linearly expanding porous medium has been scrutinized in the progress exploration. The germane possessions of the liquid like viscosity along with thermal conductivity are believed to be variable in nature, directly influenced by the temperature of flow. As soon as gaining the system of leading equations of the stream, Lie symmetric group transformations have been employed to come across the fitting parallel conversions to alter the central PDEs into a suit of ODEs. The renovated system of ODE with appropriate boundary conditions is numerically solved with the assistance of illustrative software MAPLE 17. The consequences of the relevant factors of the system have been exemplified through charts and graphs. An analogous qualified survey has been prepared among present inquiry and subsisting reads and achieved an admirable accord between them. The variable viscosity parameter has more significant effect on nanofluid velocity than regular fluid and temporal profile as well as nanoparticle concentration is also influenced with variable viscosity. Keywords: Nanofluid, Stretching sheet, Variable viscosity, Variable thermal conductivity, Lie symmetry group

  12. Blood Pressure Variability and Outcome in Patients with Acute Nonlobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage following Intensive Antihypertensive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Pyeong Jeon

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: The MAC of SBP is associated with hematoma growth, and SD and COV are correlated with 3-month poor outcome in patients with supratentorial nonlobar ICH. Therefore, sustained SBP control, with a reduction in SBP variability is essential to reinforce the beneficial effect of intensive antihypertensive treatment.

  13. Heart rate variability parameters do not correlate with pain intensity in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuse, Jan J; Löwik, Marco S P; Löwik, Sabine A M; Aarden, Eline; van Roon, Arie M; Gans, Reinold O B; van Wijhe, Marten; Lefrandt, Joop D; Reyners, Anna K L

    OBJECTIVE: When patients cannot indicate pain, physiological parameters may be useful. We tested whether heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, as reflection of sympathetic and vagal tone, can be used to quantify pain intensity. DESIGN: Prospective study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: A standardized heat

  14. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LB Falco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea

  15. Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Linear Multistep Methods with Variable Step Size

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis

    2016-09-08

    Strong stability preserving (SSP) methods are designed primarily for time integration of nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs, for which the permissible SSP step size varies from one step to the next. We develop the first SSP linear multistep methods (of order two and three) with variable step size, and prove their optimality, stability, and convergence. The choice of step size for multistep SSP methods is an interesting problem because the allowable step size depends on the SSP coefficient, which in turn depends on the chosen step sizes. The description of the methods includes an optimal step-size strategy. We prove sharp upper bounds on the allowable step size for explicit SSP linear multistep methods and show the existence of methods with arbitrarily high order of accuracy. The effectiveness of the methods is demonstrated through numerical examples.

  16. Projective-Dual Method for Solving Systems of Linear Equations with Nonnegative Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, B. V.; Golikov, A. I.; Evtushenko, Yu. G.

    2018-02-01

    In order to solve an underdetermined system of linear equations with nonnegative variables, the projection of a given point onto its solutions set is sought. The dual of this problem—the problem of unconstrained maximization of a piecewise-quadratic function—is solved by Newton's method. The problem of unconstrained optimization dual of the regularized problem of finding the projection onto the solution set of the system is considered. A connection of duality theory and Newton's method with some known algorithms of projecting onto a standard simplex is shown. On the example of taking into account the specifics of the constraints of the transport linear programming problem, the possibility to increase the efficiency of calculating the generalized Hessian matrix is demonstrated. Some examples of numerical calculations using MATLAB are presented.

  17. Dose linearity and uniformity of a linear accelerator designed for implementation of multileaf collimation system-based intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, Cheng B.; Li Sicong; Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Yoe-Sein, Maung; Pillai, Susha; Enke, Charles A.; Celi, Juan C.

    2003-01-01

    The dose linearity and uniformity of a linear accelerator designed for multileaf collimation system- (MLC) based IMRT was studied as a part of commissioning and also in response to recently published data. The linear accelerator is equipped with a PRIMEVIEW, a graphical interface and a SIMTEC IM-MAXX, which is an enhanced autofield sequencer. The SIMTEC IM-MAXX sequencer permits the radiation beam to be 'ON' continuously while delivering intensity modulated radiation therapy subfields at a defined gantry angle. The dose delivery is inhibited when the electron beam in the linear accelerator is forced out of phase with the microwave power while the MLC configures the field shape of a subfield. This beam switching mechanism reduces the overhead time and hence shortens the patient treatment time. The dose linearity, reproducibility, and uniformity were assessed for this type of dose delivery mechanism. The subfields with monitor units ranged from 1 MU to 100 MU were delivered using 6 MV and 23 MV photon beams. The doses were computed and converted to dose per monitor unit. The dose linearity was found to vary within 2% for both 6 MV and 23 MV photon beam using high dose rate setting (300 MU/min) except below 2 MU. The dose uniformity was assessed by delivering 4 subfields to a Kodak X-OMAT TL film using identical low monitor units. The optical density was converted to dose and found to show small variation within 3%. Our results indicate that this linear accelerator with SIMTEC IM-MAXX sequencer has better dose linearity, reproducibility, and uniformity than had been reported

  18. Some Results on facets for linear inequality in 0-1 variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sashi Bhusan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The facet of Knapsack ploytope, i.e. convex hull of 0-1 points satisfying a given linear inequality has been presented in this current paper. Such type of facets plays an important role in set covering set partitioning, matroidal-intersection vertex- packing, generalized assignment and other combinatorial problems. Strong covers for facets of Knapsack ploytope has been developed in the first part of the present paper. Generating family of valid cutting planes that satisfy inequality with 0-1 variables through algorithms are the attraction of this paper.

  19. Effective properties of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media: Internal variables formulation and extension to ageing behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.M.; Masson, R.; Masson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Laplace-Carson transform classically used for homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media yields integral formulations of effective behaviours. These are far less convenient than internal variables formulations with respect to computational aspects as well as to theoretical extensions to closely related problems such as ageing viscoelasticity. Noticing that the collocation method is usually adopted to invert the Laplace-Carson transforms, we first remark that this approximation is equivalent to an internal variables formulation which is exact in some specific situations. This result is illustrated for a two-phase composite with phases obeying a compressible Maxwellian behaviour. Next, an incremental formulation allows to extend at each time step the previous general framework to ageing viscoelasticity. Finally, with the help of a creep test of a porous viscoelastic matrix reinforced with elastic inclusions, it is shown that the method yields accurate predictions (comparing to reference results provided by periodic cell finite element computations). (authors)

  20. Linear dynamical modes as new variables for data-driven ENSO forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Andrey; Seleznev, Aleksei; Mukhin, Dmitry; Loskutov, Evgeny; Feigin, Alexander; Kurths, Juergen

    2018-05-01

    A new data-driven model for analysis and prediction of spatially distributed time series is proposed. The model is based on a linear dynamical mode (LDM) decomposition of the observed data which is derived from a recently developed nonlinear dimensionality reduction approach. The key point of this approach is its ability to take into account simple dynamical properties of the observed system by means of revealing the system's dominant time scales. The LDMs are used as new variables for empirical construction of a nonlinear stochastic evolution operator. The method is applied to the sea surface temperature anomaly field in the tropical belt where the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the main mode of variability. The advantage of LDMs versus traditionally used empirical orthogonal function decomposition is demonstrated for this data. Specifically, it is shown that the new model has a competitive ENSO forecast skill in comparison with the other existing ENSO models.

  1. Dose linearity and uniformity of Siemens ONCOR impression plus linear accelerator designed for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhangle, Janhavi R.; Sathiya Narayanan, V.K.; Deshpande, Shrikant A.

    2007-01-01

    For step-and-shoot type delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), beam stability characteristics during the first few monitor units need to be investigated to ensure the planned dose delivery. This paper presents the study done for Siemens ONCOR impression plus linear accelerator before commissioning it for IMRT treatment. The beam stability for 6 and 15 MV in terms of dose monitor linearity, monitor unit stability and beam uniformity is investigated in this work. Monitor unit linearity is studied using FC65G chamber for the range 1-100 MU. The dose per MU is found to be linear for small monitor units down to 1 MU for both 6 and 15 MV beams. The monitor unit linearity is also studied with portal imaging device for the range 1-20 MU for 6 MV beam. The pixel values are within ±1σ confidence level up to 2 MU; for 1 MU, the values are within ±2σ confidence level. The flatness and symmetry analysis is done for both energies in the range of 1-10 MU with Kodak diagnostic films. The flatness and symmetry are found to be within ±3% up to 2 MU for 6 MV and up to 3 MU for 15 MV. (author)

  2. Dose linearity and uniformity of Siemens ONCOR impression plus linear accelerator designed for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhangle Janhavi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For step-and-shoot type delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, beam stability characteristics during the first few monitor units need to be investigated to ensure the planned dose delivery. This paper presents the study done for Siemens ONCOR impression plus linear accelerator before commissioning it for IMRT treatment. The beam stability for 6 and 15 MV in terms of dose monitor linearity, monitor unit stability and beam uniformity is investigated in this work. Monitor unit linearity is studied using FC65G chamber for the range 1-100 MU. The dose per MU is found to be linear for small monitor units down to 1 MU for both 6 and 15 MV beams. The monitor unit linearity is also studied with portal imaging device for the range 1-20 MU for 6 MV beam. The pixel values are within ±1σ confidence level up to 2 MU; for 1 MU, the values are within ±2σ confidence level. The flatness and symmetry analysis is done for both energies in the range of 1-10 MU with Kodak diagnostic films. The flatness and symmetry are found to be within ±3% up to 2 MU for 6 MV and up to 3 MU for 15 MV.

  3. A linear stepping endovascular intervention robot with variable stiffness and force sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chengbin; Wang, Shuxin; Zuo, Siyang

    2018-03-08

    Robotic-assisted endovascular intervention surgery has attracted significant attention and interest in recent years. However, limited designs have focused on the variable stiffness mechanism of the catheter shaft. Flexible catheter needs to be partially switched to a rigid state that can hold its shape against external force to achieve a stable and effective insertion procedure. Furthermore, driving catheter in a similar way with manual procedures has the potential to make full use of the extensive experience from conventional catheter navigation. Besides driving method, force sensing is another significant factor for endovascular intervention. This paper presents a variable stiffness catheterization system that can provide stable and accurate endovascular intervention procedure with a linear stepping mechanism that has a similar operation mode to the conventional catheter navigation. A specially designed shape-memory polymer tube with water cooling structure is used to achieve variable stiffness of the catheter. Hence, four FBG sensors are attached to the catheter tip in order to monitor the tip contact force situation with temperature compensation. Experimental results show that the actuation unit is able to deliver linear and rotational motions. We have shown the feasibility of FBG force sensing to reduce the effect of temperature and detect the tip contact force. The designed catheter can change its stiffness partially, and the stiffness of the catheter can be remarkably increased in rigid state. Hence, in the rigid state, the catheter can hold its shape against a [Formula: see text] load. The prototype has also been validated with a vascular phantom, demonstrating the potential clinical value of the system. The proposed system provides important insights into the design of compact robotic-assisted catheter incorporating effective variable stiffness mechanism and real-time force sensing for intraoperative endovascular intervention.

  4. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.

  5. Photoneutron intensity variation with field size around radiotherapy linear accelerator 18-MeV X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, H.; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Maalej, N. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-08-15

    In X-ray radiotherapy accelerators, neutrons are produced mainly by ({gamma},n) reaction when high energy X-rays interact with high Z materials of the linear accelerator head. These materials include the lead (Pb) used as shielding in the collimator, tungsten (W) target used for the production of X-rays and iron (Fe) in the accelerator head. These unwanted neutrons contaminate the therapeutic beam and contribute to the patient dose during the treatment of a cancer patient. Knowing the neutron distribution around the radiotherapy accelerator is therefore desired. CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs) were used to study the variation of fast and thermal neutron relative intensities around an 18 MeV linear accelerator X-ray beam with the field sizes of 0, 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40cm{sup 2}. For fast neutron detection, bare NTDs were used. For thermal neutron detection, NTDs were covered with lithium tetra borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) converters. The NTDs were placed at different locations in the direction perpendicular to the treatment couch (transversal) and in the direction parallel to the treatment couch (longitudinal) with respect to the isocenter of the accelerator. The fast neutron relative intensity is symmetrical about the beam axis and exhibits an exponential-like drop with distance from the isocenter of the accelerator for all the field sizes. At the primary beam (isocenter), the relative fast neutron intensity is highest for 40x40cm{sup 2} field size and decreases linearly with the decrease in the field size. However, fast neutron intensities do not change significantly with beam size for the measurements outside the primary beam. The fast neutron intensity in the longitudinal direction outside the primary beam decreases linearly with the field size. The thermal neutron intensity, at any location, was found to be almost independent of the field size.

  6. High-intensity pulsed electric field variables affecting Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino-López, A; Raybaudi-Massilia, R; Martín-Belloso, O

    2006-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important milk-related pathogen that is inactivated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF). In this study, inactivation of Staph. aureus suspended in milk by HIPEF was studied using a response surface methodology, in which electric field intensity, pulse number, pulse width, pulse polarity, and the fat content of milk were the controlled variables. It was found that the fat content of milk did not significantly affect the microbial inactivation of Staph. aureus. A maximum value of 4.5 log reductions was obtained by applying 150 bipolar pulses of 8 mus each at 35 kV/cm. Bipolar pulses were more effective than those applied in the monopolar mode. An increase in electric field intensity, pulse number, or pulse width resulted in a drop in the survival fraction of Staph. aureus. Pulse widths close to 6.7 micros lead to greater microbial death with a minimum number of applied pulses. At a constant treatment time, a greater number of shorter pulses achieved better inactivation than those treatments performed at a lower number of longer pulses. The combined action of pulse number and electric field intensity followed a similar pattern, indicating that the same fraction of microbial death can be reached with different combinations of the variables. The behavior and relationship among the electrical variables suggest that the energy input of HIPEF processing might be optimized without decreasing the microbial death.

  7. The number of subjects per variable required in linear regression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2015-06-01

    To determine the number of independent variables that can be included in a linear regression model. We used a series of Monte Carlo simulations to examine the impact of the number of subjects per variable (SPV) on the accuracy of estimated regression coefficients and standard errors, on the empirical coverage of estimated confidence intervals, and on the accuracy of the estimated R(2) of the fitted model. A minimum of approximately two SPV tended to result in estimation of regression coefficients with relative bias of less than 10%. Furthermore, with this minimum number of SPV, the standard errors of the regression coefficients were accurately estimated and estimated confidence intervals had approximately the advertised coverage rates. A much higher number of SPV were necessary to minimize bias in estimating the model R(2), although adjusted R(2) estimates behaved well. The bias in estimating the model R(2) statistic was inversely proportional to the magnitude of the proportion of variation explained by the population regression model. Linear regression models require only two SPV for adequate estimation of regression coefficients, standard errors, and confidence intervals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Global control of reaction wheel pendulum through energy regulation and extended linearization of the state variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Montoya-Giraldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and simulation of a global controller for the Reaction Wheel Pendulum system using energy regulation and extended linearization methods for the state feedback. The proposed energy regulation is based on the gradual reduction of the energy of the system to reach the unstable equilibrium point. The signal input for this task is obtained from the Lyapunov stability theory. The extended state feedback controller design is used to get a smooth nonlinear function that extends the region of operation to a bigger range, in contrast with the static linear state feedback obtained through the method of approximate linearization around an operating point. The general designed controller operates with a switching between the two control signals depending upon the region of operation; perturbations are applied in the control signal and the (simulated measured variables to verify the robustness and efficiency of the controller. Finally, simulations and tests using the model of the reaction wheel pendulum system, allow to observe the versatility and functionality of the proposed controller in the entire operation region of the pendulum.

  9. Incorporation of electricity GHG emissions intensity variability into building environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubi, Eduard; Doluweera, Ganesh; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Current building assessment does not account for variability in the electric grid. • A new method incorporates hourly grid variability into building assessment. • The method is complementary with peak-shaving policies. • The assessment method can affect building design decisions. - Abstract: Current building energy and GHG emissions assessments do not account for the variable performance of the electric grid. Incorporating hourly grid variability into building assessment methods can help to better prioritize energy efficiency measures that result in the largest environmental benefits. This article proposes a method to incorporate GHG emissions intensity changes due to grid variability into building environmental assessment. The proposed method encourages building systems that reduce electricity use during peak periods while accounting for differences in grid GHG emissions intensity (i.e., peak shaving is more strongly encouraged in grids that have GHG intense peak generation). A set of energy saving building technologies are evaluated in a set of building variants (office, residential) and grid types (hydro/nuclear dominated, coal/gas dominated) to demonstrate the proposed method. Differences between total GHG emissions calculated with the new method compared with the standard (which assumes a constant GHG emissions intensity throughout the year) are in the 5–15% range when the contribution of electricity to total GHG emissions is more significant. The influence of the method on the assessment of the relative performance of some energy efficiency measures is much higher. For example, the estimated GHG emissions savings with heat pumps and photovoltaics can change by −40% and +20%, respectively, using the new assessment method instead of the standard. These differences in GHG emissions estimates can influence building design decisions. The new method could be implemented easily, and would lead to better decision making and more accurate

  10. Discussion of feasibility to carry out intensity modulated radiation therapy in conventional medical electron linear accelerator treatment rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Haiyou; Liu Liping; Liang Yueqin; Zhang Liang; Yu Shui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility about the shielding effect of conventional medical electron linear accelerator treatment in the existing rooms to carry out intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: The estimation model given in NCRP REPORT No. 151- S tructural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X-and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities i s adopted by linking instances, which presents the calculation methods on radiation level at the ambience of megavoltage medical electron linear accelerator treatment room. Results: The radiation level, as well as the additional annual effect dose of occupational and public at the ambience of accelerator treatment room, in crease to a certain extent, when conventional medical electron linear accelerator treatment room; are used to carry out IMRT. Conclusion: It is necessary to make environmental impact assessment for conventional medical electron linear accelerator treatment rooms, which will be used to execute IMRT. (authors)

  11. Non-linear regime shifts in Holocene Asian monsoon variability: potential impacts on cultural change and migratory patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.; Marwan, N.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2015-05-01

    The Asian monsoon system is an important tipping element in Earth's climate with a large impact on human societies in the past and present. In light of the potentially severe impacts of present and future anthropogenic climate change on Asian hydrology, it is vital to understand the forcing mechanisms of past climatic regime shifts in the Asian monsoon domain. Here we use novel recurrence network analysis techniques for detecting episodes with pronounced non-linear changes in Holocene Asian monsoon dynamics recorded in speleothems from caves distributed throughout the major branches of the Asian monsoon system. A newly developed multi-proxy methodology explicitly considers dating uncertainties with the COPRA (COnstructing Proxy Records from Age models) approach and allows for detection of continental-scale regime shifts in the complexity of monsoon dynamics. Several epochs are characterised by non-linear regime shifts in Asian monsoon variability, including the periods around 8.5-7.9, 5.7-5.0, 4.1-3.7, and 3.0-2.4 ka BP. The timing of these regime shifts is consistent with known episodes of Holocene rapid climate change (RCC) and high-latitude Bond events. Additionally, we observe a previously rarely reported non-linear regime shift around 7.3 ka BP, a timing that matches the typical 1.0-1.5 ky return intervals of Bond events. A detailed review of previously suggested links between Holocene climatic changes in the Asian monsoon domain and the archaeological record indicates that, in addition to previously considered longer-term changes in mean monsoon intensity and other climatic parameters, regime shifts in monsoon complexity might have played an important role as drivers of migration, pronounced cultural changes, and the collapse of ancient human societies.

  12. Prediction and early detection of delirium in the intensive care unit by using heart rate variability and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Cho, Dongrae; Park, Jaesub; Na, Se Hee; Kim, Jongin; Heo, Jaeseok; Shin, Cheung Soo; Kim, Jae-Jin; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Boreom

    2018-03-27

    Delirium is an important syndrome found in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), however, it is usually under-recognized during treatment. This study was performed to investigate whether delirious patients can be successfully distinguished from non-delirious patients by using heart rate variability (HRV) and machine learning. Electrocardiography data of 140 patients was acquired during daily ICU care, and HRV data were analyzed. Delirium, including its type, severity, and etiologies, was evaluated daily by trained psychiatrists. HRV data and various machine learning algorithms including linear support vector machine (SVM), SVM with radial basis function (RBF) kernels, linear extreme learning machine (ELM), ELM with RBF kernels, linear discriminant analysis, and quadratic discriminant analysis were utilized to distinguish delirium patients from non-delirium patients. HRV data of 4797 ECGs were included, and 39 patients had delirium at least once during their ICU stay. The maximum classification accuracy was acquired using SVM with RBF kernels. Our prediction method based on HRV with machine learning was comparable to previous delirium prediction models using massive amounts of clinical information. Our results show that autonomic alterations could be a significant feature of patients with delirium in the ICU, suggesting the potential for the automatic prediction and early detection of delirium based on HRV with machine learning.

  13. Homogenization of linear viscoelastic three phase media: internal variable formulation versus full-field computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, V.; Barbie, L.; Masson, R.

    2011-01-01

    Homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media is here extended from two phase inclusion-matrix media to three phase inclusion-matrix media. Each phase obeying to a compressible Maxwellian behaviour, this analytic method leads to an equivalent elastic homogenization problem in the Laplace-Carson space. For some particular microstructures, such as the Hashin composite sphere assemblage, an exact solution is obtained. The inversion of the Laplace-Carson transforms of the overall stress-strain behaviour gives in such cases an internal variable formulation. As expected, the number of these internal variables and their evolution laws are modified to take into account the third phase. Moreover, evolution laws of averaged stresses and strains per phase can still be derived for three phase media. Results of this model are compared to full fields computations of representative volume elements using finite element method, for various concentrations and sizes of inclusion. Relaxation and creep test cases are performed in order to compare predictions of the effective response. The internal variable formulation is shown to yield accurate prediction in both cases. (authors)

  14. Stress Intensity Factor for Interface Cracks in Bimaterials Using Complex Variable Meshless Manifold Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfen Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the complex variable meshless manifold method (CVMMM to stress intensity factor analyses of structures containing interface cracks between dissimilar materials. A discontinuous function and the near-tip asymptotic displacement functions are added to the CVMMM approximation using the framework of complex variable moving least-squares (CVMLS approximation. This enables the domain to be modeled by CVMMM without explicitly meshing the crack surfaces. The enriched crack-tip functions are chosen as those that span the asymptotic displacement fields for an interfacial crack. The complex stress intensity factors for bimaterial interfacial cracks were numerically evaluated using the method. Good agreement between the numerical results and the reference solutions for benchmark interfacial crack problems is realized.

  15. Infiltration and Runoff Measurements on Steep Burned Hillslopes Using a Rainfall Simulator with Variable Rain Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, David A.; Moody, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple rainfall intensities were used in rainfall-simulation experiments designed to investigate the infiltration and runoff from 1-square-meter plots on burned hillslopes covered by an ash layer of varying thickness. The 1-square-meter plots were on north- and south-facing hillslopes in an area burned by the Overland fire northwest of Boulder near Jamestown on the Front Range of Colorado. A single-nozzle, wide-angle, multi-intensity rain simulator was developed to investigate the infiltration and runoff on steep (30- to 40-percent gradient) burned hillslopes covered with ash. The simulated rainfall was evaluated for spatial variability, drop size, and kinetic energy. Fourteen rainfall simulations, at three intensities (about 20 millimeters per hour [mm/h], 35 mm/h, and 50 mm/h), were conducted on four plots. Measurements during and after the simulations included runoff, rainfall, suspended-sediment concentrations, surface ash layer thickness, soil moisture, soil grain size, soil lost on ignition, and plot topography. Runoff discharge reached a steady state within 7 to 26 minutes. Steady infiltration rates with the 50-mm/h application rainfall intensity approached 20?35 mm/h. If these rates are projected to rainfall application intensities used in many studies of burned area runoff production (about 80 mm/h), the steady discharge rates are on the lower end of measurements from other studies. Experiments using multiple rainfall intensities (three) suggest that runoff begins at rainfall intensities around 20 mm/h at the 1-square-meter scale, an observation consistent with a 10-mm/h rainfall intensity threshold needed for runoff initiation that has been reported in the literature.

  16. Capturing spike variability in noisy Izhikevich neurons using point process generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Kramer, Mark A.; Eden, Uri T.

    2018-01-01

    current. We then fit these spike train datawith a statistical model (a generalized linear model, GLM, with multiplicative influences of past spiking). For different levels of noise, we show how the GLM captures both the deterministic features of the Izhikevich neuron and the variability driven...... by the noise. We conclude that the GLM captures essential features of the simulated spike trains, but for near-deterministic spike trains, goodness-of-fit analyses reveal that the model does not fit very well in a statistical sense; the essential random part of the GLM is not captured....... are separately applied; understanding the relationships between these modeling approaches remains an area of active research. In this letter, we examine this relationship using simulation. To do so, we first generate spike train data from a well-known dynamical model, the Izhikevich neuron, with a noisy input...

  17. The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) position sensor for gravitational wave interferometer low-frequency controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, Hareem E-mail: htariq@ligo.caltech.edu; Takamori, Akiteru; Vetrano, Flavio; Wang Chenyang; Bertolini, Alessandro; Calamai, Giovanni; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Gennai, Alberto; Holloway, Lee; Losurdo, Giovanni; Marka, Szabolcs; Mazzoni, Massimo; Paoletti, Federico; Passuello, Diego; Sannibale, Virginio; Stanga, Ruggero

    2002-08-21

    Low-power, ultra-high-vacuum compatible, non-contacting position sensors with nanometer resolution and centimeter dynamic range have been developed, built and tested. They have been designed at Virgo as the sensors for low-frequency modal damping of Seismic Attenuation System chains in Gravitational Wave interferometers and sub-micron absolute mirror positioning. One type of these linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) has been designed to be also insensitive to transversal displacement thus allowing 3D movement of the sensor head while still precisely reading its position along the sensitivity axis. A second LVDT geometry has been designed to measure the displacement of the vertical seismic attenuation filters from their nominal position. Unlike the commercial LVDTs, mostly based on magnetic cores, the LVDTs described here exert no force on the measured structure.

  18. Linear variable differential transformer and its uses for in-core fuel rod behavior measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) is an electromechanical transducer which produces an ac voltage proportional to the displacement of a movable ferromagnetic core. When the core is connected to the cladding of a nuclear fuel rod, it is capable of producing extremely accurate measurements of fuel rod elongation caused by thermal expansion. The LVDT is used in the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program at the U.S. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for measurements of nuclear fuel rod elongation and as an indication of critical heat flux and the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling. These types of measurements provide important information about the behavior of nuclear fuel rods under normal and abnormal operating conditions. The objective of the paper is to provide a complete account of recent advances made in LVDT design and experimental data from in-core nuclear reactor tests which use the LVDT

  19. Spatial variability in floodplain sedimentation: the use of generalized linear mixed-effects models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabezas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sediment, Total Organic Carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN accumulation during one overbank flood (1.15 y return interval were examined at one reach of the Middle Ebro River (NE Spain for elucidating spatial patterns. To achieve this goal, four areas with different geomorphological features and located within the study reach were examined by using artificial grass mats. Within each area, 1 m2 study plots consisting of three pseudo-replicates were placed in a semi-regular grid oriented perpendicular to the main channel. TOC, TN and Particle-Size composition of deposited sediments were examined and accumulation rates estimated. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to analyze sedimentation patterns in order to handle clustered sampling units, specific-site effects and spatial self-correlation between observations. Our results confirm the importance of channel-floodplain morphology and site micro-topography in explaining sediment, TOC and TN deposition patterns, although the importance of other factors as vegetation pattern should be included in further studies to explain small-scale variability. Generalized linear mixed-effect models provide a good framework to deal with the high spatial heterogeneity of this phenomenon at different spatial scales, and should be further investigated in order to explore its validity when examining the importance of factors such as flood magnitude or suspended sediment concentration.

  20. Glycaemic variability in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock admitted to an Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, L M; Basile-Filho, A; Nicolini, E A; Dessotte, C A M; Aguiar, G C S; Stabile, A M

    2017-08-01

    Sepsis is associated with morbidity and mortality, which implies high costs to the global health system. Metabolic alterations that increase glycaemia and glycaemic variability occur during sepsis. To verify mean body glucose levels and glycaemic variability in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Retrospective and exploratory study that involved collection of patients' sociodemographic and clinical data and calculation of severity scores. Glycaemia measurements helped to determine glycaemic variability through standard deviation and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions. Analysis of 116 medical charts and 6730 glycaemia measurements revealed that the majority of patients were male and aged over 60 years. Surgical treatment was the main reason for ICU admission. High blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were the most usual comorbidities. Patients that died during the ICU stay presented the highest SOFA scores and mean glycaemia; they also experienced more hypoglycaemia events. Patients with diabetes had higher mean glycaemia, evaluated through standard deviation and mean amplitude of glycaemia excursions. Organic impairment at ICU admission may underlie glycaemic variability and lead to a less favourable outcome. High glycaemic variability in patients with diabetes indicates that monitoring of these individuals is crucial to ensure better outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A feasibility study of high intensity positron sources for the S-band and TESLA linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, R.

    1997-10-01

    Future high energy linear colliders require luminosities above 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Therefore beam intensities have to be provided up to two orders of magnitude higher than achieved at present. It is comparably simple to reach high electron intensities. Positron intensities in this range, however, are difficult to realize with conventional positron sources. A new method of positron production was proposed in 1979 by V.E. Balakin and A.A. Mikhailichenko. The photons, necessary for pair production, are not generated by bremsstrahlung but by high energy electrons passing through an undulator. Based on this principle, a high intensity, unpolarized and polarized positron source for linear colliders was developed by K.Floettmann. In the present work, the requirements derived by K.Floettmann are used to study the feasibility of both the polarized and the unpolarized positron source. For economical reasons it is advantageous to use the beam after the interaction for positron production. In the main part of the present work a beam line is developed which guarantees a stable operation of the unpolarized wiggler-based positron source for the S-Band and TESLA linear collider. The requirements on the electron beam emittances are much higher for the polarized undulator-based source. For TESLA it is shown, that an operation of the polarized source is possible for design interactions. For a stable operation, taking into account perturbations at the interaction point, further investigations are necessary. For the SBLC, an operation of the polarized source is not possible with the present design.

  2. Interaction of low-intensity linearly polarized laser radiation with living tissues: effects on tissular acceleration of skin wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Martha Simoes

    2000-01-01

    According to the Maxwell's equations to optical properties of surfaces, the energy deposition efficiency in a microroughness interface depends on the electrical field polarization component. Considering a linearly polarized beam, this efficiency will depend on the roughness parameters to p-polarized light and it will not depend on such parameters to s-polarized light. In this work it was investigated the effects of low-intensity, linearly polarized He-Ne laser beam on skin wounds healing, considering two orthogonal directions of polarization. We have considered a preferential axis as the animals' spinal column and we aligned the linear laser polarization first parallel, then perpendicular to this direction. Burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N 2 on the back of the animals and the lesions were irradiated on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding, D= 1,0 J/cm 2 . Control lesions were not irradiated. The theoretical model consisted in describing linearly polarized light propagation in biological tissues using transport theory. The degree of polarization was measured in normal and pathological skin samples. It was verified that linearly polarized light can survive in the superficial layers of skin and it can be more preserved in skin under pathological condition when compared with health skin. The analysis of skin wound healing process has demonstrated that the relative direction of the laser polarization plays an important role on the wound healing process by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and radioautography. (author)

  3. Relating Linear and Volumetric Variables Through Body Scanning to Improve Human Interfaces in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Ferrer, Mike A.; Young, Karen S.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Designing space suits and vehicles for the diverse human population present unique challenges for the methods of traditional anthropometry. Space suits are bulky and allow the operator to shift position within the suit and inhibit the ability to identify body landmarks. Limited suit sizing options also cause variability in fit and performance between similarly sized individuals. Space vehicles are restrictive in volume in both the fit and the ability to collect data. NASA's Anthropometric and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) has utilized 3D scanning to shift from traditional linear anthropometry to explore and examine volumetric capabilities to provide anthropometric solutions for design. Overall, the key goals are to improve the human-system performance and develop new processes to aid in the design and evaluation of space systems. Four case studies are presented that illustrate the shift from purely linear analyses to an augmented volumetric toolset to predict and analyze the human within the space suit and vehicle. The first case study involves the calculation of maximal head volume to estimate total free volume in the helmet for proper air exchange. Traditional linear measurements resulted in an inaccurate representation of the head shape, yet limited data exists for the determination of a large head volume. Steps were first taken to identify and classify a maximum head volume and the resulting comparisons to the estimate are presented in this paper. This study illustrates the gap between linear components of anthropometry and the need for overall volume metrics in order to provide solutions. A second case study examines the overlay of the space suit scans and components onto scanned individuals to quantify fit and clearance to aid in sizing the suit to the individual. Restrictions in space suit size availability present unique challenges to optimally fit the individual within a limited sizing range while maintaining performance. Quantification of the clearance and

  4. Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; Trimer, Vitor; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Italiano Monteiro, Clara; Camargo Magalhães Maniglia, Marcela; Silva Pereira, Ana Maria; Rodrigues das Chagas, Gustavo; Carvalho, Eliane Maria

    2016-05-15

    Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single HT session on cardiovascular autonomic control by time domain and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV signal was recorded continuously in twelve children affected by neurological disorders during a HT session, consisting in a 10-minute sitting position rest (P1), a 15-minute preparatory phase sitting on the horse (P2), a 15-minute HT session (P3) and a final 10-minute sitting position recovery (P4). Time domain and non-linear HRV indices, including Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), were calculated for each treatment phase. We observed that SampEn increased during P3 (SampEn=0.56±0.10) with respect to P1 (SampEn=0.40±0.14, p<0.05), while DFA decreased during P3 (DFA=1.10±0.10) with respect to P1 (DFA=1.26±0.14, p<0.05). A significant SDRR increase (p<0.05) was observed during the recovery period P4 (SDRR=50±30ms) with respect to the HT session period P3 (SDRR=30±10ms). Our results suggest that HT might benefit children with disabilities attributable to neurological disorders by eliciting an acute autonomic response during the therapy and during the recovery period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Variability of in vivo linear microcrack accumulation in the cortex of elderly human ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Agnew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive accumulation of microdamage in the skeleton in vivo is believed to contribute to fragility and risk of fracture, particularly in the elderly. Current knowledge of how much in vivo damage accrual varies between individuals, if at all, is lacking. In this study, paired sixth ribs from five male and five female elderly individuals (76–92 years, mean age = 84.7 years were examined using en bloc staining and fluorescent microcopy to quantify linear microcracks present at the time of death (i.e. in vivo microdamage. Crack number, crack length, crack density, and crack surface density were measured for each complete cross-section, with densities calculated using the variable of bone area (which accounts for the influence of porosity on the cortex, unlike the more frequently used cortical area, and analyzed using a two-way mixed model analysis of variance. Results indicate that while microcracks between individuals differ significantly, differences between the left and right corresponding pairs within individuals and the pleural and cutaneous cortices within each rib did not. These results suggest that systemic influences, such as differential metabolic activity, affect the accumulation of linear microcracks. Furthermore, variation in remodeling rates between individuals may be a major factor contributing to differential fracture risk in the elderly. Future work should expand to include a wider age range to examine differences in in vivo microdamage accumulation across the lifespan, as well as considering the influence of bisphosphonates on microdamage accumulation in the context of compromised remodeling rates in the elderly.

  6. Fatiguing exercise intensity influences the relationship between parameters reflecting neuromuscular function and postural control variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boyas

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatiguing exercise intensity on the nature and extent of fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular function and postural stability in quiet standing. We also explored the contribution of selected neuromuscular mechanisms involved in force production to postural stability impairment observed following fatigue using an approach based on multivariate regressions. Eighteen young subjects performed 30-s postural trials on one leg with their eyes closed. Postural trials were performed before and after fatiguing exercises of different intensities: 25, 50 and 75% of maximal isometric plantarflexor torque. Fatiguing exercises consisted of sustaining a plantarflexor isometric contraction at the target intensity until task failure. Maximal isometric plantarflexor torque, electromyographic activity of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles, activation level (twitch interpolation technique and twitch contractile properties of plantarflexors were used to characterize neuromuscular function. The 25% exercise was associated with greater central fatigue whereas the 50 and 75% exercises involved mostly peripheral fatigue. However, all fatiguing exercises induced similar alterations in postural stability, which was unexpected considering previous literature. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that fatigue-related changes in selected parameters related to neuromuscular function could explain more than half (0.51≤R(2≤0.82 of the changes in postural variables for the 25% exercise. On the other hand, regression models were less predictive (0.17≤R(2≤0.73 for the 50 and 75% exercises. This study suggests that fatiguing exercise intensity does not influence the extent of postural stability impairment, but does influence the type of fatigue induced and the neuromuscular function predictors explaining changes in postural variables.

  7. High Altitude Affects Nocturnal Non-linear Heart Rate Variability: PATCH-HA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Boos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: High altitude (HA exposure can lead to changes in resting heart rate variability (HRV, which may be linked to acute mountain sickness (AMS development. Compared with traditional HRV measures, non-linear HRV appears to offer incremental and prognostic data, yet its utility and relationship to AMS have been barely examined at HA. This study sought to examine this relationship at terrestrial HA.Methods: Sixteen healthy British military servicemen were studied at baseline (800 m, first night and over eight consecutive nights, at a sleeping altitude of up to 3600 m. A disposable cardiac patch monitor was used, to record the nocturnal cardiac inter-beat interval data, over 1 h (0200–0300 h, for offline HRV assessment. Non-linear HRV measures included Sample entropy (SampEn, the short (α1, 4–12 beats and long-term (α2, 13–64 beats detrend fluctuation analysis slope and the correlation dimension (D2. The maximal rating of perceived exertion (RPE, during daily exercise, was assessed using the Borg 6–20 RPE scale.Results: All subjects completed the HA exposure. The average age of included subjects was 31.4 ± 8.1 years. HA led to a significant fall in SpO2 and increase in heart rate, LLS and RPE. There were no significant changes in the ECG-derived respiratory rate or in any of the time domain measures of HRV during sleep. The only notable changes in frequency domain measures of HRV were an increase in LF and fall in HFnu power at the highest altitude. Conversely, SampEn, SD1/SD2 and D2 all fell, whereas α1 and α2 increased (p < 0.05. RPE inversely correlated with SD1/SD2 (r = -0.31; p = 0.002, SampEn (r = -0.22; p = 0.03, HFnu (r = -0.27; p = 0.007 and positively correlated with LF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02, LF/HF (r = 0.24; p = 0.02, α1 (r = 0.32; p = 0.002 and α2 (r = 0.21; p = 0.04. AMS occurred in 7/16 subjects (43.8% and was very mild in 85.7% of cases. HRV failed to predict AMS.Conclusion: Non-linear HRV is more sensitive to the

  8. Response variability of different anodal transcranial direct current stimulation intensities across multiple sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Claudia; Lindquist, Martin A; Celnik, Pablo A

    It is well known that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is capable of modulating corticomotor excitability. However, a source of growing concern has been the observed inter- and intra-individual variability of tDCS-responses. Recent studies have assessed whether individuals respond in a predictable manner across repeated sessions of anodal tDCS (atDCS). The findings of these investigations have been inconsistent, and their methods have some limitations (i.e. lack of sham condition or testing only one tDCS intensity). To study inter- and intra-individual variability of atDCS effects at two different intensities on primary motor cortex (M1) excitability. Twelve subjects participated in a crossover study testing 7-min atDCS over M1 in three separate conditions (2 mA, 1 mA, sham) each repeated three times separated by 48 h. Motor evoked potentials were recorded before and after stimulation (up to 30min). Time of testing was maintained consistent within participants. To estimate the reliability of tDCS effects across sessions, we calculated the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC). AtDCS at 2 mA, but not 1 mA, significantly increased cortical excitability at the group level in all sessions. The overall ICC revealed fair to high reliability of tDCS effects for multiple sessions. Given that the distribution of responses showed important variability in the sham condition, we established a Sham Variability-Based Threshold to classify responses and to track individual changes across sessions. Using this threshold an intra-individual consistent response pattern was then observed only for the 2 mA condition. 2 mA anodal tDCS results in consistent intra- and inter-individual increases of M1 excitability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-linear indices of heart rate variability during endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Milana Drumond Ramos; Pita Neto, Ivo Cavalcante; Martiniano, Eli Carlos; Monteiro, Larissa Raylane Lucas; Ramos, José Lucas Souza; Garner, David M; Valenti, Vitor Engácia; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2016-01-01

    Dental treatment promotes psychosomatic change that can influence the procedure and compromise the general well-being of the patient. In this context, it highlights the importance of evaluating the function of the autonomic nervous system in individuals undergoing endodontic treatment. Thus, this manuscript aimed to analyse cardiac autonomic modulation, through non-linear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) during endodontic treatment. Analysis of 50 subjects of either sex aged between 18 and 40 years diagnosed with irreversible pulp necrosis of lower molars undergoing endodontic treatment was undertaken. We carried out fractal and symbolic analysis of HRV, which was recorded in the first session of the endodontic treatment at four intervals: T1: 0-10 min before the onset of the treatment session; T2: 0-10 min after the application of anaesthesia; T3: throughout the period of treatment; and T4: 0-30 min after the end of the treatment session. There was reduction of α1 in T2 compared to T1 and T4 (p endodontic treatment, and after applying local anaesthetic the parasympathetic component of HRV increases. These data indicate that endodontic treatment acutely overcharges the heart, supporting the stress involved in this situation.

  10. Basic design of radiation-resistant LVDTs: Linear Variable Differential Transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Park, S. J.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)

    2008-02-15

    A LVDT(Linear Variable Differential Transformer) for measuring the pressure level was used to measure the pressure of a nuclear fuel rod during the neutron irradiation test in a research reactor. A LVDT for measuring the elongation was also used to measure the elongation of nuclear fuels, and the creep and fatigue of materials during a neutron irradiation test in a research reactor. In this report, the basic design of two radiation-resistant LVDTs for measuring the pressure level and elongation are described. These LVDTs are used a under radiation environment such as a research reactor. In the basic design step, we analyzed the domestic and foreign technical status for radiation-resistant LVDTs, made part and assembly drawings and established simple procedures for their assembling. Only a few companies in the world can produce radiation-resistant LVDTs. Not only these are extremely expensive, but the prices are continuously rising. Also, it takes a long time to procure a LVDT, as it can only be bought about by an order-production. The localization of radiation-resistant LVDTs is necessary in order to provide them quickly and at a low cost. These radiation-resistant LVDTs will be used at neutron irradiation devices such as instrumented fuel capsules, special purpose capsules and a fuel test loop in research reactors. We expect that the use of neutron irradiation tests will be revitalized by the localization of radiation-resistant LVDTs.

  11. Realisation and optical engineering of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarno; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel

    2017-06-08

    We present the first realisation of linear variable bandpass filters in nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-LVBPFs) photonic crystal structures. NAA gradient-index filters (NAA-GIFs) are produced by sinusoidal pulse anodisation and used as photonic crystal platforms to generate NAA-LVBPFs. The anodisation period of NAA-GIFs is modified from 650 to 850 s to systematically tune the characteristic photonic stopband of these photonic crystals across the UV-visible-NIR spectrum. Then, the nanoporous structure of NAA-GIFs is gradually widened along the surface under controlled conditions by wet chemical etching using a dip coating approach aiming to create NAA-LVBPFs with finely engineered optical properties. We demonstrate that the characteristic photonic stopband and the iridescent interferometric colour displayed by these photonic crystals can be tuned with precision across the surface of NAA-LVBPFs by adjusting the fabrication and etching conditions. Here, we envisage for the first time the combination of the anodisation period and etching conditions as a cost-competitive, facile, and versatile nanofabrication approach that enables the generation of a broad range of unique LVBPFs covering the spectral regions. These photonic crystal structures open new opportunities for multiple applications, including adaptive optics, hyperspectral imaging, fluorescence diagnostics, spectroscopy, and sensing.

  12. Static Hyperspectral Fluorescence Imaging of Viscous Materials Based on a Linear Variable Filter Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Koch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-cost hyperspectral measurement setup in a new application based on fluorescence detection in the visible (Vis wavelength range. The aim of the setup is to take hyperspectral fluorescence images of viscous materials. Based on these images, fluorescent and non-fluorescent impurities in the viscous materials can be detected. For the illumination of the measurement object, a narrow-band high-power light-emitting diode (LED with a center wavelength of 370 nm was used. The low-cost acquisition unit for the imaging consists of a linear variable filter (LVF and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS 2D sensor array. The translucent wavelength range of the LVF is from 400 nm to 700 nm. For the confirmation of the concept, static measurements of fluorescent viscous materials with a non-fluorescent impurity have been performed and analyzed. With the presented setup, measurement surfaces in the micrometer range can be provided. The measureable minimum particle size of the impurities is in the nanometer range. The recording rate for the measurements depends on the exposure time of the used CMOS 2D sensor array and has been found to be in the microsecond range.

  13. Seasonal Variability of Aragonite Saturation State in the North Pacific Ocean Predicted by Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Park, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal variation of aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) in the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) was investigated, using multiple linear regression (MLR) models produced from the PACIFICA (Pacific Ocean interior carbon) dataset. Data within depth ranges of 50-1200m were used to derive MLR models, and three parameters (potential temperature, nitrate, and apparent oxygen utilization (AOU)) were chosen as predictor variables because these parameters are associated with vertical mixing, DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) removal and release which all affect Ωarag in water column directly or indirectly. The PACIFICA dataset was divided into 5° × 5° grids, and a MLR model was produced in each grid, giving total 145 independent MLR models over the NPO. Mean RMSE (root mean square error) and r2 (coefficient of determination) of all derived MLR models were approximately 0.09 and 0.96, respectively. Then the obtained MLR coefficients for each of predictor variables and an intercept were interpolated over the study area, thereby making possible to allocate MLR coefficients to data-sparse ocean regions. Predictability from the interpolated coefficients was evaluated using Hawaiian time-series data, and as a result mean residual between measured and predicted Ωarag values was approximately 0.08, which is less than the mean RMSE of our MLR models. The interpolated MLR coefficients were combined with seasonal climatology of World Ocean Atlas 2013 (1° × 1°) to produce seasonal Ωarag distributions over various depths. Large seasonal variability in Ωarag was manifested in the mid-latitude Western NPO (24-40°N, 130-180°E) and low-latitude Eastern NPO (0-12°N, 115-150°W). In the Western NPO, seasonal fluctuations of water column stratification appeared to be responsible for the seasonal variation in Ωarag (~ 0.5 at 50 m) because it closely followed temperature variations in a layer of 0-75 m. In contrast, remineralization of organic matter was the main cause for the seasonal

  14. Linear versus non-linear measures of temporal variability in finger tapping and their relation to performance on open- versus closed-loop motor tasks: comparing standard deviations to Lyapunov exponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Stephen D; Weaver, Ryan

    2008-05-01

    The nature of temporal variability during speeded finger tapping was examined using linear (standard deviation) and non-linear (Lyapunov exponent) measures. Experiment 1 found that right hand tapping was characterised by lower amounts of both linear and non-linear measures of variability than left hand tapping, and that linear and non-linear measures of variability were often negatively correlated with one another. Experiment 2 found that increased non-linear variability was associated with relatively enhanced performance on a closed-loop motor task (mirror tracing) and relatively impaired performance on an open-loop motor task (pointing in a dark room), especially for left hand performance. The potential uses and significance of measures of non-linear variability are discussed.

  15. Intensive neutron source based on powerful electron linear accelerator LIA-30 and pulsed nuclear reactor FR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossamykin, V S; Koshelev, A S; Gerasimov, A I; Gordeev, V S; Grishin, A V; Averchenkov, V Ya; Lazarev, S A; Maslov, G N; Odintsov, Yu M [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Some results are given of investigations on joint operation modes of the linear induction electron accelerator LIA-30 ({approx} 40 MeV, {approx} 100 kA, {approx} 20 ns) and the pulsed reactor FR-1 with a compact metal core, aimed at achieving high intensity neutron fluxes. The multiplication factor Q for prompt neutrons in the FR-1 booster mode operation increased from 100 to 4500. The total output of prompt neutrons from FR-1 at Q = 2570 was 1.4 x 10{sup 16} 1/pulse with a pulse half width of {approx} 25 {mu}s. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  16. Engineering equations for characterizing non-linear laser intensity propagation in air with loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Thomas; Stotts, Larry B; Tellez, Jason A; Schmidt, Jason D; Mansell, Justin D

    2018-02-19

    The propagation of high peak-power laser beams in real atmospheres will be affected at long range by both linear and nonlinear effects contained therein. Arguably, J. H. Marburger is associated with the mathematical characterization of this phenomenon. This paper provides a validated set of engineering equations for characterizing the self-focusing distance from a laser beam propagating through non-turbulent air with, and without, loss as well as three source configurations: (1) no lens, (2) converging lens and (3) diverging lens. The validation was done against wave-optics simulation results. Some validated equations follow Marburger completely, but others do not, requiring modification of the original theory. Our results can provide a guide for numerical simulations and field experiments.

  17. Intense γ-ray generation for a polarized positron beam in a linear collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Miyahara

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available γ-ray generation by Compton backscattering in an optical lens series with periodic focal points is considered to produce a polarized positron beam for a linear collider. The lens series is composed of 20 unit cells with a length of 210 mm. Each lens has a hole to pass an electron beam with an energy of 5.8 GeV and the generated γ rays. It is shown by diffraction analysis that laser beam loss in the series is very small, and the beam size is periodically reduced to 26 μm. Electron beam size is reduced to 34 μm in a superconducting solenoid with a field of 15 T. To get a required γ-ray yield of 7×10^{15} γ/s, only one circularly polarized CO_{2} laser source with a power of 24 kW is needed.

  18. Imprint of non-linear effects on HI intensity mapping on large scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeh, Obinna, E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)

    2017-06-01

    Intensity mapping of the HI brightness temperature provides a unique way of tracing large-scale structures of the Universe up to the largest possible scales. This is achieved by using a low angular resolution radio telescopes to detect emission line from cosmic neutral Hydrogen in the post-reionization Universe. We use general relativistic perturbation theory techniques to derive for the first time the full expression for the HI brightness temperature up to third order in perturbation theory without making any plane-parallel approximation. We use this result and the renormalization prescription for biased tracers to study the impact of nonlinear effects on the power spectrum of HI brightness temperature both in real and redshift space. We show how mode coupling at nonlinear order due to nonlinear bias parameters and redshift space distortion terms modulate the power spectrum on large scales. The large scale modulation may be understood to be due to the effective bias parameter and effective shot noise.

  19. Operational matrices with respect to Hermite polynomials and their applications in solving linear dierential equations with variable coecients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aminataei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new and ecient approach is applied for numerical approximation of the linear dierential equations with variable coecients based on operational matrices with respect to Hermite polynomials. Explicit formulae which express the Hermite expansioncoecients for the moments of derivatives of any dierentiable function in terms of the original expansion coecients of the function itself are given in the matrix form. The mainimportance of this scheme is that using this approach reduces solving the linear dierentialequations to solve a system of linear algebraic equations, thus greatly simplifying the problem. In addition, two experiments are given to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the method

  20. Climate variability and increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue incidence in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Tang, Choon Siang; Pang, Fung Yin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-11-11

    Dengue is currently a major public health burden in Asia Pacific Region. This study aims to establish an association between dengue incidence, mean temperature and precipitation, and further discuss how weather predictors influence the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue in Singapore during the period 2000-2007. Weekly dengue incidence data, daily mean temperature and precipitation and the midyear population data in Singapore during 2000-2007 were retrieved and analysed. We employed a time series Poisson regression model including time factors such as time trends, lagged terms of weather predictors, considered autocorrelation, and accounted for changes in population size by offsetting. The weekly mean temperature and cumulative precipitation were statistically significant related to the increases of dengue incidence in Singapore. Our findings showed that dengue incidence increased linearly at time lag of 5-16 and 5-20 weeks succeeding elevated temperature and precipitation, respectively. However, negative association occurred at lag week 17-20 with low weekly mean temperature as well as lag week 1-4 and 17-20 with low cumulative precipitation. As Singapore experienced higher weekly mean temperature and cumulative precipitation in the years 2004-2007, our results signified hazardous impacts of climate factors on the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue cases. The ongoing global climate change might potentially increase the burden of dengue fever infection in near future.

  1. Non-linear properties of R-R distributions as a measure of heart rate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irurzun, I.M.; Bergero, P.; Cordero, M.C.; Defeo, M.M.; Vicente, J.L.; Mola, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the dynamic quality of the R-R interbeat intervals of electrocardiographic signals from healthy people and from patients with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) by applying different measure algorithms to standardised public domain data sets of heart rate variability. Our aim is to assess the utility of these algorithms for the above mentioned purposes. Long and short time series, 24 and 0.50 h respectively, of interbeat intervals of healthy and PVC subjects were compared with the aim of developing a fast method to investigate their temporal organization. Two different methods were used: power spectral analysis and the integral correlation method. Power spectral analysis has proven to be a powerful tool for detecting long-range correlations. If it is applied in a short time series, power spectra of healthy and PVC subjects show a similar behavior, which disqualifies power spectral analysis as a fast method to distinguish healthy from PVC subjects. The integral correlation method allows us to study the fractal properties of interbeat intervals of electrocardiographic signals. The cardiac activity of healthy and PVC people stems from dynamics of chaotic nature characterized by correlation dimensions d f equal to 3.40±0.50 and 5.00±0.80 for healthy and PVC subjects respectively. The methodology presented in this article bridges the gap between theoretical and experimental studies of non-linear phenomena. From our results we conclude that the minimum number of coupled differential equations to describe cardiac activity must be six and seven for healthy and PVC individuals respectively. From the present analysis we conclude that the correlation integral method is particularly suitable, in comparison with the power spectral analysis, for the early detection of arrhythmias on short time (0.5 h) series

  2. Suppression of chaos at slow variables by rapidly mixing fast dynamics through linear energy-preserving coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, R. V.

    2011-12-01

    Chaotic multiscale dynamical systems are common in many areas of science, one of the examples being the interaction of the low-frequency dynamics in the atmosphere with the fast turbulent weather dynamics. One of the key questions about chaotic multiscale systems is how the fast dynamics affects chaos at the slow variables, and, therefore, impacts uncertainty and predictability of the slow dynamics. Here we demonstrate that the linear slow-fast coupling with the total energy conservation property promotes the suppression of chaos at the slow variables through the rapid mixing at the fast variables, both theoretically and through numerical simulations. A suitable mathematical framework is developed, connecting the slow dynamics on the tangent subspaces to the infinite-time linear response of the mean state to a constant external forcing at the fast variables. Additionally, it is shown that the uncoupled dynamics for the slow variables may remain chaotic while the complete multiscale system loses chaos and becomes completely predictable at the slow variables through increasing chaos and turbulence at the fast variables. This result contradicts the common sense intuition, where, naturally, one would think that coupling a slow weakly chaotic system with another much faster and much stronger chaotic system would result in general increase of chaos at the slow variables.

  3. Interfractional variability in intensity-modulated radiotherapy of prostate cancer with or without thermoplastic pelvic immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.A.; Kim, C.Y.; Park, Y.J.; Yoon, W.S.; Lee, N.K.; Yang, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the variability of patient positioning errors associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer and to assess the impact of thermoplastic pelvic immobilization on these errors using kilovoltage (kV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). From February 2012 to June 2012, the records of 314 IMRT sessions in 19 patients with prostate cancer, performed with or without immobilization at two different facilities in the Korea University Hospital were analyzed. The kV CBCT images were matched to simulation computed tomography (CT) images to determine the simulation-to-treatment variability. The shifts along the x (lateral)-, y (longitudinal)- and z (vertical)-axes were measured, as was the shift in the three dimensional (3D) vector. The measured systematic errors in the immobilized group during treatment were 0.46 ± 1.75 mm along the x-axis, - 0.35 ± 3.83 mm along the y-axis, 0.20 ± 2.75 mm along the z-axis and 4.05 ± 3.02 mm in the 3D vector. Those of nonimmobilized group were - 1.45 ± 7.50 mm along the x-axis, 1.89 ± 5.07 mm along the y-axis, 0.28 ± 3.81 mm along the z-axis and 8.90 ± 4.79 mm in the 3D vector. The group immobilized with pelvic thermoplastics showed reduced interfractional variability along the x- and y-axes and in the 3D vector compared to the nonimmobilized group (p < 0.05). IMRT with thermoplastic pelvic immobilization in patients with prostate cancer appears to be useful in stabilizing interfractional variability during the planned treatment course. (orig.)

  4. Muscle conduction velocity, surface electromyography variables, and echo intensity during concentric and eccentric fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Izal, Miriam; Lusa Cadore, Eduardo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-03-01

    Concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions may involve different mechanisms related to changes in sarcolemma status and the consequent alteration of action potential transmission along muscle fibers. Muscle conduction velocity (CV), surface electromyography signal (sEMG), muscle quality, and blood lactate concentrations were analyzed during CON and ECC actions. Compared with ECC, the CON protocol resulted in greater muscle force losses, blood lactate concentrations, and changes in sEMG parameters. Similar reductions in CV were detected in both protocols. Higher echo intensity values were observed 2 days after ECC due to greater muscle damage. The effects of the muscle damage produced by ECC exercise on the transmission of action potentials along muscle fibers (measured as the CV) may be comparable with the effects of hydrogen accumulation produced by CON exercise (related to greater lactate concentrations), which causes greater force loss and change in other sEMG variables during CON than during ECC actions.

  5. Linear accelerator-based intensity-modulated total marrow irradiation technique for treatment of hematologic malignancies: a dosimetric feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeginer, Mete; Roeske, John C; Radosevich, James A; Aydogan, Bulent

    2011-03-15

    To investigate the dosimetric feasibility of linear accelerator-based intensity-modulated total marrow irradiation (IM-TMI) in patients with hematologic malignancies. Linear accelerator-based IM-TMI treatment planning was performed for 9 patients using the Eclipse treatment planning system. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of all the bones in the body from the head to the mid-femur, except for the forearms and hands. Organs at risk (OAR) to be spared included the lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, eyes, oral cavity, and bowel and were contoured by a physician on the axial computed tomography images. The three-isocenter technique previously developed by our group was used for treatment planning. We developed and used a common dose-volume objective method to reduce the planning time and planner subjectivity in the treatment planning process. A 95% PTV coverage with the 99% of the prescribed dose of 12 Gy was achieved for all nine patients. The average dose reduction in OAR ranged from 19% for the lungs to 68% for the lenses. The common dose-volume objective method decreased the planning time by an average of 35% and reduced the inter- and intra- planner subjectivity. The results from the present study suggest that the linear accelerator-based IM-TMI technique is clinically feasible. We have demonstrated that linear accelerator-based IM-TMI plans with good PTV coverage and improved OAR sparing can be obtained within a clinically reasonable time using the common dose-volume objective method proposed in the present study. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Magnetic resonance assessment of prostate localization variability in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeirs, Geert M.; Meerleer, Gert O. de; Verstraete, Koenraad L.; Neve, Wilfried J. de

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To measure prostate motion with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and materials: Seven patients with prostate carcinoma were scanned supine on a 1.5-Tesla MRI system with weekly pretreatment and on-treatment HASTE T2-weighted images in 3 orthogonal planes. The bladder and rectal volumes and position of the prostatic midpoint (PMP) and margins relative to the bony pelvis were measured. Results: All pretreatment positions were at the mean position as computed from the on-treatment scans in each patient. The PMP variability (given as 1 SD) in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and right-left (RL) directions was 2.6, 2.4, and 1.0 mm, respectively. The largest variabilities occurred at the posterior (3.2 mm), superior (2.6 mm), and inferior (2.6 mm) margins. A strong correlation was found between large rectal volume (>95th percentile) and anterior PMP displacement. A weak correlation was found between bladder volume and superior PMP displacement. Conclusions: All pretreatment positions were representative of the subsequent on-treatment positions. A clinical target volume (CTV) expansion of 5.3 mm in any direction was sufficient to ascertain a 95% coverage of the CTV within the planning target volume (PTV), provided that a rectal suppository is administered to avoid rectal overdistension and that the patient has a comfortably filled bladder (<300 mL)

  7. Straight line fitting and predictions: On a marginal likelihood approach to linear regression and errors-in-variables models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Linear regression methods are without doubt the most used approaches to describe and predict data in the physical sciences. They are often good first order approximations and they are in general easier to apply and interpret than more advanced methods. However, even the properties of univariate regression can lead to debate over the appropriateness of various models as witnessed by the recent discussion about climate reconstruction methods. Before linear regression is applied important choices have to be made regarding the origins of the noise terms and regarding which of the two variables under consideration that should be treated as the independent variable. These decisions are often not easy to make but they may have a considerable impact on the results. We seek to give a unified probabilistic - Bayesian with flat priors - treatment of univariate linear regression and prediction by taking, as starting point, the general errors-in-variables model (Christiansen, J. Clim., 27, 2014-2031, 2014). Other versions of linear regression can be obtained as limits of this model. We derive the likelihood of the model parameters and predictands of the general errors-in-variables model by marginalizing over the nuisance parameters. The resulting likelihood is relatively simple and easy to analyze and calculate. The well known unidentifiability of the errors-in-variables model is manifested as the absence of a well-defined maximum in the likelihood. However, this does not mean that probabilistic inference can not be made; the marginal likelihoods of model parameters and the predictands have, in general, well-defined maxima. We also include a probabilistic version of classical calibration and show how it is related to the errors-in-variables model. The results are illustrated by an example from the coupling between the lower stratosphere and the troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere winter.

  8. Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Linear Multistep Methods with Variable Step Size

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis; Ketcheson, David I.; Loczi, Lajos; Né meth, Adriá n

    2016-01-01

    Strong stability preserving (SSP) methods are designed primarily for time integration of nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs, for which the permissible SSP step size varies from one step to the next. We develop the first SSP linear multistep methods (of order

  9. A fast algorithm for solving a linear feasibility problem with application to Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Gabor T; Chen, Wei

    2008-03-01

    The goal of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is to deliver sufficient doses to tumors to kill them, but without causing irreparable damage to critical organs. This requirement can be formulated as a linear feasibility problem. The sequential (i.e., iteratively treating the constraints one after another in a cyclic fashion) algorithm ART3 is known to find a solution to such problems in a finite number of steps, provided that the feasible region is full dimensional. We present a faster algorithm called ART3+. The idea of ART3+ is to avoid unnecessary checks on constraints that are likely to be satisfied. The superior performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated by mathematical experiments inspired by the IMRT application.

  10. Non-linear relationship between O2 uptake and power output at high intensities of exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Rademaker, A C; Sargeant, A J

    1995-01-01

    1. A slow component to pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) is reported during prolonged high power exercise performed at constant power output at, or above, approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake. The magnitude of the slow component is reported to be associated with the intensity of exercise and to be largely accounted for by an increased VO2 across the exercising legs. 2. On the assumption that the control mechanism responsible for the increased VO2 is intensity dependent we hypothesized that it should also be apparent in multi-stage incremental exercise tests with the result that the VO2-power output relationship would be curvilinear. 3. We further hypothesized that the change in the VO2-power output relationship could be related to the hierarchical recruitment of different muscle fibre types with a lower mechanical efficiency. 4. Six subjects each performed five incremental exercise tests, at pedalling rates of 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 rev min-1, over which range we expected to vary the proportional contribution of different fibre types to the power output. Pulmonary VO2 was determined continuously and arterialized capillary blood was sampled and analysed for blood lactate concentration ([lactate]b). 5. Below the level at which a sustained increase in [lactate]b was observed pulmonary VO2 showed a linear relationship with power output; at high power outputs, however, there was an additional increase in VO2 above that expected from the extrapolation of that linear relationship, leading to a positive curvilinear VO2-power output relationship. 6. No systematic effect on the magnitude or onset of the 'extra' VO2 was found in relation to pedalling rate, which suggests that it is not related to the pattern of motor unit recruitment in any simple way. PMID:8568657

  11. Integer linear models with a polynomial number of variables and constraints for some classical combinatorial optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Maculan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present integer linear models with a polynomial number of variables and constraints for combinatorial optimization problems in graphs: optimum elementary cycles, optimum elementary paths and optimum tree problems.Apresentamos modelos lineares inteiros com um número polinomial de variáveis e restrições para problemas de otimização combinatória em grafos: ciclos elementares ótimos, caminhos elementares ótimos e problemas em árvores ótimas.

  12. Climate Change Impact on Variability of Rainfall Intensity in Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme rainfall events are major problems in Ethiopia with the resulting floods that usually could cause significant damage to agriculture, ecology, infrastructure, disruption to human activities, loss of property, loss of lives and disease outbreak. The aim of this study was to explore the likely changes of precipitation extreme changes due to future climate change. The study specifically focuses to understand the future climate change impact on variability of rainfall intensity-duration-frequency in Upper Blue Nile basin. Precipitations data from two Global Climate Models (GCMs) have been used in the study are HadCM3 and CGCM3. Rainfall frequency analysis was carried out to estimate quantile with different return periods. Probability Weighted Method (PWM) selected estimation of parameter distribution and L-Moment Ratio Diagrams (LMRDs) used to find the best parent distribution for each station. Therefore, parent distributions for derived from frequency analysis are Generalized Logistic (GLOG), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Gamma & Pearson III (P3) parent distribution. After analyzing estimated quantile simple disaggregation model was applied in order to find sub daily rainfall data. Finally the disaggregated rainfall is fitted to find IDF curve and the result shows in most parts of the basin rainfall intensity expected to increase in the future. As a result of the two GCM outputs, the study indicates there will be likely increase of precipitation extremes over the Blue Nile basin due to the changing climate. This study should be interpreted with caution as the GCM model outputs in this part of the world have huge uncertainty.

  13. Symmetry of the homogeneous linear partial differential equations and seperation of variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gegelia, D.T.; Markovski, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The general interplay between dynamical symmetry of LPDE and the problem of variables splitting is analyzed. The existence of symmetry is only a necessary condition for separation of variables. The necessary and sufficient conditions for two-dimensional second-order LPDE are explicitly found in an appropriate coordinate system. The proposed construction can be straight forwardly extended for higher dimensions too. 8 refs

  14. Evaluation of Candidate Linear Variable Displacement Transducers for High Temperature Irradiations in the Advanced Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, D.L.; Rempe, J.L.; Daw, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to promote nuclear science and technology in the U.S. Given this designation, the ATR is supporting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry as they conduct basic and applied nuclear research and development to advance the nation's energy security needs. A fundamental component of the ATR NSUF program is to develop in-pile instrumentation capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation experiments. Dimensional change is a key parameter that must be monitored during irradiation of new materials being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant changes during high temperature irradiation. Currently, dimensional changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a defined period of time in the ATR and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data (i.e., only characterizing the end state when samples are removed from the reactor) and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To address these issues, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently initiated efforts to evaluate candidate linear variable displacement transducers (LVDTs) for use during high temperature irradiation experiments in typical ATR test locations. Two nuclear grade LVDT vendor designs were identified for consideration - a smaller diameter design qualified for temperatures up to 350 C and a larger design with capabilities to 500 C. Initial evaluation efforts include collecting calibration data as a function of temperature, long duration testing of LVDT response while held at high temperature, and the assessment of changes

  15. Analysis of Design Variables of Annular Linear Induction Electromagnetic Pump using an MHD Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jae Sik; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The generated force is affected by lots of factors including electrical input, hydrodynamic flow, geometrical shape, and so on. These factors, which are the design variables of an ALIP, should be suitably analyzed to optimally design an ALIP. Analysis on the developed pressure and efficiency of the ALIP according to the change of design variables is required for the ALIP satisfying requirements. In this study, the design variables of the ALIP are analyzed by using ideal MHD analysis model. Electromagnetic force and efficiency are derived by analyzing the main design variables such as pump core length, inner core diameter, flow gap and turns of coils. The developed pressure and efficiency of the ALIP were derived and analyzed on the change of the main variables such as pump core length, inner core diameter, flow gap, and turns of coils of the ALIP.

  16. Exploring changes in rainfall intensity and seasonal variability in the Southeastern U.S.: Stakeholder engagement, observations, and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Dourte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of rainfall has major impacts in agriculture, affecting the soil, hydrology, and plant health in agricultural systems. The goal of this study was to test for recent changes in rainfall intensity and seasonal rainfall variability in the Southeastern U.S. by exploring the data collaboratively with agricultural stakeholders. Daily rainfall records from the Global Historical Climatology Network were used to analyze changes in rain intensity and seasonal rainfall variability. During the last 30 years (1985–2014, there has been a significant change (53% increase in the number of extreme rainfall days (>152.4 mm/day and there have been significant decreases in the number of moderate intensity (12.7–25.4 mm/day and heavy (25.4–76.2 mm/day rainfall days in the Southeastern U.S., when compared to the previous 30-year period (1955–1984. There have also been significant decreases in the return period of months in which greater than half of the monthly total rain occurred in a single day; this is an original, stakeholder-developed rainfall intensity metric. The variability in spring and summer rainfall increased during the last 30 years, but winter and fall showed less variability in seasonal totals in the last 30 years. In agricultural systems, rainfall is one of the leading factors affecting yield variability; so it can be expected that more variable rainfall and more intense rain events could bring new challenges to agricultural production. However, these changes can also present opportunities for producers who are taking measures to adjust management strategies to make their systems more resilient to increased rain intensity and variability.

  17. Linear and Weakly Nonlinear Instability of Shallow Mixing Layers with Variable Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Eglite

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear and weakly nonlinear instability of shallow mixing layers is analysed in the present paper. It is assumed that the resistance force varies in the transverse direction. Linear stability problem is solved numerically using collocation method. It is shown that the increase in the ratio of the friction coefficients in the main channel to that in the floodplain has a stabilizing influence on the flow. The amplitude evolution equation for the most unstable mode (the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation is derived from the shallow water equations under the rigid-lid assumption. Results of numerical calculations are presented.

  18. Non-linear frequency response of non-isothermal adsorption controlled by micropore diffusion with variable diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENKA PETKOVSKA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of higher order frequency response functions (FRFs is used for the analysis of non-linear adsorption kinetics on a particle scale, for the case of non-isothermal micropore diffusion with variable diffusivity. Six series of FRFs are defined for the general non-isothermal case. A non-linerar mathematical model is postulated and the first and second order FRFs derived and simulated. A variable diffusivity influences the shapes of the second order FRFs relating the sorbate concentration in the solid phase and t he gas pressure significantly, but they still keep their characteristics which can be used for discrimination of this from other kinetic mechanisms. It is also shown that first and second order particle FRFs offter sufficient information for an easy and fast estimation of all model parameters, including those defining the system non-linearity.

  19. Continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Jing

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics. The quantum cloning machine yields M identical optimal clones from N replicas of a coherent state and N replicas of its phase conjugate. This scheme can be straightforwardly implemented with the setups accessible at present since its optical implementation only employs simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. Compared with the original scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning with phase-conjugate input modes proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)], which utilized a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier, our scheme loses the output of phase-conjugate clones and is regarded as irreversible quantum cloning

  20. Simple, Efficient Estimators of Treatment Effects in Randomized Trials Using Generalized Linear Models to Leverage Baseline Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Models, such as logistic regression and Poisson regression models, are often used to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials. These models leverage information in variables collected before randomization, in order to obtain more precise estimates of treatment effects. However, there is the danger that model misspecification will lead to bias. We show that certain easy to compute, model-based estimators are asymptotically unbiased even when the working model used is arbitrarily misspecified. Furthermore, these estimators are locally efficient. As a special case of our main result, we consider a simple Poisson working model containing only main terms; in this case, we prove the maximum likelihood estimate of the coefficient corresponding to the treatment variable is an asymptotically unbiased estimator of the marginal log rate ratio, even when the working model is arbitrarily misspecified. This is the log-linear analog of ANCOVA for linear models. Our results demonstrate one application of targeted maximum likelihood estimation. PMID:20628636

  1. Simple, efficient estimators of treatment effects in randomized trials using generalized linear models to leverage baseline variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael; van der Laan, Mark J

    2010-04-01

    Models, such as logistic regression and Poisson regression models, are often used to estimate treatment effects in randomized trials. These models leverage information in variables collected before randomization, in order to obtain more precise estimates of treatment effects. However, there is the danger that model misspecification will lead to bias. We show that certain easy to compute, model-based estimators are asymptotically unbiased even when the working model used is arbitrarily misspecified. Furthermore, these estimators are locally efficient. As a special case of our main result, we consider a simple Poisson working model containing only main terms; in this case, we prove the maximum likelihood estimate of the coefficient corresponding to the treatment variable is an asymptotically unbiased estimator of the marginal log rate ratio, even when the working model is arbitrarily misspecified. This is the log-linear analog of ANCOVA for linear models. Our results demonstrate one application of targeted maximum likelihood estimation.

  2. Predicting hyperketonemia by logistic and linear regression using test-day milk and performance variables in early-lactation Holstein and Jersey cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, T L; Pralle, R S; Dórea, J R R; Poock, S E; Oetzel, G R; Fourdraine, R H; White, H M

    2018-03-01

    Although cowside testing strategies for diagnosing hyperketonemia (HYK) are available, many are labor intensive and costly, and some lack sufficient accuracy. Predicting milk ketone bodies by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry during routine milk sampling may offer a more practical monitoring strategy. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop linear and logistic regression models using all available test-day milk and performance variables for predicting HYK and (2) compare prediction methods (Fourier transform infrared milk ketone bodies, linear regression models, and logistic regression models) to determine which is the most predictive of HYK. Given the data available, a secondary objective was to evaluate differences in test-day milk and performance variables (continuous measurements) between Holsteins and Jerseys and between cows with or without HYK within breed. Blood samples were collected on the same day as milk sampling from 658 Holstein and 468 Jersey cows between 5 and 20 d in milk (DIM). Diagnosis of HYK was at a serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. Concentrations of milk BHB and acetone were predicted by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark). Thresholds of milk BHB and acetone were tested for diagnostic accuracy, and logistic models were built from continuous variables to predict HYK in primiparous and multiparous cows within breed. Linear models were constructed from continuous variables for primiparous and multiparous cows within breed that were 5 to 11 DIM or 12 to 20 DIM. Milk ketone body thresholds diagnosed HYK with 64.0 to 92.9% accuracy in Holsteins and 59.1 to 86.6% accuracy in Jerseys. Logistic models predicted HYK with 82.6 to 97.3% accuracy. Internally cross-validated multiple linear regression models diagnosed HYK of Holstein cows with 97.8% accuracy for primiparous and 83.3% accuracy for multiparous cows. Accuracy of Jersey models was 81.3% in primiparous and 83

  3. Effect of milk proteins on linear growth and IGF variables in overweight adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-01-01

    Milk may stimulate growth acting via insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion but the effect in adolescents is less examined. This study investigates the effect of milk proteins on linear growth, IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in overweight adolescents....

  4. Suppression of chaos at slow variables by rapidly mixing fast dynamics through linear energy-preserving coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Abramov, Rafail V.

    2011-01-01

    Chaotic multiscale dynamical systems are common in many areas of science, one of the examples being the interaction of the low-frequency dynamics in the atmosphere with the fast turbulent weather dynamics. One of the key questions about chaotic multiscale systems is how the fast dynamics affects chaos at the slow variables, and, therefore, impacts uncertainty and predictability of the slow dynamics. Here we demonstrate that the linear slow-fast coupling with the total energy conservation prop...

  5. Intra- and inter-observer variability and accuracy in the determination of linear and angular measurements in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, E.L.; Thompson, J.R.; Kopp, S.

    1986-01-01

    The observer variability and accuracy of linear and angular computed tomography (CT) software measurements in the transaxial plane were investigated for the temporomandibular joint with the General Electric 8800 CT/N Scanner. A dried and measured human mandible was embedded in plastic and scanned in vitro. Sixteen observers participated in the study. The following measurements were tested: inter- and extra-condylar distances, transverse condylar dimension, condylar angulation, and the plastic base of the specimen. Three frozen cadaveric heads were similarly scanned and measured in situ. Intra- and inter-observer variabilities were lowest for the specimen base and highest for condylar angulation. Neuroradiologists had the lowest variability as a group, and the radiology residents and paramedical personell had the highest, but the differences were small. No significant difference was found between CT and macroscopic measurement of the mandible. In situ measurement by CT of condyles with structural changes in the transaxial plane was, however, subject to substantial error. It was concluded that transaxial linear measurements of the condylar processes free of significant structural changes had an error and an accuracy well within acceptable limits. The error for angular measurements was significantly greater than the error for linear measurements

  6. Development of a new linearly variable edge filter (LVEF)-based compact slit-less mini-spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Khaled; Park, Seongchong; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the development of a compact charge-coupled detector (CCD) spectrometer. We describe the design, concept and characterization of VNIR linear variable edge filter (LVEF)- based mini-spectrometer. The new instrument has been realized for operation in the 300 nm to 850 nm wavelength range. The instrument consists of a linear variable edge filter in front of CCD array. Low-size, light-weight and low-cost could be achieved using the linearly variable filters with no need to use any moving parts for wavelength selection as in the case of commercial spectrometers available in the market. This overview discusses the main components characteristics, the main concept with the main advantages and limitations reported. Experimental characteristics of the LVEFs are described. The mathematical approach to get the position-dependent slit function of the presented prototype spectrometer and its numerical de-convolution solution for a spectrum reconstruction is described. The performance of our prototype instrument is demonstrated by measuring the spectrum of a reference light source.

  7. Is reducing variability of blood glucose the real but hidden target of intensive insulin therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, Moritoki; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Reade, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Since the first report that intensive insulin therapy reduced mortality in selected surgical critically ill patients, lowering of blood glucose levels has been recommended as a means of improving patient outcomes. In this initial Leuven trial, blood glucose control by protocol using insulin was applied to 98.7% of patients in the intensive group but to only 39.2% (P dimension of glucose management, a possible mechanism by which an intensive insulin protocol exerts its putative beneficial effects, and an important goal of glucose management in the intensive care unit. Clinicians need to be aware of this controversy when considering the application of intensive insulin therapy and interpreting future trials.

  8. A linear-encoding model explains the variability of the target morphology in regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Daniel; Solano, Mauricio; Bubenik, George A.; Levin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of today's molecular genetics paradigm is that complex morphology emerges from the combined activity of low-level processes involving proteins and nucleic acids. An inherent characteristic of such nonlinear encodings is the difficulty of creating the genetic and epigenetic information that will produce a given self-assembling complex morphology. This ‘inverse problem’ is vital not only for understanding the evolution, development and regeneration of bodyplans, but also for synthetic biology efforts that seek to engineer biological shapes. Importantly, the regenerative mechanisms in deer antlers, planarian worms and fiddler crabs can solve an inverse problem: their target morphology can be altered specifically and stably by injuries in particular locations. Here, we discuss the class of models that use pre-specified morphological goal states and propose the existence of a linear encoding of the target morphology, making the inverse problem easy for these organisms to solve. Indeed, many model organisms such as Drosophila, hydra and Xenopus also develop according to nonlinear encodings producing linear encodings of their final morphologies. We propose the development of testable models of regeneration regulation that combine emergence with a top-down specification of shape by linear encodings of target morphology, driving transformative applications in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:24402915

  9. The Quality Control of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT for ONCOR Siemens Linear Accelerators Using Film Dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Jabbari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT has made a significant progress in radiation therapy centers in recent years. In this method, each radiation beam is divided into many subfields that create a field with a modulated intensity. Considering the complexity of this method, the quality control for IMRT is a topic of interest for researchers. This article is about the various steps of planning and quality control of Siemens linear accelerators for IMRT, using film dosimetry. This article in addition to review of the techniques, discusses the details of experiments and possible sources of errors which are not mentioned in the protocols and other references. Materials and Methods This project was carried out in Isfahan Milad hospital which has two Siemens ONCOR linear accelerators. Both accelerators are equipped with Multi-Leaf Collimators (MLC which enables us to perform IMRT delivery in the step-and-shoot method. The quality control consists of various experiments related to the sections of radiation therapy. In these experiments, the accuracy of some components such as treatment planning system, imaging device (CT, MLC, control system of accelerator, and stability of the output are evaluated. The dose verification is performed using film dosimetry method. The films were KODAK-EDR2, which were calibrated before the experiments. One of the important steps is the comparison of the calculated dose with planning system and the measured dose in experiments. Results The results of the experiments in various steps have been acceptable according to the standard protocols. The calibration of MLC and evaluation of the leakage through the leaves of MLC was performed by using the film dosimetry and visual check. In comparison with calculated and measured dose, more that 80% of the points have to be in agreement within 3% of the value. In our experiments, between 85 and 90% of the points had such an agreement with IMRT delivery. Conclusion

  10. Direct reconstruction of the source intensity distribution of a clinical linear accelerator using a maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaconstadopoulos, P; Levesque, I R; Maglieri, R; Seuntjens, J

    2016-02-07

    Direct determination of the source intensity distribution of clinical linear accelerators is still a challenging problem for small field beam modeling. Current techniques most often involve special equipment and are difficult to implement in the clinic. In this work we present a maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) approach to the source reconstruction problem utilizing small fields and a simple experimental set-up. The MLEM algorithm iteratively ray-traces photons from the source plane to the exit plane and extracts corrections based on photon fluence profile measurements. The photon fluence profiles were determined by dose profile film measurements in air using a high density thin foil as build-up material and an appropriate point spread function (PSF). The effect of other beam parameters and scatter sources was minimized by using the smallest field size ([Formula: see text] cm(2)). The source occlusion effect was reproduced by estimating the position of the collimating jaws during this process. The method was first benchmarked against simulations for a range of typical accelerator source sizes. The sources were reconstructed with an accuracy better than 0.12 mm in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) to the respective electron sources incident on the target. The estimated jaw positions agreed within 0.2 mm with the expected values. The reconstruction technique was also tested against measurements on a Varian Novalis Tx linear accelerator and compared to a previously commissioned Monte Carlo model. The reconstructed FWHM of the source agreed within 0.03 mm and 0.11 mm to the commissioned electron source in the crossplane and inplane orientations respectively. The impact of the jaw positioning, experimental and PSF uncertainties on the reconstructed source distribution was evaluated with the former presenting the dominant effect.

  11. High-intensity intermittent exercise and its effects on heart rate variability and subsequent strength performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PRUPOSE: To investigate the effects of a 5-km high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE on heart rate variability (HRV and subsequent strength performance. METHODS: nine trained males performed a control session composed of a half-squat strength exercise (4 x 80% of one repetition maximum – 1RM in isolation and 30-min, 1-, 4-, 8- and 24-h after an HIIE (1-min at the velocity peak:1-min passive recovery. All experimental sessions were performed on different days. The maximum number of repetitions and total weight lifted during the strength exercise were registered in all conditions; in addition, prior to each session, HRV were assessed [beat-to-beat intervals (RR and log-transformed of root means square of successive differences in the normal-to-normal intervals (lnRMSSD]. RESULTS: Performance in the strength exercise dropped at 30-min (31% and 1-h (19% post-HIIE concomitantly with lower values of RR (781±79 ms; 799±134 ms, respectively in the same recovery intervals compared to the control (1015±197 ms. Inferential analysis did not detect any effect of condition on lnRMSSD, however, values were lower after 30-min (3.5±0.4 ms and 1-h (3.3±0.5 ms with moderate and large effect sizes (0.9 and 1.2, respectively compared with the control condition (3.9±0.4 ms. CONCLUSION: Both RR and lnRMSSD seem to be associated with deleterious effects on strength performance, although further studies should be conducted to clarify this association.

  12. High Signal Intensity in the Dentate Nucleus and Globus Pallidus on Unenhanced T1-Weighted MR Images: Comparison between Gadobutrol and Linear Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, F G; Watterson, C T; Weiss, S; Austin, M; Mirocha, J; Prasad, R; Wang, J

    2018-02-01

    In view of the recent observations that gadolinium deposits in brain tissue after intravenous injection, our aim of this study was to compare signal changes in the globus pallidus and dentate nucleus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images in patients receiving serial doses of gadobutrol, a macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent, with those seen in patients receiving linear gadolinium-based contrast agents. This was a retrospective analysis of on-site patients with brain tumors. Fifty-nine patients received only gadobutrol, and 60 patients received only linear gadolinium-based contrast agents. Linear gadolinium-based contrast agents included gadoversetamide, gadobenate dimeglumine, and gadodiamide. T1 signal intensity in the globus pallidus, dentate nucleus, and pons was measured on the precontrast portions of patients' first and seventh brain MRIs. Ratios of signal intensity comparing the globus pallidus with the pons (globus pallidus/pons) and dentate nucleus with the pons (dentate nucleus/pons) were calculated. Changes in the above signal intensity ratios were compared within the gadobutrol and linear agent groups, as well as between groups. The dentate nucleus/pons signal ratio increased in the linear gadolinium-based contrast agent group ( t = 4.215, P linear gadolinium-based contrast agent group ( t = 2.931, P linear gadolinium-based contrast agents. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  13. A critical oscillation constant as a variable of time scales for half-linear dynamic equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2010), s. 237-256 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : dynamic equation * time scale * half-linear equation * (non)oscillation criteria * Hille-Nehari criteria * Kneser criteria * critical constant * oscillation constant * Hardy inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0009-7

  14. LASR-Guided Variability Subtraction: The Linear Algorithm for Significance Reduction of Stellar Seismic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sarah; Myers, Sam; Ahlers, Johnathon; Barnes, Jason W.

    2017-10-01

    Stellar seismic activity produces variations in brightness that introduce oscillations into transit light curves, which can create challenges for traditional fitting models. These oscillations disrupt baseline stellar flux values and potentially mask transits. We develop a model that removes these oscillations from transit light curves by minimizing the significance of each oscillation in frequency space. By removing stellar variability, we prepare each light curve for traditional fitting techniques. We apply our model to $\\delta$-Scuti KOI-976 and demonstrate that our variability subtraction routine successfully allows for measuring bulk system characteristics using traditional light curve fitting. These results open a new window for characterizing bulk system parameters of planets orbiting seismically active stars.

  15. A High-Linearity Low-Noise Amplifier with Variable Bandwidth for Neural Recoding Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Sueishi, Katsuya; Iwata, Atsushi; Matsushita, Kojiro; Hirata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takafumi

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a low-noise amplifier with multiple adjustable parameters for neural recording applications. An adjustable pseudo-resistor implemented by cascade metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proposed to achieve low-signal distortion and wide variable bandwidth range. The amplifier has been implemented in 0.18 µm standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and occupies 0.09 mm2 on chip. The amplifier achieved a selectable voltage gain of 28 and 40 dB, variable bandwidth from 0.04 to 2.6 Hz, total harmonic distortion (THD) of 0.2% with 200 mV output swing, input referred noise of 2.5 µVrms over 0.1-100 Hz and 18.7 µW power consumption at a supply voltage of 1.8 V.

  16. Morphometric variability of mandible linear characteristics depending on level of teeth alveolus position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Aleshkina

    2017-05-01

    Results and Conclusion ― The highest altitude was marked at levels of incisors and 3rd molar, the smallest one – at level of 1st and 2nd molars; maximum mandible thickness was defined at level of 2nd molar, minimum – at levels of canine and 1st – 2nd premolars on both sides of mandible; average thickness was revealed at levels of incisors, 1st and 2nd molars and had the same statistical values. Bilateral variability of thickness was significantly dominating on the right side and only at levels of 1st – 2nd premolars and 1st molar. Average values of altitude and thickness from both sides of mandible and at all levels had medium degree of variability.

  17. Constraints for the design of variability-intensive service-oriented reference architectures - An industrial case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, Matthias; Avgeriou, Paris; Tofan, Dan

    Context: Service-oriented architecture has become a widely used concept in software industry. However, we currently lack support for designing variability-intensive service-oriented systems. Such systems could be used in different environments, without the need to design them from scratch. To

  18. Size variability of the unit building block of peripheral light-harvesting antennas as a strategy for effective functioning of antennas of variable size that is controlled in vivo by light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taisova, A S; Yakovlev, A G; Fetisova, Z G

    2014-03-01

    This work continuous a series of studies devoted to discovering principles of organization of natural antennas in photosynthetic microorganisms that generate in vivo large and highly effective light-harvesting structures. The largest antenna is observed in green photosynthesizing bacteria, which are able to grow over a wide range of light intensities and adapt to low intensities by increasing of size of peripheral BChl c/d/e antenna. However, increasing antenna size must inevitably cause structural changes needed to maintain high efficiency of its functioning. Our model calculations have demonstrated that aggregation of the light-harvesting antenna pigments represents one of the universal structural factors that optimize functioning of any antenna and manage antenna efficiency. If the degree of aggregation of antenna pigments is a variable parameter, then efficiency of the antenna increases with increasing size of a single aggregate of the antenna. This means that change in degree of pigment aggregation controlled by light-harvesting antenna size is biologically expedient. We showed in our previous work on the oligomeric chlorosomal BChl c superantenna of green bacteria of the Chloroflexaceae family that this principle of optimization of variable antenna structure, whose size is controlled by light intensity during growth of bacteria, is actually realized in vivo. Studies of this phenomenon are continued in the present work, expanding the number of studied biological materials and investigating optical linear and nonlinear spectra of chlorosomes having different structures. We show for oligomeric chlorosomal superantennas of green bacteria (from two different families, Chloroflexaceae and Oscillochloridaceae) that a single BChl c aggregate is of small size, and the degree of BChl c aggregation is a variable parameter, which is controlled by the size of the entire BChl c superantenna, and the latter, in turn, is controlled by light intensity in the course of cell

  19. Two factors influencing dose reconstruction in low dose range: the variability of BKG intensity on one individual and water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tengda; Zhang, Wenyi; Zhao, Zhixin; Zhang, Haiying; Ruan, Shuzhou; Jiao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A fast and accurate retrospective dosimetry method for the triage is very important in radiation accidents. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) fingernail dosimetry is a promising way to estimate radiation dose. This article presents two factors influencing dose reconstruction in low dose range: the variability of background signal (BKG) intensity on one individual and water content. Comparing the EPR spectrum of dried and humidified fingernail samples, it is necessary to add a procedure of dehydration before EPR measurements, so as to eliminate the deviation caused by water content. Besides, the BKGs of different fingers' nails are not the same as researchers thought previously, and the difference between maximum and minimum BKG intensities of one individual can reach 55.89 %. Meanwhile, the variability of the BKG intensity among individuals is large enough to impact precise dose reconstruction. Water within fingernails and instability of BKG are two reasons that cause the inaccuracy of radiation dose reconstruction in low-dosage level. (authors)

  20. Climatology and Interannual Variability of Quasi-Global Intense Precipitation Using Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricko, Martina; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Climatology and variations of recent mean and intense precipitation over a near-global (50 deg. S 50 deg. N) domain on a monthly and annual time scale are analyzed. Data used to derive daily precipitation to examine the effects of spatial and temporal coverage of intense precipitation are from the current Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) 3B42 version 7 precipitation product, with high spatial and temporal resolution during 1998 - 2013. Intense precipitation is defined by several different parameters, such as a 95th percentile threshold of daily precipitation, a mean precipitation that exceeds that percentile, or a fixed threshold of daily precipitation value [e.g., 25 and 50 mm day(exp -1)]. All parameters are used to identify the main characteristics of spatial and temporal variation of intense precipitation. High correlations between examined parameters are observed, especially between climatological monthly mean precipitation and intense precipitation, over both tropical land and ocean. Among the various parameters examined, the one best characterizing intense rainfall is a fraction of daily precipitation Great than or equal to 25 mm day(exp. -1), defined as a ratio between the intense precipitation above the used threshold and mean precipitation. Regions that experience an increase in mean precipitation likely experience a similar increase in intense precipitation, especially during the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Improved knowledge of this intense precipitation regime and its strong connection to mean precipitation given by the fraction parameter can be used for monitoring of intense rainfall and its intensity on a global to regional scale.

  1. Multivariate linear regression of high-dimensional fMRI data with multiple target variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Giancarlo; Castellanos, Agustin Lage; Vanacore, Gianluca; Formisano, Elia

    2014-05-01

    Multivariate regression is increasingly used to study the relation between fMRI spatial activation patterns and experimental stimuli or behavioral ratings. With linear models, informative brain locations are identified by mapping the model coefficients. This is a central aspect in neuroimaging, as it provides the sought-after link between the activity of neuronal populations and subject's perception, cognition or behavior. Here, we show that mapping of informative brain locations using multivariate linear regression (MLR) may lead to incorrect conclusions and interpretations. MLR algorithms for high dimensional data are designed to deal with targets (stimuli or behavioral ratings, in fMRI) separately, and the predictive map of a model integrates information deriving from both neural activity patterns and experimental design. Not accounting explicitly for the presence of other targets whose associated activity spatially overlaps with the one of interest may lead to predictive maps of troublesome interpretation. We propose a new model that can correctly identify the spatial patterns associated with a target while achieving good generalization. For each target, the training is based on an augmented dataset, which includes all remaining targets. The estimation on such datasets produces both maps and interaction coefficients, which are then used to generalize. The proposed formulation is independent of the regression algorithm employed. We validate this model on simulated fMRI data and on a publicly available dataset. Results indicate that our method achieves high spatial sensitivity and good generalization and that it helps disentangle specific neural effects from interaction with predictive maps associated with other targets. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Amygdala and heart rate variability responses from listening to emotionally intense parts of a story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Vuust, Peter

    2011-01-01

    correspondence across participants between intensity ratings and HRV measurements obtained during fMRI. With this ecologically valid stimulus we found that narrative intensity was accompanied by activation in temporal cortices, medial geniculate nuclei in the thalamus and amygdala, brain regions that are all...

  3. Assessing multiscale complexity of short heart rate variability series through a model-based linear approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Ranuzzi, Giovanni; De Maria, Beatrice; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    We propose a multiscale complexity (MSC) method assessing irregularity in assigned frequency bands and being appropriate for analyzing the short time series. It is grounded on the identification of the coefficients of an autoregressive model, on the computation of the mean position of the poles generating the components of the power spectral density in an assigned frequency band, and on the assessment of its distance from the unit circle in the complex plane. The MSC method was tested on simulations and applied to the short heart period (HP) variability series recorded during graded head-up tilt in 17 subjects (age from 21 to 54 years, median = 28 years, 7 females) and during paced breathing protocols in 19 subjects (age from 27 to 35 years, median = 31 years, 11 females) to assess the contribution of time scales typical of the cardiac autonomic control, namely in low frequency (LF, from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF, from 0.15 to 0.5 Hz) bands to the complexity of the cardiac regulation. The proposed MSC technique was compared to a traditional model-free multiscale method grounded on information theory, i.e., multiscale entropy (MSE). The approach suggests that the reduction of HP variability complexity observed during graded head-up tilt is due to a regularization of the HP fluctuations in LF band via a possible intervention of sympathetic control and the decrement of HP variability complexity observed during slow breathing is the result of the regularization of the HP variations in both LF and HF bands, thus implying the action of physiological mechanisms working at time scales even different from that of respiration. MSE did not distinguish experimental conditions at time scales larger than 1. Over a short time series MSC allows a more insightful association between cardiac control complexity and physiological mechanisms modulating cardiac rhythm compared to a more traditional tool such as MSE.

  4. Non-linear changes in rhythmic variability of European art music: Quantitative support for historical musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Sadakata, Makiko; Pearce, Marcus

    It is a long-held belief in historical musicology that the prosody of composers’ native languages is reflected in the rhythmic and melodic properties of their music. Applying the normalised Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI) to speech alongside musical scores, research has established quantitative...... music up until the mid-19th century, after which French music diverged into an Austro-German school and a French nationalist school. In sum, using musical nPVI analysis, we provide quantitative support for music-historical descriptions of an Italian-dominated Baroque (composer birth years: 1600...

  5. Quantization of spin-two field in terms of Fierz variables the linear case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Freitas, L.R. de; Neto, N.P.; Svaiter, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    We give a complete self-contained presentation of the description of spin-two fields using Fierz variables A sub(α β μ) instead of the conventional standard approach which deals with second order symmetric tensor φ sub(μ ν). After a short review of the classical properties of the Gierz field we present the quantization procedure. The theory presents a striking similitude with electrodynamics which induced us to follow analogy with the Fermi-Gupta-Breuler scheme of quantization. (author)

  6. State control of discrete-time linear systems to be bound in state variables by equality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filasová, Anna; Krokavec, Dušan; Serbák, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of designing the discrete-time equivalent PI controller to control the discrete-time linear systems in such a way that the closed-loop state variables satisfy the prescribed equality constraints. Since the problem is generally singular, using standard form of the Lyapunov function and a symmetric positive definite slack matrix, the design conditions are proposed in the form of the enhanced Lyapunov inequality. The results, offering the conditions of the control existence and the optimal performance with respect to the prescribed equality constraints for square discrete-time linear systems, are illustrated with the numerical example to note effectiveness and applicability of the considered approach

  7. Interannual variability of the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones striking the California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, F. J.; Rueda, A.; Barnard, P.; Mori, N.; Nakajo, S.; Albuquerque, J.

    2016-12-01

    Hurricanes hitting California have a very low ocurrence probability due to typically cool ocean temperature and westward tracks. However, damages associated to these improbable events would be dramatic in Southern California and understanding the oceanographic and atmospheric drivers is of paramount importance for coastal risk management for present and future climates. A statistical analysis of the historical events is very difficult due to the limited resolution of atmospheric and oceanographic forcing data available. In this work, we propose a combination of: (a) climate-based statistical downscaling methods (Espejo et al, 2015); and (b) a synthetic stochastic tropical cyclone (TC) model (Nakajo et al, 2014). To build the statistical downscaling model, Y=f(X), we apply a combination of principal component analysis and the k-means classification algorithm to find representative patterns from large-scale may-to-november averaged monthly anomalies of SST and thermocline depth fields in Tropical Pacific (predictor X) and the associated historical tropical cyclones in Eastern North Pacific basin (predictand Y). As data for the historical occurrence and paths of tropical cyclones are scarce, we apply a stochastic TC model which is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the joint distribution of track, minimum sea level pressure and translation speed of the historical events in the Eastern Central Pacific Ocean. Results will show the ability of the approach to explain the interannual variability of the frequency and intensity of TCs in Southern California, which is clearly related to post El Niño Eastern Pacific and El Niño Central Pacific. References Espejo, A., Méndez, F.J., Diez, J., Medina, R., Al-Yahyai, S. (2015) Seasonal probabilistic forecasting of tropical cyclone activity in the North Indian Ocean, Journal of Flood Risk Management, DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12197 Nakajo, S., N. Mori, T. Yasuda, and H. Mase (2014) Global Stochastic Tropical Cyclone Model Based on

  8. Solving the linear inviscid shallow water equations in one dimension, with variable depth, using a recursion formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Walls, R; Martín-Atienza, B; Salinas-Matus, M; Castillo, J

    2017-01-01

    When solving the linear inviscid shallow water equations with variable depth in one dimension using finite differences, a tridiagonal system of equations must be solved. Here we present an approach, which is more efficient than the commonly used numerical method, to solve this tridiagonal system of equations using a recursion formula. We illustrate this approach with an example in which we solve for a rectangular channel to find the resonance modes. Our numerical solution agrees very well with the analytical solution. This new method is easy to use and understand by undergraduate students, so it can be implemented in undergraduate courses such as Numerical Methods, Lineal Algebra or Differential Equations. (paper)

  9. Solving the linear inviscid shallow water equations in one dimension, with variable depth, using a recursion formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Walls, R.; Martín-Atienza, B.; Salinas-Matus, M.; Castillo, J.

    2017-11-01

    When solving the linear inviscid shallow water equations with variable depth in one dimension using finite differences, a tridiagonal system of equations must be solved. Here we present an approach, which is more efficient than the commonly used numerical method, to solve this tridiagonal system of equations using a recursion formula. We illustrate this approach with an example in which we solve for a rectangular channel to find the resonance modes. Our numerical solution agrees very well with the analytical solution. This new method is easy to use and understand by undergraduate students, so it can be implemented in undergraduate courses such as Numerical Methods, Lineal Algebra or Differential Equations.

  10. FIRE: an SPSS program for variable selection in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J

    2011-03-01

    We provide an SPSS program that implements currently recommended techniques and recent developments for selecting variables in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors. The approach consists of: (1) optimally splitting the data for cross-validation, (2) selecting the final set of predictors to be retained in the equation regression, and (3) assessing the behavior of the chosen model using standard indices and procedures. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  11. The structure of solutions of the matrix linear unilateral polynomial equation with two variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Dzhaliuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the structure of solutions of the matrix linear polynomial equation $A(\\lambdaX(\\lambda+B(\\lambdaY(\\lambda=C(\\lambda,$ in particular, possible degrees of the solutions. The solving of this equation is reduced to the solving of the equivalent matrix polynomial equation with matrix coefficients in triangular forms with invariant factors on the main diagonals, to which the matrices $A (\\lambda, B(\\lambda$ \\ and \\ $C(\\lambda$ are reduced by means of semiscalar equivalent transformations. On the basis of it, we have pointed out the bounds of the degrees of the matrix polynomial equation solutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of a solution with a minimal degree are established. An effective method for constructing minimal degree solutions of the equations is suggested. In this article, unlike well-known results about the estimations of the degrees of the solutions of the matrix polynomial equations in which both matrix coefficients are regular or at least one of them is regular, we have considered the case when the matrix polynomial equation has arbitrary matrix coefficients $A(\\lambda$ and $B(\\lambda.$ 

  12. Aperiodic linear networked control considering variable channel delays: application to robots coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos; Espinosa, Felipe; Santiso, Enrique; Mazo, Manuel

    2015-05-27

    One of the main challenges in wireless cyber-physical systems is to reduce the load of the communication channel while preserving the control performance. In this way, communication resources are liberated for other applications sharing the channel bandwidth. The main contribution of this work is the design of a remote control solution based on an aperiodic and adaptive triggering mechanism considering the current network delay of multiple robotics units. Working with the actual network delay instead of the maximum one leads to abandoning this conservative assumption, since the triggering condition is fixed depending on the current state of the network. This way, the controller manages the usage of the wireless channel in order to reduce the channel delay and to improve the availability of the communication resources. The communication standard under study is the widespread IEEE 802.11g, whose channel delay is clearly uncertain. First, the adaptive self-triggered control is validated through the TrueTime simulation tool configured for the mentioned WiFi standard. Implementation results applying the aperiodic linear control laws on four P3-DX robots are also included. Both of them demonstrate the advantage of this solution in terms of network accessing and control performance with respect to periodic and non-adaptive self-triggered alternatives.

  13. Aperiodic Linear Networked Control Considering Variable Channel Delays: Application to Robots Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in wireless cyber-physical systems is to reduce the load of the communication channel while preserving the control performance. In this way, communication resources are liberated for other applications sharing the channel bandwidth. The main contribution of this work is the design of a remote control solution based on an aperiodic and adaptive triggering mechanism considering the current network delay of multiple robotics units. Working with the actual network delay instead of the maximum one leads to abandoning this conservative assumption, since the triggering condition is fixed depending on the current state of the network. This way, the controller manages the usage of the wireless channel in order to reduce the channel delay and to improve the availability of the communication resources. The communication standard under study is the widespread IEEE 802.11g, whose channel delay is clearly uncertain. First, the adaptive self-triggered control is validated through the TrueTime simulation tool configured for the mentioned WiFi standard. Implementation results applying the aperiodic linear control laws on four P3-DX robots are also included. Both of them demonstrate the advantage of this solution in terms of network accessing and control performance with respect to periodic and non-adaptive self-triggered alternatives.

  14. Origins of Total-Dose Response Variability in Linear Bipolar Microcircuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Cirba, C.R.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Pease, R.L.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Turflinger, T.; Krieg, J.F.; Maher, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    LM1ll voltage comparators exhibit a wide range of total-dose-induced degradation. Simulations show this variability may be a natural consequence of the low base doping of the substrate PNP (SPNP) input transistors. Low base doping increases the SPNP's collector to base breakdown voltage, current gain, and sensitivity to small fluctuations in the radiation-induced oxide defect densities. The build-up of oxide trapped charge (N ot ) and interface traps (N it ) is shown to be a function of pre-irradiation bakes. Experimental data indicate that, despite its structural similarities to the LM111, irradiated input transistors of the LM124 operational amplifier do not exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in pre-irradiation thermal cycles. Further disparities in LM111 and LM124 responses may result from a difference in the oxide defect build-up in the two part types. Variations in processing, packaging, and circuit effects are suggested as potential explanations

  15. A 7MeV S-Band 2998MHz Variable Pulse Length Linear Accelerator System

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Michael; Mishin, Andrey V; Saverskiy, Aleksandr J; Skowbo, Dave; Smith, Richard

    2005-01-01

    American Science and Engineering High Energy Systems Division (AS&E HESD) has designed and commissioned a variable pulse length 7 MeV electron accelerator system. The system is capable of delivering a 7 MeV electron beam with a pulse length of 10 nS FWHM and a peak current of 1 ampere. The system can also produce electron pulses with lengths of 20, 50, 100, 200, 400 nS and 3 uS FWHM with corresponding lower peak currents. The accelerator system consists of a gridded electron gun, focusing coil, an electrostatic deflector system, Helmholtz coils, a standing wave side coupled S-band linac, a 2.6 MW peak power magnetron, an RF circulator, a fast toroid, vacuum system and a PLC/PC control system. The system has been operated at repetition rates up to 250pps. The design, simulations and experimental results from the accelerator system are presented in this paper.

  16. Relationship between rice yield and climate variables in southwest Nigeria using multiple linear regression and support vector machine analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; Lischeid, Gunnar; Dietrich, Ottfried

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the variations of climate variables and rice yield and quantifies the relationships among them using multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis in southwest Nigeria. The climate and yield data used was for a period of 36 years between 1980 and 2015. Similar to the observed decrease ( P 1 and explained 83.1% of the total variance of predictor variables. The SVM regression function using the scores of the first principal component explained about 75% of the variance in rice yield data and linear regression about 64%. SVM regression between annual solar radiation values and yield explained 67% of the variance. Only the first component of the principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clear long-term trend and sometimes short-term variance similar to that of rice yield. Short-term fluctuations of the scores of the PC1 are closely coupled to those of rice yield during the 1986-1993 and the 2006-2013 periods thereby revealing the inter-annual sensitivity of rice production to climate variability. Solar radiation stands out as the climate variable of highest influence on rice yield, and the influence was especially strong during monsoon and post-monsoon periods, which correspond to the vegetative, booting, flowering, and grain filling stages in the study area. The outcome is expected to provide more in-depth regional-specific climate-rice linkage for screening of better cultivars that can positively respond to future climate fluctuations as well as providing information that may help optimized planting dates for improved radiation use efficiency in the study area.

  17. Relationship between rice yield and climate variables in southwest Nigeria using multiple linear regression and support vector machine analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G; Lischeid, Gunnar; Dietrich, Ottfried

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the variations of climate variables and rice yield and quantifies the relationships among them using multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis in southwest Nigeria. The climate and yield data used was for a period of 36 years between 1980 and 2015. Similar to the observed decrease (P  1 and explained 83.1% of the total variance of predictor variables. The SVM regression function using the scores of the first principal component explained about 75% of the variance in rice yield data and linear regression about 64%. SVM regression between annual solar radiation values and yield explained 67% of the variance. Only the first component of the principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clear long-term trend and sometimes short-term variance similar to that of rice yield. Short-term fluctuations of the scores of the PC1 are closely coupled to those of rice yield during the 1986-1993 and the 2006-2013 periods thereby revealing the inter-annual sensitivity of rice production to climate variability. Solar radiation stands out as the climate variable of highest influence on rice yield, and the influence was especially strong during monsoon and post-monsoon periods, which correspond to the vegetative, booting, flowering, and grain filling stages in the study area. The outcome is expected to provide more in-depth regional-specific climate-rice linkage for screening of better cultivars that can positively respond to future climate fluctuations as well as providing information that may help optimized planting dates for improved radiation use efficiency in the study area.

  18. Estimating severity of sideways fall using a generic multi linear regression model based on kinematic input variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zijden, A M; Groen, B E; Tanck, E; Nienhuis, B; Verdonschot, N; Weerdesteyn, V

    2017-03-21

    Many research groups have studied fall impact mechanics to understand how fall severity can be reduced to prevent hip fractures. Yet, direct impact force measurements with force plates are restricted to a very limited repertoire of experimental falls. The purpose of this study was to develop a generic model for estimating hip impact forces (i.e. fall severity) in in vivo sideways falls without the use of force plates. Twelve experienced judokas performed sideways Martial Arts (MA) and Block ('natural') falls on a force plate, both with and without a mat on top. Data were analyzed to determine the hip impact force and to derive 11 selected (subject-specific and kinematic) variables. Falls from kneeling height were used to perform a stepwise regression procedure to assess the effects of these input variables and build the model. The final model includes four input variables, involving one subject-specific measure and three kinematic variables: maximum upper body deceleration, body mass, shoulder angle at the instant of 'maximum impact' and maximum hip deceleration. The results showed that estimated and measured hip impact forces were linearly related (explained variances ranging from 46 to 63%). Hip impact forces of MA falls onto the mat from a standing position (3650±916N) estimated by the final model were comparable with measured values (3698±689N), even though these data were not used for training the model. In conclusion, a generic linear regression model was developed that enables the assessment of fall severity through kinematic measures of sideways falls, without using force plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inter- and Intra-individual Variability in Response to Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at Varying Current Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Taariq; Ho, Kerrie-Anne; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-01-01

    Translation of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) from research to clinical practice is hindered by a lack of consensus on optimal stimulation parameters, significant inter-individual variability in response, and in sufficient intra-individual reliability data. Inter-individual differences in response to anodal tDCS at a range of current intensities were explored. Intra-individual reliability in response to anodal tDCS across two identical sessions was also investigated. Twenty-nine subjects participated in a crossover study. Anodal-tDCS using four different current intensities (0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 mA), with an anode size of 16 cm2, was tested. The 0.5 mA condition was repeated to assess intra-individual variability. TMS was used to elicit 40 motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) before 10 min of tDCS, and 20 MEPs at four time-points over 30 min following tDCS. ANOVA revealed no main effect of TIME for all conditions except the first 0.5 mA condition, and no differences in response between the four current intensities. Cluster analysis identified two clusters for the 0.2 and 2 mA conditions only. Frequency distributions based on individual subject responses (excitatory, inhibitory or no response) to each condition indicate possible differential responses between individuals to different current intensities. Test-retest reliability was negligible (ICC(2,1) = -0.50). Significant inter-individual variability in response to tDCS across a range of current intensities was found. 2 mA and 0.2 mA tDCS were most effective at inducing a distinct response. Significant intra-individual variability in response to tDCS was also found. This has implications for interpreting results of single-session tDCS experiments. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Heart rate variability predicts 30-day all-cause mortality in intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is co-published by Medpharm Publications, NISC (Pty) Ltd and Taylor & Francis, and Informa business .... univariable logistic regression for each of the candidate predictor .... diagnostic and prognostic tool in anesthesia and intensive care.

  1. 10 km running performance predicted by a multiple linear regression model with allometrically adjusted variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Cesar C C; Barros, Ronaldo V; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Gagliardi, João F L; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Lambert, Mike I; Pires, Flavio O

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the power of VO 2max , peak treadmill running velocity (PTV), and running economy (RE), unadjusted or allometrically adjusted, in predicting 10 km running performance. Eighteen male endurance runners performed: 1) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2max and PTV; 2) a constant submaximal run at 12 km·h -1 on an outdoor track for RE determination; and 3) a 10 km running race. Unadjusted (VO 2max , PTV and RE) and adjusted variables (VO 2max 0.72 , PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 ) were investigated through independent multiple regression models to predict 10 km running race time. There were no significant correlations between 10 km running time and either the adjusted or unadjusted VO 2max . Significant correlations (p 0.84 and power > 0.88. The allometrically adjusted predictive model was composed of PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 and explained 83% of the variance in 10 km running time with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 1.5 min. The unadjusted model composed of a single PVT accounted for 72% of the variance in 10 km running time (SEE of 1.9 min). Both regression models provided powerful estimates of 10 km running time; however, the unadjusted PTV may provide an uncomplicated estimation.

  2. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction—12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Lukasz Fojecki, MD

    2018-03-01

    Fojecki GL, Tiessen S, Osther PJS. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction—12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study. Sex Med 2018;6:1–7.

  3. MATH INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA DESIGN USING COMPUTER FOR COMPLETION OF TWO-VARIABLES LINEAR EQUATION SYSTEM BY ELIMINATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbaiti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology have been rapidly evolved in some fields of knowledge, including mathematics. Such development can contribute to improvements on the learning process that encourage students and teachers to enhance their abilities and performances. In delivering the material on the linear equation system with two variables (SPLDV, the conventional teaching method where teachers become the center of the learning process is still well-practiced. This method would cause the students get bored and have difficulties to understand the concepts they are learning. Therefore, in order to the learning of SPLDV easy, an interesting, interactive media that the students and teachers can apply is necessary. This media is designed using GUI MATLAB and named as students’ electronic worksheets (e-LKS. This program is intended to help students in finding and understanding the SPLDV concepts more easily. This program is also expected to improve students’ motivation and creativity in learning the material. Based on the test using the System Usability Scale (SUS, the design of interactive mathematics learning media of the linear equation system with Two Variables (SPLDV gets grade B (excellent, meaning that this learning media is proper to be used for Junior High School students of grade VIII.

  4. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p < 0.001) and traditional HRV indices SDNN, RMSSD, lnLFP, and lnHFP (p < 0.01 for all). It approached significance for sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension (D2) (p < 0.1 for both), while HRV detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) measures DFAα1 and DFAα2 were not affected by load condition. Breathing did not affect HR but affected all traditional HRV measures. D2 was not affected by breathing; DFAα1 was moderately affected by breathing; and DFAα2, approximate entropy (ApEn), and SampEn were strongly affected by breathing. DFAα1 was strongly increased, whereas DFAα2, ApEn, and SampEn were decreased by slow breathing. No interaction effect of load and breathing pattern was evident. Correlations to traditional HRV indices were modest (r from -0.14 to -0.67, p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise.

  5. The Marketplace Variables in Successful and Unsuccessful NPD Projects in Technology Intensive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti J. Haverila

    2010-12-01

    Our findings indicate that managers perceive the marketplace in multiple ways during the NPD process and also that differences exist in metric equivalence across successful and unsuccessful NPD projects. Also, although half of the marketplace variables are positively related to NPD success, managers in Finnish technology companies appear to attach higher relative importance to market attractiveness rather than market competitiveness variables. Marketplace variables appear to be less important than in the Korean and Chinese samples, and much more important than  in the Canadian sample in the Mishra et all study (1996, and similarly much more important than in the Cooper study (1979b.

  6. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity.

  7. Collection efficiency of charges in ionization chambers in presence of constant or variable radiation intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decuyper, J.

    1970-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental study of the collection of carriers built up by ionization in standard chambers, is made by varying the value of different acting parameters. In the presence of constant ionization intensity and under a D.C. and A.C. voltage, the effect of geometry, recombination, diffusion and attachment is analyzed. The compensation of thermal neutron D.C. chambers is equally considered. Under a time dependent ionization intensity and D.C. voltage, is then studied the effect of recombination on current response, and on the collection efficiency of all formed charges. (author) [fr

  8. Pengaruh Transformational Leadership Terhadap Organizational Performance Melalui Organizational Culture Dan Entrepreneurial Intensity Sebagai Intervening Variable Pada Perusahaan Publik Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aimed of this study was to examine the relationship of transformational leadership to the firm performance. This research was conducted in order to find the affect of transformational leadership through organizational culture and entrepreneurial intensity as the intervening variables. This study used primary data obtained from questionnaires distributed to go-public companies' employees in Surabaya. The samples were companies that used transformational leadership. Based on the multiplicat...

  9. The Marketplace Variables in Successful and Unsuccessful NPD Projects in Technology Intensive Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Haverila, Matti

    2010-01-01

    We present an exploratory investigation of how managers conceptualize and perceive ‘marketplace’ variables in successful and unsuccessful New Product Development (NPD) projects, and explore the role that marketplace variables play in differentiating between successful and unsuccessful NPD outcomes. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed. Our findings indicate that managers perceive the marketplace in multiple ways during the NPD process and also that differences exis...

  10. Correction of the significance level when attempting multiple transformations of an explanatory variable in generalized linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In statistical modeling, finding the most favorable coding for an exploratory quantitative variable involves many tests. This process involves multiple testing problems and requires the correction of the significance level. Methods For each coding, a test on the nullity of the coefficient associated with the new coded variable is computed. The selected coding corresponds to that associated with the largest statistical test (or equivalently the smallest pvalue). In the context of the Generalized Linear Model, Liquet and Commenges (Stat Probability Lett,71:33–38,2005) proposed an asymptotic correction of the significance level. This procedure, based on the score test, has been developed for dichotomous and Box-Cox transformations. In this paper, we suggest the use of resampling methods to estimate the significance level for categorical transformations with more than two levels and, by definition those that involve more than one parameter in the model. The categorical transformation is a more flexible way to explore the unknown shape of the effect between an explanatory and a dependent variable. Results The simulations we ran in this study showed good performances of the proposed methods. These methods were illustrated using the data from a study of the relationship between cholesterol and dementia. Conclusion The algorithms were implemented using R, and the associated CPMCGLM R package is available on the CRAN. PMID:23758852

  11. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D

    2002-02-19

    The majority of numerical models in climatology and geomagnetism rely on deterministic finite-difference techniques and attempt to include as many empirical constraints on the many processes and boundary conditions applicable to their very complex systems. Despite their sophistication, many of these models are unable to reproduce basic aspects of climatic or geomagnetic dynamics. We show that a simple stochastic model, which treats the flux of heat energy in the atmosphere by convective instabilities with random advection and diffusive mixing, does a remarkable job at matching the observed power spectrum of historical and proxy records for atmospheric temperatures from time scales of one day to one million years (Myr). With this approach distinct changes in the power-spectral form can be associated with characteristic time scales of ocean mixing and radiative damping. Similarly, a simple model of the diffusion of magnetic intensity in Earth's core coupled with amplification and destruction of the local intensity can reproduce the observed 1/f noise behavior of Earth's geomagnetic intensity from time scales of 1 (Myr) to 100 yr. In addition, the statistics of the fluctuations in the polarity reversal rate from time scales of 1 Myr to 100 Myr are consistent with the hypothesis that reversals are the result of variations in 1/f noise geomagnetic intensity above a certain threshold, suggesting that reversals may be associated with internal fluctuations rather than changes in mantle thermal or magnetic boundary conditions.

  12. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of linear and nonlinear indices of heart rate variability in stable angina patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivatelli Flávio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased heart rate variability (HRV is related to higher morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the linear and nonlinear indices of the HRV in stable angina patients submitted to coronary angiography. Methods We studied 77 unselected patients for elective coronary angiography, which were divided into two groups: coronary artery disease (CAD and non-CAD groups. For analysis of HRV indices, HRV was recorded beat by beat with the volunteers in the supine position for 40 minutes. We analyzed the linear indices in the time (SDNN [standard deviation of normal to normal], NN50 [total number of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50ms] and RMSSD [root-mean square of differences] and frequency domains ultra-low frequency (ULF ≤ 0,003 Hz, very low frequency (VLF 0,003 – 0,04 Hz, low frequency (LF (0.04–0.15 Hz, and high frequency (HF (0.15–0.40 Hz as well as the ratio between LF and HF components (LF/HF. In relation to the nonlinear indices we evaluated SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2, approximate entropy (−ApEn, α1, α2, Lyapunov Exponent, Hurst Exponent, autocorrelation and dimension correlation. The definition of the cutoff point of the variables for predictive tests was obtained by the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC. The area under the ROC curve was calculated by the extended trapezoidal rule, assuming as relevant areas under the curve ≥ 0.650. Results Coronary arterial disease patients presented reduced values of SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, HF, SD1, SD2 and -ApEn. HF ≤ 66 ms2, RMSSD ≤ 23.9 ms, ApEn ≤−0.296 and NN50 ≤ 16 presented the best discriminatory power for the presence of significant coronary obstruction. Conclusion We suggest the use of Heart Rate Variability Analysis in linear and nonlinear domains, for prognostic purposes in patients with stable angina pectoris, in view of their overall impairment.

  13. Climate variability and increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue incidence in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Ng, Nawi; Tang, Choon Siang; Pang, Fung Yin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue is currently a major public health burden in Asia Pacific Region. This study aims to establish an association between dengue incidence, mean temperature and precipitation and further discuss how weather predictors influence the increase in intensity and magnitude of dengue in Singapore during the period 2000-2007. Materials and methods: Weekly dengue incidence data, daily mean temperature and precipitation and the midyear population data in Singapore during 2000-2007 were...

  14. Interannual variability in the extent and intensity of tropical dry forest deciduousness in the Mexican Yucatan (2000-2016): Drivers and Links to Regional Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba, Nicholas Joseph

    The dry topical forests of the southern Yucatan Peninsula experience multiple natural and anthropogenic disturbances, as well as substantial interannual climate variability that can result in stark interannual differences in vegetation phenology. Dry season deciduousness is a typical response to limit tree water loss during prolonged periods of hot and dry conditions, and this behavior has both direct implications for ecosystem functioning, and the potential to indicate climate conditions when observed using remotely-sensed data. The first research paper of this dissertation advances methods to assess the accuracy of remotely-sensed measurements of canopy conditions using in-situ observations. Linear regression models show the highest correlation (R2 = 0.751) between in-situ canopy gap fraction and Landsat NDWISWIR2. MODIS time series NDWISWIR2 are created for the period March 2000-February 2011, and exhibit stronger correlation with time series of TRMM precipitation data than do MODIS EVI time series (R2= 0.48 vs. R2 = 0.43 in deciduous forest areas). The second paper examines differences between the deciduous phenology of young forest stands and older forest stands. Land-cover maps are overlaid to determine whether forested areas are greater than or less than 22 years old in 2010, and metrics related to deciduous phenology are derived from MODIS EVI2 time series in three years, 2008 to 2011. Statistical tests that compare matched pairs of young (12-22 years) and older (>22 years) forest stand age class samples are used to detect significant differences in metrics related to the intensity and timing of deciduousness. In all three years, younger forests exhibit significantly more intense deciduousness, measured as total seasonal change of EVI2 normalized by annual maximum EVI2 (pmediating environmental factors that drive the spatial and temporal variability in the intensity of deciduousness, and point toward analyzing deciduousness to reveal information about other

  15. Effect of spatial variability of ground motion on non-linear dynamic behavior of cable stayed bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouanani Mouloud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This present paper summarizes the main results of incoherence of Spatial Variability of Ground Motion (SVGM component on the non-linear dynamic behavior of a Mila cable stayed bridge. The Hindy and Novack coherence model is developed for the present study in order to examine the SVGM on bridge responses, Nonlinear bridge responses are investigated in terms of transverse displacements and bending moments along the superstructure and substructure of the study bridge, as well as temporal variations of rotational ductility demands at the bridge piers ends under the incoherence SVGM component. The results are systematically compared with those obtained assuming uniform ground motion. As a general trend, it may be concluded that incoherence component of SVGM should be considered for the earthquake response assessments of cable-stayed bridges.

  16. High intensity linear accelerator development topics for panel discussion on ''Nuclear Energy Research and Accelerators: Future Prospects''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two companion papers at this meeting have introduced the subject of high intensity linacs for materials research and for radioactive waste transmutation; Prof. Kaneko's paper ''Intense Proton Accelerator,'' and my paper ''Accelerator-Based Intense Neutron Source for Materials R ampersand D.'' I will expand on those remarks to briefly outline some of the extensive work that has been done at Los Alamos toward those two application areas, plus a third --- the production of tritium in an accelerator-based facility (APT--Accelerator Production of Tritium). 1 ref., 11 figs

  17. Variables affecting the manifestation of and intensity of pacing behavior: A preliminary case study in zoo-housed polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cless, Isabelle T; Lukas, Kristen E

    2017-09-01

    High-speed video analysis was used to quantify two aspects of gait in 10 zoo-housed polar bears. These two variables were then examined as to how they differed in the conditions of pacing versus locomoting for each bear. Percent difference calculations measured the difference between pacing and locomoting data for each bear. We inferred that the higher the percent difference between pacing and locomoting in a given subject, the more intense the pacing may be. The percent difference values were analyzed alongside caregiver survey data defining the locations, frequency, and anticipatory nature of pacing in each bear, as well as each bear's age and sex, to determine whether any variables were correlated. The frequency and intensity of pacing behavior were not correlated. However, location of pacing was significantly correlated both with the subjects' age and whether or not the subject was classified as an anticipatory pacer. Bears appeared to select specific spots within their exhibits to pace, and the location therefore seemed tied to underlying motivation for the behavior. Additionally, bears that were classified in the survey as pacing anticipatorily displayed significantly more intense pacing behavior as quantified by gait analysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dynamics of heart rate variability analysed through nonlinear and linear dynamics is already impaired in young type 1 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Naiara M; Giacon, Thais R; Pacagnelli, Francis L; Barbosa, Marianne P C R; Valenti, Vitor E; Vanderlei, Luiz C M

    2016-10-01

    Autonomic diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and studies using heart rate variability to investigate these individuals have shown inconclusive results regarding autonomic nervous system activation. Aims To investigate the dynamics of heart rate in young subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus through nonlinear and linear methods of heart rate variability. We evaluated 20 subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 23 healthy control subjects. We obtained the following nonlinear indices from the recurrence plot: recurrence rate (REC), determinism (DET), and Shanon entropy (ES), and we analysed indices in the frequency (LF and HF in ms2 and normalised units - nu - and LF/HF ratio) and time domains (SDNN and RMSSD), through analysis of 1000 R-R intervals, captured by a heart rate monitor. There were reduced values (p<0.05) for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with healthy subjects in the following indices: DET, REC, ES, RMSSD, SDNN, LF (ms2), and HF (ms2). In relation to the recurrence plot, subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus demonstrated lower recurrence and greater variation in their plot, inter-group and intra-group, respectively. Young subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus have autonomic nervous system behaviour that tends to randomness compared with healthy young subjects. Moreover, this behaviour is related to reduced sympathetic and parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system.

  19. MHD flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid over a non-linear stretching sheet with variable thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    Full Text Available This research explores the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid past a non-linear stretching sheet of variable thickness. An electrically conducting fluid is considered under the characteristics of magnetic field applied transverse to the sheet. The mathematical expressions are accomplished via boundary layer access, Brownian motion and thermophoresis phenomena. The flow analysis is subjected to a recently established conditions requiring zero nanoparticles mass flux. Adequate transformations are implemented for the reduction of partial differential systems to the ordinary differential systems. Series solutions for the governing nonlinear flow of momentum, temperature and nanoparticles concentration have been executed. Physical interpretation of numerous parameters is assigned by graphical illustrations and tabular values. Moreover the numerical data of drag coefficient and local heat transfer rate are executed and discussed. It is investigated that higher wall thickness parameter results in the reduction of velocity distribution. Effects of thermophoresis parameter on temperature and concentration profiles are qualitatively similar. Both the temperature and concentration profiles are enhanced for higher values of thermophoresis parameter. Keywords: MHD, Variable thicked surface, Powell-Eyring nanofluid, Zero mass flux conditions

  20. Variable-Weighted Linear Combination Model for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: Case Study in the Shennongjia Forestry District, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A landslide susceptibility map plays an essential role in urban and rural planning. The main purpose of this study is to establish a variable-weighted linear combination model (VWLC and assess its potential for landslide susceptibility mapping. Firstly, different objective methods are employed for data processing rather than the frequently-used subjective judgments: K-means clustering is used for classification; binarization is introduced to determine buffer length thresholds for locational elements (road, river, and fault; landslide area density is adopted as the contribution index; and a correlation analysis is conducted for suitable factor selection. Secondly, considering the dimension changes of the preference matrix varying with the different locations of the mapping cells, the variable weights of each optimal factor are determined based on the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP. On this basis, the VWLC model is established and applied to regional landslide susceptibility mapping for the Shennongjia Forestry District, China, where shallow landslides frequently occur. The obtained map is then compared with a map using the traditional WLC, and the results of the comparison show that VWLC is more reasonable, with a higher accuracy, and can be used anywhere that has the same or similar geological and topographical conditions.

  1. The spatial variability of air temperature and nocturnal urban heat island intensity in the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolný Petr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to quantify the effects of a number of factors on the nocturnal air temperature field in a medium-sized central European city located in complex terrain. The main data sources consist of mobile air temperature measurements and a geographical database. Temperature measurements were taken along several profiles through the city centre and were made under a clear sky with no advection. Altogether nine sets of detailed measurements, in all seasons, were assembled. Altitude, quantity of vegetation, density of buildings and the structure of the transportation (road system were considered as explanatory variables. The result is that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the density of buildings were the most important factors, each of them explaining a substantial part (more than 50% of overall air temperature variability. Mobile measurements with NDVI values as a covariate were used for interpolation of air temperature for the entire study area. The spatial variability of nocturnal air temperature and UHI intensity in Brno is the main output presented. Air temperatures interpolated from mobile measurements and NDVI values indicate that the mean urban heat island (UHI intensity in the early night in summer is at its highest (approximately 5 °C in the city centre and decreases towards the suburban areas.

  2. Response to variable light intensity in photoacclimated algae and cyanobacteria exposed to atrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deblois, Charles P.; Dufresne, Karine [Department of Biological Sciences-TOXEN, Ecotoxicology of Aquatic Microorganisms Laboratory, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Juneau, Philippe, E-mail: juneau.philippe@uqam.ca [Department of Biological Sciences-TOXEN, Ecotoxicology of Aquatic Microorganisms Laboratory, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Atrazine is frequently detected in freshwater ecosystems exposed to agricultural waste waters and runoffs worldwide and it can affect non-target organisms (mainly photoautotrophic) and modify community structure. Meanwhile, light environment is known to vary between aquatic ecosystems, but also before and during the exposure to atrazine and these variations may modify the sensitivity to atrazine of photoautotroph organisms. In this study, 10 species of phytoplankton (chlorophytes, baccilariophytes and cyanophytes) acclimated to low or high light intensities were exposed to atrazine and light of different intensities to compare their combined effect. Our data showed that chlorophytes and baccilariophytes were more resistant to atrazine compared to cyanophytes for all light conditions. Atrazine was found to inhibit {Phi}{sup Prime }{sub M}, {Psi}{sub 0}, P{sub M} and non-photochemical quenching for all species indicating an effect on electron transport, primary production and photoregulation processes. These data also indicate a higher sensitivity of {Psi}{sub 0} (average {Psi}{sub 0}-EC{sub 50} of 91 {+-} 11 nM or 19.6 {+-} 0.9 {mu}g L{sup -1}) compared to {Phi}{sup Prime }{sub M} (average {Phi}{sup Prime }{sub M}-EC{sub 50} of 217 {+-} 19 nM or 46.8 {+-} 4.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and suggest that photoregulation processes activated in presence of light decrease the effect of atrazine. We also showed that increasing light intensity decreased {Phi}{sup Prime }{sub M}-EC{sub 50} in both low (except baccilariophytes) and high light acclimated conditions. Despite this similarity, most species acclimated to high light were found to have higher or similar {Phi}{sup Prime }{sub M}-EC{sub 50} compared to low light acclimated cells and thus, were less sensitive to atrazine in low light and high light environments. We concluded that an increase in the plastoquinone pool induced by acclimation to high light decreased the sensitivity to atrazine in phytoplankton and we hypothesized

  3. Variability of radiatively forced diurnal cycle of intense convection in the tropical west pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, W.M.; Sheaffer, J.D.; Thorson, W.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Strong differences occur in daytime versus nighttime (DVN) net radiative cooling in clear versus cloudy areas of the tropical atmosphere. Daytime average cooling is approximately -0.7{degrees}C/day, whereas nighttime net tropospheric cooling rates are about -1.5{degrees}C/day, an approximately two-to-one difference. The comparatively strong nocturnal cooling in clear areas gives rise to a diurnally varying vertical circulation and horizontal convergence cycle. Various manifestations of this cyclic process include the observed early morning heavy rainfall maxima over the tropical oceans. The radiatively driven DVN circulation appears to strongly modulate the resulting diurnal cycle of intense convection which creates the highest, coldest cloudiness over maritime tropical areas and is likely a fundamental mechanism governing both small and large scale dynamics over much of the tropical environment.

  4. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Indicates Association of P-Glycoprotein Substrate or Inhibitor Character with Bitterness Intensity, Measured with a Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kentaro; Mita, Suzune; Morimoto, Kaori; Haraguchi, Tamami; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Miyako; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) regulates absorption of many drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and their accumulation in tumor tissues, but the basis of substrate recognition by P-gp remains unclear. Bitter-tasting phenylthiocarbamide, which stimulates taste receptor 2 member 38 (T2R38), increases P-gp activity and is a substrate of P-gp. This led us to hypothesize that bitterness intensity might be a predictor of P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status. Here, we measured the bitterness intensity of a panel of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrates with various taste sensors, and used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status and various physical properties, including intensity of bitter taste measured with the taste sensor. We calculated the first principal component analysis score (PC1) as the representative value of bitterness, as all taste sensor's outputs shared significant correlation. The P-gp substrates showed remarkably greater mean bitterness intensity than non-P-gp substrates. We found that Km value of P-gp substrates were correlated with molecular weight, log P, and PC1 value, and the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the linear regression equation was 0.63. This relationship might be useful as an aid to predict P-gp substrate status at an early stage of drug discovery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  6. Sodium bicarbonate and high-intensity-cycling capacity: variability in responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Sunderland, Caroline

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether gastrointestinal (GI) distress affects the ergogenicity of sodium bicarbonate and whether the degree of alkalemia or other metabolic responses is different between individuals who improve exercise capacity and those who do not. Twenty-one men completed 2 cycling-capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output. Participants were supplemented with 0.3 g/kg body mass of either placebo (maltodextrin) or sodium bicarbonate (SB). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate were determined at baseline, preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 5 min postexercise. SB supplementation did not significantly increase total work done (TWD; P = .16, 46.8 ± 9.1 vs 45.6 ± 8.4 kJ, d = 0.14), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 63% likelihood of a positive effect. When data were analyzed without 4 participants who experienced GI discomfort, TWD (P = .01) was significantly improved with SB. Immediately postexercise blood lactate was higher in SB for the individuals who improved but not for those who did not. There were also differences in the preexercise-to-postexercise change in blood pH, bicarbonate, and base excess between individuals who improved and those who did not. SB improved high-intensity-cycling capacity but only with the exclusion of participants experiencing GI discomfort. Differences in blood responses suggest that SB may not be beneficial to all individuals. Magnitude-based inferences suggested that the exercise effects are unlikely to be negative; therefore, individuals should determine whether they respond well to SB supplementation before competition.

  7. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity or high volume training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eStöggl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  8. Long-term Observations of Intense Precipitation Small-scale Spatial Variability in a Semi-arid Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropp, E. L.; Hazenberg, P.; Castro, C. L.; Demaria, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the southwestern US, the summertime North American Monsoon (NAM) provides about 60% of the region's annual precipitation. Recent research using high-resolution atmospheric model simulations and retrospective predictions has shown that since the 1950's, and more specifically in the last few decades, the mean daily precipitation in the southwestern U.S. during the NAM has followed a decreasing trend. Furthermore, days with more extreme precipitation have intensified. The current work focuses the impact of these long-term changes on the observed small-scale spatial variability of intense precipitation. Since limited long-term high-resolution observational data exist to support such climatological-induced spatial changes in precipitation frequency and intensity, the current work utilizes observations from the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona. Within this 150 km^2 catchment over 90 rain gauges have been installed since the 1950s, measuring at sub-hourly resolution. We have applied geospatial analyses and the kriging interpolation technique to identify long-term changes in the spatial and temporal correlation and anisotropy of intense precipitation. The observed results will be compared with the previously model simulated results, as well as related to large-scale variations in climate patterns, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).

  9. High-Intensity Interval Exercises' Acute Impact on Heart Rate Variability: Comparison Between Whole-Body and Cycle Ergometer Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2018-01-01

    Schaun, GZ and Del Vecchio, FB. High-intensity interval exercises' acute impact on heart rate variability: comparison between whole-body and cycle ergometer protocols. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 223-229, 2018-Study aimed to compare the effects of 2 high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on heart rate variability. Twelve young adult males (23.3 ± 3.9 years, 177.8 ± 7.4 cm, 76.9 ± 12.9 kg) volunteered to participate. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects performed 2 HIIT protocols, 1 on a cycle ergometer (Tabata protocol [TBT]; eight 20-second bouts at 170% Pmax interspersed by 10-second rest) and another with whole-body calisthenic exercises (McRae protocol; eight 20-second all-out intervals interspersed by 10-second rest). Heart rate variability outcomes in the time, frequency, and nonlinear domains were assessed on 3 moments: (a) presession; (b) immediately postsession; and (c) 24 hours postsession. Results revealed that RRmean, Ln rMSSD, Ln high frequency (HF), and Ln low frequency (LF) were significantly reduced immediately postsession (p ≤ 0.001) and returned to baseline 24 h after both protocols. In addition, LF/HF ratio was reduced 24 h postsession (p ≤ 0.01) and SD2 was significantly lower immediately postsession only in TBT. Our main finding was that responses from heart rate autonomic control were similar in both protocols, despite different modes of exercise performed. Specifically, exercises resulted in a high parasympathetic inhibition immediately after session with subsequent recovery within 1 day. These results suggest that subjects were already recovered the day after and can help coaches to better program training sessions with such protocols.

  10. Design for a high intensity slow positron facility using forward scattered radiation from an electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Lewis, T.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Peelle, R.; Pendyale, S.; Dale, J.M.; Rosseel, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    A tungsten moderator will be placed behind the target of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) to convert gamma radiation to slow positrons. These will be extracted and led through evacuated solenoids to an experiment room. A Penning trap will be used to extend the slow positron pulses to achieve duty factors of 10% or greater. The facility will be used for atomic and molecular physics studies, positron microscopy, and materials research. Operations will be inexpensive and will not interfere with the normal function of ORELA, the measurement of neutron cross sections by flight-time spectrometry

  11. Polarization and ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules generated by linearly polarized intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations for polarization and ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned N 2 , CO 2 , and O 2 molecules generated by linearly polarized lasers. Within the rescattering model, the two polarization amplitudes of the harmonics are determined by the photo-recombination amplitudes for photons emitted with polarization parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the same returning electron wave packet. Our results show clear species-dependent polarization states, in excellent agreement with experiments. We further note that the measured polarization ellipse of the harmonic furnishes the needed parameters for a 'complete' experiment in molecules.

  12. Interannual Variability of Regional Hadley Circulation Intensity Over Western Pacific During Boreal Winter and Its Climatic Impact Over Asia-Australia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruping; Chen, Shangfeng; Chen, Wen; Hu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates interannual variability of boreal winter regional Hadley circulation over western Pacific (WPHC) and its climatic impacts. A WPHC intensity index (WPHCI) is defined as the vertical shear of the divergent meridional winds. It shows that WPHCI correlates well with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To investigate roles of the ENSO-unrelated part of WPHCI (WPHCIres), variables that are linearly related to the Niño-3 index have been removed. It reveals that meridional sea surface temperature gradient over the western Pacific plays an essential role in modulating the WPHCIres. The climatic impacts of WPHCIres are further investigated. Below-normal (above-normal) precipitation appears over south China (North Australia) when WPHCIres is stronger. This is due to the marked convergence (divergence) anomalies at the upper troposphere, divergence (convergence) at the lower troposphere, and the accompanied downward (upward) motion over south China (North Australia), which suppresses (enhances) precipitation there. In addition, a pronounced increase in surface air temperature (SAT) appears over south and central China when WPHCIres is stronger. A temperature diagnostic analysis suggests that the increase in SAT tendency over central China is primarily due to the warm zonal temperature advection and subsidence-induced adiabatic heating. In addition, the increase in SAT tendency over south China is primarily contributed by the warm meridional temperature advection. Further analysis shows that the correlation of WPHCIres with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is weak. Thus, this study may provide additional sources besides EAWM and ENSO to improve understanding of the Asia-Australia climate variability.

  13. Linear surface photoelectric effect of gold in intense laser field as a possible high-current electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, G.; Horvath, Z.G.; Toth, C.; Fotakis, C.; Hontzopoulos, E.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations were conducted on radiation-induced electron emission processes on a gold target surface with a high-intensity (2 MW/cm 2 ) KrF laser (λ = 248 nm). The single photon surface photoelectric emission obtained can be used for high-current density electron sources. The measured polarization dependence of electron current shows the dominance of the surface-type effect over that of the volume type, thereby making it possible to optimize the short, high-density electron current creation conditions. The advantage of the grazing light incidence and the multiphoton photoeffect giving rise to a 500 A/cm 2 electron current has been demonstrated

  14. Partially non-linear stimulation intensity-dependent effects of direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsikadze, G; Moliadze, V; Paulus, W; Kuo, M-F; Nitsche, M A

    2013-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA with an electrode size of 35 cm(2) has been shown to induce shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. These shifts are polarity-specific with cathodal tDCS resulting in a decrease and anodal stimulation in an increase of cortical excitability. In clinical and cognitive studies, stronger stimulation intensities are used frequently, but their physiological effects on cortical excitability have not yet been explored. Therefore, here we aimed to explore the effects of 2 mA tDCS on cortical excitability. We applied 2 mA anodal or cathodal tDCS for 20 min on the left primary motor cortex of 14 healthy subjects. Cathodal tDCS at 1 mA and sham tDCS for 20 min was administered as control session in nine and eight healthy subjects, respectively. Motor cortical excitability was monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Global corticospinal excitability was explored via single TMS pulse-elicited MEP amplitudes, and motor thresholds. Intracortical effects of stimulation were obtained by cortical silent period (CSP), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF), and I wave facilitation. The above-mentioned protocols were recorded both before and immediately after tDCS in randomized order. Additionally, single-pulse MEPs, motor thresholds, SICI and ICF were recorded every 30 min up to 2 h after stimulation end, evening of the same day, next morning, next noon and next evening. Anodal as well as cathodal tDCS at 2 mA resulted in a significant increase of MEP amplitudes, whereas 1 mA cathodal tDCS decreased corticospinal excitability. A significant shift of SICI and ICF towards excitability enhancement after both 2 mA cathodal and anodal tDCS was observed. At 1 mA, cathodal tDCS reduced single-pulse TMS-elicited MEP amplitudes and shifted SICI

  15. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intense Non-Linear Soft X-Ray Emission from a Hydride Target during Pulsed D Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Yang, Yang; Lipson, Andrei; Haque, Munima; Percel, Ian; Romer, Michael

    Radiation emission from low-energy nuclear radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and X-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft X-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An X-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm2 and a dose of 3.3 μJ/cm2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that X-ray energies >600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The X-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved.

  17. Intense non-linear soft X-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Yang, Yang; Lipson, Andrei; Haque, Munima; Percel, Ian; Romer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Radiation emission from low-energy nuclear radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and X-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft X-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An X-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm 2 and a dose of 3.3 μJ/cm 2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that X-ray energies >600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The X-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved. (author)

  18. A duality approach for solving bounded linear programming problems with fuzzy variables based on ranking functions and its application in bounded transportation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimnejad, Ali

    2015-08-01

    There are several methods, in the literature, for solving fuzzy variable linear programming problems (fuzzy linear programming in which the right-hand-side vectors and decision variables are represented by trapezoidal fuzzy numbers). In this paper, the shortcomings of some existing methods are pointed out and to overcome these shortcomings a new method based on the bounded dual simplex method is proposed to determine the fuzzy optimal solution of that kind of fuzzy variable linear programming problems in which some or all variables are restricted to lie within lower and upper bounds. To illustrate the proposed method, an application example is solved and the obtained results are given. The advantages of the proposed method over existing methods are discussed. Also, one application of this algorithm in solving bounded transportation problems with fuzzy supplies and demands is dealt with. The proposed method is easy to understand and to apply for determining the fuzzy optimal solution of bounded fuzzy variable linear programming problems occurring in real-life situations.

  19. Predicting Calcium Values for Gastrointestinal Bleeding Patients in Intensive Care Unit Using Clinical Variables and Fuzzy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Khalili-Zadeh-Mahani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reducing unnecessary laboratory tests is an essential issue in the Intensive Care Unit. One solution for this issue is to predict the value of a laboratory test to specify the necessity of ordering the tests. The aim of this paper was to propose a clinical decision support system for predicting laboratory tests values. Calcium laboratory tests of three categories of patients, including upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and unspecified hemorrhage of gastrointestinal tract, have been selected as the case studies for this research. Method: In this research, the data have been collected from MIMIC-II database. For predicting calcium laboratory values, a Fuzzy Takagi-Sugeno model is used and the input variables of the model are heart rate and previous value of calcium laboratory test. Results: The results showed that the values of calcium laboratory test for the understudy patients were predictable with an acceptable accuracy. In average, the mean absolute errors of the system for the three categories of the patients are 0.27, 0.29, and 0.28, respectively. Conclusion: In this research, using fuzzy modeling and two variables of heart rate and previous calcium laboratory values, a clinical decision support system was proposed for predicting laboratory values of three categories of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Using these two clinical values as input variables, the obtained results were acceptable and showed the capability of the proposed system in predicting calcium laboratory values. For achieving better results, the impact of more input variables should be studied. Since, the proposed system predicts the laboratory values instead of just predicting the necessity of the laboratory tests; it was more generalized than previous studies. So, the proposed method let the specialists make the decision depending on the condition of each patient.

  20. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction-12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojecki, Grzegorz Lukasz; Tiessen, Stefan; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth

    2018-03-01

    Short-term data on the effect of low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (Li-ESWT) on erectile dysfunction (ED) have been inconsistent. The suggested mechanisms of action of Li-ESWT on ED include stimulation of cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, and angiogenesis, which can be processes with a long generation time. Therefore, long-term data on the effect of Li-ESWT on ED are strongly warranted. To assess the outcome at 6 and 12 months of linear Li-ESWT on ED from a previously published randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial. Subjects with ED (N = 126) who scored lower than 25 points in the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) were eligible for the study. They were allocated to 1 of 2 groups: 5 weekly sessions of sham treatment (group A) or linear Li-ESWT (group B). After a 4-week break, the 2 groups received active treatment once a week for 5 weeks. At baseline and 6 and 12 months, subjects were evaluated by the IIEF-EF, the Erectile Hardness Scale (EHS), and the Sexual Quality of Life in Men. The primary outcome measure was an increase of at least 5 points in the IIEF-EF (ΔIIEF-EF score). The secondary outcome measure was an increase in the EHS score to at least 3 in men with a score no higher than 2 at baseline. Data were analyzed by linear and logistic regressions. Linear regression of the ΔIIEF-EF score from baseline to 12 months included 95 patients (dropout rate = 25%). Adjusted for the IIEF-EF score at baseline, the difference between groups B and A was -1.30 (95% CI = -4.37 to 1.77, P = .4). The success rate based on the main outcome parameter (ΔIIEF-EF score ≥ 5) was 54% in group A vs 47% in group B (odds ratio = 0.67, P = .28). Improvement based on changes in the EHS score in groups A and B was 34% and 24%, respectively (odds ratio = 0.47, P = .82). Exposure to 2 cycles of linear Li-ESWT for ED is not superior to 1 cycle at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Fojecki GL, Tiessen S

  1. Xerostomia in patients treated for oropharyngeal carcinoma: comparing linear accelerator-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy with helical tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Israël; Fortin, Bernard; Lambert, Louise; Clavel, Sébastien; Alizadeh, Moein; Filion, Edith J; Soulières, Denis; Bélair, Manon; Guertin, Louis; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2014-09-01

    In comparison to sliding-window intensity-modulated radiation therapy (sw-IMRT), we hypothesized that helical tomotherapy (HT) would achieve similar locoregional control and, at the same time, decrease the parotid gland dose, thus leading to a xerostomia reduction. The association between radiation techniques, mean parotid dose, and xerostomia incidence, was reviewed in 119 patients with advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation using sw-IMRT (n = 59) or HT (n = 60). Ipsilateral and contralateral parotid mean doses were significantly lower for patients treated with HT versus sw-IMRT: 24 Gy versus 32 Gy ipsilaterally and 20 Gy versus 25 Gy contralaterally. The incidence of grade ≥2 xerostomia was significantly lower in the HT group than in the sw-IMRT group: 12% versus 78% at 6 months, 3% versus 51% at 12 months, and 0% versus 25% at 24 months. Total parotid mean dose xerostomia at 6, 12, and 24 months. This retrospective series suggests that using HT can better spare the parotid glands while respecting quantitative analysis of normal tissue effects in the clinic (QUANTEC)'s criteria. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Role of Micro-Topographic Variability on the Distribution of Inorganic Soil-Nitrogen Age in Intensively Managed Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Dong K.; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-10-01

    How does the variability of topography structure the spatial heterogeneity of nutrient dynamics? In particular, what role does micro-topographic depression play in the spatial and temporal dynamics of nitrate, ammonia, and ammonium? We explore these questions using the 3-D simulation of their joint dynamics of concentration and age. To explicitly resolve micro-topographic variability and its control on moisture, vegetation, and carbon-nitrogen dynamics, we use a high-resolution LiDAR data over an agricultural site under a corn-soybean rotation in the Intensively Managed landscapes Critical Zone Observatory in the U.S. Midwest. We utilize a hybrid CPU-GPU parallel computing architecture to reduce the computational cost associated with such high-resolution simulations. Our results show that in areas that present closed topographic depressions, relatively lower nitrate concentration and age are observed compared to elsewhere. The periodic ponding in depressions increases the downward flux of water that carries more dissolved nitrate to the deeper soil layer. However, the variability in the depressions is relatively higher as a result of the episodic ponding pattern. When aggregate efflux from the soil domain at the bottom of the soil is considered, we find a gradual decrease in the age on the rising limb of nitrate efflux and a gradual increase on the falling limb. In addition, the age of the nitrate efflux ranges from 4 to 7 years. These are significantly higher as compared to the ages associated with a nonreactive tracer indicating that they provide an inaccurate estimate of residence time of a reactive constituent through the soil column.

  3. Free energy of activation. Definition, properties, and dependent variables with special reference to linear free energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ΔG 0 , the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = αΔG 0 + G/sub a/ 0 M(α). Here α is the Bronsted slope, α = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(ΔG 0 /RT), G/sub a/ 0 is independent of ΔG 0 and M(α), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of α. For small changes in ΔG 0 , the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = α delta ΔG 0 . It is concluded from general considerations that M(α) is a symmetric, convex function of α and hence that α is a monotonically increasing function of ΔG 0 . Experimental data appear to conform well to the form α = 1/[1 + exp(-ΔG 0 /G/sub s/ 0 )]. A simple interpretation of the ΔG 0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references

  4. Linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and after acute myocardial infarction in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Heart rate (HR was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years. HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM, the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05 of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64 and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87 and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74, respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05: RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation.

  5. Dynamics of a charged particle in a linearly polarized traveling wave. Hamiltonian approach to laser-matter interaction at very high intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdier, A.; Patin, D.

    2005-01-01

    The basic physical processes in laser-matter interaction, up to 10 17 W/cm 2 (for a neodymium laser) are now well understood, on the other hand, new phenomena evidenced in particle-in-cell code simulations have to be investigated above 10 18 W/cm 2 . Thus, the relativistic motion of a charged particle in a linearly polarized homogeneous electromagnetic wave is studied, here, using the Hamiltonian formalism. First, the motion of a single particle in a linearly polarized traveling wave propagating in a non-magnetized space is explored. The problem is shown to be integrable. The results obtained are compared to those derived considering a cold electron plasma model. When the phase velocity is close to c, it is shown that the two approaches are in good agreement during a finite time. After this short time, when the plasma response is taken into account no chaos take place at least when considering low densities and/or high wave intensities. The case of a charged particle in a traveling wave propagating along a constant homogeneous magnetic field is then considered. The problem is shown to be integrable when the wave propagates in vacuum. The existence of a synchronous solution is shown very simply. In the case when the wave propagates in a low density plasma, using a simplifying Lorentz transformation, it is shown that the system can be reduced to a time-dependent system with two degrees of freedom. The system is shown to be non-integrable, chaos appears when a secondary resonance and a primary resonance overlap. Finally, stochastic instabilities are studied by considering the motion of one particle in a very high intensity wave perturbed by one or two low intensity traveling waves. Resonances are identified and conditions for resonance overlap are studied. (authors)

  6. Effect of Linear Low-Intensity Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy for Erectile Dysfunction-12-Month Follow-Up of a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fojecki, Grzegorz Lukasz; Tiessen, Stefan; Sloth Osther, Palle Jørn

    2018-01-01

    -EF (ΔIIEF-EF score). The secondary outcome measure was an increase in the EHS score to at least 3 in men with a score no higher than 2 at baseline. Data were analyzed by linear and logistic regressions. RESULTS: Linear regression of the ΔIIEF-EF score from baseline to 12 months included 95 patients (dropout......INTRODUCTION: Short-term data on the effect of low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (Li-ESWT) on erectile dysfunction (ED) have been inconsistent. The suggested mechanisms of action of Li-ESWT on ED include stimulation of cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, and angiogenesis, which...... can be processes with a long generation time. Therefore, long-term data on the effect of Li-ESWT on ED are strongly warranted. AIM: To assess the outcome at 6 and 12 months of linear Li-ESWT on ED from a previously published randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial. METHODS: Subjects with ED...

  7. Modeling Linguistic Variables With Regression Models: Addressing Non-Gaussian Distributions, Non-independent Observations, and Non-linear Predictors With Random Effects and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    As statistical approaches are getting increasingly used in linguistics, attention must be paid to the choice of methods and algorithms used. This is especially true since they require assumptions to be satisfied to provide valid results, and because scientific articles still often fall short of reporting whether such assumptions are met. Progress is being, however, made in various directions, one of them being the introduction of techniques able to model data that cannot be properly analyzed with simpler linear regression models. We report recent advances in statistical modeling in linguistics. We first describe linear mixed-effects regression models (LMM), which address grouping of observations, and generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM), which offer a family of distributions for the dependent variable. Generalized additive models (GAM) are then introduced, which allow modeling non-linear parametric or non-parametric relationships between the dependent variable and the predictors. We then highlight the possibilities offered by generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). We explain how they make it possible to go beyond common distributions, such as Gaussian or Poisson, and offer the appropriate inferential framework to account for 'difficult' variables such as count data with strong overdispersion. We also demonstrate how they offer interesting perspectives on data when not only the mean of the dependent variable is modeled, but also its variance, skewness, and kurtosis. As an illustration, the case of phonemic inventory size is analyzed throughout the article. For over 1,500 languages, we consider as predictors the number of speakers, the distance from Africa, an estimation of the intensity of language contact, and linguistic relationships. We discuss the use of random effects to account for genealogical relationships, the choice of appropriate distributions to model count data, and non-linear relationships. Relying on GAMLSS, we

  8. Modeling Linguistic Variables With Regression Models: Addressing Non-Gaussian Distributions, Non-independent Observations, and Non-linear Predictors With Random Effects and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Coupé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As statistical approaches are getting increasingly used in linguistics, attention must be paid to the choice of methods and algorithms used. This is especially true since they require assumptions to be satisfied to provide valid results, and because scientific articles still often fall short of reporting whether such assumptions are met. Progress is being, however, made in various directions, one of them being the introduction of techniques able to model data that cannot be properly analyzed with simpler linear regression models. We report recent advances in statistical modeling in linguistics. We first describe linear mixed-effects regression models (LMM, which address grouping of observations, and generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM, which offer a family of distributions for the dependent variable. Generalized additive models (GAM are then introduced, which allow modeling non-linear parametric or non-parametric relationships between the dependent variable and the predictors. We then highlight the possibilities offered by generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS. We explain how they make it possible to go beyond common distributions, such as Gaussian or Poisson, and offer the appropriate inferential framework to account for ‘difficult’ variables such as count data with strong overdispersion. We also demonstrate how they offer interesting perspectives on data when not only the mean of the dependent variable is modeled, but also its variance, skewness, and kurtosis. As an illustration, the case of phonemic inventory size is analyzed throughout the article. For over 1,500 languages, we consider as predictors the number of speakers, the distance from Africa, an estimation of the intensity of language contact, and linguistic relationships. We discuss the use of random effects to account for genealogical relationships, the choice of appropriate distributions to model count data, and non-linear relationships

  9. Linear gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  10. Performance characterization of Siemens primus linear accelerator under small monitor unit and small segments for the implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reena, P.; Pai, Rajeshri; Gupta, Tejpal; Rajeev, S.; Dayananda, S.; Jamema, S.V.; Deepak, D.

    2006-01-01

    Implementation of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) needs careful understanding of the accelerator start-up characteristic to ensure accurate and precise delivery of radiation dose to patient. The dosimetric characteristic of a Siemens Primus linear accelerator (LA) which delivers 6 and 18 MV x-rays at the dose rate of 300 and 500 monitor unit (MU) per minutes (min) respectively was studied under the condition of small MU ranging from 1 to 100. Dose monitor linearity was studied at different dose calibration parameter (D1 C O) by measuring ionization at 10 cm depth in a solid water phantom using a 0.6 cc ionization chamber. Monitor unit stability was studied from different intensity modulated (IM) groups comprising various combinations of MU per field and number of fields. Stability of beam flatness and symmetry was investigated under normal and IMRT mode for 20x20 cm 2 field under small MU using a 2D Profiler kept isocentrically at 5 cm depth. Inter segment response was investigated form 1 to 10 MU by measuring the dose per MU from various IM groups, each consisting of four segments with inter-segment separation of 2 cm. In the range 1-4 MU, the dose linearity error was more than 5% (max -32% at 1 MU) for 6 MV x-rays at factory calibrated D1 C O value of 6000. The dose linearity error was reduced to -10.95% at 1 MU, within -3% for 2 and 3 MU and ± 1% for MU ≥4 when the D1 C O was subsequently tuned at 4500. For 18 MV x-rays, the dose linearity error at factory calibrated D1 C O value of 4400 was within ± 1% for MU ≥3 with maximum of -13.5 observed at 1 MU. For both the beam energies and MU/field ≥4, the stability of monitor unit tested for different IM groups was within ± 1% of the dose from the normal treatment field. This variation increases to -2.6% for 6 MV and -2.7% for 18 MV x-rays for 2 MU/field. No significant variation was observed in the stability of beam profile measured from normal and IMRT mode. The beam flatness was

  11. Evaluation of heat transfer mathematical models and multiple linear regression to predict the inside variables in semi-solar greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Taki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Controlling greenhouse microclimate not only influences the growth of plants, but also is critical in the spread of diseases inside the greenhouse. The microclimate parameters were inside air, greenhouse roof and soil temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation intensity. Predicting the microclimate conditions inside a greenhouse and enabling the use of automatic control systems are the two main objectives of greenhouse climate model. The microclimate inside a greenhouse can be predicted by conducting experiments or by using simulation. Static and dynamic models are used for this purpose as a function of the metrological conditions and the parameters of the greenhouse components. Some works were done in past to 2015 year to simulation and predict the inside variables in different greenhouse structures. Usually simulation has a lot of problems to predict the inside climate of greenhouse and the error of simulation is higher in literature. The main objective of this paper is comparison between heat transfer and regression models to evaluate them to predict inside air and roof temperature in a semi-solar greenhouse in Tabriz University. Materials and Methods In this study, a semi-solar greenhouse was designed and constructed at the North-West of Iran in Azerbaijan Province (geographical location of 38°10′ N and 46°18′ E with elevation of 1364 m above the sea level. In this research, shape and orientation of the greenhouse, selected between some greenhouses common shapes and according to receive maximum solar radiation whole the year. Also internal thermal screen and cement north wall was used to store and prevent of heat lost during the cold period of year. So we called this structure, ‘semi-solar’ greenhouse. It was covered with glass (4 mm thickness. It occupies a surface of approximately 15.36 m2 and 26.4 m3. The orientation of this greenhouse was East–West and perpendicular to the direction of the wind prevailing

  12. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  13. Integrating Environmental and Socio-Economic Indicators of a Linked Catchment-Coastal System Using Variable Environmental Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, John R.; Davie, Tim J. A.; Fenemor, Andrew D.; Ekanayake, Jagath C.; Knight, Ben R.; Cole, Anthony O.; de Oca Munguia, Oscar Montes; Allen, Will J.; Young, Roger G.; Basher, Les R.; Dresser, Marc; Batstone, Chris J.

    2010-09-01

    Can we develop land use policy that balances the conflicting views of stakeholders in a catchment while moving toward long term sustainability? Adaptive management provides a strategy for this whereby measures of catchment performance are compared against performance goals in order to progressively improve policy. However, the feedback loop of adaptive management is often slow and irreversible impacts may result before policy has been adapted. In contrast, integrated modelling of future land use policy provides rapid feedback and potentially improves the chance of avoiding unwanted collapse events. Replacing measures of catchment performance with modelled catchment performance has usually required the dynamic linking of many models, both biophysical and socio-economic—and this requires much effort in software development. As an alternative, we propose the use of variable environmental intensity (defined as the ratio of environmental impact over economic output) in a loose coupling of models to provide a sufficient level of integration while avoiding significant effort required for software development. This model construct was applied to the Motueka Catchment of New Zealand where several biophysical (riverine water quantity, sediment, E. coli faecal bacteria, trout numbers, nitrogen transport, marine productivity) models, a socio-economic (gross output, gross margin, job numbers) model, and an agent-based model were linked. An extreme set of land use scenarios (historic, present, and intensive) were applied to this modelling framework. Results suggest that the catchment is presently in a near optimal land use configuration that is unlikely to benefit from further intensification. This would quickly put stress on water quantity (at low flow) and water quality ( E. coli). To date, this model evaluation is based on a theoretical test that explores the logical implications of intensification at an unlikely extreme in order to assess the implications of likely growth

  14. The reliability of linear position transducer, force plate and combined measurement of explosive power-time variables during a loaded jump squat in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Newton, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the between day reliability of power-time measures calculated with data collected using the linear position transducer or the force plate independently, or a combination of the two technologies. Twenty-five male rugby union players performed three jump squats on two occasions one week apart. Ground reaction forces were measured via a force plate and position data were collected using a linear position transducer. From these data, a number of power-time variables were calculated for each method. The force plate, linear position transducer and a combined method were all found to be a reliable means of measuring peak power (ICC = 0.87-0.95, CV = 3.4%-8.0%). The absolute consistency of power-time measures varied between methods (CV = 8.0%-53.4%). Relative consistency of power-time measures was generally comparable between methods and measures, and for many variables was at an acceptable level (ICC = 0.77-0.94). Although a number of time-dependent power variables can be reliably calculated from data acquired from the three methods investigated, the reliability of a number of these measures is below that which is acceptable for use in research and for practical applications.

  15. Variability in echolocation call intensity in a community of horseshoe bats: a role for resource partitioning or communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Maike; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-09-17

    Only recently data on bat echolocation call intensities is starting to accumulate. Yet, intensity is an ecologically crucial parameter, as it determines the extent of the bats' perceptual space and, specifically, prey detection distance. Interspecifically, we thus asked whether sympatric, congeneric bat species differ in call intensities and whether differences play a role for niche differentiation. Specifically, we investigated whether R. mehelyi that calls at a frequency clearly above what is predicted by allometry, compensates for frequency-dependent loss in detection distance by using elevated call intensity. Maximum echolocation call intensities might depend on body size or condition and thus be used as an honest signal of quality for intraspecific communication. We for the first time investigated whether a size-intensity relation is present in echolocating bats. We measured maximum call intensities and frequencies for all five European horseshoe bat species. Maximum intensity differed among species largely due to R. euryale. Furthermore, we found no compensation for frequency-dependent loss in detection distance in R. mehelyi. Intraspecifically, there is a negative correlation between forearm lengths and intensity in R. euryale and a trend for a negative correlation between body condition index and intensity in R. ferrumequinum. In R. hipposideros, females had 8 dB higher intensities than males. There were no correlations with body size or sex differences and intensity for the other species. Based on call intensity and frequency measurements, we estimated echolocation ranges for our study community. These suggest that intensity differences result in different prey detection distances and thus likely play some role for resource access. It is interesting and at first glance counter-intuitive that, where a correlation was found, smaller bats called louder than large individuals. Such negative relationship between size or condition and vocal amplitude may

  16. Bovine Colostrum Supplementation’s Lack of Effect on Immune Variables During Short-Term Intense Exercise in Well-Trained Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol, A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Mensink, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of bovine colostrum to attenuate postexercise decline in immune function. The authors evaluated the time course of a number of immune variables after short-term intense exercise in 9 male athletes after 10 d of supplementation with either

  17. Role of intensive and extensive variables in a soup of firms in economy to address long run prices and aggregate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseiny, Ali; Gallegati, Mauro

    2017-03-01

    We review the production function and the hypothesis of equilibrium in the neoclassical framework. We notify that in a soup of sectors in economy, while capital and labor resemble extensive variables, wage and rate of return on capital act as intensive variables. As a result, Baumol and Bowen's statement of equal wages is inevitable from the thermodynamics point of view. We try to see how aggregation can be performed concerning the extensive variables in a soup of firms. We provide a toy model to perform aggregation for production and the labor income as extensive quantities in a neoclassical framework.

  18. Study on the photoneutrons produced in 15 MV medical linear accelerators : Comparison of three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Oh Nam [Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Oh Nam; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Hanseo Univ., Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy(IMRT) have the ability to provide better dose conformity and sparing of critical normal tissues than three-dimensional radiotherapy(3DCRT). Especially, with the benefit of health insurance in 2011, its use now increasingly in many modern radiotherapy departments. Also the use of linear accelerator with high-energy photon beams over 10 MV is increasing. As is well known, these linacs have the capacity to produce photoneutrons due to photonuclear reactions in materials with a large atomic number such as the target, flattening filters, collimators, and multi-leaf collimators(MLC). MLC-based IMRT treatments increase the monitor units and the probability of production of photoneutrons from photon-induced nuclear reactions. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the dose of photoneutrons produced from 3DCRT and IMRT technique for Rando phantom in cervical cancer. We performed the treatment plans with 3DCRT and IMRT technique using Rando phantom for treatment of cervical cancer. An Rando phantom placed on the couch in the supine position was irradiated using 15 MV photon beams. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters(OSLD) were attached to 4 different locations (abdomen, chest, head and neck, eyes) and from center of field size and measured 5 times each of locations. Measured neutron dose from IMRT technique increased by 9.0, 8.6, 8.8, and 14 times than 3DCRT technique for abdomen, chest, head and neck, and eyes, respectively. When using IMRT with 15 MV photon beams, the photoneutrons contributed a significant portion on out-of-field. It is difficult to prevent high energy photon beams to produce the photoneutrons due to physical properties, if necessary, It is difficult to prevent high energy photon beams to produce the photoneutrons due to physical properties, if necessary, it is need to provide the additional safe shielding on a linear accelerator and should therefore reduce the out-of-field dose.

  19. Study on the photoneutrons produced in 15 MV medical linear accelerators : Comparison of three dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Oh Nam; Yang, Oh Nam; Lim, Cheong Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy(IMRT) have the ability to provide better dose conformity and sparing of critical normal tissues than three-dimensional radiotherapy(3DCRT). Especially, with the benefit of health insurance in 2011, its use now increasingly in many modern radiotherapy departments. Also the use of linear accelerator with high-energy photon beams over 10 MV is increasing. As is well known, these linacs have the capacity to produce photoneutrons due to photonuclear reactions in materials with a large atomic number such as the target, flattening filters, collimators, and multi-leaf collimators(MLC). MLC-based IMRT treatments increase the monitor units and the probability of production of photoneutrons from photon-induced nuclear reactions. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the dose of photoneutrons produced from 3DCRT and IMRT technique for Rando phantom in cervical cancer. We performed the treatment plans with 3DCRT and IMRT technique using Rando phantom for treatment of cervical cancer. An Rando phantom placed on the couch in the supine position was irradiated using 15 MV photon beams. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters(OSLD) were attached to 4 different locations (abdomen, chest, head and neck, eyes) and from center of field size and measured 5 times each of locations. Measured neutron dose from IMRT technique increased by 9.0, 8.6, 8.8, and 14 times than 3DCRT technique for abdomen, chest, head and neck, and eyes, respectively. When using IMRT with 15 MV photon beams, the photoneutrons contributed a significant portion on out-of-field. It is difficult to prevent high energy photon beams to produce the photoneutrons due to physical properties, if necessary, It is difficult to prevent high energy photon beams to produce the photoneutrons due to physical properties, if necessary, it is need to provide the additional safe shielding on a linear accelerator and should therefore reduce the out-of-field dose

  20. Estimation of lung motion fields in 4D CT data by variational non-linear intensity-based registration: A comparison and evaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, René; Schmidt-Richberg, Alexander; Handels, Heinz; Ehrhardt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and robust estimation of motion fields in respiration-correlated CT (4D CT) images, usually performed by non-linear registration of the temporal CT frames, is a precondition for the analysis of patient-specific breathing dynamics and subsequent image-supported diagnostics and treatment planning. In this work, we present a comprehensive comparison and evaluation study of non-linear registration variants applied to the task of lung motion estimation in thoracic 4D CT data. In contrast to existing multi-institutional comparison studies (e.g. MIDRAS and EMPIRE10), we focus on the specific but common class of variational intensity-based non-parametric registration and analyze the impact of the different main building blocks of the underlying optimization problem: the distance measure to be minimized, the regularization approach and the transformation space considered during optimization. In total, 90 different combinations of building block instances are compared. Evaluated on proprietary and publicly accessible 4D CT images, landmark-based registration errors (TRE) between 1.14 and 1.20 mm for the most accurate registration variants demonstrate competitive performance of the applied general registration framework compared to other state-of-the-art approaches for lung CT registration. Although some specific trends can be observed, effects of interchanging individual instances of the building blocks on the TRE are in general rather small (no single outstanding registration variant existing); the same level of accuracy is, however, associated with significantly different degrees of motion field smoothness and computational demands. Consequently, the building block combination of choice will depend on application-specific requirements on motion field characteristics. (paper)

  1. Wear behaviors of pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy (AA2024-T4) under variable vertical loads and linear speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeki; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cho, Yi Je; Park, Yong Ho

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transition of wear behavior for pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy 2024-T4 (AA2024-T4). The wear test was carried using a ball-on-disc wear testing machine at various vertical loads and linear speeds. The transition of wear behaviors was analyzed based on the microstructure, wear tracks, wear cross-section, and wear debris. The critical wear rates for each material are occurred at lower linear speed for each vertical load. The transition of wear behavior was observed in which abrasion wears with the generation of an oxide layer, fracture of oxide layer, adhesion wear, severe adhesion wear, and the generation of seizure occurred in sequence. In case of the pure aluminum, the change of wear debris occurred in the order of blocky, flake, and needle-like debris. Cutting chip, flake-like, and coarse flake-like debris was occurred in sequence for the extruded AA2024-T4. The transition in the wear behavior of extruded AA2024-T4 occurred slower than in pure aluminum.

  2. On Solutions for Linear and Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations with Variable Coefficients: A Computational Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Amador

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, after reviewing two different ways to solve Riccati systems, we are able to present an extensive list of families of integrable nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS equations with variable coefficients. Using Riccati equations and similarity transformations, we are able to reduce them to the standard NLS models. Consequently, we can construct bright-, dark- and Peregrine-type soliton solutions for NLS with variable coefficients. As an important application of solutions for the Riccati equation with parameters, by means of computer algebra systems, it is shown that the parameters change the dynamics of the solutions. Finally, we test numerical approximations for the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation by the Crank-Nicolson scheme with analytical solutions found using Riccati systems. These solutions include oscillating laser beams and Laguerre and Gaussian beams.

  3. Multiplex protein pattern unmixing using a non-linear variable-weighted support vector machine as optimized by a particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Zou, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Li-Juan; Shen, Guo-Li; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-01-15

    Most of the proteins locate more than one organelle in a cell. Unmixing the localization patterns of proteins is critical for understanding the protein functions and other vital cellular processes. Herein, non-linear machine learning technique is proposed for the first time upon protein pattern unmixing. Variable-weighted support vector machine (VW-SVM) is a demonstrated robust modeling technique with flexible and rational variable selection. As optimized by a global stochastic optimization technique, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, it makes VW-SVM to be an adaptive parameter-free method for automated unmixing of protein subcellular patterns. Results obtained by pattern unmixing of a set of fluorescence microscope images of cells indicate VW-SVM as optimized by PSO is able to extract useful pattern features by optimally rescaling each variable for non-linear SVM modeling, consequently leading to improved performances in multiplex protein pattern unmixing compared with conventional SVM and other exiting pattern unmixing methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and simulation of a short, variable-energy 4 to 10 MV S-band linear accelerator waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Devin; Fallone, B Gino; Steciw, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    To modify a previously designed, short, 10 MV linac waveguide, so that it can produce any energy from 4 to 10 MV. The modified waveguide is designed to be a drop-in replacement for the 6 MV waveguide used in the author's current linear accelerator-magnetic resonance imager (Linac-MR). Using our group's previously designed short 10 MV linac as a starting point, the port was moved to the fourth cavity, the shift to the first coupling cavity was removed and a tuning cylinder added to the first coupling cavity. Each cavity was retuned using finite element method (FEM) simulations to resonate at the desired frequency. FEM simulations were used to determine the RF field distributions for various tuning cylinder depths, and electron trajectories were computed using a particle-in-cell model to determine the required RF power level and tuning cylinder depth to produce electron energy distributions for 4, 6, 8, and 10 MV photon beams. Monte Carlo simulations were then used to compare the depth dose profiles with those produced by published electron beam characteristics for Varian linacs. For each desired photon energy, the electron beam energy was within 0.5% of the target mean energy, the depth of maximum dose was within 1.5 mm of that produced by the Varian linac, and the ratio of dose at 10 cm depth to 20 cm depth was within 1%. A new 27.5 cm linear accelerator waveguide design capable of producing any photon energy between 4 and 10 MV has been simulated, however coupling port design and the implications of increased electron beam current at 10 MV remain to be investigated. For the specific cases of 4, 6, and 10 MV, this linac produces depth dose profiles similar to those produced by published spectra for Varian linacs. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Conceptual design for an accelerator system for a very high-intensity pulsed neutron source using a linear-induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Several accelerator-based intense neutron sources have been constructed or designed by various laboratories around the world. All of these facilities have a common scheme of a linac and synchrotron or accumulator ring, and the system produces the proton energy of 500 to 1000 MeV. The average beam currents range from a few mA to a few hundred mA. The protons are then used to generate high-flux neutrons by spallation out of heavy-metal targets. In a synchrotron system, the protons are already bunched, and thus the pulse rate of the neutron beam is that of the repetition rate of the synchrotron. For an accumulator system, the pulse rate is determined by the extraction repetition rate of the accumulator. We have conceptually designed a new system that uses a linear-induction accelerator which can be operated for an average beam current up to a few mA with a repetition rate up to 100 Hz. The details of the design will be given

  6. Effects of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays and stretching on muscle tone in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nobuyuki; Takezako, Nobuhiro; Shimonishi, Yuko; Usuda, Shigeru

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays (HI-LPNR) and stretching on hypertonia in cerebrovascular disease patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 cerebrovascular disease patients with hypertonia of the ankle joint plantar flexor muscle. The subjects were randomly allocated to groups undergoing treatment with HI-LPNR irradiation (HI-LPNR group), stretching (stretching group), HI-LPNR irradiation followed by stretching (combination group), and control group (10 subjects each). In all groups, the passive range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and passive resistive joint torque of ankle dorsiflexion were measured before and after the specified intervention. [Results] The changes in passive range of motion, significant increase in the stretching and combination groups compared with that in the control group. The changes in passive resistive joint torque, significant decrease in HI-LPNR, stretching, and combination groups compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has effect of decrease muscle tone. However, combination of HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has no multiplier effect.

  7. Comparison study for multiple ionization of carbonyl sulfide by linearly and circularly polarized intense femtosecond laser fields using Coulomb explosion imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Wang, Chuncheng; Luo, Sizuo; Yu, Xitao; Li, Xiaokai; Wang, Zhenzhen; Hu, Wenhui; Yu, Jiaqi; Yang, Yizhang; Tian, Xu; Cui, Zhonghua; Ding, Dajun

    2018-05-01

    We studied the relative yields and dissociation dynamics for two- and three-body Coulomb explosion (CE) channels from highly charged carbonyl sulfide molecules in intense laser fields using the CE imaging technique. The electron recollision contributions are evaluated by comparing the relative yields for the multiple ionization process in linearly polarized and circularly polarized (LP and CP) laser fields. The nonsequential multiple ionization is only confirmed for the charge states of 2 to 4 because the energy for further ionization from the inner orbital is much larger than the maximum recollision energy, 3.2U p . The novel deviations of kinetic energy releases distributions between LP and CP pulses are observed for the charge states higher than 4. It can be attributed to the stronger molecular bending in highly charged states before three-body CE with CP light, in which the bending wave packet is initialed by the triple or quartic ionization and spread along their potential curves. Compared to LP light, CP light ionizes a larger fraction of bending molecules in the polarization plane.

  8. Biaxial analysis of synthetic scaffolds for hernia repair demonstrates variability in mechanical anisotropy, non-linearity and hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeken, Corey R; Thompson, Dominic M; Castile, Ryan M; Lake, Spencer P

    2014-10-01

    Over the past 60 years, the soft tissue repair market has grown to include over 50 types of hernia repair materials. Surgeons typically implant these materials in the orientation that provides maximum overlap of the mesh over the defect, with little regard for mechanical properties of the mesh material. If the characteristics of the meshes were better understood, an appropriate material could be identified for each patient, and meshes could be placed to optimize integration with neighboring tissue and avoid the mechanical mis-match that can lead to impaired graft fixation. The purpose of this study was to fully characterize and compare the mechanical properties of thirteen types of hernia repair materials via planar biaxial tensile testing. Equibiaxial (i.e., equal simultaneous loading in both directions) and strip biaxial (i.e., loading in one direction with the other direction held fixed) tests were utilized as physiologically relevant loading regimes. After applying a 0.1N pre-load on each arm, samples were subjected to equibiaxial cyclic loading using a triangular waveform to 2.5mm displacement on each arm at 0.1Hz for 10 cycles. Samples were then subjected to two strip biaxial tests (using the same cyclic loading protocol), where extension was applied along a single axis with the other axis held fixed. The thirteen evaluated mesh types exhibited a wide range of mechanical properties. Some were nearly isotropic (C-QUR™, DUALMESH(®), PHYSIOMESH™, and PROCEED(®)), while others were highly anisotropic (Ventralight™ ST, Bard™ Mesh, and Bard™ Soft Mesh). Some displayed nearly linear behavior (Bard™ Mesh), while others were non-linear with a long toe region followed by a sharp rise in tension (INFINIT(®)). These materials are currently utilized in clinical settings as if they are uniform and interchangeable, and clearly this is not the case. The mechanical properties most advantageous for successful hernia repairs are currently only vaguely described

  9. Variable Selection in Heterogeneous Datasets: A Truncated-rank Sparse Linear Mixed Model with Applications to Genome-wide Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haohan; Aragam, Bryon; Xing, Eric P

    2018-04-26

    A fundamental and important challenge in modern datasets of ever increasing dimensionality is variable selection, which has taken on renewed interest recently due to the growth of biological and medical datasets with complex, non-i.i.d. structures. Naïvely applying classical variable selection methods such as the Lasso to such datasets may lead to a large number of false discoveries. Motivated by genome-wide association studies in genetics, we study the problem of variable selection for datasets arising from multiple subpopulations, when this underlying population structure is unknown to the researcher. We propose a unified framework for sparse variable selection that adaptively corrects for population structure via a low-rank linear mixed model. Most importantly, the proposed method does not require prior knowledge of sample structure in the data and adaptively selects a covariance structure of the correct complexity. Through extensive experiments, we illustrate the effectiveness of this framework over existing methods. Further, we test our method on three different genomic datasets from plants, mice, and human, and discuss the knowledge we discover with our method. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Correlations of the glycemic variability with oxidative stress and erythrocytes membrane stability in patients with type 1 diabetes under intensive treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ricardo; Alves de Medeiros, Luciana; Moreira Cunha, Lucas; da Silva Garrote-Filho, Mario; Bernardino Neto, Morun; Tannus Jorge, Paulo; Santos Resende, Elmiro; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2018-02-07

    This study aimed to evaluate the correlations of glycemic variability with erythrocyte membrane stability parameters and oxidative stress markers in patients with DM1 under intensive treatment. 90 patients with DM1 and under intensive treatment of the disease were evaluated in relation to anthropometric indices, records of glycemic averages and parameters of glycemic variability, biochemical dosages (glucose, uric acid, lipidogram, glycated hemoglobin, microalbuminuria, creatinine and iron) reticulocyte count, erythrocyte membrane stability parameters and oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and glutathione reductase, GR). Indicators of glycemic variability in the short and long term showed correlations with parameters of membrane stability and markers of oxidative stress (GR). In addition, the comparison of these same parameters between the subgroups consisting of quartiles of GV or glycemic control also showed significant differences. In the DM1 patients studied here, glycemic variability showed correlations with oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane stability variables. This corroborates the hypothesis that glycemic fluctuations interfere with lipid peroxidation and cell membrane behavior, emphasizing its participation in mechanisms related to the development of chronic complications of diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  12. Hippocampal-Sparing Whole-Brain Radiotherapy: A 'How-To' Technique Using Helical Tomotherapy and Linear Accelerator-Based Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tewatia, Dinesh; Rowley, Howard; Kuo, John S.; Khuntia, Deepak; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Sparing the hippocampus during cranial irradiation poses important technical challenges with respect to contouring and treatment planning. Herein we report our preliminary experience with whole-brain radiotherapy using hippocampal sparing for patients with brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Five anonymous patients previously treated with whole-brain radiotherapy with hippocampal sparing were reviewed. The hippocampus was contoured, and hippocampal avoidance regions were created using a 5-mm volumetric expansion around the hippocampus. Helical tomotherapy and linear accelerator (LINAC)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plans were generated for a prescription dose of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Results: On average, the hippocampal avoidance volume was 3.3 cm 3 , occupying 2.1% of the whole-brain planned target volume. Helical tomotherapy spared the hippocampus, with a median dose of 5.5 Gy and maximum dose of 12.8 Gy. LINAC-based IMRT spared the hippocampus, with a median dose of 7.8 Gy and maximum dose of 15.3 Gy. On a per-fraction basis, mean dose to the hippocampus (normalized to 2-Gy fractions) was reduced by 87% to 0.49 Gy 2 using helical tomotherapy and by 81% to 0.73 Gy 2 using LINAC-based IMRT. Target coverage and homogeneity was acceptable with both IMRT modalities, with differences largely attributed to more rapid dose fall-off with helical tomotherapy. Conclusion: Modern IMRT techniques allow for sparing of the hippocampus with acceptable target coverage and homogeneity. Based on compelling preclinical evidence, a Phase II cooperative group trial has been developed to test the postulated neurocognitive benefit.

  13. The ability of non-computer tasks to increase biomechanical exposure variability in computer-intensive office work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dechristian França; Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Nogueira, Helen Cristina; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postures and muscle activity in the upper body were recorded from 50 academics office workers during 2 hours of normal work, categorised by observation into computer work (CW) and three non-computer (NC) tasks (NC seated work, NC standing/walking work and breaks). NC tasks differed significantly in exposures from CW, with standing/walking NC tasks representing the largest contrasts for most of the exposure variables. For the majority of workers, exposure variability was larger in their present job than in CW alone, as measured by the job variance ratio (JVR), i.e. the ratio between min-min variabilities in the job and in CW. Calculations of JVRs for simulated jobs containing different proportions of CW showed that variability could, indeed, be increased by redistributing available tasks, but that substantial increases could only be achieved by introducing more vigorous tasks in the job, in casu illustrated by cleaning.

  14. Reducing 4DCBCT imaging time and dose: the first implementation of variable gantry speed 4DCBCT on a linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ricky T; Stankovic, Uros; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Keall, Paul J

    2017-06-07

    Four dimensional cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) uses a constant gantry speed and imaging frequency that are independent of the patient's breathing rate. Using a technique called respiratory motion guided 4DCBCT (RMG-4DCBCT), we have previously demonstrated that by varying the gantry speed and imaging frequency, in response to changes in the patient's real-time respiratory signal, the imaging dose can be reduced by 50-70%. RMG-4DCBCT optimally computes a patient specific gantry trajectory to eliminate streaking artefacts and projection clustering that is inherent in 4DCBCT imaging. The gantry trajectory is continuously updated as projection data is acquired and the patient's breathing changes. The aim of this study was to realise RMG-4DCBCT for the first time on a linear accelerator. To change the gantry speed in real-time a potentiometer under microcontroller control was used to adjust the current supplied to an Elekta Synergy's gantry motor. A real-time feedback loop was developed on the microcontroller to modulate the gantry speed and projection acquisition in response to the real-time respiratory signal so that either 40, RMG-4DCBCT 40 , or 60, RMG-4DCBCT 60 , uniformly spaced projections were acquired in 10 phase bins. Images of the CIRS dynamic Thorax phantom were acquired with sinusoidal breathing periods ranging from 2 s to 8 s together with two breathing traces from lung cancer patients. Image quality was assessed using the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and edge response width (ERW). For the average patient, with a 3.8 s breathing period, the imaging time and image dose were reduced by 37% and 70% respectively. Across all respiratory rates, RMG-4DCBCT 40 had a CNR in the range of 6.5 to 7.5, and RMG-4DCBCT 60 had a CNR between 8.7 and 9.7, indicating that RMG-4DCBCT allows consistent and controllable CNR. In comparison, the CNR for conventional 4DCBCT drops from 20.4 to 6.2 as the breathing rate increases from 2 s to 8 s. With RMG-4DCBCT

  15. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (Pendurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (Pendurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  16. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability of the western Galician upwelling system (NW Spain) during an intensively sampled annual cycle. An EOF analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. L.; Rosón, G.; Varela, R. A.; Piedracoba, S.

    2008-07-01

    The key features of the western Galician shelf hydrography and dynamics are analyzed on a solid statistical and experimental basis. The results allowed us to gather together information dispersed in previous oceanographic works of the region. Empirical orthogonal functions analysis and a canonical correlation analysis were applied to a high-resolution dataset collected from 47 surveys done on a weekly frequency from May 2001 to May 2002. The main results of these analyses are summarized bellow. Salinity, temperature and the meridional component of the residual current are correlated with the relevant local forcings (the meridional coastal wind component and the continental run-off) and with a remote forcing (the meridional temperature gradient at latitude 37°N). About 80% of the salinity and temperature total variability over the shelf, and 37% of the residual meridional current total variability are explained by two EOFs for each variable. Up to 22% of the temperature total variability and 14% of the residual meridional current total variability is devoted to the set up of cross-shore gradients of the thermohaline properties caused by the wind-induced Ekman transport. Up to 11% and 10%, respectively, is related to the variability of the meridional temperature gradient at the Western Iberian Winter Front. About 30% of the temperature total variability can be explained by the development and erosion of the seasonal thermocline and by the seasonal variability of the thermohaline properties of the central waters. This thermocline presented unexpected low salinity values due to the trapping during spring and summer of the high continental inputs from the River Miño recorded in 2001. The low salinity plumes can be traced on the Galician shelf during almost all the annual cycle; they tend to be extended throughout the entire water column under downwelling conditions and concentrate in the surface layer when upwelling favourable winds blow. Our evidences point to the

  18. Assessment of the intensity and spatial variability of urban heat islands over the Indian cities for Regional Climate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, S.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2016-12-01

    The Urban heat island (UHI) in general developed over cities, due to the drastic changes in land use and land cover (LULC), has profound impact on the atmospheric circulation patterns due to the changes in the energy transport mechanism which in turn affect the regional climate. In this study, an attempt has been made to quantify the intensity of UHI, and to identify the pockets of UHI over cities during last decade over fast developing cosmopolitan Indian cities such as New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. For this purpose, Landsat TM and ETM+ images during winter period, in about 5 year intervals from 2002 to 2013, has been selected to retrieve the brightness temperatures and land use/cover, from which Land Surface Temperature (LST) has been estimated using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Normalized Difference Build-up Index (NDBI) and Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) are estimated to extract build-up areas and bare land from the satellite images to identify the UHI pockets over the study area. For this purpose image processing and GIS tools were employed. Results reveal a significant increase in the intensity of UHI and increase in its area of influence over all the three cities. An increase of 2 to 2.5 oC of UHI intensity over the study regions has been noticed. The range of increase in UHI intensity is found to be more over New Delhi compared to Mumbai and Kolkata which is more or less same. The number of hotspot pockets of UHI has also been increased as seen from the spatial distribution of LST, NDVI and NDBI. This result signifies the impact of rapid urbanization and infrastructural developments has a direct consequence in modulating the regional climate over the Indian cities.

  19. The MIT/OSO 7 catalog of X-ray sources - Intensities, spectra, and long-term variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, T. H.; Laird, F. N.; Clark, G. W.; Hearn, D. R.; Sprott, G. F.; Li, F. K.; Bradt, H. V.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Schnopper, H. W.; Winkler, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the observations of the cosmic X-ray sky performed by the MIT 1-40-keV X-ray detectors on OSO 7 between October 1971 and May 1973. Specifically, mean intensities or upper limits of all third Uhuru or OSO 7 cataloged sources (185 sources) in the 3-10-keV range are computed. For those sources for which a statistically significant (greater than 20) intensity was found in the 3-10-keV band (138 sources), further intensity determinations were made in the 1-15-keV, 1-6-keV, and 15-40-keV energy bands. Graphs and other simple techniques are provided to aid the user in converting the observed counting rates to convenient units and in determining spectral parameters. Long-term light curves (counting rates in one or more energy bands as a function of time) are plotted for 86 of the brighter sources.

  20. MIT/OSO 7 catalog of x-ray sources: intensities, spectra, and long-term variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, T.H.; Winkler, P.F.; Laird, F.N.; Clark, G.W.; Hearn, D.R.; Sprott, G.F.; Li, F.K.; Bradt, H.V.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Schnopper, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the observations of the cosmic X-ray sky performed by the MIT 1--40 KeV X-ray detectors on the OSO 7 between 1971 October and 1973 May. Specifically, we have computed the mean intensities or upper limits of all third Uhuru or OSO 7 cataloged sources (185 sources) in the 3--10 KeV range. For those sources for which a statistically significant (>20) intensity was found in the 3--10 KeV band (138 sources), further intensity determinations were made in the 1--15 KeV, 1--6 KeV, and 15--40 KeV energy bands. We have provided graphs and other simple techniques to aid the user in converting the observed counting rates to convenient units and in determining spectral parameters. Finally, we have plotted long-term light curves (counting rates in one or more energy bands as a function of time) for 86 of the brighter sources

  1. Peripheral dose measurements with diode and thermoluminescence dosimeters for intensity modulated radiotherapy delivered with conventional and un-conventional linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinhikar, Rajesh; Tambe, Chandrashekhar; Kadam, Sudarshan; Deshpande, Deepak; Gamre, Poonam; Biju, George; Suryaprakash; Magai, C.S.; Shrivastava, Shyam; Dhote, Dipak

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to measure the peripheral dose (PD) with diode and thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with linear accelerator (conventional LINAC), and tomotherapy (novel LINAC). Ten patients each were selected from Trilogy dual-energy and from Hi-Art II tomotherapy. Two diodes were kept at 20 and 25 cm from treatment field edge. TLDs (LiF:MgTi) were also kept at same distance. TLDs were also kept at 5, 10, and 15 cm from field edge. The TLDs were read with REXON reader. The readings at the respective distance were recorded for both diode and TLD. The PD was estimated by taking the ratio of measured dose at the particular distance to the prescription dose. PD was then compared with diode and TLD for LINAC and tomotherapy. Mean PD for LINAC with TLD and diode was 2.52 cGy (SD 0.69), 2.07 cGy (SD 0.88) at 20 cm, respectively, while at 25 cm, it was 1.94 cGy (SD 0.58) and 1.5 cGy (SD 0.75), respectively. Mean PD for tomotherapy with TLD and diode was 1.681 cGy (SD 0.53) and 1.58 (SD 0.44) at 20 cm, respectively. The PD was 1.24 cGy (SD 0.42) and 1.088 cGy (SD 0.35) at 25 cm, respectively, for tomotherapy. Overall, PD from tomotherapy was found lower than LINAC by the factor of 1.2-1.5 PD measurement is essential to find out the potential of secondary cancer. PD for both (conventional LINAC) and novel LINACs (tomotherapy) were measured and compared with each other. The comparison of the values for PD presented in this work and those published in the literature is difficult because of the different experimental conditions. The diode and TLD readings were reproducible and both the detector readings were comparable. (author)

  2. Comparison of linear and nonlinear programming approaches for "worst case dose" and "minmax" robust optimization of intensity-modulated proton therapy dose distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghian, Maryam; Cao, Wenhua; Liu, Wei; Kardar, Laleh; Randeniya, Sharmalee; Mohan, Radhe; Lim, Gino

    2017-03-01

    Robust optimization of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) takes uncertainties into account during spot weight optimization and leads to dose distributions that are resilient to uncertainties. Previous studies demonstrated benefits of linear programming (LP) for IMPT in terms of delivery efficiency by considerably reducing the number of spots required for the same quality of plans. However, a reduction in the number of spots may lead to loss of robustness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance in terms of plan quality and robustness of two robust optimization approaches using LP and nonlinear programming (NLP) models. The so-called "worst case dose" and "minmax" robust optimization approaches and conventional planning target volume (PTV)-based optimization approach were applied to designing IMPT plans for five patients: two with prostate cancer, one with skull-based cancer, and two with head and neck cancer. For each approach, both LP and NLP models were used. Thus, for each case, six sets of IMPT plans were generated and assessed: LP-PTV-based, NLP-PTV-based, LP-worst case dose, NLP-worst case dose, LP-minmax, and NLP-minmax. The four robust optimization methods behaved differently from patient to patient, and no method emerged as superior to the others in terms of nominal plan quality and robustness against uncertainties. The plans generated using LP-based robust optimization were more robust regarding patient setup and range uncertainties than were those generated using NLP-based robust optimization for the prostate cancer patients. However, the robustness of plans generated using NLP-based methods was superior for the skull-based and head and neck cancer patients. Overall, LP-based methods were suitable for the less challenging cancer cases in which all uncertainty scenarios were able to satisfy tight dose constraints, while NLP performed better in more difficult cases in which most uncertainty scenarios were hard to meet

  3. Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability are Correlated with Purpose in Life and Degree of Optimism in Anxiety Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jihoon; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2018-04-01

    Although heart rate variability (HRV) may be a crucial marker of mental health, how it is related to positive psychological factors (i.e. attitude to life and positive thinking) is largely unknown. Here we investigated the correlation of HRV linear and nonlinear dynamics with psychological scales that measured degree of optimism and happiness in patients with anxiety disorders. Results showed that low- to high-frequency HRV ratio (LF/HF) was increased and the HRV HF parameter was decreased in subjects who were more optimistic and who felt happier in daily living. Nonlinear analysis also showed that HRV dispersion and regulation were significantly correlated with the subjects' optimism and purpose in life. Our findings showed that HRV properties might be related to degree of optimistic perspectives on life and suggests that HRV markers of autonomic nervous system function could reflect positive human mind states.

  4. Brain signal variability as a window into the bidirectionality between music and language processing: moving from a linear to a nonlinear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutka, Stefanie; Bidelman, Gavin M; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-12-30

    There is convincing empirical evidence for bidirectional transfer between music and language, such that experience in either domain can improve mental processes required by the other. This music-language relationship has been studied using linear models (e.g., comparing mean neural activity) that conceptualize brain activity as a static entity. The linear approach limits how we can understand the brain's processing of music and language because the brain is a nonlinear system. Furthermore, there is evidence that the networks supporting music and language processing interact in a nonlinear manner. We therefore posit that the neural processing and transfer between the domains of language and music are best viewed through the lens of a nonlinear framework. Nonlinear analysis of neurophysiological activity may yield new insight into the commonalities, differences, and bidirectionality between these two cognitive domains not measurable in the local output of a cortical patch. We thus propose a novel application of brain signal variability (BSV) analysis, based on mutual information and signal entropy, to better understand the bidirectionality of music-to-language transfer in the context of a nonlinear framework. This approach will extend current methods by offering a nuanced, network-level understanding of the brain complexity involved in music-language transfer.

  5. A note on the correlation between circular and linear variables with an application to wind direction and air temperature data in a Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototzis, M.; Papadopoulos, G. K.; Droulia, F.; Tseliou, A.; Tsiros, I. X.

    2018-04-01

    There are several cases where a circular variable is associated with a linear one. A typical example is wind direction that is often associated with linear quantities such as air temperature and air humidity. The analysis of a statistical relationship of this kind can be tested by the use of parametric and non-parametric methods, each of which has its own advantages and drawbacks. This work deals with correlation analysis using both the parametric and the non-parametric procedure on a small set of meteorological data of air temperature and wind direction during a summer period in a Mediterranean climate. Correlations were examined between hourly, daily and maximum-prevailing values, under typical and non-typical meteorological conditions. Both tests indicated a strong correlation between mean hourly wind directions and mean hourly air temperature, whereas mean daily wind direction and mean daily air temperature do not seem to be correlated. In some cases, however, the two procedures were found to give quite dissimilar levels of significance on the rejection or not of the null hypothesis of no correlation. The simple statistical analysis presented in this study, appropriately extended in large sets of meteorological data, may be a useful tool for estimating effects of wind on local climate studies.

  6. Brain signal variability as a window into the bidirectionality between music and language processing: Moving from a linear to a nonlinear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Andrea Hutka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is convincing empirical evidence for bidirectional transfer between music and language, such that experience in either domain can improve mental processes required by the other. This music-language relationship has been studied using linear models (e.g., comparing mean neural activity that conceptualize brain activity as a static entity. The linear approach limits how we can understand the brain’s processing of music and language because the brain is a nonlinear system. Furthermore, there is evidence that the networks supporting music and language processing interact in a nonlinear manner. We therefore posit that the neural processing and transfer between the domains of language and music are best viewed through the lens of a nonlinear framework. Nonlinear analysis of neurophysiological activity may yield new insight into the commonalities, differences, and bidirectionality between these two cognitive domains not measurable in the local output of a cortical patch. We thus propose a novel application of brain signal variability (BSV analysis, based on mutual information and signal entropy, to better understand the bidirectionality of music-to-language transfer in the context of a nonlinear framework. This approach will extend current methods by offering a nuanced, network-level understanding of the brain complexity involved in music-language transfer.

  7. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models Grau de multicolinearidade e variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de multicolinearidade e identificar as variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes. Foram utilizados dados de peso ao nascimento (n=141.567, peso ao ano (n=58.124 e perímetro escrotal (n=20.371 de bovinos de corte compostos Montana Tropical. O diagnóstico de multicolinearidade foi baseado no fator de inflação de variância (VIF e no exame dos índices de condição e dos autovalores da matriz de correlações entre as variáveis explanatórias. O primeiro modelo estudado (RM incluiu o efeito fixo de classe de idade da mãe ao parto e

  8. Differential response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of red and far-red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Abdur; Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Strand, Åsa; García-Gil, M R

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the response to increasing intensity of red (R) and far-R (FR) light and to a decrease in R:FR ratio in Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) seedling. The results showed that FR high-irradiance response for hypocotyl elongation may be present in Scots pine and that this response is enhanced by increasing light intensity. However, both hypocotyl inhibition and pigment accumulation were more strongly affected by the R light compared with FR light. This is in contrast to previous reports in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In the angiosperm, A. thaliana R light shows an overall milder effect on inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and on pigment biosynthesis compared with FR suggesting conifers and angiosperms respond very differently to the different light regimes. Scots pine shade avoidance syndrome with longer hypocotyls, shorter cotyledons and lower chlorophyll content in response to shade conditions resembles the response observed in A. thaliana. However, anthocyanin accumulation increased with shade in Scots pine, which again differs from what is known in angiosperms. Overall, the response of seedling development and physiology to R and FR light in Scots pine indicates that the regulatory mechanism for light response may differ between gymnosperms and angiosperms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Application of variable threshold intensity to segmentation for white matter hyperintensities in fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Kim, Tae Hui [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Young [Kyungbook National University Chilgok Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Buk-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); MacFall, James R. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Payne, Martha E. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Durham, NC (United States); Kim, Jae Hyoung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Woong [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are regions of abnormally high intensity on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate and reproducible automatic segmentation of WMHs is important since WMHs are often seen in the elderly and are associated with various geriatric and psychiatric disorders. We developed a fully automated monospectral segmentation method for WMHs using FLAIR MRIs. Through this method, we introduce an optimal threshold intensity (I{sub O}) for segmenting WMHs, which varies with WMHs volume (V{sub WMH}), and we establish the I{sub O} -V{sub WMH} relationship. Our method showed accurate validations in volumetric and spatial agreements of automatically segmented WMHs compared with manually segmented WMHs for 32 confirmatory images. Bland-Altman values of volumetric agreement were 0.96 ± 8.311 ml (bias and 95 % confidence interval), and the similarity index of spatial agreement was 0.762 ± 0.127 (mean ± standard deviation). Furthermore, similar validation accuracies were obtained in the images acquired from different scanners. The proposed segmentation method uses only FLAIR MRIs, has the potential to be accurate with images obtained from different scanners, and can be implemented with a fully automated procedure. In our study, validation results were obtained with FLAIR MRIs from only two scanner types. The design of the method may allow its use in large multicenter studies with correct efficiency. (orig.)

  10. Application of variable threshold intensity to segmentation for white matter hyperintensities in fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Kim, Tae Hui; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Young; MacFall, James R.; Payne, Martha E.; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Ki Woong

    2014-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are regions of abnormally high intensity on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate and reproducible automatic segmentation of WMHs is important since WMHs are often seen in the elderly and are associated with various geriatric and psychiatric disorders. We developed a fully automated monospectral segmentation method for WMHs using FLAIR MRIs. Through this method, we introduce an optimal threshold intensity (I O ) for segmenting WMHs, which varies with WMHs volume (V WMH ), and we establish the I O -V WMH relationship. Our method showed accurate validations in volumetric and spatial agreements of automatically segmented WMHs compared with manually segmented WMHs for 32 confirmatory images. Bland-Altman values of volumetric agreement were 0.96 ± 8.311 ml (bias and 95 % confidence interval), and the similarity index of spatial agreement was 0.762 ± 0.127 (mean ± standard deviation). Furthermore, similar validation accuracies were obtained in the images acquired from different scanners. The proposed segmentation method uses only FLAIR MRIs, has the potential to be accurate with images obtained from different scanners, and can be implemented with a fully automated procedure. In our study, validation results were obtained with FLAIR MRIs from only two scanner types. The design of the method may allow its use in large multicenter studies with correct efficiency. (orig.)

  11. Variability and predictors of negative mood intensity in patients with borderline personality disorder and recurrent suicidal behavior: multilevel analyses applied to experience sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenbaum, Rosane; Links, Paul S; Eynan, Rahel; Heisel, Marnin J

    2010-05-01

    Variability in mood swings is a characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and is associated with suicidal behavior. This study investigated patterns of mood variability and whether such patterns could be predicted from demographic and suicide-related psychological risk factors. Eighty-two adults with BPD and histories of recurrent suicidal behavior were recruited from 3 outpatient psychiatric programs in Canada. Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to assess negative mood intensity ratings on a visual analogue scale, 6 random times daily, for 21 days. Three-level models estimated variability between times (52.8%), days (22.2%), and patients (25.1%) and supported a quadratic pattern of daily mood variability. Depression scores predicted variability between patients' initial rating of the day. Average daily mood patterns depended on levels of hopelessness, suicide ideation, and sexual abuse history. Patients reporting moderate to severe sexual abuse and elevated suicide ideation were characterized by worsening moods from early morning up through evening, with little or no relief; patients reporting mild sexual abuse and low suicide ideation reported improved mood throughout the day. These patterns, if replicated in larger ESM studies, may potentially assist the clinician in determining which patients require close monitoring.

  12. PCR-based verification of positive rapid diagnostic tests for intestinal protozoa infections with variable test band intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sören L; Müller, Ivan; Mertens, Pascal; Herrmann, Mathias; Zondie, Leyli; Beyleveld, Lindsey; Gerber, Markus; du Randt, Rosa; Pühse, Uwe; Walter, Cheryl; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections. In a longitudinal study conducted in poor neighbourhoods of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, a total of 1428 stool samples from two cohorts of schoolchildren were examined on the spot for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis using an RDT (Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip; Coris BioConcept). Overall, 121 samples were positive for G. intestinalis and the RDT suggested presence of cryptosporidiosis in 22 samples. After a storage period of 9-10 months in cohort 1 and 2-3 months in cohort 2, samples were subjected to multiplex PCR (BD Max™ Enteric Parasite Panel, Becton Dickinson). Ninety-three percent (112/121) of RDT-positive samples for G. intestinalis were confirmed by PCR, with a correlation between RDT test band intensity and quantitative pathogen load present in the sample. For Cryptosporidium spp., all positive RDTs had faintly visible lines and these were negative on PCR. The performance of the BD Max™ PCR was nearly identical in both cohorts, despite the prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions in cohort 1. The Crypto/Giardia DuoStrip warrants further validation in communities with a high incidence of diarrhoea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative forcing properties during variable intensity African dust events in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A. J.; Molero, F.; Salvador, P.; Revuelta, A.; Becerril-Valle, M.; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.; Artíñano, B.; Pujadas, M.

    2017-11-01

    Aerosol measurements at two AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sites of the Iberian Peninsula: Madrid (40°.45N, 3.72W) and La Coruña (43°.36N, 8°.42W) have been analyzed for the period 2012-2015 to assess aerosol optical properties (intensive and extensive) throughout the atmospheric column and their radiative forcing (RF) and radiative forcing efficiency (RFeff) estimates at the Bottom and Top Of Atmosphere (BOA and TOA respectively). Specific conditions as dust-free and African dust have been considered for the study. Unprecedented, this work uses the quantification of the African dust aerosol at ground level which allows us to study such AERONET products at different intensity levels of African events: Low (L), High (H) and very high (VH). The statistical difference between dust-free and African dust conditions on the aforementioned parameters, quantified by means of the non-parametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, is quite clear in Madrid, however it is not in La Coruña. Scattering Angstrom Exponent (SAE) and Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) were found to be 1.64 ± 0.29 and 1.14 ± 0.23 respectively in Madrid for dust-free conditions because typical aerosol sources are traffic emissions and residential heating, and black carbon is an important compound in this aerosol kind. On the other hand, SAE and AAE were 0.96 ± 0.60 and 1.44 ± 0.51 for African dust conditions in this location. RF (at shortwave radiation) seems to decrease as the African dust contribution at ground level is larger which indicates the cooling effect of African dust aerosol in Madrid. We have also proved the potential of a 2D-cluster analysis based on AAE and SAE to differentiate both situations in Madrid. Conversely, it is suggested that aerosols observed in La Coruña under dust-free conditions might come from different sources. Then, SAE and AAE are not good enough indicators to distinguish between dust-free and African dust conditions. Besides, as La Coruña is at a further distance

  14. Reconfigurable Charge Pump Circuit with Variable Pumping Frequency Scheme for Harvesting Solar Energy under Various Sunlight Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Heon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose variable pumping frequency (VPF scheme which is merged with the previous reconfigurable charge pump (RCP circuit that can change its architecture according to a given sunlight condition. Here, merging the VPF scheme with the architecture reconfiguration can improve percentage output currents better by 21.4% and 22.4% than RCP circuit with the fixed pumping frequencies of 7 MHz and 15 MHz, respectively. Comparing the VPF scheme with real maximum power points (MPP, the VPF can deliver 91.9% of the maximum amount of output current to the load on average. In terms of the power and area overheads, the VPF scheme proposed in this paper consumes the power by 0.4% of the total power consumption and occupies the layout area by 1.61% of the total layout area.

  15. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    the lineament scale (k{sub t} = 2) on the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology

  16. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O.

    2009-11-01

    the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology and fracturing properties main characteristics. From that

  17. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkuor, Gerald; Hounkpatin, Ozias K L; Welp, Gerhard; Thiel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional soil mapping approaches. But the potentials of Remote Sensing data in improving knowledge of local scale soil information in West Africa have not been fully explored. This study investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (RapidEye and Landsat), terrain/climatic data and laboratory analysed soil samples to map the spatial distribution of six soil properties-sand, silt, clay, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen-in a 580 km2 agricultural watershed in south-western Burkina Faso. Four statistical prediction models-multiple linear regression (MLR), random forest regression (RFR), support vector machine (SVM), stochastic gradient boosting (SGB)-were tested and compared. Internal validation was conducted by cross validation while the predictions were validated against an independent set of soil samples considering the modelling area and an extrapolation area. Model performance statistics revealed that the machine learning techniques performed marginally better than the MLR, with the RFR providing in most cases the highest accuracy. The inability of MLR to handle non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables was found to be a limitation in accurately predicting soil properties at unsampled locations. Satellite data acquired during ploughing or early crop development stages (e.g. May, June) were found to be the most important spectral predictors while elevation, temperature and precipitation came up as prominent terrain/climatic variables in predicting soil properties. The results further showed that shortwave infrared and near infrared channels of Landsat8 as well as soil specific indices of redness

  18. Non-linear Heart Rate Variability as a Discriminator of Internalizing Psychopathology and Negative Affect in Children With Internalizing Problems and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Fiskum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internalizing psychopathology and dysregulated negative affect are characterized by dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and reduced heart rate variability (HRV due to increases in sympathetic activity alongside reduced vagal tone. The neurovisceral system is however, a complex nonlinear system, and nonlinear indices related to psychopathology are so far less studied in children. Essential nonlinear properties of a system can be found in two main domains: the informational domain and the invariant domain. sample entropy (SampEn is a much-used method from the informational domain, while detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA represents a widely-used method from the invariant domain. To see if nonlinear HRV can provide information beyond linear indices of autonomic activation, this study investigated SampEn and DFA as discriminators of internalizing psychopathology and negative affect alongside measures of vagally-mediated HRV and sympathetic activation.Material and Methods: Thirty-Two children with internalizing difficulties and 25 healthy controls (aged 9–13 were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, Revised, giving an estimate of internalizing psychopathology, negative affect and effortful control, a protective factor against psychopathology. Five minute electrocardiogram and impedance cardiography recordings were collected during a resting baseline, giving estimates of SampEn, DFA short-term scaling exponent α1, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, and pre-ejection period (PEP. Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with parametric and non-parametric tests, and the relationships between cardiac variables, psychopathology and negative affect were assessed using generalized linear modeling.Results: SampEn and DFA were not significantly different between the groups. SampEn was weakly negatively related to heart rate (HR in the controls

  19. High Resolution Mapping of Soil Properties Using Remote Sensing Variables in South-Western Burkina Faso: A Comparison of Machine Learning and Multiple Linear Regression Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Forkuor

    Full Text Available Accurate and detailed spatial soil information is essential for environmental modelling, risk assessment and decision making. The use of Remote Sensing data as secondary sources of information in digital soil mapping has been found to be cost effective and less time consuming compared to traditional soil mapping approaches. But the potentials of Remote Sensing data in improving knowledge of local scale soil information in West Africa have not been fully explored. This study investigated the use of high spatial resolution satellite data (RapidEye and Landsat, terrain/climatic data and laboratory analysed soil samples to map the spatial distribution of six soil properties-sand, silt, clay, cation exchange capacity (CEC, soil organic carbon (SOC and nitrogen-in a 580 km2 agricultural watershed in south-western Burkina Faso. Four statistical prediction models-multiple linear regression (MLR, random forest regression (RFR, support vector machine (SVM, stochastic gradient boosting (SGB-were tested and compared. Internal validation was conducted by cross validation while the predictions were validated against an independent set of soil samples considering the modelling area and an extrapolation area. Model performance statistics revealed that the machine learning techniques performed marginally better than the MLR, with the RFR providing in most cases the highest accuracy. The inability of MLR to handle non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables was found to be a limitation in accurately predicting soil properties at unsampled locations. Satellite data acquired during ploughing or early crop development stages (e.g. May, June were found to be the most important spectral predictors while elevation, temperature and precipitation came up as prominent terrain/climatic variables in predicting soil properties. The results further showed that shortwave infrared and near infrared channels of Landsat8 as well as soil specific indices

  20. The impact of rectal and bladder variability on target coverage during post-prostatectomy intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Linda J.; Cox, Jennifer; Eade, Thomas; Rinks, Marianne; Kneebone, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Accuracy when delivering post-prostatectomy intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is crucial. The aims of this study were to quantify prostate bed movement and determine what amount of bladder or rectum size variation creates the potential for geographic miss. Methods and materials: The Cone Beam CT (CBCT) images (n = 377) of forty patients who received post-prostatectomy IMRT with daily on-line alignment to bony anatomy were reviewed. Prostate bed movement was estimated using the location of surgical clips in the upper and lower sections of the PTV and correlated with rectal and bladder filling (defined as changes in the cross sectional diameter at defined levels). The number of potential geographic misses caused by bladder and rectum variation was calculated assuming a uniform CTV to PTV expansion of 1 cm except 0.5 cm posteriorly. Results: Variations in bladder filling of >2 cm larger, ±1 cm, or >2 cm smaller occurred in 3.4%, 56.2%, and 15.1% of images respectively with potential geographic misses in the upper prostate bed of 61.5%, 9.9% and 26.3% respectively. Variations in rectal filling in the upper prostate bed of >1.5 cm larger, 1.5 cm larger to 1 cm smaller, and >1 cm smaller occurred in 17.2%, 75.6%, and 7.2% of images respectively. These variations resulted in geographic misses in the upper prostate bed in 29.2%, 12.3%, and 63.0% of images respectively. Variations in bladder and rectal filling in the lower prostate bed region had minimal impact on geographic misses. Conclusions: Bladder and rectal size changes at treatment affect prostate bed coverage, especially in the upper aspect of the prostate bed. The greatest potential for geographic miss occurred when either the bladder increased in size or when the rectum became smaller. Ensuring a full bladder and empty rectum at simulation will minimise this risk. Our data also support anisotropic PTV margins with larger margins superiorly than inferiorly

  1. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith HM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9 and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4 respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001, level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01, reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02, households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002, and the location of households (p=0.03. Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively, ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR=22.2, children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8, and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0 were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively.

  2. Optical fibres sensor based in the intensity switch of a linear laser with two Bragg gratings; Sensor de fibra optica basado en el salto de intensidad de un laser lineal con dos rejillas de Bragg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basurto P, M.A.; Kuzin, E.A.; Archundia B, C.; Marroquin, E.; May A, M.; Cerecedo N, H.H.; Sanchez M, J.J. [Departamento de Fotonica y Fisica Optica, Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE). Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Tentori S, D.; Marquez B, I.; Shliagin, M.; Miridonov, S. [Centro de Investigacion CESE (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work we propose a new configuration for an optical fiber temperature sensor, based on a linear type Er-doped fiber laser. The laser cavity consists of an Er-doped fiber and two identical Bragg gratings at the fiber ends (working as reflectors). Temperature changes are detected by measuring, through one of the gratings, the intensity variations atthe system's output. When the temperature of one of the Bragg gratings is modified, a wavelength shift of its spectral reflectivity is observed. Hence, the laser emission intensity of the system is modified. We present experimental results of the intensity switch observed when the temperature difference between the gratings detunes their spectral reflectance. Making use of this effect it is possible to develop limit comparators to bound the temperature range for the object under supervision. This limiting work can be performed with a high sensitivity using a very simple interrogation procedure. (Author)

  3. On the non-linear nature of the variation, with intensity, of high energy cathode sputtering, and the variation of the latter with temperature (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassignol, C.; Ranc, G.

    1960-01-01

    A new cathode sputtering theory at high energy is presented which has been elaborated in taking in account the non-linearity of this phenomenon with the density of the impinging ions. This theory allows to predict the influence of target temperature on the rate of cathode sputtering. This influence is experimentally demonstrated. (author) [fr

  4. Linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate variability in the process of exposure to 3600 m in 10 min.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; She, Jin; Yang, Jun; Yu, Mengsun

    2015-06-01

    Acute hypoxia activates several autonomic mechanisms, mainly in cardiovascular system and respiratory system. The influence of acute hypoxia on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied, but the parameters in the process of hypoxia are still unclear. Although the changes of HRV in frequency domain are related to autonomic responses, how nonlinear dynamics change with the decrease of ambient atmospheric pressure is unknown either. Eight healthy male subjects were exposed to simulated altitude from sea level to 3600 m in 10 min. HRV parameters in frequency domain were analyzed by wavelet packet transform (Daubechies 4, 4 level) followed by Hilbert transform to assess the spectral power of modified low frequency (0.0625-0.1875 Hz, LFmod), modified high frequency (0.1875-0.4375 Hz, HFmod), and the LFmod/HFmod ratio in every 1 min. Nonlinear parameters were also quantified by sample entropy (SampEn) and short term fractal correlation exponent (α1) in the process. Hypoxia was associated with the depression of both LFmod and HFmod component. They were significantly lower than that at sea level at 3600 m and 2880 m respectively (both p nonlinear HRV parameters continuously in the process of hypoxia would be an effective way to evaluate the different regulatory mechanisms of autonomic nervous system.

  5. Monte Carlo computation of Bremsstrahlung intensity and energy spectrum from a 15 MV linear electron accelerator tungsten target to optimise LINAC head shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biju, K.; Sharma, Amiya; Yadav, R.K.; Kannan, R.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of exact photon intensity and energy distributions from the target of an electron target is necessary while designing the shielding for the accelerator head from radiation safety point of view. The computations were carried out for the intensity and energy distribution of photon spectrum from a 0.4 cm thick tungsten target in different angular directions for 15 MeV electrons using a validated Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. Similar results were computed for 30 MeV electrons and found agreeing with the data available in literature. These graphs and the TVT values in lead help to suggest an optimum shielding thickness for 15 MV Linac head. (author)

  6. [Effects of blood glucose control on glucose variability and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Sun, Qiuhong; Yang, Hua

    2015-05-19

    To explore the effects of blood glucose control on glucose variability and clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 72 ICU patients with severe acute pancreatitis were recruited and divided randomly into observation and control groups (n = 36 each). Both groups were treated conventionally. And the observation group achieved stable blood glucose at 6.1-8.3 mmol/L with intensive glucose control. The length of ICU and hospital stays, ICU mortality rate, transit operative rate, concurrent infection rate, admission blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, mean insulin dose, mean blood glucose, blood glucose value standard deviation (GLUSD), glycemic liability index (GLUGLI) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (GLUMAGE) of two groups were compared. At the same time, the relationship between blood glucose variability, ICU mortality rate and its predictive value were analyzed by correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The lengths of ICU and hospital stays of observation group were all significantly less than those of the control group [(11.7 ± 9.9) vs (15.9 ± 8.02) days, (21.8 ± 10.8) vs (28.2 ± 12.7) days, P blood glucose value and GLUSD of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group [(7.4 ± 1.1) vs (9.6 ± 1.2), (1.8 ± 1.0) vs (2.5 ± 1.3) mmol/L]. The differences were statistically significant (P curve analysis showed that, AUC of GLUGLI was 0.748 and 95% CI 0.551-0.965 (P glucose control in patients with severe acute pancreatitis helps reduce the blood sugar fluctuations, lower the risks of infectious complications and promote the patient rehabilitation. And GLUGLI is positively correlated with ICU mortality rate. It has good predictive values.

  7. Diurnal Variability in Chlorophyll-a, Carotenoids, CDOM and SO42− Intensity of Offshore Seawater Detected by an Underwater Fluorescence-Raman Spectral System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Ye, Wangquan; Guo, Jinjia; Luo, Zhao; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    A newly developed integrated fluorescence-Raman spectral system (λex = 532 nm) for detecting Chlorophyll-a (chl-a), Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), carotenoids and SO42− in situ was used to successfully investigate the diurnal variability of all above. Simultaneously using the integration of fluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques provided comprehensive marine information due to the complementarity between the different excitation mechanisms and different selection rules. The investigation took place in offshore seawater of the Yellow Sea (36°05′40′′ N, 120°31′32′′ E) in October 2014. To detect chl-a, CDOM, carotenoids and SO42−, the fluorescence-Raman spectral system was deployed. It was found that troughs of chl-a and CDOM fluorescence signal intensity were observed during high tides, while the signal intensity showed high values with larger fluctuations during ebb-tide. Chl-a and carotenoids were influenced by solar radiation within a day cycle by different detection techniques, as well as displaying similar and synchronous tendency. CDOM fluorescence cause interference to the measurement of SO42−. To avoid such interference, the backup Raman spectroscopy system with λex = 785 nm was employed to detect SO42− concentration on the following day. The results demonstrated that the fluorescence-Raman spectral system has great potential in detection of chl-a, carotenoids, CDOM and SO42− in the ocean. PMID:27420071

  8. Diurnal Variability in Chlorophyll-a, Carotenoids, CDOM and SO42− Intensity of Offshore Seawater Detected by an Underwater Fluorescence-Raman Spectral System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed integrated fluorescence-Raman spectral system (λex = 532 nm for detecting Chlorophyll-a (chl-a, Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM, carotenoids and SO42− in situ was used to successfully investigate the diurnal variability of all above. Simultaneously using the integration of fluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques provided comprehensive marine information due to the complementarity between the different excitation mechanisms and different selection rules. The investigation took place in offshore seawater of the Yellow Sea (36°05′40′′ N, 120°31′32′′ E in October 2014. To detect chl-a, CDOM, carotenoids and SO42−, the fluorescence-Raman spectral system was deployed. It was found that troughs of chl-a and CDOM fluorescence signal intensity were observed during high tides, while the signal intensity showed high values with larger fluctuations during ebb-tide. Chl-a and carotenoids were influenced by solar radiation within a day cycle by different detection techniques, as well as displaying similar and synchronous tendency. CDOM fluorescence cause interference to the measurement of SO42−. To avoid such interference, the backup Raman spectroscopy system with λex = 785 nm was employed to detect SO42− concentration on the following day. The results demonstrated that the fluorescence-Raman spectral system has great potential in detection of chl-a, carotenoids, CDOM and SO42− in the ocean.

  9. Diurnal Variability in Chlorophyll-a, Carotenoids, CDOM and SO₄(2-) Intensity of Offshore Seawater Detected by an Underwater Fluorescence-Raman Spectral System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Ye, Wangquan; Guo, Jinjia; Luo, Zhao; Li, Ying

    2016-07-13

    A newly developed integrated fluorescence-Raman spectral system (λex = 532 nm) for detecting Chlorophyll-a (chl-a), Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), carotenoids and SO₄(2-) in situ was used to successfully investigate the diurnal variability of all above. Simultaneously using the integration of fluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques provided comprehensive marine information due to the complementarity between the different excitation mechanisms and different selection rules. The investigation took place in offshore seawater of the Yellow Sea (36°05'40'' N, 120°31'32'' E) in October 2014. To detect chl-a, CDOM, carotenoids and SO₄(2-), the fluorescence-Raman spectral system was deployed. It was found that troughs of chl-a and CDOM fluorescence signal intensity were observed during high tides, while the signal intensity showed high values with larger fluctuations during ebb-tide. Chl-a and carotenoids were influenced by solar radiation within a day cycle by different detection techniques, as well as displaying similar and synchronous tendency. CDOM fluorescence cause interference to the measurement of SO₄(2-). To avoid such interference, the backup Raman spectroscopy system with λex = 785 nm was employed to detect SO₄(2-) concentration on the following day. The results demonstrated that the fluorescence-Raman spectral system has great potential in detection of chl-a, carotenoids, CDOM and SO₄(2-) in the ocean.

  10. High-precision broad-band linear polarimetry of early-type binaries. II. Variable, phase-locked polarization in triple Algol-type system λ Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Sakanoi, T.; Kagitani, M.; Yoneda, M.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. To study the binary geometry of the classic Algol-type triple system λ Tau, we have searched for polarization variations over the orbital cycle of the inner semi-detached binary, arising from light scattering in the circumstellar material formed from ongoing mass transfer. Phase-locked polarization curves provide an independent estimate for the inclination i, orientation Ω, and the direction of the rotation for the inner orbit. Methods: Linear polarization measurements of λ Tau in the B, V , and R passbands with the high-precision Dipol-2 polarimeter have been carried out. The data have been obtained on the 60 cm KVA (Observatory Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain) and Tohoku 60 cm (Haleakala, Hawaii, USA) remotely controlled telescopes over 69 observing nights. Analytic and numerical modelling codes are used to interpret the data. Results: Optical polarimetry revealed small intrinsic polarization in λ Tau with 0.05% peak-to-peak variation over the orbital period of 3.95 d. The variability pattern is typical for binary systems showing strong second harmonic of the orbital period. We apply a standard analytical method and our own light scattering models to derive parameters of the inner binary orbit from the fit to the observed variability of the normalized Stokes parameters. From the analytical method, the average for three passband values of orbit inclination i = 76° + 1°/-2° and orientation Ω = 15°(195°) ± 2° are obtained. Scattering models give similar inclination values i = 72-76° and orbit orientation ranging from Ω = 16°(196°) to Ω = 19°(199°), depending on the geometry of the scattering cloud. The rotation of the inner system, as seen on the plane of the sky, is clockwise. We have found that with the scattering model the best fit is obtained for the scattering cloud located between the primary and the secondary, near the inner Lagrangian point or along the Roche lobe surface of the secondary facing the primary. The inclination i

  11. Collection efficiency of charges in ionization chambers in presence of constant or variable radiation intensity; Efficacite de la collection des charges dans les chambres d'ionisation en presence d'une intensite de rayonnement ionisant constante ou variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decuyper, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The theoretical and experimental study of the collection of carriers built up by ionization in standard chambers, is made by varying the value of different acting parameters. In the presence of constant ionization intensity and under a D.C. and A.C. voltage, the effect of geometry, recombination, diffusion and attachment is analyzed. The compensation of thermal neutron D.C. chambers is equally considered. Under a time dependent ionization intensity and D.C. voltage, is then studied the effect of recombination on current response, and on the collection efficiency of all formed charges. (author) [French] L'etude theorique et experimentale de la collection des porteurs crees par ionisation dans les chambres couramment utilisees est entreprise en fonction de la valeur des differents parametres agissants. En presence d'une ionisation constante et sous une tension d'alimentation d'abord continue puis alternative, on analyse l'influence de la geometrie, de la recombinaison, de la diffusion et de l'attachement. La compensation des chambres a courant continu de mesure neutronique est egalement examinee. Ensuite, sous une intensite d'ionisation variable dans le temps et en alimentation continue, on etudie l'effet de la recombinaison sur la reponse en courant et sur l'efficacite de la collection de la charge totale liberee. (auteur)

  12. Characterising an intense PM pollution episode in March 2015 in France from multi-site approach and near real time data: Climatology, variabilities, geographical origins and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, J.-E.; Amodeo, T.; Meleux, F.; Bessagnet, B.; Menut, L.; Grenier, D.; Pellan, Y.; Ockler, A.; Rocq, B.; Gros, V.; Sciare, J.; Favez, O.

    2017-04-01

    During March 2015, a severe and large-scale particulate matter (PM) pollution episode occurred in France. Measurements in near real-time of the major chemical composition at four different urban background sites across the country (Paris, Creil, Metz and Lyon) allowed the investigation of spatiotemporal variabilities during this episode. A climatology approach showed that all sites experienced clear unusual rain shortage, a pattern that is also found on a longer timescale, highlighting the role of synoptic conditions over Wester-Europe. This episode is characterized by a strong predominance of secondary pollution, and more particularly of ammonium nitrate, which accounted for more than 50% of submicron aerosols at all sites during the most intense period of the episode. Pollution advection is illustrated by similar variabilities in Paris and Creil (distant of around 100 km), as well as trajectory analyses applied on nitrate and sulphate. Local sources, especially wood burning, are however found to contribute to local/regional sub-episodes, notably in Metz. Finally, simulated concentrations from Chemistry-Transport model CHIMERE were compared to observed ones. Results highlighted different patterns depending on the chemical components and the measuring site, reinforcing the need of such exercises over other pollution episodes and sites.

  13. Handbook on linear motor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  14. Design, construction, and in vivo feasibility of a positioning device for irradiation of mice brains using a clinical linear accelerator and intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancilio, Nicholas J; Dahl, Shaun; Athanasiadi, Ilektra; Perez-Torres, Carlos J

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to design a positioning device that would allow for selective irradiation of the mouse brain with a clinical linear accelerator. We designed and fabricated an immobilization fixture that incorporates three functions: head stabilizer (through ear bars and tooth bar), gaseous anesthesia delivery and scavenging, and tissue mimic/bolus. Cohorts of five mice were irradiated such that each mouse in the cohort received a unique dose between 1000 and 3000 cGy. DNA damage immunohistochemistry was used to validate an increase in biological effect as a function of radiation dose. Mice were then followed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There was evidence of DNA damage throughout the brain proportional to radiation dose. Radiation-induced damage at the prescribed doses, as depicted by H&E, appeared to be constrained to the white matter consistent with radiological observation in human patients. The severity of the damage correlated with the radiation dose as expected. We have designed and manufactured a device that allows us to selectively irradiate the mouse brain with a clinical linear accelerator. However, some off-target effects are possible with large prescription doses.

  15. On the propagation of linear longitudinal acoustic waves in isotropic media with shear and volume viscosity and a tensorial internal variable. II. Some cases of special interest (Poynting-Thomson, Jeffreys, Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt, Hooke and Newton media)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciancio, V.; Turrisi, E.; Kluitenberg, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper the propagation of linear longitudinal acoustic waves in isotropic media with shear and volume viscosity and a tensorial internal variable was considered and the expressions for the velocity and attenuation of the waves were obtained. In the present paper we investigate the

  16. Excitation of transverse dipole and quadrupole modes in a pure ion plasma in a linear Paul trap to study collective processes in intense beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward A.; Wang, Hua [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koppell, Stewart [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Talley, Matthew [Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Transverse dipole and quadrupole modes have been excited in a one-component cesium ion plasma trapped in the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) in order to characterize their properties and understand the effect of their excitation on equivalent long-distance beam propagation. The PTSX device is a compact laboratory Paul trap that simulates the transverse dynamics of a long, intense charge bunch propagating through an alternating-gradient transport system by putting the physicist in the beam's frame of reference. A pair of arbitrary function generators was used to apply trapping voltage waveform perturbations with a range of frequencies and, by changing which electrodes were driven with the perturbation, with either a dipole or quadrupole spatial structure. The results presented in this paper explore the dependence of the perturbation voltage's effect on the perturbation duration and amplitude. Perturbations were also applied that simulate the effect of random lattice errors that exist in an accelerator with quadrupole magnets that are misaligned or have variance in their field strength. The experimental results quantify the growth in the equivalent transverse beam emittance that occurs due to the applied noise and demonstrate that the random lattice errors interact with the trapped plasma through the plasma's internal collective modes. Coherent periodic perturbations were applied to simulate the effects of magnet errors in circular machines such as storage rings. The trapped one component plasma is strongly affected when the perturbation frequency is commensurate with a plasma mode frequency. The experimental results, which help to understand the physics of quiescent intense beam propagation over large distances, are compared with analytic models.

  17. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we have studied the Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in materials using the band transport model. For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is proportional to the electric field for linear optics while for non- linear optics the change in refractive index is directly proportional ...

  18. Comparison of dose-volume histograms for Tomo therapy, linear accelerator-based 3D conformal radiation therapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Youn-Sang; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Chang-Bok; Choi, Seong-Kwan; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Lee, Jong-Woong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Evaluation of DVH from 3D CRT, IMRT and Tomo therapy was conducted for tumor therapy. → The doses of GTV and CTV were compared using DVHs from 3D CRT, IMRT and Tomo therapy. → The GTV was higher when Tomo therapy was used, while the doses of critical organ were low. → They said that Tomo therapy satisfied the goal of radiation therapy more than the others. - Abstract: Evaluation of dose-volume histograms from three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and Tomo therapy was conducted. These three modalities are among the diverse treatment systems available for tumor therapy. Three patients who received tumor therapy for a malignant oligodendroglioma in the cranium, nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the cervical neck, and prostate cancer in the pelvis were selected as study subjects. Therapy plans were made for the three patients before dose-volume histograms were obtained. The doses of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and the clinical target volume (CTV) were compared using the dose-volume histograms obtained from the LINAC-based 3D CRT, IMRT planning station (Varian Eclipse-Varian, version 8.1), and Tomo therapy planning station. In addition, the doses of critical organs in the cranium, cervix, and pelvis that should be protected were compared. The GTV was higher when Tomo therapy was used compared to 3D CRT and the LINAC-based IMRT, while the doses of critical organ tissues that required protection were low. These results demonstrated that Tomo therapy satisfied the ultimate goal of radiation therapy more than the other therapies.

  19. Variability of CO2 emissions during the rearing cycle of a semi-intensive shrimp farm in a mangrove coastal zone (New Caledonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Joanne; Allenbach, Michel; Bourgeois, Carine; Léopold, Audrey; Jacotot, Adrien; Vinh, Truong Van; Nho, Nguyen Thanh; Patrona, Luc Della; Marchand, Cyril

    2018-04-01

    In New Caledonia, shrimp ponds are built not on cleared mangroves but on salt flats behind the mangroves. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability of CO 2 fluxes from a semi-intensive shrimp pond during active and non-active periods of the farm and to determine the carbon dynamics from the upstream tidal creek to the downstream creek, which receives the farm's effluents. CO 2 emissions from the active pond were estimated at 11.1 ± 5.26 mmol CO 2  m -2  d -1 . By modifying the hydrodynamics of the creeks, farm practices also influenced CO 2 emissions from both the upstream and downstream creeks. After tillage, all the organic carbon deposited at the pond bottom during the active period was mineralized, resulting in CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere estimated at 7.9 TCO 2  ha -1 . Therefore, shrimp farming is an anthropogenic source of CO 2 to the atmosphere, but suitable and optimized rearing practices limit these emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A linear stability analysis of thermal convection in spherical shells with variable radial gravity based on the Tau-Chebyshev method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Ruben; Cabello-González, Ares; Ramos, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The Tau-Chebyshev method solves the linear fluid flow equations in spherical shells. • The fluid motion is driven by a central force proportional to the radial position. • The full Navier–Stokes equations are solved by the spectral element method. • The linear results are verified with the solution of the Navier–Stokes equations. • The solution of the linear problems is used to initiate non-linear calculations. -- Abstract: The onset of thermal convection in a non-rotating spherical shell is investigated using linear theory. The Tau-Chebyshev spectral method is used to integrate the linearized equations. We investigate the onset of thermal convection by considering two cases of the radial gravitational field (i) a local acceleration, acting radially inward, that is proportional to the distance from the center r, and (ii) a radial gravitational central force that is proportional to r −n . The former case has been widely analyzed in the literature, because it constitutes a simplified model that is usually used, in astrophysics and geophysics, and is studied here to validate the numerical method. The latter case was analyzed since the case n = 5 has been experimentally realized (by means of the dielectrophoretic effect) under microgravity condition, in the experimental container called GeoFlow, inside the International Space Station. Our study is aimed to clarify the role of (i) a radially inward central force (either proportional to r or to r −n ), (ii) a base conductive temperature distribution provided by either a uniform heat source or an imposed temperature difference between outer and inner spheres, and (iii) the aspect ratio η (ratio of the radii of the inner and outer spheres), on the critical Rayleigh number. In all cases the surface of the spheres has been assumed to be rigid. The results obtained with the linear theory based on the Tau-Chebyshev spectral method are compared with those of the integration of the full non-linear

  1. The Effects of Heart Rate Versus Speed-Based High-Intensity Interval Training on Heart Rate Variability in Young Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rabbani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT prescription by heart rate (HR-based and running speed (speed-based methods on natural logarithm of the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals (Ln rMSSD as a measure of heart rate variability (HRV in young female student athletes. Methods: Seventeen female student athletes participated in this study and were divided into HR-based (n=9, age: 16.7 years and speed-based (n=8, age: 16.9 years HIT groups. 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test was used for the speed-based group to detect the reference maximum speed (VIFT for prescribing the HIT intensity accordingly. Age predicted maximal HR was used for the HR-based group as the reference value. All subjects performed similar training protocol for 5 weeks, except the method of individualizing HIT sessions (2 weekly sessions of HIT=3 sets of 3 minutes work interspersed with 3 minutes passive recovery with the 15-15 seconds format during each working set; either according to 90%-95% of maximal HR or VIFT. Results: HR- and speed-based HIT groups showed the most likely large improvements in Ln rMSSD of +7.9%, 90% confidence limits [CL] (5.9; 10.0; standardized change: +1.75 (1.32; 2.19 and +5.5%, (2.8; 8.3; +1.41 (0.72; 2.09, respectively. In between group analyses, HR-based HIT produced likely a small greater improvement in Ln rMSSD than speed-based HIT (+1.9%, [-5.0; 4.4]; +0.50 [-0.14; 1.14], chances for greater/similar/lower values of 79/17/4. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HIT prescription strategies were effective in Ln rMSSD elevation, but using maximal HR as a reference may elicit higher parasympathetic dominance with small effect in young female student athletes.

  2. Aerodynamic Effects of Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade with Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie Brynn; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The high turbulence study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for ten incidence angles ranging from +15.8 to 51.0. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12105 to 2.12106 and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 0.25 - 0.4 for the low Tu tests and 8- 15 for the high Tu study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitchyaw probe located in a survey plane 7 axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At the extreme positive and negative incidence angles, the data show substantial differences in the exit flow field. These differences are attributable to both the higher inlet Tu directly and to the thinner inlet endwall

  3. Aerodynamic Effects of High Turbulence Intensity on a Variable-Speed Power-Turbine Blade With Large Incidence and Reynolds Number Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.; Welch, Gerard E.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of high inlet turbulence intensity on the aerodynamic performance of a variable speed power turbine blade are examined over large incidence and Reynolds number ranges. These results are compared to previous measurements made in a low turbulence environment. Both high and low turbulence studies were conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The purpose of the low inlet turbulence study was to examine the transitional flow effects that are anticipated at cruise Reynolds numbers. The current study extends this to LPT-relevant turbulence levels while perhaps sacrificing transitional flow effects. Assessing the effects of turbulence at these large incidence and Reynolds number variations complements the existing database. Downstream total pressure and exit angle data were acquired for 10 incidence angles ranging from +15.8deg to -51.0deg. For each incidence angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with the exit Reynolds number ranging from 2.12×10(exp 5) to 2.12×10(exp 6) and at a design exit Mach number of 0.72. In order to achieve the lowest Reynolds number, the exit Mach number was reduced to 0.35 due to facility constraints. The inlet turbulence intensity, Tu, was measured using a single-wire hotwire located 0.415 axial-chord upstream of the blade row. The inlet turbulence levels ranged from 8 to 15 percent for the current study. Tu measurements were also made farther upstream so that turbulence decay rates could be calculated as needed for computational inlet boundary conditions. Downstream flow field measurements were obtained using a pneumatic five-hole pitch/yaw probe located in a survey plane 7 percent axial chord aft of the blade trailing edge and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressures were acquired for each flow condition as well. The blade loading data show that the suction surface separation that was evident at many of the low Tu conditions has been eliminated. At

  4. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  5. A Monte Carlo simulation study comparing linear regression, beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression and fractional logit regression at recovering average difference measures in a two sample design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Christopher; Moineddin, Rahim

    2014-01-24

    In biomedical research, response variables are often encountered which have bounded support on the open unit interval--(0,1). Traditionally, researchers have attempted to estimate covariate effects on these types of response data using linear regression. Alternative modelling strategies may include: beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression, and fractional logit regression models. This study employs a Monte Carlo simulation design to compare the statistical properties of the linear regression model to that of the more novel beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression, and fractional logit regression models. In the Monte Carlo experiment we assume a simple two sample design. We assume observations are realizations of independent draws from their respective probability models. The randomly simulated draws from the various probability models are chosen to emulate average proportion/percentage/rate differences of pre-specified magnitudes. Following simulation of the experimental data we estimate average proportion/percentage/rate differences. We compare the estimators in terms of bias, variance, type-1 error and power. Estimates of Monte Carlo error associated with these quantities are provided. If response data are beta distributed with constant dispersion parameters across the two samples, then all models are unbiased and have reasonable type-1 error rates and power profiles. If the response data in the two samples have different dispersion parameters, then the simple beta regression model is biased. When the sample size is small (N0 = N1 = 25) linear regression has superior type-1 error rates compared to the other models. Small sample type-1 error rates can be improved in beta regression models using bias correction/reduction methods. In the power experiments, variable-dispersion beta regression and fractional logit regression models have slightly elevated power compared to linear regression models. Similar results were observed if the

  6. Assessing temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton composition in a large reservoir in the Brazilian northeastern region under intense drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortência de Souza Barroso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Castanhão Reservoir, a large aquatic system in the Brazilian semi-arid region that serves multiples uses as water drinking supply and intensive fish-cage aquaculture site. In order to understand the effects of environmental conditions on the spatial and temporal variability of the phytoplankton functional groups (FG and the main ‘characterizing taxa’, sub-superficial water samples were collected from March 2012 to August 2013, a period distinguished by the continuous drop in reservoir volume due to rainfall shortage. Eighteen functional groups and 102 total phytoplankton taxa were found in the Castanhão reservoir during the study. No significant differences were observed relative to spatial variation of total phytoplankton composition throughout the reservoir (PERMANOVA, P>0.05. On the other hand, according to cluster analysis results, three temporal phases have been identified (Similarity Profile, P<0.05, based on 102 phytoplankton taxa. The ‘characterizing taxa’ was found using the Similarity Percentage procedure (cut-off 90%, being thus defined as those taxa that contributed the most to the similarity within each temporal phase. Nineteen ‘characterizing taxa’ described the Castanhão reservoir, with predominance of those typical of mixing and turbidity conditions. Cyanobacteria dominated through the three temporal phases. According to the redundancy analysis, nutrient availability and water transparency were found to influence the phytoplankton temporal dynamics. The phase I (rainy season was most represented by Planktolyngbya minor/Pl. limnetica (FG = S1, which reached best performance under strongly decreased phosphate-P concentrations and low water transparency. In phase II (dry season, Romeria victoriae (FG = ? outcompeted other cyanobacteria probably due the increase in water transparency and decrease in ammonium-N. Finally, in phase III (rainy season the decrease of water transparency

  7. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Racil, G; Coquart, JB; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thr...

  8. Genetic algorithm as a variable selection procedure for the simulation of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of flavonoid derivatives using multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Raoof; Najafi, Amir; Sajadi, Mohammad; Djannaty, Farhad

    2008-09-01

    In order to accurately simulate (13)C NMR spectra of hydroxy, polyhydroxy and methoxy substituted flavonoid a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model, relating atom-based calculated descriptors to (13)C NMR chemical shifts (ppm, TMS=0), is developed. A dataset consisting of 50 flavonoid derivatives was employed for the present analysis. A set of 417 topological, geometrical, and electronic descriptors representing various structural characteristics was calculated and separate multilinear QSPR models were developed between each carbon atom of flavonoid and the calculated descriptors. Genetic algorithm (GA) and multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) were used to select the descriptors and to generate the correlation models. Analysis of the results revealed a correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.994 and 2.53ppm, respectively, for the prediction set.

  9. The multi-period solution of a linear system of equations with the operator of differentiation along the main diagonal of the space of independent variables and delayed arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartabanov, Zhaishylyk A.

    2017-09-01

    A new approach to the study of periodic by all independent variables system of equations with a differentiation operator solutions along the direction of the main diagonal and with delayed arguments is proposed. The essence of the approach is to reduce the study of the multi-periodic solution of a linear inhomogeneous system to the construction of a solution of a simpler linear differential-difference system on the basis of the method of variating arbitrary constants of the complete integral of a homogeneous system. An integral representation of the unique multiperiodic solution of an inhomogeneous system is presented, expressed by a functional series of terms given by multiple repeated integrals. An estimate is given for the norm of a multi-periodic solution.

  10. Variability after 15 Years of Vegetation Recovery in Natural Secondary Forest with Timber Harvesting at Different Intensities in Southeastern China: Community Diversity and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook., Pinus massoniana Lamb., and hardwood forest in southeastern China is a major assemblage in natural secondary forests, and of national and international importance in terms of both timber and ecosystem services. However, over-harvesting has threatened its long-term sustainability, and there is a knowledge gap relating to the effect of harvesting on the ecosystem. After conifer species were selected for harvesting, the mixed Chinese fir, pine, and hardwood forest was changed into mixed evergreen broadleaf forest. In this context, we observed the restoration dynamics of plant communities over a period of 15 years (1996 to 2011 with different levels of harvesting intensity, including selective harvesting at low (13.0% removal of growing stock volume, medium (29.1%, high (45.8%, and extra-high (67.1% intensities, as well as clear-cut harvesting (100.0%, with non-harvesting as the control, based on permanent sample plots established in a randomized block design in these forests in southeastern China. The impact on the richness, diversity, and evenness of plant species derived from descriptive statistical analyses was shown to initially increase, and then decrease, with an increase in harvesting intensity. The most critical impacts were on the richness, diversity, and evenness of shrub and herb species. Richness, diversity, and evenness of plant species recovered and increased under selective harvesting at low and medium intensities, while these parameters had not recovered and significantly decreased under selective harvesting at high and extra-high intensities, as well as with clear-cut harvesting. The impact on the plant community stability was derived from the stability test method of the improved Godron M. The plant community stability was closest to the point of stability (20/80 under selective harvesting at medium intensity, followed by selective harvesting at low intensity. The plant community

  11. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  12. QSRR modeling for the chromatographic retention behavior of some β-lactam antibiotics using forward and firefly variable selection algorithms coupled with multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Marwa A; Tolba, Enas H; El-Shal, Manal A; El Kerdawy, Ahmed M

    2018-05-11

    The justified continuous emerging of new β-lactam antibiotics provokes the need for developing suitable analytical methods that accelerate and facilitate their analysis. A face central composite experimental design was adopted using different levels of phosphate buffer pH, acetonitrile percentage at zero time and after 15 min in a gradient program to obtain the optimum chromatographic conditions for the elution of 31 β-lactam antibiotics. Retention factors were used as the target property to build two QSRR models utilizing the conventional forward selection and the advanced nature-inspired firefly algorithm for descriptor selection, coupled with multiple linear regression. The obtained models showed high performance in both internal and external validation indicating their robustness and predictive ability. Williams-Hotelling test and student's t-test showed that there is no statistical significant difference between the models' results. Y-randomization validation showed that the obtained models are due to significant correlation between the selected molecular descriptors and the analytes' chromatographic retention. These results indicate that the generated FS-MLR and FFA-MLR models are showing comparable quality on both the training and validation levels. They also gave comparable information about the molecular features that influence the retention behavior of β-lactams under the current chromatographic conditions. We can conclude that in some cases simple conventional feature selection algorithm can be used to generate robust and predictive models comparable to that are generated using advanced ones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part I: simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    Simple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between a single independent predictor variable and a single dependent outcome variable. In this, the first of a two-part series exploring concepts in linear regression analysis, the four fundamental assumptions and the mechanics of simple linear regression are reviewed. The most common technique used to derive the regression line, the method of least squares, is described. The reader will be acquainted with other important concepts in simple linear regression, including: variable transformations, dummy variables, relationship to inference testing, and leverage. Simplified clinical examples with small datasets and graphic models are used to illustrate the points. This will provide a foundation for the second article in this series: a discussion of multiple linear regression, in which there are multiple predictor variables.

  14. Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  15. Investigations on the influence of radiation with variable linear energy transfer (LET) on the DNA-content and DNA-repair-mechanisms in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckl, P.

    1981-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate, whether there are any radiation-induced changes in DNA-content and if these changes can be repaired. Seeds of Vicia faba L. were grown in glass culture vessels. After 10 to 20 days the seedings were irradiated using a 1 C1 60 Co gammasource (90mrad/h and 33 rad/h) and a 5 mCi 252 Cf neutronsource (90 mrad/h). Both, neutron and gamma irradiation cause a reduction in nuclear DNA-content even after low doses (1 to 10 rad). The extent of depression is only depending on linear energy transfer. Parallel to the induced minimum in DNA-content, but shifted to higher doses, also the mitotic activity reaches a minimum. Whereas neutron irradiation results in a total stop after doses of 8 rad, gamma-irradiation only induces a depression of 80 %. Whith higher doses the mitotic activity increases again. The neutron-induced changes in DNA-content seem to be restored within 90 minutes after irradiation. No continuous increase could be found after low gamma-doses. Gamma-irradiation with higher dose rates ( 60 Co, 33 rad/h) causes a general decrease over the dose-range studied (100 to 1600 rad). Following doses of 100 rad the mitotic activity increases significantly. With higher doses the decrease is exponential. A dose-dependent mitotic delay could also be observed. As described by many authors, unscheduled DNA-synthesis (UDS) could not be detected in nuclei of Vicia faba. This indicates that an other system, perhaps acting in situ - at the damaged place - is responsible for the repair of radiation-induced thymine-damages. (Author)

  16. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  17. Control of fast non linear systems - application to a turbo charged SI engine with variable valve timing; controle des systemes rapides non lineaires - application au moteur a allumage commande turbocompresse a distribution variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, G.

    2006-10-15

    Spark ignition engine control has become a major issue for the compliance with emissions legislation while ensuring driving comfort. Engine down-sizing is one of the promising ways to reduce fuel consumption and resulting CO{sub 2} emissions. Combining several existing technologies such as supercharging and variable valve actuation, down-sizing is a typical example of the problems encountered in Spark Ignited (SI) engine control: nonlinear systems with saturation of actuators; numerous major physical phenomena not measurable; limited computing time; control objectives (consumption, pollution, performance) often competing. A methodology of modelling and model-based control (internal model and predictive control) for these systems is also proposed and applied to the air path of the down-sized engine. Models, physicals and generics, are built to estimate in-cylinder air mass, residual burned gases mass and air scavenged mass from the intake to the exhaust. The complete and generic engine torque control architecture for the turbo-charged SI engine with variable cam-shaft timing was tested in simulation and experimentally (on engine and vehicle). These tests show that new possibilities are offered in order to decrease pollutant emissions and optimize engine efficiency. (author)

  18. Higher glucose variability in type 1 than in type 2 diabetes patients admitted to the intensive care unit: A retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechterberger, Marjolein K.; van Steen, Sigrid C. J.; Boerboom, Esther M. N.; van der Voort, Peter H. J.; Bosman, Rob J.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although the course of disease of type 1 and type 2 diabetes differs, the distinction is rarely made when patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Here, we report patient- and admission-related characteristics in relation to glycemic measures of patients with type I and type

  19. Characterization of a single-chain variable fragment recognizing a linear epitope of aβ: a biotechnical tool for studies on Alzheimer's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Dornieden

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with devastating effects. Currently, therapeutic options are limited to symptomatic treatment. For more than a decade, research focused on immunotherapy for the causal treatment of AD. However, clinical trials with active immunization using Aβ encountered severe complications, for example meningoencephalitis. Consequently, attention focused on passive immunization using antibodies. As an alternative to large immunoglobulins (IgGs, Aβ binding single-chain variable fragments (scFvs were used for diagnostic and therapeutic research approaches. scFvs can be expressed in E. coli and may provide improved pharmacokinetic properties like increased blood-brain barrier permeability or reduced side-effects in vivo. In this study, we constructed an scFv from an Aβ binding IgG, designated IC16, which binds the N-terminal region of Aβ (Aβ(1-8. scFv-IC16 was expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized with respect to its interaction with different Aβ species and its influence on Aβ fibril formation. We were able to show that scFv-IC16 strongly influenced the aggregation behavior of Aβ and could be applied as an Aβ detection probe for plaque staining in the brains of transgenic AD model mice. The results indicate potential for therapy and diagnosis of AD.

  20. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  1. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability: a useful assessment tool of linearly polarized near-infrared irradiation to stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yukihiro; Takano, Hideyuki; Kani, Koichi; Matsumoto, Fumihiro; Motegi, Katsumi; Aota, Keiko; Yamamura, Yoshiko; Omori, Mayuko; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Azuma, Masayuki

    2013-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by the following subjective complaints without distinct organic changes: burning sensation in mouth or chronic pain of tongue. BMS is also known as glossodynia; both terms are used equivalently in Japan. Although the real cause of BMS is still unknown, it has been pointed out that BMS is related to some autonomic abnormality, and that stellate ganglion near-infrared irradiation (SGR) corrects the autonomic abnormality. Frequency analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is expected to be useful for assessing autonomic abnormality. This study investigated whether frequency analysis of HRV could reveal autonomic abnormality associated with BMS, and whether autonomic changes were corrected after SGR. Eight subjects received SGR; the response to SGR was assessed by frequency analysis of HRV. No significant difference of autonomic activity concerning low-frequency (LF) norm, high-frequency (HF) norm, and low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) was found between SGR effective and ineffective groups. Therefore, we proposed new parameters: differential normalized low frequency (D LF norm), differential normalized high frequency (D HF norm), and differential low-frequency/high-frequency (D LF/HF), which were defined as differentials between original parameters just before and after SGR. These parameters as indexes of responsiveness of autonomic nervous system (ANS) revealed autonomic changes in BMS, and BMS seems to be related to autonomic instability rather than autonomic imbalance. Frequency analysis of HRV revealed the autonomic instability associated with BMS and enabled tracing of autonomic changes corrected with SGR. It is suggested that frequency analysis of HRV is very useful in follow up of BMS and for determination of the therapeutic efficacy of SGR. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. CLIC: developing a linear collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a CERN project to provide high-energy electron-positron collisions. Instead of conventional radio-frequency klystrons, CLIC will use a low-energy, high-intensity primary beam to produce acceleration.

  3. INFLUENCE OF LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH INTENSITY OF RESISTANCE TRAINING ON MUSCULAR HYPERTROPHY, AND SELECTED HEALTH RELATED FITNESS VARIABLES AMONG UNDERWEIGHT MALES

    OpenAIRE

    Kaukab Azeem; Erdogan Tabur

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Underweight (UW) individuals face lot of problems in increasing muscle size and also increasing body weight and fitness levels. Resistance training (RT) plays a very important role in increasing hypertrophy of the muscles one and all in general. (ACSM, 2009) stated that the resistance exercise for healthy adults provides program design recommendations for muscle hypertrophy [3]. The purpose of this study is to find out the influence of low, Medium and high intensity of (RT) on t...

  4. Predicting blood β-hydroxybutyrate using milk Fourier transform infrared spectrum, milk composition, and producer-reported variables with multiple linear regression, partial least squares regression, and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralle, R S; Weigel, K W; White, H M

    2018-05-01

    Prediction of postpartum hyperketonemia (HYK) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry analysis could be a practical diagnostic option for farms because these data are now available from routine milk analysis during Dairy Herd Improvement testing. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop and evaluate blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) prediction models using multivariate linear regression (MLR), partial least squares regression (PLS), and artificial neural network (ANN) methods and (2) evaluate whether milk FTIR spectrum (mFTIR)-based models are improved with the inclusion of test-day variables (mTest; milk composition and producer-reported data). Paired blood and milk samples were collected from multiparous cows 5 to 18 d postpartum at 3 Wisconsin farms (3,629 observations from 1,013 cows). Blood BHB concentration was determined by a Precision Xtra meter (Abbot Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA), and milk samples were analyzed by a privately owned laboratory (AgSource, Menomonie, WI) for components and FTIR spectrum absorbance. Producer-recorded variables were extracted from farm management software. A blood BHB ≥1.2 mmol/L was considered HYK. The data set was divided into a training set (n = 3,020) and an external testing set (n = 609). Model fitting was implemented with JMP 12 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). A 5-fold cross-validation was performed on the training data set for the MLR, PLS, and ANN prediction methods, with square root of blood BHB as the dependent variable. Each method was fitted using 3 combinations of variables: mFTIR, mTest, or mTest + mFTIR variables. Models were evaluated based on coefficient of determination, root mean squared error, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Four models (PLS-mTest + mFTIR, ANN-mFTIR, ANN-mTest, and ANN-mTest + mFTIR) were chosen for further evaluation in the testing set after fitting to the full training set. In the cross-validation analysis, model fit was greatest for ANN, followed

  5. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  6. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Racil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS, with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p˂0.05 body mass (BM, BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF. Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC (p=0.017. The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was significant (p=0.019, ES=0.48 and p=0.010, ES=0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively. The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP (p<0.05, ES=0.53 and ES=0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p<0.05 in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p=0.021, ES=0.67 and p=0.011, ES=0.73 and in RPE (p=0.001, ES=0.76 and p=0.017, ES=0.57 in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p<0.001 and VO2max (p<0.01 in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p<0.01 in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  7. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  8. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  9. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  10. Linear Models

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  11. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials using the Band transport ... For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is ... field is spatially phase shifted by /2 relative to the interference fringe pattern, which ...

  12. Variability of cutaneous and nasal population levels between patients colonized and infected by multidrug-resistant bacteria in two Brazilian intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaceno, Quésia; Nicoli, Jacques R; Oliveira, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    To compare cutaneous and nasal population levels between patients colonized and infected by multidrug-resistant organisms in two intensive care units. A prospective cohort study was performed in adult intensive care units of two hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Brazil (April 2012 to February 2013). Clinical and demographic data were first collected by reviewing patients' charts. Then, samples collected with nasal, groin, and perineum swabs were cultivated in selective media for 48 h at 37°C. After isolation, determination of antimicrobial susceptibility and biochemical identification were performed. A total of 53 cases of colonization were observed by the following bacteria in decreasing frequencies: imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (50.9%), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (43.4%), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (37.7%), imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32.1%), oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7.5%), and imipenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (5.7%). Among these colonization cases, 26 (49.0%) were followed by infection with bacteria phenotypically similar to those of the colonization. A relation between high population levels of colonization by most of the multidrug-resistant organisms at anatomical sites and a subsequent infection was observed. After colonization/infection, bacterial population levels decreased progressively and spontaneously until disappearance by day 45 in all the anatomical sites and for all the multidrug-resistant organisms. There was a correlation between high population levels of colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms at anatomical sites and a subsequent infection. Reduction in multidrug-resistant organism populations after colonization at anatomical sites could be a preventive measure to reduce evolution to infection as well as transmission of these bacteria between patients in intensive care unit.

  13. Introduction to RF linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.

    1994-01-01

    The basic features of RF linear accelerators are described. The concept of the 'loaded cavity', essential for the synchronism wave-particle, is introduced, and formulae describing the action of electromagnetic fields on the beam are given. The treatment of intense beams is mentioned, and various existing linear accelerators are presented as examples. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of an open access software for calculating glucose variability parameters of a continuous glucose monitoring system applied at pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marics, Gábor; Lendvai, Zsófia; Lódi, Csaba; Koncz, Levente; Zakariás, Dávid; Schuster, György; Mikos, Borbála; Hermann, Csaba; Szabó, Attila J; Tóth-Heyn, Péter

    2015-04-24

    Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) has become an increasingly investigated tool, especially with regards to monitoring of diabetic and critical care patients. The continuous glucose data allows the calculation of several glucose variability parameters, however, without specific application the interpretation of the results is time-consuming, utilizing extreme efforts. Our aim was to create an open access software [Glycemic Variability Analyzer Program (GVAP)], readily available to calculate the most common parameters of the glucose variability and to test its usability. The GVAP was developed in MATLAB® 2010b environment. The calculated parameters were the following: average area above/below the target range (Avg. AUC-H/L); Percentage Spent Above/Below the Target Range (PATR/PBTR); Continuous Overall Net Glycemic Action (CONGA); Mean of Daily Differences (MODD); Mean Amplitude of Glycemic Excursions (MAGE). For verification purposes we selected 14 CGM curves of pediatric critical care patients. Medtronic® Guardian® Real-Time with Enlite® sensor was used. The reference values were obtained from Medtronic®(')s own software for Avg. AUC-H/L and PATR/PBTR, from GlyCulator for MODD and CONGA, and using manual calculation for MAGE. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were above 0.99 for all parameters. The initial execution took 30 minutes, for further analysis with the Windows® Standalone Application approximately 1 minute was needed. The GVAP is a reliable open access program for analyzing different glycemic variability parameters, hence it could be a useful tool for the study of glycemic control among critically ill patients.

  15. Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  16. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  17. Correlation and simple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Kelly H; Tuncali, Kemal; Silverman, Stuart G

    2003-06-01

    In this tutorial article, the concepts of correlation and regression are reviewed and demonstrated. The authors review and compare two correlation coefficients, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Spearman rho, for measuring linear and nonlinear relationships between two continuous variables. In the case of measuring the linear relationship between a predictor and an outcome variable, simple linear regression analysis is conducted. These statistical concepts are illustrated by using a data set from published literature to assess a computed tomography-guided interventional technique. These statistical methods are important for exploring the relationships between variables and can be applied to many radiologic studies.

  18. Variable linear motion cycle monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.; Cavada, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant is described including feedwater flow control valve having a valve member which can be moved varying amounts in discrete movements in either direction between an open and a closed position to control feedwater flow; and apparatus for recording cycles of reciprocal movement of the valve member. The apparatus consists of: a travel translator member, means connecting the travel translator member to the valve member for reciprocal rectilinear movement in direction corresponding to, and for a distance proportional to, the movement of the valve member, a shaft member for rotation its longitudinal axis, means for limiting angular rotation of the shaft member in each direction; means for counting cycles of reciprocal rotation of the shaft member between rotating limits set by the limiting mean; a wheel mounted on the shaft member and in engagement with the travel translator member the wheel translating movement of the travel translator into rotation of the shaft member between the limits of rotation of the shaft member set by the limit means, and means permitting relative movement between the wheel and one of the member once the limits of rotation of the shaft member are reached and the travel translator member continues movement in the same direction

  19. Kendall-Theil Robust Line (KTRLine--version 1.0)-A Visual Basic Program for Calculating and Graphing Robust Nonparametric Estimates of Linear-Regression Coefficients Between Two Continuous Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2006-01-01

    The Kendall-Theil Robust Line software (KTRLine-version 1.0) is a Visual Basic program that may be used with the Microsoft Windows operating system to calculate parameters for robust, nonparametric estimates of linear-regression coefficients between two continuous variables. The KTRLine software was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, for use in stochastic data modeling with local, regional, and national hydrologic data sets to develop planning-level estimates of potential effects of highway runoff on the quality of receiving waters. The Kendall-Theil robust line was selected because this robust nonparametric method is resistant to the effects of outliers and nonnormality in residuals that commonly characterize hydrologic data sets. The slope of the line is calculated as the median of all possible pairwise slopes between points. The intercept is calculated so that the line will run through the median of input data. A single-line model or a multisegment model may be specified. The program was developed to provide regression equations with an error component for stochastic data generation because nonparametric multisegment regression tools are not available with the software that is commonly used to develop regression models. The Kendall-Theil robust line is a median line and, therefore, may underestimate total mass, volume, or loads unless the error component or a bias correction factor is incorporated into the estimate. Regression statistics such as the median error, the median absolute deviation, the prediction error sum of squares, the root mean square error, the confidence interval for the slope, and the bias correction factor for median estimates are calculated by use of nonparametric methods. These statistics, however, may be used to formulate estimates of mass, volume, or total loads. The program is used to read a two- or three-column tab-delimited input file with variable names in the first row and

  20. The effects of variable front persistence and intensity on mesopelagic fish communities: a comparison of three fronts in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netburn, A. N.; Koslow, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    Although the strong physical gradients at fronts are primarily realized in the epipelagic, the biological impacts of frontal ecosystems can extend into mesopelagic waters. In 2008, Lara-Lopez et al. (2012) observed a significant shift in total biomass and community composition of migrating mesopelagic fishes at a strong persistent front off of the Pt. Conception area of the southern California Current Ecosystem. Through the California Current Ecosystem Long-Term Ecological Research Program, two additional intensive sampling cruises have been conducted on frontal systems in the general region. In 2011 and 2012, paired day and night midwater Matsuda-Oozeki-Hu trawls were conducted at stations located on either side of the fronts and at the fronts themselves, a suite of concurrent observations of the physical environment measured, and lower trophic levels sampled. Using satellite imagery, we estimate front duration of each of the 2008, 2011, and 2012 fronts, and investigate changes to the relative abundance and community composition across these systems, comparing the resolved patterns in 2011 and 2012 to those published from 2008. Results of this work will help address the questions: (1) What are the timescales required for front presence to impact mesopelagic fish communities? (2) Do different types of frontal systems (e.g., an eddy front vs. a "classic" front) result in different patterns of mesopelagic fish abundance and community composition? These answers will provide insight into the mechanisms of accumulation of fishes at fronts. As many mesopelagic fishes are important forage species for oceanic predators, understanding their response to the high productivity frontal systems is key to understanding ecosystem-wide impacts of fronts.

  1. Linear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  2. Theory of linear operations

    CERN Document Server

    Banach, S

    1987-01-01

    This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.

  3. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, M.L.; Hoogeman, M.S.; Mens, J.W.; Quint, S.; Ahmad, R.; Dhawtal, G.; Heijmen, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 Gy. Individualized model-based internal target volumes (mbITVs) accounting for the cervix and uterus motion due to bladder volume changes were generated by using a motion-model constructed from two pretreatment CT scans (full and empty bladder). Two individualized strategies were designed: a nonadaptive strategy, using an mbITV accounting for the full-range of bladder volume changes throughout the treatment; and an online-adaptive strategy, using mbITVs of bladder volume subranges to construct a library of plans. The latter adapts the treatment online by selecting the plan-of-the-day from the library based on the measured bladder volume. The individualized strategies were evaluated by the seven to eight CT scans not used for mbITVs construction, and compared with a population-based approach. Geometric uniform margins around planning cervix–uterus and mbITVs were determined to ensure adequate coverage. For each strategy, the percentage of the cervix–uterus, bladder, and rectum volumes inside the planning target volume (PTV), and the clinical target volume (CTV)-to-PTV volume (volume difference between PTV and CTV) were calculated. Results: The margin for the population-based approach was 38 mm and for the individualized strategies was 7 to 10 mm. Compared with the population-based approach, the individualized nonadaptive strategy decreased the CTV-to-PTV volume by 48% ± 6% and the percentage of bladder and rectum inside the PTV by 5% to 45% and 26% to 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. Replacing the individualized nonadaptive strategy by an online-adaptive, two-plan library further decreased the percentage of

  4. The Stanford Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) is the first and only high-energy e + e - linear collider in the world. Its most remarkable features are high intensity, submicron sized, polarized (e - ) beams at a single interaction point. The main challenges posed by these unique characteristics include machine-wide emittance preservation, consistent high intensity operation, polarized electron production and transport, and the achievement of a high degree of beam stability on all time scales. In addition to serving as an important machine for the study of Z 0 boson production and decay using polarized beams, the SLC is also an indispensable source of hands-on experience for future linear colliders. Each new year of operation has been highlighted with a marked improvement in performance. The most significant improvements for the 1994-95 run include new low impedance vacuum chambers for the damping rings, an upgrade to the optics and diagnostics of the final focus systems, and a higher degree of polarization from the electron source. As a result, the average luminosity has nearly doubled over the previous year with peaks approaching 10 30 cm -2 s -1 and an 80% electron polarization at the interaction point. These developments as well as the remaining identifiable performance limitations will be discussed

  5. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  6. Linear quadratic optimization for positive LTI system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhafzan, Yenti, Syafrida Wirma; Zulakmal

    2017-05-01

    Nowaday the linear quadratic optimization subject to positive linear time invariant (LTI) system constitute an interesting study considering it can become a mathematical model of variety of real problem whose variables have to nonnegative and trajectories generated by these variables must be nonnegative. In this paper we propose a method to generate an optimal control of linear quadratic optimization subject to positive linear time invariant (LTI) system. A sufficient condition that guarantee the existence of such optimal control is discussed.

  7. Non-parametric system identification from non-linear stochastic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdinger, Finn; Krenk, Steen

    2001-01-01

    An estimation method is proposed for identification of non-linear stiffness and damping of single-degree-of-freedom systems under stationary white noise excitation. Non-parametric estimates of the stiffness and damping along with an estimate of the white noise intensity are obtained by suitable...... of the energy at mean-level crossings, which yields the damping relative to white noise intensity. Finally, an estimate of the noise intensity is extracted by estimating the absolute damping from the autocovariance functions of a set of modified phase plane variables at different energy levels. The method...

  8. Introduction to generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, Annette J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  9. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.

  10. Extended linear chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com­ plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper­ imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser­ vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso­ tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver­ gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...

  11. SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Bell, R.A.; Brown, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    The SLAC LINEAR COLLIDER is designed to achieve an energy of 100 GeV in the electron-positron center-of-mass system by accelerating intense bunches of particles in the SLAC linac and transporting the electron and positron bunches in a special magnet system to a point where they are focused to a radius of about 2 microns and made to collide head on. The rationale for this new type of colliding beam system is discussed, the project is described, some of the novel accelerator physics issues involved are discussed, and some of the critical technical components are described

  12. Space and time evolution of two nonlinearly coupled variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, H.; Totsuji, H.; Wilhelmsson, H.

    1976-12-01

    The system of two coupled linear differential equations are studied assuming that the coupling terms are proportional to the product of the dependent variables, representing e.g. intensities or populations. It is furthermore assumed that these variables experience different linear dissipation or growth. The derivations account for space as well as time dependence of the variables. It is found that certain particular solutions can be obtained to this system, whereas a full solution in space and time as an initial value problem is outside the scope of the present paper. The system has a nonlinear equilibrium solution for which the nonlinear coupling terms balance the terms of linear dissipation. The case of space and time evolution of a small perturbation of the nonlinear equilibrium state, given the initial one-dimensional spatial distribution of the perturbation, is also considered in some detail. (auth.)

  13. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  14. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  15. Introducing Linear Functions: An Alternative Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be "threshold concepts". There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear…

  16. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  17. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  18. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....

  19. Effect of intense high-frequency laser field on the linear and nonlinear intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a parabolic quantum well under the applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesilgul, U., E-mail: uyesilgul@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Ungan, F. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A. [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Kasapoglu, E.; Sarı, H. [Cumhuriyet University, Physics Department, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sökmen, I. [Dokuz Eylül University, Physics Department, 35160 Buca, İzmir (Turkey)

    2014-01-15

    The effects of the intense high-frequency laser field on the optical absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes in a GaAs/GaAlAs parabolic quantum well under the applied electric field have been investigated theoretically. The electron energy levels and the envelope wave functions of the parabolic quantum well are calculated within the effective mass approximation. Analytical expressions for optical properties are obtained using the compact density-matrix approach. The numerical results show that the intense high-frequency laser field has a large effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. Also we can observe that the refractive index and absorption coefficient changes are very sensitive to the electric field in large dimension wells. Thus, this result gives a new degree of freedom in the optoelectronic device applications. -- Highlights: • ILF has a large effect on the optical properties of parabolic quantum wells. • The total absorption coefficients increase as the ILF increases. • The RICs increase as the ILF increases.

  20. Linear and non-linear calculations of the hose instability in the ion-focused regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model is adopted to study the hose instability of an intense relativistic electron beam in a partially neutralized, low density ion channel (ion focused regime). Equations of motion for the beam and the channel are derived and linearized to obtain an approximate dispersion relation. The non-linear equations of motion are then solved numerically and the results compared to linearized data

  1. Representation of spatial and temporal variability of daily wind speed and of intense wind events over the Mediterranean Sea using dynamical downscaling: impact of the regional climate model configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herrmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric datasets coming from long term reanalyzes of low spatial resolution are used for different purposes. Wind over the sea is, for example, a major ingredient of oceanic simulations. However, the shortcomings of those datasets prevent them from being used without an adequate corrective preliminary treatment. Using a regional climate model (RCM to perform a dynamical downscaling of those large scale reanalyzes is one of the methods used in order to produce fields that realistically reproduce atmospheric chronology and where those shortcomings are corrected. Here we assess the influence of the configuration of the RCM used in this framework on the representation of wind speed spatial and temporal variability and intense wind events on a daily timescale. Our RCM is ALADIN-Climate, the reanalysis is ERA-40, and the studied area is the Mediterranean Sea.

    First, the dynamical downscaling significantly reduces the underestimation of daily wind speed, in average by 9 % over the whole Mediterranean. This underestimation has been corrected both globally and locally, and for the whole wind speed spectrum. The correction is the strongest for periods and regions of strong winds. The representation of spatial variability has also been significantly improved. On the other hand, the temporal correlation between the downscaled field and the observations decreases all the more that one moves eastwards, i.e. further from the atmospheric flux entry. Nonetheless, it remains ~0.7, the downscaled dataset reproduces therefore satisfactorily the real chronology.

    Second, the influence of the choice of the RCM configuration has an influence one order of magnitude smaller than the improvement induced by the initial downscaling. The use of spectral nudging or of a smaller domain helps to improve the realism of the temporal chronology. Increasing the resolution very locally (both spatially and temporally improves the representation of spatial

  2. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and vector spaces over finite p...

  3. Linear polarization of BY Draconis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.H.; Pfeiffer, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are reported in four bandpasses for the flare star BY Dra. The red polarization is intrinsically variable at a confidence level greater than 99 percent. On a time scale of many months, the variability is not phase-locked to either a rotational or a Keplerian ephemeris. The observations of the three other bandpasses are useful principally to indicate a polarization spectrum rising toward shorter wavelengths

  4. Feedback systems for linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Hendrickson, L; Himel, Thomas M; Minty, Michiko G; Phinney, N; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Raubenheimer, T O; Shoaee, H; Tenenbaum, P G

    1999-01-01

    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an intregal part of the design. Feedback requiremetns for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at hi...

  5. Linear Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report covers the activity of the Linear Accelerator Laboratory during the period June 1974-June 1976. The activity of the Laboratory is essentially centered on high energy physics. The main activities were: experiments performed with the colliding rings (ACO), construction of the new colliding rings and beginning of the work at higher energy (DCI), bubble chamber experiments with the CERN PS neutrino beam, counter experiments with CERN's PS and setting-up of equipment for new experiments with CERN's SPS. During this period a project has also been prepared for an experiment with the new PETRA colliding ring at Hamburg. On the other hand, intense collaboration with the LURE Laboratory, using the electron synchrotron radiation emitted by ACO and DCI, has been developed [fr

  6. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  7. Interaction of low-intensity linearly polarized laser radiation with living tissues: effects on tissular acceleration of skin wound healing; Interacao da radiacao laser linearmente polarizada de baixa intensidade com tecidos vivos: efeitos na acelaracao de cicatrizacao tissular em lesoes de pele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Martha Simoes

    2000-07-01

    According to the Maxwell's equations to optical properties of surfaces, the energy deposition efficiency in a microroughness interface depends on the electrical field polarization component. Considering a linearly polarized beam, this efficiency will depend on the roughness parameters to p-polarized light and it will not depend on such parameters to s-polarized light. In this work it was investigated the effects of low-intensity, linearly polarized He-Ne laser beam on skin wounds healing, considering two orthogonal directions of polarization. We have considered a preferential axis as the animals' spinal column and we aligned the linear laser polarization first parallel, then perpendicular to this direction. Burns about 6 mm in diameter were created with liquid N{sub 2} on the back of the animals and the lesions were irradiated on days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-wounding, D= 1,0 J/cm{sup 2}. Control lesions were not irradiated. The theoretical model consisted in describing linearly polarized light propagation in biological tissues using transport theory. The degree of polarization was measured in normal and pathological skin samples. It was verified that linearly polarized light can survive in the superficial layers of skin and it can be more preserved in skin under pathological condition when compared with health skin. The analysis of skin wound healing process has demonstrated that the relative direction of the laser polarization plays an important role on the wound healing process by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and radioautography. (author)

  8. Principles of linear algebra with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Shiskowski, Kenneth M

    2013-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the theoretical and computational aspects of linear algebra using Mathematica® Many topics in linear algebra are simple, yet computationally intensive, and computer algebra systems such as Mathematica® are essential not only for learning to apply the concepts to computationally challenging problems, but also for visualizing many of the geometric aspects within this field of study. Principles of Linear Algebra with Mathematica uniquely bridges the gap between beginning linear algebra and computational linear algebra that is often encountered in applied settings,

  9. Variabilidade espacial de perdas de solo, do potencial natural e risco de erosão em áreas intensamente cultivadas Spatial variability of the soil loss, natural potential and erosion risk in intensively cultivated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia de Mello

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar a variabilidade espacial do potencial natural de erosão, das perdas de solo e do risco de erosão em duas áreas intensamente cultivadas, com o intuito de fornecer subsídios na descrição de padrões de ocorrência de erosão. O solo da área, localizado em Monte Alto, SP, foi classificado como Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo (PVA, relevo ondulado e sob diferentes manejos. O solo da área localizado em Jaboticabal, SP, foi classificado como Latossolo Vermelho (LV, relevo suave, cultivado com cana-de-açúcar. O esquema de amostragem constituiu em uma malha irregular. Amostras de solo foram obtidas na profundidade de 0-0,2 m, para cada malha: 88 amostras para a área de Monte Alto (1465 ha e 128 amostras para a área de Jaboticabal (2597 ha. Para obtenção dos valores das variáveis estudadas, empregou-se a EUPS para cada ponto amostrado. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística descritiva e geoestatística para definição dos semivariogramas. Para os modelos foi utilizada a interpolação por krigagem. Observou-se a ocorrência de dependência espacial para todas as variáveis. O solo PVA apresentou maiores riscos de erosão, devido ao relevo, uso atual e manejo, comparado com o solo LV.The objective of this work was to identify the spatial variability of the natural erosion potential, soil loss and erosion risk in two intensely cultivated areas, in order to assess the erosion occurrence patterns. The soil of the area located at Monte Alto, São Paulo state, was classified as Paleudalf (PVA with moderately slope, with different managements. The soil of the area located at Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, was classified as Haplortox(LV with gentle slope and cultivated with sugarcane. A irregular grid was imposed on the experimental areas. Soil samples were obtained from 0-0.2 m depth at each grid point: 88 samples in Monte Alto area (1465 ha and 128 samples at Jaboticabal area (2597 ha. In order

  10. Distributed lags time series analysis versus linear correlation analysis (Pearson's r) in identifying the relationship between antipseudomonal antibiotic consumption and the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in a single Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeljić, Viktorija; Francetić, Igor; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Budimir, Ana; Kalenić, Smilja; Bielen, Luka; Makar-Aušperger, Ksenija; Likić, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between antibiotic consumption and selection of resistant strains has been studied mainly by employing conventional statistical methods. A time delay in effect must be anticipated and this has rarely been taken into account in previous studies. Therefore, distributed lags time series analysis and simple linear correlation were compared in their ability to evaluate this relationship. Data on monthly antibiotic consumption for ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, carbapenems and cefepime as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptibility were retrospectively collected for the period April 2006 to July 2007. Using distributed lags analysis, a significant temporal relationship was identified between ciprofloxacin, meropenem and cefepime consumption and the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa isolates to these antibiotics. This effect was lagged for ciprofloxacin and cefepime [1 month (R=0.827, P=0.039) and 2 months (R=0.962, P=0.001), respectively] and was simultaneous for meropenem (lag 0, R=0.876, P=0.002). Furthermore, a significant concomitant effect of meropenem consumption on the appearance of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains (resistant to three or more representatives of classes of antibiotics) was identified (lag 0, R=0.992, PPearson's correlation coefficient. Correlation coefficient analysis was not able to identify relationships between antibiotic consumption and bacterial resistance when the effect was delayed. These results indicate that the use of diverse statistical methods can yield significantly different results, thus leading to the introduction of possibly inappropriate infection control measures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. A logic circuit for solving linear function by digital method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yonghe

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical method for determining the linear relation of physical quantity with rediation intensity is described. A logic circuit has been designed for solving linear function by digital method. Some applications and the circuit function are discussed

  12. Method and apparatus of highly linear optical modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, Christopher; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-05-03

    In a new optical intensity modulator, a nonlinear change in refractive index is used to balance the nonlinearities in the optical transfer function in a way that leads to highly linear optical intensity modulation.

  13. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    with fieldwork conducted in Canada, Denmark and Australia to develop our understanding of the experiential politics of long distance workers. Rather than focusing on the extensive dimensions of mobilities that are implicated in patterns and trends, our paper turns to the intensive dimensions of this experience......This paper explores the intensities of long distance commuting journeys as a way of exploring how bodily sensibilities are being changed by the mobilities that they undertake. The context of this paper is that many people are travelling further to work than ever before owing to a variety of factors...... which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  14. Feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging-guided liver stereotactic body radiation therapy: A comparison between modulated tri-cobalt-60 teletherapy and linear accelerator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishan, Amar U; Cao, Minsong; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Mikaeilian, Argin G; Tenn, Stephen; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M; Sheng, Ke; Low, Daniel A; Kupelian, Patrick A; Steinberg, Michael L; Lee, Percy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric feasibility of liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a teletherapy system equipped with 3 rotating (60)Co sources (tri-(60)Co system) and a built-in magnetic resonance imager (MRI). We hypothesized tumor size and location would be predictive of favorable dosimetry with tri-(60)Co SBRT. The primary study population consisted of 11 patients treated with SBRT for malignant hepatic lesions whose linear accelerator (LINAC)-based SBRT plans met all mandatory Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 1112 organ-at-risk (OAR) constraints. The secondary study population included 5 additional patients whose plans did not meet the mandatory constraints. Patients received 36 to 60 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Tri-(60)Co system SBRT plans were planned with ViewRay system software. All patients in the primary study population had tri-(60)Co SBRT plans that passed all RTOG constraints, with similar planning target volume coverage and OAR doses to LINAC plans. Mean liver doses and V10Gy to the liver, although easily meeting RTOG 1112 guidelines, were significantly higher with tri-(60)Co plans. When the 5 additional patients were included in a univariate analysis, the tri-(60)Co SBRT plans were still equally able to pass RTOG constraints, although they did have inferior ability to pass more stringent liver and kidney constraints (P < .05). A multivariate analysis found the ability of a tri-(60)Co SBRT plan to meet these constraints depended on lesion location and size. Patients with smaller or more peripheral lesions (as defined by distance from the aorta, chest wall, liver dome, and relative lesion volume) were significantly more likely to have tri-(60)Co plans that spared the liver and kidney as well as LINAC plans did (P < .05). It is dosimetrically feasible to perform liver SBRT with a tri-(60)Co system with a built-in MRI. Patients with smaller or more peripheral lesions are more likely to have optimal liver

  15. Multivariate covariance generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    are fitted by using an efficient Newton scoring algorithm based on quasi-likelihood and Pearson estimating functions, using only second-moment assumptions. This provides a unified approach to a wide variety of types of response variables and covariance structures, including multivariate extensions......We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...

  16. Linear gate with prescaled window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J; Bissem, H H; Krause, H; Scobel, W [Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1978-07-15

    An electronic circuit is described that combines the features of a linear gate, a single channel analyzer and a prescaler. It allows selection of a pulse height region between two adjustable thresholds and scales the intensity of the spectrum within this window down by a factor 2sup(N) (0<=N<=9), whereas the complementary part of the spectrum is transmitted without being affected.

  17. Linearly constrained minimax optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1978-01-01

    We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...

  18. Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2011-01-01

    and bench-marked on artificial and real biological data sets. SLIM is closest in spirit to LiNGAM (Shimizu et al., 2006), but differs substantially in inference, Bayesian network structure learning and model comparison. Experimentally, SLIM performs equally well or better than LiNGAM with comparable......In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...

  19. Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    the dependent variable of the latent variable model and its predictor variables. We show how this correlation can be derived from the parameters of non-linear probability models, develop tests for the statistical significance of the derived correlation, and illustrate its usefulness in two applications. Under......Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations between...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models....

  20. A Direct Heuristic Algorithm for Linear Programming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An (3) mathematically non-iterative heuristic procedure that needs no artificial variable is presented for solving linear programming problems. An optimality test is included. Numerical experiments depict the utility/scope of such a procedure.

  1. Foundations of linear and generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Agresti, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,

  2. Determination of regression laws: Linear and nonlinear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed mathematical determination of regression laws is presented in the article. Particular emphasis is place on determining the laws of X j on X l to account for source nuclei decay and detector errors in nuclear physics instrumentation. Both linear and nonlinear relations are presented. Linearization of 19 functions is tabulated, including graph, relation, variable substitution, obtained linear function, and remarks. 6 refs., 1 tab

  3. Application of linear logic to simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas L.

    1998-08-01

    Linear logic, since its introduction by Girard in 1987 has proven expressive and powerful. Linear logic has provided natural encodings of Turing machines, Petri nets and other computational models. Linear logic is also capable of naturally modeling resource dependent aspects of reasoning. The distinguishing characteristic of linear logic is that it accounts for resources; two instances of the same variable are considered differently from a single instance. Linear logic thus must obey a form of the linear superposition principle. A proportion can be reasoned with only once, unless a special operator is applied. Informally, linear logic distinguishes two kinds of conjunction, two kinds of disjunction, and also introduces a modal storage operator that explicitly indicates propositions that can be reused. This paper discuses the application of linear logic to simulation. A wide variety of logics have been developed; in addition to classical logic, there are fuzzy logics, affine logics, quantum logics, etc. All of these have found application in simulations of one sort or another. The special characteristics of linear logic and its benefits for simulation will be discussed. Of particular interest is a connection that can be made between linear logic and simulated dynamics by using the concept of Lie algebras and Lie groups. Lie groups provide the connection between the exponential modal storage operators of linear logic and the eigen functions of dynamic differential operators. Particularly suggestive are possible relations between complexity result for linear logic and non-computability results for dynamical systems.

  4. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  5. Experimental variability and data pre-processing as factors affecting the discrimination power of some chemometric approaches (PCA, CA and a new algorithm based on linear regression) applied to (+/-)ESI/MS and RPLC/UV data: Application on green tea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorgulescu, E; Voicu, V A; Sârbu, C; Tache, F; Albu, F; Medvedovici, A

    2016-08-01

    The influence of the experimental variability (instrumental repeatability, instrumental intermediate precision and sample preparation variability) and data pre-processing (normalization, peak alignment, background subtraction) on the discrimination power of multivariate data analysis methods (Principal Component Analysis -PCA- and Cluster Analysis -CA-) as well as a new algorithm based on linear regression was studied. Data used in the study were obtained through positive or negative ion monitoring electrospray mass spectrometry (+/-ESI/MS) and reversed phase liquid chromatography/UV spectrometric detection (RPLC/UV) applied to green tea extracts. Extractions in ethanol and heated water infusion were used as sample preparation procedures. The multivariate methods were directly applied to mass spectra and chromatograms, involving strictly a holistic comparison of shapes, without assignment of any structural identity to compounds. An alternative data interpretation based on linear regression analysis mutually applied to data series is also discussed. Slopes, intercepts and correlation coefficients produced by the linear regression analysis applied on pairs of very large experimental data series successfully retain information resulting from high frequency instrumental acquisition rates, obviously better defining the profiles being compared. Consequently, each type of sample or comparison between samples produces in the Cartesian space an ellipsoidal volume defined by the normal variation intervals of the slope, intercept and correlation coefficient. Distances between volumes graphically illustrates (dis)similarities between compared data. The instrumental intermediate precision had the major effect on the discrimination power of the multivariate data analysis methods. Mass spectra produced through ionization from liquid state in atmospheric pressure conditions of bulk complex mixtures resulting from extracted materials of natural origins provided an excellent data

  6. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  7. Prediction of Mind-Wandering with Electroencephalogram and Non-linear Regression Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Issaku; Kumano, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Mind-wandering (MW), task-unrelated thought, has been examined by researchers in an increasing number of articles using models to predict whether subjects are in MW, using numerous physiological variables. However, these models are not applicable in general situations. Moreover, they output only binary classification. The current study suggests that the combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) variables and non-linear regression modeling can be a good indicator of MW intensity. We recorded EEGs of 50 subjects during the performance of a Sustained Attention to Response Task, including a thought sampling probe that inquired the focus of attention. We calculated the power and coherence value and prepared 35 patterns of variable combinations and applied Support Vector machine Regression (SVR) to them. Finally, we chose four SVR models: two of them non-linear models and the others linear models; two of the four models are composed of a limited number of electrodes to satisfy model usefulness. Examination using the held-out data indicated that all models had robust predictive precision and provided significantly better estimations than a linear regression model using single electrode EEG variables. Furthermore, in limited electrode condition, non-linear SVR model showed significantly better precision than linear SVR model. The method proposed in this study helps investigations into MW in various little-examined situations. Further, by measuring MW with a high temporal resolution EEG, unclear aspects of MW, such as time series variation, are expected to be revealed. Furthermore, our suggestion that a few electrodes can also predict MW contributes to the development of neuro-feedback studies.

  8. Prediction of Mind-Wandering with Electroencephalogram and Non-linear Regression Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issaku Kawashima

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mind-wandering (MW, task-unrelated thought, has been examined by researchers in an increasing number of articles using models to predict whether subjects are in MW, using numerous physiological variables. However, these models are not applicable in general situations. Moreover, they output only binary classification. The current study suggests that the combination of electroencephalogram (EEG variables and non-linear regression modeling can be a good indicator of MW intensity. We recorded EEGs of 50 subjects during the performance of a Sustained Attention to Response Task, including a thought sampling probe that inquired the focus of attention. We calculated the power and coherence value and prepared 35 patterns of variable combinations and applied Support Vector machine Regression (SVR to them. Finally, we chose four SVR models: two of them non-linear models and the others linear models; two of the four models are composed of a limited number of electrodes to satisfy model usefulness. Examination using the held-out data indicated that all models had robust predictive precision and provided significantly better estimations than a linear regression model using single electrode EEG variables. Furthermore, in limited electrode condition, non-linear SVR model showed significantly better precision than linear SVR model. The method proposed in this study helps investigations into MW in various little-examined situations. Further, by measuring MW with a high temporal resolution EEG, unclear aspects of MW, such as time series variation, are expected to be revealed. Furthermore, our suggestion that a few electrodes can also predict MW contributes to the development of neuro-feedback studies.

  9. Parallel beam dynamics simulation of linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe parallel particle-in-cell methods for the large scale simulation of beam dynamics in linear accelerators. These techniques have been implemented in the IMPACT (Integrated Map and Particle Accelerator Tracking) code. IMPACT is being used to study the behavior of intense charged particle beams and as a tool for the design of next-generation linear accelerators. As examples, we present applications of the code to the study of emittance exchange in high intensity beams and to the study of beam transport in a proposed accelerator for the development of accelerator-driven waste transmutation technologies

  10. A linear programming manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  11. Feedback Systems for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an integral part of the design. Feedback requirements for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at high bandwidth and fast response. To correct for the motion of individual bunches within a train, both feedforward and feedback systems are planned. SLC experience has shown that feedback systems are an invaluable operational tool for decoupling systems, allowing precision tuning, and providing pulse-to-pulse diagnostics. Feedback systems for the NLC will incorporate the key SLC features and the benefits of advancing technologies

  12. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  13. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  14. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies

  15. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  16. Intense Ion Pulses for Radiation Effects Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    induction linear accelerator that has been developed to deliver intense, up to 50 nC/pulse/mm2, sub-ns pulses of light ions with kinetic energy up to 1.2...II induction linear accelerator for intense ion beam pulses at Berkeley Lab. Figure 3. Helium current and integrated charge versus time at the...under contracts DE-AC02-205CH11231 and DE-AC52-07NA27344. JOURNAL OF RADIATION EFFECTS, Research and Engineering Vol. 35, No. 1, April 2017 158 INTENSE

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  18. Characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of airsea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the daily turbulent heat fluxes and related meteorological variables datasets (1985-2006) from Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific are analyzed by linear perturbation method and correlation analysis. It can be concluded that: 1) the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of latent heat flux (LHF) over the northwest Pacific is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea humidity gradient (Δq′) as well as mean air-sea humidity gradient ( Δ q), while the distribution of low-frequency oscillation intensity of sensible heat flux (SHF) is mainly affected by that of low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous air-sea temperature gradient (ΔT′). 2) The low-frequency oscillation of turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific is the strongest in winter and the weakest in summer. And the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of LHF is jointly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of Δq′, low-frequency oscillation intensity of anomalous wind speed (U′), Δ q and mean wind speed (U ), while the seasonal transition of low-frequency oscillation intensity of SHF is mainly influenced by those of low-frequency oscillation intensity of ΔT′ and U . 3) Over the tropical west Pacific and sea areas north of 20°N, the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF) is mainly influenced by atmospheric variables qa′ (Ta′) and U′, indicating an oceanic response to overlying atmospheric forcing. In contrast, over the tropical eastern and central Pacific south of 20°N, qs′ (Ts′) also greatly influences the low-frequency oscillation of LHF (SHF).

  19. Piecewise Linear-Linear Latent Growth Mixture Models with Unknown Knots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nidhi; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    Latent growth curve models with piecewise functions are flexible and useful analytic models for investigating individual behaviors that exhibit distinct phases of development in observed variables. As an extension of this framework, this study considers a piecewise linear-linear latent growth mixture model (LGMM) for describing segmented change of…

  20. From linear to generalized linear mixed models: A case study in repeated measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to traditional linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) can offer better correspondence between response variables and explanatory models, yielding more efficient estimates and tests in the analysis of data from designed experiments. Using proportion data from a designed...

  1. PWR control system design using advanced linear and non-linear methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabindran, N.; Whitmarsh-Everiss, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Consideration is here given to the methodology deployed for non-linear heuristic analysis in the time domain supported by multi-variable linear control system design methods for the purposes of operational dynamics and control system analysis. This methodology is illustrated by the application of structural singular value μ analysis to Pressurised Water Reactor control system design. (author)

  2. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  3. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  4. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  5. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  6. Linear regression in astronomy. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti J.

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of least-squares linear regression procedures used in observational astronomy, particularly investigations of the cosmic distance scale, are presented and discussed. The classes of linear models considered are (1) unweighted regression lines, with bootstrap and jackknife resampling; (2) regression solutions when measurement error, in one or both variables, dominates the scatter; (3) methods to apply a calibration line to new data; (4) truncated regression models, which apply to flux-limited data sets; and (5) censored regression models, which apply when nondetections are present. For the calibration problem we develop two new procedures: a formula for the intercept offset between two parallel data sets, which propagates slope errors from one regression to the other; and a generalization of the Working-Hotelling confidence bands to nonstandard least-squares lines. They can provide improved error analysis for Faber-Jackson, Tully-Fisher, and similar cosmic distance scale relations.

  7. Linear parameter varying representations for nonlinear control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lance Huntington

    Linear parameter varying (LPV) systems are investigated as a framework for gain-scheduled control design and optimal hybrid control. An LPV system is defined as a linear system whose dynamics depend upon an a priori unknown but measurable exogenous parameter. A gain-scheduled autopilot design is presented for a bank-to-turn (BTT) missile. The method is novel in that the gain-scheduled design does not involve linearizations about operating points. Instead, the missile dynamics are brought to LPV form via a state transformation. This idea is applied to the design of a coupled longitudinal/lateral BTT missile autopilot. The pitch and yaw/roll dynamics are separately transformed to LPV form, where the cross axis states are treated as "exogenous" parameters. These are actually endogenous variables, so such a plant is called "quasi-LPV." Once in quasi-LPV form, a family of robust controllers using mu synthesis is designed for both the pitch and yaw/roll channels, using angle-of-attack and roll rate as the scheduling variables. The closed-loop time response is simulated using the original nonlinear model and also using perturbed aerodynamic coefficients. Modeling and control of engine idle speed is investigated using LPV methods. It is shown how generalized discrete nonlinear systems may be transformed into quasi-LPV form. A discrete nonlinear engine model is developed and expressed in quasi-LPV form with engine speed as the scheduling variable. An example control design is presented using linear quadratic methods. Simulations are shown comparing the LPV based controller performance to that using PID control. LPV representations are also shown to provide a setting for hybrid systems. A hybrid system is characterized by control inputs consisting of both analog signals and discrete actions. A solution is derived for the optimal control of hybrid systems with generalized cost functions. This is shown to be computationally intensive, so a suboptimal strategy is proposed that

  8. Variability through the Eyes of the Programmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Batista Narcizo, Fabricio; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2017-01-01

    Preprocessor directives (#ifdefs) are often used to implement compile-time variability, despite the critique that they increase complexity, hamper maintainability, and impair code comprehensibility. Previous studies have shown that the time of bug finding increases linearly with variability. Howe...

  9. Linear collider: a preview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

  10. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  11. Linear collider: a preview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, H.

    1981-11-01

    Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  12. Differential calculus in normed linear spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjea, Kalyan

    2007-01-01

    This book presents Advanced Calculus from a geometric point of view: instead of dealing with partial derivatives of functions of several variables, the derivative of the function is treated as a linear transformation between normed linear spaces. Not only does this lead to a simplified and transparent exposition of "difficult" results like the Inverse and Implicit Function Theorems but also permits, without any extra effort, a discussion of the Differential Calculus of functions defined on infinite dimensional Hilbert or Banach spaces.The prerequisites demanded of the reader are modest: a sound understanding of convergence of sequences and series of real numbers, the continuity and differentiability properties of functions of a real variable and a little Linear Algebra should provide adequate background for understanding the book. The first two chapters cover much of the more advanced background material on Linear Algebra (like dual spaces, multilinear functions and tensor products.) Chapter 3 gives an ab ini...

  13. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  14. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  15. Linear models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Faraway, Julian J

    2014-01-01

    A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz

  16. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  17. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  18. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  19. Linear causal modeling with structural equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized to treat probabilistic causation, the book reviews historical treatments of causation and explores recent developments in experimental psychology on studies of the perception of causation. It looks at how to perceive causal

  20. Stochastic Linear Quadratic Optimal Control Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Yong, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the stochastic linear quadratic optimal control problem (LQ problem, for short) for which the coefficients are allowed to be random and the cost functional is allowed to have a negative weight on the square of the control variable. Some intrinsic relations among the LQ problem, the stochastic maximum principle, and the (linear) forward-backward stochastic differential equations are established. Some results involving Riccati equation are discussed as well

  1. Ordinal Log-Linear Models for Contingency Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzezińska Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A log-linear analysis is a method providing a comprehensive scheme to describe the association for categorical variables in a contingency table. The log-linear model specifies how the expected counts depend on the levels of the categorical variables for these cells and provide detailed information on the associations. The aim of this paper is to present theoretical, as well as empirical, aspects of ordinal log-linear models used for contingency tables with ordinal variables. We introduce log-linear models for ordinal variables: linear-by-linear association, row effect model, column effect model and RC Goodman’s model. Algorithm, advantages and disadvantages will be discussed in the paper. An empirical analysis will be conducted with the use of R.

  2. Decomposable log-linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...... The present paper considers discrete probability models with exact computational properties. In relation to contingency tables this means closed form expressions of the maksimum likelihood estimate and its distribution. The model class includes what is known as decomposable graphicalmodels, which......-hierarchical models, models with structural zeroes, models described by quasi independence and models for level merging. Also, they have a very natural interpretation as they may be formulated by a structured set of conditional independencies between two events given some other event. In relation to contingency...

  3. Linearity enigmas in ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Two issues concerning linearity or nonlinearity of natural systems are considered. Each is related to one of the two alternative defining properties of linear systems, superposition and decomposition. Superposition exists when a linear combination of inputs to a system results in the same linear combination of outputs that individually correspond to the original inputs. To demonstrate this property it is necessary that all initial states and inputs of the system which impinge on the output in question be included in the linear combination manipulation. As this is difficult or impossible to do with real systems of any complexity, nature appears nonlinear even though it may be linear. A linear system that displays nonlinear behavior for this reason is termed pseudononlinear. The decomposition property exists when the dynamic response of a system can be partitioned into an input-free portion due to state plus a state-free portion due to input. This is a characteristic of all linear systems, but not of nonlinear systems. Without the decomposition property, it is not possible to distinguish which portions of a system's behavior are due to innate characteristics (self) vs. outside conditions (environment), which is an important class of questions in biology and ecology. Some philosophical aspects of these findings are then considered. It is suggested that those ecologists who hold to the view that organisms and their environments are separate entities are in effect embracing a linear view of nature, even though their belief systems and mathematical models tend to be nonlinear. On the other hand, those who consider that organism-environment complex forms a single inseparable unit are implictly involved in non-linear thought, which may be in conflict with the linear modes and models that some of them use. The need to rectify these ambivalences on the part of both groups is indicated.

  4. Human Influence on Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Adam H.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Hall, Timothy M.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Tippett, Michael K.; Wing, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent assessments agree that tropical cyclone intensity should increase as the climate warms. Less agreement exists on the detection of recent historical trends in tropical cyclone intensity.We interpret future and recent historical trends by using the theory of potential intensity, which predicts the maximum intensity achievable by a tropical cyclone in a given local environment. Although greenhouse gas-driven warming increases potential intensity, climate model simulations suggest that aerosol cooling has largely canceled that effect over the historical record. Large natural variability complicates analysis of trends, as do poleward shifts in the latitude of maximum intensity. In the absence of strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, future greenhouse gas forcing of potential intensity will increasingly dominate over aerosol forcing, leading to substantially larger increases in tropical cyclone intensities.

  5. Performance comparison of control schemes for variable-speed wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Croce, A.; Savini, B.

    2007-07-01

    We analyze the performance of different control schemes when applied to the regulation problem of a variable-speed representative wind turbine. In particular, we formulate and compare a wind-scheduled PID, a LQR controller and a novel adaptive non-linear model predictive controller, equipped with observers of the tower states and wind. The simulations include gusts and turbulent winds of varying intensity in nominal as well as off-design operating conditions. The experiments highlight the possible advantages of model-based non-linear control strategies.

  6. Performance comparison of control schemes for variable-speed wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottasso, C L; Croce, A; Savini, B

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the performance of different control schemes when applied to the regulation problem of a variable-speed representative wind turbine. In particular, we formulate and compare a wind-scheduled PID, a LQR controller and a novel adaptive non-linear model predictive controller, equipped with observers of the tower states and wind. The simulations include gusts and turbulent winds of varying intensity in nominal as well as off-design operating conditions. The experiments highlight the possible advantages of model-based non-linear control strategies

  7. On the theory of the relativistic motion of a charged particle in the field of intense electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milant' ev, V. P., E-mail: vmilantiev@sci.pfu.edu.ru; Castillo, A. J., E-mail: vmilant@mail.ru [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    Averaged relativistic equations of motion of a charged particle in the field of intense electromagnetic radiation have been obtained in the geometrical optics approximation using the Bogoliubov method. Constraints are determined under which these equations are valid. Oscillating additions to the smoothed dynamical variables of the particle have been found; they are reduced to known expressions in the case of the circularly and linearly polarized plane waves. It has been shown that the expressions for the averaged relativistic force in both cases contain new additional small terms weakening its action. The known difference between the expressions for the ponderomotive force in the cases of circularly and linearly polarized waves has been confirmed.

  8. The Danish Intensive Care Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen CF

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Christian Fynbo Christiansen,1 Morten Hylander Møller,2 Henrik Nielsen,1 Steffen Christensen3 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Department of Intensive Care 4131, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Intensive Care, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of this database is to improve the quality of care in Danish intensive care units (ICUs by monitoring key domains of intensive care and to compare these with predefined standards. Study population: The Danish Intensive Care Database (DID was established in 2007 and includes virtually all ICU admissions in Denmark since 2005. The DID obtains data from the Danish National Registry of Patients, with complete follow-up through the Danish Civil Registration System. Main variables: For each ICU admission, the DID includes data on the date and time of ICU admission, type of admission, organ supportive treatments, date and time of discharge, status at discharge, and mortality up to 90 days after admission. Descriptive variables include age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index score, and, since 2010, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II. The variables are recorded with 90%–100% completeness in the recent years, except for SAPS II score, which is 73%–76% complete. The DID currently includes five quality indicators. Process indicators include out-of-hour discharge and transfer to other ICUs for capacity reasons. Outcome indicators include ICU readmission within 48 hours and standardized mortality ratios for death within 30 days after admission using case-mix adjustment (initially using age, sex, and comorbidity level, and, since 2013, using SAPS II for all patients and for patients with septic shock. Descriptive data: The DID currently includes 335,564 ICU admissions during 2005–2015 (average 31,958 ICU admissions per year. Conclusion: The DID provides a

  9. Linear colliders - prospects 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.

    1985-06-01

    We discuss the scaling laws of linear colliders and their consequences for accelerator design. We then report on the SLAC Linear Collider project and comment on experience gained on that project and its application to future colliders. 9 refs., 2 figs

  10. The SLAC linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-01-01

    A report is given on the goals and progress of the SLAC Linear Collider. The author discusses the status of the machine and the detectors and give an overview of the physics which can be done at this new facility. He also gives some ideas on how (and why) large linear colliders of the future should be built

  11. Linear Programming (LP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The submitted sections on linear programming are extracted from 'Theorie und Technik der Planung' (1978) by W. Blaas and P. Henseler and reformulated for presentation at the Workshop. They consider a brief introduction to the theory of linear programming and to some essential aspects of the SIMPLEX solution algorithm for the purposes of economic planning processes. 1 fig

  12. Racetrack linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, C.H.; Wilton, M.S. de.

    1979-01-01

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  13. Comparing linear probability model coefficients across groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Ejrnæs, Mette; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    of the following three components: outcome truncation, scale parameters and distributional shape of the predictor variable. These results point to limitations in using linear probability model coefficients for group comparisons. We also provide Monte Carlo simulations and real examples to illustrate......This article offers a formal identification analysis of the problem in comparing coefficients from linear probability models between groups. We show that differences in coefficients from these models can result not only from genuine differences in effects, but also from differences in one or more...... these limitations, and we suggest a restricted approach to using linear probability model coefficients in group comparisons....

  14. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  15. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  16. (Non) linear regression modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cizek, P.; Gentle, J.E.; Hardle, W.K.; Mori, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We will study causal relationships of a known form between random variables. Given a model, we distinguish one or more dependent (endogenous) variables Y = (Y1,…,Yl), l ∈ N, which are explained by a model, and independent (exogenous, explanatory) variables X = (X1,…,Xp),p ∈ N, which explain or

  17. NP-Hardness of optimizing the sum of Rational Linear Functions over an Asymptotic-Linear-Program

    OpenAIRE

    Chermakani, Deepak Ponvel

    2012-01-01

    We convert, within polynomial-time and sequential processing, an NP-Complete Problem into a real-variable problem of minimizing a sum of Rational Linear Functions constrained by an Asymptotic-Linear-Program. The coefficients and constants in the real-variable problem are 0, 1, -1, K, or -K, where K is the time parameter that tends to positive infinity. The number of variables, constraints, and rational linear functions in the objective, of the real-variable problem is bounded by a polynomial ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  19. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  20. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Normalization of white matter intensity on T1-weighted images of patients with acquired central nervous system demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Rezwan; Brown, Robert; Narayanan, Sridar; Banwell, Brenda; Nakamura, Kunio; Arnold, Douglas L

    2015-01-01

    Intensity variation between magnetic resonance images (MRI) hinders comparison of tissue intensity distributions in multicenter MRI studies of brain diseases. The available intensity normalization techniques generally work well in healthy subjects but not in the presence of pathologies that affect tissue intensity. One such disease is multiple sclerosis (MS), which is associated with lesions that prominently affect white matter (WM). To develop a T1-weighted (T1w) image intensity normalization method that is independent of WM intensity, and to quantitatively evaluate its performance. We calculated median intensity of grey matter and intraconal orbital fat on T1w images. Using these two reference tissue intensities we calculated a linear normalization function and applied this to the T1w images to produce normalized T1w (NT1) images. We assessed performance of our normalization method for interscanner, interprotocol, and longitudinal normalization variability, and calculated the utility of the normalization method for lesion analyses in clinical trials. Statistical modeling showed marked decreases in T1w intensity differences after normalization (P < .0001). We developed a WM-independent T1w MRI normalization method and tested its performance. This method is suitable for longitudinal multicenter clinical studies for the assessment of the recovery or progression of disease affecting WM. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  3. Optimal linear filtering of Poisson process with dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glukhova, E.V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a derivation of an integral equation defining the impulsed transient of optimum linear filtering for evaluation of the intensity of the fluctuating Poisson process with allowance for dead time of transducers

  4. A Global Optimization Algorithm for Sum of Linear Ratios Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yuelin Gao; Siqiao Jin

    2013-01-01

    We equivalently transform the sum of linear ratios programming problem into bilinear programming problem, then by using the linear characteristics of convex envelope and concave envelope of double variables product function, linear relaxation programming of the bilinear programming problem is given, which can determine the lower bound of the optimal value of original problem. Therefore, a branch and bound algorithm for solving sum of linear ratios programming problem is put forward, and the c...

  5. Linearizing W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivonos, S.O.; Sorin, A.S.

    1994-06-01

    We show that the Zamolodchikov's and Polyakov-Bershadsky nonlinear algebras W 3 and W (2) 3 can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear algebras with finite set of currents. Using these linear algebras we find new field realizations of W (2) 3 and W 3 which could be a starting point for constructing new versions of W-string theories. We also reveal a number of hidden relationships between W 3 and W (2) 3 . We conjecture that similar linear algebras can exist for other W-algebra as well. (author). 10 refs

  6. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  7. Linearity in Process Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn

    2002-01-01

    The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....

  8. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  9. Applied linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Sanford

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus

  10. Analysis of the efficiency of the linearization techniques for solving multi-objective linear fractional programming problems by goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the applicability of three linearization techniques used for solving multi-objective linear fractional programming problems using the goal programming method. The three linearization techniques are: (1 Taylor’s polynomial linearization approximation, (2 the method of variable change, and (3 a modification of the method of variable change proposed in [20]. All three linearization techniques are presented and analyzed in two variants: (a using the optimal value of the objective functions as the decision makers’ aspirations, and (b the decision makers’ aspirations are given by the decision makers. As the criteria for the analysis we use the efficiency of the obtained solutions and the difficulties the analyst comes upon in preparing the linearization models. To analyze the applicability of the linearization techniques incorporated in the linear goal programming method we use an example of a financial structure optimization problem.

  11. Variabilidade espacial das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo em áreas intensamente cultivadas Spatial variability of physical and chemical properties of soil in intensively cultivated areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia de Mello

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a variabilidade espacial das propriedades físicas e químicas do solo, visando fornecer subsídios ao manejo localizado de insumos. Foram analisadas as variáveis químicas: P, MO, K, Ca, Mg, pH, CTC e V(% e físicas: areia e argila. Coletaram-se amostras de solo em duas profundidades (0-0,2 e 0,6-0,8 m situadas em malha irregular de amostragem na região de Monte Alto, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (PVA, sob diferentes manejos, perfazendo 88 pontos em área total de 1465 ha; e na região de Jaboticabal, em Latossolo Vermelho (LV cultivado com cana-de-açúcar, perfazendo 128 pontos, em área total de 2597 ha. As propriedades químicas e físicas dos solos estudados apresentaram dependência espacial, com exceção da CTC na profundidade de 0,6-0,8 m para o solo LV; Ca e argila na profundidade de 0-0,2 m, e P, MO, K, Mg e argila na camada de 0,6-0,8 m, no solo PVA. As variáveis estudadas ajustaram-se aos modelos esférico e exponencial, e algumas apresentaram semivariograma sem estrutura definida. O solo PVA apresentou menor continuidade espacial das propriedades químicas e físicas, principalmente na profundidade 0,6-0,8 m, camada que sofre menor influência antrópica. O solo LV apresentou zonas mais homogêneas de fertilidade e granulometria.The spatial variability of physical and chemical properties of soil were evaluated to provide subsidies for management of the agricultural input. The chemical variables: P, organic matter (OM, K, Ca, Mg, pH, CEC and base saturation (BS; and physical variables: sand and clay were analysed. Soil samples were collected at two depths (0-0.2 and 0.6-0.8 m located at irregular mesh of sampling in the region of Monte Alto, in a Yellow-Red Podzol (Alfissolo (PVA, under different managements, resulting in 88 points in 1465 ha of total area; and at the region of Jaboticabal in a Red Latosol (LV cultivated with sugarcane, resulting in 128 points in 2597 ha of total area. The chemical

  12. Linear signal processing using silicon micro-ring resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping.......We review our recent achievements on the use of silicon micro-ring resonators for linear optical signal processing applications, including modulation format conversion, phase-to-intensity modulation conversion and waveform shaping....

  13. Explicit estimating equations for semiparametric generalized linear latent variable models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan; Genton, Marc G.

    2010-01-01

    which is similar to that of a sufficient complete statistic, which enables us to simplify the estimating procedure and explicitly to formulate the semiparametric estimating equations. We further show that the explicit estimators have the usual root n

  14. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  15. Linear system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  16. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  17. Invariant imbedding equations for linear scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apresyan, L.

    1988-01-01

    A general form of the invariant imbedding equations is investigated for the linear problem of scattering by a bounded scattering volume. The conditions for the derivability of such equations are described. It is noted that the possibility of the explicit representation of these equations for a sphere and for a layer involves the separation of variables in the unperturbed wave equation

  18. A linear model of ductile plastic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, J.

    1983-01-01

    A three-dimensional model of isotropic ductile plastic damage based on a continuum damage variable on the effective stress concept and on thermodynamics is derived. As shown by experiments on several metals and alloys, the model, integrated in the case of proportional loading, is linear with respect to the accumulated plastic strain and shows a large influence of stress triaxiality [fr

  19. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  20. Viewpoint – Water Variability, Soil Nutrient Heterogeneity and Market Volatility – Why Sub-Saharan Africa’s Green Revolution Will Be Location-Specific and Knowledge-Intensive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van der Zaag

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In his interesting Viewpoint article in Water Alternatives, Bruce Lankford suggests that an African Green Revolution cannot come about without irrigation. But he does not convincingly explain why irrigated areas expand only very slowly. This viewpoint article argues that grain yields have remained stagnant in Africa because of high temporal rainfall variability, significant spatial soil nutrient heterogeneity, and weak and volatile markets. This combination calls for location-specific interventions that are aimed at enhancing farmers’ capacity to buffer water variations and address nutrient deficits. This finding is consistent with what Lankford dismisses as an "atomised" approach, but which would preferably be called a farmer-centred approach. Thus a massive investment in African agriculture is indeed required, primarily focused on the creation of knowledge that does justice to the local variation in water and nutrient availability. It should aim to empower farmers to experiment and be innovative, and remake agricultural extension and agricultural engineering exciting with cutting-edge disciplines. Irrigation may then emerge as the right thing to do.