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Sample records for linear motor proteins

  1. Handbook on linear motor application

    1988-10-01

    This book guides the application for Linear motor. It lists classification and speciality of Linear Motor, terms of linear-induction motor, principle of the Motor, types on one-side linear-induction motor, bilateral linear-induction motor, linear-DC Motor on basic of the motor, linear-DC Motor for moving-coil type, linear-DC motor for permanent-magnet moving type, linear-DC motor for electricity non-utility type, linear-pulse motor for variable motor, linear-pulse motor for permanent magneto type, linear-vibration actuator, linear-vibration actuator for moving-coil type, linear synchronous motor, linear electromagnetic motor, linear electromagnetic solenoid, technical organization and magnetic levitation and linear motor and sensor.

  2. Linear motor coil assembly and linear motor

    2009-01-01

    An ironless linear motor (5) comprising a magnet track (53) and a coil assembly (50) operating in cooperation with said magnet track (53) and having a plurality of concentrated multi-turn coils (31 a-f, 41 a-d, 51 a-k), wherein the end windings (31E) of the coils (31 a-f, 41 a-e) are substantially

  3. Linear induction motor

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  4. Electrodynamic linear motor

    Munehiro, H

    1980-05-29

    When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.

  5. Reciprocating linear motor

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  6. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  7. Linear Motor With Air Slide

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Fenn, Ralph C.

    1993-01-01

    Improved linear actuator comprises air slide and linear electric motor. Unit exhibits low friction, low backlash, and more nearly even acceleration. Used in machinery in which positions, velocities, and accelerations must be carefully controlled and/or vibrations must be suppressed.

  8. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  9. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility

  10. Entropic potential field formed for a linear-motor protein near a filament: Statistical-mechanical analyses using simple models.

    Amano, Ken-Ichi; Yoshidome, Takashi; Iwaki, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2010-07-28

    We report a new progress in elucidating the mechanism of the unidirectional movement of a linear-motor protein (e.g., myosin) along a filament (e.g., F-actin). The basic concept emphasized here is that a potential field is entropically formed for the protein on the filament immersed in solvent due to the effect of the translational displacement of solvent molecules. The entropic potential field is strongly dependent on geometric features of the protein and the filament, their overall shapes as well as details of the polyatomic structures. The features and the corresponding field are judiciously adjusted by the binding of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the protein, hydrolysis of ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP)+Pi, and release of Pi and ADP. As the first step, we propose the following physical picture: The potential field formed along the filament for the protein without the binding of ATP or ADP+Pi to it is largely different from that for the protein with the binding, and the directed movement is realized by repeated switches from one of the fields to the other. To illustrate the picture, we analyze the spatial distribution of the entropic potential between a large solute and a large body using the three-dimensional integral equation theory. The solute is modeled as a large hard sphere. Two model filaments are considered as the body: model 1 is a set of one-dimensionally connected large hard spheres and model 2 is a double helical structure formed by two sets of connected large hard spheres. The solute and the filament are immersed in small hard spheres forming the solvent. The major findings are as follows. The solute is strongly confined within a narrow space in contact with the filament. Within the space there are locations with sharply deep local potential minima along the filament, and the distance between two adjacent locations is equal to the diameter of the large spheres constituting the filament. The potential minima form a ringlike domain in model 1

  11. Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Two Independent Vibrations

    Muneishi, Takeshi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-09-01

    We propose a new structure of an ultrasonic linear motor in order to solve the problems of high-power ultrasonic linear motors that drive the XY-stage for electron beam equipment and to expand the application fields of the motor. We pay special attention to the following three points: (1) the vibration in two directions of the ultrasonic linear motor should not influence mutually each other, (2) the vibration in two directions should be divided into the stage traveling direction and the pressing direction of the ultrasonic linear motor, and (3) the rigidity of the stage traveling direction of the ultrasonic linear motor should be increased. As a result, the supporting method of ultrasonic linear motors is simplified. The efficiency of the motor is improved and temperature rise is reduced. The stage position drift is also improved.

  12. Simulation of linear Switched Reluctance Motor drives

    Garcia Amoros, Jordi; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Andrada Gascón, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of linear switched reluctance motor drives. A Matlab-Simulink environment coupled with finite element analysis is used to perform the simulations. Experimental and simulation results for a double sided linear switched motor drive prototype are reported and compared to verify the simulation model.

  13. A linear motor as seismic horizontal vibrator

    Drijkoningen, G.; Veltman, A.; Hendrix, W.H.A.; Brouwer, J.; Hemstede, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use the concept of linear synchronous motors to act as a seismic shear-wave vibratory source. We show that a linear motor, even with a design that is not focussed on application of seismic surveying, gives seismic records that are convincing and comparable with an

  14. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  15. Comparison of linear synchronous and induction motors

    2004-06-01

    A propulsion prade study was conducted as part of the Colorado Maglev Project of FTA's Urban Maglev Technology Development Program to identify and evaluate prospective linear motor designs that could potentially meet the system performance requiremen...

  16. Linear motor with contactless energy transfer

    2014-01-01

    An integrated electromagnetic energy conversions device is provided that includes a synchronous or brushless linear (SoBL) motor, and a transformer, where the transformer is integrated electromagnetically and topologically with the SoBL motor, where an electromagnetic field orientation of the

  17. A linear magnetic motor and generator

    Studer, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    In linear magnetic motor and generator suitable for remote and hostile environments, magnetic forces drive reciprocating shaft along its axis. Actuator shaft is located in center of cylindrical body and may be supported by either contacting or noncontacting bearings. When device operates as bidirectional motor, drive coil selectively adds and subtracts magnetic flux to and from flux paths, producing forces that drive actuator along axis. When actuator is driven by external reciprocating engine, device becomes ac generator.

  18. Linear ultrasonic motor for absolute gravimeter.

    Jian, Yue; Yao, Zhiyuan; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    Thanks to their compactness and suitability for vacuum applications, linear ultrasonic motors are considered as substitutes for classical electromagnetic motors as driving elements in absolute gravimeters. Still, their application is prevented by relatively low power output. To overcome this limitation and provide better stability, a V-type linear ultrasonic motor with a new clamping method is proposed for a gravimeter. In this paper, a mechanical model of stators with flexible clamping components is suggested, according to a design criterion for clamps of linear ultrasonic motors. After that, an effect of tangential and normal rigidity of the clamping components on mechanical output is studied. It is followed by discussion of a new clamping method with sufficient tangential rigidity and a capability to facilitate pre-load. Additionally, a prototype of the motor with the proposed clamping method was fabricated and the performance tests in vertical direction were implemented. Experimental results show that the suggested motor has structural stability and high dynamic performance, such as no-load speed of 1.4m/s and maximal thrust of 43N, meeting the requirements for absolute gravimeters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  20. A beam scraper using a linear motor

    Beadle, E.R.; Rodger, E.S.; Thern, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    A beam scraper using a linear motor drive has been developed for use in the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The device is used to measure beam size by moving a target to a predetermined location and measuring the intercepted beam with nearby loss monitors or by noting the decrease in the circulating beam current. This device has excellent vacuum characteristics, as the motor and sensor coils are outside the vacuum, coupled magnetically to the moving parts which, are inside. There are no bellows or dynamic seals required. The position-time profile is controlled by a closed-loop servo system which uses position feedback. 2 refs., 4 figs

  1. Comparison of Linear Induction Motor Theories for the LIMRV and TLRV Motors

    1978-01-01

    The Oberretl, Yamamura, and Mosebach theories of the linear induction motor are described and also applied to predict performance characteristics of the TLRV & LIMRV linear induction motors. The effect of finite motor width and length on performance ...

  2. Linear pneumatic motors – a comparative study

    Deaconescu Tudor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the performance of single-acting cylinders, diaphragm cylinders and pneumatic muscles, and offers users information that allows the selection of an optimum technical solution. Such a study was necessary, in view of the numerous papers on pneumatic muscle applications found in literature, that assert the superiority of pneumatic muscles over other pneumatic linear motors in relation to quantities like dimensions, mass, developed force or energy-to-mass ratios, however without offering concrete data.

  3. A seismic vertical vibrator driven by linear synchronous motors

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Dams, J.; Jenneskens, R.

    2015-01-01

    A linear synchronous motor (LSM) is an electric motor that can produce large controllable forces and is therefore suitable as a driving engine for a seismic vibrator. This motor consists of two independent elements, a magnet track and a coil track, allowing practically unlimited motor displacements.

  4. International program on linear electric motors

    Dawson, G.E.; Eastham, A.R.; Parker, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    The International Program on Linear Electric Motors (LEM) was initiated for the purposes of commumication and coordination between various centers of expertise in LEM technology in Germany, Japan and Canada. Furthermore, it was intended to provide assessment and support of the planning of technological developments and for dissemination of information to researchers, service operators and policy makers, and to ensure that full advantage can be taken if opportunities for technology transfer occur. In the process, the program was able to provide closer contacts between researchers, to enhance and encourage collaborative research and development, and to facilitate joint ventures in advanced transportation technologies. Work done under the program is documented, and seminar materials presented by Canadian researchers in Italy, and by Italian researchers at Queen's University in Canada are presented. Five separate abstracts have been prepared for the main body of the report and the seminar materials.

  5. Study of linear induction motor characteristics : the Mosebach model

    1976-05-31

    This report covers the Mosebach theory of the double-sided linear induction motor, starting with the ideallized model and accompanying assumptions, and ending with relations for thrust, airgap power, and motor efficiency. Solutions of the magnetic in...

  6. Study of linear induction motor characteristics : the Oberretl model

    1975-05-30

    The Oberretl theory of the double-sided linear induction motor (LIM) is examined, starting with the idealized model and accompanying assumptions, and ending with relations for predicted thrust, airgap power, and motor efficiency. The effect of varyin...

  7. Quad-copter UAV BLDC Motor Control: Linear v/s non-linear control maps

    Deep Parikh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some investigations and comparison of using linear versus non-linear static motor-control maps for the speed control of a BLDC (Brush Less Direct Current motors used in quad-copter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The motor-control map considered here is the inverse of the static map relating motor-speed output to motor-voltage input for a typical out-runner type Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM.  Traditionally, quad-copter BLDC motor speed control uses simple linear motor-control map defined by the motor-constant specification. However, practical BLDC motors show non-linear characteristic, particularly when operated across wide operating speed-range as is commonly required in quad-copter UAV flight operations. In this paper, our investigations to compare performance of linear versus non-linear motor-control maps are presented. The investigations cover simulation-based and experimental study of BLDC motor speed control systems for  quad-copter vehicle available. First the non-linear map relating rotor RPM to motor voltage for quad-copter BLDC motor is obtained experimentally using an optical speed encoder. The performance of the linear versus non-linear motor-control-maps for the speed control are studied. The investigations also cover study of time-responses for various standard test input-signals e.g. step, ramp and pulse inputs, applied as the reference speed-commands. Also, simple 2-degree of freedom test-bed is developed in our laboratory to help test the open-loop and closed-loop experimental investigations. The non-linear motor-control map is found to perform better in BLDC motor speed tracking control performance and thereby helping achieve better quad-copter roll-angle attitude control.

  8. Lithographic linear motor, lithographic apparatus, and device manufacturing method

    2006-01-01

    A linear motor having a high driving force, high efficiency and low normal force comprises two opposed magnet tracks and an armature comprising three open coil sets. The linear motor may be used to drive a stage, such as, for example, a mask or wafer stage, in a lithographic apparatus.

  9. Dynamic properties of motor proteins with two subunits

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; III, Hubert Phillips

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of motor protein molecules consisting of two subunits is investigated using simple discrete stochastic models. Exact steady-state analytical expressions are obtained for velocities and dispersions for any number of intermediate states and conformations between the corresponding binding states of proteins. These models enable us to provide a detailed description and comparison of two different mechanisms of the motion of motor proteins along the linear tracks: the hand-over-hand mechanism, when the motion of subunits alternate; and the inchworm mechanism, when one subunit is always trailing another one. It is shown that the proteins in the hand-over-hand mechanism move faster and fluctuate more than the molecules in the inchworm mechanism. The effect of external forces on dynamic properties of motor proteins is also discussed. Finally, a quantitative method, based on experimental observations for single motor proteins, is proposed for distinguishing between two mechanisms of motion

  10. Impact self-excited vibrations of linear motor

    Zhuravlev, V. Ph.

    2010-08-01

    Impact self-exciting vibration modes in a linear motor of a monorail car are studied. Existence and stability conditions of self-exciting vibrations are found. Ways of avoiding the vibrations are discussed.

  11. Experimental development of an ultrasonic linear motor

    M'Boungui, G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available the stator structure. In contrast to traditional travelling wave ultrasonic motors, which require two modes to be driven 90° out of phase, only one amplifier is required to drive the proposed device. A prototype device was characterised experimentally...

  12. Linear stability analysis in a solid-propellant rocket motor

    Kim, K.M.; Kang, K.T.; Yoon, J.K. [Agency for Defense Development, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    Combustion instability in solid-propellant rocket motors depends on the balance between acoustic energy gains and losses of the system. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of the program which predicts the standard longitudinal stability using acoustic modes based on linear stability analysis and T-burner test results of propellants. Commercial ANSYS 5.0A program can be used to calculate the acoustic characteristic of a rocket motor. The linear stability prediction was compared with the static firing test results of rocket motors. (author). 11 refs., 17 figs.

  13. Modelling a linear PM motor including magnetic saturation

    Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Compter, J.C.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of the high force density, robustness and accuracy. The paper describes the modelling of a linear PM motor applied in, for example, wafer steppers, including magnetic saturation. This is important

  14. A simple theory of motor protein kinetics and energetics. II.

    Qian, H

    2000-01-10

    A three-state stochastic model of motor protein [Qian, Biophys. Chem. 67 (1997) pp. 263-267] is further developed to illustrate the relationship between the external load on an individual motor protein in aqueous solution with various ATP concentrations and its steady-state velocity. A wide variety of dynamic motor behavior are obtained from this simple model. For the particular case of free-load translocation being the most unfavorable step within the hydrolysis cycle, the load-velocity curve is quasi-linear, V/Vmax = (cF/Fmax-c)/(1-c), in contrast to the hyperbolic relationship proposed by A.V. Hill for macroscopic muscle. Significant deviation from the linearity is expected when the velocity is less than 10% of its maximal (free-load) value--a situation under which the processivity of motor diminishes and experimental observations are less certain. We then investigate the dependence of load-velocity curve on ATP (ADP) concentration. It is shown that the free load Vmax exhibits a Michaelis-Menten like behavior, and the isometric Fmax increases linearly with ln([ATP]/[ADP]). However, the quasi-linear region is independent of the ATP concentration, yielding an apparently ATP-independent maximal force below the true isometric force. Finally, the heat production as a function of ATP concentration and external load are calculated. In simple terms and solved with elementary algebra, the present model provides an integrated picture of biochemical kinetics and mechanical energetics of motor proteins.

  15. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor

    Coffey, Howard T.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle leviation.

  16. Magnetic levitation configuration incorporating levitation, guidance and linear synchronous motor

    Coffey, H.T.

    1993-10-19

    A propulsion and suspension system for an inductive repulsion type magnetically levitated vehicle which is propelled and suspended by a system which includes propulsion windings which form a linear synchronous motor and conductive guideways, adjacent to the propulsion windings, where both combine to partially encircling the vehicle-borne superconducting magnets. A three phase power source is used with the linear synchronous motor to produce a traveling magnetic wave which in conjunction with the magnets propel the vehicle. The conductive guideway combines with the superconducting magnets to provide for vehicle levitation. 3 figures.

  17. Comparative analysis of linear motor geometries for Stirling coolers

    R, Rajesh V.; Kuzhiveli, Biju T.

    2017-12-01

    Compared to rotary motor driven Stirling coolers, linear motor coolers are characterized by small volume and long life, making them more suitable for space and military applications. The motor design and operational characteristics have a direct effect on the operation of the cooler. In this perspective, ample scope exists in understanding the behavioural description of linear motor systems. In the present work, the authors compare and analyze different moving magnet linear motor geometries to finalize the most favourable one for Stirling coolers. The required axial force in the linear motors is generated by the interaction of magnetic fields of a current carrying coil and that of a permanent magnet. The compact size, commercial availability of permanent magnets and low weight requirement of the system are quite a few constraints for the design. The finite element analysis performed using Maxwell software serves as the basic tool to analyze the magnet movement, flux distribution in the air gap and the magnetic saturation levels on the core. A number of material combinations are investigated for core before finalizing the design. The effect of varying the core geometry on the flux produced in the air gap is also analyzed. The electromagnetic analysis of the motor indicates that the permanent magnet height ought to be taken in such a way that it is under the influence of electromagnetic field of current carrying coil as well as the outer core in the balanced position. This is necessary so that sufficient amount of thrust force is developed by efficient utilisation of the air gap flux density. Also, the outer core ends need to be designed to facilitate enough room for the magnet movement under the operating conditions.

  18. Contact analysis and experimental investigation of a linear ultrasonic motor.

    Lv, Qibao; Yao, Zhiyuan; Li, Xiang

    2017-11-01

    The effects of surface roughness are not considered in the traditional motor model which fails to reflect the actual contact mechanism between the stator and slider. An analytical model for calculating the tangential force of linear ultrasonic motor is proposed in this article. The presented model differs from the previous spring contact model, the asperities in contact between stator and slider are considered. The influences of preload and exciting voltage on tangential force in moving direction are analyzed. An experiment is performed to verify the feasibility of this proposed model by comparing the simulation results with the measured data. Moreover, the proposed model and spring model are compared. The results reveal that the proposed model is more accurate than spring model. The discussion is helpful for designing and modeling of linear ultrasonic motors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Force analysis of linear induction motor for magnetic levitation system

    Kuijpers, A.A.; Nemlioglu, C.; Sahin, F.; Verdel, A.J.D.; Compter, J.C.; Lomonova, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the analyses of thrust and normal forces of linear induction motor (LIM) segments which are implemented in a rotating ring system. To obtain magnetic levitation in a cost effective and sustainable way, decoupled control of thrust and normal forces is required. This study includes

  20. Thermally driven molecular linear motors - A molecular dynamics study

    Zambrano, Harvey A; Walther, Jens Honore; Jaffe, Richard Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of a molecular linear motor consisting of coaxial carbon nanotubes with a long outer carbon nanotube confining and guiding the motion of an inner short, capsule-like nanotube. The simulations indicate that the motion of the capsule can be controlled by th...

  1. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF LINEAR ULTRASONIC MOTORS

    Oana CHIVU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the main modeling elements as produced by means of thefinite element method of linear ultrasonic motors. Hence, first the model is designed and then a modaland harmonic analysis are carried out in view of outlining the main outcomes

  2. Resettable binary latch mechanism for use with paraffin linear motors

    Maus, Daryl; Tibbitts, Scott

    1991-01-01

    A new resettable Binary Latch Mechanism was developed utilizing a paraffin actuator as the motor. This linear actuator alternately latches between extended and retracted positions, maintaining either position with zero power consumption. The design evolution and kinematics of the latch mechanism are presented, as well as the development problems and lessons that were learned.

  3. Evaluation of linear induction motor characteristics : the Yamamura model

    1975-04-30

    The Yamamura theory of the double-sided linear induction motor (LIM) excited by a constant current source is discussed in some detail. The report begins with a derivation of thrust and airgap power using the method of vector potentials and theorem of...

  4. Position sensor for linear synchronous motors employing halbach arrays

    Post, Richard Freeman

    2014-12-23

    A position sensor suitable for use in linear synchronous motor (LSM) drive systems employing Halbach arrays to create their magnetic fields is described. The system has several advantages over previously employed ones, especially in its simplicity and its freedom from being affected by weather conditions, accumulated dirt, or electrical interference from the LSM system itself.

  5. Force measurements on a shielded coreless linear permanent magnet motor

    Pluk, K.J.W.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares force measurements on a shielded coreless linear permanent magnet motor with 2-D models. A 2-D semianalytical modeling method is applied, which is based on Fourier modeling and includes force calculations. The semianalytical modeling correctly predicts the behavior found in the

  6. Bidirectional electrostatic linear shuffle motor with two degrees of freedom

    Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Fujita, H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2005-01-01

    We report on an electrostatic linear inchworm micromotor with two translational degrees-of-freedom. The motor employs built-in mechanical leverage to convert normal deflection of a flexible cross-plate into a small in-plane step and four electrostatic clamps to enable bidirectional inchworm motion

  7. Magnetic shielding for coreless linear permanent magnet motors

    Pluk, K.J.W.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the local reduction of the magnetic flux density by means of magnetic shielding. Using a spatial frequency description, a 2-D semi-analytical periodic model is obtained for a coreless single-sided linear permanent magnet motor. The magnetic shield is included in the modeling

  8. Direct Torque Control With Feedback Linearization for Induction Motor Drives

    Lascu, Cristian; Jafarzadeh, Saeed; Fadali, Sami M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a direct-torque-controlled (DTC) induction motor (IM) drive that employs feedback linearization and sliding-mode control (SMC). A new feedback linearization approach is proposed, which yields a decoupled linear IM model with two state variables: torque and stator flux magnitude....... This intuitive linear model is used to implement a DTC-type controller that preserves all DTC advantages and eliminates its main drawback, the flux and torque ripple. Robust, fast, and ripple-free control is achieved by using SMC with proportional control in the vicinity of the sliding surface. SMC assures...... in simulations. The sliding controller is compared with a linear DTC scheme with and without feedback linearization. Extensive experimental results for a sensorless IM drive validate the proposed solution....

  9. Advanced analysis technique for the evaluation of linear alternators and linear motors

    Holliday, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the mathematical analysis of linear alternator and linear motor devices and designs is described, and an example of its use is included. The technique seeks to surpass other methods of analysis by including more rigorous treatment of phenomena normally omitted or coarsely approximated such as eddy braking, non-linear material properties, and power losses generated within structures surrounding the device. The technique is broadly applicable to linear alternators and linear motors involving iron yoke structures and moving permanent magnets. The technique involves the application of Amperian current equivalents to the modeling of the moving permanent magnet components within a finite element formulation. The resulting steady state and transient mode field solutions can simultaneously account for the moving and static field sources within and around the device.

  10. Analysis of the linear induction motor in transient operation

    Gentile, G; Rotondale, N; Scarano, M

    1987-05-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of a bilateral linear induction motor in transient operation. We have considered an impressed voltage one-dimensional model which takes into account end effects. The real winding distribution of the armature has been represented as a lumped parameters system. By using the space vectors methodology, the partial differential equation of the sheet is solved bythe variable separation method. Therefore it's possible to arrange a system of ordinary differential equations where the unknown quantities are the space vectors of the air-gap flux density and sheet currents. Finally, we have analyzed the characteristic quantities for a no-load starting of small power motors.

  11. A novel linear switched reluctance motor for railway transportation systems

    Daldaban, Ferhat; Ustkoyuncu, Nurettin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a new linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) structure, especially suitable for high-speed railway systems. The new model has a double active stator configuration and provides high force for many applications with low cost. The characteristics of the LSRM are obtained by using finite element analysis (FEA) and analytical calculations. The results of the FEA and analytical calculations are presented, and compared with experimental results. In addition, a classical double-sided LSRM (DSLSRM) is modeled with the same specifications of the new motor structure and the results are compared.

  12. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries.

  13. Linear motor driven Stirling coolers for military and commercial applications

    Berry, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of a miniature, closed cycle, split stirling, cryogenic cooler that provides 1 watt of cooling at 80 K. The compressor uses two opposed linear motors to drive opposed pistons and the expander uses a pneumatically driven displacer. A single electronics module and compressor has been developed to drive three different expanders that have nominal cold cylinder diameters of 5, 8 and 13 mm

  14. Generate stepper motor linear speed profile in real time

    Stoychitch, M. Y.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of realization of linear speed profile of stepper motors in real time. We considered the general case when changes of speed in the phases of acceleration and deceleration are different. The new and practical algorithm of the trajectory planning is given. The algorithms of the real time speed control which are suitable for realization to the microcontroller and FPGA circuits are proposed. The practical realization one of these algorithms, using Arduino platform, is given also.

  15. Electromagnetic Energy Converters - Rotating Motors and Linear Generators

    Ekergaard, Boel

    2011-07-01

    This licentiate thesis presents a study of the electromagnetic properties of linear synchronous permanent magnet generators, utilized in wave energy converters, and a two pole permanent magnet motor for an electrical vehicle. Both machine topologies are presented, designed with a numerical simulation tool, based on a model derived from Maxwell's equations. Full scale prototypes of both the machines are under construction. A continued study about the impact on the magnetic circuit caused by the longitudinal ends of a linear generator is performed. The results present significant core losses in the translator and an increased cogging force caused by the longitudinal ends. Further, a new electric conversion circuit based on the electric resonance phenomena is presented. Experimental results indicate that a successful electric resonance between the generator and external circuit has been achieved. Finally, detailed analytical and numerical methods are utilized to investigate the losses in the two pole permanent magnet motor over a wide frequency interval. The results indicate that the efficiency of electrical motors in electrical vehicle system can be increased relative existing designs and argue for limiting of the gearbox. The system total efficiency and mechanical stability can thereby be increased. The work concerning the wave energy converter is a part of a larger project, the so called Lysekil Wave Power Project, whereas the work concerning the electric motor so far has been carried out as an individual project. However, a future goal is to integrate the research on the electric motor for electrical vehicle with closely related ongoing research regarding a flywheel based electric driveline for an All Electric Propulsion System

  16. Design and optimization of a modal- independent linear ultrasonic motor.

    Zhou, Shengli; Yao, Zhiyuan

    2014-03-01

    To simplify the design of the linear ultrasonic motor (LUSM) and improve its output performance, a method of modal decoupling for LUSMs is proposed in this paper. The specific embodiment of this method is decoupling of the traditional LUSM stator's complex vibration into two simple vibrations, with each vibration implemented by one vibrator. Because the two vibrators are designed independently, their frequencies can be tuned independently and frequency consistency is easy to achieve. Thus, the method can simplify the design of the LUSM. Based on this method, a prototype modal- independent LUSM is designed and fabricated. The motor reaches its maximum thrust force of 47 N, maximum unloaded speed of 0.43 m/s, and maximum power of 7.85 W at applied voltage of 200 Vpp. The motor's structure is then optimized by controlling the difference between the two vibrators' resonance frequencies to reach larger output speed, thrust, and power. The optimized results show that when the frequency difference is 73 Hz, the output force, speed, and power reach their maximum values. At the input voltage of 200 Vpp, the motor reaches its maximum thrust force of 64.2 N, maximum unloaded speed of 0.76 m/s, maximum power of 17.4 W, maximum thrust-weight ratio of 23.7, and maximum efficiency of 39.6%.

  17. Improvement of the thermal behavior of linear motors through insulation layer

    Eun, I. U.; Lee, C. M.; Chung, W. J.; Choi, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    Linear motors can drive a linear motion without intermediate gears, screws or crank shafts. Linear motors can successfully replace ball lead screw in machine tools, because they have a high velocity, acceleration and good positioning accuracy. On the other hand, linear motors emit large amounts of heat and have low efficiency. In this paper, heat sources of a synchronous linear motor with high velocity and force are measured and analyzed. To improve the thermal stiffness of the linear motor, an insulation layer with low thermal conductivity is inserted between cooler and machine table. Some effects of the insulation layer are presented

  18. Motor properties from persistence: a linear molecular walker lacking spatial and temporal asymmetry

    Zuckermann, Martin J; Forde, Nancy R; Angstmann, Christopher N; Schmitt, Regina; Linke, Heiner; Blab, Gerhard A; Bromley, Elizabeth HC; Curmi, Paul MG

    2015-01-01

    The stepping direction of linear molecular motors is usually defined by a spatial asymmetry of the motor, its track, or both. Here we present a model for a molecular walker that undergoes biased directional motion along a symmetric track in the presence of a temporally symmetric chemical cycle. Instead of using asymmetry, directionality is achieved by persistence. At small load force the walker can take on average thousands of steps in a given direction until it stochastically reverses direction. We discuss a specific experimental implementation of a synthetic motor based on this design and find, using Langevin and Monte Carlo simulations, that a realistic walker can work against load forces on the order of picoNewtons with an efficiency of ∼18%, comparable to that of kinesin. In principle, the walker can be turned into a permanent motor by externally monitoring the walker’s momentary direction of motion, and using feedback to adjust the direction of a load force. We calculate the thermodynamic cost of using feedback to enhance motor performance in terms of the Shannon entropy, and find that it reduces the efficiency of a realistic motor only marginally. We discuss the implications for natural protein motor performance in the context of the strong performance of this design based only on a thermal ratchet. (paper)

  19. Dynamic Response Analysis of Linear Pulse Motor with Closed Loop Control

    山本, 行雄; 山田, 一

    1989-01-01

    A linear pulse motor can translate digital signals into linear positions without a gear system. It is important to predict a dynamic response in order to the motor that has the good performance. In this report the maximum pulse rate and the maximum speed on the linear pulse motor are obtained by using the sampling theory.

  20. NASTRAN buckling study of a linear induction motor reaction rail

    Williams, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    NASTRAN was used to study problems associated with the installation of a linear induction motor reaction rail test track. Specific problems studied include determination of the critical axial compressive buckling stress and establishment of the lateral stiffness of the reaction rail under combined loads. NASTRAN results were compared with experimentally obtained values and satisfactory agreement was obtained. The reaction rail was found to buckle at an axial compressive stress of 11,400 pounds per square inch. The results of this investigation were used to select procedures for installation of the reaction rail.

  1. Motor protein traffic regulation by supply–demand balance of resources

    Ciandrini, Luca; Dauloudet, Olivier; Parmeggiani, Andrea; Neri, Izaak; Walter, Jean Charles

    2014-01-01

    In cells and in in vitro assays the number of motor proteins involved in biological transport processes is far from being unlimited. The cytoskeletal binding sites are in contact with the same finite reservoir of motors (either the cytosol or the flow chamber) and hence compete for recruiting the available motors, potentially depleting the reservoir and affecting cytoskeletal transport. In this work we provide a theoretical framework in which to study, analytically and numerically, how motor density profiles and crowding along cytoskeletal filaments depend on the competition of motors for their binding sites. We propose two models in which finite processive motor proteins actively advance along cytoskeletal filaments and are continuously exchanged with the motor pool. We first look at homogeneous reservoirs and then examine the effects of free motor diffusion in the surrounding medium. We consider as a reference situation recent in vitro experimental setups of kinesin-8 motors binding and moving along microtubule filaments in a flow chamber. We investigate how the crowding of linear motor proteins moving on a filament can be regulated by the balance between supply (concentration of motor proteins in the flow chamber) and demand (total number of polymerized tubulin heterodimers). We present analytical results for the density profiles of bound motors and the reservoir depletion, and propose novel phase diagrams that present the formation of jams of motor proteins on the filament as a function of two tuneable experimental parameters: the motor protein concentration and the concentration of tubulins polymerized into cytoskeletal filaments. Extensive numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results for parameters in the experimental range and also address the effects of diffusion of motor proteins in the reservoir. We then propose experiments for validating our models and discuss how the ‘supply–demand’ effects can regulate motor traffic also in in vivo

  2. Cortical Contribution to Linear, Non-linear and Frequency Components of Motor Variability Control during Standing.

    König Ignasiak, Niklas; Habermacher, Lars; Taylor, William R; Singh, Navrag B

    2017-01-01

    Motor variability is an inherent feature of all human movements and reflects the quality of functional task performance. Depending on the requirements of the motor task, the human sensory-motor system is thought to be able to flexibly govern the appropriate level of variability. However, it remains unclear which neurophysiological structures are responsible for the control of motor variability. In this study, we tested the contribution of cortical cognitive resources on the control of motor variability (in this case postural sway) using a dual-task paradigm and furthermore observed potential changes in control strategy by evaluating Ia-afferent integration (H-reflex). Twenty healthy subjects were instructed to stand relaxed on a force plate with eyes open and closed, as well as while trying to minimize sway magnitude and performing a "subtracting-sevens" cognitive task. In total 25 linear and non-linear parameters were used to evaluate postural sway, which were combined using a Principal Components procedure. Neurophysiological response of Ia-afferent reflex loop was quantified using the Hoffman reflex. In order to assess the contribution of the H-reflex on the sway outcome in the different standing conditions multiple mixed-model ANCOVAs were performed. The results suggest that subjects were unable to further minimize their sway, despite actively focusing to do so. The dual-task had a destabilizing effect on PS, which could partly (by 4%) be counter-balanced by increasing reliance on Ia-afferent information. The effect of the dual-task was larger than the protective mechanism of increasing Ia-afferent information. We, therefore, conclude that cortical structures, as compared to peripheral reflex loops, play a dominant role in the control of motor variability.

  3. Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics in Linear Compressors Driven by Linear Motors

    Chen, Liangyuan

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of dynamic characteristics of the mechatronics system is of great significance for the linear motor design and control. Steady-state nonlinear response characteristics of a linear compressor are investigated theoretically based on the linearized and nonlinear models. First, the influence factors considering the nonlinear gas force load were analyzed. Then, a simple linearized model was set up to analyze the influence on the stroke and resonance frequency. Finally, the nonlinear model was set up to analyze the effects of piston mass, spring stiffness, driving force as an example of design parameter variation. The simulating results show that the stroke can be obtained by adjusting the excitation amplitude, frequency and other adjustments, the equilibrium position can be adjusted by adjusting the DC input, and to make the more efficient operation, the operating frequency must always equal to the resonance frequency.

  4. Commercializing a U.S. piezoceramic linear motor

    Diehl, Rick W.

    2000-06-01

    A small low-cost piezoceramic linear motor has been developed in the US and is being commercialized by EDO Corporation, working with a leading motion control OEM and with a prominent US corporate research laboratory. First generation motor design has emphasized high displacement at up to 200mm per second velocity with 3.5 Newtons force with high resolution, short time constant and a 15 volt power supply at a cost of less than 100 dollars. Motor dimensions of 30 by 50 by 4 mm allow broad configuration choices, al hidden within the motion control slide. The EDO approach was to build on its core competence in high reliability electroceramic material engineering and production, and to use a strategy of back-integrating, or outsourcing of recent advances outside Edo in piezoceramics, while forward- integrating into specific emerging applications known intimately by the OEM in the market. The strategy provided design focus that has led to a cost-effective advance in 'solid-state actuation and control'. This is considered a classic case of successful industrial integration of an enabling technology across organizations in order to access the needed mix of technology for development of an innovative and competitive solution.

  5. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  6. Linearization of the bradford protein assay.

    Ernst, Orna; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2010-04-12

    Determination of microgram quantities of protein in the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is accomplished by measurement of absorbance at 590 nm. This most common assay enables rapid and simple protein quantification in cell lysates, cellular fractions, or recombinant protein samples, for the purpose of normalization of biochemical measurements. However, an intrinsic nonlinearity compromises the sensitivity and accuracy of this method. It is shown that under standard assay conditions, the ratio of the absorbance measurements at 590 nm and 450 nm is strictly linear with protein concentration. This simple procedure increases the accuracy and improves the sensitivity of the assay about 10-fold, permitting quantification down to 50 ng of bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, the interference commonly introduced by detergents that are used to create the cell lysates is greatly reduced by the new protocol. A linear equation developed on the basis of mass action and Beer's law perfectly fits the experimental data.

  7. Mechanical design of translocating motor proteins.

    Hwang, Wonmuk; Lang, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    Translocating motors generate force and move along a biofilament track to achieve diverse functions including gene transcription, translation, intracellular cargo transport, protein degradation, and muscle contraction. Advances in single molecule manipulation experiments, structural biology, and computational analysis are making it possible to consider common mechanical design principles of these diverse families of motors. Here, we propose a mechanical parts list that include track, energy conversion machinery, and moving parts. Energy is supplied not just by burning of a fuel molecule, but there are other sources or sinks of free energy, by binding and release of a fuel or products, or similarly between the motor and the track. Dynamic conformational changes of the motor domain can be regarded as controlling the flow of free energy to and from the surrounding heat reservoir. Multiple motor domains are organized in distinct ways to achieve motility under imposed physical constraints. Transcending amino acid sequence and structure, physically and functionally similar mechanical parts may have evolved as nature's design strategy for these molecular engines.

  8. The linear electric motor: Instability at 1,000 g's

    Hunter, S.

    1997-01-01

    When fluid of high density is supported against gravity by a less dense liquid, the system is unstable, and microscopic perturbations grow at the interface between the fluids. This phenomenon, called the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, also occurs when a bottle of oil-and-vinegar salad dressing is turned upside down. The instability causes spikes of the dense fluid to penetrate the light fluid, while bubbles of the lighter fluid rise into the dense fluid. The same phenomenon occurs when a light fluid is used to accelerate a dense fluid, causing the two fluids to mix at a very high rate. For example, during the implosion of an ICF capsule, this instability can cause enough mixing to contaminate, cool, and degrade the yield of the thermonuclear fuel. The LEM is an excellent tool for studying this instability, but what is it? Think of a miniature high-speed electric train (the container) hurtling down a track (the electrodes) while diagnostic equipment (optical and laser) photographs it. The LEM, consists of four linear electrodes, or rails, that carry an electrical current to a pair of sliding armatures on the container. A magnetic field is produced that works in concert with the rail-armature current to accelerate the container--just as in an electric motor, but in a linear fashion rather than in rotation. The magnetic field is augmented with elongated coils just as in a conventional electric motor. This configuration also helps hold the armatures against the electrodes to prevent arcing. The electrical energy (0.6 megajoules) is provided by 16 capacitor banks that can be triggered independently to produce different acceleration profiles (i.e., how the acceleration varies with time)

  9. An efficient linear power generator - Linear motor for oscillating piston machines; Effizienter Lineargenerator / Linearmotor fuer Kolbenmaschine - Schlussbericht

    Lindegger, M.

    2008-07-01

    When an oscillating piston interacts with an electrical generator or motor, it is obvious that the electrical machine should also have linear motion, eliminating the disadvantage of a crankshaft. This work has two parts: construction of an efficient linear generator for a Stirling engine with a free piston and a theoretical study of the efficiency of linear motors for driving compressors. The Stirling engine and the linear generator have a continuous power of 1.3 kW{sub el}. With thermal peak power the planned 1.5 kW{sub el} are attained. The Project 'Stirling Free Piston Generator' for cogeneration will continue. Smaller linear motors with permanent magnets function without electronic control from single-phase AC net. The theoretical study shows how linear motors can be led out by linking the electric vector diagram with the pressure-volume diagram of the compressor. At a power level exceeding a few kW, a three-phase system with power electronics is more suitable. The frequency of oscillation is variable and lower than 50 Hz. The efficiency of the simulated linear motors lies in the range of efficiency class EFF1 of standard motors. The very high efficiencies of rotating motors with permanent magnets are not attained. The combination of the linear motor with an optimised thermal process leads to advantages regarding the efficiency. If a heat pump with linear drive system can operate with hot lubricating oil the losses in the heat exchangers are reduced. The Competence Center for Thermal Machines at Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts shows great interest to pursue the project of a linear heat pump for small temperature differences. (author)

  10. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG.

    Zhang, Wenchang; Sun, Fuchun; Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from "BCI Competition III Dataset IVa" and "BCI Competition IV Database 2a." The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP.

  11. Optimization of a piezoelectric linear motor in terms of the contact parameters

    Ko, Hyun-Phill; Kim, Sangsig; Kang, Chong-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Jai; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2005-01-01

    The contact kinetics of piezoelectric linear motors determines the operational characteristics like speed and torque or transmitted mechanical power and efficiency. Piezoelectric linear motors are driven by tangential stress in the interface between tip of shaking beam and slider. A good contact between the tip and slider is necessary for a reliable analysis of the motor, which is needed for the optimization of its performance. The piezoelectric linear motor was fabricated and the characteristics of the motor were investigated by external conditions such as tip shape with different curvatures and contact force between the tip and the slider. It was found in this investigation that the optimal curvature of the tip and the contact force are curvature of 1 and 10, respectively, for the high actuating speed, and curvature of 1 and 40 N, respectively, for the high actuating force. Finally, tip shape has an influence on the characteristics of linear motor

  12. Analysis and Design of Double-sided Air core Linear Servo Motor with Trapezoidal Permanent Magnets

    Zhang, Yuqiu; Yang, Zilong; Yu, Minghu

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the thrust ripple of linear servo system, a double-sided air core permanent magnet linear servo motor with trapezoidal shape permanent magnets (TDAPMLSM) is proposed in this paper. An analytical model of the motor for predicting the magnetic field in the air-gap at no...

  13. Design of linear pulse motor for control element drive mechanism of SMART

    Kim, J. H.; Huh, H.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, M. H.; Kang, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    49 Control Rod Drive Mechanisms(CEDMs) are densely installed on the reactor central head of SMART. The structural design should ensure the space for maintenance/repair, cable routing, and heat release from the motor. In this paper, an improved design is presented to enlarge the space between CEDMs by decreasing the diameter of linear pulse motor. The reduction of motor thrust force due to the decrease of the motor diameter is compensated by resizing the other structural components

  14. Direct torque control via feedback linearization for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives

    Lascu, Cristian; Boldea, Ion; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a direct torque controlled (DTC) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive that employs feedback linearization and uses sliding-mode and linear controllers. We introduce a new feedback linearization approach that yields a decoupled linear PMSM model with two state...

  15. A Study on the Design of PM Exited Transverse Flux Linear Motor for Ropeless Elevator

    Kang, Do Hyun; Bang, Deok Je; Kim, Jong Moo; Jeong, Yeon Ho [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea); Kim, Moon Hwan [Silla University (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The topological investigations regarding magnetic circuit geometry and winding form of the transverse flux machine have brought up a variety of constructable arrangements with different features for several types of application[1, 2]. Here with, a novel PM-exited linear motor with inner mover, based on the transverse flux configuration leads to a considerable increase in power density for moving part. In this study we designed PM-exited transverse flux linear motor for ropeless elevator, whose output power density is higher and weight is lighter than conventional linear synchronous motors, When the designed motor in this study is applied to ropeless elevator, it is possible to increase power density more than 400% comparing with PM exited linear synchronous motor. The result of this study can be utilized for ropeless elevator or gearless direct linear moving system with high output[3]. (author). 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. A square-plate ultrasonic linear motor operating in two orthogonal first bending modes.

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Dong, Shuxiang

    2013-01-01

    A novel square-plate piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor operated in two orthogonal first bending vibration modes (B₁) is proposed. The piezoelectric vibrator of the linear motor is simply made of a single PZT ceramic plate (sizes: 15 x 15 x 2 mm) and poled in its thickness direction. The top surface electrode of the square ceramic plate was divided into four active areas along its two diagonal lines for exciting two orthogonal B₁ modes. The achieved driving force and speed from the linear motor are 1.8 N and 230 mm/s, respectively, under one pair orthogonal voltage drive of 150 V(p-p) at the resonance frequency of 92 kHz. The proposed linear motor has advantages over conventional ultrasonic linear motors, such as relatively larger driving force, very simple working mode and structure, and low fabrication cost.

  17. Influence analysis of structural parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    Zhao, J.; Zheng, T.Q.; Zhang, W.; Fang, J.; Liu, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new type high temperature superconductor linear induction motor is designed and analyzed as a prototype to ensure applicability aimed at industrial motors. Made of Bi-2223/Ag, primary windings are distributed with the double-layer concentrated structure. The motor is analyzed by 2D electromagnetic Finite Element Method to get magnetic field distribution, thrust force, vertical force and so on. The critical current of motor and the electromagnetic force are mostly decided by the leakage flux density of primary slot and by the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively. The structural parameters of motor have a great influence on the distribution of magnetic field. Under constant currents, the properties of motor are analyzed with different slot widths, slot heights and winding turns. The properties of motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust and motor vertical force, are analyzed with different structural parameters.

  18. Design and performance testing of an ultrasonic linear motor with dual piezoelectric actuators.

    Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn; Suybangdum, Panumas; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Muensit, Nantakan

    2012-05-01

    In this work, design and performance testing of an ultrasonic linear motor with dual piezoelectric actuator patches are studied. The motor system consists of a linear stator, a pre-load weight, and two piezoelectric actuator patches. The piezoelectric actuators are bonded with the linear elastic stator at specific locations. The stator generates propagating waves when the piezoelectric actuators are subjected to harmonic excitations. Vibration characteristics of the linear stator are analyzed and compared with finite element and experimental results. The analytical, finite element, and experimental results show agreement. In the experiments, performance of the ultrasonic linear motor is tested. Relationships between velocity and pre-load weight, velocity and applied voltage, driving force and applied voltage, and velocity and driving force are reported. The design of the dual piezoelectric actuators yields a simpler structure with a smaller number of actuators and lower stator stiffness compared with a conventional design of an ultrasonic linear motor with fully laminated piezoelectric actuators.

  19. Traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor part II: experiment and performance evaluation.

    Ting, Yung; Li, Chun-Chung; Chen, Liang-Chiang; Yang, Chieh-Min

    2007-04-01

    This article continues the discussion of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. Part I of this article dealt with the design and analysis of the stator of a traveling-wave piezoelectric linear motor. In this part, the discussion focuses on the structure and modeling of the contact layer and the carriage. In addition, the performance analysis and evaluation of the linear motor also are dealt with in this study. The traveling wave is created by stator, which is constructed by a series of bimorph actuators arranged in a line and connected to form a meander-line structure. Analytical and experimental results of the performance are presented and shown to be almost in agreement. Power losses due to friction and transmission are studied and found to be significant. Compared with other types of linear motors, the motor in this study is capable of supporting heavier loads and provides a larger thrust force.

  20. Motor proteins and molecular motors: how to operate machines at the nanoscale

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2013-01-01

    Several classes of biological molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical work are known as motor proteins or molecular motors. These nanometer-sized machines operate in noisy stochastic isothermal environments, strongly supporting fundamental cellular processes such as the transfer of genetic information, transport, organization and functioning. In the past two decades motor proteins have become a subject of intense research efforts, aimed at uncovering the fundamental principles and mechanisms of molecular motor dynamics. In this review, we critically discuss recent progress in experimental and theoretical studies on motor proteins. Our focus is on analyzing fundamental concepts and ideas that have been utilized to explain the non-equilibrium nature and mechanisms of molecular motors. (topical review)

  1. Linear summation of outputs in a balanced network model of motor cortex.

    Capaday, Charles; van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Given the non-linearities of the neural circuitry's elements, we would expect cortical circuits to respond non-linearly when activated. Surprisingly, when two points in the motor cortex are activated simultaneously, the EMG responses are the linear sum of the responses evoked by each of the points activated separately. Additionally, the corticospinal transfer function is close to linear, implying that the synaptic interactions in motor cortex must be effectively linear. To account for this, here we develop a model of motor cortex composed of multiple interconnected points, each comprised of reciprocally connected excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show how non-linearities in neuronal transfer functions are eschewed by strong synaptic interactions within each point. Consequently, the simultaneous activation of multiple points results in a linear summation of their respective outputs. We also consider the effects of reduction of inhibition at a cortical point when one or more surrounding points are active. The network response in this condition is linear over an approximately two- to three-fold decrease of inhibitory feedback strength. This result supports the idea that focal disinhibition allows linear coupling of motor cortical points to generate movement related muscle activation patterns; albeit with a limitation on gain control. The model also explains why neural activity does not spread as far out as the axonal connectivity allows, whilst also explaining why distant cortical points can be, nonetheless, functionally coupled by focal disinhibition. Finally, we discuss the advantages that linear interactions at the cortical level afford to motor command synthesis.

  2. Mathematical models of flat linear induction motors used in mining drives

    Tall, M

    1984-01-01

    Design parameters are calculated for electric flat linear induction motors, widely employed in the coal and ore mining industries in Poland. A mathematical model of this motor with a single-layer ferromagnetic secondary part is presented. A three-dimensional electromagnetic field analysis is carried out, taking relative magnetic permeability variation, discrete winding distribution, influence of armature grooving and pulsating field influence into account. A computer calculation algorithm is proposed for determining motor characteristics. 17 refs.

  3. Effect of Frequency and Spatial-Harmonics on Rotary and Linear Induction Motor Characteristics

    1972-03-01

    A computer analysis is made of the effect of current and MMF airgap harmonics on the output characteristics of rotary and linear induction motors. The current harmonics accompanying thyristor-control operation are evaluated by Fourier analyzing the p...

  4. A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes.

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes was proposed in this study. The stator (or actuator) of the linear motor was made of a simple single Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramic square plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm(3)) with a circular hole (D = 6.7 mm) in the center. The geometric parameters of the stator were computed with the finite element analysis to produce in-plane bi-mode standing wave vibration. The calculated results predicted that a driving tip attached at midpoint of one edge of the stator can produce two orthogonal, approximate straight-line trajectories, which can be used to move a slider in linear motion via frictional forces in forward or reverse direction. The investigations showed that the proposed linear motor can produce a six times higher power density than that of a previously reported square plate motor.

  5. Coreless Linear Induction Motor (LIM) for Space-borne Electro-magnetic Mass Driver Applications

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large scale linear induction motors use ferromagnetic cores, but at high speed these cores choke the system’s ability to transform electrical energy into mechanical...

  6. Linear estimation discriminates midline sources and motor cortex contribution to the readiness potential

    Knosche, Thomas; Knosche, T.R.; Praamstra, Peter; Peters, M.J.; Stegeman, Dick; Stegeman, D.

    1996-01-01

    Spatiotemporal dipole modelling of the generators of the readiness potential (RP) prior to voluntary movements has yielded diverging results concerning the contributions of supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortex. We applied an alternative approach (i.e. linear estimation theory) to

  7. MAGNETIC INDUCTION DISTRIBUTION IN A LINEAR SYNCHRONUS MOTOR WITH MAGNETIC SUSPENSION

    D.I. Parkhomenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer simulation and experimental investigations of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear synchronous motor with magnetic suspension are presented. The magnetic induction distribution has been studied both in the motor air gap and on the runner surface.

  8. Study on a high thrust force bi-double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor

    Liang Tong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A high thrust force bi-double-sided permanent magnet linear synchronous motor used in gantry-type five-axis machining center is designed and its performance was tested in this article. This motor is the subproject of Chinese National Science and Technology Major Project named as “development of domestic large thrust linear motor used in high-speed gantry-type five-axis machining center project” jointly participated by enterprises and universities. According to the requirement of the application environment and motor performance parameters, the linear motor’s basic dimensions, form of windings, and magnet arrangement are preliminarily specified through theoretical analysis and calculation. To verify the correctness of the result of the calculation, the finite element model of the motor is established. The static and dynamic characteristics of the motor are studied and analyzed through the finite element method, and the initial scheme is revised. The prototype of the motor is manufactured based on the final revised structure parameters, and the performance of the motor is fully tested using the evaluation platform for direct-drive motor component. Experimental test results meet the design requirements and show the effectiveness of design method and process.

  9. Fluid powered linear piston motor with harmonic coupling

    Raymond, David W.

    2016-09-20

    A motor is disclosed that includes a module assembly including a piston that is axially cycled. The piston axial motion is coupled to torque couplers that convert the axial motion into rotary motion. The torque couplers are coupled to a rotor to rotate the rotor.

  10. A T-shape linear piezoelectric motor with single foot.

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Yang, Xiaohui; Liu, Junkao

    2015-02-01

    A new T-shape piezoelectric motor using the hybrid of two orthogonal longitudinal vibrations is proposed in this work. Six pieces of PZT ceramic plates are bonded on the upside and downside surfaces of a T-shape duralumin alloy base respectively to form the proposed motor. Elliptical movement can be generated on the driving tip by applying sine and cosine voltages to the PZT elements. The horizontal displacement of the driving tip will push the runner while the vertical displacement can overcome the preload. Finite element method is used to accomplish the design and analysis process. The resonance frequencies of the two vibration modes are tuned to be close by modal analysis, while the motion trajectory of the driving tip is observed by transient analysis. After the fabrication of a prototype, the vibration characteristics and mechanical output ability are measured. The no-load speed and the maximum output thrust force of the proposed motor are tested to be 718 mm/s and 3.5 N under an exciting frequency of 53.1 kHz. The proposed T-shape piezoelectric motor exhibits merits of simple structure, easy to realize miniaturization, easy to be fabricated, and high power-to-weight ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a sub-nanometer positioning device: combining a new linear motor with linear motion ball guide ways

    Otsuka, J; Tanaka, T; Masuda, I

    2010-01-01

    A new type of linear motor described in this note has some advantages compared with conventional motors. The attractive magnetic force between the stator (permanent magnets) and mover (armature) is diminished almost to zero. The efficiency is better because the magnetic flux leakage is very small, the size of motor is smaller and detent (force ripple) is smaller than for conventional motors. Therefore, we think that this motor is greatly suitable for ultra-precision positioning as an actuator. An ultra-precision positioning device using this motor and linear motion ball guide ways is newly developed by making the device very rigid and using a suitable control method. Moreover, the positioning performance is evaluated by a positioning resolution, and deviation and dispersion errors. As a result of repeated step response tests, the positioning resolution is 0.3 nm, with the deviation error and dispersion error (3σ) being sub-nanometer. Consequently, the positioning device achieves sub-nanometer positioning. (technical design note)

  12. Principle and analysis of a linear motor driving system for HTS levitation applications

    Jin, Jian X.; Guo, You G.; Zhu, Jian G.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) high levitation force density with passive and self-stabilizing features allows a number of special applications to be developed. Linear motor driving systems are commonly required for those applications such as levitated transport systems. In this paper a prototype linear motor driving system with HTS is analyzed with calculation details including its magnetic fields and driving forces presented in the paper

  13. Direct torque control with feedback linearization for induction motor drives

    Lascu, Cristian; Jafarzadeh, Saeed; Fadali, Sami M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a Direct Torque Controlled (DTC) Induction Machine (IM) drive that employs feedback linearization and sliding-mode control. A feedback linearization approach is investigated, which yields a decoupled linear IM model with two state variables: torque and stator flux magnitude....... This intuitive linear model is used to implement a DTC type controller that preserves all DTC advantages and eliminates its main drawback, the flux and torque ripple. Robust, fast, and ripple-free control is achieved by using Variable Structure Control (VSC) with proportional control in the vicinity...... robust stability analysis are presented. The sliding controller is compared with a linear DTC scheme, and experimental results for a sensorless IM drive validate the proposed solution....

  14. Survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons determines synaptic integrity in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Martinez, Tara L; Kong, Lingling; Wang, Xueyong; Osborne, Melissa A; Crowder, Melissa E; Van Meerbeke, James P; Xu, Xixi; Davis, Crystal; Wooley, Joe; Goldhamer, David J; Lutz, Cathleen M; Rich, Mark M; Sumner, Charlotte J

    2012-06-20

    The inherited motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deficient expression of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and results in severe muscle weakness. In SMA mice, synaptic dysfunction of both neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and central sensorimotor synapses precedes motor neuron cell death. To address whether this synaptic dysfunction is due to SMN deficiency in motor neurons, muscle, or both, we generated three lines of conditional SMA mice with tissue-specific increases in SMN expression. All three lines of mice showed increased survival, weights, and improved motor behavior. While increased SMN expression in motor neurons prevented synaptic dysfunction at the NMJ and restored motor neuron somal synapses, increased SMN expression in muscle did not affect synaptic function although it did improve myofiber size. Together these data indicate that both peripheral and central synaptic integrity are dependent on motor neurons in SMA, but SMN may have variable roles in the maintenance of these different synapses. At the NMJ, it functions at the presynaptic terminal in a cell-autonomous fashion, but may be necessary for retrograde trophic signaling to presynaptic inputs onto motor neurons. Importantly, SMN also appears to function in muscle growth and/or maintenance independent of motor neurons. Our data suggest that SMN plays distinct roles in muscle, NMJs, and motor neuron somal synapses and that restored function of SMN at all three sites will be necessary for full recovery of muscle power.

  15. A double B1-mode 4-layer laminated piezoelectric linear motor.

    Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang

    2012-12-01

    We report a miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic linear motor that is made of four Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic layers for low-voltage work. The 4-layer piezoelectric laminate works in two orthogonal first-bending modes for producing elliptical oscillations, which are then used to drive a contacting slider into continuous linear motion. Experimental results show that the miniature linear motor (size: 4 × 4 × 12 mm, weight: 1.7 g) can generate a large driving force of 0.48 N and a linear motion speed of up to 160 mm/s, using a 40 V(pp)/mm voltage drive at its resonance frequency of 64.5 kHz. The maximum efficiency of the linear motor is 30%.

  16. Evaluation of synthetic linear motor-molecule actuation energetics

    Brough, Branden; Northrop, Brian H.; Schmidt, Jacob J.; Tseng, Hsian-Rong; Houk, Kendall N.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2006-01-01

    By applying atomic force microscope (AFM)-based force spectroscopy together with computational modeling in the form of molecular force-field simulations, we have determined quantitatively the actuation energetics of a synthetic motor-molecule. This multidisciplinary approach was performed on specifically designed, bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxanes to probe the steric and electrostatic interactions that dictate their mechanical switching at the single-molecule level. The fusion of expe...

  17. Stepping motor adaptor actuator for a commercial uhv linear motion feedthrough

    Iarocci, M.; Oversluizen, T.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptor coupling has been developed that will allow the attachment of a standard stepping motor to a precision commercial (Varian) uhv linear motion feedthrough. The assembly, consisting of the motor, motor adaptor, limit switches, etc. is clamped to the feedthrough body which can be done under vacuum conditions if necessary. With a 500 step/rev. stepping motor the resolution is 1.27 μm per step. We presently use this assembly in a remote location for the precise positioning of a beam sensing monitor. 2 refs., 3 figs

  18. Shuffle motor: a high force, high precision linear electrostatic stepper motor

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Wissink, Jeroen; Sander, A.F.M.; Sander, Louis; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1997-01-01

    The shuffle motor is a electrostatic stepper motor that employs a mechanical transformation to obtain high forces and small steps. A model has been made to calculate the driving voltage, step size and maximum load to pull as well as the optimal geometry. Tests results are an effective step size of

  19. Design optimization of a linear permanent magnet synchronous motor for extra low force pulsations

    Isfahani, Aarsh Hassanpour; Vaez-Zadeh, Sadegh

    2007-01-01

    Air cored linear permanent magnet synchronous motors have essentially low force pulsations due to the lack of the primary iron core and teeth. However, a motor design with much lower force pulsations is required for many precise positioning systems, as in fabrication of microelectronic chips. This paper presents the design optimization of an air cored linear permanent magnet synchronous motor with extra low force pulsations for such applications. In order to achieve the goal, an analytical layer model of the machine is developed. A very effective objective function regarding force pulsations is then proposed; while the selected motor dimensions are regarded as the design variables. A genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal motor dimensions. This results in a substantial ninety percent reduction in the force pulsations. The design optimization is verified by a finite element method

  20. Drive of a rail locomotive using linear motors. Antrieb eines schienengebundenen Triebfahrzeuges mit Hilfe von Linearmotoren

    Kagischke, W; Steffen, U

    1977-12-08

    The purpose of the invention is to avoid the disadvantages of asynchronous linear motors, for example for need for reactive current for excitation, where driving on a normal section and driving on a branch line should be possible without losing the saving in weight on the inductor. According to the invention, the common inductor on a synchronous linear motor consists of 2 parallel packets of laminations surrounded by DC excitation windings and the secondary systems consists of unwound and spaced magnetic sections covering the two packets of laminations on the normal section. In the direction of thrust, their length extends nearly over the pole pitch of the multi-phase AC winding. According to the invetnion, this drive therefore consists of a synchronous linear motor combined into a double motor, with an external, rail shaped fixed secondary system, which has a multi-phase AC winding opposite it.

  1. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2015-12-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  2. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule–motor-protein assemblies

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A.; Betterton, M. D.; Shelley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate–consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation. PMID:26764729

  3. Multiscale modeling and simulation of microtubule-motor-protein assemblies.

    Gao, Tong; Blackwell, Robert; Glaser, Matthew A; Betterton, M D; Shelley, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules and motor proteins self-organize into biologically important assemblies including the mitotic spindle and the centrosomal microtubule array. Outside of cells, microtubule-motor mixtures can form novel active liquid-crystalline materials driven out of equilibrium by adenosine triphosphate-consuming motor proteins. Microscopic motor activity causes polarity-dependent interactions between motor proteins and microtubules, but how these interactions yield larger-scale dynamical behavior such as complex flows and defect dynamics is not well understood. We develop a multiscale theory for microtubule-motor systems in which Brownian dynamics simulations of polar microtubules driven by motors are used to study microscopic organization and stresses created by motor-mediated microtubule interactions. We identify polarity-sorting and crosslink tether relaxation as two polar-specific sources of active destabilizing stress. We then develop a continuum Doi-Onsager model that captures polarity sorting and the hydrodynamic flows generated by these polar-specific active stresses. In simulations of active nematic flows on immersed surfaces, the active stresses drive turbulent flow dynamics and continuous generation and annihilation of disclination defects. The dynamics follow from two instabilities, and accounting for the immersed nature of the experiment yields unambiguous characteristic length and time scales. When turning off the hydrodynamics in the Doi-Onsager model, we capture formation of polar lanes as observed in the Brownian dynamics simulation.

  4. Linearization of the Bradford Protein Assay

    Ernst, Orna; Zor, Tsaffrir

    2010-01-01

    Determination of microgram quantities of protein in the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is accomplished by measurement of absorbance at 590 nm. This most common assay enables rapid and simple protein quantification in cell lysates, cellular fractions, or recombinant protein samples, for the purpose of normalization of biochemical measurements. However, an intrinsic nonlinearity compromises the sensitivity and accuracy of this method. It is shown that under standard assay conditions, t...

  5. Computation of magnetic field in DC brushless linear motors built with NdFeB magnets

    Basak, A.; Shirkoohi, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    A software package based on finite element technique has been used to compute three-dimensional magnetic fields and static forces developed in brushless d.c. linear motors. As the field flux-source two different types of permanent magnets, one of them being the high energy neodymium- iron-boron type, has been used in computer models. Motors with the same specifications as the computer models were built and experimental results obtained from them are compared with the computed results

  6. Dynamic diagnostics of moving ferromagnetic material with the linear induction motor

    Szewczyk Krzysztof; Walasek Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the application of a three-phase induction motor as a sensor measuring the force of the electromagnetic field connection between the engine and produced sheet steel. The force interaction between the engine and the manufactured sheet metal treated as a treadmill for a linear motor may be an indicator of damage to the material. Detection of places where the sheet does not meet the quality requirements may be very useful in the production process. FEM calculations were perfor...

  7. Efficiency Improvement of a High Dynamic BLDC Linear Motor by Multiphase Control

    Lemmens, Joris; Vanvlasselaer, Kris; Mulier, Kristof; Goossens, Stijn; Symens, Wim; Driesen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a multiphase control strategy for a high dynamic brushless DC linear motor as an alternative for conventional three-phase field-oriented control. Analysis of the magnetic field waveforms shows that three-phase control is not optimal for the 6-slot 7-pole motor topology. Therefore, a multiphase control strategy is elaborated which injects currents proportional to the electromotive force into each of the nine stator coil groups. This results in a maximal alignment force ...

  8. Linear switched reluctance motor control with PIC18F452 microcontroller

    DURSUN, Mahir; KOÇ, Fatmagül

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation, control, and experimental results of the velocity of a double-sided, 6/4-poled, 3-phased, 8 A, 24 V, 250 W, and 250 N pull force linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM). In the simulation and experimental study, the reference velocity is constant depending on the position and time. The velocity versus the position of the translator was controlled with fuzzy logic control (FLC) and proportional-integral (PI) control techniques. The motor was control...

  9. A novel tubular linear motor equipped with radially anisotropic NdFeB ring magnets

    Hor, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design synthesis and optimisation of a novel tubular linear motor employing radially magnetised anisotropic ring magnets. Design issues, related to optimising the dimensions for maximum acceleration capability, minimum cogging force and low harmonic distortion in the emf waveform, are discussed. The influence of inhomogeneities in the magnets on the performance of a prototype motor is discussed, and its dynamic performance is validated experimentally against a typical target specification for automated high-speed manufacturing applications. (orig.)

  10. The dynamic response of a linear brushless D.C. motor

    Moghani, J.S.; Eastham, J.F. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes the use of the Matlab Analogue Simulation Toolbox SIMULINK for the closed loop dynamic modeling of a linear brushless dc motor which is supplied from a delta-modulated inverter. The work is validated by experimental results taken from a large test rig. Linear version of all rotating machines are possible; a rotating machine can be notionally cut along a radial plane and unrolled to yield a linear version. The most popular form of linear machine, as judged by the quantities that have been produced is the linear induction motor. This has the advantage of first an inexpensive secondary that is often a simple iron backed conducting plate, and secondly the possibility of simple voltage control. The linear brushless synchronous motor is potentially more expensive to produce than its induction counterpart because of the permanent magnets which provide the excitation mmf and the necessity of an inverter supply. However the machine has a power factor efficiency product which can be double that of an induction motor together with about twice the tractive force per pole area.

  11. A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet.

    Liu, Yingxiang; Liu, Junkao; Chen, Weishan; Shi, Shengjun

    2012-05-01

    A U-shaped linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with double feet was proposed in this paper. The proposed motor contains a horizontal transducer and two vertical transducers. The horizontal transducer includes two exponential shape horns located at the leading ends, and each vertical transducer contains one exponential shape horn. The horns of the horizontal transducer and the vertical transducer intersect at the tip ends where the driving feet are located. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical motions at the driving feet. The two vibration modes of the motor are discussed, and the motion trajectories of driving feet are deduced. By adjusting the structural parameters, the resonance frequencies of two vibration modes were degenerated. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 854 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 40 N at a voltage of 200 V(rms).

  12. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR BY EDDY CURRENT AND FLUX DENSITY DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS

    M. S. MANNA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of electromagnetic devices as machines, transformers, heating devices confronts the engineers with several problems. For the design of an optimized geometry and the prediction of the operational behaviour an accurate knowledge of the dependencies of the field quantities inside the magnetic circuits is necessary. This paper provides the eddy current and core flux density distribution analysis in linear induction motor. Magnetic flux in the air gap of the Linear Induction Motor (LIM is reduced to various losses such as end effects, fringes, effect, skin effects etc. The finite element based software package COMSOL Multiphysics Inc. USA is used to get the reliable and accurate computational results for optimization the performance of Linear Induction Motor (LIM. The geometrical characteristics of LIM are varied to find the optimal point of thrust and minimum flux leakage during static and dynamic conditions.

  13. Numerical studies on the force characteristic of superconducting linear synchronous motor with HTS bulk magnet

    Tang, Junjie; Li, Jing; Li, Xiang; Han, Le

    2018-03-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) bulks have significant potential use in linear motor application act as quasi-permanent magnet to replace traditional magnets. Force characteristic between HTS bulk magnet and traveling magnetic field was investigated with numerical simulation and experimental measurement in this paper. Influences of bulk height and number on the force characteristic were studied by the finite element model considering the nonlinear E-J relationship. Study was also made on addition of a back iron plate to the bulk magnet. Besides, force characteristic of bulk was compared with the permanent magnet results. The small initial decrease of the thrust could be explained by inside superconducting current redistribution. It was found that efficiency of linear motor did not increase by adding more bulk magnets. The bulk magnet will be remagnetized instead of erasing trapped field with the increase of the traveling magnetic field strength. The conclusions are helpful in prediction and design the linear motor with HTS bulk magnet.

  14. Impact of fluorescent protein fusions on the bacterial flagellar motor.

    Heo, M; Nord, A L; Chamousset, D; van Rijn, E; Beaumont, H J E; Pedaci, F

    2017-10-03

    Fluorescent fusion proteins open a direct and unique window onto protein function. However, they also introduce the risk of perturbation of the function of the native protein. Successful applications of fluorescent fusions therefore rely on a careful assessment and minimization of the side effects, but such insight is still lacking for many applications. This is particularly relevant in the study of the internal dynamics of motor proteins, where both the chemical and mechanical reaction coordinates can be affected. Fluorescent proteins fused to the stator of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor (BFM) have previously been used to unveil the motor subunit dynamics. Here we report the effects on single motors of three fluorescent proteins fused to the stators, all of which altered BFM behavior. The torque generated by individual stators was reduced while their stoichiometry remained unaffected. MotB fusions decreased the switching frequency and induced a novel bias-dependent asymmetry in the speed in the two directions. These effects could be mitigated by inserting a linker at the fusion point. These findings provide a quantitative account of the effects of fluorescent fusions to the stator on BFM dynamics and their alleviation- new insights that advance the use of fluorescent fusions to probe the dynamics of protein complexes.

  15. Force Profiles of a Linear Switched Reluctance Motor Having Special Pole Face Shapes

    CHADRESEKAR, V.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of a finite element analysis are carried out on an new stator geometry of a three phase longitudinal flux Linear Switched Reluctance Motor (LSRM. In the new geometry, pole shoes are affixed to the stator poles. Static and dynamic characteristics for the proposed structure have been highlighted. Motor performance for variable load conditions is discussed. Frequency spectrum analyses of force profile using the fast Fourier transform (FFT are described to predict the vibration frequencies. The 2-Dimensional (2-D finite element analysis (FEA and the experimental results of this paper prove that LSRMs are one of the strong candidates for linear propulsion drives.

  16. Apparatus and method to pulverize rock using a superconducting electromagnetic linear motor

    Ignatiev, Alex (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rock pulverizer device based on a superconducting linear motor. The superconducting electromagnetic rock pulverizer accelerates a projectile via a superconducting linear motor and directs the projectile at high speed toward a rock structure that is to be pulverized by collision of the speeding projectile with the rock structure. The rock pulverizer is comprised of a trapped field superconducting secondary magnet mounted on a movable car following a track, a wire wound series of primary magnets mounted on the track, and the complete magnet/track system mounted on a vehicle used for movement of the pulverizer through a mine as well as for momentum transfer during launch of the rock breaking projectile.

  17. Investigation and Calculation of Magnetic Field in Tubular Linear Reluctance Motor Using FEM

    MOSALLANEJAD, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the magnetic flux density of tubular linear reluctance motor (TLRM in open type magnetic circuit is studied. Also, all magnetic flux density calculation methods in winding of tubular linear reluctance motor are described. The effect of structure parameters on magnetic flux density is also discussed. Electromagnetic finite-element analysis is used for simulation of magnetic field, and simulation results of the magnetic field analysis with DC voltage excitation are compared with results obtained from calculation methods. The comparison yields a good agreement.

  18. International program on linear electric motors. CIGGT report No. 92-1

    Dawson, G.E.; Eastham, A.R.; Parker, J.H.

    1992-12-31

    The International Program for Linear Electric Motors (LEM) was begun in April 1989 to communicate and coordinate activities with centers of expertise in Germany, Canada, and Japan; to provide for the assessment and support of the planning of technological developments and for dissemination of information to researchers, service operators, and policy makers; and to ensure that full advantage can be taken if opportunities for technology transfer occur. This report documents the work done under the program, including standardizing linear induction motor (LIM) design characteristics; test procedures and measurement methods; rating; database for design data; criteria for evaluation of designs; computer programs for modelling performance; and a design study for an agreed application.

  19. Modeling and analysis of mover gaps in tubular moving-magnet linear oscillating motors

    Xuesong LUO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A tubular moving-magnet linear oscillating motor (TMMLOM has merits of high efficiency and excellent dynamic capability. To enhance the thrust performance, quasi-Halbach permanent magnet (PM arrays are arranged on its mover in the application of a linear electro-hydrostatic actuator in more electric aircraft. The arrays are assembled by several individual segments, which lead to gaps between them inevitably. To investigate the effects of the gaps on the radial magnetic flux density and the machine thrust in this paper, an analytical model is built considering both axial and radial gaps. The model is validated by finite element simulations and experimental results. Distributions of the magnetic flux are described in condition of different sizes of radial and axial gaps. Besides, the output force is also discussed in normal and end windings. Finally, the model has demonstrated that both kinds of gaps have a negative effect on the thrust, and the linear motor is more sensitive to radial ones. Keywords: Air-gap flux density, Linear motor, Mover gaps, Quasi-Halbach array, Thrust output, Tubular moving-magnet linear oscillating motor (TMMLOM

  20. Force prediction in permanent magnet flat linear motors (abstract)

    Eastham, J.F.; Akmese, R.

    1991-01-01

    The advent of neodymium iron boron rare-earth permanent magnet material has afforded the opportunity to construct linear machines of high force to weight ratio. The paper describes the design and construction of an axial flux machine and rotating drum test rig. The machine occupies an arc of 45 degree on a drum 1.22 m in diameter. The excitation is provided by blocks of NdFeB material which are skewed in order to minimize the force variations due to slotting. The stator carries a three-phase short-chorded double-layer winding of four poles. The machine is supplied by a PWM inverter the fundamental component of which is phase locked to the rotor position so that a ''dc brushless'' drive system is produced. Electromagnetic forces including ripple forces are measured at supply frequencies up to 100 Hz. They are compared with finite-element analysis which calculates the force variation over the time period. The paper then considers some of the causes of ripple torque. In particular, the force production due solely to the permanent magnet excitation is considered. This has two important components each acting along the line of motion of the machine, one is due to slotting and the other is due to the finite length of the primary. In the practical machine the excitation poles are skewed to minimize the slotting force and the effectiveness of this is confirmed by both results from the experiments and the finite-element analysis. The end effect force is shown to have a space period of twice that of the excitation. The amplitude of this force and its period are again confirmed by practical results

  1. Generating linear regression model to predict motor functions by use of laser range finder during TUG.

    Adachi, Daiki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Hotta, Takayuki; Tashiro, Yuto; Morino, Saori; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Yorozu, Ayanori; Takahashi, Masaki; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which spatial and temporal parameters of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test are associated with motor function in elderly individuals. This study included 99 community-dwelling women aged 72.9 ± 6.3 years. Step length, step width, single support time, variability of the aforementioned parameters, gait velocity, cadence, reaction time from starting signal to first step, and minimum distance between the foot and a marker placed to 3 in front of the chair were measured using our analysis system. The 10-m walk test, five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test, and one-leg standing (OLS) test were used to assess motor function. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine which TUG test parameters were associated with each motor function test. Finally, we calculated a predictive model for each motor function test using each regression coefficient. In stepwise linear regression analysis, step length and cadence were significantly associated with the 10-m walk test, FTSTS and OLS test. Reaction time was associated with the FTSTS test, and step width was associated with the OLS test. Each predictive model showed a strong correlation with the 10-m walk test and OLS test (P motor function test. Moreover, the TUG test time regarded as the lower extremity function and mobility has strong predictive ability in each motor function test. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Linear Motor Motion Control Experiment System Design Based on LabVIEW

    Cuixian He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the needs of experimental training of electrical information industry, a linear motor motion experiment system based on LabVIEW was developed. This system is based on the STM32F103ZET6 system processor controller, a state signal when the motor moves through the grating encoder feedback controller to form a closed loop, through the RS232 serial port communication with the host computer, the host computer is designed in the LabVIEW interactive environment monitoring software. Combined with the modular design concept proposed overall program, given the detailed hardware circuit, targeted for the software function design, to achieve man-machine interface. The system control of high accuracy, good stability, meet the training requirements for laboratory equipment, but also as a reference embodiment of the linear motor monitoring system.

  3. A speed estimation unit for induction motors based on adaptive linear combiner

    Marei, Mostafa I.; Shaaban, Mostafa F.; El-Sattar, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new induction motor speed estimation technique, which can estimate the rotor resistance as well, from the measured voltage and current signals. Moreover, the paper utilizes a novel adaptive linear combiner (ADALINE) structure for speed and rotor resistance estimations. This structure can deal with the multi-output systems and it is called MO-ADALINE. The model of the induction motor is arranged in a linear form, in the stationary reference frame, to cope with the proposed speed estimator. There are many advantages of the proposed unit such as wide speed range capability, immunity against harmonics of measured waveforms, and precise estimation of the speed and the rotor resistance at different dynamic changes. Different types of induction motor drive systems are used to evaluate the dynamic performance and to examine the accuracy of the proposed unit for speed and rotor resistance estimation.

  4. Thrust Reduction of Magnetic Levitation Vehicle Driven by Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor

    Wan-Tsun Tseng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The propulsion technology of long stator linear synchronous motors is used to drive high-speed maglev trains. The linear synchronous motor stator is divided into sections placed on guideway. The electric power supplies to stator sections in which the train just passes in change-step mode for long-distance operation. However, a thrust drop will be caused by change-step machinery for driving magnetic vehicle. According to the train speed and vehicle data, the change-step mode has three types of operation, namely premature commutation, simultaneous commutation, and late commutation. Each type of operation has a different thrust drop which can be affected by several parameters such as jerk, running speed, motor section length, and vehicle data. This paper focuses on determining the thrust drop of the change-step mode. The study results of this paper can be used to improve the operation system of high-speed maglev trains.

  5. Application of static var compensator on large synchronous motors based on linear optimization control design

    Soltani, J.; Fath Abadi, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of static var compensators, on an electrical distribution network containing two large synchronous motors, one of which is excited via a three-phase thyristor bridge rectifier. The second machine is excited via a diode bridge rectifier. Based on linear optimization control, the measurable feedback signals are applied to the control system loops of static var compensators and the excitation control loop of the first synchronous motor. The phase equations method was used to develop a computer program to model the distribution network. Computer results were obtained to demonstrate the system performance for some abnormal modes of operation. These results show that employing static var compensators based on the linear optimization control design for electrical distribution networks containing large synchronous motors is beneficial and may be considered a first stage of the system design

  6. Thermal analysis of linear pulse motor for SMART control element drive mechanism

    Hur, H.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, K. C.; Kang, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    It is important that the temperature of the motor windings be maintained within the allowable limit of the insulation, since the linear pulse motor of CEDM is always supplied with current during the reactor operation. In this study three motor windings were fabricated with three different diameters of coil wires, and the temperatures inside the windings were measured with different current values. As the insulation of the windings is composed of teflon, glass fiber, and air, it is not an easy task to determine experimentally the thermal properties of the complex insulation. In this study, the thermal properties of the insulation were obtained by comparing the results of finite element thermal analyses and those of experiment. The thermal properties obtained here will be used as input for the optimization analysis of the motor

  7. Speed Sensorless mixed sensitivity linear parameter variant H_inf control of the induction motor

    Toth, R.; Fodor, D.

    2004-01-01

    The paper shows the design of a robust control structure for the speed sensorless vector control of the IM, based on the mixed sensitivity (MS) linear parameter variant (LPV) H8 control theory. The controller makes possible the direct control of the flux and speed of the motor with torque adaptation

  8. Spectral element model for 2-D electrostatic fields in a linear synchronous motor

    van Beek, T.A.; Curti, M.; Jansen, J.W.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fast and accurate 2-D spectral element model for analyzing electric field distributions in linear synchronous motors. The electric field distribution is derived using the electric scalar potential for static cases. The spatial potential and electric field distributions obtained

  9. Torque decomposition and control in an iron core linear permanent magnet motor.

    Overboom, T.T.; Smeets, J.P.C.; Stassen, J.M.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—This paper concerns the decomposition and control of the torque produced by an iron core linear permanent magnet motor. The proposed method is based on the dq0-decomposition of the three-phase currents using Park’s transformation. The torque is decomposed into a reluctance component and two

  10. Power-optimal force decoupling in a hybrid linear reluctance motor

    Overboom, T.T.; Smeets, J.P.C.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.A.; Mavrudieva, D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns the power-optimal decoupling of the propulsion and normal force created by a hybrid linear reluctance motor. The intrinsic limitations to the decoupling is addressed by the visualizing each force component with a quadric surface in the Euclidean space which is spanned by the

  11. Comparison of Thrust Characteristics in Pencil Sized Cylinder-type Linear Motors with Different Magnet Arrays

    Nakaiwa, K; Yamada, A; Tashiro, K; Wakiwaka, H

    2009-01-01

    From a strong demand on the miniaturization of a chip mounter or a semiconductor device, the thrust improvement considering the magnets arrangement is studied. We accept a core stator with a Halbach type magnet array for a current linear motor. The thrust characteristics are compared with two kinds of mover, a NS magnet array and a Halbach magnet array.

  12. Overview of analytical models for the design of linear and planar motors

    Jansen, J.W.; Smeets, J.P.C.; Overboom, T.T.; Rovers, J.M.M.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of analytical techniques for the modeling of linear and planar permanent-magnet motors is given. These models can be used complementary to finite element analyses for fast evaluations of topologies, but they are indispensable for the design of magnetically levitated planar

  13. Dynamic modeling and characteristics analysis of a modal-independent linear ultrasonic motor.

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Shengli; Lv, Qibao; Liu, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an integrated model is developed to analyze the fundamental characteristics of a modal-independent linear ultrasonic motor with double piezoelectric vibrators. The energy method is used to model the dynamics of the two piezoelectric vibrators. The interface forces are coupled into the dynamic equations of the two vibrators and the moving platform, forming a whole machine model of the motor. The behavior of the force transmission of the motor is analyzed via the resulting model to understand the drive mechanism. In particular, the relative contact length is proposed to describe the intermittent contact characteristic between the stator and the mover, and its role in evaluating motor performance is discussed. The relations between the output speed and various inputs to the motor and the start-stop transients of the motor are analyzed by numerical simulations, which are validated by experiments. Furthermore, the dead-zone behavior is predicted and clarified analytically using the proposed model, which is also observed in experiments. These results are useful for designing servo control scheme for the motor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  15. Current error vector based prediction control of the section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor

    Hong Junjie, E-mail: hongjjie@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Liyi, E-mail: liliyi@hit.edu.cn [Dept. Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150000 (China); Zong Zhijian; Liu Zhongtu [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The structure of the permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM) is new. {yields} A new current control method CEVPC is employed in this motor. {yields} The sectional power supply method is different to the others and effective. {yields} The performance gets worse with voltage and current limitations. - Abstract: To include features such as greater thrust density, higher efficiency without reducing the thrust stability, this paper proposes a section winding permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (SW-PMLSM), whose iron core is continuous, whereas winding is divided. The discrete system model of the motor is derived. With the definition of the current error vector and selection of the value function, the theory of the current error vector based prediction control (CEVPC) for the motor currents is explained clearly. According to the winding section feature, the motion region of the mover is divided into five zones, in which the implementation of the current predictive control method is proposed. Finally, the experimental platform is constructed and experiments are carried out. The results show: the current control effect has good dynamic response, and the thrust on the mover remains constant basically.

  16. Unmasking the linear behaviour of slow motor adaptation to prolonged convergence.

    Erkelens, Ian M; Thompson, Benjamin; Bobier, William R

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation to changing environmental demands is central to maintaining optimal motor system function. Current theories suggest that adaptation in both the skeletal-motor and oculomotor systems involves a combination of fast (reflexive) and slow (recalibration) mechanisms. Here we used the oculomotor vergence system as a model to investigate the mechanisms underlying slow motor adaptation. Unlike reaching with the upper limbs, vergence is less susceptible to changes in cognitive strategy that can affect the behaviour of motor adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that mechanisms of slow motor adaptation reflect early neural processing by assessing the linearity of adaptive responses over a large range of stimuli. Using varied disparity stimuli in conflict with accommodation, the slow adaptation of tonic vergence was found to exhibit a linear response whereby the rate (R(2)  = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and amplitude (R(2)  = 0.65, P < 0.0001) of the adaptive effects increased proportionally with stimulus amplitude. These results suggest that this slow adaptive mechanism is an early neural process, implying a fundamental physiological nature that is potentially dominated by subcortical and cerebellar substrates. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Design and testing of a coaxial linear magnetic spring with integral linear motor. [for spacecraft energy storage

    Patt, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a coaxial linear magnetic spring which incorporates a linear motor to control axial motion and overcome system damping is presented, and the results of static and dynamic tests are reported. The system has nominal stiffness 25,000 N/m and is designed to oscillate a 900-g component over a 4.6-mm stroke in a Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerator being developed for long-service (5-10-yr) space applications (Stolfi et al., 1983). Mosaics of 10 radially magnetized high-coercivity SmCO5 segments enclosed in Ti cans are employed, and the device is found to have quality factor 70-100, corresponding to energy-storage efficiency 91-94 percent. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs are provided.

  18. A superconducting linear motor drive for a positive displacement bellows pump for use in the g-2 cryogenics system

    Green, M.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forced two-phase cooling of indirectly cooled magnets requires circulation of liquid helium through the magnet cooling channel. A bellows helium pump is one possible way of providing helium flow to a magnet cooling system. Since the bellows type of helium pump is immersed in liquid helium, a superconducting linear motor drive appears to be an attractive option. This report describes a linear motor drive that employs oriented permanent magnet materials such as samarium-cobalt as the stator magnet system and a superconducting loud speaker voice coil type of drive as the armature of the linear motor. This report examines drive motor requirements for a helium pump

  19. Universal Linear Motor Driven Leg Press Dynamometer and Concept of Serial Stretch Loading.

    Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Paper deals with backgrounds and principles of universal linear motor driven leg press dynamometer and concept of serial stretch loading. The device is based on two computer controlled linear motors mounted to the horizontal rails. As the motors can keep either constant resistance force in selected position or velocity in both directions, the system allows simulation of any mode of muscle contraction. In addition, it also can generate defined serial stretch stimuli in a form of repeated force peaks. This is achieved by short segments of reversed velocity (in concentric phase) or acceleration (in eccentric phase). Such stimuli, generated at the rate of 10 Hz, have proven to be a more efficient means for the improvement of rate of the force development. This capability not only affects performance in many sports, but also plays a substantial role in prevention of falls and their consequences. Universal linear motor driven and computer controlled dynamometer with its unique feature to generate serial stretch stimuli seems to be an efficient and useful tool for enhancing strength training effects on neuromuscular function not only in athletes, but as well as in senior population and rehabilitation patients.

  20. A study on the integration of contactless energy transfer in the end teeth of a PM synchronous linear motor

    Krop, D.C.J.; Lomonova, E.A.; Jansen, J.W.; Paulides, J.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Linear motors find their utilization in an increasing number of industrial applications. Permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSMs) are favorable in many applications due to their servo characteristics, robustness, and high force density. The major disadvantage of moving coil type PMLSMs is

  1. Application of an imperialist competitive algorithm to the design of a linear induction motor

    Lucas, Caro; Nasiri-Gheidari, Zahra; Tootoonchian, Farid

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a novel optimization algorithm based on imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) is used for the design of a low speed single sided linear induction motor (LIM). This type of motors is used increasingly in industrial process specially in transportation systems. In these applications having high efficiency with high power factor is very important. So in this paper the objective function of design is presented considering both efficiency and power factor. Finally the results of ICA are compared with the ones of genetic algorithm and conventional design. Comparison shows the success of ICA for design of LIMs.

  2. Development of sealed nickel-cadmium battery for linear motor car (Maglev). Linear motor car yo Ni-Cd denchi no kaihatsu

    Kono, K; Yoshimura, H; Yufu, H [Yuasa Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1993-10-29

    Development was made of a linear motor car use battery which is strong in repetition of quick charging/discharging and characterized as follows: Its volumetric energy density is 42Wh/kg which is 1.3 times as high as the conventional one. It excels in high efficiency charging/discharging characteristics. High tension steel sheet is used for it, which is incombustible. To lighten the weight, paste type electrodes and high yield point materials were used for the positive and negative electrodes, and jar materials, respectively. To heighten the charging/discharging characteristics, used were electrodes heightened in current collecting effect. To lengthening the life, unwoven nylon cloth was used as a separator. Also to heighten the thermal discharge characteristics, the electrodes were made metallic with a fitting of cooling fins. The battery characteristics as tested gave the following result: At a capacity ratio of 100%, the discharging factor cleared its target value of development also with a high discharging voltage. The charging/discharging characteristics hardly fall in the high temperature region. The charging characteristics include quick charging made possible. As a result of cyclic simulation presuming the linear motor car, the fall in capacity per cycle was as good as 1.5%. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Inertial piezoelectric linear motor driven by a single-phase harmonic wave with automatic clamping mechanism

    He, Liangguo; Chu, Yuheng; Hao, Sai; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Dong, Yuge; Wang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    A novel, single-phase, harmonic-driven, inertial piezoelectric linear motor using an automatic clamping mechanism was designed, fabricated, and tested to reduce the sliding friction and simplify the drive mechanism and power supply control of the inertial motor. A piezoelectric bimorph and a flexible hinge were connected in series to form the automatic clamping mechanism. The automatic clamping mechanism was used as the driving and clamping elements. A dynamic simulation by Simulink was performed to prove the feasibility of the motor. The finite element method software COMSOL was used to design the structure of the motor. An experimental setup was built to validate the working principle and evaluate the performance of the motor. The prototype motor outputted a no-load velocity of 3.178 mm/s at a voltage of 220 Vp-p and a maximum traction force of 4.25 N under a preload force of 8 N. The minimum resolution of 1.14 μm was achieved at a driving frequency of 74 Hz, a driving voltage of 50 Vp-p, and a preload force of 0 N.

  4. A rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor using longitudinal vibration transducers with four driving feet.

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2013-04-01

    To make full use of the vibrational energy of a longitudinal transducer, a rectangle-type linear ultrasonic motor with four driving feet is proposed in this paper. This new motor consists of four longitudinal vibration transducers which are arranged in a rectangle and form an enclosed construction. Lead zirconate titanate ceramics are embedded into the middle of the transducer and fastened by a wedge-caulking mechanism. Each transducer includes an exponentially shaped horn located on each end. The horns of the vertical transducers intersect at the base of the horizontal transducers' horns; the tip ends of the horizontal transducers' horns are used as the driving feet. Longitudinal vibrations are superimposed in the motor and generate elliptical movements at the tip ends of the horns. The working principle of the proposed motor is analyzed. The resonance frequencies of two working modes are tuned to be close to each other by adjusting the structural parameters. Transient analysis is developed to gain the vibration characteristics of the motor. A prototype motor is fabricated and measured. The vibration test results verify the feasibility of the proposed design. Typical output of the prototype is a no-load speed of 928 mm/s and maximum thrust force of 60 N at a voltage of 200 Vrms.

  5. Development of an ultrasonic linear motor with ultra-positioning capability and four driving feet.

    Zhu, Cong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Yuan, Songmei; Zhong, Zuojin; Zhao, Yanqiang; Gao, Shuning

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel linear piezoelectric motor which is suitable for rapid ultra-precision positioning. The finite element analysis (FEA) was applied for optimal design and further analysis, then experiments were conducted to investigate its performance. By changing the input signal, the proposed motor was found capable of working in the fast driving mode as well as in the precision positioning mode. When working in the fast driving mode, the motor acts as an ultrasonic motor with maximum no-load speed up to 181.2mm/s and maximum thrust of 1.7N at 200Vp-p. Also, when working in precision positioning mode, the motor can be regarded as a flexible hinge piezoelectric actuator with arbitrary motion in the range of 8μm. The measurable minimum output displacement was found to be 0.08μm, but theoretically, can be even smaller. More importantly, the motor can be quickly and accurately positioned in a large stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Driving performance of a two-dimensional homopolar linear DC motor

    Wang, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kano, Y. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    This paper presents a novel two-dimensional homopolar linear de motor (LDM) which can realize two-dimensional (2-D) motion. For position control purposes, two kinds of position detecting methods are proposed. The position in one position is detected by means of a capacitive sensor which makes the output of the sensor partially immune to the variation of the gap between electrodes. The position in the other direction is achieved by exploiting the position dependent property of the driving coil inductance, instead of using an independent sensor. The position control is implemented on the motor and 2-D tracking performance is analyzed. Experiments show that the motor demonstrates satisfactory driving performance, 2-D tracking error being within 5.5% when the angular frequency of reference signal is 3.14 rad./s. 7 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Innervation zones of fasciculating motor units: observations by a linear electrode array.

    Jahanmiri-Nezhad, Faezeh; Barkhaus, Paul E; Rymer, William Z; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the innervation zone (IZ) in the biceps brachii muscle in healthy subjects and those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using a 20-channel linear electromyogram (EMG) electrode array. Raster plots of individual waveform potentials were studied to estimate the motor unit IZ. While this work mainly focused on fasciculation potentials (FPs), a limited number of motor unit potentials (MUPs) from voluntary activity of 12 healthy and seven ALS subjects were also examined. Abnormal propagation of MUPs and scattered IZs were observed in fasciculating units, compared with voluntarily activated MUPs in healthy and ALS subjects. These findings can be related to muscle fiber reinnervation following motor neuron degeneration in ALS and the different origin sites of FPs compared with voluntary MUPs.

  8. Torque ripple reduction of brushless DC motor based on adaptive input-output feedback linearization.

    Shirvani Boroujeni, M; Markadeh, G R Arab; Soltani, J

    2017-09-01

    Torque ripple reduction of Brushless DC Motors (BLDCs) is an interesting subject in variable speed AC drives. In this paper at first, a mathematical expression for torque ripple harmonics is obtained. Then for a non-ideal BLDC motor with known harmonic contents of back-EMF, calculation of desired reference current amplitudes, which are required to eliminate some selected harmonics of torque ripple, are reviewed. In order to inject the reference harmonic currents to the motor windings, an Adaptive Input-Output Feedback Linearization (AIOFBL) control is proposed, which generates the reference voltages for three phases voltage source inverter in stationary reference frame. Experimental results are presented to show the capability and validity of the proposed control method and are compared with the vector control in Multi-Reference Frame (MRF) and Pseudo-Vector Control (P-VC) method results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High Precision Piezoelectric Linear Motors for Operations at Cryogenic Temperatures and Vacuum

    Wong, D.; Carman, G.; Stam, M.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sen, A.; Henry, P.; Bearman, G.; Moacanin, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluated the use of an electromechanical device for optically positioning a mirror system during the pre-project phase of the Pluto-Fast-Flyby (PFF) mission. The device under consideration was a piezoelectric driven linear motor functionally dependent upon a time varying electric field which induces displacements ranging from submicrons to millimeters with positioning accuracy within nanometers. Using a control package, the mirror system provides image motion compensation and mosaicking capabilities. While this device offers unique advantages, there were concerns pertaining to its operational capabilities for the PFF mission. The issues include irradiation effects and thermal concerns. A literature study indicated that irradiation effects will not significantly impact the linear motor's operational characteristics. On the other hand, thermal concerns necessitated an in depth study.

  10. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  11. Design and experiments of a linear piezoelectric motor driven by a single mode.

    Liu, Zhen; Yao, Zhiyuan; Li, Xiang; Fu, Qianwei

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution, we propose a novel linear piezoelectric motor with a compact stator that is driven by a single mode. The linear piezoelectric motor can realize bidirectional motion by changing the vibration modes of the stator. Finite element analysis is performed to determine the required vibration mode of the stator and obtain the optimal stator structure and dimensions. Furthermore, the trajectories of the driving foot are analyzed with and without consideration of the mechanical contact with the slider. It is shown that the trajectory of the driving foot is an oblique line when disregarding the contact, and the trajectory becomes an oblique ellipse while taking into account the contact. Finally, a prototype of the motor is fabricated based on the results of finite element analysis. The optimization results show that the motor reaches its maximum thrust force of 4.0 kg, maximum thrust-weight ratio of 33.3, maximum unloaded velocity of 385 mm/s under the excitation of Mode-B, and maximum unloaded velocity of 315 mm/s under the excitation of Mode-L.

  12. Decreased function of survival motor neuron protein impairs endocytic pathways.

    Dimitriadi, Maria; Derdowski, Aaron; Kalloo, Geetika; Maginnis, Melissa S; O'Hern, Patrick; Bliska, Bryn; Sorkaç, Altar; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Cook, Steven J; Poulogiannis, George; Atwood, Walter J; Hall, David H; Hart, Anne C

    2016-07-26

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by depletion of the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, with 1 in 40 Caucasians being heterozygous for a disease allele. SMN is critical for the assembly of numerous ribonucleoprotein complexes, yet it is still unclear how reduced SMN levels affect motor neuron function. Here, we examined the impact of SMN depletion in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that decreased function of the SMN ortholog SMN-1 perturbed endocytic pathways at motor neuron synapses and in other tissues. Diminished SMN-1 levels caused defects in C. elegans neuromuscular function, and smn-1 genetic interactions were consistent with an endocytic defect. Changes were observed in synaptic endocytic proteins when SMN-1 levels decreased. At the ultrastructural level, defects were observed in endosomal compartments, including significantly fewer docked synaptic vesicles. Finally, endocytosis-dependent infection by JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was reduced in human cells with decreased SMN levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that SMN depletion causes defects in endosomal trafficking that impair synaptic function, even in the absence of motor neuron cell death.

  13. Evaluation of linear DC motor actuators for control of large space structures

    Ide, Eric Nelson

    1988-01-01

    This thesis examines the use of a linear DC motor as a proof mass actuator for the control of large space structures. A model for the actuator, including the current and force compensation used, is derived. Because of the force compensation, the actuator is unstable when placed on a structure. Relative position feedback is used for actuator stabilization. This method of compensation couples the actuator to the mast in a feedback configuration. Three compensator designs are prop...

  14. Computer-aided design studies of the homopolar linear synchronous motor

    Dawson, G. E.; Eastham, A. R.; Ong, R.

    1984-09-01

    The linear induction motor (LIM), as an urban transit drive, can provide good grade-climbing capabilities and propulsion/braking performance that is independent of steel wheel-rail adhesion. In view of its 10-12 mm airgap, the LIM is characterized by a low power factor-efficiency product of order 0.4. A synchronous machine offers high efficiency and controllable power factor. An assessment of the linear homopolar configuration of this machine is presented as an alternative to the LIM. Computer-aided design studies using the finite element technique have been conducted to identify a suitable machine design for urban transit propulsion.

  15. Position Control of Linear Synchronous Motor Drives with Exploitation of Forced Dynamics Control Principles

    Jan Vittek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.

  16. Electrohydraulic linear actuator with two stepping motors controlled by overshoot-free algorithm

    Milecki, Andrzej; Ortmann, Jarosław

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes electrohydraulic spool valves with stepping motors used as electromechanical transducers. A new concept of a proportional valve in which two stepping motors are working differentially is introduced. Such valve changes the fluid flow proportionally to the sum or difference of the motors' steps numbers. The valve design and principle of its operation is described. Theoretical equations and simulation models are proposed for all elements of the drive, i.e., the stepping motor units, hydraulic valve and cylinder. The main features of the valve and drive operation are described; some specific problem areas covering the nature of stepping motors and their differential work in the valve are also considered. The whole servo drive non-linear model is proposed and used further for simulation investigations. The initial simulation investigations of the drive with a new valve have shown that there is a significant overshoot in the drive step response, which is not allowed in positioning process. Therefore additional effort is spent to reduce the overshoot and in consequence reduce the settling time. A special predictive algorithm is proposed to this end. Then the proposed control method is tested and further improved in simulations. Further on, the model is implemented in reality and the whole servo drive system is tested. The investigation results presented in this paper, are showing an overshoot-free positioning process which enables high positioning accuracy.

  17. Driver electronics design and control for a total artificial heart linear motor.

    Unthan, Kristin; Cuenca-Navalon, Elena; Pelletier, Benedikt; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2018-01-27

    For any implantable device size and efficiency are critical properties. Thus, a linear motor for a Total Artificial Heart was optimized with focus on driver electronics and control strategies. Hardware requirements were defined from power supply and motor setup. Four full bridges were chosen for the power electronics. Shunt resistors were set up for current measurement. Unipolar and bipolar switching for power electronics control were compared regarding current ripple and power losses. Here, unipolar switching showed smaller current ripple and required less power to create the necessary motor forces. Based on calculations for minimal power losses Lorentz force was distributed to the actor's four coils. The distribution was determined as ratio of effective magnetic flux through each coil, which was captured by a force test rig. Static and dynamic measurements under physiological conditions analyzed interaction of control and hardware and all efficiencies were over 89%. In conclusion, the designed electronics, optimized control strategy and applied current distribution create the required motor force and perform optimal under physiological conditions. The developed driver electronics and control offer optimized size and efficiency for any implantable or portable device with multiple independent motor coils. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor.

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  19. Influence of a high vacuum on the precise positioning using an ultrasonic linear motor

    Kim, Wan-Soo; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the ultrasonic linear motor stage for use in a high vacuum environment. The slider table is driven by the hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor, which is excited with its different modes of natural frequencies in both lateral and longitudinal directions. In general, the friction behavior in a vacuum environment becomes different from that in an environment of atmospheric pressure and this difference significantly affects the performance of the ultrasonic linear motor. In this paper, to consistently provide stable and high power of output in a high vacuum, frequency matching was conducted. Moreover, to achieve the fine control performance in the vacuum environment, a modified nominal characteristic trajectory following control method was adopted. Finally, the stage was operated under high vacuum condition, and the operating performances were investigated compared with that of a conventional PI compensator. As a result, robustness of positioning was accomplished in a high vacuum condition with nanometer-level accuracy.

  20. Conformational dynamics of ATP/Mg:ATP in motor proteins via data mining and molecular simulation

    Bojovschi, A.; Liu, Ming S.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2012-08-01

    The conformational diversity of ATP/Mg:ATP in motor proteins was investigated using molecular dynamics and data mining. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) conformations were found to be constrained mostly by inter cavity motifs in the motor proteins. It is demonstrated that ATP favors extended conformations in the tight pockets of motor proteins such as F1-ATPase and actin whereas compact structures are favored in motor proteins such as RNA polymerase and DNA helicase. The incorporation of Mg2+ leads to increased flexibility of ATP molecules. The differences in the conformational dynamics of ATP/Mg:ATP in various motor proteins was quantified by the radius of gyration. The relationship between the simulation results and those obtained by data mining of motor proteins available in the protein data bank is analyzed. The data mining analysis of motor proteins supports the conformational diversity of the phosphate group of ATP obtained computationally.

  1. CONFIRMATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL ADEQUACY OF A LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

    V. F. Novikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.To reduce labor costs and the amount of computer time in the design of linear synchronous motors with excitation from a source of a constant magnetic field of high-speed ground transportation it is necessary to use engineering methods. The purpose of this study is to confirm the adequacy of the previously proposed mathematical model of this engine and assumptions. It is also intended to confirm the possibility of applying the method of calculation of traction that occurs in the engine in the interaction of the permanent magnetic field of the excitation system of a vehicle with a coil track structure.Methodology. As for empirical theories the positive result of the experiment is not absolute proof of the truth, for an unambiguous conclusion about the adequacy of the developed model and the effectiveness of the developed methods need to be tested for falsification. In accordance with this criterion, it is necessary to conduct an experiment, the results of which will coincide with the calculation but you also need to avoid errors caused by random coincidences. For this purpose the experiments with varying parameters are conducted. Findings. In a critical experiment configuration changes of the excitation system were held so that the shape dependence of traction from displacement is differed significantly. The comparison of the results of the calculated and experimental values of traction for different configurations showed that the differences are minor and easily explained by measurement error and uneven gaps between the poles and excitation coils of the track structure. Originality. The adequacy of the mathematical model of a linear synchronous motor without a ferromagnetic magnetic circuit and the assumptions and applicability of the calculation method of traction forces involved in it, at the interaction of a permanent magnetic field of the excitation system of a vehicle with a coil track structure were proved. This proof is built on

  2. Exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition.

    Kelil, Abdellali; Dubreuil, Benjamin; Levy, Emmanuel D; Michnick, Stephen W

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput in vitro methods have been extensively applied to identify linear information that encodes peptide recognition. However, these methods are limited in number of peptides, sequence variation, and length of peptides that can be explored, and often produce solutions that are not found in the cell. Despite the large number of methods developed to attempt addressing these issues, the exhaustive search of linear information encoding protein-peptide recognition has been so far physically unfeasible. Here, we describe a strategy, called DALEL, for the exhaustive search of linear sequence information encoded in proteins that bind to a common partner. We applied DALEL to explore binding specificity of SH3 domains in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using only the polypeptide sequences of SH3 domain binding proteins, we succeeded in identifying the majority of known SH3 binding sites previously discovered either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, we discovered a number of sites with both non-canonical sequences and distinct properties that may serve ancillary roles in peptide recognition. We compared DALEL to a variety of state-of-the-art algorithms in the blind identification of known binding sites of the human Grb2 SH3 domain. We also benchmarked DALEL on curated biological motifs derived from the ELM database to evaluate the effect of increasing/decreasing the enrichment of the motifs. Our strategy can be applied in conjunction with experimental data of proteins interacting with a common partner to identify binding sites among them. Yet, our strategy can also be applied to any group of proteins of interest to identify enriched linear motifs or to exhaustively explore the space of linear information encoded in a polypeptide sequence. Finally, we have developed a webserver located at http://michnick.bcm.umontreal.ca/dalel, offering user-friendly interface and providing different scenarios utilizing DALEL.

  3. Magnetically Suspended Linear Pulse Motor for Semiconductor Wafer Transfer in Vacuum Chamber

    Moriyama, Shin-Ichi; Hiraki, Naoji; Watanabe, Katsuhide; Kanemitsu, Yoichi

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a magnetically suspended linear pulse motor for a semiconductor wafer transfer robot in a vacuum chamber. The motor can drive a wafer transfer arm horizontally without mechanical contact. In the construction of the magnetic suspension system, four pairs of linear magnetic bearings for the lift control are used for the guidance control as well. This approach allows us to make the whole motor compact in size and light in weight. The tested motor consists of a double-sided stator and a transfer arm with a width of 50 mm and a total length of 700 mm. The arm, like a ladder in shape, is designed as the floating element with a tooth width of 4 mm (a tooth pitch of 8 mm). The mover mass is limited to about 1.6 kg by adopting such an arm structure, and the ratio of thrust to mover mass reaches to 3.2 N/kg under a broad air gap (1 mm) between the stator teeth and the mover teeth. The performance testing was carried out with a transfer distance less than 450 mm and a transfer speed less than 560 mm/s. The attitude of the arm was well controlled by the linear magnetic bearings with a combined use, and consequently the repeatability on the positioning of the arm reached to about 2 micron. In addition, the positioning accuracy was improved up to about 30 micron through a compensation of the 128-step wave current which was used for the micro-step drive with a step increment of 62.5 micron.

  4. Using linear algebra for protein structural comparison and classification.

    Gomide, Janaína; Melo-Minardi, Raquel; Dos Santos, Marcos Augusto; Neshich, Goran; Meira, Wagner; Lopes, Júlio César; Santoro, Marcelo

    2009-07-01

    In this article, we describe a novel methodology to extract semantic characteristics from protein structures using linear algebra in order to compose structural signature vectors which may be used efficiently to compare and classify protein structures into fold families. These signatures are built from the pattern of hydrophobic intrachain interactions using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) techniques. Considering proteins as documents and contacts as terms, we have built a retrieval system which is able to find conserved contacts in samples of myoglobin fold family and to retrieve these proteins among proteins of varied folds with precision of up to 80%. The classifier is a web tool available at our laboratory website. Users can search for similar chains from a specific PDB, view and compare their contact maps and browse their structures using a JMol plug-in.

  5. Using linear algebra for protein structural comparison and classification

    Janaína Gomide

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe a novel methodology to extract semantic characteristics from protein structures using linear algebra in order to compose structural signature vectors which may be used efficiently to compare and classify protein structures into fold families. These signatures are built from the pattern of hydrophobic intrachain interactions using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI techniques. Considering proteins as documents and contacts as terms, we have built a retrieval system which is able to find conserved contacts in samples of myoglobin fold family and to retrieve these proteins among proteins of varied folds with precision of up to 80%. The classifier is a web tool available at our laboratory website. Users can search for similar chains from a specific PDB, view and compare their contact maps and browse their structures using a JMol plug-in.

  6. Novel permanent magnet linear motor with isolated movers: analytical, numerical and experimental study.

    Yan, Liang; Peng, Juanjuan; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming

    2014-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet linear motor possessing two movers and one stator. The two movers are isolated and can interact with the stator poles to generate independent forces and motions. Compared with conventional multiple motor driving system, it helps to increase the system compactness, and thus improve the power density and working efficiency. The magnetic field distribution is obtained by using equivalent magnetic circuit method. Following that, the formulation of force output considering armature reaction is carried out. Then inductances are analyzed with finite element method to investigate the relationships of the two movers. It is found that the mutual-inductances are nearly equal to zero, and thus the interaction between the two movers is negligible. A research prototype of the linear motor and a measurement apparatus on thrust force have been developed. Both numerical computation and experiment measurement are conducted to validate the analytical model of thrust force. Comparison shows that the analytical model matches the numerical and experimental results well.

  7. Bond Graph Modelling for Fault Detection and Isolation of an Ultrasonic Linear Motor

    Mabrouk KHEMLICHE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Bond Graph modeling, simulation and monitoring of ultrasonic linear motors are presented. Only the vibration of piezoelectric ceramics and stator will be taken into account. Contact problems between stator and rotor are not treated here. So, standing and travelling waves will be briefly presented since the majority of the motors use another wave type to generate the stator vibration and thus obtain the elliptic trajectory of the points on the surface of the stator in the first time. Then, electric equivalent circuit will be presented with the aim for giving a general idea of another way of graphical modelling of the vibrator introduced and developed. The simulations of an ultrasonic linear motor are then performed and experimental results on a prototype built at the laboratory are presented. Finally, validation of the Bond Graph method for modelling is carried out, comparing both simulation and experiment results. This paper describes the application of the FDI approach to an electrical system. We demonstrate the FDI effectiveness with real data collected from our automotive test. We introduce the analysis of the problem involved in the faults localization in this process. We propose a method of fault detection applied to the diagnosis and to determine the gravity of a detected fault. We show the possibilities of application of the new approaches to the complex system control.

  8. Optimization and Analysis of a U-Shaped Linear Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motor Using Longitudinal Transducers.

    Yu, Hongpeng; Quan, Qiquan; Tian, Xinqi; Li, He

    2018-03-07

    A novel U-shaped piezoelectric ultrasonic motor that mainly focused on miniaturization and high power density was proposed, fabricated, and tested in this work. The longitudinal vibrations of the transducers were excited to form the elliptical movements on the driving feet. Finite element method (FEM) was used for design and analysis. The resonance frequencies of the selected vibration modes were tuned to be very close to each other with modal analysis and the movement trajectories of the driving feet were gained with transient simulation. The vibration modes and the mechanical output abilities were tested to evaluate the proposed motor further by a prototype. The maximum output speed was tested to be 416 mm/s, the maximum thrust force was 21 N, and the maximum output power was 5.453 W under frequency of 29.52 kHz and voltage of 100 V rms . The maximum output power density of the prototype reached 7.59 W/kg, which was even greater than a previous similar motor under the exciting voltage of 200 V rms . The proposed motor showed great potential for linear driving of large thrust force and high power density.

  9. Population decoding of motor cortical activity using a generalized linear model with hidden states.

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas; Paninski, Liam

    2010-06-15

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (reducing the mean square error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Population Decoding of Motor Cortical Activity using a Generalized Linear Model with Hidden States

    Lawhern, Vernon; Wu, Wei; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Paninski, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Generalized linear models (GLMs) have been developed for modeling and decoding population neuronal spiking activity in the motor cortex. These models provide reasonable characterizations between neural activity and motor behavior. However, they lack a description of movement-related terms which are not observed directly in these experiments, such as muscular activation, the subject's level of attention, and other internal or external states. Here we propose to include a multi-dimensional hidden state to address these states in a GLM framework where the spike count at each time is described as a function of the hand state (position, velocity, and acceleration), truncated spike history, and the hidden state. The model can be identified by an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. We tested this new method in two datasets where spikes were simultaneously recorded using a multi-electrode array in the primary motor cortex of two monkeys. It was found that this method significantly improves the model-fitting over the classical GLM, for hidden dimensions varying from 1 to 4. This method also provides more accurate decoding of hand state (lowering the Mean Square Error by up to 29% in some cases), while retaining real-time computational efficiency. These improvements on representation and decoding over the classical GLM model suggest that this new approach could contribute as a useful tool to motor cortical decoding and prosthetic applications. PMID:20359500

  11. A Low Mass Translation Mechanism for Planetary FTIR Spectrometry using an Ultrasonic Piezo Linear Motor

    Heverly, Matthew; Dougherty, Sean; Toon, Geoffrey; Soto, Alejandro; Blavier, Jean-Francois

    2004-01-01

    One of the key components of a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) is the linear translation stage used to vary the optical path length between the two arms of the interferometer. This translation mechanism must produce extremely constant velocity motion across its entire range of travel to allow the instrument to attain high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolving power. A new spectrometer is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under NASA s Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP). The goal of this project is to build upon existing spaceborne FTIR spectrometer technology to produce a new instrument prototype that has drastically superior spectral resolution and substantially lower mass, making it feasible for planetary exploration. In order to achieve these goals, Alliance Spacesystems, Inc. (ASI) has developed a linear translation mechanism using a novel ultrasonic piezo linear motor in conjunction with a fully kinematic, fault tolerant linear rail system. The piezo motor provides extremely smooth motion, is inherently redundant, and is capable of producing unlimited travel. The kinematic rail uses spherical Vespel(R). rollers and bushings, which eliminates the need for wet lubrication, while providing a fault tolerant platform for smooth linear motion that will not bind under misalignment or structural deformation. This system can produce velocities from 10 - 100 mm/s with less than 1% velocity error over the entire 100-mm length of travel for a total mechanism mass of less than 850 grams. This system has performed over half a million strokes under vacuum without excessive wear or degradation in performance. This paper covers the design, development, and testing of this linear translation mechanism as part of the Planetary Atmosphere Occultation Spectrometer (PAOS) instrument prototype development program.

  12. Direct torque and flux regulation of synchronous reluctance motor drives based on input-output feedback linearization

    Abootorabi Zarchi, H.; Arab Markadeh, Gh.R.; Soltani, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear speed tracking controller is introduced for three-phase synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) on the basis of input-output feedback linearization (IOFL), considering the different control strategies (maximum torque per Ampere, high efficiency and minimum KVA rating for the inverter) related to this motor. The proposed control approach is capable of decoupling control of stator flux and motor generated torque. The validity and effectiveness of the method is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  13. Probing intracellular motor protein activity using an inducible cargo trafficking assay

    L.C. Kapitein (Lukas); M.A. Schlager (Max); W.A. van der Zwan (Wouter); P. Wulf (Phebe); N. Keijzer (Nanda); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAlthough purified cytoskeletal motor proteins have been studied extensively with the use of in vitro approaches, a generic approach to selectively probe actin and microtubule-based motor protein activity inside living cells is lacking. To examine specific motor activity inside living

  14. Pole-shape optimization of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor for reduction of thrust ripple

    Tavana, Nariman Roshandel, E-mail: nroshandel@ee.iust.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shoulaie, Abbas, E-mail: shoulaie@iust.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, we have used magnet arc shaping technique in order to improve the performance of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). At first, a detailed analytical modeling based on Maxwell equations is presented for the analysis and design of PMLSM with the arc-shaped magnetic poles (ASMPs). Then the accuracy of presented method is verified by finite-element method. Very close agreement between the analytical and finite-element results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, a magnet shape design is carried out based on the analytical method to enhance the motor developed thrust. Pertinent evaluations on the optimal design performance demonstrate that shape optimization leads to a design with extra low thrust ripple.

  15. Dynamic diagnostics of moving ferromagnetic material with the linear induction motor

    Szewczyk Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of a three-phase induction motor as a sensor measuring the force of the electromagnetic field connection between the engine and produced sheet steel. The force interaction between the engine and the manufactured sheet metal treated as a treadmill for a linear motor may be an indicator of damage to the material. Detection of places where the sheet does not meet the quality requirements may be very useful in the production process. FEM calculations were performed in the ANSYS MAXWELL environment. The results suggest the possibility of using this type of construction to test the quality of produced materials. The computational results and their analysis are presented in this article.

  16. Adaptive H∞ nonlinear velocity tracking using RBFNN for linear DC brushless motor

    Tsai, Ching-Chih; Chan, Cheng-Kain; Li, Yi Yu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an adaptive H ∞ nonlinear velocity control for a linear DC brushless motor. A simplified model of this motor with friction is briefly recalled. The friction dynamics is described by the Lu Gre model and the online tuning radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to parameterise the nonlinear friction function and un-modelled errors. An adaptive nonlinear H ∞ control method is then proposed to achieve velocity tracking, by assuming that the upper bounds of the ripple force, the changeable load and the nonlinear friction can be learned by the RBFNN. The closed-loop system is proven to be uniformly bounded using the Lyapunov stability theory. The feasibility and the efficacy of the proposed control are exemplified by conducting two velocity tracking experiments.

  17. An electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper motor fabricated by vertical trench isolation technology

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    We present the design, microfabrication and characterization of an electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper micromotor constructed with vertical trench isolation technology. This suitable technology was used to create a monolithic stepper motor with high-aspect-ratio poles and an integrated 3-phase electrical network in the bulk of a standard single-crystal silicon wafer. The shuttle of the stepper motor is suspended by a flexure to avoid any mechanical contact during operation, enhancing the precision, repeatability and reliability of the stepping motion. The prototype is capable of a maximum travel of +/−26 µm (52 µm) at an actuation voltage of 30 V and a step size of 1.4 µm during a half-stepping sequence

  18. An electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper motor fabricated by vertical trench isolation technology

    Sarajlic, Edin; Yamahata, Christophe; Cordero, Mauricio; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2009-07-01

    We present the design, microfabrication and characterization of an electrostatic 3-phase linear stepper micromotor constructed with vertical trench isolation technology. This suitable technology was used to create a monolithic stepper motor with high-aspect-ratio poles and an integrated 3-phase electrical network in the bulk of a standard single-crystal silicon wafer. The shuttle of the stepper motor is suspended by a flexure to avoid any mechanical contact during operation, enhancing the precision, repeatability and reliability of the stepping motion. The prototype is capable of a maximum travel of +/-26 µm (52 µm) at an actuation voltage of 30 V and a step size of 1.4 µm during a half-stepping sequence. This work was presented in part at the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME), 28-30 September 2008, Aachen, Germany.

  19. A linear motor and compact cylinder-piston driver for left ventricular bypass.

    Qian, K X

    1990-01-01

    A simple, portable, reliable and noise-free pneumatic driver has been developed. It consists of a linear motor attached to a cylinder piston, in one unit. The motor coil is directly wound on the cylinder, and the permanent magnet is fixed to the piston. As a continuous voltage square wave is applied to the coil, the cylinder reciprocates on the piston periodically, producing air pressure and vacuum alternately. In conjunction with a locally made diaphragm pump, the driver was tested in vitro and in vivo. Results demonstrated that the device could drive the diaphragm pump and so support the circulation of an experimental animal. The driver weighs 12 kg. For 200 mmHg air pressure and -80 mmHg vacuum the power consumed is 30 W. Its noise is about 30 dB, less than that of an artificial valve and pump.

  20. Pole-shape optimization of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor for reduction of thrust ripple

    Tavana, Nariman Roshandel; Shoulaie, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have used magnet arc shaping technique in order to improve the performance of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). At first, a detailed analytical modeling based on Maxwell equations is presented for the analysis and design of PMLSM with the arc-shaped magnetic poles (ASMPs). Then the accuracy of presented method is verified by finite-element method. Very close agreement between the analytical and finite-element results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, a magnet shape design is carried out based on the analytical method to enhance the motor developed thrust. Pertinent evaluations on the optimal design performance demonstrate that shape optimization leads to a design with extra low thrust ripple.

  1. Magnetically levitated railway with common reaction rail for a linear motor drive and an electro dynamic side guidance arrangement

    Friedrich, R

    1977-04-07

    The invention concerns a magnetically levitated railway with common reaction rail for the linear motor drive and the electrical side guidance arrangement. While the electro-dynamic hovering process requires a high electrical conductivity of the reaction rails in order to reduce eddy current losses, these should show a relatively high resistance for the asynchronous linear motor to reduce losses of propelling force. These contradictory requirements can be fulfilled for a common reaction rail made of homogeneous material of high electrical conductivity according to the invention, by providing slits at right angles to the driving axis in the part of the reaction rail allocated to the linear motor. Thus the guidance system retains a low ohmic resistance, while the part of the reaction rail allocated to the windings of the linear motor has a relatively low ohmic secondary resistance, by which the border and end effects which reduce the propelling force can be appreciably reduced.

  2. Simulation of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear motor with axial and radial direction of permanent magnets magnetization

    G.M. Golenkov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of computer simulation and experimental study of magnetic induction distribution in a coaxial linear motor air gap throughout the length of the runner active part at different heights of the air gap between the runner and the inductor magnetic core for motors with axial and radial direction of the permanent magnets magnetization.

  3. Air-gap field, induced voltage and thrust in the short-stator linear induction motor

    Deleroi, W

    1980-07-15

    The description of the magnetic field in the air-gap of a short-primary linear induction motor, and the subsequent calculation of the thrust developed and the voltages induced in the stator bars can be made by using balancing waves. These balancing waves are generated at any point where the field wave that would exist in a machine of infinite length is disturbed. In the linear motor these disturbances occur at the ends of the stator iron and at discontinuities in the distribution of the stator winding, which exist in machines having stepped windings. From the points where they are generated, free balancing waves travel in two directions and determine the performance of these machines to a large extent. The voltage they induce in a stator bar can be determined from the core flux and mapped on a phasor diagram. The resulting voltage phasor follows a logarithmic spiral. The resulting voltages induced in the three phase windings form a strongly asymmetrical system which can be split-up into positive-, negative- and zerosequence components depending on the slip. The tangential forces may be calculated as the product of the magnetic flux density in the air-gap and the linear current density in either the stator or the reaction rail. As the 'magnetic tail' outside the machine also gives rise to forces in the direction of motion, both methods yield quite different force distributions, though for the resulting force the same value is found.

  4. The monomeric, tetrameric, and fibrillar organization of Fib: the dynamic building block of the bacterial linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3.

    Cohen-Krausz, Sara; Cabahug, Pamela C; Trachtenberg, Shlomo

    2011-07-08

    Spiroplasmas belong to the class Mollicutes, representing the minimal, free-living, and self-replicating forms of life. Spiroplasmas are helical wall-less bacteria and the only ones known to swim by means of a linear motor (rather than the near-universal rotary bacterial motor). The linear motor follows the shortest path along the cell's helical membranal tube. The motor is composed of a flat monolayered ribbon of seven parallel fibrils and is believed to function in controlling cell helicity and motility through dynamic, coordinated, differential length changes in the fibrils. The latter cause local perturbations of helical symmetry, which are essential for net directional displacement in environments with a low Reynolds number. The underlying fibrils' core building block is a circular tetramer of the 59-kDa protein Fib. The fibrils' differential length changes are believed to be driven by molecular switching of Fib, leading consequently to axial ratio and length changes in tetrameric rings. Using cryo electron microscopy, diffractometry, single-particle analysis of isolated ribbons, and sequence analyses of Fib, we determined the overall molecular organization of the Fib monomer, tetramer, fibril, and linear motor of Spiroplasma melliferum BC3 that underlies cell geometry and motility. Fib appears to be a bidomained molecule, of which the N-terminal half is apparently a globular phosphorylase. By a combination of reversible rotation and diagonal shift of Fib monomers, the tetramer adopts either a cross-like nonhanded conformation or a ring-like handed conformation. The sense of Fib rotation may determine the handedness of the linear motor and, eventually, of the cell. A further change in the axial ratio of the ring-like tetramers controls fibril lengths and the consequent helical geometry. Analysis of tetramer quadrants from adjacent fibrils clearly demonstrates local differential fibril lengths. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on stable levitation of permanent magnet transportation system with coreless linear synchronous motor

    Hiwaki, H [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, M [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Torii, S [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, D [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In the permanent magnet levitation system, it is impossible to stabilize the motion of the vehicle in both levitation and guidance directions only by permanent magnet. Therefore, the authors proposed the combined system of permanent magnet for levitation and coreless linear synchronous motor (coreless LSM). To design the coreless coils for LSM, the method to calculate the spring coefficient between coreless coil and permanent magnet for LSM is shown. By using this method, the spring coefficients of the three coil arrangements are compared and coreless coil is designed. Furthermore, the authors showed the possibility of stabilizing the motion of the levitation system with coreless LSM. (orig.)

  6. A new double sided linear switched reluctance motor with low cost

    Daldaban, Ferhat; Ustkoyuncu, Nurettin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the realization and design of a new linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) structure. The new model has double sided configuration and provides high force for many applications with low cost. The characteristics of the LSRM are obtained by using finite element analysis (FEA) and analytical calculations. The results of the FEA and analytical calculations are presented, and compared with experimental results. A high correlation between experimental and analytical results is obtained, which has been demonstrated in the form of inductance versus position versus current

  7. Experimental Analysis of Linear Induction Motor under Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF Power Supply

    Prasenjit D. Wakode

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the complete analysis of Linear Induction Motor (LIM under VVVF. The complete variation of LIM air gap flux under ‘blocked Linor’ condition and starting force is analyzed and presented when LIM is given VVVF supply. The analysis of this data is important in further understanding of the equivalent circuit parameters of LIM and to study the magnetic circuit of LIM. The variation of these parameters is important to know the LIM response at different frequencies. The simulation and application of different control strategies such as vector control thus becomes quite easy to apply and understand motor’s response under such strategy of control.

  8. Decentralized control of the COFS-I Mast using linear dc motors

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Celano, Tom; Ide, Eric

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to a decentralized control design for vibration suppression in the COFS-I Mast using linear dc motors for actuators. The decentralized control design is based results from power systems using root locus techniques that are not well known. The approach is effective because the loop gain is low due to low actuator authority. The frequency-dependent nonlinearities of the actuator are taken into account. Because of the tendency of the transients to saturate the the stroke length of the actuator, its effectiveness is limited.

  9. Incremental Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Sensorless Stroke Control of A Halbach-type Linear Oscillatory Motor

    Lei, Meizhen; Wang, Liqiang

    2018-01-01

    The halbach-type linear oscillatory motor (HT-LOM) is multi-variable, highly coupled, nonlinear and uncertain, and difficult to get a satisfied result by conventional PID control. An incremental adaptive fuzzy controller (IAFC) for stroke tracking was presented, which combined the merits of PID control, the fuzzy inference mechanism and the adaptive algorithm. The integral-operation is added to the conventional fuzzy control algorithm. The fuzzy scale factor can be online tuned according to the load force and stroke command. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control scheme can achieve satisfied stroke tracking performance and is robust with respect to parameter variations and external disturbance.

  10. Improvement of superconducting cylindrical linear induction motor; Chodendo entokeitan ichiji rinia yudo mota no tokusei kaizen

    Kikuma, T.; Tomita, M.; Ishiyama, A. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    For the purpose of we examining the effect of characteristics and ac loss under real machine operating environment of the alternating current superconductivity winding for a realization of the superconductive AC machine vessel, cylindrical shortness first linear guiding motor which used NbTi/CuNi superconducting cable for the primary winding was produced experimentally. The coil number was increased from 6 in 14 this time, and the optimization of the primary current was done, and the improvement on characteristics was attempted. Here, starting torque characteristics, quenching detection protection control circuit are reported. (NEDO)

  11. Particle Swarm Based Approach of a Real-Time Discrete Neural Identifier for Linear Induction Motors

    Alma Y. Alanis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focusses on a discrete-time neural identifier applied to a linear induction motor (LIM model, whose model is assumed to be unknown. This neural identifier is robust in presence of external and internal uncertainties. The proposed scheme is based on a discrete-time recurrent high-order neural network (RHONN trained with a novel algorithm based on extended Kalman filter (EKF and particle swarm optimization (PSO, using an online series-parallel con…figuration. Real-time results are included in order to illustrate the applicability of the proposed scheme.

  12. Branched-linear and agglomerate protein polymers as vaccine platforms.

    Wang, Leyi; Xia, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Fang, Hao; Cao, Dianjun; Meng, Xiang-Jin; McNeal, Monica; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Ming

    2014-09-01

    Many viral structural proteins and their truncated domains share a common feature of homotypic interaction forming dimers, trimers, and/or oligomers with various valences. We reported previously a simple strategy for construction of linear and network polymers through the dimerization feature of viral proteins for vaccine development. In this study, technologies were developed to produce more sophisticated polyvalent complexes through both the dimerization and oligomerization natures of viral antigens. As proof of concept, branched-linear and agglomerate polymers were made via fusions of the dimeric glutathione-s-transferase (GST) with either a tetrameric hepatitis E virus (HEV) protruding protein or a 24-meric norovirus (NoV) protruding protein. Furthermore, a monomeric antigen, either the M2e epitope of influenza A virus or the VP8* antigen of rotavirus, was inserted and displayed by the polymer platform. All resulting polymers were easily produced in Escherichia coli at high yields. Immunization of mice showed that the polymer vaccines induced significantly higher specific humoral and T cell responses than those induced by the dimeric antigens. Additional evidence in supporting use of polymer vaccines included the significantly higher neutralization activity and protective immunity of the polymer vaccines against the corresponding viruses than those of the dimer vaccines. Thus, our technology for production of polymers containing different viral antigens offers a strategy for vaccine development against infectious pathogens and their associated diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automatic Human Movement Assessment With Switching Linear Dynamic System: Motion Segmentation and Motor Performance.

    de Souza Baptista, Roberto; Bo, Antonio P L; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Performance assessment of human movement is critical in diagnosis and motor-control rehabilitation. Recent developments in portable sensor technology enable clinicians to measure spatiotemporal aspects to aid in the neurological assessment. However, the extraction of quantitative information from such measurements is usually done manually through visual inspection. This paper presents a novel framework for automatic human movement assessment that executes segmentation and motor performance parameter extraction in time-series of measurements from a sequence of human movements. We use the elements of a Switching Linear Dynamic System model as building blocks to translate formal definitions and procedures from human movement analysis. Our approach provides a method for users with no expertise in signal processing to create models for movements using labeled dataset and later use it for automatic assessment. We validated our framework on preliminary tests involving six healthy adult subjects that executed common movements in functional tests and rehabilitation exercise sessions, such as sit-to-stand and lateral elevation of the arms and five elderly subjects, two of which with limited mobility, that executed the sit-to-stand movement. The proposed method worked on random motion sequences for the dual purpose of movement segmentation (accuracy of 72%-100%) and motor performance assessment (mean error of 0%-12%).

  14. The Experimental Study of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability using a Linear Induction Motor Accelerator

    Yamashita, Nicholas; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    The experiments to be presented utilize an incompressible system of two stratified miscible liquids of different densities that are accelerated in order to produce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Three liquid combinations are used: isopropyl alcohol with water, a calcium nitrate solution or a lithium polytungstate solution, giving Atwood numbers of 0.11, 0.22 and 0.57, respectively. The acceleration required to drive the instability is produced by two high-speed linear induction motors mounted to an 8 m tall drop tower. The motors are mounted in parallel and have an effective acceleration length of 1.7 m and are each capable of producing 15 kN of thrust. The liquid system is contained within a square acrylic tank with inside dimensions 76 x76x184 mm. The tank is mounted to an aluminum plate, which is driven by the motors to create constant accelerations in the range of 1-20 g's, though the potential exists for higher accelerations. Also attached to the plate are a high-speed camera and an LED backlight to provide continuous video of the instability. In addition, an accelerometer is used to provide acceleration measurements during each experiment. Experimental image sequences will be presented which show the development of a random three-dimensional instability from an unforced initial perturbation. Measurements of the mixing zone width will be compared with traditional growth models.

  15. Dosage-dependent non-linear effect of L-dopa on human motor cortex plasticity.

    Monte-Silva, Katia; Liebetanz, David; Grundey, Jessica; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2010-09-15

    The neuromodulator dopamine affects learning and memory formation and their likely physiological correlates, long-term depression and potentiation, in animals and humans. It is known from animal experiments that dopamine exerts a dosage-dependent, inverted U-shaped effect on these functions. However, this has not been explored in humans so far. In order to reveal a non-linear dose-dependent effect of dopamine on cortical plasticity in humans, we explored the impact of 25, 100 and 200 mg of L-dopa on transcranial direct current (tDCS)-induced plasticity in twelve healthy human subjects. The primary motor cortex served as a model system, and plasticity was monitored by motor evoked potential amplitudes elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. As compared to placebo medication, low and high dosages of L-dopa abolished facilitatory as well as inhibitory plasticity, whereas the medium dosage prolonged inhibitory plasticity, and turned facilitatory plasticity into inhibition. Thus the results show clear non-linear, dosage-dependent effects of dopamine on both facilitatory and inhibitory plasticity, and support the assumption of the importance of a specific dosage of dopamine optimally suited to improve plasticity. This might be important for the therapeutic application of dopaminergic agents, especially for rehabilitative purposes, and explain some opposing results in former studies.

  16. CEDM Controller for a Linear Pulse Motor by using Pulse Width Modulation Method in Integral Reactor

    Lee, Joon-Koo; Keum, Jong-Yong; Park, Heui-Youn

    2007-01-01

    Integral Reactor SMART is under development at KAERI. The design characteristics of SMART are radically different from those employed in currently operating loop type PWR in Korea. The reliability and accuracy of Control Rod Drive Mechanism are very important to the reactor safety and the design of the Plant Protection System. The SMART CEDM designed for fine-step movement consists of a linear pulse motor, reed switch type sensor with top and bottom limit switches which also act as Control Element Assembly(CEA) Position indicator, The linear pulse motor is a four phase synchronous DC electric machine with inner stator and output stator in coolant medium inside a strong housing. The objective of this paper is to introduce and to explain the CEDM controller CEDM Controller is being developed with a new design concept and digital technology to reduce the Operating Error and improve the systems' reliability and availability. And Switched Mode Power Supply is also being developed with digital hardware technology. This paper involves the test details and result

  17. Linear hypergeneralization of learned dynamics across movement speeds reveals anisotropic, gain-encoding primitives for motor adaptation.

    Joiner, Wilsaan M; Ajayi, Obafunso; Sing, Gary C; Smith, Maurice A

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generalize learned motor actions to new contexts is a key feature of the motor system. For example, the ability to ride a bicycle or swing a racket is often first developed at lower speeds and later applied to faster velocities. A number of previous studies have examined the generalization of motor adaptation across movement directions and found that the learned adaptation decays in a pattern consistent with the existence of motor primitives that display narrow Gaussian tuning. However, few studies have examined the generalization of motor adaptation across movement speeds. Following adaptation to linear velocity-dependent dynamics during point-to-point reaching arm movements at one speed, we tested the ability of subjects to transfer this adaptation to short-duration higher-speed movements aimed at the same target. We found near-perfect linear extrapolation of the trained adaptation with respect to both the magnitude and the time course of the velocity profiles associated with the high-speed movements: a 69% increase in movement speed corresponded to a 74% extrapolation of the trained adaptation. The close match between the increase in movement speed and the corresponding increase in adaptation beyond what was trained indicates linear hypergeneralization. Computational modeling shows that this pattern of linear hypergeneralization across movement speeds is not compatible with previous models of adaptation in which motor primitives display isotropic Gaussian tuning of motor output around their preferred velocities. Instead, we show that this generalization pattern indicates that the primitives involved in the adaptation to viscous dynamics display anisotropic tuning in velocity space and encode the gain between motor output and motion state rather than motor output itself.

  18. Electromagnetic Performance Calculation of HTS Linear Induction Motor for Rail Systems

    Liu, Bin; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Chen, Jie; Shu, Hang; Sheng, Long

    2017-01-01

    According to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear induction motor (LIM) designed for rail systems, the influence of electromagnetic parameters and mechanical structure parameters on the electromagnetic horizontal thrust, vertical force of HTS LIM and the maximum vertical magnetic field of HTS windings are analyzed. Through the research on the vertical field of HTS windings, the development regularity of the HTS LIM maximum input current with different stator frequency and different thickness value of the secondary conductive plate is obtained. The theoretical results are of great significance to analyze the stability of HTS LIM. Finally, based on theory analysis, HTS LIM test platform was built and the experiment was carried out with load. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct and reasonable. (paper)

  19. Electromagnetic Performance Calculation of HTS Linear Induction Motor for Rail Systems

    Liu, Bin; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Chen, Jie; Shu, Hang; Sheng, Long

    2017-07-01

    According to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear induction motor (LIM) designed for rail systems, the influence of electromagnetic parameters and mechanical structure parameters on the electromagnetic horizontal thrust, vertical force of HTS LIM and the maximum vertical magnetic field of HTS windings are analyzed. Through the research on the vertical field of HTS windings, the development regularity of the HTS LIM maximum input current with different stator frequency and different thickness value of the secondary conductive plate is obtained. The theoretical results are of great significance to analyze the stability of HTS LIM. Finally, based on theory analysis, HTS LIM test platform was built and the experiment was carried out with load. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct and reasonable.

  20. Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

  1. Analysis and measure of novel stereo-garage driven by linear induction motor

    Lu Qinfen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The car access time is a key parameter, especially in a huge stereo-garage, where this one should be decreased as much as possible. This paper proposes a novel stereo-garage. Adopting the linear induction motors (LIMs, the system has a simple structure and rapid response capability. In the stereo-garage, several LIMs are installed below the crossbeam on a lifting platform, and several LIMs are fixed on the top of a moving frame. During the operation of LIMs, the moving frame moves forward and backward to reach the required parking place, whereas the crossbeam moves horizontally in order to take or store the vehicle rapidly. All these LIMs are the same and should be designed at a low frequency. The influences of key structure parameters and dynamic performances are investigated, based on FEM. The predicted results are validated by a prototype. Finally, the designed LIMs are successfully applied in two 8-layer stereo-garages.

  2. Recession in a linear stepper motor based on piezoelectric actuator and electrorheological clampers

    Li, Cuihong; Meng, Yonggang; Tian, Yu

    2012-01-01

    A linear inchworm-type stepper motor based on piezoelectric actuator and comb shape electrorheological (ER) clampers was developed and tested. A recession phenomenon in the movement of the motor was found and was significantly affected by the driving voltage of the piezoelectric actuator and ER fluids. A dynamic model to analyze the mechanism of the recession was established. The force ratio of the viscoelastic clamping force (applied high electric field) to the viscous damping force (zero field) of ER fluids is the critical factor which determines the recession. The ratio is also affected by the extension or contraction rate of the actuator during movement, which is affected by the charging and discharging processes. With a relatively large distance between the clamper electrodes and a small displacement activated by the extension of the piezoelectric actuator, the instantaneous shear rate might not be sufficiently high, preventing ER fluids from attaining a shear-thickened and high-strength state. The ratio of yield strength to the viscous strength of ER fluids during movement should be as large as possible to reduce the recession displacement. (paper)

  3. A novel L-shaped linear ultrasonic motor operating in a single resonance mode

    Zhang, Bailiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiaoniu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a large thrust linear ultrasonic motor using an L-shaped stator is described. The stator is constructed by two mutually perpendicular rectangular plate vibrators, one of which is mounted in parallel with the slider to make the motor structure to be more compact. The symmetric and antisymmetric modes of the stator based on the first order bending vibration of two vibrators are adopted, in which each resonance mode is assigned to drive the slider in one direction. The placement of piezoelectric ceramics in a stator could be determined by finite element analysis, and the influence of slots in the head block on the vibration amplitudes of driving foot was studied as well. Three types of prototypes (non-slotted, dual-slot, and single-slot) were fabricated and experimentally investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the prototype with one slot exhibited the best mechanical output performance. The maximum loads under the excitation of symmetric mode and antisymmetric mode were 65 and 90 N, respectively.

  4. A piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor with the structure of a circular cylindrical stator and slider

    Sun, Dongming; Wang, Sheng; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi; Choi, Kee-Bong; Shimokohbe, Akira

    2010-01-01

    A piezoelectric linear ultrasonic motor is proposed, with a cylindrical stator and slider structure. The length and diameter of the motor are about 10 and 1.5 mm, respectively. The stator consists of two piezoelectric ceramic (PZT) tubes connected by a thin film metallic glass (TFMG) pipe. The stator is designed based on theoretical analyses and finite element method (FEM) simulation. The traveling wave propagation is obtained in the FEM simulation under the proper geometrical sizes, suitable boundary conditions and driving voltage signals. The trajectories of particles on the TFMG pipe are elliptical motion. In the experiment, a 25 µm thick TFMG pipe is fabricated using the rotating magnetron sputtering technique and the vibration characteristics of the stator are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) system. Bidirectional motion of the slider is observed around 600 kHz, the maximum velocity is near to 40 mm s −1 at 50 Vp–p for the loose slider and the maximum output force is 6 mN at 70 Vp–p for the tight slider

  5. Mass distribution and spatial organization of the linear bacterial motor of Spiroplasma citri R8A2.

    Trachtenberg, Shlomo; Andrews, S Brian; Leapman, Richard D

    2003-03-01

    In the simple, helical, wall-less bacterial genus Spiroplasma, chemotaxis and motility are effected by a linear, contractile motor arranged as a flat cytoskeletal ribbon attached to the inner side of the membrane along the shortest helical line. With scanning transmission electron microscopy and diffraction analysis, we determined the hierarchical and spatial organization of the cytoskeleton of Spiroplasma citri R8A2. The structural unit appears to be a fibril, approximately 5 nm wide, composed of dimers of a 59-kDa protein; each ribbon is assembled from seven fibril pairs. The functional unit of the intact ribbon is a pair of aligned fibrils, along which pairs of dimers form tetrameric ring-like repeats. On average, isolated and purified ribbons contain 14 fibrils or seven well-aligned fibril pairs, which are the same structures observed in the intact cell. Scanning transmission electron microscopy mass analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified cytoskeletons indicate that the 59-kDa protein is the only constituent of the ribbons.

  6. Development of linear pulse motor type control element drive mechanism for smart

    Je-Yong, Yu; Jong-in, Kim; Ji-ho, Kim; Hyung, Huh; Moon-Hee, Chang

    2001-01-01

    The system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART) currently under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is being designed with soluble boron free operation and the use of nuclear heating for reactor start-up. These design features require a Control Element Drive Mechanism(CEDM) for SMART to have fine-step movement capability as well as high reliability for fine reactivity control. In this paper, the design characteristics of a new concept CEDM driven by a Linear Pulse Motor (LPM) which meets the design requirements of the integral reactor SMART are introduced. The primary dimensions of the linear pulse motor are determined by electro-magnetic analysis and the results are also presented. In parallel with the electro-magnetic analysis, the conceptual design of the CEDM is visualized and checked for interferences among parts by assembling three dimensional (3D) models on computer. A prototype of the LPM with double air-gaps for the CEDM sub-assemblies to lift 100 kg is designed, analysed, manufactured and tested to confirm the validity of the CEDM design concept. A converter and test facility are manufactured to verify the dynamic performance of the LPM. The mover of the LPM is welded with ferromagnetic material and non-ferromagnetic material to get the magnetic flux path between the inner stator and outer stator. The thrust forces of LPM predicted by the analytic model have shown good agreement with experimental results from the prototype LPM. It is found that the LPM type CEDM has high force density and a simple drive mechanism to reduce volume and satisfy reactor operating circumstances with high pressure and temperature. (authors)

  7. Linear pulse motor type control element drive mechanism for the integral reactor

    Yu, J. Y.; Choi, S.; Kim, J. H.; Huh, H.; Park, K. B.

    2007-01-01

    The integral reactor SMART currently under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is designed with soluble boron free operation and use of nuclear heating for reactor startup. These design features require the Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for SMART to have fine-step movement capability as well as high reliability for the fine reactivity control. In this paper, design characteristics of a new concept CEDM driven by the Linear Pulse Motor (LPM) which meets the design requirements of the integral reactor SMART are introduced. The primary dimensions of the linear pulse motor are determined by the electro-magnetic analysis and the results are also presented. In parallel with the electro-magnetic analysis, the conceptual design of the CEDM is visualized and checked for interferences among parts by assembling three dimensional (3D) models on the computer. Prototype of LPM with double air-gaps for the CEDM sub-assemblies to lift 100 kg is designed, analysed, manufactured and tested to confirm the validity of the CEDM design concept. A converter and a test facility are manufactured to verify the dynamic performance of the LPM. The mover of the LPM is welded with ferromagnetic material and non-ferromagnetic material to get the magnetic flux path between inner stator and outer stator. The thrust forces of LPM predicted by analytic model have shown good agreement with experimental results from the prototype LPM. It is found that the LPM type CEDM has high force density and simple drive mechanism to reduce volume and satisfy the reactor operating circumstances with high pressure and temperature

  8. Novel Synchronous Linear and Rotatory Micro Motors Based on Polymer Magnets with Organic and Inorganic Insulation Layers

    Andreas WALDSCHIK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on the development of several synchronous motors with rotatory or linear movements. The synchronous micro motors are brushless DC motors or stepper motors with electrically controlled commutation consisting of a stator and a rotor. The rotor is mounted onto the stator and is adjusted by an integrated guidance. Inside the stator different coil systems are realized, like double layer sector coils or special nested coils. The coil systems can be controlled by three or six phases depending on the operational mode. Furthermore, inorganic insulation layers were used in order to reduce the thickness of the system. By this means four layers of electrical conductors can be realized especially for the 2D devices. The smallest diameter of the rotatory motor is 1 mm and could be successfully driven.

  9. Design of decoupled dual servo stage with voice coil motor and linear motor for XY long stroke ultra-precision scanning system

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Young-Man; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Hong, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Koung-Suk; Lee, Suk-Won; Lee, Moon-Gu

    2005-12-01

    A decoupled dual servo (DDS) stage for ultra-precision scanning system is introduced in this paper. The proposed DDS consists of a 3 axis fine stage for handling and carrying workpieces and a XY coarse stage. Especially, the DDS uses three voice coil motors (VCM) as a planar actuation system of the fine stage to reduce the disturbances due to any mechanical connections with its coarse stage. VCMs are governed by Lorentz law. According to the law and its structure, there are no mechanical connections between coils and magnetic circuits. Moreover, the VCM doesn't have force ripples due to imperfections of commutation components of linear motor systems - currents and flux densities. However, due to the VCM's mechanical constraints the working range of the fine is about 5mm2. To break that hurdle, the coarse stage with linear motors is used for the fine stage to move about 200mm2. Because of the above reasons, the proposed DDS can achieve higher precision scanning than other stages with only one servo. Using MATLAB's Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP), the VCMs are optimally designed for the highest force under conditions and constraints such as thermal dissipations due to its coil, its size, and so on. For linear motors, Halbach magnet linear motor is proposed and optimally designed in this paper. In addition, for their smooth movements without any frictions, guide systems of the DDS are composed of air bearings. And then, precisely to get their positions, linear scales with 0.1um resolution are used for the coarse's XY motions and plane mirror laser interferometers with 20nm for the fine's XYθz. On scanning, the two stages have same trajectories and are controlled. The control algorithm is Parallel method. The embodied ultra-precision scanning system has about 100nm tracking error and in-positioning stability.

  10. Mathematical Model and Computational Analysis of Selected Transient States of Cylindrical Linear Induction Motor Fed via Frequency Converter

    Andrzej Rusek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of cylindrical linear induction motor (C-LIM fed via frequency converter is presented in the paper. The model was developed in order to analyze numerically the transient states. Problems concerning dynamics of ac-machines especially linear induction motor are presented in [1 – 7]. Development of C-LIM mathematical model is based on circuit method and analogy to rotary induction motor. The analogy between both: (a stator and rotor windings of rotary induction motor and (b winding of primary part of C-LIM (inductor and closed current circuits in external secondary part of C-LIM (race is taken into consideration. The equations of C-LIM mathematical model are presented as matrix together with equations expressing each vector separately. A computational analysis of selected transient states of C-LIM fed via frequency converter is presented in the paper. Two typical examples of C-LIM operation are considered for the analysis: (a starting the motor at various static loads and various synchronous velocities and (b reverse of the motor at the same operation conditions. Results of simulation are presented as transient responses including transient electromagnetic force, transient linear velocity and transient phase current.

  11. Flux modeling and analysis of a linear induction motor for steel mill non-contacting conveyance system application

    Liu, C.-T.; Lin, S.-Y.; Yang, Y.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mathematical approach for analyzing static/dynamic characteristics of a linear induction motor for steel mill non-contacting conveyance system application will be provided. The dependent reluctances among the motor secondary steel plate and primary poles have been systematically formulated; hence, the operational performance of the system can be derived conveniently. Results showed that not only the motor structure is suitable for the design objective, but also the proposed magnetic equivalent circuit can provide appropriate and convenient modeling for relative analytical investigations

  12. Probing intracellular motor protein activity using an inducible cargo trafficking assay.

    Kapitein, Lukas C; Schlager, Max A; van der Zwan, Wouter A; Wulf, Phebe S; Keijzer, Nanda; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2010-10-06

    Although purified cytoskeletal motor proteins have been studied extensively with the use of in vitro approaches, a generic approach to selectively probe actin and microtubule-based motor protein activity inside living cells is lacking. To examine specific motor activity inside living cells, we utilized the FKBP-rapalog-FRB heterodimerization system to develop an in vivo peroxisomal trafficking assay that allows inducible recruitment of exogenous and endogenous kinesin, dynein, and myosin motors to drive specific cargo transport. We demonstrate that cargo rapidly redistributes with distinct dynamics for each respective motor, and that combined (antagonistic) actions of more complex motor combinations can also be probed. Of importance, robust cargo redistribution is readily achieved by one type of motor protein and does not require the presence of opposite-polarity motors. Simultaneous live-cell imaging of microtubules and kinesin or dynein-propelled peroxisomes, combined with high-resolution particle tracking, revealed that peroxisomes frequently pause at microtubule intersections. Titration and washout experiments furthermore revealed that motor recruitment by rapalog-induced heterodimerization is dose-dependent but irreversible. Our assay directly demonstrates that robust cargo motility does not require the presence of opposite-polarity motors, and can therefore be used to characterize the motile properties of specific types of motor proteins. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of the Hyper-Poisson Generalized Linear Model for Analyzing Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Khazraee, S Hadi; Sáez-Castillo, Antonio Jose; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2015-05-01

    The hyper-Poisson distribution can handle both over- and underdispersion, and its generalized linear model formulation allows the dispersion of the distribution to be observation-specific and dependent on model covariates. This study's objective is to examine the potential applicability of a newly proposed generalized linear model framework for the hyper-Poisson distribution in analyzing motor vehicle crash count data. The hyper-Poisson generalized linear model was first fitted to intersection crash data from Toronto, characterized by overdispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized by underdispersion. The results of this study are promising. When fitted to the Toronto data set, the goodness-of-fit measures indicated that the hyper-Poisson model with a variable dispersion parameter provided a statistical fit as good as the traditional negative binomial model. The hyper-Poisson model was also successful in handling the underdispersed data from Korea; the model performed as well as the gamma probability model and the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model previously developed for the same data set. The advantages of the hyper-Poisson model studied in this article are noteworthy. Unlike the negative binomial model, which has difficulties in handling underdispersed data, the hyper-Poisson model can handle both over- and underdispersed crash data. Although not a major issue for the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model, the effect of each variable on the expected mean of crashes is easily interpretable in the case of this new model. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Linear methods for reducing EMG contamination in peripheral nerve motor decodes.

    Kagan, Zachary B; Wendelken, Suzanne; Page, David M; Davis, Tyler; Hutchinson, Douglas T; Clark, Gregory A; Warren, David J

    2016-08-01

    Signals recorded from the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with high channel count penetrating microelectrode arrays, such as the Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA), often have electromyographic (EMG) signals contaminating the neural signal. This common-mode signal source may prevent single neural units from successfully being detected, thus hindering motor decode algorithms. Reducing this EMG contamination may lead to more accurate motor decode performance. A virtual reference (VR), created by a weighted linear combination of signals from a subset of all available channels, can be used to reduce this EMG contamination. Four methods of determining individual channel weights and six different methods of selecting subsets of channels were investigated (24 different VR types in total). The methods of determining individual channel weights were equal weighting, regression-based weighting, and two different proximity-based weightings. The subsets of channels were selected by a radius-based criteria, such that a channel was included if it was within a particular radius of inclusion from the target channel. These six radii of inclusion were 1.5, 2.9, 3.2, 5, 8.4, and 12.8 electrode-distances; the 12.8 electrode radius includes all USEA electrodes. We found that application of a VR improves the detectability of neural events via increasing the SNR, but we found no statistically meaningful difference amongst the VR types we examined. The computational complexity of implementation varies with respect to the method of determining channel weights and the number of channels in a subset, but does not correlate with VR performance. Hence, we examined the computational costs of calculating and applying the VR and based on these criteria, we recommend an equal weighting method of assigning weights with a 3.2 electrode-distance radius of inclusion. Further, we found empirically that application of the recommended VR will require less than 1 ms for 33.3 ms of data from one USEA.

  15. Modeling and experimental analysis of the linear ultrasonic motor with in-plane bending and longitudinal mode.

    Wan, Zhijian; Hu, Hong

    2014-03-01

    A novel linear ultrasonic motor based on in-plane longitudinal and bending mode vibration is presented in this paper. The stator of the motor is composed of a metal plate and eight piezoelectric ceramic patches. There are four long holes in the plate, designed for consideration of the longitudinal and bending mode coupling. The corresponding model is developed to optimize the mechanical and electrical coupling of the stator, which causes an ellipse motion at the contact tip of the stator when the composite vibrations with longitudinal and bending are excited. Its harmonic and transient responses are simulated and inspected. A prototype based on the model is fabricated and used to conduct experiments. Results show that the amplitude of the stator's contact tips is significantly increased, which helps to amplify the driving force and speed of the motor. It is therefore feasible to implement effective linear movement using the developed prototype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and characterization of a microelectromechanical system electro-thermal linear motor with interlock mechanism for micro manipulators.

    Hu, Tengjiang; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Xiuyuan; Zhao, You; Bai, Yingwei

    2016-03-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a novel electro-thermal linear motor for micro manipulators is presented in this paper. The V-shape electro-thermal actuator arrays, micro lever, micro spring, and slider are introduced. In moving operation, the linear motor can move nearly 1 mm displacement with 100 μm each step while keeping the applied voltage as low as 17 V. In holding operation, the motor can stay in one particular position without consuming energy and no creep deformation is found. Actuation force of 12.7 mN indicates the high force generation capability of the device. Experiments of lifetime show that the device can wear over two million cycles of operation. A silicon-on-insulator wafer is introduced to fabricate a high aspect ratio structure and the chip size is 8.5 mm × 8.5 mm × 0.5 mm.

  17. A square-plate piezoelectric linear motor operating in two orthogonal and isomorphic face-diagonal-bending modes.

    Ci, Penghong; Chen, Zhijiang; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-01-01

    We report a piezoelectric linear motor made of a single Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 square-plate, which operates in two orthogonal and isomorphic face-diagonal-bending modes to produce precision linear motion. A 15 × 15 × 2 mm prototype was fabricated, and the motor generated a driving force of up to 1.8 N and a speed of 170 mm/s under an applied voltage of 100 Vpp at the resonance frequency of 136.5 kHz. The motor shows such advantages as large driving force under relatively low driving voltage, simple structure, and stable motion because of its isomorphic face-diagonal-bending mode.

  18. Analysis and testing of a double armature brushless dc linear motor with NdFeB permanent magnets

    Filho, A.F.F.

    1998-01-01

    The use of high-energy product NdFeB permanent magnets benefits the design and features of a double armature brushless dc linear motor. As the linear motor is also slotless, its 5 mm airgap requires a source of high flux to overcome the reluctance and produce an adequate amount of force. The linear motor employs a topology that makes use of five permanent magnets to provide excitation flux. The permanent magnets are arranged in such a way that maximises the force the linear motor can deliver. The actuator produces a force up to 86.2 N at an armature current of 4.5 A. However, the topology makes the actuator prone to saturation. It affects the operation point of the permanent magnets, reduces the airgap flux density and the force, and increases flux leakage. To avoid saturation, a flux compensation scheme was conceived. The results are presented and assessed by means of finite element simulation and by experimental results that presented a good agreement. (orig.)

  19. Motor Behavior: From Telegraph Keys and Twins to Linear Slides and Stepping

    Thomas, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    Motor behavior is a significant area of scholarship with 64 Fellows from the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education engaged in that work since 1930. This paper provides a brief overview of the history of research in motor development and motor control/learning, particularly noting the contributions to scholarship of Academy…

  20. Optimized linear motor and digital PID controller setup used in Mössbauer spectrometer

    Kohout, Pavel; Kouřil, Lukáš; Navařík, Jakub; Novák, Petr; Pechoušek, Jiří

    2014-10-01

    Optimization of a linear motor and digital PID controller setup used in a Mössbauer spectrometer is presented. Velocity driving system with a digital PID feedback subsystem was developed in the LabVIEW graphical environment and deployed on the sbRIO real-time hardware device (National Instruments). The most important data acquisition processes are performed as real-time deterministic tasks on an FPGA chip. Velocity transducer of a double loudspeaker type with a power amplifier circuit is driven by the system. Series of calibration measurements were proceeded to find the optimal setup of the P, I, D parameters together with velocity error signal analysis. The shape and given signal characteristics of the velocity error signal are analyzed in details. Remote applications for controlling and monitoring the PID system from computer or smart phone, respectively, were also developed. The best setup and P, I, D parameters were set and calibration spectrum of α-Fe sample with an average nonlinearity of the velocity scale below 0.08% was collected. Furthermore, the width of the spectral line below 0.30 mm/s was observed. Powerful and complex velocity driving system was designed.

  1. Convergent evolution and mimicry of protein linear motifs in host-pathogen interactions.

    Chemes, Lucía Beatriz; de Prat-Gay, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Ignacio Enrique

    2015-06-01

    Pathogen linear motif mimics are highly evolvable elements that facilitate rewiring of host protein interaction networks. Host linear motifs and pathogen mimics differ in sequence, leading to thermodynamic and structural differences in the resulting protein-protein interactions. Moreover, the functional output of a mimic depends on the motif and domain repertoire of the pathogen protein. Regulatory evolution mediated by linear motifs can be understood by measuring evolutionary rates, quantifying positive and negative selection and performing phylogenetic reconstructions of linear motif natural history. Convergent evolution of linear motif mimics is widespread among unrelated proteins from viral, prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens and can also take place within individual protein phylogenies. Statistics, biochemistry and laboratory models of infection link pathogen linear motifs to phenotypic traits such as tropism, virulence and oncogenicity. In vitro evolution experiments and analysis of natural sequences suggest that changes in linear motif composition underlie pathogen adaptation to a changing environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A study of thermal deformation in the carriage of a permanent magnet direct drive linear motor stage

    Chow, J.H.; Zhong, Z.W.; Lin, W.; Khoo, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Carriage deformation due to temperature gradients within the materials of the carriage affects the accuracy of precision machines. This is largely due to the indeterminist temperature distribution in the carriage's material caused by the non-linearity of heat transfer. The joule heat from the motor coil forms the main heat source. When coupled with the heat loss through convection and radiation, the temperature variation in the motor's carriage also increases. In this study, the Finite Element Analysis was used together with a set of boundary conditions, which was obtained empirically, to analyze the distortion of the motor's carriage. The simulated results were compared with those obtained through experiments. The study shows that it is important to know, rather than to assume, the thermal boundary conditions of the motor's carriage of a precision machine in order to accurately estimate the thermal deformation of the carriage in precision machining. - Highlights: ► Deformation occurs in carriages which are mounted with linear motor. ► The convective coefficient, which is assumed to be 10 W mm −2 , is shown to be invalid. ► The perfect contact conductance is shown to be invalid too. ► To have an accurate thermal model, boundary conditions have to be realistic. ► Boundary conditions are the heat source, convective and conductance values.

  3. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    Betapudi, Venkaiah

    2014-07-01

    Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC) belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients’ life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.

  4. Life without double-headed non-muscle myosin II motor proteins

    Venkaiah eBetapudi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-muscle myosin II motor proteins (myosin IIA, myosin IIB, and myosin IIC belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are known to transduce cellular free-energy into biological work more efficiently than man-made combustion engines. Nature has given a single myosin II motor protein for lower eukaryotes and multiple for mammals but none for plants in order to provide impetus for their life. These specialized nanomachines drive cellular activities necessary for embryogenesis, organogenesis, and immunity. However, these multifunctional myosin II motor proteins are believed to go awry due to unknown reasons and contribute for the onset and progression of many autosomal-dominant disorders, cataract, deafness, infertility, cancer, kidney, neuronal, and inflammatory diseases. Many pathogens like HIV, Dengue, hepatitis C, and Lymphoma viruses as well as Salmonella and Mycobacteria are now known to take hostage of these dedicated myosin II motor proteins for their efficient pathogenesis. Even after four decades since their discovery, we still have a limited knowledge of how these motor proteins drive cell migration and cytokinesis. We need to enrich our current knowledge on these fundamental cellular processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies to fix mutated myosin II motor proteins in pathological conditions. This is the time to think how to relieve the hijacked myosins from pathogens in order to provide a renewed impetus for patients’ life. Understanding how to steer these molecular motors in proliferating and differentiating stem cells will improve stem cell based-therapeutics development. Given the plethora of cellular activities non-muscle myosin motor proteins are involved in, their importance is apparent for human life.

  5. Analysis and Design of a Maglev Permanent Magnet Synchronous Linear Motor to Reduce Additional Torque in dq Current Control

    Feng Xing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The maglev linear motor has three degrees of motion freedom, which are respectively realized by the thrust force in the x-axis, the levitation force in the z-axis and the torque around the y-axis. Both the thrust force and levitation force can be seen as the sum of the forces on the three windings. The resultant thrust force and resultant levitation force are independently controlled by d-axis current and q-axis current respectively. Thus, the commonly used dq transformation control strategy is suitable for realizing the control of the resultant force, either thrust force and levitation force. However, the forces on the three windings also generate additional torque because they do not pass the mover mass center. To realize the maglev system high-precision control, a maglev linear motor with a new structure is proposed in this paper to decrease this torque. First, the electromagnetic model of the motor can be deduced through the Lorenz force formula. Second, the analytic method and finite element method are used to explore the reason of this additional torque and what factors affect its change trend. Furthermore, a maglev linear motor with a new structure is proposed, with two sets of 90 degrees shifted winding designed on the mover. Under such a structure, the mover position dependent periodic part of the additional torque can be offset. Finally, the theoretical analysis is validated by the simulation result that the additionally generated rotating torque can be offset with little fluctuation in the proposed new-structure maglev linear motor. Moreover, the control system is built in MATLAB/Simulink, which shows that it has small thrust ripple and high-precision performance.

  6. The development and testing of a linear induction motor being fed from the source with limited electric power

    Tiunov, V. V.

    2018-02-01

    The report provides results of the research related to the tubular linear induction motors’ application. The motors’ design features, a calculation model, a description of test specimens for mining and electric power industry are introduced. The most attention is given to the single-phase motors for high voltage switches drives with the usage of inexpensive standard single-phase transformers for motors’ power supply. The method of the motor’s parameters determination, when the motor is being fed from the transformer, working in the overload mode, was described, and the results of it practical usage were good enough for the engineering practice.

  7. Motoring through: the role of kinesin superfamily proteins in female meiosis.

    Camlin, Nicole J; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Holt, Janet E

    2017-07-01

    The kinesin motor protein family consists of 14 distinct subclasses and 45 kinesin proteins in humans. A large number of these proteins, or their orthologues, have been shown to possess essential function(s) in both the mitotic and the meiotic cell cycle. Kinesins have important roles in chromosome separation, microtubule dynamics, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. This article contains a review of the literature with respect to the role of kinesin motor proteins in female meiosis in model species. Throughout, we discuss the function of each class of kinesin proteins during oocyte meiosis, and where such data are not available their role in mitosis is considered. Finally, the review highlights the potential clinical importance of this family of proteins for human oocyte quality. To examine the role of kinesin motor proteins in oocyte meiosis. A search was performed on the Pubmed database for journal articles published between January 1970 and February 2017. Search terms included 'oocyte kinesin' and 'meiosis kinesin' in addition to individual kinesin names with the terms oocyte or meiosis. Within human cells 45 kinesin motor proteins have been discovered, with the role of only 13 of these proteins, or their orthologues, investigated in female meiosis. Furthermore, of these kinesins only half have been examined in mammalian oocytes, despite alterations occurring in gene transcripts or protein expression with maternal ageing, cryopreservation or behavioral conditions, such as binge drinking, for many of them. Kinesin motor proteins have distinct and important roles throughout oocyte meiosis in many non-mammalian model species. However, the functions these proteins have in mammalian meiosis, particularly in humans, are less clear owing to lack of research. This review brings to light the need for more experimental investigation of kinesin motor proteins, particularly those associated with maternal ageing, cryopreservation or exposure to

  8. EEG sensorimotor rhythms' variation and functional connectivity measures during motor imagery: linear relations and classification approaches.

    Stefano Filho, Carlos A; Attux, Romis; Castellano, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Hands motor imagery (MI) has been reported to alter synchronization patterns amongst neurons, yielding variations in the mu and beta bands' power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. These alterations have been used in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), in an attempt to assign distinct MI tasks to commands of such a system. Recent studies have highlighted that information may be missing if knowledge about brain functional connectivity is not considered. In this work, we modeled the brain as a graph in which each EEG electrode represents a node. Our goal was to understand if there exists any linear correlation between variations in the synchronization patterns-that is, variations in the PSD of mu and beta bands-induced by MI and alterations in the corresponding functional networks. Moreover, we (1) explored the feasibility of using functional connectivity parameters as features for a classifier in the context of an MI-BCI; (2) investigated three different types of feature selection (FS) techniques; and (3) compared our approach to a more traditional method using the signal PSD as classifier inputs. Ten healthy subjects participated in this study. We observed significant correlations ( p  < 0.05) with values ranging from 0.4 to 0.9 between PSD variations and functional network alterations for some electrodes, prominently in the beta band. The PSD method performed better for data classification, with mean accuracies of (90 ± 8)% and (87 ± 7)% for the mu and beta band, respectively, versus (83 ± 8)% and (83 ± 7)% for the same bands for the graph method. Moreover, the number of features for the graph method was considerably larger. However, results for both methods were relatively close, and even overlapped when the uncertainties of the accuracy rates were considered. Further investigation regarding a careful exploration of other graph metrics may provide better alternatives.

  9. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    Elliott, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  10. An analytical method for the calculation of static characteristics of linear step motors for control rod drives in nuclear reactors

    Khan, S.H.; Ivanov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method for calculating static characteristics of linear dc step motors (LSM) is described. These multiphase passive-armature motors are now being developed for control rod drives (CRD) in large nuclear reactors. The static characteristics of such LSM is defined by the variation of electromagnetic force with armature displacement and it determines motor performance in its standing and dynamic modes of operation. The proposed analytical technique for calculating this characteristic is based on the permeance analysis method applied to phase magnetic circuits of LSM. Reluctances of various parts of phase magnetic circuit is calculated analytically by assuming probable flux paths and by taking into account complex nature of magnetic field distribution in it. For given armature positions stator and armature iron saturations are taken into account by an efficient iterative algorithm which gives fast convergence. The method is validated by comparing theoretical results with experimental ones which shows satisfactory agreement for small stator currents and weak iron saturation

  11. Functionalized linear poly(amidoamine)s are efficient vectors for intracellular protein delivery

    Coué, G.M.J.P.C.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.

    2011-01-01

    An effective intracellular protein delivery system was developed based on functionalized linear poly(amidoamine)s (PAAs) that form self-assembled cationic nanocomplexes with oppositely charged proteins. Three differently functionalized PAAs were synthesized, two of these having repetitive disulfide

  12. Development of Propulsion Inverter Control System for High-Speed Maglev based on Long Stator Linear Synchronous Motor

    Jeong-Min Jo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the case of a long-stator linear drive, unlike rotative drives for which speed or position sensors are a single unit attached to the shaft, these sensors extend along the guideway. The position signals transmitted from a maglev vehicle cannot meet the need of the real-time propulsion control in the on-ground inverter power substations. In this paper the design of the propulsion inverter control system with a position estimator for driving a long-stator synchronous motor in a high-speed maglev train is proposed. The experiments have been carried out at the 150 m long guideway at the O-song test track. To investigate the performance of the position estimator, the propulsion control system with, and without, the position estimator are compared. The result confirms that the proposed strategy can meet the dynamic property needs of the propulsion inverter control system for driving long-stator linear synchronous motors.

  13. Simplified 3D Finite Element Analysis of Linear Inductor Motor for Integrated Magnetic Suspension/Propulsion Applications

    Jeong, Sang Sub; Jang Seok Myeong [Chungnam National University(Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The 4-pole linear homopolar synchronous motor (LHSM), so called linear inductor motor, is composed of the figure-of-eight shaped 3-phase armature windings, DC field windings, and the segmented secondary with the transverse bar track. To reduce the calculation time, the simplified 3D finite element model with equivalent reluctance and/or permanent magnet is presented. To obtain a clear understanding, propriety and usefulness of the developed mode., we compare with the results of simplified 3D FEA and test. Consequently, the results of simplified and 3D FEM analysis are nearly identical, but much larger than that of static test at d-axis armature excitation. Therefore the improved FEA model, such as full model with half slot, is needed for the precise analysis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  14. Ultraprecision XY stage using a hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor for continuous motion.

    Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design and control system for an XY stage driven by an ultrasonic linear motor. In this study, a hybrid bolt-clamped Langevin-type ultrasonic linear motor was manufactured and then operated at the resonance frequency of the third longitudinal and the sixth lateral modes. These two modes were matched through the preload adjustment and precisely tuned by the frequency matching method based on the impedance matching method with consideration of the different moving weights. The XY stage was evaluated in terms of position and circular motion. To achieve both fine and stable motion, the controller consisted of a nominal characteristics trajectory following (NCTF) control for continuous motion, dead zone compensation, and a switching controller based on the different NCTFs for the macro- and micro-dynamics regimes. The experimental results showed that the developed stage enables positioning and continuous motion with nanometer-level accuracy.

  15. H-Shaped Multiple Linear Motor Drive Platform Control System Design Based on an Inverse System Method

    Caiyan Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its simple mechanical structure and high motion stability, the H-shaped platform has been increasingly widely used in precision measuring, numerical control machining and semiconductor packaging equipment, etc. The H-shaped platform is normally driven by multiple (three permanent magnet synchronous linear motors. The main challenges for H-shaped platform-control include synchronous control between the two linear motors in the Y direction as well as total positioning error of the platform mover, a combination of position deviation in X and Y directions. To deal with the above challenges, this paper proposes a control strategy based on the inverse system method through state feedback and dynamic decoupling of the thrust force. First, mechanical dynamics equations have been deduced through the analysis of system coupling based on the platform structure. Second, the mathematical model of the linear motors and the relevant coordinate transformation between dq-axis currents and ABC-phase currents are analyzed. Third, after the main concept of inverse system method being explained, the inverse system model of the platform control system has been designed after defining relevant system variables. Inverse system model compensates the original nonlinear coupled system into pseudo-linear decoupled linear system, for which typical linear control methods, like PID, can be adopted to control the system. The simulation model of the control system is built in MATLAB/Simulink and the simulation result shows that the designed control system has both small synchronous deviation and small total trajectory tracking error. Furthermore, the control program has been run on NI controller for both fixed-loop-time and free-loop-time modes, and the test result shows that the average loop computation time needed is rather small, which makes it suitable for real industrial applications. Overall, it proves that the proposed new control strategy can be used in

  16. Simultaneous nano-tracking of multiple motor proteins via spectral discrimination of quantum dots.

    Kakizuka, Taishi; Ikezaki, Keigo; Kaneshiro, Junichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Ichimura, Taro

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous nanometric tracking of multiple motor proteins was achieved by combining multicolor fluorescent labeling of target proteins and imaging spectroscopy, revealing dynamic behaviors of multiple motor proteins at the sub-diffraction-limit scale. Using quantum dot probes of distinct colors, we experimentally verified the localization precision to be a few nanometers at temporal resolution of 30 ms or faster. One-dimensional processive movement of two heads of a single myosin molecule and multiple myosin molecules was successfully traced. Furthermore, the system was modified for two-dimensional measurement and applied to tracking of multiple myosin molecules. Our approach is useful for investigating cooperative movement of proteins in supramolecular nanomachinery.

  17. Vibration Analysis and Experimental Research of the Linear-Motor-Driven Water Piston Pump Used in the Naval Ship

    Ye-qing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the existing problems of traditional water piston pump used in the naval ship, such as low efficiency, high noise, large vibration, and nonintelligent control, a new type of linear-motor-driven water piston pump is developed and its vibration characteristics are analyzed in this research. Based on the 3D model of the structure, the simulation analyses including static stress analysis, modal analysis, and harmonic response analysis are conducted. The simulation results reveal that the mode shape under low frequency stage is mainly associated with the eccentricity swing of the piston rod. The vibration experiment results show that the resonance frequency of linear-motor-driven water piston pump is concentrated upon 500 Hz and 800 Hz in the low frequency range. The dampers can change the resonance frequency of the system to a certain extent. The vibration under triangular motion curve is much better than that of S curve, which is consistent with the simulation conclusion. This research provides an effective method to detect the vibration characteristics and a reference for design and optimization of the linear-motor-driven water piston pump.

  18. Intelligent measurement and compensation of linear motor force ripple: a projection-based learning approach in the presence of noise

    Liu, Yang; Song, Fazhi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Dong, Yue; Tan, Jiubin

    2018-06-01

    Due to their structural simplicity, linear motors are increasingly receiving attention for use in high velocity and high precision applications. The force ripple, as a space-periodic disturbance, however, would deteriorate the achievable dynamic performance. Conventional force ripple measurement approaches are time-consuming and have high requirements on the experimental conditions. In this paper, a novel learning identification algorithm is proposed for force ripple intelligent measurement and compensation. Existing identification schemes always use all the error signals to update the parameters in the force ripple. However, the error induced by noise is non-effective for force ripple identification, and even deteriorates the identification process. In this paper only the most pertinent information in the error signal is utilized for force ripple identification. Firstly, the effective error signals caused by the reference trajectory and the force ripple are extracted by projecting the overall error signals onto a subspace spanned by the physical model of the linear motor as well as the sinusoidal model of the force ripple. The time delay in the linear motor is compensated in the basis functions. Then, a data-driven approach is proposed to design the learning gain. It balances the trade-off between convergence speed and robustness against noise. Simulation and experimental results validate the proposed method and confirm its effectiveness and superiority.

  19. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Leemburg, Susan; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp, Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of protein synthesis inhibition within this region after experimental stroke. Long-Evans rats were trained to perform a skilled-reaching task (SRT) until they reached plateau performance. A photothrombotic stroke was induced in the forelimb representation of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the trained paw. The SRT was re-trained after stroke while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (ANI) or saline were injected into the peri-infarct cortex through implanted cannulas. ANI injections reduced protein synthesis within the peri-infarct cortex by 69% and significantly impaired recovery of reaching performance through re-training. Improvement of motor performance within a single training session remained intact, while improvement between training sessions was impaired. ANI injections did not affect infarct size. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition within the peri-infarct cortex impairs recovery of motor deficits after ischemic stroke by interfering with consolidation of motor memory between training sessions but not short-term improvements within one session.

  20. Inhibition linearizes firing rate responses in human motor units: implications for the role of persistent inward currents.

    Revill, Ann L; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons are the output neurons of the central nervous system and are responsible for controlling muscle contraction. When initially activated during voluntary contraction, firing rates of motor neurons increase steeply but then level out at modest rates. Activation of an intrinsic source of excitatory current at recruitment onset may underlie the initial steep increase in firing rate in motor neurons. We attempted to disable this intrinsic excitatory current by artificially activating an inhibitory reflex. When motor neuron activity was recorded while the inhibitory reflex was engaged, firing rates no longer increased steeply, suggesting that the intrinsic excitatory current was probably responsible for the initial sharp rise in motor neuron firing rate. During graded isometric contractions, motor unit (MU) firing rates increase steeply upon recruitment but then level off at modest rates even though muscle force continues to increase. The mechanisms underlying such firing behaviour are not known although activation of persistent inward currents (PICs) might be involved. PICs are intrinsic, voltage-dependent currents that activate strongly when motor neurons (MNs) are first recruited. Such activation might cause a sharp escalation in depolarizing current and underlie the steep initial rise in MU firing rate. Because PICs can be disabled with synaptic inhibition, we hypothesized that artificial activation of an inhibitory pathway might curb this initial steep rise in firing rate. To test this, human subjects performed slow triangular ramp contractions of the ankle dorsiflexors in the absence and presence of tonic synaptic inhibition delivered to tibialis anterior (TA) MNs by sural nerve stimulation. Firing rate profiles (expressed as a function of contraction force) of TA MUs recorded during these tasks were compared for control and stimulation conditions. Under control conditions, during the ascending phase of the triangular contractions, 93% of the firing

  1. Porters versus rowers: a unified stochastic model of motor proteins.

    Leibler, S; Huse, D A

    1993-06-01

    We present a general phenomenological theory for chemical to mechanical energy transduction by motor enzymes which is based on the classical "tight-coupling" mechanism. The associated minimal stochastic model takes explicitly into account both ATP hydrolysis and thermal noise effects. It provides expressions for the hydrolysis rate and the sliding velocity, as functions of the ATP concentration and the number of motor enzymes. It explains in a unified way many results of recent in vitro motility assays. More importantly, the theory provides a natural classification scheme for the motors: it correlates the biochemical and mechanical differences between "porters" such as cellular kinesins or dyneins, and "rowers" such as muscular myosins or flagellar dyneins.

  2. Sensor-Motor Maps for Describing Linear Reflex Composition in Hopping.

    Schumacher, Christian; Seyfarth, André

    2017-01-01

    In human and animal motor control several sensory organs contribute to a network of sensory pathways modulating the motion depending on the task and the phase of execution to generate daily motor tasks such as locomotion. To better understand the individual and joint contribution of reflex pathways in locomotor tasks, we developed a neuromuscular model that describes hopping movements. In this model, we consider the influence of proprioceptive length (LFB), velocity (VFB) and force feedback (FFB) pathways of a leg extensor muscle on hopping stability, performance and efficiency (metabolic effort). Therefore, we explore the space describing the blending of the monosynaptic reflex pathway gains. We call this reflex parameter space a sensor-motor map . The sensor-motor maps are used to visualize the functional contribution of sensory pathways in multisensory integration. We further evaluate the robustness of these sensor-motor maps to changes in tendon elasticity, body mass, segment length and ground compliance. The model predicted that different reflex pathway compositions selectively optimize specific hopping characteristics (e.g., performance and efficiency). Both FFB and LFB were pathways that enable hopping. FFB resulted in the largest hopping heights, LFB enhanced hopping efficiency and VFB had the ability to disable hopping. For the tested case, the topology of the sensor-motor maps as well as the location of functionally optimal compositions were invariant to changes in system designs (tendon elasticity, body mass, segment length) or environmental parameters (ground compliance). Our results indicate that different feedback pathway compositions may serve different functional roles. The topology of the sensor-motor map was predicted to be robust against changes in the mechanical system design indicating that the reflex system can use different morphological designs, which does not apply for most robotic systems (for which the control often follows a specific

  3. A novel large thrust-weight ratio V-shaped linear ultrasonic motor with a flexible joint.

    Li, Xiaoniu; Yao, Zhiyuan; Yang, Mojian

    2017-06-01

    A novel large thrust-weight ratio V-shaped linear ultrasonic motor with a flexible joint is proposed in this paper. The motor is comprised of a V-shaped transducer, a slider, a clamp, and a base. The V-shaped transducer consists of two piezoelectric beams connected through a flexible joint to form an appropriate coupling angle. The V-shaped motor is operated in the coupled longitudinal-bending mode. Longitudinal and bending movements are transferred by the flexible joint between the two beams. Compared with the coupled longitudinal-bending mode of the single piezoelectric beam or the symmetrical and asymmetrical modes of the previous V-shaped transducer, the coupled longitudinal-bending mode of the V-shaped transducer with a flexible joint provides higher vibration efficiency and more convenient mode conformance adjustment. A finite element model of the V-shaped transducer is created to numerically study the influence of geometrical parameters and to determine the final geometrical parameters. In this paper, three prototypes were then fabricated and experimentally investigated. The modal test results match well with the finite element analysis. The motor mechanical output characteristics of three different coupling angles θ indicate that V-90 (θ = 90°) is the optimal angle. The mechanical output experiments conducted using the V-90 prototype (Size: 59.4 mm × 30.7 mm × 4 mm) demonstrate that the maximum unloaded speed is 1.2 m/s under a voltage of 350 Vpp, and the maximum output force is 15 N under a voltage of 300 Vpp. The proposed novel V-shaped linear ultrasonic motor has a compact size and a simple structure with a large thrust-weight ratio (0.75 N/g) and high speed.

  4. Protein translocation channel of mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix-exposed import motor communicate via two-domain coupling protein.

    Banerjee, Rupa; Gladkova, Christina; Mapa, Koyeli; Witte, Gregor; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2015-12-29

    The majority of mitochondrial proteins are targeted to mitochondria by N-terminal presequences and use the TIM23 complex for their translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. During import, translocation through the channel in the inner membrane is coupled to the ATP-dependent action of an Hsp70-based import motor at the matrix face. How these two processes are coordinated remained unclear. We show here that the two domain structure of Tim44 plays a central role in this process. The N-terminal domain of Tim44 interacts with the components of the import motor, whereas its C-terminal domain interacts with the translocation channel and is in contact with translocating proteins. Our data suggest that the translocation channel and the import motor of the TIM23 complex communicate through rearrangements of the two domains of Tim44 that are stimulated by translocating proteins.

  5. Impact of fluorescent protein fusions on the bacterial flagellar motor

    Heo, M.; Nord, A. L.; Chamousset, D.; van Rijn, E.; Beaumont, H.J.E.; Pedaci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescent fusion proteins open a direct and unique window onto protein function. However, they also introduce the risk of perturbation of the function of the native protein. Successful applications of fluorescent fusions therefore rely on a careful assessment and minimization of the side

  6. Design of a Control System for a Maglev Planar Motor Based on Two-Dimension Linear Interpolation

    Feng Xing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the high speed and high-precision control of a maglev planar motor, a high-precision electromagnetic model is needed in the first place, which can also contribute to meeting the real-time running requirements. Traditionally, the electromagnetic model is based on analytical calculations. However, this neglects the model simplification and the manufacturing errors, which may bring certain errors to the model. Aiming to handle this inaccuracy, this paper proposes a novel design method for a maglev planar motor control system based on two-dimensional linear interpolation. First, the magnetic field is divided into several regions according to the symmetry of the Halbach magnetic array, and the uniform grid method is adopted to partition one of these regions. Second, targeting this region, it is possible to sample the electromagnetic forces and torques on each node of the grid and obtain the complete electromagnetic model in this region through the two-dimensional linear interpolation method. Third, the whole electromagnetic model of the maglev planar motor can be derived according to the symmetry of the magnetic field. Finally, the decoupling method and controller are designed according to this electromagnetic model, and thereafter, the control model can be established. The designed control system is demonstrated through simulations and experiments to feature better accuracy and meet the requirements of real-time control.

  7. Sensor-Motor Maps for Describing Linear Reflex Composition in Hopping

    Christian Schumacher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In human and animal motor control several sensory organs contribute to a network of sensory pathways modulating the motion depending on the task and the phase of execution to generate daily motor tasks such as locomotion. To better understand the individual and joint contribution of reflex pathways in locomotor tasks, we developed a neuromuscular model that describes hopping movements. In this model, we consider the influence of proprioceptive length (LFB, velocity (VFB and force feedback (FFB pathways of a leg extensor muscle on hopping stability, performance and efficiency (metabolic effort. Therefore, we explore the space describing the blending of the monosynaptic reflex pathway gains. We call this reflex parameter space a sensor-motor map. The sensor-motor maps are used to visualize the functional contribution of sensory pathways in multisensory integration. We further evaluate the robustness of these sensor-motor maps to changes in tendon elasticity, body mass, segment length and ground compliance. The model predicted that different reflex pathway compositions selectively optimize specific hopping characteristics (e.g., performance and efficiency. Both FFB and LFB were pathways that enable hopping. FFB resulted in the largest hopping heights, LFB enhanced hopping efficiency and VFB had the ability to disable hopping. For the tested case, the topology of the sensor-motor maps as well as the location of functionally optimal compositions were invariant to changes in system designs (tendon elasticity, body mass, segment length or environmental parameters (ground compliance. Our results indicate that different feedback pathway compositions may serve different functional roles. The topology of the sensor-motor map was predicted to be robust against changes in the mechanical system design indicating that the reflex system can use different morphological designs, which does not apply for most robotic systems (for which the control often follows a

  8. Linear versus non-linear measures of temporal variability in finger tapping and their relation to performance on open- versus closed-loop motor tasks: comparing standard deviations to Lyapunov exponents.

    Christman, Stephen D; Weaver, Ryan

    2008-05-01

    The nature of temporal variability during speeded finger tapping was examined using linear (standard deviation) and non-linear (Lyapunov exponent) measures. Experiment 1 found that right hand tapping was characterised by lower amounts of both linear and non-linear measures of variability than left hand tapping, and that linear and non-linear measures of variability were often negatively correlated with one another. Experiment 2 found that increased non-linear variability was associated with relatively enhanced performance on a closed-loop motor task (mirror tracing) and relatively impaired performance on an open-loop motor task (pointing in a dark room), especially for left hand performance. The potential uses and significance of measures of non-linear variability are discussed.

  9. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    Schubring-Giese Maximilian; Leemburg Susan; Luft Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of ...

  10. Calculation of static characteristics of linear step motors for control rod drives of nuclear reactors - an approximate approach

    Khan, S.H.; Ivanov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an approximate method for calculating the static characteristics of linear step motors (LSM), being developed for control rod drives (CRD) in large nuclear reactors. The static characteristic of such an LSM which is given by the variation of electromagnetic force with armature displacement determines the motor performance in its standing and dynamic modes. The approximate method of calculation of these characteristics is based on the permeance analysis method applied to the phase magnetic circuit of LSM. This is a simple, fast and efficient analytical approach which gives satisfactory results for small stator currents and weak iron saturation, typical to the standing mode of operation of LSM. The method is validated by comparing theoretical results with experimental ones. (Author)

  11. MODELING OF OPERATION OF COAXIAL-LINEAR MOTORS WITH AXIAL AND RADIAL DIRECTIONS OF MAGNETIZATION OF PERMANENT MAGNETS IN DYNAMIC MODE

    G.M. Golenkov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental investigations of the amplitude, phase and inertia-power frequency characteristics of two types of coaxial-linear electric motors of back-and-forth motion with permanent magnets, which magnetization vector is directed axially and radially relative to the axis of the runner are carried out. The comparative analysis of characteristics of these motors is presented.

  12. Non Linear, Time Variant Speed Control of a Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Ahn, Jin Woo

    2009-01-01

    A high torque ripple in a given motor always presents a challenge for the speed control, since this ripple may lead to excessive actuation and ultimately may even lead to instability. The conventional solution is to low pass filter the measured speed, but this lowers dynamic control performance...

  13. Vectorial loading of processive motor proteins: implementing a landscape picture

    Kim, Young C; Fisher, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    Individual processive molecular motors, of which conventional kinesin is the most studied quantitatively, move along polar molecular tracks and, by exerting a force F = (F x ,F y ,F z ) on a tether, drag cellular cargoes, in vivo, or spherical beads, in vitro, taking up to hundreds of nanometre-scale steps. From observations of velocities and the dispersion of displacements with time, under measured forces and controlled fuel supply (typically ATP), one may hope to obtain insight into the molecular motions undergone in the individual steps. In the simplest situation, the load force F may be regarded as a scalar resisting force, F x z >0, while more recently Block and co-workers (2002 Biophys. J. 83 491, 2003 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100 2351) and Carter and Cross (2005 Nature 435 308) have studied assisting (or reverse) loads, F x >0, and also sideways (or transverse) loads F y ≠ 0. We extend previous mechanochemical kinetic models by explicitly implementing a free-energy landscape picture in order to allow for the full vectorial nature of the force F transmitted by the tether. The load-dependence of the various forward and reverse transition rates is embodied in load distribution vectors, θ j + and θ j - , which relate to substeps of the motor, and in next order, in compliance matrices η j + and η j - . The approach is applied specifically to discuss the experiments of Howard and co-workers (1996 Biophys.?J. 70 418) in which the buckling of partially clamped microtubules was measured under the action of bound kinesin molecules which induced determined perpendicular loads. But in the normal single-bead assay it also proves imperative to allow for F z >0: the appropriate analysis for kinesin, suggesting that the motor 'crouches' on binding ATP prior to stepping, is sketched. It yields an expression for the velocity, V (F x ,F z ;[ATP]), needed to address the buckling experiments

  14. Versatile microsphere attachment of GFP-labeled motors and other tagged proteins with preserved functionality

    Michael Bugiel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microspheres are often used as handles for protein purification or force spectroscopy. For example, optical tweezers apply forces on trapped particles to which motor proteins are attached. However, even though many attachment strategies exist, procedures are often limited to a particular biomolecule and prone to non-specific protein or surface attachment. Such interactions may lead to loss of protein functionality or microsphere clustering. Here, we describe a versatile coupling procedure for GFP-tagged proteins via a polyethylene glycol linker preserving the functionality of the coupled proteins. The procedure combines well-established protocols, is highly reproducible, reliable, and can be used for a large variety of proteins. The coupling is efficient and can be tuned to the desired microsphere-to-protein ratio. Moreover, microspheres hardly cluster or adhere to surfaces. Furthermore, the procedure can be adapted to different tags providing flexibility and a promising attachment strategy for any tagged protein.

  15. Speed control of permanent magnet excitation transverse flux linear motor by using adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller

    Hasanien, Hany M., E-mail: Hanyhasanien@ieee.or [Dept. of Elec. Power and Machines, Faculty of Eng., Ain-shams Univ. Cairo (Egypt); Muyeen, S.M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Tamura, Junji [Department of EEE, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen Cho, Kitami 090-8507, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a novel adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller applies on transverse flux linear motor for controlling its speed. The proposed controller presents fuzzy logic controller with self tuning scaling factors based on artificial neural network structure. It has two input variables and one control output variable. Firstly the fuzzy logic control rules are described then NN architecture is represented to self tune the output scaling factors of the controller. The application of this control technique represents the novelty of work, where this algorithm has so far not been stated before for this type of drives. This methodology solves the problem of nonlinearities and load changes of TFLM drives. The dynamic response of the motor is studied under the rated load condition as well as load disturbances. The proposed controller ensures fast and accurate dynamic response with an excellent steady state performance. The dynamic response of the motor with the proposed controller is compared with PI and adaptive NN controllers. It is found that the proposed controller gives better and faster response from the viewpoint of overshoot and settling time. Matlab/Simulink tool is used for this dynamic simulation study.

  16. Lift force fluctuations of magnetically levitated vehicles with an integrated synchronous linear motor and their significance for the technical security

    Mnich, P; Huebner, K D

    1980-07-15

    In this paper the influence of the motor current on the magnetic force is investigated by an analytical method. With the integrated synchronous linear motor the reactions of the current sheet on the excitation field are depending on the pole angle and the amplitude of the current sheet. For an undisturbed operation - current sheet and induction wave in phase - the influence of the motor current on the magnetic force can be neglected. In case of a disturbed performance, i.e. when the pole angle is changing periodically, fluctuations of the magnetic force will be found. This effect has to be compensated by a reserve magnetic force in the levitation control. With the technical data for the new magnetic levitation pilots plants (International Traffic Fair 1979 at Hamburg and Transrapid - Pilot Plant Emsland) the stated relations are evaluated. Approximated relations for the levitation force are derived. For comparison, a finite-difference computer programme from the 'Institut fuer elektrische Maschinen, Antriebe und Bahnen, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig' is applied. The approximated relations developed in this paper are verified - with a sufficient precision - by the numerical calculations.

  17. Bio-inspired piezoelectric linear motor driven by a single-phase harmonic wave with an asymmetric stator.

    Pan, Qiaosheng; Miao, Enming; Wu, Bingxuan; Chen, Weikang; Lei, Xiujun; He, Liangguo

    2017-07-01

    A novel, bio-inspired, single-phase driven piezoelectric linear motor (PLM) using an asymmetric stator was designed, fabricated, and tested to avoid mode degeneracy and to simplify the drive mechanism of a piezoelectric motor. A piezoelectric transducer composed of two piezoelectric stacks and a displacement amplifier was used as the driving element of the PLM. Two simple and specially designed claws performed elliptical motion. A numerical simulation was performed to design the stator and determine the feasibility of the design mechanism of the PLM. Moreover, an experimental setup was built to validate the working principles, as well as to evaluate the performance, of the PLM. The prototype motor outputs a no-load speed of 233.7 mm/s at a voltage of 180 V p-p and a maximum thrust force of 2.3 N under a preload of 10 N. This study verified the feasibility of the proposed design and provided a method to simplify the driving harmonic signal and structure of PLMs.

  18. Enterovirus 71 viral capsid protein linear epitopes: Identification and characterization

    Gao Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the human humoral immune response against enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection and map human epitopes on the viral capsid proteins. Methods A series of 256 peptides spanning the capsid proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 of BJ08 strain (genomic C4 were synthesized. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was carried out to detect anti-EV71 IgM and IgG in sera of infected children in acute or recovery phase. The partially overlapped peptides contained 12 amino acids and were coated in the plate as antigen (0.1 μg/μl. Sera from rabbits immunized with inactivated BJ08 virus were also used to screen the peptide panel. Results A total of 10 human anti-EV71 IgM epitopes (vp1-14 in VP1; vp2-6, 21, 40 and 50 in VP2 and vp3-10, 12, 15, 24 and 75 in VP3 were identified in acute phase sera. In contrast, only one anti-EV71 IgG epitope in VP1 (vp1-15 was identified in sera of recovery stage. Four rabbit anti-EV71 IgG epitopes (vp1-14, 31, 54 and 71 were identified and mapped to VP1. Conclusion These data suggested that human IgM epitopes were mainly mapped to VP2 and VP3 with multi-epitope responses occurred at acute infection, while the only IgG epitope located on protein VP1 was activated in recovery phase sera. The dynamic changes of humoral immune response at different stages of infection may have public health significance in evaluation of EV71 vaccine immunogenicity and the clinical application of diagnostic reagents.

  19. Optimal design of a double-sided linear motor with a multi-segmented trapezoidal magnet array for a high precision positioning system

    Lee, Moon G.; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2004-01-01

    A comparative analysis is performed for linear motors adopting conventional and multi-segmented trapezoidal (MST) magnet arrays, respectively, for a high-precision positioning system. The proposed MST magnet array is a modified version of a Halbach magnet array. The MST array has trapezoidal magnets with variable shape and dimensions while the Halbach magnet array generally has a rectangular magnet with identical dimensions. We propose a new model that can describe the magnetic field resulting from the complex-shaped magnets. The model can be applied to both MST and conventional magnet arrays. Using the model, a design optimization of the two types of linear motors is performed and compared. The magnet array with trapezoidal magnets can produce more force than one with rectangular magnets when they are arrayed in a linear motor where there is a yoke with high permeability. After the optimization and comparison, we conclude that the linear motor with the MST magnet array can generate more actuating force per volume than the motor with the conventional array. In order to satisfy the requirements of next generation systems such as high resolution, high speed, and long stroke, the use of a linear motor with a MST array as an actuator in a high precision positioning system is recommended from the results obtained here

  20. MODELING OF EQUIVALENT STIFFNESS OF A MAGNETIC SPRING OF VIBRATION EXCITER BASED ON COAXIAL-LINEAR MOTOR

    G.M. Golenkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research of the influence of value and direction of current on the equivalent spring magnetic force based on coaxial-linear motor (CLM – MS. Methodology. We carried out investigation of the equivalent harshness of magnetic spring with determination of electromechanical propulsion performance characteristics by the methods of computer modeling and experimental research of physical model of CLM – MS. The modeling of magnetic spring of CLM – MS is carried out by the finite-element method. The challenge is met as an axisymmetric challenge in cylindrical co-ordinates in magnetostatic approach. The experimental investigattion of the propulsion performance characteristics of magnetic spring is carried out on the test bench. Results. After the computer modeling and the experimental investigation of the electromechanical propulsion performance characteristics of magnetic spring the expressions of equivalent stiffness coefficient depending on the current in winding are obtained. The results of computer modeling are confirmed experimentally. Originality. The determination of equivalent stiffness coefficient of magnetic spring of vibration exciter based on coaxial-linear motor. Practical value. The obtained determination of equivalent stiffness coefficient of magnetic spring may be used in process of designing of vibration machines with devices for change of natural oscillation frequency.

  1. Comparisons between designs for single-sided linear electric motors: Homopolar synchronous and induction

    Nondahl, T. A.; Richter, E.

    1980-09-01

    A design study of two types of single sided (with a passive rail) linear electric machine designs, namely homopolar linear synchronous machines (LSM's) and linear induction machines (LIM's), is described. It is assumed the machines provide tractive effort for several types of light rail vehicles and locomotives. These vehicles are wheel supported and require tractive powers ranging from 200 kW to 3735 kW and top speeds ranging from 112 km/hr to 400 km/hr. All designs are made according to specified magnetic and thermal criteria. The LSM advantages are a higher power factor, much greater restoring forces for track misalignments, and less track heating. The LIM advantages are no need to synchronize the excitation frequency precisely to vehicle speed, simpler machine construction, and a more easily anchored track structure. The relative weights of the two machine types vary with excitation frequency and speed; low frequencies and low speeds favor the LSM.

  2. The UNC-4 homeobox protein represses mab-9 expression in DA motor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Jafari, Gholamali; Appleford, Peter J; Seago, Julian

    2011-01-01

    , an RNAi screen designed to identify upstream transcriptional regulators of mab-9 showed that silencing of unc-4 (encoding a paired-class homeodomain protein) increases mab-9::gfp expression in the nervous system, specifically in posterior DA motor neurons. Over-expression of unc-4 from a heat...

  3. Complex motor task associated with non-linear BOLD responses in cerebro-cortical areas and cerebellum.

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Samson, Rebecca S; Gasston, David; Pardini, Matteo; Friston, Karl J; D'Angelo, Egidio; Toosy, Ahmed T; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have used fMRI to address the relationship between grip force (GF) applied to an object and BOLD response. However, whilst the majority of these studies showed a linear relationship between GF and neural activity in the contralateral M1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, animal studies have suggested the presence of non-linear components in the GF-neural activity relationship. Here, we present a methodology for assessing non-linearities in the BOLD response to different GF levels, within primary motor as well as sensory and cognitive areas and the cerebellum. To be sensitive to complex forms, we designed a feasible grip task with five GF targets using an event-related visually guided paradigm and studied a cohort of 13 healthy volunteers. Polynomial functions of increasing order were fitted to the data. (1) activated motor areas irrespective of GF; (2) positive higher-order responses in and outside M1, involving premotor, sensory and visual areas and cerebellum; (3) negative correlations with GF, predominantly involving the visual domain. Overall, our results suggest that there are physiologically consistent behaviour patterns in cerebral and cerebellar cortices; for example, we observed the presence of a second-order effect in sensorimotor areas, consistent with an optimum metabolic response at intermediate GF levels, while higher-order behaviour was found in associative and cognitive areas. At higher GF levels, sensory-related cortical areas showed reduced activation, interpretable as a redistribution of the neural activity for more demanding tasks. These results have the potential of opening new avenues for investigating pathological mechanisms of neurological diseases.

  4. Effect of milk proteins on linear growth and IGF variables in overweight adolescents

    Larnkjær, Anni; Arnberg, Karina; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-01-01

    Milk may stimulate growth acting via insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion but the effect in adolescents is less examined. This study investigates the effect of milk proteins on linear growth, IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in overweight adolescents....

  5. Subcellular localization for Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial proteins using linear interpolation smoothing model.

    Saini, Harsh; Raicar, Gaurav; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil; Sharma, Alok

    2015-12-07

    Protein subcellular localization is an important topic in proteomics since it is related to a protein׳s overall function, helps in the understanding of metabolic pathways, and in drug design and discovery. In this paper, a basic approximation technique from natural language processing called the linear interpolation smoothing model is applied for predicting protein subcellular localizations. The proposed approach extracts features from syntactical information in protein sequences to build probabilistic profiles using dependency models, which are used in linear interpolation to determine how likely is a sequence to belong to a particular subcellular location. This technique builds a statistical model based on maximum likelihood. It is able to deal effectively with high dimensionality that hinders other traditional classifiers such as Support Vector Machines or k-Nearest Neighbours without sacrificing performance. This approach has been evaluated by predicting subcellular localizations of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Persistent current analysis of superconducting coils in a linear synchronous motor for maglev passenger transport system. Fujoshiki tetsudoyo linear doki motor ni okeru teijisoku mode chodendo coil denryu no kaiseki

    Azusawa, T [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-05-20

    The simple analysis method of persistent current induced in on-board superconducting coils was proposed for the vehicle of a superconducting magnetically-suspended train which is running in the magnetic field generated by armature coil current of a linear synchronous motor installed along a guideway, and the performance of the method is discussed through calculation based on typical models. As fluctuation of persistent current due to running was calculated with various parameter values under a normal running condition, fluctuation of persistent current induced was less then 1% of an initial magnetomotive force, having no adverse effect on the stability and reliability of superconducting magnets. Electromagnetic forces under a normal running condition could be predicted accurately enough by relatively easy-to-calculate constant current mode analysis. Double-layered armature coils were preferred to single-layered ones to enhance the stability of superconducting magnets by reducing fluctuation of persistent current. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Body mass index and motor coordination: Non-linear relationships in children 6-10 years.

    Lopes, V P; Malina, R M; Maia, J A R; Rodrigues, L P

    2018-05-01

    Given the concern for health-related consequences of an elevated body mass index (BMI; obesity), the potential consequences of a low BMI in children are often overlooked. The purpose was to evaluate the relationship between the BMI across its entire spectrum and motor coordination (MC) in children 6-10 years. Height, weight, and MC (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder, KTK test battery) were measured in 1,912 boys and 1,826 girls of 6-10 years of age. BMI (kg/m 2 ) was calculated. KTK scores for each of the four tests were also converted to a motor quotient (MQ). One-way ANOVA was used to test differences in the BMI, individual test items, and MQ among boys and girls within age groups. Sex-specific quadratic regressions of individual KTK items and the MQ on the BMI were calculated. Girls and boys were also classified into four weight status groups using International Obesity Task Force criteria: thin, normal, overweight, and obese. Differences in specific test items and MQ between weight status groups were evaluated by age group in each sex. Thirty-one percent of the sample was overweight or obese, whereas 5% was thin. On average, normal weight children had the highest MQ in both sexes across the age range with few exceptions. Overweight/obese children had a lower MQ than normal weight and thin children. The quadratic regression lines generally presented an inverted parabolic relationship between the BMI and MC and suggested a decrease in MC with an increase in the BMI. In general, BMI shows a curvilinear, inverted parabolic relationship with MC in children 6-10 years. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Chia-Shan Wu

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  9. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Wu, Chia-Shan; Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Hao; Zhu, Jie; Jew, Chris P; Wager-Miller, James; Straiker, Alex; Spencer, Corinne; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  10. Revealing Linear Aggregates of Light Harvesting Antenna Proteins in Photosynthetic Membranes

    He, Yufan; Zeng, Xiaohua; Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Rajapaksha, Suneth; Kaplan, Samuel; Lu, H. Peter

    2010-01-01

    How light energy is harvested in a natural photosynthetic membrane through energy transfer is closely related to the stoichiometry and arrangement of light harvesting antenna proteins in the membrane. The specific photosynthetic architecture facilitates a rapid and efficient energy transfer among the light harvesting proteins (LH2 and LH1) and to the reaction center. Here we report the identification of linear aggregates of light harvesting proteins, LH2, in the photosynthetic membranes under...

  11. Linear growth of children on a ketogenic diet: does the protein-to-energy ratio matter?

    Nation, Judy; Humphrey, Maureen; MacKay, Mark; Boneh, Avihu

    2014-11-01

    Ketogenic diet is a structured effective treatment for children with intractable epilepsy. Several reports have indicated poor linear growth in children on the diet but the mechanism of poor growth has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore whether the protein to energy ratio plays a role in linear growth of children on ketogenic diet. Data regarding growth and nutrition were, retrospectively, collected from the clinical histories of 35 children who were treated with ketogenic diet for at least 6 months between 2002 and 2010. Patients were stratified into groups according to periods of satisfactory or poor linear growth. Poor linear growth was associated with protein or caloric intake of <80% recommended daily intake, and with a protein-to-energy ratio consistently ≤1.4 g protein/100 kcal even when protein and caloric intakes were adequate. We recommend a protein-to-energy ratio of 1.5 g protein/100 kcal be prescribed to prevent growth retardation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. LINEARIZATION OF THE BRADFORD PROTEIN ASSAY TO APPLICATION IN COW MILK PROTEINS QUANTIFICATION BY UV-Vis SPECTROPHOTOMETRY METHOD

    Alessa Siqueira de Oliveira dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable methods for determination and quantification of total protein in food are essential information to ensure quality and safety of food trade. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linearity of calibration curves obtained from different proteins (blood serum albumin-BSA, α-LA, β-LG, caseins (CN: αs, β and κ-CAS with the reagent of Bradford. Comercial UHT skimmed bovine milk was analyzed for the determination of total protein using the Bradford method by reading at 595 nm. The determination of the concentrations of total milk protein was achieved by linear regression. The Bradford method showed a high sensitivity for the determination of total proteins in bovine milk dilution 1:25 to values closer to those obtained by the Kjeldahl method. The results showed that the calibration curve of standard proteins β-CN and BSA obtained better linearity with less variation in the absorbance measurements for the determination of total protein of milk.

  13. The operation of a single-sided linear induction motor with squirrel-cage and solid-steel reaction rails

    Eastham, A. R.; Katz, R. M.

    1980-09-01

    Two test programs have been conducted to evaluate the performance of a single-sided linear induction motor with a squirrel-cage reaction rail and with a solid steel reaction rail. A 1.73-m-long six-pole stator interacted with the rails mounted on the rim of a 7.6-m-diam wheel. A 64-channel data acquisition system allowed tests to be performed over a wide range of operating conditions at speeds up to 20 m/sec. Typical test results which compare and contrast the mechanical, electrical and magnetic behavior of the SLIMs are presented. The test data are being used to assess the SLIM as an integrated suspension/propulsion system and for other transportation applications.

  14. Three dimensional force prediction in a model linear brushless dc motor

    Moghani, J.S.; Eastham, J.F.; Akmese, R.; Hill-Cottingham, R.J. (Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom). School of Electronic and Electric Engineering)

    1994-11-01

    Practical results are presented for the three axes forces produced on the primary of a linear brushless dc machine which is supplied from a three-phase delta-modulated inverter. Conditions of both lateral alignment and lateral displacement are considered. Finite element analysis using both two and three dimensional modeling is compared with the practical results. It is shown that a modified two dimensional model is adequate, where it can be used, in the aligned position and that the full three dimensional method gives good results when the machine is axially misaligned.

  15. Linear and nonlinear auditory response properties of interneurons in a high-order avian vocal motor nucleus during wakefulness.

    Raksin, Jonathan N; Glaze, Christopher M; Smith, Sarah; Schmidt, Marc F

    2012-04-01

    Motor-related forebrain areas in higher vertebrates also show responses to passively presented sensory stimuli. However, sensory tuning properties in these areas, especially during wakefulness, and their relation to perception, are poorly understood. In the avian song system, HVC (proper name) is a vocal-motor structure with auditory responses well defined under anesthesia but poorly characterized during wakefulness. We used a large set of stimuli including the bird's own song (BOS) and many conspecific songs (CON) to characterize auditory tuning properties in putative interneurons (HVC(IN)) during wakefulness. Our findings suggest that HVC contains a diversity of responses that vary in overall excitability to auditory stimuli, as well as bias in spike rate increases to BOS over CON. We used statistical tests to classify cells in order to further probe auditory responses, yielding one-third of neurons that were either unresponsive or suppressed and two-thirds with excitatory responses to one or more stimuli. A subset of excitatory neurons were tuned exclusively to BOS and showed very low linearity as measured by spectrotemporal receptive field analysis (STRF). The remaining excitatory neurons responded well to CON stimuli, although many cells still expressed a bias toward BOS. These findings suggest the concurrent presence of a nonlinear and a linear component to responses in HVC, even within the same neuron. These characteristics are consistent with perceptual deficits in distinguishing BOS from CON stimuli following lesions of HVC and other song nuclei and suggest mirror neuronlike qualities in which "self" (here BOS) is used as a referent to judge "other" (here CON).

  16. Using a generalized linear mixed model approach to explore the role of age, motor proficiency, and cognitive styles in children's reach estimation accuracy.

    Caçola, Priscila M; Pant, Mohan D

    2014-10-01

    The purpose was to use a multi-level statistical technique to analyze how children's age, motor proficiency, and cognitive styles interact to affect accuracy on reach estimation tasks via Motor Imagery and Visual Imagery. Results from the Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis (GLMM) indicated that only the 7-year-old age group had significant random intercepts for both tasks. Motor proficiency predicted accuracy in reach tasks, and cognitive styles (object scale) predicted accuracy in the motor imagery task. GLMM analysis is suitable to explore age and other parameters of development. In this case, it allowed an assessment of motor proficiency interacting with age to shape how children represent, plan, and act on the environment.

  17. Bayesian integration and non-linear feedback control in a full-body motor task.

    Stevenson, Ian H; Fernandes, Hugo L; Vilares, Iris; Wei, Kunlin; Körding, Konrad P

    2009-12-01

    A large number of experiments have asked to what degree human reaching movements can be understood as being close to optimal in a statistical sense. However, little is known about whether these principles are relevant for other classes of movements. Here we analyzed movement in a task that is similar to surfing or snowboarding. Human subjects stand on a force plate that measures their center of pressure. This center of pressure affects the acceleration of a cursor that is displayed in a noisy fashion (as a cloud of dots) on a projection screen while the subject is incentivized to keep the cursor close to a fixed position. We find that salient aspects of observed behavior are well-described by optimal control models where a Bayesian estimation model (Kalman filter) is combined with an optimal controller (either a Linear-Quadratic-Regulator or Bang-bang controller). We find evidence that subjects integrate information over time taking into account uncertainty. However, behavior in this continuous steering task appears to be a highly non-linear function of the visual feedback. While the nervous system appears to implement Bayes-like mechanisms for a full-body, dynamic task, it may additionally take into account the specific costs and constraints of the task.

  18. Bayesian integration and non-linear feedback control in a full-body motor task.

    Ian H Stevenson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of experiments have asked to what degree human reaching movements can be understood as being close to optimal in a statistical sense. However, little is known about whether these principles are relevant for other classes of movements. Here we analyzed movement in a task that is similar to surfing or snowboarding. Human subjects stand on a force plate that measures their center of pressure. This center of pressure affects the acceleration of a cursor that is displayed in a noisy fashion (as a cloud of dots on a projection screen while the subject is incentivized to keep the cursor close to a fixed position. We find that salient aspects of observed behavior are well-described by optimal control models where a Bayesian estimation model (Kalman filter is combined with an optimal controller (either a Linear-Quadratic-Regulator or Bang-bang controller. We find evidence that subjects integrate information over time taking into account uncertainty. However, behavior in this continuous steering task appears to be a highly non-linear function of the visual feedback. While the nervous system appears to implement Bayes-like mechanisms for a full-body, dynamic task, it may additionally take into account the specific costs and constraints of the task.

  19. Protein friction limits diffusive and directed movements of kinesin motors on microtubules.

    Bormuth, Volker; Varga, Vladimir; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik

    2009-08-14

    Friction limits the operation of macroscopic engines and is critical to the performance of micromechanical devices. We report measurements of friction in a biological nanomachine. Using optical tweezers, we characterized the frictional drag force of individual kinesin-8 motor proteins interacting with their microtubule tracks. At low speeds and with no energy source, the frictional drag was related to the diffusion coefficient by the Einstein relation. At higher speeds, the frictional drag force increased nonlinearly, consistent with the motor jumping 8 nanometers between adjacent tubulin dimers along the microtubule, and was asymmetric, reflecting the structural polarity of the microtubule. We argue that these frictional forces arise from breaking bonds between the motor domains and the microtubule, and they limit the speed and efficiency of kinesin.

  20. Regulation of motor proteins, axonal transport deficits and adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases.

    Brady, Scott T; Morfini, Gerardo A

    2017-09-01

    Neurons affected in a wide variety of unrelated adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases (AONDs) typically exhibit a "dying back" pattern of degeneration, which is characterized by early deficits in synaptic function and neuritic pathology long before neuronal cell death. Consistent with this observation, multiple unrelated AONDs including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and several motor neuron diseases feature early alterations in kinase-based signaling pathways associated with deficits in axonal transport (AT), a complex cellular process involving multiple intracellular trafficking events powered by microtubule-based motor proteins. These pathogenic events have important therapeutic implications, suggesting that a focus on preservation of neuronal connections may be more effective to treat AONDs than addressing neuronal cell death. While the molecular mechanisms underlying AT abnormalities in AONDs are still being analyzed, evidence has accumulated linking those to a well-established pathological hallmark of multiple AONDs: altered patterns of neuronal protein phosphorylation. Here, we present a short overview on the biochemical heterogeneity of major motor proteins for AT, their regulation by protein kinases, and evidence revealing cell type-specific AT specializations. When considered together, these findings may help explain how independent pathogenic pathways can affect AT differentially in the context of each AOND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deficiency of the Survival of Motor Neuron Protein Impairs mRNA Localization and Local Translation in the Growth Cone of Motor Neurons.

    Fallini, Claudia; Donlin-Asp, Paul G; Rouanet, Jeremy P; Bassell, Gary J; Rossoll, Wilfried

    2016-03-30

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting spinal motor neurons. It is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which plays an essential role in the biogenesis of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins in all tissues. The etiology of the specific defects in the motor circuitry in SMA is still unclear, but SMN has also been implicated in mediating the axonal localization of mRNA-protein complexes, which may contribute to the axonal degeneration observed in SMA. Here, we report that SMN deficiency severely disrupts local protein synthesis within neuronal growth cones. We also identify the cytoskeleton-associated growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) mRNA as a new target of SMN and show that motor neurons from SMA mouse models have reduced levels ofGAP43mRNA and protein in axons and growth cones. Importantly, overexpression of two mRNA-binding proteins, HuD and IMP1, restoresGAP43mRNA and protein levels in growth cones and rescues axon outgrowth defects in SMA neurons. These findings demonstrate that SMN plays an important role in the localization and local translation of mRNAs with important axonal functions and suggest that disruption of this function may contribute to the axonal defects observed in SMA. The motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein, which plays a key role in assembling RNA/protein complexes that are essential for mRNA splicing. It remains unclear whether defects in this well characterized housekeeping function cause the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons observed in SMA. Here, we describe an additional role of SMN in regulating the axonal localization and local translation of the mRNA encoding growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43). This study supports a model whereby SMN deficiency impedes transport and local translation of mRNAs important for neurite outgrowth and stabilization

  2. Motor coordination defects in mice deficient for the Sam68 RNA-binding protein.

    Lukong, Kiven E; Richard, Stéphane

    2008-06-03

    The role of RNA-binding proteins in the central nervous system and more specifically their role in motor coordination and learning are poorly understood. We previously reported that ablation of RNA-binding protein Sam68 in mice results in male sterility and delayed mammary gland development and protection against osteoporosis in females. Sam68 however is highly expressed in most regions of the brain especially the cerebellum and thus we investigated the cerebellar-related manifestations in Sam68-null mice. We analyzed the mice for motor function, sensory function, and learning and memory abilities. Herein, we report that Sam68-null mice have motor coordination defects as assessed by beam walking and rotorod performance. Forty-week-old Sam68-null mice (n=12) were compared to their wild-type littermates (n=12). The Sam68-null mice exhibited more hindpaw faults in beam walking tests and fell from the rotating drum at lower speeds and prematurely compared to the wild-type controls. The Sam68-null mice were, however, normal for forelimb strength, tail-hang reflex, balance test, grid walking, the Morris water task, recognition memory, visual discrimination, auditory stimulation and conditional taste aversion. Our findings support a role for Sam68 in the central nervous system in the regulation of motor coordination.

  3. Mechanisms for focusing mitotic spindle poles by minus end-directed motor proteins.

    Goshima, Gohta; Nédélec, François; Vale, Ronald D

    2005-10-24

    During the formation of the metaphase spindle in animal somatic cells, kinetochore microtubule bundles (K fibers) are often disconnected from centrosomes, because they are released from centrosomes or directly generated from chromosomes. To create the tightly focused, diamond-shaped appearance of the bipolar spindle, K fibers need to be interconnected with centrosomal microtubules (C-MTs) by minus end-directed motor proteins. Here, we have characterized the roles of two minus end-directed motors, dynein and Ncd, in such processes in Drosophila S2 cells using RNA interference and high resolution microscopy. Even though these two motors have overlapping functions, we show that Ncd is primarily responsible for focusing K fibers, whereas dynein has a dominant function in transporting K fibers to the centrosomes. We also report a novel localization of Ncd to the growing tips of C-MTs, which we show is mediated by the plus end-tracking protein, EB1. Computer modeling of the K fiber focusing process suggests that the plus end localization of Ncd could facilitate the capture and transport of K fibers along C-MTs. From these results and simulations, we propose a model on how two minus end-directed motors cooperate to ensure spindle pole coalescence during mitosis.

  4. Linear associations between clinically assessed upper motor neuron disease and diffusion tensor imaging metrics in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Woo, John H; Wang, Sumei; Melhem, Elias R; Gee, James C; Cucchiara, Andrew; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    To assess the relationship between clinically assessed Upper Motor Neuron (UMN) disease in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and local diffusion alterations measured in the brain corticospinal tract (CST) by a tractography-driven template-space region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). This cross-sectional study included 34 patients with ALS, on whom DTI was performed. Clinical measures were separately obtained including the Penn UMN Score, a summary metric based upon standard clinical methods. After normalizing all DTI data to a population-specific template, tractography was performed to determine a region-of-interest (ROI) outlining the CST, in which average Mean Diffusivity (MD) and Fractional Anisotropy (FA) were estimated. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate associations of DTI metrics (MD, FA) with clinical measures (Penn UMN Score, ALSFRS-R, duration-of-disease), along with age, sex, handedness, and El Escorial category as covariates. For MD, the regression model was significant (p = 0.02), and the only significant predictors were the Penn UMN Score (p = 0.005) and age (p = 0.03). The FA regression model was also significant (p = 0.02); the only significant predictor was the Penn UMN Score (p = 0.003). Measured by the template-space ROI method, both MD and FA were linearly associated with the Penn UMN Score, supporting the hypothesis that DTI alterations reflect UMN pathology as assessed by the clinical examination.

  5. Linearization of the Bradford protein assay to application in cow milk proteins quantification by UV-Vis spectrophotometry method.

    SANTOS, A. S. de O. dos; COSTA, F. F.; ESTEVES, W. T.; BRITO, M. A. V. P. e; FURTADO, M. A. M.; MARTINS, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable methods for determination and quantification of total protein in food are essential information to ensure quality and safety of food trade. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linearity of calibration curves obtained from different proteins (blood serum albumin-BSA, α-LA, β-LG, αs, β and κ-CAS) with the reagent of Bradford. Comercial UHT skimmed bovine milk was analyzed for the determination of total protein using the Bradford method by reading at 595 nm. The determinatio...

  6. A linear programming model for protein inference problem in shotgun proteomics.

    Huang, Ting; He, Zengyou

    2012-11-15

    Assembling peptides identified from tandem mass spectra into a list of proteins, referred to as protein inference, is an important issue in shotgun proteomics. The objective of protein inference is to find a subset of proteins that are truly present in the sample. Although many methods have been proposed for protein inference, several issues such as peptide degeneracy still remain unsolved. In this article, we present a linear programming model for protein inference. In this model, we use a transformation of the joint probability that each peptide/protein pair is present in the sample as the variable. Then, both the peptide probability and protein probability can be expressed as a formula in terms of the linear combination of these variables. Based on this simple fact, the protein inference problem is formulated as an optimization problem: minimize the number of proteins with non-zero probabilities under the constraint that the difference between the calculated peptide probability and the peptide probability generated from peptide identification algorithms should be less than some threshold. This model addresses the peptide degeneracy issue by forcing some joint probability variables involving degenerate peptides to be zero in a rigorous manner. The corresponding inference algorithm is named as ProteinLP. We test the performance of ProteinLP on six datasets. Experimental results show that our method is competitive with the state-of-the-art protein inference algorithms. The source code of our algorithm is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/prolp/. zyhe@dlut.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics Online.

  7. Human myosin VIIa is a very slow processive motor protein on various cellular actin structures.

    Sato, Osamu; Komatsu, Satoshi; Sakai, Tsuyoshi; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Mizutani, Takeomi; Watanabe, Tomonobu M; Ikebe, Reiko; Ikebe, Mitsuo

    2017-06-30

    Human myosin VIIa (MYO7A) is an actin-linked motor protein associated with human Usher syndrome (USH) type 1B, which causes human congenital hearing and visual loss. Although it has been thought that the role of human myosin VIIa is critical for USH1 protein tethering with actin and transportation along actin bundles in inner-ear hair cells, myosin VIIa's motor function remains unclear. Here, we studied the motor function of the tail-truncated human myosin VIIa dimer (HM7AΔTail/LZ) at the single-molecule level. We found that the HM7AΔTail/LZ moves processively on single actin filaments with a step size of 35 nm. Dwell-time distribution analysis indicated an average waiting time of 3.4 s, yielding ∼0.3 s -1 for the mechanical turnover rate; hence, the velocity of HM7AΔTail/LZ was extremely slow, at 11 nm·s -1 We also examined HM7AΔTail/LZ movement on various actin structures in demembranated cells. HM7AΔTail/LZ showed unidirectional movement on actin structures at cell edges, such as lamellipodia and filopodia. However, HM7AΔTail/LZ frequently missed steps on actin tracks and exhibited bidirectional movement at stress fibers, which was not observed with tail-truncated myosin Va. These results suggest that the movement of the human myosin VIIa motor protein is more efficient on lamellipodial and filopodial actin tracks than on stress fibers, which are composed of actin filaments with different polarity, and that the actin structures influence the characteristics of cargo transportation by human myosin VIIa. In conclusion, myosin VIIa movement appears to be suitable for translocating USH1 proteins on stereocilia actin bundles in inner-ear hair cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Diabetes alters KIF1A and KIF5B motor proteins in the hippocampus.

    Filipa I Baptista

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in humans. Diabetic encephalopathy is characterized by cognitive and memory impairments, which have been associated with changes in the hippocampus, but the mechanisms underlying those impairments triggered by diabetes, are far from being elucidated. The disruption of axonal transport is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases and might also play a role in diabetes-associated disorders affecting nervous system. We investigated the effect of diabetes (2 and 8 weeks duration on KIF1A, KIF5B and dynein motor proteins, which are important for axonal transport, in the hippocampus. The mRNA expression of motor proteins was assessed by qRT-PCR, and also their protein levels by immunohistochemistry in hippocampal slices and immunoblotting in total extracts of hippocampus from streptozotocin-induced diabetic and age-matched control animals. Diabetes increased the expression and immunoreactivity of KIF1A and KIF5B in the hippocampus, but no alterations in dynein were detected. Since hyperglycemia is considered a major player in diabetic complications, the effect of a prolonged exposure to high glucose on motor proteins, mitochondria and synaptic proteins in hippocampal neurons was also studied, giving particular attention to changes in axons. Hippocampal cell cultures were exposed to high glucose (50 mM or mannitol (osmotic control; 25 mM plus 25 mM glucose for 7 days. In hippocampal cultures incubated with high glucose no changes were detected in the fluorescence intensity or number of accumulations related with mitochondria in the axons of hippocampal neurons. Nevertheless, high glucose increased the number of fluorescent accumulations of KIF1A and synaptotagmin-1 and decreased KIF5B, SNAP-25 and synaptophysin immunoreactivity specifically in axons of hippocampal neurons. These changes suggest that anterograde axonal transport mediated by these kinesins may be impaired in hippocampal

  9. Heterotrimeric Kinesin II Is the Microtubule Motor Protein Responsible for Pigment Dispersion in Xenopus Melanophores

    Tuma, M. Carolina; Zill, Andrew; Le Bot, Nathalie; Vernos, Isabelle; Gelfand, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    Melanophores move pigment organelles (melanosomes) from the cell center to the periphery and vice-versa. These bidirectional movements require cytoplasmic microtubules and microfilaments and depend on the function of microtubule motors and a myosin. Earlier we found that melanosomes purified from Xenopus melanophores contain the plus end microtubule motor kinesin II, indicating that it may be involved in dispersion (Rogers, S.L., I.S. Tint, P.C. Fanapour, and V.I. Gelfand. 1997. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94: 3720–3725). Here, we generated a dominant-negative construct encoding green fluorescent protein fused to the stalk-tail region of Xenopus kinesin-like protein 3 (Xklp3), the 95-kD motor subunit of Xenopus kinesin II, and introduced it into melanophores. Overexpression of the fusion protein inhibited pigment dispersion but had no effect on aggregation. To control for the specificity of this effect, we studied the kinesin-dependent movement of lysosomes. Neither dispersion of lysosomes in acidic conditions nor their clustering under alkaline conditions was affected by the mutant Xklp3. Furthermore, microinjection of melanophores with SUK4, a function-blocking kinesin antibody, inhibited dispersion of lysosomes but had no effect on melanosome transport. We conclude that melanosome dispersion is powered by kinesin II and not by conventional kinesin. This paper demonstrates that kinesin II moves membrane-bound organelles. PMID:9852150

  10. The influence of protein kinases and microtubule binding proteins on cerebellar motor learning

    F.J. Branco Madeira

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe cerebellum (from the latin - little brain) is located at the posterior end of the brain. It is known to be involved in vital functions like the control of heart beat and respiration and also in motor coordination, a function involving balance and equilibrium, which also requires the

  11. AIRGAP MAGNETIC INDUCTION DISTRIBUTION IN A COAXIALLY-LINEAR SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR WITH AXIAL AND RADIAL DIRECTION OF THE RUNNER PERMANENT MAGNETS MAGNETIZATION

    Abbasian Mohsen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of theoretical and experimental research on magnetic induction distribution in the air gap of a coaxially-linear synchronous motor with reciprocal motion within the pole pitch and axial and radial direction of the permanent magnets magnetization are presented.

  12. Ensemble Linear Neighborhood Propagation for Predicting Subchloroplast Localization of Multi-Location Proteins.

    Wan, Shibiao; Mak, Man-Wai; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2016-12-02

    In the postgenomic era, the number of unreviewed protein sequences is remarkably larger and grows tremendously faster than that of reviewed ones. However, existing methods for protein subchloroplast localization often ignore the information from these unlabeled proteins. This paper proposes a multi-label predictor based on ensemble linear neighborhood propagation (LNP), namely, LNP-Chlo, which leverages hybrid sequence-based feature information from both labeled and unlabeled proteins for predicting localization of both single- and multi-label chloroplast proteins. Experimental results on a stringent benchmark dataset and a novel independent dataset suggest that LNP-Chlo performs at least 6% (absolute) better than state-of-the-art predictors. This paper also demonstrates that ensemble LNP significantly outperforms LNP based on individual features. For readers' convenience, the online Web server LNP-Chlo is freely available at http://bioinfo.eie.polyu.edu.hk/LNPChloServer/ .

  13. Improvement of superconducting cylindrical linear induction motor; Chodendo entogata tan'ichiji rinia yudo mota no tokusei kaizen

    Kikuma, T.; Ishiyama, A. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-29

    For the purpose of examining the characteristics (effect of stability and ac loss by the higher harmonic wave etc.) of an alternating current superconductivity winding under a real machine operating environment of the super-conductive AC machine vessel, authors produced a cylindrical shortness first linear guiding motor (SCLIM) which used the NbTi/CuNi super-conducting cable for the first excitation winding experimentally. In this study, the evaluation of the start up thrust and operation confirmation of the quenching detection protection circuit were carried out using the produced SCLIM. In the quenching detection protection control circuit, the first excitation winding was divided into an internal layer and an outer layer, and both layers were excited in the 2 layer division and a quenching detection protection circuit was installed on the 2 layers respectively. The circuit of a part of fact by this of the phase in which the quench was generated and observed was cut off, and the operation would be able to be continued in part of the remainder of the phase and other two phases. Here, it is to cut off the quenched phase from the circuit, when the phase current becomes zero, and the other effect on the phase is held as small as possible. (NEDO)

  14. Spinal atypical protein kinase C activity is necessary to stabilize inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation

    Strey, K.A.; Nichols, N.L.; Baertsch, N.A.; Broytman, O.; Baker-Herman, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    The neural network controlling breathing must establish rhythmic motor output at a level adequate to sustain life. Reduced respiratory neural activity elicits a novel form of plasticity in circuits driving the diaphragm known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), a rebound increase in phrenic inspiratory output observed once respiratory neural drive is restored. The mechanisms underlying iPMF are unknown. Here, we demonstrate in anesthetized rats that spinal mechanisms give rise to iPMF, and that iPMF consists of at least two mechanistically distinct phases: 1) an early, labile phase that requires atypical PKC (PKCζ and/or PKCΙ/λ) activity to transition to a 2) late, stable phase. Early (but not late) iPMF is associated with increased interactions between PKCζ/Ι and the scaffolding protein ZIP/p62 in spinal regions associated with the phrenic motor pool. Although PKCζ/Ι activity is necessary for iPMF, spinal aPKC activity is not necessary for phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia, an activity-independent form of spinal respiratory plasticity. Thus, while iPMF and pLTF both manifest as prolonged increases in phrenic burst amplitude, they arise from distinct spinal cellular pathways. Our data are consistent with the hypotheses that: 1) local mechanisms sense and respond to reduced respiratory-related activity in the phrenic motor pool, and 2) inactivity-induced increases in phrenic inspiratory output require local PKCζ/Ι activity to stabilize into a long-lasting iPMF. Although the physiological role of iPMF is unknown, we suspect that iPMF represents a compensatory mechanism, assuring adequate motor output in a physiological system where prolonged inactivity ends life. PMID:23152633

  15. Characterization of a linear epitope on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK-like protein

    Ozkokmen, D; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    A cytoplasmic 75-kDa immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 has previously been characterized as being similar to the Escherichia coli heat shock protein DnaK. We have localized a linear epitope for one monoclonal antibody specific for C. trachomatis DnaK. By use of a recombinant DNA...... technique, the epitope was limited to 14 amino acids. With synthetic peptides, the epitope was further limited to eight amino acids. Six of these amino acids are conserved in bovine HSP70, which has a known three-dimensional structure. The amino acid sequence homologous to the epitope is located in a linear...

  16. Imaging Flow Cytometry Analysis to Identify Differences of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Expression in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Arakawa, Reiko; Arakawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kaori; Otsuki, Noriko; Aoki, Ryoko; Saito, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the deficient expression of survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons. A major goal of disease-modifying therapy is to increase survival motor neuron expression. Changes in survival motor neuron protein expression can be monitored via peripheral blood cells in patients; therefore we tested the sensitivity and utility of imaging flow cytometry for this purpose. After the immortalization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a human healthy control subject and two patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with two and three copies of SMN2 gene, respectively, we used imaging flow cytometry analysis to identify significant differences in survival motor neuron expression. A bright detail intensity analysis was used to investigate differences in the cellular localization of survival motor neuron protein. Survival motor neuron expression was significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. Moreover, survival motor neuron expression correlated with the clinical severity of spinal muscular atrophy according to SMN2 copy number. The cellular accumulation of survival motor neuron protein was also significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. The benefits of imaging flow cytometry for peripheral blood analysis include its capacities for analyzing heterogeneous cell populations; visualizing cell morphology; and evaluating the accumulation, localization, and expression of a target protein. Imaging flow cytometry analysis should be implemented in future studies to optimize its application as a tool for spinal muscular atrophy clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A descrição do funcionamento de um motor Homopolar linear e suas aplicações: Ilustrando o funcionamento de um acelerador de partículas

    Doff, Adriano; Szmoski, Romeu M.

    2016-01-01

    Neste trabalho exploramos o potencial didático de um motor homopolar linear com o objetivo de ilustrar o princípio de funcionamento de um acelerador de partículas. A fim de estabelecer o mecanismo de funcionamento de um motor homopolar linear, consideramos uma analogia com a descrição de um motor homopolar rotatório, e partir deste apresentamos os princípios de funcionamento deste dispositivo e estabelecemos um limite teórico para a velocidade do motor linear. De posse dos dados gerados exper...

  18. Investigation of New Morpholino Oligomers to Increase Survival Motor Neuron Protein Levels in Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Ramirez, Agnese; Crisafulli, Sebastiano G; Rizzuti, Mafalda; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Corti, Stefania; Nizzardo, Monica

    2018-01-06

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive childhood motor neuron disease and the main genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 ( SMN1 ) gene, which results in SMN protein deficiency. Only one approved drug has recently become available and allows for the correction of aberrant splicing of the paralogous SMN2 gene by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), leading to production of full-length SMN protein. We have already demonstrated that a sequence of an ASO variant, Morpholino (MO), is particularly suitable because of its safety and efficacy profile and is both able to increase SMN levels and rescue the murine SMA phenotype. Here, we optimized this strategy by testing the efficacy of four new MO sequences targeting SMN2 . Two out of the four new MO sequences showed better efficacy in terms of SMN protein production both in SMA induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and SMAΔ7 mice. Further, the effect was enhanced when different MO sequences were administered in combination. Our data provide an important insight for MO-based treatment for SMA. Optimization of the target sequence and validation of a treatment based on a combination of different MO sequences could support further pre-clinical studies and the progression toward future clinical trials.

  19. Prediction of protein interaction hot spots using rough set-based multiple criteria linear programming.

    Chen, Ruoying; Zhang, Zhiwang; Wu, Di; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xinyang; Wang, Yong; Shi, Yong

    2011-01-21

    Protein-protein interactions are fundamentally important in many biological processes and it is in pressing need to understand the principles of protein-protein interactions. Mutagenesis studies have found that only a small fraction of surface residues, known as hot spots, are responsible for the physical binding in protein complexes. However, revealing hot spots by mutagenesis experiments are usually time consuming and expensive. In order to complement the experimental efforts, we propose a new computational approach in this paper to predict hot spots. Our method, Rough Set-based Multiple Criteria Linear Programming (RS-MCLP), integrates rough sets theory and multiple criteria linear programming to choose dominant features and computationally predict hot spots. Our approach is benchmarked by a dataset of 904 alanine-mutated residues and the results show that our RS-MCLP method performs better than other methods, e.g., MCLP, Decision Tree, Bayes Net, and the existing HotSprint database. In addition, we reveal several biological insights based on our analysis. We find that four features (the change of accessible surface area, percentage of the change of accessible surface area, size of a residue, and atomic contacts) are critical in predicting hot spots. Furthermore, we find that three residues (Tyr, Trp, and Phe) are abundant in hot spots through analyzing the distribution of amino acids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ubiquitin–Synaptobrevin Fusion Protein Causes Degeneration of Presynaptic Motor Terminals in Mice

    Liu, Yun; Li, Hongqiao; Sugiura, Yoshie; Han, Weiping; Gallardo, Gilbert; Khvotchev, Mikhail; Zhang, Yinan; Kavalali, Ege T.; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregates containing ubiquitin (Ub) are commonly observed in neurodegenerative disorders, implicating the involvement of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in their pathogenesis. Here, we aimed to generate a mouse model for monitoring UPS function using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based substrate that carries a “noncleavable” N-terminal ubiquitin moiety (UbG76V). We engineered transgenic mice expressing a fusion protein, consisting of the following: (1) UbG76V, GFP, and a synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin-2 (UbG76V-GFP-Syb2); (2) GFP-Syb2; or (3) UbG76V-GFP-Syntaxin1, all under the control of a neuron-specific Thy-1 promoter. As expected, UbG76V-GFP-Syb2, GFP-Syb2, and UbG76V-GFP-Sytaxin1 were highly expressed in neurons, such as motoneurons and motor nerve terminals of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Surprisingly, UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 mice developed progressive adult-onset degeneration of motor nerve terminals, whereas GFP-Syb2 and UbG76V-GFP-Syntaxin1 mice were normal. The degeneration of nerve terminals in UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 mice was preceded by a progressive impairment of synaptic transmission at the NMJs. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 interacted with SNAP-25 and Syntaxin1, the SNARE partners of synaptobrevin. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a marked reduction in synaptic vesicle density, accompanying an accumulation of tubulovesicular structures at presynaptic nerve terminals. These morphological defects were largely restricted to motor nerve terminals, as the ultrastructure of motoneuron somata appeared to be normal at the stages when synaptic nerve terminals degenerated. Furthermore, synaptic vesicle endocytosis and membrane trafficking were impaired in UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 mice. These findings indicate that UbG76V-GFP-Syb2 may compete with endogenous synaptobrevin, acting as a gain-of-function mutation that impedes SNARE function, resulting in the depletion of synaptic vesicles and degeneration of the nerve

  1. Parallel changes in cortical neuron biochemistry and motor function in protein-energy malnourished adult rats.

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Hackett, Mark J; Caine, Sally; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2017-04-01

    While protein-energy malnutrition in the adult has been reported to induce motor abnormalities and exaggerate motor deficits caused by stroke, it is not known if alterations in mature cortical neurons contribute to the functional deficits. Therefore, we explored if PEM in adult rats provoked changes in the biochemical profile of neurons in the forelimb and hindlimb regions of the motor cortex. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging using a synchrotron generated light source revealed for the first time altered lipid composition in neurons and subcellular domains (cytosol and nuclei) in a cortical layer and region-specific manner. This change measured by the area under the curve of the δ(CH 2 ) band may indicate modifications in membrane fluidity. These PEM-induced biochemical changes were associated with the development of abnormalities in forelimb use and posture. The findings of this study provide a mechanism by which PEM, if not treated, could exacerbate the course of various neurological disorders and diminish treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic modeling and simulation of an induction motor with adaptive backstepping design of an input-output feedback linearization controller in series hybrid electric vehicle

    Jalalifar Mehran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper using adaptive backstepping approach an adaptive rotor flux observer which provides stator and rotor resistances estimation simultaneously for induction motor used in series hybrid electric vehicle is proposed. The controller of induction motor (IM is designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. Combining this controller with adaptive backstepping observer the system is robust against rotor and stator resistances uncertainties. In additional, mechanical components of a hybrid electric vehicle are called from the Advanced Vehicle Simulator Software Library and then linked with the electric motor. Finally, a typical series hybrid electric vehicle is modeled and investigated. Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp, and fuel consumption and emission are performed on the proposed model of a series hybrid vehicle. Computer simulation results obtained, confirm the validity and performance of the proposed IM control approach using for series hybrid electric vehicle.

  3. Functional recovery of regenerating motor axons is delayed in mice heterozygously deficient for the myelin protein P(0) gene

    Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez, Susana; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Mice with a heterozygous knock-out of the myelin protein P0 gene (P0+/-) develop a neuropathy similar to human Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. They are indistinguishable from wild-types (WT) at birth and develop a slowly progressing demyelinating neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate...... whether the regeneration capacity of early symptomatic P0+/- is impaired as compared to age matched WT. Right sciatic nerves were lesioned at the thigh in 7-8 months old mice. Tibial motor axons at ankle were investigated by conventional motor conduction studies and axon excitability studies using...... threshold tracking. To evaluate regeneration we monitored the recovery of motor function after crush, and then compared the fiber distribution by histology. The overall motor performance was investigated using Rotor-Rod. P0+/- had reduced compound motor action potential amplitudes and thinner myelinated...

  4. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis Method and Brain Functional Connectivity: Its Application to the Study of the Non-linear Relationships of Motor Cortex and Basal Ganglia.

    Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of basal ganglia (BG) interactions is often condensed into simple models mainly based on animal data and that present BG in closed-loop cortico-subcortical circuits of excitatory/inhibitory pathways which analyze the incoming cortical data and return the processed information to the cortex. This study was aimed at identifying functional relationships in the BG motor-loop of 24 healthy-subjects who provided written, informed consent and whose BOLD-activity was recorded by MRI methods. The analysis of the functional interaction between these centers by correlation techniques and multiple linear regression showed non-linear relationships which cannot be suitably addressed with these methods. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), an unsupervised multivariable procedure which can identify non-linear interactions, was used to study the functional connectivity of BG when subjects were at rest. Linear methods showed different functional interactions expected according to current BG models. MCA showed additional functional interactions which were not evident when using lineal methods. Seven functional configurations of BG were identified with MCA, two involving the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, one involving the deepest BG (external-internal globus pallidum, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigral), one with the input-output BG centers (putamen and motor thalamus), two linking the input-output centers with other BG (external pallidum and subthalamic nucleus), and one linking the external pallidum and the substantia nigral. The results provide evidence that the non-linear MCA and linear methods are complementary and should be best used in conjunction to more fully understand the nature of functional connectivity of brain centers.

  5. Crystal structure of the Candida albicans Kar3 kinesin motor domain fused to maltose-binding protein

    Delorme, Caroline; Joshi, Monika; Allingham, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The Candida albicans Kar3 motor domain structure was solved as a maltose-binding protein fusion. ► The electrostatic surface and part of the ATPase pocket of the motor domain differs markedly from other kinesins. ► The MBP–Kar3 interface highlights a new site for intramolecular or intermolecular interactions. -- Abstract: In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the Kinesin-14 motor protein Kar3 (CaKar3) is critical for normal mitotic division, nuclear fusion during mating, and morphogenic transition from the commensal yeast form to the virulent hyphal form. As a first step towards detailed characterization of this motor of potential medical significance, we have crystallized and determined the X-ray structure of the motor domain of CaKar3 as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion. The structure shows strong conservation of overall motor domain topology to other Kar3 kinesins, but with some prominent differences in one of the motifs that compose the nucleotide-binding pocket and the surface charge distribution. The MBP and Kar3 modules are arranged such that MBP interacts with the Kar3 motor domain core at the same site where the neck linker of conventional kinesins docks during the “ATP state” of the mechanochemical cycle. This site differs from the Kar3 neck–core interface in the recent structure of the ScKar3Vik1 heterodimer. The position of MBP is also completely distinct from the Vik1 subunit in this complex. This may suggest that the site of MBP interaction on the CaKar3 motor domain provides an interface for the neck, or perhaps a partner subunit, at an intermediate state of its motile cycle that has not yet been observed for Kinesin-14 motors.

  6. Crystal structure of the Candida albicans Kar3 kinesin motor domain fused to maltose-binding protein

    Delorme, Caroline; Joshi, Monika [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada); Allingham, John S., E-mail: allinghj@queensu.ca [Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Candida albicans Kar3 motor domain structure was solved as a maltose-binding protein fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrostatic surface and part of the ATPase pocket of the motor domain differs markedly from other kinesins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MBP-Kar3 interface highlights a new site for intramolecular or intermolecular interactions. -- Abstract: In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the Kinesin-14 motor protein Kar3 (CaKar3) is critical for normal mitotic division, nuclear fusion during mating, and morphogenic transition from the commensal yeast form to the virulent hyphal form. As a first step towards detailed characterization of this motor of potential medical significance, we have crystallized and determined the X-ray structure of the motor domain of CaKar3 as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion. The structure shows strong conservation of overall motor domain topology to other Kar3 kinesins, but with some prominent differences in one of the motifs that compose the nucleotide-binding pocket and the surface charge distribution. The MBP and Kar3 modules are arranged such that MBP interacts with the Kar3 motor domain core at the same site where the neck linker of conventional kinesins docks during the 'ATP state' of the mechanochemical cycle. This site differs from the Kar3 neck-core interface in the recent structure of the ScKar3Vik1 heterodimer. The position of MBP is also completely distinct from the Vik1 subunit in this complex. This may suggest that the site of MBP interaction on the CaKar3 motor domain provides an interface for the neck, or perhaps a partner subunit, at an intermediate state of its motile cycle that has not yet been observed for Kinesin-14 motors.

  7. Design elements and quantitative results of synchronous longstator linear motors for high-speed magnetic trains taking the TRANSRAPID test facility in Emsland as an example

    Fuerst, R [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In German high-speed magnetic train technology, iron-clad synchronous long-stator linear motors of levitation stator design are used to propel and brake the vehicles. This paper uses the propulsion design of the Transrapid test facility in Emsland (TVE) to illustrate in practical terms the dimensioning parameters for thrust calculations and their interdependencies. The paper is based on description conventions common for rotating electrical machines and rail technology. (orig.)

  8. Small-sized linear accelerator of 2.5 MeV electrons with a local radiation shield for custom examination of freight transported by motor transport

    Baklanov, A.V.; Gavrish, Yu.N.; Klinov, A.P.; Krest'yaninov, A.S.; Nikolaev, V.M.; Fomin, L.P.; Linkenbach, H.A.; Geus, G.; Knospel, W.

    2001-01-01

    A new development of a small-sized linear accelerator of 2.5 MeV electrons with a local radiation protection is described. The accelerator is intended for movable facilities of radiation custom of the freight transported by motor transport. Main constructive solutions, mass and dimension characteristics and results of preliminary tests of the accelerator parameters and characteristics of radiation protection are presented [ru

  9. Gestational Age-Dependent Increase of Survival Motor Neuron Protein in Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Iwatani, Sota; Harahap, Nur Imma Fatimah; Nurputra, Dian Kesumapramudya; Tairaku, Shinya; Shono, Akemi; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamana, Keiji; Thwin, Khin Kyae Mon; Yoshida, Makiko; Mizobuchi, Masami; Koda, Tsubasa; Fujioka, Kazumichi; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Yamada, Hideto; Morioka, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetic neurological disease leading to infant death. It is caused by loss of survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene and subsequent reduction of SMN protein in motor neurons. Because SMN is ubiquitously expressed and functionally linked to general RNA metabolism pathway, fibroblasts (FBs) are most widely used for the assessment of SMN expression in SMA patients but usually isolated from skin biopsy samples after the onset of overt sympt...

  10. Non-linear feedback control of the p53 protein-mdm2 inhibitor system using the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter.

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2016-06-01

    It is proven that the model of the p53-mdm2 protein synthesis loop is a differentially flat one and using a diffeomorphism (change of state variables) that is proposed by differential flatness theory it is shown that the protein synthesis model can be transformed into the canonical (Brunovsky) form. This enables the design of a feedback control law that maintains the concentration of the p53 protein at the desirable levels. To estimate the non-measurable elements of the state vector describing the p53-mdm2 system dynamics, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is used. Moreover, to compensate for modelling uncertainties and external disturbances that affect the p53-mdm2 system, the derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter is re-designed as a disturbance observer. The derivative-free non-linear Kalman filter consists of the Kalman filter recursion applied on the linearised equivalent of the protein synthesis model together with an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory that enables to retrieve estimates for the state variables of the initial non-linear model. The proposed non-linear feedback control and perturbations compensation method for the p53-mdm2 system can result in more efficient chemotherapy schemes where the infusion of medication will be better administered.

  11. Fluctuations in isometric muscle force can be described by one linear projection of low-frequency components of motor unit discharge rates.

    Negro, Francesco; Holobar, Ales; Farina, Dario

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between linear transformations of motor unit discharge rates and muscle force. Intramuscular (wire electrodes) and high-density surface EMG (13 x 5 electrode grid) were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle of eight healthy men during 60 s contractions at 5%, 7.5% and 10% of the maximal force. Spike trains of a total of 222 motor units were identified from the EMG recordings with decomposition algorithms. Principal component analysis of the smoothed motor unit discharge rates indicated that one component (first common component, FCC) described 44.2 +/- 7.5% of the total variability of the smoothed discharge rates when computed over the entire contraction interval and 64.3 +/- 10.2% of the variability when computed over 5 s intervals. When the FCC was computed from four or more motor units per contraction, it correlated with the force produced by the muscle (62.7 +/- 10.1%) by a greater degree (P FCC and the force signal increased up to 71.8 +/- 13.1% when the duration and the shape of the smoothing window for discharge rates were similar to the average motor unit twitch force. Moreover, the coefficients of variation (CoV) for the force and for the FCC signal were correlated in all subjects (R(2) range = 0.14-0.56; P measures on the tibialis anterior muscle of an additional eight subjects during contractions at forces up to 20% of the maximal force (e.g. FCC explained 59.8 +/- 11.0% of variability of the smoothed discharge rates). In conclusion, one signal captures most of the underlying variability of the low-frequency components of motor unit discharge rates and explains large part of the fluctuations in the motor output during isometric contractions.

  12. Protein-Energy Malnutrition Causes Deficits in Motor Function in Adult Male Rats.

    Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Li, Xue; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2015-11-01

    Adult protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) often occurs in combination with neurological disorders affecting hand use and walking ability. The independent effects of PEM on motor function are not well characterized and may be obscured by these comorbidities. Our goal was to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of sensorimotor function with the onset and progression of PEM in an adult male rat model. In Expt. 1 and Expt. 2, male Sprague-Dawley rats (14-15 wk old) were assigned ad libitum access for 4 wk to normal-protein (NP) or low-protein (LP) diets containing 12.5% and 0.5% protein, respectively. Expt. 1 assessed muscle strength, balance, and skilled walking ability on days 2, 8, and 27 by bar-holding, cylinder, and horizontal ladder walking tasks, respectively. In addition to food intake and body weight, nutritional status was determined on days 3, 9, and 28 by serum acute-phase reactant and corticosterone concentrations and liver lipids. Expt. 2 addressed the effect of an LP diet on hindlimb muscle size. PEM evolved over time in rats consuming the LP diet. Total food intake decreased by 24% compared with the NP group. On day 28, body weight and serum albumin decreased by 31% and 26%, respectively, and serum α2-macroglobulin increased by 445% (P malnutrition. This model can be used in combination with disease models of sensorimotor deficits to examine the interactions between nutritional status, other treatments, and disease progression. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Identification and characterization of two linear epitope motifs in hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein.

    Heng Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is responsible for hepatitis E, which represents a global public health problem. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are reported to be zoonotic, and animals are monitored for HEV infection in the interests of public hygiene and food safety. The development of novel diagnostic methods and vaccines for HEV in humans is thus important topics of research. Opening reading frame (ORF 2 of HEV includes both linear and conformational epitopes and is regarded as the primary candidate for vaccines and diagnostic tests. We investigated the precise location of the HEV epitopes in the ORF2 protein. We prepared four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against genotype 4 ORF2 protein and identified two linear epitopes, G438IVIPHD444 and Y457DNQH461, corresponding to two of these mAbs using phage display biopanning technology. Both these epitopes were speculated to be universal to genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, and avian HEVs. We also used two 12-mer fragments of ORF2 protein including these two epitopes to develop a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect HEV in serum. This assay demonstrated good specificity but low sensitivity compared with the commercial method, indicating that these two epitopes could serve as potential candidate targets for diagnosis. Overall, these results further our understanding of the epitope distribution of HEV ORF2, and provide important information for the development of peptide-based immunodiagnostic tests to detect HEV in serum.

  14. Control de velocidad del motor de indución empleando linealización por realimentación de estados Speed control of induction motor using state feedback linearization

    Eduardo Giraldo Suárez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta la aplicación de la técnica de control no lineal clásica llamada linealización por realimentación de variables de estado. Se hace una aplicación en el motor de inducción, la variable a controlar es la velocidad del eje del motor, el sistema emplea el esquema de control vectorial para máquinas de corriente alterna desarrollado en las últimas décadas; este método es análogo a la técnica de control del motor de corriente directa. El modelo del motor de inducción se describe en el sistema de coordenadas de campo orientado del flujo de rotor y se muestra una introducción al producto y la derivada de Lie, empleados en el diseño del controlador no lineal.This articles shows the application of a classic non-linear control technique called "linearization by feedback of status variables." An application on the induction engine is made. Variable to be controlled is speed of the engine shaft. The system employs a vectorial control scheme for AC engines developed during the last decades. This is a method analogous to the DC engine control technique. Induction engine model is described in the guided field coordinate system of rotor flow. Introduction to the product and Lie derivative used for designing the non-linear controller are shown.

  15. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  16. Protein fiber linear dichroism for structure determination and kinetics in a low-volume, low-wavelength couette flow cell

    Dafforn, Tim; Rajendra, Jacindra; Halsall, David J.; Serpell, Louise C.; Rodger, Alison

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution structure determination of soluble globular proteins relies heavily on x-ray crystallography techniques. Such an approach is often ineffective for investigations into the structure of fibrous proteins as these proteins generally do not crystallize. Thus investigations into fibrous protein structure have relied on less direct methods such as x-ray fiber diffraction and circular dichroism. Ultraviolet linear dichroism has the potential to provide additional information on the st...

  17. Importance of anisotropy in detachment rates for force production and cargo transport by a team of motor proteins.

    Takshak, Anjneya; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2016-05-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by collective forces generated by a team consisting of multiple molecular motor proteins. One aspect that has received less attention is the detachment rate of molecular motors under mechanical force/load. While detachment rate of kinesin motors measured under backward force increases rapidly for forces beyond stall-force; this scenario is just reversed for non-yeast dynein motors where detachment rate from microtubule decreases, exhibiting a catch-bond type behavior. It has been shown recently that yeast dynein responds anisotropically to applied load, i.e. detachment rates are different under forward and backward pulling. Here, we use computational modeling to show that these anisotropic detachment rates might help yeast dynein motors to improve their collective force generation in the absence of catch-bond behavior. We further show that the travel distance of cargos would be longer if detachment rates are anisotropic. Our results suggest that anisotropic detachment rates could be an alternative strategy for motors to improve the transport properties and force production by the team. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  18. Functions and regulation of the multitasking FANCM family of DNA motor proteins.

    Xue, Xiaoyu; Sung, Patrick; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2015-09-01

    Members of the conserved FANCM family of DNA motor proteins play key roles in genome maintenance processes. FANCM supports genome duplication and repair under different circumstances and also functions in the ATR-mediated DNA damage checkpoint. Some of these roles are shared among lower eukaryotic family members. Human FANCM has been linked to Fanconi anemia, a syndrome characterized by cancer predisposition, developmental disorder, and bone marrow failure. Recent studies on human FANCM and its orthologs from other organisms have provided insights into their biological functions, regulation, and collaboration with other genome maintenance factors. This review summarizes the progress made, with the goal of providing an integrated view of the functions and regulation of these enzymes in humans and model organisms and how they advance our understanding of genome maintenance processes. © 2015 Xue et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Sensing surface mechanical deformation using active probes driven by motor proteins

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nitta, Takahiro; Kabir, Arif Md. Rashedul; Sada, Kazuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kakugo, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Studying mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials has been challenging due to the difficulty in separating surface deformation from the bulk elasticity of the materials. Here, we introduce a new approach for studying the surface mechanical deformation of a soft material by utilizing a large number of self-propelled microprobes driven by motor proteins on the surface of the material. Information about the surface mechanical deformation of the soft material is obtained through changes in mobility of the microprobes wandering across the surface of the soft material. The active microprobes respond to mechanical deformation of the surface and readily change their velocity and direction depending on the extent and mode of surface deformation. This highly parallel and reliable method of sensing mechanical deformation at the surface of soft materials is expected to find applications that explore surface mechanics of soft materials and consequently would greatly benefit the surface science. PMID:27694937

  20. Alteration of protein folding and degradation in motor neuron diseases : Implications and protective functions of small heat shock proteins

    Carra, Serena; Crippa, Valeria; Rusmini, Paola; Boncoraglio, Alessandra; Minoia, Melania; Giorgetti, Elisa; Kampinga, Harm H.; Poletti, Angelo

    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are neurodegenerative disorders that specifically affect the survival and function of upper and/or lower motor neurons. Since motor neurons are responsible for the control of voluntary muscular movement, MNDs are characterized by muscle spasticity, weakness and atrophy.

  1. Structure of human Rad51 protein filament from molecular modeling and site-specific linear dichroism spectroscopy

    Reymer, A.; Frykholm, K.; Morimatsu, K.; Takahashi, M.; Norden, B.

    2009-01-01

    for central and N-terminal parts of pure (uncomplexed) Rad51 protein by aid of linear dichroism spectroscopy, providing angular orientations of substituted tyrosine residues of Rad51-dsDNA filaments in solution. The structure, validated by comparison

  2. Coevolved Mutations Reveal Distinct Architectures for Two Core Proteins in the Bacterial Flagellar Motor.

    Alessandro Pandini

    Full Text Available Switching of bacterial flagellar rotation is caused by large domain movements of the FliG protein triggered by binding of the signal protein CheY to FliM. FliG and FliM form adjacent multi-subunit arrays within the basal body C-ring. The movements alter the interaction of the FliG C-terminal (FliGC "torque" helix with the stator complexes. Atomic models based on the Salmonella entrovar C-ring electron microscopy reconstruction have implications for switching, but lack consensus on the relative locations of the FliG armadillo (ARM domains (amino-terminal (FliGN, middle (FliGM and FliGC as well as changes during chemotaxis. The generality of the Salmonella model is challenged by the variation in motor morphology and response between species. We studied coevolved residue mutations to determine the unifying elements of switch architecture. Residue interactions, measured by their coevolution, were formalized as a network, guided by structural data. Our measurements reveal a common design with dedicated switch and motor modules. The FliM middle domain (FliMM has extensive connectivity most simply explained by conserved intra and inter-subunit contacts. In contrast, FliG has patchy, complex architecture. Conserved structural motifs form interacting nodes in the coevolution network that wire FliMM to the FliGC C-terminal, four-helix motor module (C3-6. FliG C3-6 coevolution is organized around the torque helix, differently from other ARM domains. The nodes form separated, surface-proximal patches that are targeted by deleterious mutations as in other allosteric systems. The dominant node is formed by the EHPQ motif at the FliMMFliGM contact interface and adjacent helix residues at a central location within FliGM. The node interacts with nodes in the N-terminal FliGc α-helix triad (ARM-C and FliGN. ARM-C, separated from C3-6 by the MFVF motif, has poor intra-network connectivity consistent with its variable orientation revealed by structural data. ARM

  3. The numerical assessment of motion strategies for integrated linear motor during starting of a free-piston engine generator

    Razali Hanipah, M.; Razul Razali, Akhtar

    2017-10-01

    Free-piston engine generator (FPEG) provides a novel method for electrical power generation in hybrid electric vehicle applications with scarcely reported prototype development and testing. This paper is looking into the motion control strategy for motoring the FPEG during starting. There are two motion profiles investigated namely, trapezoidal velocity and Scurve velocity. Both motion profiles were investigated numerically and the results have shown that the S-curve motion can only achieve 80% of the stroke when operated at the proposed motoring speed of 10Hz.

  4. Balancing Vibrations at Harmonic Frequencies by Injecting Harmonic Balancing Signals into the Armature of a Linear Motor/Alternator Coupled to a Stirling Machine

    Holliday, Ezekiel S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations at harmonic frequencies are reduced by injecting harmonic balancing signals into the armature of a linear motor/alternator coupled to a Stirling machine. The vibrations are sensed to provide a signal representing the mechanical vibrations. A harmonic balancing signal is generated for selected harmonics of the operating frequency by processing the sensed vibration signal with adaptive filter algorithms of adaptive filters for each harmonic. Reference inputs for each harmonic are applied to the adaptive filter algorithms at the frequency of the selected harmonic. The harmonic balancing signals for all of the harmonics are summed with a principal control signal. The harmonic balancing signals modify the principal electrical drive voltage and drive the motor/alternator with a drive voltage component in opposition to the vibration at each harmonic.

  5. Selective cell-surface labeling of the molecular motor protein prestin

    McGuire, Ryan M.; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Pereira, Fred A.; Raphael, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Trafficking to the plasma membrane is required for prestin function. → Biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) was fused to prestin through a transmembrane domain. → BAP-prestin can be metabolically labeled with biotin in HEK293 cells. → Biotin-BAP-prestin allows for selective imaging of fully trafficked prestin. → The biotin-BAP-prestin displays voltage-sensitive activity. -- Abstract: Prestin, a multipass transmembrane protein whose N- and C-termini are localized to the cytoplasm, must be trafficked to the plasma membrane to fulfill its cellular function as a molecular motor. One challenge in studying prestin sequence-function relationships within living cells is separating the effects of amino acid substitutions on prestin trafficking, plasma membrane localization and function. To develop an approach for directly assessing prestin levels at the plasma membrane, we have investigated whether fusion of prestin to a single pass transmembrane protein results in a functional fusion protein with a surface-exposed N-terminal tag that can be detected in living cells. We find that fusion of the biotin-acceptor peptide (BAP) and transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) to the N-terminus of prestin-GFP yields a membrane protein that can be metabolically-labeled with biotin, trafficked to the plasma membrane, and selectively detected at the plasma membrane using fluorescently-tagged streptavidin. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a surface detectable tag and a single-pass transmembrane domain to prestin does not disrupt its voltage-sensitive activity.

  6. The Parkinsonian Subthalamic Network: Measures of Power, Linear, and Non-linear Synchronization and their Relationship to L-DOPA Treatment and OFF State Motor Severity.

    West, Timothy; Farmer, Simon; Berthouze, Luc; Jha, Ashwani; Beudel, Martijn; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Brown, Peter; Litvak, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the dopaminergic modulation of neuronal interactions occurring in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during Parkinson's disease (PD). We utilized linear measures of local and long range synchrony such as power and coherence, as well as Detrended Fluctuation Analysis for Phase Synchrony (DFA-PS)- a recently developed non-linear method that computes the extent of long tailed autocorrelations present in the phase interactions between two coupled signals. Through analysis of local field potentials (LFPs) taken from the STN we seek to determine changes in the neurodynamics that may underpin the pathophysiology of PD in a group of 12 patients who had undergone surgery for deep brain stimulation. We demonstrate up modulation of alpha-theta (5-12 Hz) band power in response to L-DOPA treatment, whilst low beta band power (15-20 Hz) band-power is suppressed. We also find evidence for significant local connectivity within the region surrounding STN although there was evidence for its modulation via administration of L-DOPA. Further to this we present evidence for a positive correlation between the phase ordering of bilateral STN interactions and the severity of bradykinetic and rigidity symptoms in PD. Although, the ability of non-linear measures to predict clinical state did not exceed standard measures such as beta power, these measures may help identify the connections which play a role in pathological dynamics.

  7. Non-linear Relationship between BOLD Activation and Amplitude of Beta Oscillations in the Supplementary Motor Area during Rhythmic Finger Tapping and Internal Timing

    Gompf, Florian; Pflug, Anja; Laufs, Helmut; Kell, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging studies using BOLD contrasts have consistently reported activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) both during motor and internal timing tasks. Opposing findings, however, have been shown for the modulation of beta oscillations in the SMA. While movement suppresses beta oscillations in the SMA, motor and non-motor tasks that rely on internal timing increase the amplitude of beta oscillations in the SMA. These independent observations suggest that the relationship between beta oscillations and BOLD activation is more complex than previously thought. Here we set out to investigate this rapport by examining beta oscillations in the SMA during movement with varying degrees of internal timing demands. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment, 20 healthy right-handed subjects performed an auditory-paced finger-tapping task. Internal timing was operationalized by including conditions with taps on every fourth auditory beat, which necessitates generation of a slow internal rhythm, while tapping to every auditory beat reflected simple auditory-motor synchronization. In the SMA, BOLD activity increased and power in both the low and the high beta band decreased expectedly during each condition compared to baseline. Internal timing was associated with a reduced desynchronization of low beta oscillations compared to conditions without internal timing demands. In parallel with this relative beta power increase, internal timing activated the SMA more strongly in terms of BOLD. This documents a task-dependent non-linear relationship between BOLD and beta-oscillations in the SMA. We discuss different roles of beta synchronization and desynchronization in active processing within the same cortical region. PMID:29249950

  8. Non-linear Relationship between BOLD Activation and Amplitude of Beta Oscillations in the Supplementary Motor Area during Rhythmic Finger Tapping and Internal Timing.

    Gompf, Florian; Pflug, Anja; Laufs, Helmut; Kell, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Functional imaging studies using BOLD contrasts have consistently reported activation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) both during motor and internal timing tasks. Opposing findings, however, have been shown for the modulation of beta oscillations in the SMA. While movement suppresses beta oscillations in the SMA, motor and non-motor tasks that rely on internal timing increase the amplitude of beta oscillations in the SMA. These independent observations suggest that the relationship between beta oscillations and BOLD activation is more complex than previously thought. Here we set out to investigate this rapport by examining beta oscillations in the SMA during movement with varying degrees of internal timing demands. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment, 20 healthy right-handed subjects performed an auditory-paced finger-tapping task. Internal timing was operationalized by including conditions with taps on every fourth auditory beat, which necessitates generation of a slow internal rhythm, while tapping to every auditory beat reflected simple auditory-motor synchronization. In the SMA, BOLD activity increased and power in both the low and the high beta band decreased expectedly during each condition compared to baseline. Internal timing was associated with a reduced desynchronization of low beta oscillations compared to conditions without internal timing demands. In parallel with this relative beta power increase, internal timing activated the SMA more strongly in terms of BOLD. This documents a task-dependent non-linear relationship between BOLD and beta-oscillations in the SMA. We discuss different roles of beta synchronization and desynchronization in active processing within the same cortical region.

  9. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduced machine tools, etc. Development of the linear motor system for realization of energy conservation and commercialization; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kiki nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shoeneka to jitsuyoka wo jitsugensuru linear motor system no kaihatsu

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In relation to the drive system of machine tools widely used as production facilities for automobiles, home electric appliances, etc., the R and D were made of a high efficiency linear motor system of which attention was paid to energy rationalization and environmental loads, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the study of the development of the system, studies were made not only on the lowering of heating, cost reduction and heightening of speed, but on the mechanism and control by which machine natural vibration can relatively be cut off, technology of damping for cutting vibration, technology to meet the deformation, etc. by cutting loads, sliding loads, and acceleration of accelerating/decelerating, technology to reduce the machine weight, etc. In the study of the basic technology of linear motor, the finite element method analysis was conducted on the typical linear motor. Concerning the control system, specs were studied which can deal with natural vibration and cutting vibration of the machine system. As to the development of the steel scale type linear encoder, scale sample for evaluation of basic characteristics was designed/trially manufactured. In the study of the detection optical system, the design/trial manufacture of photodiode array were made. (NEDO)

  10. Partially non-linear stimulation intensity-dependent effects of direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability in humans.

    Batsikadze, G; Moliadze, V; Paulus, W; Kuo, M-F; Nitsche, M A

    2013-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA with an electrode size of 35 cm(2) has been shown to induce shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. These shifts are polarity-specific with cathodal tDCS resulting in a decrease and anodal stimulation in an increase of cortical excitability. In clinical and cognitive studies, stronger stimulation intensities are used frequently, but their physiological effects on cortical excitability have not yet been explored. Therefore, here we aimed to explore the effects of 2 mA tDCS on cortical excitability. We applied 2 mA anodal or cathodal tDCS for 20 min on the left primary motor cortex of 14 healthy subjects. Cathodal tDCS at 1 mA and sham tDCS for 20 min was administered as control session in nine and eight healthy subjects, respectively. Motor cortical excitability was monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Global corticospinal excitability was explored via single TMS pulse-elicited MEP amplitudes, and motor thresholds. Intracortical effects of stimulation were obtained by cortical silent period (CSP), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF), and I wave facilitation. The above-mentioned protocols were recorded both before and immediately after tDCS in randomized order. Additionally, single-pulse MEPs, motor thresholds, SICI and ICF were recorded every 30 min up to 2 h after stimulation end, evening of the same day, next morning, next noon and next evening. Anodal as well as cathodal tDCS at 2 mA resulted in a significant increase of MEP amplitudes, whereas 1 mA cathodal tDCS decreased corticospinal excitability. A significant shift of SICI and ICF towards excitability enhancement after both 2 mA cathodal and anodal tDCS was observed. At 1 mA, cathodal tDCS reduced single-pulse TMS-elicited MEP amplitudes and shifted SICI

  11. Characterization and specificity of the linear epitope of the enterovirus 71 VP2 protein

    Kiener Tanja K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has emerged as a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease in the Asia-Pacific region over the last decade. Hand, foot and mouth disease can be caused by different etiological agents from the enterovirus family, mainly EV71 and coxsackieviruses, which are genetically closely related. Nevertheless, infection with EV71 may occasionally lead to high fever, neurologic complications and the emergence of a rapidly fatal syndrome of pulmonary edema associated with brainstem encephalitis. The rapid progression and high mortality of severe EV71 infection has highlighted the need for EV71-specific diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Monoclonal antibodies are urgently needed to specifically detect EV71 antigens from patient specimens early in the infection process. Furthermore, the elucidation of viral epitopes will contribute to the development of targeted therapeutics and vaccines. Results We have identified the monoclonal antibody 7C7 from a screen of hybridoma cells derived from mice immunized with the EV71-B5 strain. The linear epitope of 7C7 was mapped to amino acids 142-146 (EDSHP of the VP2 capsid protein and was characterized in detail. Mutational analysis of the epitope showed that the aspartic acid to asparagine mutation of the EV71 subgenogroup A (BrCr strain did not interfere with antibody recognition. In contrast, the serine to threonine mutation at position 144 of VP2, present in recently emerged EV71-C4 China strains, abolished antigenicity. Mice injected with this virus strain did not produce any antibodies against the VP2 protein. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting confirmed that 7C7 specifically recognized EV71 subgenogroups and did not cross-react to Coxsackieviruses 4, 6, 10, and 16. 7C7 was successfully used as a detection antibody in an antigen-capture ELISA assay. Conclusions Detailed mapping showed that the VP2 protein of Enterovirus 71 contains a single, linear, non

  12. A classical Master equation approach to modeling an artificial protein motor

    Kuwada, Nathan J.; Blab, Gerhard A.; Linke, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by biomolecular motors, as well as by theoretical concepts for chemically driven nanomotors, there is significant interest in constructing artificial molecular motors. One driving force is the opportunity to create well-controlled model systems that are simple enough to be modeled in detail. A remaining challenge is the fact that such models need to take into account processes on many different time scales. Here we describe use of a classical Master equation approach, integrated with input from Langevin and molecular dynamics modeling, to stochastically model an existing artificial molecular motor concept, the Tumbleweed, across many time scales. This enables us to study how interdependencies between motor processes, such as center-of-mass diffusion and track binding/unbinding, affect motor performance. Results from our model help guide the experimental realization of the proposed motor, and potentially lead to insights that apply to a wider class of molecular motors.

  13. A Model for Analyzing a Five-Phase Fractional-Slot Permanent Magnet Tubular Linear Motor with Modified Winding Function Approach

    Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for analyzing a five-phase fractional-slot permanent magnet tubular linear motor (FSPMTLM with the modified winding function approach (MWFA. MWFA is a fast modeling method and it gives deep insight into the calculations of the following parameters: air-gap magnetic field, inductances, flux linkages, and detent force, which are essential in modeling the motor. First, using a magnetic circuit model, the air-gap magnetic density is computed from stator magnetomotive force (MMF, flux barrier, and mover geometry. Second, the inductances, flux linkages, and detent force are analytically calculated using modified winding function and the air-gap magnetic density. Finally, a model has been established with the five-phase Park transformation and simulated. The calculations of detent force reveal that the end-effect force is the main component of the detent force. This is also proven by finite element analysis on the motor. The accuracy of the model is validated by comparing with the results obtained using semianalytical method (SAM and measurements to analyze the motor’s transient characteristics. In addition, the proposed method requires less computation time.

  14. Linear ion-trap mass spectrometric characterization of human pituitary nitrotyrosine-containing proteins

    Zhan, Xianquan; Desiderio, Dominic M.

    2007-01-01

    The nitric oxide-mediated Tyr-nitration of endogenous proteins is associated with several pathological and physiological processes. In order to investigate the presence - and potential roles - of Tyr-nitration in the human pituitary, a large-format two-dimensional gel separation plus a Western blot against a specific anti-3-nitrotyrosine antibody were used to separate and detect nitroproteins from a human pituitary proteome. The nitroproteins were subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion, and high-sensitivity vacuum matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (vMALDI) linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the tryptic peptides. Those MS/MS data were used to determine the amino acid sequence and the specific nitration site of each tryptic nitropeptide, and were matched to corresponding proteins with Bioworks TuboSEQUEST software. Compared to our previous study, 16 new nitrotyrosine-immunoreactive positive Western blot spots were found within the area pI 3.0-10 and Mr 10-100 kDa. Four new nitroproteins were discovered: the stanniocalcin 1 precursor--involved in calcium and phosphate metabolism; mitochondrial co-chaperone protein HscB, which might act as a co-chaperone in iron-sulfur cluster assembly in mitochrondria; progestin and adipoQ receptor family member III--a seven-transmembrane receptor; proteasome subunit alpha type 2--involved in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent non-lysosomal proteolytic pathway. Those data demonstrate that nitric oxide-mediated Tyr-nitration might participate in various biochemical, metabolic, and pathological processes in the human pituitary.

  15. Torque Ripple Reduction of a Novel Modular Arc-Linear Flux-Switching Permanent-Magnet Motor with Rotor Step Skewing

    Xiangdong Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel modular arc-linear flux-switching permanent-magnet motor (MAL-FSPM used for scanning system instead of reduction gearboxes and kinematic mechanisms is proposed and researched in this paper by the finite element method (FEM. The MAL-FSPM combines characteristics of flux-switching permanent-magnet motor and linear motor and can realize the direct driving and limited angular movement. Structure and operation principle of the MAL-FSPM are analyzed. Cogging torque model of the MAL-FSPM is established. The characteristics of cogging torque and torque ripple are investigated for: (1 distance (dend between left end of rotor and left end of stator is more than two rotor tooth pitch (τp; and (2 dend is less than two rotor tooth pitch. Cogging torque is an important component of torque ripple and the period ratio of the cogging torque to the back electromotive force (EMF equals one for the MAL-FSPM before optimization. In order to reduce the torque ripple as much as possible and affect the back EMF as little as possible, influence of period ratio of cogging torque to back EMF on rotor step skewing is investigated. Rotor tooth width and stator slot open width are optimized to increase the period ratio of cogging torque to back EMF. After the optimization, torque ripple is decreased by 79.8% for dend > τp and torque ripple is decreased by 49.7% for dend < τp. Finally, 3D FEM model is established to verify the 2D results.

  16. Protein fiber linear dichroism for structure determination and kinetics in a low-volume, low-wavelength couette flow cell.

    Dafforn, Timothy R; Rajendra, Jacindra; Halsall, David J; Serpell, Louise C; Rodger, Alison

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution structure determination of soluble globular proteins relies heavily on x-ray crystallography techniques. Such an approach is often ineffective for investigations into the structure of fibrous proteins as these proteins generally do not crystallize. Thus investigations into fibrous protein structure have relied on less direct methods such as x-ray fiber diffraction and circular dichroism. Ultraviolet linear dichroism has the potential to provide additional information on the structure of such biomolecular systems. However, existing systems are not optimized for the requirements of fibrous proteins. We have designed and built a low-volume (200 microL), low-wavelength (down to 180 nm), low-pathlength (100 microm), high-alignment flow-alignment system (couette) to perform ultraviolet linear dichroism studies on the fibers formed by a range of biomolecules. The apparatus has been tested using a number of proteins for which longer wavelength linear dichroism spectra had already been measured. The new couette cell has also been used to obtain data on two medically important protein fibers, the all-beta-sheet amyloid fibers of the Alzheimer's derived protein Abeta and the long-chain assemblies of alpha1-antitrypsin polymers.

  17. Toxic gain of function from mutant FUS protein is crucial to trigger cell autonomous motor neuron loss.

    Scekic-Zahirovic, Jelena; Sendscheid, Oliver; El Oussini, Hajer; Jambeau, Mélanie; Sun, Ying; Mersmann, Sina; Wagner, Marina; Dieterlé, Stéphane; Sinniger, Jérome; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Drenner, Kevin; Birling, Marie-Christine; Qiu, Jinsong; Zhou, Yu; Li, Hairi; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Rouaux, Caroline; Shelkovnikova, Tatyana; Witting, Anke; Ludolph, Albert C; Kiefer, Friedemann; Storkebaum, Erik; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Dupuis, Luc

    2016-05-17

    FUS is an RNA-binding protein involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Cytoplasmic FUS-containing aggregates are often associated with concomitant loss of nuclear FUS Whether loss of nuclear FUS function, gain of a cytoplasmic function, or a combination of both lead to neurodegeneration remains elusive. To address this question, we generated knockin mice expressing mislocalized cytoplasmic FUS and complete FUS knockout mice. Both mouse models display similar perinatal lethality with respiratory insufficiency, reduced body weight and length, and largely similar alterations in gene expression and mRNA splicing patterns, indicating that mislocalized FUS results in loss of its normal function. However, FUS knockin mice, but not FUS knockout mice, display reduced motor neuron numbers at birth, associated with enhanced motor neuron apoptosis, which can be rescued by cell-specific CRE-mediated expression of wild-type FUS within motor neurons. Together, our findings indicate that cytoplasmic FUS mislocalization not only leads to nuclear loss of function, but also triggers motor neuron death through a toxic gain of function within motor neurons. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  18. Na(v)1.8 channelopathy in mutant mice deficient for myelin protein zero is detrimental to motor axons

    Moldovan, Mihai; Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Pinchenko, Volodymyr

    2011-01-01

    Myelin protein zero mutations were found to produce Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease phenotypes with various degrees of myelin impairment and axonal loss, ranging from the mild 'demyelinating' adult form to severe and early onset forms. Protein zero deficient homozygous mice ( ) show a severe and prog......Myelin protein zero mutations were found to produce Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease phenotypes with various degrees of myelin impairment and axonal loss, ranging from the mild 'demyelinating' adult form to severe and early onset forms. Protein zero deficient homozygous mice ( ) show a severe...... and progressive dysmyelinating neuropathy from birth with compromised myelin compaction, hypomyelination and distal axonal degeneration. A previous study using immunofluorescence showed that motor nerves deficient of myelin protein zero upregulate the Na(V)1.8 voltage gated sodium channel isoform, which...... is normally present only in restricted populations of sensory axons. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of motor axons in protein zero-deficient mice with particular emphasis on ectopic Na(V)1.8 voltage gated sodium channel. We combined 'threshold tracking' excitability studies...

  19. Role of heat shock protein Hsp25 in the response of the orofacial nuclei motor system to physiological stress

    Murashov, A. K.; Talebian, S.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Although expression of the small heat shock protein family member Hsp25 has been previously observed in the central nervous system (CNS), both constitutively and upon induction, its function in the CNS remains far from clear. In the present study we have characterized the spatial pattern of expression of Hsp25 in the normal adult mouse brain as well as the changes in expression patterns induced by subjecting mice to experimental hyperthermia or hypoxia. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a surprisingly restricted pattern of constitutive expression of Hsp25 in the brain, limited to the facial, trigeminal, ambiguus, hypoglossal and vagal motor nuclei of the brainstem. After hyperthermia or hypoxia treatment, significant increases in the levels of Hsp25 were observed in these same areas and also in fibers of the facial and trigeminal nerve tracts. Immunoblot analysis of protein lysates from brainstem also showed the same pattern of induction of Hsp25. Surprisingly, no other area in the brain showed expression of Hsp25, in either control or stressed animals. The highly restricted expression of Hsp25 implies that this protein may have a specific physiological role in the orofacial motor nuclei, which govern precise coordination between muscles of mastication and the pharynx, larynx, and face. Its rapid induction after stress further suggests that Hsp25 may serve as a specific molecular chaperone in the lower cholinergic motor neurons and along their fibers under conditions of stress or injury. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Morris, Melody K; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  1. Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    Alexander Mitsos

    Full Text Available Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i excessive CPU time requirements and ii loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  2. Energetics and efficiency of a molecular motor model

    C. Fogedby, Hans; Svane, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The energetics and efficiency of a linear molecular motor model proposed by Mogilner et al. (Phys. Lett. 237, 297 (1998)) is analyzed from an analytical point of view. The model which is based on protein friction with a track is described by coupled Langevin equations for the motion in combination...... when incorporating the full motor dynamics, owing to the strong dissipation associated with the motor action....

  3. The molecular motor F-ATP synthase is targeted by the tumoricidal protein HAMLET.

    Ho, James; Sielaff, Hendrik; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina; Grüber, Gerhard

    2015-05-22

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) interacts with multiple tumor cell compartments, affecting cell morphology, metabolism, proteasome function, chromatin structure and viability. This study investigated if these diverse effects of HAMLET might be caused, in part, by a direct effect on the ATP synthase and a resulting reduction in cellular ATP levels. A dose-dependent reduction in cellular ATP levels was detected in A549 lung carcinoma cells, and by confocal microscopy, co-localization of HAMLET with the nucleotide-binding subunits α (non-catalytic) and β (catalytic) of the energy converting F1F0 ATP synthase was detected. As shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, HAMLET binds to the F1 domain of the F1F0 ATP synthase with a dissociation constant (KD) of 20.5μM. Increasing concentrations of the tumoricidal protein HAMLET added to the enzymatically active α3β3γ complex of the F-ATP synthase lowered its ATPase activity, demonstrating that HAMLET binding to the F-ATP synthase effects the catalysis of this molecular motor. Single-molecule analysis was applied to study HAMLET-α3β3γ complex interaction. Whereas the α3β3γ complex of the F-ATP synthase rotated in a counterclockwise direction with a mean rotational rate of 3.8±0.7s(-1), no rotation could be observed in the presence of bound HAMLET. Our findings suggest that direct effects of HAMLET on the F-ATP synthase may inhibit ATP-dependent cellular processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunohistochemical identification of messenger RNA-related proteins in basophilic inclusions of adult-onset atypical motor neuron disease.

    Fujita, Kengo; Ito, Hidefumi; Nakano, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Yoshimi; Wate, Reika; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2008-10-01

    This report concerns an immunohistochemical investigation on RNA-related proteins in the basophilic inclusions (BIs) from patients with adult-onset atypical motor neuron disease. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of the motor cortex and the lumbar spinal cord were examined. The BIs appeared blue in color with H&E and Nissl stain, and pink with methylgreen-pyronin stain. Ribonuclease pretreatment abolished the methylgreen-pyronin staining, suggesting that the BIs contained RNA. Immunohistochemically, the BIs were distinctly labeled with the antibodies against poly(A)-binding protein 1, T cell intracellular antigen 1, and ribosomal protein S6. These proteins are essential constituents of stress granules. In contrast, the BIs were not immunoreactive for ribosomal protein L28 and decapping enzyme 1, which are core components of transport ribonucleoprotein particles and processing bodies, respectively. Moreover, the BIs were not immunopositive for TDP-43. Our results imply that translation attenuation could be involved in the processes of BI formation in this disorder.

  5. Short Linear Sequence Motif LxxPTPh Targets Diverse Proteins to Growing Microtubule Ends

    Kumar, Anil; Manatschal, Cristina; Rai, Ankit; Grigoriev, Ilya; Degen, Miriam Steiner; Jaussi, Rolf; Kretzschmar, Ines; Prota, Andrea E; Volkmer, Rudolf; Kammerer, Richard A.; Akhmanova, Anna; Steinmetz, Michel O.

    2017-01-01

    Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are involved in virtually all microtubule-based processes. End-binding (EB) proteins are considered master regulators of +TIP interaction networks, since they autonomously track growing microtubule ends and recruit a plethora of proteins to this

  6. Viral and cellular SOS-regulated motor proteins: dsDNA translocation mechanisms with divergent functions.

    Wolfe, Annie; Phipps, Kara; Weitao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage attacks on bacterial cells have been known to activate the SOS response, a transcriptional response affecting chromosome replication, DNA recombination and repair, cell division and prophage induction. All these functions require double-stranded (ds) DNA translocation by ASCE hexameric motors. This review seeks to delineate the structural and functional characteristics of the SOS response and the SOS-regulated DNA translocases FtsK and RuvB with the phi29 bacteriophage packaging motor gp16 ATPase as a prototype to study bacterial motors. While gp16 ATPase, cellular FtsK and RuvB are similarly comprised of hexameric rings encircling dsDNA and functioning as ATP-driven DNA translocases, they utilize different mechanisms to accomplish separate functions, suggesting a convergent evolution of these motors. The gp16 ATPase and FtsK use a novel revolution mechanism, generating a power stroke between subunits through an entropy-DNA affinity switch and pushing dsDNA inward without rotation of DNA and the motor, whereas RuvB seems to employ a rotation mechanism that remains to be further characterized. While FtsK and RuvB perform essential tasks during the SOS response, their roles may be far more significant as SOS response is involved in antibiotic-inducible bacterial vesiculation and biofilm formation as well as the perspective of the bacteria-cancer evolutionary interaction.

  7. Design and Parametric Study of the Magnetic Sensor for Position Detection in Linear Motor Based on Nonlinear Parametric model order reduction.

    Paul, Sarbajit; Chang, Junghwan

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a design approach for a magnetic sensor module to detect mover position using the proper orthogonal decomposition-dynamic mode decomposition (POD-DMD)-based nonlinear parametric model order reduction (PMOR). The parameterization of the sensor module is achieved by using the multipolar moment matching method. Several geometric variables of the sensor module are considered while developing the parametric study. The operation of the sensor module is based on the principle of the airgap flux density distribution detection by the Hall Effect IC. Therefore, the design objective is to achieve a peak flux density (PFD) greater than 0.1 T and total harmonic distortion (THD) less than 3%. To fulfill the constraint conditions, the specifications for the sensor module is achieved by using POD-DMD based reduced model. The POD-DMD based reduced model provides a platform to analyze the high number of design models very fast, with less computational burden. Finally, with the final specifications, the experimental prototype is designed and tested. Two different modes, 90° and 120° modes respectively are used to obtain the position information of the linear motor mover. The position information thus obtained are compared with that of the linear scale data, used as a reference signal. The position information obtained using the 120° mode has a standard deviation of 0.10 mm from the reference linear scale signal, whereas the 90° mode position signal shows a deviation of 0.23 mm from the reference. The deviation in the output arises due to the mechanical tolerances introduced into the specification during the manufacturing process. This provides a scope for coupling the reliability based design optimization in the design process as a future extension.

  8. NanoShuttles: Harnessing Motor Proteins to Transport Cargo in Synthetic Environments

    Vogel, V.; Hess, H.

    Motors have become a crucial commodity in our daily lives, from transportation to driving conveyor belts that enable the sequential assembly of cars and other industrial machines. For the sequential assembly of building blocks at the nanoscale that would not assemble spontaneously into larger functional systems, however, active transport systems are not yet available. In contrast, cells have evolved sophisticated molecular machinery that drives movement and active transport. Driven by the conversion of chemical into mechanical energy, namely through hydrolysis of the biological fuel ATP, molecular motors enable cells to operate far away from equilibrium by transporting organelles and molecules to designated locations within the cell, often against concentration gradients. Inspired by the biological concept of active transport, major efforts are underway to learn how to build nanoscale transport systems that are driven by molecular motors. Emerging engineering principles are discussed of how to build tracks and junctions to guide such nanoshuttles, how to load them with cargo and control their speed, how to use active transport to assemble mesoscopic structures that would otherwise not assemble spontaneously and what polymeric materials to choose to integrate motors into MEMS and other biohybrid devices. Finally, two applications that exploit the physical properties of microtubules are discussed, surface imaging by a swarm of microtubules and a self-assembled picoNewton force meter to probe receptor-ligand interactions.

  9. Variants of the elongator protein 3 (ELP3) gene are associated with motor neuron degeneration

    Simpson, Claire L.; Lemmens, Robin; Miskiewicz, Katarzyna; Broom, Wendy J.; Hansen, Valerie K.; van Vught, Paul W. J.; Landers, John E.; Sapp, Peter; Van Den Bosch, Ludo; Knight, Joanne; Neale, Benjamin M.; Turner, Martin R.; Veldink, Jan H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Tripathi, Vineeta B.; Beleza, Ana; Shah, Meera N.; Proitsi, Petroula; Van Hoecke, Annelies; Carmeliet, Peter; Horvitz, H. Robert; Leigh, P. Nigel; Shaw, Christopher E.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Sham, Pak C.; Powell, John F.; Verstreken, Patrik; Brown, Robert H.; Robberecht, Wim; Al-Chalabi, Ammar

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a spontaneous, relentlessly progressive motor neuron disease, usually resulting in death from respiratory failure within 3 years. Variation in the genes SOD1 and TARDBP accounts for a small percentage of cases, and other genes have shown association in both

  10. Comparison of Thrust Characteristics in Pencil Sized Cylinder-type Linear Motors with Different Magnet Arrays(Asia-Pacific Symposium on Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics (APSAEM08))

    K., Nakaiwa; A., Yamada; K., Tashiro; H., Wakiwaka; Tamagawa-Seiki Co., Ltd; Shinshu University; Shinshu University; Shinshu University

    2009-01-01

    From a strong demand on the miniaturization of a chip mounter or a semiconductor device, the thrust improvement considering the magnets arrangement is studied. We accept a core stator with a Halbach type magnet array for a current linear motor. The thrust characteristics are compared with two kinds of mover, a NS magnet array and a Halbach magnet array.

  11. Gestational Age-Dependent Increase of Survival Motor Neuron Protein in Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Sota Iwatani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSpinal muscular atrophy (SMA is the most common genetic neurological disease leading to infant death. It is caused by loss of survival motor neuron (SMN 1 gene and subsequent reduction of SMN protein in motor neurons. Because SMN is ubiquitously expressed and functionally linked to general RNA metabolism pathway, fibroblasts (FBs are most widely used for the assessment of SMN expression in SMA patients but usually isolated from skin biopsy samples after the onset of overt symptoms. Although recent translational studies of SMN-targeted therapies have revealed the very limited time window for effective SMA therapies during perinatal period, the exact time point when SMN shortage became evident is unknown in human samples. In this study, we analyzed SMN mRNA and protein expression during perinatal period by using umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs obtained from preterm and term infants.MethodsUC-MSCs were isolated from 16 control infants delivered at 22–40 weeks of gestation and SMA fetus aborted at 19 weeks of gestation (UC-MSC-Control and UC-MSC-SMA. FBs were isolated from control volunteer and SMA patient (FB-Control and FB-SMA. SMN mRNA and protein expression in UC-MSCs and FBs was determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot.ResultsUC-MSC-Control and UC-MSC-SMA expressed the comparable level of MSC markers on their cell surface and were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. At steady state, SMN mRNA and protein expression was decreased in UC-MSC-SMA compared to UC-MSC-Control, as observed in FB-SMA and FB-Control. In response to histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid, SMN mRNA and protein expression in UC-MSC-SMA and FB-SMA was increased. During perinatal development from 22 to 40 weeks of gestation, SMN mRNA and protein expression in UC-MSC-Control was positively correlated with gestational age.ConclusionUC-MSCs isolated from 17 fetus/infant of 19–40 weeks of gestation

  12. Split photosystem protein, linear-mapping topology, and growth of structural complexity in the plastid genome of chromera velia

    Janouškovec, Jan

    2013-08-22

    The canonical photosynthetic plastid genomes consist of a single circular-mapping chromosome that encodes a highly conserved protein core, involved in photosynthesis and ATP generation. Here, we demonstrate that the plastid genome of the photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Chromera velia, departs from this view in several unique ways. Core photosynthesis proteins PsaA and AtpB have been broken into two fragments, which we show are independently transcribed, oligoU-tailed, translated, and assembled into functional photosystem I and ATP synthase complexes. Genome-wide transcription profiles support expression of many other highly modified proteins, including several that contain extensions amounting to hundreds of amino acids in length. Canonical gene clusters and operons have been fragmented and reshuffled into novel putative transcriptional units. Massive genomic coverage by paired-end reads, coupled with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction, consistently indicate that the C. velia plastid genome is linear-mapping, a unique state among all plastids. Abundant intragenomic duplication probably mediated by recombination can explain protein splits, extensions, and genome linearization and is perhaps the key driving force behind the many features that defy the conventional ways of plastid genome architecture and function. © The Author 2013.

  13. Multi-Objective Optimization of Moving-magnet Linear Oscillatory Motor Using Response Surface Methodology with Quantum-Behaved PSO Operator

    Lei, Meizhen; Wang, Liqiang

    2018-01-01

    To reduce the difficulty of manufacturing and increase the magnetic thrust density, a moving-magnet linear oscillatory motor (MMLOM) without inner-stators was Proposed. To get the optimal design of maximum electromagnetic thrust with minimal permanent magnetic material, firstly, the 3D finite element analysis (FEA) model of the MMLOM was built and verified by comparison with prototype experiment result. Then the influence of design parameters of permanent magnet (PM) on the electromagnetic thrust was systematically analyzed by the 3D FEA to get the design parameters. Secondly, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to build the response surface model of the new MMLOM, which can obtain an analytical model of the PM volume and thrust. Then a multi-objective optimization methods for design parameters of PM, using response surface methodology (RSM) with a quantum-behaved PSO (QPSO) operator, was proposed. Then the way to choose the best design parameters of PM among the multi-objective optimization solution sets was proposed. Then the 3D FEA of the optimal design candidates was compared. The comparison results showed that the proposed method can obtain the best combination of the geometric parameters of reducing the PM volume and increasing the thrust.

  14. Optimum Performances for Non-Linear Finite Elements Model of 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor Based on Intelligent Routing Algorithms

    Chouaib Labiod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents torque ripple reduction with speed control of 8/6 Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM by the determination of the optimal parameters of the turn on, turn off angles Theta_(on, Theta_(off, and the supply voltage using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm and steady state Genetic Algorithm (ssGA. With SRM model, there is difficulty in the control relapsed into highly non-linear static characteristics. For this, the Finite Elements Method (FEM has been used because it is a powerful tool to get a model closer to reality. The mechanism used in this kind of machine control consists of a speed controller in order to determine current reference which must be produced to get the desired speed, hence, hysteresis controller is used to compare current reference with current measured up to achieve switching signals needed in the inverter. Depending on this control, the intelligent routing algorithms get the fitness equation from torque ripple and speed response so as to give the optimal parameters for better results. Obtained results from the proposed strategy based on metaheuristic methods are compared with the basic case without considering the adjustment of specific parameters. Optimized results found clearly confirmed the ability and the efficiency of the proposed strategy based on metaheuristic methods in improving the performances of the SRM control considering different torque loads.

  15. Scanning slit for HIE-ISOLDE: vibrations test (linear motion actuator from UHV design, MAXON brushless motor, speed = 10 mm/s)

    Bravin, E; Sosa, A

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a series of tests performed on the prototype HIE-ISOLDE diagnostic box (HIE-DB) regarding the vibrations and drifts in the transverse position of the scanning blade while moving in and out of beam path in the HIE-ISOLDE short box prototype. To monitor the transverse position of the blade, a series of 0.1 mm diameter holes were drilled on it and their positions were tracked with an optical system. The linear motion actuator was acquired from UHV design (model LSM38-150-SS), and it was adapted to be driven by a brushless EC motor from MAXON. The speed of the scanning blade during the tests was 10 mm/s. The transverse movement of the slit in the direction perpendicular to the movement was lower than 40 m, and is dominated by the displacement of the contact point of the applied force on the lead-screw. An offset on the slit position was observed while changing the direction of movement of the blade, its amplitude being of the order of 30 m. The amplitudes of the displacements...

  16. Knockdown of Pnpla6 protein results in motor neuron defects in zebrafish

    Yang Song

    2013-03-01

    Mutations in patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 6 (PNPLA6, also known as neuropathy target esterase (NTE or SPG39, cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP. Although studies on animal models, including mice and Drosophila, have extended our understanding of PNPLA6, its roles in neural development and in HSP are not clearly understood. Here, we describe the generation of a vertebrate model of PNPLA6 insufficiency using morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown in zebrafish (Danio rerio. Pnpla6 knockdown resulted in developmental abnormalities and motor neuron defects, including axon truncation and branching. The phenotypes in pnpla6 knockdown morphants were rescued by the introduction of wild-type, but not mutant, human PNPLA6 mRNA. Our results also revealed the involvement of BMP signaling in pnpla6 knockdown phenotypes. Taken together, these results demonstrate an important role of PNPLA6 in motor neuron development and implicate overexpression of BMP signaling as a possible mechanism underlying the developmental defects in pnpla6 morphants.

  17. The conservation pattern of short linear motifs is highly correlated with the function of interacting protein domains

    Wang Yiguo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many well-represented domains recognize primary sequences usually less than 10 amino acids in length, called Short Linear Motifs (SLiMs. Accurate prediction of SLiMs has been difficult because they are short (often Results Our combined approach revealed that SLiMs are highly conserved in proteins from functional classes that are known to interact with a specific domain, but that they are not conserved in most other protein groups. We found that SLiMs recognized by SH2 domains were highly conserved in receptor kinases/phosphatases, adaptor molecules, and tyrosine kinases/phosphatases, that SLiMs recognized by SH3 domains were highly conserved in cytoskeletal and cytoskeletal-associated proteins, that SLiMs recognized by PDZ domains were highly conserved in membrane proteins such as channels and receptors, and that SLiMs recognized by S/T kinase domains were highly conserved in adaptor molecules, S/T kinases/phosphatases, and proteins involved in transcription or cell cycle control. We studied Tyr-SLiMs recognized by SH2 domains in more detail, and found that SH2-recognized Tyr-SLiMs on the cytoplasmic side of membrane proteins are more highly conserved than those on the extra-cellular side. Also, we found that SH2-recognized Tyr-SLiMs that are associated with SH3 motifs and a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif are more highly conserved. Conclusion The interactome of protein domains is reflected by the evolutionary conservation of SLiMs recognized by these domains. Combining scoring matrixes derived from peptide libraries and conservation analysis, we would be able to find those protein groups that are more likely to interact with specific domains.

  18. Intermittent apnea elicits inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation via a retinoic acid- and protein synthesis-dependent pathway.

    Baertsch, Nathan A; Baker, Tracy L

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory motoneuron pools must provide rhythmic inspiratory drive that is robust and reliable, yet dynamic enough to respond to respiratory challenges. One form of plasticity that is hypothesized to contribute to motor output stability by sensing and responding to inadequate respiratory neural activity is inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), an increase in inspiratory output triggered by a reduction in phrenic synaptic inputs. Evidence suggests that mechanisms giving rise to iPMF differ depending on the pattern of reduced respiratory neural activity (i.e., neural apnea). A prolonged neural apnea elicits iPMF via a spinal TNF-α-induced increase in atypical PKC activity, but little is known regarding mechanisms that elicit iPMF following intermittent neural apnea. We tested the hypothesis that iPMF triggered by intermittent neural apnea requires retinoic acid and protein synthesis. Phrenic nerve activity was recorded in urethane-anesthetized and -ventilated rats treated intrathecally with an inhibitor of retinoic acid synthesis (4-diethlyaminobenzaldehyde, DEAB), a protein synthesis inhibitor (emetine), or vehicle (artificial cerebrospinal fluid) before intermittent (5 episodes, ~1.25 min each) or prolonged (30 min) neural apnea. Both DEAB and emetine abolished iPMF elicited by intermittent neural apnea but had no effect on iPMF elicited by a prolonged neural apnea. Thus different patterns of reduced respiratory neural activity elicit phenotypically similar iPMF via distinct spinal mechanisms. Understanding mechanisms that allow respiratory motoneurons to dynamically tune their output may have important implications in the context of respiratory control disorders that involve varied patterns of reduced respiratory neural activity, such as central sleep apnea and spinal cord injury. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We identify spinal retinoic acid and protein synthesis as critical components in the cellular cascade whereby repetitive reductions in respiratory

  19. The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-6 protein co-localizes with EBNA-3 and survival of motor neurons protein

    Krauer, Kenia G.; Buck, Marion; Belzer, Deanna K.; Flanagan, James; Chojnowski, Grace M.; Sculley, Tom B.

    2004-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA)-6 protein is essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced immortalization of primary human B-lymphocytes in vitro. In this study, fusion proteins of EBNA-6 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) have been used to characterize its nuclear localization and organization within the nucleus. EBNA-6 associates with nuclear structures and in immunofluorescence demonstrate a punctate staining pattern. Herein, we show that the association of EBNA-6 with these nuclear structures was maintained throughout the cell cycle and with the use of GFP-E6 deletion mutants, that the region amino acids 733-808 of EBNA-6 contains a domain that can influence the association of EBNA-6 with these nuclear structures. Co-immunofluorescence and confocal analyses demonstrated that EBNA-6 and EBNA-3 co-localize in the nucleus of cells. Expression of EBNA-6, but not EBNA-3, caused a redistribution of nuclear survival of motor neurons protein (SMN) to the EBNA-6 containing nuclear structures resulting in co-localization of SMN with EBNA-6

  20. COMSAT: Residue contact prediction of transmembrane proteins based on support vector machines and mixed integer linear programming.

    Zhang, Huiling; Huang, Qingsheng; Bei, Zhendong; Wei, Yanjie; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present COMSAT, a hybrid framework for residue contact prediction of transmembrane (TM) proteins, integrating a support vector machine (SVM) method and a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) method. COMSAT consists of two modules: COMSAT_SVM which is trained mainly on position-specific scoring matrix features, and COMSAT_MILP which is an ab initio method based on optimization models. Contacts predicted by the SVM model are ranked by SVM confidence scores, and a threshold is trained to improve the reliability of the predicted contacts. For TM proteins with no contacts above the threshold, COMSAT_MILP is used. The proposed hybrid contact prediction scheme was tested on two independent TM protein sets based on the contact definition of 14 Å between Cα-Cα atoms. First, using a rigorous leave-one-protein-out cross validation on the training set of 90 TM proteins, an accuracy of 66.8%, a coverage of 12.3%, a specificity of 99.3% and a Matthews' correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.184 were obtained for residue pairs that are at least six amino acids apart. Second, when tested on a test set of 87 TM proteins, the proposed method showed a prediction accuracy of 64.5%, a coverage of 5.3%, a specificity of 99.4% and a MCC of 0.106. COMSAT shows satisfactory results when compared with 12 other state-of-the-art predictors, and is more robust in terms of prediction accuracy as the length and complexity of TM protein increase. COMSAT is freely accessible at http://hpcc.siat.ac.cn/COMSAT/. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Small GTP-Binding Protein Rhes Influences Nigrostriatal-Dependent Motor Behavior During Aging.

    Pinna, Annalisa; Napolitano, Francesco; Pelosi, Barbara; Di Maio, Anna; Wardas, Jadwiga; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Giulia; Migliarini, Sara; Calabresi, Paolo; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Morelli, Micaela; Usiello, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Here we aimed to evaluate: (1) Rhes mRNA expression in mouse midbrain, (2) the effect of Rhes deletion on the number of dopamine neurons, (3) nigrostriatal-sensitive behavior during aging in knockout mice. Radioactive in situ hybridization was assessed in adult mice. The beam-walking test was executed in 3-, 6- and 12-month-old mice. Immunohistochemistry of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons was performed in 6- and 12-month-old mice. Rhes mRNA is expressed in TH-positive neurons of SNpc and the ventral tegmental area. Moreover, lack of Rhes leads to roughly a 20% loss of nigral TH-positive neurons in both 6- and 12-month-old mutants, when compared with their age-matched controls. Finally, lack of Rhes triggers subtle alterations in motor performance and coordination during aging. Our findings indicate a fine-tuning role of Rhes in regulating the number of TH-positive neurons of the substantia nigra and nigrostriatal-sensitive motor behavior during aging. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Characterization of Three Novel Linear Neutralizing B-Cell Epitopes in the Capsid Protein of Swine Hepatitis E Virus.

    Chen, Yiyang; Liu, Baoyuan; Sun, Yani; Li, Huixia; Du, Taofeng; Nan, Yuchen; Hiscox, Julian A; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2018-04-18

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes liver disease in humans and is thought to be a zoonotic infection with domestic animals being a reservoir including swine and rabbits. One of the proteins encoded by the virus is the capsid protein. This is likely the major immune-dominant protein and a target for vaccination. Four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs); three novel; 1E4, 2C7, 2G9, and one previously characterized (1B5), were evaluated for binding to the capsid protein from genotype 4 (swine) hepatitis E virus (HEV). The results indicated that 625 DFCP 628 , 458 PSRPF 462 , and 407 EPTV 410 peptides on the capsid protein comprised minimal amino acid sequence motifs recognized by 1E4, 2C7, and 2G9, respectively. The data suggested that 2C7 and 2G9 epitopes were partially exposed on the surface of the capsid protein. Truncated genotype 4 swine HEV capsid protein (sp239, amino acids 368-606), can exist in multimeric forms. Pre-incubation of swine HEV with 2C7, 2G9, or 1B5 before addition to HepG2 cells partially blocked sp239 cell binding and inhibited swine HEV infection. The study indicated that 2C7, 2G9, and 1B5 partially blocked swine HEV infection of rabbits better than 1E4 or normal mouse IgG. The cross reactivity of antibodies suggested that capsid epitopes recognized by 2C7 and 2G9 are common to HEV strains infecting most host species. Collectively, MAbs 2C7, 2G9, and 1B5 were shown to recognize three novel linear neutralizing B-cell epitopes of genotype 4 HEV capsid protein. These results enhance understanding of HEV capsid protein structure to guide vaccine and anti-viral design. IMPORTANCE Genotype 3 and 4 HEVs are zoonotic viruses. Here, genotype 4 HEV was studied due to its prevalence in human populations and pig herds in China. To improve HEV disease diagnosis and prevention, a better understanding of antigenic structure and neutralizing epitopes of HEV capsid protein are needed. In this study, the locations of three novel linear B-cell recognition epitopes within

  3. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Karl Spanner; Burhanettin Koc

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ult...

  4. Differential solvation of intrinsically disordered linkers drives the formation of spatially organized droplets in ternary systems of linear multivalent proteins

    Harmon, Tyler S.; Holehouse, Alex S.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2018-04-01

    Intracellular biomolecular condensates are membraneless organelles that encompass large numbers of multivalent protein and nucleic acid molecules. The bodies assemble via a combination of liquid–liquid phase separation and gelation. A majority of condensates included multiple components and show multilayered organization as opposed to being well-mixed unitary liquids. Here, we put forward a simple thermodynamic framework to describe the emergence of spatially organized droplets in multicomponent systems comprising of linear multivalent polymers also known as associative polymers. These polymers, which mimic proteins and/or RNA have the architecture of domains or motifs known as stickers that are interspersed by flexible spacers known as linkers. Using a minimalist numerical model for a four-component system, we have identified features of linear multivalent molecules that are necessary and sufficient for generating spatially organized droplets. We show that differences in sequence-specific effective solvation volumes of disordered linkers between interaction domains enable the formation of spatially organized droplets. Molecules with linkers that are preferentially solvated are driven to the interface with the bulk solvent, whereas molecules that have linkers with negligible effective solvation volumes form cores in the core–shell architectures that emerge in the minimalist four-component systems. Our modeling has relevance for understanding the physical determinants of spatially organized membraneless organelles.

  5. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes.

  6. Characterization of linear mimetic peptides of Interleukin-22 from dissection of protein interfaces.

    La Manna, Sara; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Di Natale, Concetta; Leone, Marilisa; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Cianfarani, Francesca; Madonna, Stefania; Caravella, Sergio; Albanesi, Cristina; Novellino, Ettore; Marasco, Daniela

    2017-07-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) belongs to the family of IL-10 cytokines and is involved in a wide number of human diseases, including inflammatory disorders and cancer pathology. The ligand-receptor complex IL-22/IL-22R plays a key role in several pathways especially in the regulation and resolution of immune responses. The identification of novel compounds able to modulate IL-22/IL-22R complex could open the route to new therapeutic strategies in multiple human diseases. In this study, we designed and characterized IL-22 derived peptides at protein interface regions: several sequences revealed able to interfere with the protein complex with IC 50 in the micromolar range as evaluated through Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) experiments. Their conformational characterization was carried out through Circular Dichroism (CD) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, shedding new light into the features of IL-22 fragments and on structural determinants of IL-22/IL-22R1 recognition. Finally, several peptides were tested on human keratinocyte cultures for evaluating their ability to mimic the activation of molecular pathways downstream to IL-22R in response to IL-22 binding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. A simplified tether model for molecular motor transporting cargo

    Fang-Zhen, Li; Li-Chun, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Molecular motors are proteins or protein complexes which function as transporting engines in biological cells. This paper models the tether between motor and its cargo as a symmetric linear potential. Different from Elston and Peskin's work for which performance of the system was discussed only in some limiting cases, this study produces analytic solutions of the problem for general cases by simplifying the transport system into two physical states, which makes it possible to discuss the dynamics of the motor–cargo system in detail. It turns out that the tether strength between motor and cargo should be greater than a threshold or the motor will fail to transport the cargo, which was not discussed by former researchers yet. Value of the threshold depends on the diffusion coefficients of cargo and motor and also on the strength of the Brownian ratchets dragging the system. The threshold approaches a finite constant when the strength of the ratchet tends to infinity. (general)

  8. Electrochemical immunosensors for the detection of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein using different carbon nanomaterials-modified electrodes.

    Eissa, Shimaa; Alshehri, Nawal; Rahman, Anas M Abdel; Dasouki, Majed; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Zourob, Mohammed

    2018-03-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy is an untreatable potentially fatal hereditary disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene which encodes the SMN protein. Currently, definitive diagnosis relies on the demonstration of biallelic pathogenic variants in SMN1 gene. Therefore, there is an urgent unmet need to accurately quantify SMN protein levels for screening and therapeutic monitoring of symptomatic newborn and SMA patients, respectively. Here, we developed a voltammetric immunosensor for the sensitive detection of SMN protein based on covalently functionalized carbon nanofiber-modified screen printed electrodes. A comparative study of six different carbon nanomaterial-modified electrodes (carbon, graphene (G), graphene oxide (GO), single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT), multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), and carbon nanofiber (CNF)) was performed. 4-carboxyphenyl layers were covalently grafted on the six electrodes by electroreduction of diazonium salt. Then, the terminal carboxylic moieties on the electrodes surfaces were utilized to immobilize the SMN antibody via EDC/NHS chemistry and to fabricate the immunosensors. The electrochemical characterization and analytical performance of the six immunosensors suggest that carbon nanofiber is a better electrode material for the SMN immunosensor. The voltammetric SMN carbon nanofiber-based immunosensor showed high sensitivity (detection limit of 0.75pg/ml) and selectivity against other proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and dystrophin (DMD). We suggest that this novel biosensor is superior to other developed assays for SMN detection in terms of lower cost, higher sensitivity, simplicity and capability of high throughput screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6 Protein Aggregates Cause Deficits in Motor Learning and Cerebellar Plasticity

    Mark, Melanie D; Krause, Martin; Boele, Henk-Jan; Kruse, Wolfgang; Pollok, Stefan; Kuner, Thomas; Dalkara, Deniz; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Herlitze, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is linked to poly-glutamine (polyQ) within the C terminus (CT) of the pore-forming subunits of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels (Cav2.1) and is characterized by CT protein aggregates found in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs). One hypothesis regarding SCA6 disease is that

  10. Structure of human Rad51 protein filament from molecular modeling and site-specific linear dichroism spectroscopy

    Reymer, A.

    2009-07-08

    To get mechanistic insight into the DNA strand-exchange reaction of homologous recombination, we solved a filament structure of a human Rad51 protein, combining molecular modeling with experimental data. We build our structure on reported structures for central and N-terminal parts of pure (uncomplexed) Rad51 protein by aid of linear dichroism spectroscopy, providing angular orientations of substituted tyrosine residues of Rad51-dsDNA filaments in solution. The structure, validated by comparison with an electron microscopy density map and results from mutation analysis, is proposed to represent an active solution structure of the nucleo-protein complex. An inhomogeneously stretched double-stranded DNA fitted into the filament emphasizes the strategic positioning of 2 putative DNA-binding loops in a way that allows us speculate about their possibly distinct roles in nucleo-protein filament assembly and DNA strand-exchange reaction. The model suggests that the extension of a single-stranded DNA molecule upon binding of Rad51 is ensured by intercalation of Tyr-232 of the L1 loop, which might act as a docking tool, aligning protein monomers along the DNA strand upon filament assembly. Arg-235, also sitting on L1, is in the right position to make electrostatic contact with the phosphate backbone of the other DNA strand. The L2 loop position and its more ordered compact conformation makes us propose that this loop has another role, as a binding site for an incoming double-stranded DNA. Our filament structure and spectroscopic approach open the possibility of analyzing details along the multistep path of the strand-exchange reaction.

  11. Control de velocidad del motor de indución empleando linealización por realimentación de estados Speed control of induction motor using state feedback linearization

    Eduardo Giraldo Suárez; Santiago Sánchez Acevedo

    2009-01-01

    Este documento presenta la aplicación de la técnica de control no lineal clásica llamada linealización por realimentación de variables de estado. Se hace una aplicación en el motor de inducción, la variable a controlar es la velocidad del eje del motor, el sistema emplea el esquema de control vectorial para máquinas de corriente alterna desarrollado en las últimas décadas; este método es análogo a la técnica de control del motor de corriente directa. El modelo del motor de inducción se descri...

  12. Protein synthesis is essential not only for consolidation but also for maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill in rats.

    Peng, Ji-Yun; Li, Bao-Ming

    2009-05-28

    It has been reported that consolidation of motor skill, a type of non-declarative memories, requires protein synthesis, as hippocampus-dependent declarative memory does. However, little is known about the importance of protein synthesis in maintenance and especially post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill. Here, we show that protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and reconsolidation of a rotarod-running skill. Intra-ventricle infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin 0 h but not 2 h post-training caused a severe deficit in the acquisition of the rotarod-running skill. Protein synthesis inhibition (PSI) also caused a deficit in the maintenance of the rotarod-running skill, as well-trained rats demonstrated a deficit in the rotarod-running performance upon treatment with anisomycin. Similarly, PSI impaired the post-retrieval reconsolidation of the rotarod-running skill: well-trained rats treated with anisomycin 0 h but not 0.5, 2 and 4 h after the task performance exhibited amnesia for the running skill later on. Interestingly, rats treated with anisomycin 6 and 12 h post-retrieval exhibited amnesia for the running skill. Thus, protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of rotarod-running acrobatic motor skill.

  13. Protein synthesis is essential not only for consolidation but also for maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill in rats

    Peng Ji-Yun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been reported that consolidation of motor skill, a type of non-declarative memories, requires protein synthesis, as hippocampus-dependent declarative memory does. However, little is known about the importance of protein synthesis in maintenance and especially post-retrieval reconsolidation of acrobatic motor skill. Here, we show that protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and reconsolidation of a rotarod-running skill. Intra-ventricle infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin 0 h but not 2 h post-training caused a severe deficit in the acquisition of the rotarod-running skill. Protein synthesis inhibition (PSI also caused a deficit in the maintenance of the rotarod-running skill, as well-trained rats demonstrated a deficit in the rotarod-running performance upon treatment with anisomycin. Similarly, PSI impaired the post-retrieval reconsolidation of the rotarod-running skill: well-trained rats treated with anisomycin 0 h but not 0.5, 2 and 4 h after the task performance exhibited amnesia for the running skill later on. Interestingly, rats treated with anisomycin 6 and 12 h post-retrieval exhibited amnesia for the running skill. Thus, protein synthesis is essential not only for the consolidation but also for the maintenance and post-retrieval reconsolidation of rotarod-running acrobatic motor skill.

  14. Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome protein SIL1 regulates motor neuron subtype-selective ER stress in ALS

    Filézac de L'Etang, Audrey; Maharjan, Niran; Cordeiro Braña, Marisa; Ruegsegger, Céline; Rehmann, Ruth; Goswami, Anand; Roos, Andreas; Troost, Dirk; Schneider, Bernard L.; Weis, Joachim; Saxena, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying motor neuron subtype-selective endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and associated axonal pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remain unclear. Here we show that the molecular environment of the ER between motor neuron subtypes is distinct, with characteristic

  15. Design and evaluation of antimalarial peptides derived from prediction of short linear motifs in proteins related to erythrocyte invasion.

    Alessandra Bianchin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood stage of the malaria causing parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to predict potential protein interactions between the parasite merozoite and the host erythrocyte and design peptides that could interrupt these predicted interactions. We screened the P. falciparum and human proteomes for computationally predicted short linear motifs (SLiMs in cytoplasmic portions of transmembrane proteins that could play roles in the invasion of the erythrocyte by the merozoite, an essential step in malarial pathogenesis. We tested thirteen peptides predicted to contain SLiMs, twelve of them palmitoylated to enhance membrane targeting, and found three that blocked parasite growth in culture by inhibiting the initiation of new infections in erythrocytes. Scrambled peptides for two of the most promising peptides suggested that their activity may be reflective of amino acid properties, in particular, positive charge. However, one peptide showed effects which were stronger than those of scrambled peptides. This was derived from human red blood cell glycophorin-B. We concluded that proteome-wide computational screening of the intracellular regions of both host and pathogen adhesion proteins provides potential lead peptides for the development of anti-malarial compounds.

  16. Motor and memory testing of long-lived pregnancy-associated plasma protein--a knock-out mice.

    Mason, Emily J; Grell, Jacquelyn A; West, Sally A; Conover, Cheryl A

    2014-12-01

    Mice deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), an IGF binding protein protease, have been shown to be resistant to experimentally induced atherosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy, and, in the laboratory environment, live 30-40% longer than wild-type littermates in association with delayed incidence and occurrence of age-related neoplasms and degenerative diseases. PAPP-A is highly expressed in the cerebellum and hippocampus of the mouse brain. Therefore, the studies presented here were aimed at determining motor behavior, learning and retention in PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates with age. Balance and coordination were assessed using an accelerating rotarod; learning and memory were assessed in a Stone T-maze. Time on the rotarod decreased with age but there was no significant difference between PAPP-A KO and WT mice at any of the testing ages. Latency to reach the goal box and number of errors committed in the Stone T-maze did not change with age and there were no significant differences between PAPP-A KO and WT mice. Lack of PAPP-A in mice did not impact central regulation of coordination, learning or memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. D1 dopamine receptor signaling is modulated by the R7 RGS protein EAT-16 and the R7 binding protein RSBP-1 in Caenoerhabditis elegans motor neurons.

    Khursheed A Wani

    Full Text Available Dopamine signaling modulates voluntary movement and reward-driven behaviors by acting through G protein-coupled receptors in striatal neurons, and defects in dopamine signaling underlie Parkinson's disease and drug addiction. Despite the importance of understanding how dopamine modifies the activity of striatal neurons to control basal ganglia output, the molecular mechanisms that control dopamine signaling remain largely unclear. Dopamine signaling also controls locomotion behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. To better understand how dopamine acts in the brain we performed a large-scale dsRNA interference screen in C. elegans for genes required for endogenous dopamine signaling and identified six genes (eat-16, rsbp-1, unc-43, flp-1, grk-1, and cat-1 required for dopamine-mediated behavior. We then used a combination of mutant analysis and cell-specific transgenic rescue experiments to investigate the functional interaction between the proteins encoded by two of these genes, eat-16 and rsbp-1, within single cell types and to examine their role in the modulation of dopamine receptor signaling. We found that EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to modulate dopamine signaling and that while they are coexpressed with both D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors, they do not modulate D2 receptor signaling. Instead, EAT-16 and RSBP-1 act together to selectively inhibit D1 dopamine receptor signaling in cholinergic motor neurons to modulate locomotion behavior.

  18. Identification of linear B-cell epitopes on goose parvovirus non-structural protein.

    Yu, Tian-Fei; Ma, Bo; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2016-10-15

    Goose parvovirus (GPV) infection can cause a highly contagious and lethal disease in goslings and muscovy ducklings which is widespread in all major goose (Anser anser) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) farming countries, leading to a huge economic loss. Humoral immune responses play a major role in GPV immune protection during GPV infection. However, it is still unknown for the localization and immunological characteristics of B-cell epitopes on GPV non-structural protein (NSP). Therefore, in this study, the epitopes on the NSP of GPV were identified by means of overlapping peptides expressed in Escherichia coli in combination with Western blot. The results showed that the antigenic epitopes on the GPV NSP were predominantly localized in the C-terminal (aa 485-627), and especially, the fragment NS (498-532) was strongly positive. These results may facilitate future investigations on the function of NSP of GPV and the development of immunoassays for the diagnosis of GPV infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. A systems wide mass spectrometric based linear motif screen to identify dominant in-vivo interacting proteins for the ubiquitin ligase MDM2.

    Nicholson, Judith; Scherl, Alex; Way, Luke; Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D; Ball, Kathryn L; Hupp, Ted R

    2014-06-01

    Linear motifs mediate protein-protein interactions (PPI) that allow expansion of a target protein interactome at a systems level. This study uses a proteomics approach and linear motif sub-stratifications to expand on PPIs of MDM2. MDM2 is a multi-functional protein with over one hundred known binding partners not stratified by hierarchy or function. A new linear motif based on a MDM2 interaction consensus is used to select novel MDM2 interactors based on Nutlin-3 responsiveness in a cell-based proteomics screen. MDM2 binds a subset of peptide motifs corresponding to real proteins with a range of allosteric responses to MDM2 ligands. We validate cyclophilin B as a novel protein with a consensus MDM2 binding motif that is stabilised by Nutlin-3 in vivo, thus identifying one of the few known interactors of MDM2 that is stabilised by Nutlin-3. These data invoke two modes of peptide binding at the MDM2 N-terminus that rely on a consensus core motif to control the equilibrium between MDM2 binding proteins. This approach stratifies MDM2 interacting proteins based on the linear motif feature and provides a new biomarker assay to define clinically relevant Nutlin-3 responsive MDM2 interactors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The actin-binding protein capulet genetically interacts with the microtubule motor kinesin to maintain neuronal dendrite homeostasis.

    Paul M B Medina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurons require precise cytoskeletal regulation within neurites, containing microtubule tracks for cargo transport in axons and dendrites or within synapses containing organized actin. Due to the unique architecture and specialized function of neurons, neurons are particularly susceptible to perturbation of the cytoskeleton. Numerous actin-binding proteins help maintain proper cytoskeletal regulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From a Drosophila forward genetic screen, we identified a mutation in capulet--encoding a conserved actin-binding protein--that causes abnormal aggregates of actin within dendrites. Through interaction studies, we demonstrate that simultaneous genetic inactivation of capulet and kinesin heavy chain, a microtubule motor protein, produces elongate cofilin-actin rods within dendrites but not axons. These rods resemble actin-rich structures induced in both mammalian neurodegenerative and Drosophila Alzheimer's models, but have not previously been identified by loss of function mutations in vivo. We further demonstrate that mitochondria, which are transported by Kinesin, have impaired distribution along dendrites in a capulet mutant. While Capulet and Cofilin may biochemically cooperate in certain circumstances, in neuronal dendrites they genetically antagonize each other. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study is the first molecularly defined loss of function demonstration of actin-cofilin rods in vivo. This study suggests that simultaneous, seemingly minor perturbations in neuronal dendrites can synergize producing severe abnormalities affecting actin, microtubules and mitochondria/energy availability in dendrites. Additionally, as >90% of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's cases are sporadic this study suggests mechanisms by which multiple mutations together may contribute to neurodegeneration instead of reliance on single mutations to produce disease.

  1. Immunisation With Immunodominant Linear B Cell Epitopes Vaccine of Manganese Transport Protein C Confers Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Hui-Jie Yang

    Full Text Available Vaccination strategies for Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA infections have attracted much research attention. Recent efforts have been made to select manganese transport protein C, or manganese binding surface lipoprotein C (MntC, which is a metal ion associated with pathogen nutrition uptake, as potential candidates for an S. aureus vaccine. Although protective humoral immune responses to MntC are well-characterised, much less is known about detailed MntC-specific B cell epitope mapping and particularly epitope vaccines, which are less-time consuming and more convenient. In this study, we generated a recombinant protein rMntC which induced strong antibody response when used for immunisation with CFA/IFA adjuvant. On the basis of the results, linear B cell epitopes within MntC were finely mapped using a series of overlapping synthetic peptides. Further studies indicate that MntC113-136, MntC209-232, and MntC263-286 might be the original linear B-cell immune dominant epitope of MntC, furthermore, three-dimensional (3-d crystal structure results indicate that the three immunodominant epitopes were displayed on the surface of the MntC antigen. On the basis of immunodominant MntC113-136, MntC209-232, and MntC263-286 peptides, the epitope vaccine for S. aureus induces a high antibody level which is biased to TH2 and provides effective immune protection and strong opsonophagocytic killing activity in vitro against MRSA infection. In summary, the study provides strong proof of the optimisation of MRSA B cell epitope vaccine designs and their use, which was based on the MntC antigen in the development of an MRSA vaccine.

  2. HuD and the Survival Motor Neuron Protein Interact in Motoneurons and Are Essential for Motoneuron Development, Function, and mRNA Regulation.

    Hao le, Thi; Duy, Phan Q; An, Min; Talbot, Jared; Iyer, Chitra C; Wolman, Marc; Beattie, Christine E

    2017-11-29

    Motoneurons establish a critical link between the CNS and muscles. If motoneurons do not develop correctly, they cannot form the required connections, resulting in movement defects or paralysis. Compromised development can also lead to degeneration because the motoneuron is not set up to function properly. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms that control vertebrate motoneuron development, particularly the later stages of axon branch and dendrite formation. The motoneuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein leading to defects in vertebrate motoneuron development and synapse formation. Here we show using zebrafish as a model system that SMN interacts with the RNA binding protein (RBP) HuD in motoneurons in vivo during formation of axonal branches and dendrites. To determine the function of HuD in motoneurons, we generated zebrafish HuD mutants and found that they exhibited decreased motor axon branches, dramatically fewer dendrites, and movement defects. These same phenotypes are present in animals expressing low levels of SMN, indicating that both proteins function in motoneuron development. HuD binds and transports mRNAs and one of its target mRNAs, Gap43 , is involved in axonal outgrowth. We found that Gap43 was decreased in both HuD and SMN mutants. Importantly, transgenic expression of HuD in motoneurons of SMN mutants rescued the motoneuron defects, the movement defects, and Gap43 mRNA levels. These data support that the interaction between SMN and HuD is critical for motoneuron development and point to a role for RBPs in SMA. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In zebrafish models of the motoneuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), motor axons fail to form the normal extent of axonal branches and dendrites leading to decreased motor function. SMA is caused by low levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. We show in motoneurons in vivo that SMN interacts with the RNA binding

  3. Vaccinia protein F12 has structural similarity to kinesin light chain and contains a motor binding motif required for virion export.

    Gareth W Morgan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV uses microtubules for export of virions to the cell surface and this process requires the viral protein F12. Here we show that F12 has structural similarity to kinesin light chain (KLC, a subunit of the kinesin-1 motor that binds cargo. F12 and KLC share similar size, pI, hydropathy and cargo-binding tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs. Moreover, molecular modeling of F12 TPRs upon the crystal structure of KLC2 TPRs showed a striking conservation of structure. We also identified multiple TPRs in VACV proteins E2 and A36. Data presented demonstrate that F12 is critical for recruitment of kinesin-1 to virions and that a conserved tryptophan and aspartic acid (WD motif, which is conserved in the kinesin-1-binding sequence (KBS of the neuronal protein calsyntenin/alcadein and several other cellular kinesin-1 binding proteins, is essential for kinesin-1 recruitment and virion transport. In contrast, mutation of WD motifs in protein A36 revealed they were not required for kinesin-1 recruitment or IEV transport. This report of a viral KLC-like protein containing a KBS that is conserved in several cellular proteins advances our understanding of how VACV recruits the kinesin motor to virions, and exemplifies how viruses use molecular mimicry of cellular components to their advantage.

  4. An oral Na(V)1.8 blocker improves motor function in mice completely deficient of myelin protein P-0

    Rosberg, Mette R.; Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Krarup, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient of myelin protein P0 are established models of demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Dysmyelination in these mice is associated with an ectopic expression of the sensory neuron specific sodium channel isoform NaV1.8 on motor axons. We reported that in P0+/−, a model of CMT......1B, the membrane dysfunction could be acutely improved by a novel oral NaV1.8 blocker referred to as Compound 31 (C31, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2010, 20, 6812; AbbVie Inc.). The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which C31 treatment could also improve the motor axon function in P0......-of-concept that treatment with oral subtype-selective NaV1.8 blockers could be used to improve the motor function in severe forms of demyelinating CMT....

  5. Distribution and evolution of stable single α-helices (SAH domains in myosin motor proteins.

    Dominic Simm

    Full Text Available Stable single-alpha helices (SAHs are versatile structural elements in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins acting as semi-flexible linkers and constant force springs. This way SAH-domains function as part of the lever of many different myosins. Canonical myosin levers consist of one or several IQ-motifs to which light chains such as calmodulin bind. SAH-domains provide flexibility in length and stiffness to the myosin levers, and may be particularly suited for myosins working in crowded cellular environments. Although the function of the SAH-domains in human class-6 and class-10 myosins has well been characterised, the distribution of the SAH-domain in all myosin subfamilies and across the eukaryotic tree of life remained elusive. Here, we analysed the largest available myosin sequence dataset consisting of 7919 manually annotated myosin sequences from 938 species representing all major eukaryotic branches using the SAH-prediction algorithm of Waggawagga, a recently developed tool for the identification of SAH-domains. With this approach we identified SAH-domains in more than one third of the supposed 79 myosin subfamilies. Depending on the myosin class, the presence of SAH-domains can range from a few to almost all class members indicating complex patterns of independent and taxon-specific SAH-domain gain and loss.

  6. Ectopic expression of phloem motor protein pea forisome PsSEO-F1 enhances salinity stress tolerance in tobacco.

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Raikwar, Shailendra; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-05-01

    PsSEOF-1 binds to calcium and its expression is upregulated by salinity treatment. PsSEOF - 1 -overexpressing transgenic tobacco showed enhanced salinity stress tolerance by maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and modulating ROS-scavenging pathway. Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays important role in growth, development and stress tolerance in plants. Cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is achieved by the collective action of channels, pumps, antiporters and by Ca(2+) chelators present in the cell like calcium-binding proteins. Forisomes are ATP-independent mechanically active motor proteins known to function in wound sealing of injured sieve elements of phloem tissue. The Ca(2+)-binding activity of forisome and its role in abiotic stress signaling were largely unknown. Here we report the Ca(2+)-binding activity of pea forisome (PsSEO-F1) and its novel function in promoting salinity tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Native PsSEO-F1 promoter positively responded in salinity stress as confirmed using GUS reporter. Overexpression of PsSEO-F1 tobacco plants confers salinity tolerance by alleviating ionic toxicity and increased ROS scavenging activity which probably results in reduced membrane damage and improved yield under salinity stress. Evaluation of several physiological indices shows an increase in relative water content, electrolyte leakage, proline accumulation and chlorophyll content in transgenic lines as compared with null-segregant control. Expression of several genes involved in cellular homeostasis is perturbed by PsSEO-F1 overexpression. These findings suggest that PsSEO-F1 provides salinity tolerance through cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis which in turn modulates ROS machinery providing indirect link between Ca(2+) and ROS signaling under salinity-induced perturbation. PsSEO-F1 most likely functions in salinity stress tolerance by improving antioxidant machinery and mitigating ion toxicity in transgenic lines. This finding should make an important contribution in our better

  7. The ENU-3 protein family members function in the Wnt pathway parallel to UNC-6/Netrin to promote motor neuron axon outgrowth in C. elegans.

    Florica, Roxana Oriana; Hipolito, Victoria; Bautista, Stephen; Anvari, Homa; Rapp, Chloe; El-Rass, Suzan; Asgharian, Alimohammad; Antonescu, Costin N; Killeen, Marie T

    2017-10-01

    The axons of the DA and DB classes of motor neurons fail to reach the dorsal cord in the absence of the guidance cue UNC-6/Netrin or its receptor UNC-5 in C. elegans. However, the axonal processes usually exit their cell bodies in the ventral cord in the absence of both molecules. Strains lacking functional versions of UNC-6 or UNC-5 have a low level of DA and DB motor neuron axon outgrowth defects. We found that mutations in the genes for all six of the ENU-3 proteins function to enhance the outgrowth defects of the DA and DB axons in strains lacking either UNC-6 or UNC-5. A mutation in the gene for the MIG-14/Wntless protein also enhances defects in a strain lacking either UNC-5 or UNC-6, suggesting that the ENU-3 and Wnt pathways function parallel to the Netrin pathway in directing motor neuron axon outgrowth. Our evidence suggests that the ENU-3 proteins are novel members of the Wnt pathway in nematodes. Five of the six members of the ENU-3 family are predicted to be single-pass trans-membrane proteins. The expression pattern of ENU-3.1 was consistent with plasma membrane localization. One family member, ENU-3.6, lacks the predicted signal peptide and the membrane-spanning domain. In HeLa cells ENU-3.6 had a cytoplasmic localization and caused actin dependent processes to appear. We conclude that the ENU-3 family proteins function in a pathway parallel to the UNC-6/Netrin pathway for motor neuron axon outgrowth, most likely in the Wnt pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution and Development of the Inner Ear Efferent System: Transforming a Motor Neuron Population to Connect to the Most Unusual Motor Protein via Ancient Nicotinic Receptors

    Bernd Fritzsch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available All craniate chordates have inner ears with hair cells that receive input from the brain by cholinergic centrifugal fibers, the so-called inner ear efferents (IEEs. Comparative data suggest that IEEs derive from facial branchial motor (FBM neurons that project to the inner ear instead of facial muscles. Developmental data showed that IEEs develop adjacent to FBMs and segregation from IEEs might depend on few transcription factors uniquely associated with IEEs. Like other cholinergic terminals in the peripheral nervous system (PNS, efferent terminals signal on hair cells through nicotinic acetylcholine channels, likely composed out of alpha 9 and alpha 10 units (Chrna9, Chrna10. Consistent with the evolutionary ancestry of IEEs is the even more conserved ancestry of Chrna9 and 10. The evolutionary appearance of IEEs may reflect access of FBMs to a novel target, possibly related to displacement or loss of mesoderm-derived muscle fibers by the ectoderm-derived ear vesicle. Experimental transplantations mimicking this possible aspect of ear evolution showed that different motor neurons of the spinal cord or brainstem form cholinergic synapses on hair cells when ears replace somites or eyes. Transplantation provides experimental evidence in support of the evolutionary switch of FBM neurons to become IEEs. Mammals uniquely evolved a prestin related motor system to cause shape changes in outer hair cells regulated by the IEEs. In summary, an ancient motor neuron population drives in craniates via signaling through highly conserved Chrna receptors a uniquely derived cellular contractility system that is essential for hearing in mammals.

  9. Motor Skills Training Improves Sensorimotor Dysfunction and Increases Microtubule-Associated Protein 2 mRNA Expression in Rats with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Onishi, Hideaki; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Ishida, Kazuto

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of motor skills training on the sensorimotor function and the expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to ICH or sham operation. ICH was caused by the injection of collagenase into the left striatum. Rats were randomly assigned to no training, acrobatic training, and sham groups. The acrobatic group performed 5 types of acrobatic tasks from 4 to 28 days after surgery. The forelimb sensorimotor function was evaluated over time using forepaw grasping, forelimb placing, and postural instability tests. At 14 and 29 days after the lesion, we analyzed the mRNA expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and growth-associated protein 43 in the bilateral sensorimotor cortex (forelimb area) by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Motor skills training in ICH rats improved the sensorimotor dysfunction significantly from the early phase. The mRNA expression level of MAP2 was upregulated in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex by motor skills training at 29 days after the lesion. Our results suggest that sensorimotor functional recovery following motor skills training after ICH is promoted by dendritic growth in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows

    Zink, V; Zavadilová, L; Lassen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59 454, except for locomotion, for which 53 424 animals were recorded. The numbers of animals with records of milk production data were 43 992 for milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and fat-to-protein percentage ratio and 43 978 for fat yield...... and protein yield. In total, 27 098 somatic cell score records were available. The strongest positive genetic correlation between production traits and linear type traits was estimated between udder width and fat yield (0.51 ± 0.04), while the strongest negative correlation estimated was between body......Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits, selected linear type traits, and somatic cell score were estimated. The results could be useful for breeding programs involving Czech Holstein dairy cows or other populations. A series of bivariate analyses was applied whereby (co...

  11. The water extract of Liuwei dihuang possesses multi-protective properties on neurons and muscle tissue against deficiency of survival motor neuron protein.

    Tseng, Yu-Ting; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Liang, Wei-Fang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2017-10-15

    Deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes, induces widespread splicing defects mainly in spinal motor neurons, and leads to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Currently, there is no effective treatment for SMA. Liuwei dihuang (LWDH), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, possesses multiple therapeutic benefits against various diseases via modulation of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. Previously, we demonstrated water extract of LWDH (LWDH-WE) protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor activity in models of Parkinson's disease. This study aimed to investigate the potential protection of LWDH-WE on SMN deficiency-induced neurodegeneration and muscle weakness. The effects of LWDH-WE on SMN deficiency-induced neurotoxicity and muscle atrophy were examined by using SMN-deficient NSC34 motor neuron-like cells and SMA-like mice, respectively. Inducible SMN-knockdown NSC34 motor neuron-like cells were used to mimic SMN-deficient condition. Doxycycline (1 µg/ml) was used to induce SMN deficiency in stable NSC34 cell line carrying SMN-specific shRNA. SMAΔ7 mice were used as a severe type of SMA mouse model. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Apoptotic cells and neurite length were observed by inverted microscope. Protein expressions were examined by western blots. Muscle strength of animals was evaluated by hind-limb suspension test. LWDH-WE significantly increased SMN protein level, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell viability of SMN-deficient NSC34 cells. LWDH-WE attenuated SMN deficiency-induced down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and up-regulation of cytosolic cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3. Moreover, LWDH-WE prevented SMN deficiency-induced inhibition of neurite outgrowth and activation of Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA)/ Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK2)/ phospho

  12. A comparison of the lubrication behavior of whey protein model foods using tribology in linear and elliptical movement.

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; van de Velde, Fred

    2017-08-01

    Lubrication is an important factor in the sensory evaluation of food products. Tribology provides a theoretical framework and instrumental methods for evaluating frictional properties between two moving surfaces and the lubrication behavior of products between these surfaces. Relating frictional measurements to sensory properties detected during oral processing requires careful and pertinent choices in surface materials and testing conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate: (a) differences in lubrication behavior of a range of food textures and (b) the differences between linear and elliptical movement and added saliva to understand the contribution of food structure to friction. Six whey protein model food samples, ranging in texture from fluid to semisolid to soft solid, were analyzed using a pin on disk tribometer to determine the coefficient of friction (COF) across a range of sliding speeds. The samples were analyzed in their initial form and post-oral processing (n = 4) in both linear and elliptical movements. Elliptical movement slightly decreased coefficients of friction and extended the shape of the friction curve. Increases in test food viscosity decreased the COF but differences in viscosity were not apparent when test foods were mixed with saliva. Data correction for viscosity shifted the friction curves horizontally, indicating that lubrication had a greater impact upon friction than viscosity. This study provides initial insights for further comparison of linear and elliptical movement with a variety of sample compositions. Sensory perception of smoothness and creaminess are often major contributors to overall hedonic food liking and are a major reason why products high in fat and sugar are more highly preferred over other foods. These parameters are influenced by friction and lubrication between the tongue, palate, teeth, food products, and saliva during oral processing. Tribology provides an instrumental method to evaluate friction

  13. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  14. Energetics and efficiency of a molecular motor model

    Fogedby, Hans C; Svane, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The energetics and efficiency of a linear molecular motor model proposed by Mogilner et al are analyzed from an analytical point of view. The model, which is based on protein friction with a track, is described by coupled Langevin equations for the motion in combination with coupled master equations for the ATP hydrolysis. Here the energetics and efficiency of the motor are addressed using a many body scheme with focus on the efficiency at maximum power (EMP). It is found that the EMP is reduced from about 10% in a heuristic description of the motor to about 1 per mille when incorporating the full motor dynamics, owing to the strong dissipation associated with the motor action. (paper)

  15. Stepping Motor - Hydraulic Motor Servo Drives for an NC Milling ...

    In this paper the retrofit design of the control system of an NC milling machine with a stepping motor and stepping motor - actuated hydraulic motor servo mechanism on the machines X-axis is described. The servo designed in the course of this study was tested practically and shown to be linear - the velocity following errors ...

  16. A role for complexes of survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein with gemins and profilin in neurite-like cytoplasmic extensions of cultured nerve cells

    Sharma, Aarti; Lambrechts, Anja; Le thi Hao; Le, Thanh T.; Sewry, Caroline A.; Ampe, Christophe; Burghes, Arthur H.M.; Morris, Glenn E.

    2005-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of SMN (survival of motor neurons protein) and consequent loss of motor neurons. SMN is involved in snRNP transport and nuclear RNA splicing, but axonal transport of SMN has also been shown to occur in motor neurons. SMN also binds to the small actin-binding protein, profilin. We now show that SMN and profilin II co-localise in the cytoplasm of differentiating rat PC12 cells and in neurite-like extensions, especially at their growth cones. Many components of known SMN complexes were also found in these extensions, including gemin2 (SIP-1), gemin6, gemin7 and unrip (unr-interacting protein). Coilin p80 and Sm core protein immunoreactivity, however, were seen only in the nucleus. SMN is known to associate with β-actin mRNA and specific hnRNPs in axons and in neurite extensions of cultured nerve cells, and SMN also stimulates neurite outgrowth in cultures. Our results are therefore consistent with SMN complexes, rather than SMN alone, being involved in the transport of actin mRNPs along the axon as in the transport of snRNPs into the nucleus by similar SMN complexes. Antisense knockdown of profilin I and II isoforms inhibited neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and caused accumulation of SMN and its associated proteins in cytoplasmic aggregates. BIAcore studies demonstrated a high affinity interaction of SMN with profilin IIa, the isoform present in developing neurons. Pathogenic missense mutations in SMN, or deletion of exons 5 and 7, prevented this interaction. The interaction is functional in that SMN can modulate actin polymerisation in vitro by reducing the inhibitory effect of profilin IIa. This suggests that reduced SMN in SMA might cause axonal pathfinding defects by disturbing the normal regulation of microfilament growth by profilins

  17. The B7-1 cytoplasmic tail enhances intracellular transport and mammalian cell surface display of chimeric proteins in the absence of a linear ER export motif.

    Yi-Chieh Lin

    Full Text Available Membrane-tethered proteins (mammalian surface display are increasingly being used for novel therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Maximizing surface expression of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells is important for these applications. We show that the cytoplasmic domain from the B7-1 antigen, a commonly used element for mammalian surface display, can enhance the intracellular transport and surface display of chimeric proteins in a Sar1 and Rab1 dependent fashion. However, mutational, alanine scanning and deletion analysis demonstrate the absence of linear ER export motifs in the B7 cytoplasmic domain. Rather, efficient intracellular transport correlated with the presence of predicted secondary structure in the cytoplasmic tail. Examination of the cytoplasmic domains of 984 human and 782 mouse type I transmembrane proteins revealed that many previously identified ER export motifs are rarely found in the cytoplasmic tail of type I transmembrane proteins. Our results suggest that efficient intracellular transport of B7 chimeric proteins is associated with the structure rather than to the presence of a linear ER export motif in the cytoplasmic tail, and indicate that short (less than ~ 10-20 amino acids and unstructured cytoplasmic tails should be avoided to express high levels of chimeric proteins on mammalian cells.

  18. CSSI-PRO: a method for secondary structure type editing, assignment and estimation in proteins using linear combination of backbone chemical shifts

    Swain, Monalisa; Atreya, Hanudatta S.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of secondary structure in polypeptides is important for studying their structure, folding and dynamics. In NMR spectroscopy, such information is generally obtained after sequence specific resonance assignments are completed. We present here a new methodology for assignment of secondary structure type to spin systems in proteins directly from NMR spectra, without prior knowledge of resonance assignments. The methodology, named Combination of Shifts for Secondary Structure Identification in Proteins (CSSI-PRO), involves detection of specific linear combination of backbone 1 H α and 13 C' chemical shifts in a two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiment based on G-matrix Fourier transform (GFT) NMR spectroscopy. Such linear combinations of shifts facilitate editing of residues belonging to α-helical/β-strand regions into distinct spectral regions nearly independent of the amino acid type, thereby allowing the estimation of overall secondary structure content of the protein. Comparison of the predicted secondary structure content with those estimated based on their respective 3D structures and/or the method of Chemical Shift Index for 237 proteins gives a correlation of more than 90% and an overall rmsd of 7.0%, which is comparable to other biophysical techniques used for structural characterization of proteins. Taken together, this methodology has a wide range of applications in NMR spectroscopy such as rapid protein structure determination, monitoring conformational changes in protein-folding/ligand-binding studies and automated resonance assignment

  19. Artificial molecular motors

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  20. Wheel running from a juvenile age delays onset of specific motor deficits but does not alter protein aggregate density in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Spires Tara L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly affecting the cerebral cortex and striatum. Transgenic mice (R6/1 line, expressing a CAG repeat encoding an expanded polyglutamine tract in the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, closely model HD. We have previously shown that environmental enrichment of these HD mice delays the onset of motor deficits. Furthermore, wheel running initiated in adulthood ameliorates the rear-paw clasping motor sign, but not an accelerating rotarod deficit. Results We have now examined the effects of enhanced physical activity via wheel running, commenced at a juvenile age (4 weeks, with respect to the onset of various behavioral deficits and their neuropathological correlates in R6/1 HD mice. HD mice housed post-weaning with running wheels only, to enhance voluntary physical exercise, have delayed onset of a motor co-ordination deficit on the static horizontal rod, as well as rear-paw clasping, although the accelerating rotarod deficit remains unaffected. Both wheel running and environmental enrichment rescued HD-induced abnormal habituation of locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in the open field. We have found that neither environment enrichment nor wheel running ameliorates the shrinkage of the striatum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in HD mice, nor the overall decrease in brain weight, measured at 9 months of age. At this age, the density of ubiquitinated protein aggregates in the striatum and ACC is also not significantly ameliorated by environmental enrichment or wheel running. Conclusion These results indicate that enhanced voluntary physical activity, commenced at an early presymptomatic stage, contributes to the positive effects of environmental enrichment. However, sensory and cognitive stimulation, as well as motor stimulation not associated with running, may constitute major components of the therapeutic benefits associated with enrichment

  1. Multiplex protein pattern unmixing using a non-linear variable-weighted support vector machine as optimized by a particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Yang, Qin; Zou, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Li-Juan; Shen, Guo-Li; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2016-01-15

    Most of the proteins locate more than one organelle in a cell. Unmixing the localization patterns of proteins is critical for understanding the protein functions and other vital cellular processes. Herein, non-linear machine learning technique is proposed for the first time upon protein pattern unmixing. Variable-weighted support vector machine (VW-SVM) is a demonstrated robust modeling technique with flexible and rational variable selection. As optimized by a global stochastic optimization technique, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, it makes VW-SVM to be an adaptive parameter-free method for automated unmixing of protein subcellular patterns. Results obtained by pattern unmixing of a set of fluorescence microscope images of cells indicate VW-SVM as optimized by PSO is able to extract useful pattern features by optimally rescaling each variable for non-linear SVM modeling, consequently leading to improved performances in multiplex protein pattern unmixing compared with conventional SVM and other exiting pattern unmixing methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Linear pneumatic actuator

    Avram Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber, two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation accomplished.

  3. Linear pneumatic actuator

    Avram Mihai; Niţu Constantin; Bucşan Constantin; Grămescu Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a linear pneumatic actuator with short working stroke. It consists of a pneumatic motor (a simple stroke cylinder or a membrane chamber), two 2/2 pneumatic distributors “all or nothing” electrically commanded for controlling the intake/outtake flow to/from the active chamber of the motor, a position transducer and a microcontroller. There is also presented the theoretical analysis (mathematical modelling and numerical simulation) accomplished.

  4. Full-order Luenberger observer based on fuzzy-logic control for sensorless field-oriented control of a single-sided linear induction motor.

    Holakooie, Mohammad Hosein; Ojaghi, Mansour; Taheri, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates sensorless indirect field oriented control (IFOC) of SLIM with full-order Luenberger observer. The dynamic equations of SLIM are first elaborated to draw full-order Luenberger observer with some simplifying assumption. The observer gain matrix is derived from conventional procedure so that observer poles are proportional to SLIM poles to ensure the stability of system for wide range of linear speed. The operation of observer is significantly impressed by adaptive scheme. A fuzzy logic control (FLC) is proposed as adaptive scheme to estimate linear speed using speed tuning signal. The parameters of FLC are tuned using an off-line method through chaotic optimization algorithm (COA). The performance of the proposed observer is verified by both numerical simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) implementation. Moreover, a detailed comparative study among proposed and other speed observers is obtained under different operation conditions. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Motor Neurons

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  6. Screening and identification of T helper 1 and linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes in spike 1 domain and membrane protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    Takano, Tomomi; Morioka, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Kohji; Tomizawa, Keisuke; Doki, Tomoyoshi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIP virus: FIPV) causes a fatal disease in wild and domestic cats. The development of an FIP-preventive vaccine requires an antigen that does not induce antibody-dependent enhancement, and T helper (Th)1 activity plays an important role in protect against FIPV infection. In the present study, we identified synthetic peptides including Th1 and a linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope in the S1 domain and M protein of FIPV. We also identified peptides that strongly induce Th1 activity from those derived from the structural proteins (S, M, and N proteins) of FIPV based on this and previous studies (Satoh et al. [19]). No Th1 epitope-containing peptide was identified in the peptides derived from the S1 domain of type I FIPV. In contrast, 7 Th1 epitope-containing peptides were identified in the S1 domain of type II FIPV, and no linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope was contained in any of these peptides. Eleven Th1 epitope-containing peptides common to each serotype were identified in the M protein-derived peptides, and 2 peptides (M-11 and M-12) contained the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope. Of the peptides derived from the S, M, and N proteins of FIPV, those that induced significantly stronger Th1 activity than that of the FIPV antigen were rescreened, and 4 peptides were identified. When 3 of these peptides (M-9, I-S2-15, and II-S1-24) were selected and administered with CpG-ODNs to SPF cats, M-9 and II-S1-24 induced Th1 activity. Our results may provide important information for the development of a peptide-based vaccine against FIPV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics and control strategies: On a energy harvester vibrating system with a linear form to non-ideal motor torquet

    de Pontes B. R.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the research of a vibrating model of an energy harvester device, including the nonlinearities in the model of the piezoelectric coupling and the non-ideal excitation. We show, using numerical simulations, in the analysis of the dynamic responses, that the harvested power is influenced by non-linear vibrations of the structure. Chaotic behavior was also observed, causing of the loss of energy throughout the simulation time. Using a perturbation technique, we find an approximate analytical solution for the non-ideal system. Then, we apply both two control techniques, to keep the considered system, into a stable condition. Both the State Dependent Ricatti Equation (SDRE control as the feedback control by changing the energy of the oscillator, were efficient in controlling of the considered non-ideal system.

  8. Morphology and Structural Properties of Novel Short Linear Glucan/Protein Hybrid Nanoparticles and Their Influence on the Rheological Properties of Starch Gel.

    Li, Xiaojing; Ji, Na; Li, Man; Zhang, Shuangling; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2017-09-13

    Starch nanoparticles were potential texture modifiers. However, they have strong tendency to aggregate and poor water dispersibility, which limited their application. The interaction between glucan (prepared from starch by enzymatic modification) and protein could significantly improve the dispersity of starch nanoparticles and, thus, enhance the rheological properties of food gels. In this work, glucan/protein hybrid nanoparticles were successfully developed for the first time using short linear glucan (SLG) and edible proteins [soy protein isolate (SPI), rice protein (RP), and whey protein isolate (WPI)]. The results showed that the SLG/SPI hybrid nanoparticles exhibited hollow structures, of which the smallest size was approximately 10-20 nm when the SLG/SPI ratio was 10:5. In contrast, SLG/RP nanoparticles displayed flower-like superstructures, and SLG/WPI nanoparticles presented stacked lamellar nanostructures with a width of 5-10 nm and a length of 50-70 nm. In comparison to bare SLG nanoparticles, SLG/SPI and SLG/WPI hybrid nanoparticles had higher melting temperatures. The addition of all nanoparticles greatly increased the storage modulus of corn starch gels and decreased loss tangent values. Importantly, the G' value of starch gels increased by 567% with the addition of flower-like SLG/RP superstructures.

  9. Improving serodiagnosis of human and canine leishmaniasis with recombinant Leishmania braziliensis cathepsin l-like protein and a synthetic peptide containing its linear B-cell epitope.

    Daniel Menezes-Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early and correct diagnosis of human leishmaniasis is essential for disease treatment. Another important step in the control of visceral leishmaniasis is the identification of infected dogs, which are the main domestic reservoir of L. infantum. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides based on Leishmania genes have emerged as valuable targets for serodiagnosis due to their increased sensitivity, specificity and potential for standardization. Cathepsin L-like genes are surface antigens that are secreted by amastigotes and have little similarity to host proteins, factors that enable this protein as a good target for serodiagnosis of the leishmaniasis.We mapped a linear B-cell epitope within the Cathepsin L-like protein from L. braziliensis. A synthetic peptide containing the epitope and the recombinant protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of human tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis, as well as canine visceral leishmaniasis.The recombinant protein performed best for human tegumentary and canine visceral leishmaniasis, with 96.30% and 89.33% accuracy, respectively. The synthetic peptide was the best to discriminate human visceral leishmaniasis, with 97.14% specificity, 94.55% sensitivity and 96.00% accuracy. Comparison with T. cruzi-infected humans and dogs suggests that the identified epitope is specific to Leishmania parasites, which minimizes the likelihood of cross-reactions.

  10. PW-6ES gas turbine generator for Maglev linear motor car. Yamanashi rinia jikkensen daiichi hensei sharyo tosaiyo PW-6ES gas tabin hatsuden sochi

    Yamamoto, T [JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, S [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-06-10

    A power generator is developed to be used as the auxiliary power source for the first carriage at the levitation type railway Yamanashi linear experimental line. The gas turbine generator is installed to supply power to the electric equipment on the carriage, and the power generating conditions are transmitted to the ground commanding room via on-board central control system for centralized controlling. An aircraft diversion type ST6 gas turbine and a high frequency light weight generator are combined for the gas turbine generator developed this time. Single reduction planetary gear is employed for the reduction gear which connects the two units directly, the gas turbine being connected to one side and the generator to the other side with no coupling. The output of the generator is 350kW, AC 455V, and 400Hz, and power is supplied to the electric devices on the carriage after having been converted to DC 600V. Aluminium is used to reduce the weights of the soundproof enclosure and exhaust dust shell plate. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Common spatial pattern combined with kernel linear discriminate and generalized radial basis function for motor imagery-based brain computer interface applications

    Hekmatmanesh, Amin; Jamaloo, Fatemeh; Wu, Huapeng; Handroos, Heikki; Kilpeläinen, Asko

    2018-04-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) can be a challenge for developing of robotic, prosthesis and human-controlled systems. This work focuses on the implementation of a common spatial pattern (CSP) base algorithm to detect event related desynchronization patterns. Utilizing famous previous work in this area, features are extracted by filter bank with common spatial pattern (FBCSP) method, and then weighted by a sensitive learning vector quantization (SLVQ) algorithm. In the current work, application of the radial basis function (RBF) as a mapping kernel of linear discriminant analysis (KLDA) method on the weighted features, allows the transfer of data into a higher dimension for more discriminated data scattering by RBF kernel. Afterwards, support vector machine (SVM) with generalized radial basis function (GRBF) kernel is employed to improve the efficiency and robustness of the classification. Averagely, 89.60% accuracy and 74.19% robustness are achieved. BCI Competition III, Iva data set is used to evaluate the algorithm for detecting right hand and foot imagery movement patterns. Results show that combination of KLDA with SVM-GRBF classifier makes 8.9% and 14.19% improvements in accuracy and robustness, respectively. For all the subjects, it is concluded that mapping the CSP features into a higher dimension by RBF and utilization GRBF as a kernel of SVM, improve the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method.

  12. [A delayed motor production of open chains of linear strokes presented visually in static and dynamic modes: a comparison between 9 to 11 years old children and adults].

    Antonova, A A; Absatova, K A; Korneev, A A; Kurgansky, A V

    2015-01-01

    The production of drawing movements was studied in 29 right-handed children of 9-to-11 years old. The movements were the sequences of horizontal and vertical linear stokes conjoined at right angle (open polygonal chains) referred to throughout the paper as trajectories. The length of a trajectory varied from 4 to 6. The trajectories were presented visually to a subject in static (linedrawing) and dynamic (moving cursor that leaves no trace) modes. The subjects were asked to draw (copy) a trajectory in response to delayed go-signal (short click) as fast as possible without lifting the pen. The production latency time, the average movement duration along a trajectory segment, and overall number of errors committed by a subject during trajectory production were analyzed. A comparison of children's data with similar data in adults (16 subjects) shows the following. First, a substantial reduction in error rate is observed in the age range between 9 and 11 years old for both static and dynamic modes of trajectory presentation, with children of 11 still committing more error than adults. Second, the averaged movement duration shortens with age while the latency time tends to increase. Third, unlike the adults, the children of 9-11 do not show any difference in latency time between static and dynamic modes of visual presentation of trajectories. The difference in trajectory production between adult and children is attributed to the predominant involvement of on-line programming in children and pre-programming in adults.

  13. Influence of food matrix on absorption of flavour compounds by linear low-density polyethylene: proteins and carbohydrates

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of oil and food components in real food products on the absorption of four flavour compounds (limonene, decanal, linalool and ethyl 2-methyl butyrate) into linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was studied using a large volume injection GC in vial extraction method. Model food

  14. Fast and accurate non-sequential protein structure alignment using a new asymmetric linear sum assignment heuristic.

    Brown, Peter; Pullan, Wayne; Yang, Yuedong; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2016-02-01

    The three dimensional tertiary structure of a protein at near atomic level resolution provides insight alluding to its function and evolution. As protein structure decides its functionality, similarity in structure usually implies similarity in function. As such, structure alignment techniques are often useful in the classifications of protein function. Given the rapidly growing rate of new, experimentally determined structures being made available from repositories such as the Protein Data Bank, fast and accurate computational structure comparison tools are required. This paper presents SPalignNS, a non-sequential protein structure alignment tool using a novel asymmetrical greedy search technique. The performance of SPalignNS was evaluated against existing sequential and non-sequential structure alignment methods by performing trials with commonly used datasets. These benchmark datasets used to gauge alignment accuracy include (i) 9538 pairwise alignments implied by the HOMSTRAD database of homologous proteins; (ii) a subset of 64 difficult alignments from set (i) that have low structure similarity; (iii) 199 pairwise alignments of proteins with similar structure but different topology; and (iv) a subset of 20 pairwise alignments from the RIPC set. SPalignNS is shown to achieve greater alignment accuracy (lower or comparable root-mean squared distance with increased structure overlap coverage) for all datasets, and the highest agreement with reference alignments from the challenging dataset (iv) above, when compared with both sequentially constrained alignments and other non-sequential alignments. SPalignNS was implemented in C++. The source code, binary executable, and a web server version is freely available at: http://sparks-lab.org yaoqi.zhou@griffith.edu.au. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Accuracy assessment of the linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation and reparametrization of the OBC generalized Born model for nucleic acids and nucleic acid-protein complexes.

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2015-04-05

    The generalized Born model in the Onufriev, Bashford, and Case (Onufriev et al., Proteins: Struct Funct Genet 2004, 55, 383) implementation has emerged as one of the best compromises between accuracy and speed of computation. For simulations of nucleic acids, however, a number of issues should be addressed: (1) the generalized Born model is based on a linear model and the linearization of the reference Poisson-Boltmann equation may be questioned for highly charged systems as nucleic acids; (2) although much attention has been given to potentials, solvation forces could be much less sensitive to linearization than the potentials; and (3) the accuracy of the Onufriev-Bashford-Case (OBC) model for nucleic acids depends on fine tuning of parameters. Here, we show that the linearization of the Poisson Boltzmann equation has mild effects on computed forces, and that with optimal choice of the OBC model parameters, solvation forces, essential for molecular dynamics simulations, agree well with those computed using the reference Poisson-Boltzmann model. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Preconception Micronutrient Supplementation with Iron and Folic Acid Compared with Folic Acid Alone Affects Linear Growth and Fine Motor Development at 2 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Vietnam.

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa F; Truong, Truong Viet; Hoang, Hue; Nguyen, Huong; Nguyen, Son; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2017-08-01

    Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects. Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone. Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam. Women received weekly supplements that contained either 2800 μg FA, 60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA, or 15 MMs including IFA, from baseline until conception followed by daily prenatal IFA supplements until delivery. Child anthropometry was measured at birth and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. Child development was measured with the use of the Bayley Scales for Infant Development III at 24 mo. Results: The groups were similar for baseline maternal and offspring birth characteristics. At 24 mo of age, the offspring in the IFA group had significantly higher length-for-age z scores (LAZs) (0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.26), reduced risk of being stunted (0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), and smaller yearly decline in LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.15) than the offspring in the FA group. Similar trends were found for the offspring in the MM group compared with the FA group for LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.22) and the risk of being stunted (0.88; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.01). Offspring in the IFA group had improved motor development ( P = 0.03), especially fine motor development (0.41; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.77), at the age of 24 mo, but there were no differences for measures of cognition or language. Conclusions: Preconception supplementation with IFA improved linear growth and fine motor development at 2 y of age compared with FA. Future studies should examine whether these effects persist and improve child health and

  17. Low levels of Survival Motor Neuron protein are sufficient for normal muscle function in the SMNΔ7 mouse model of SMA.

    Iyer, Chitra C; McGovern, Vicki L; Murray, Jason D; Gombash, Sara E; Zaworski, Phillip G; Foust, Kevin D; Janssen, Paul M L; Burghes, Arthur H M

    2015-11-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by loss of lower motor neurons. SMA is caused by deletion or mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene and retention of the SMN2 gene. The loss of SMN1 results in reduced levels of the SMN protein. SMN levels appear to be particularly important in motor neurons; however SMN levels above that produced by two copies of SMN2 have been suggested to be important in muscle. Studying the spatial requirement of SMN is important in both understanding how SMN deficiency causes SMA and in the development of effective therapies. Using Myf5-Cre, a muscle-specific Cre driver, and the Cre-loxP recombination system, we deleted mouse Smn in the muscle of mice with SMN2 and SMNΔ7 transgenes in the background, thus providing low level of SMN in the muscle. As a reciprocal experiment, we restored normal levels of SMN in the muscle with low SMN levels in all other tissues. We observed that decreasing SMN in the muscle has no phenotypic effect. This was corroborated by muscle physiology studies with twitch force, tetanic and eccentric contraction all being normal. In addition, electrocardiogram and muscle fiber size distribution were also normal. Replacement of Smn in muscle did not rescue SMA mice. Thus the muscle does not appear to require high levels of SMN above what is produced by two copies of SMN2 (and SMNΔ7). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Split photosystem protein, linear-mapping topology, and growth of structural complexity in the plastid genome of chromera velia

    Janouškovec, Jan; Sobotka, Roman; Lai, Dehua; Flegontov, Pavel N.; Koní k, Peter; Komenda, Josef; Ali, Shahjahan; Prá šil, Ondřej; Pain, Arnab; Oborní k, Miroslav; Lukeš, Juliuš; Keeling, Patrick  J J.

    2013-01-01

    of the photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Chromera velia, departs from this view in several unique ways. Core photosynthesis proteins PsaA and AtpB have been broken into two fragments, which we show are independently transcribed, oligoU-tailed, translated

  19. Optimization of elution salt concentration in stepwise elution of protein chromatography using linear gradient elution data. Reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in monoclonal antibody purification.

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Endo, Naomi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2006-05-05

    Our simple method for optimization of the elution salt concentration in stepwise elution was applied to the actual protein separation system, which involves several difficulties such as detection of the target. As a model separation system, reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in human monoclonal antibody (hMab) purification was chosen. We carried out linear gradient elution experiments and obtained the data for the peak salt concentration of hMab and residual protein A, respectively. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to the measurement of the residual protein A. From these data, we calculated the distribution coefficient of the hMab and the residual protein A as a function of salt concentration. The optimal salt concentration of stepwise elution to reduce the residual protein A from the hMab was determined based on the relationship between the distribution coefficient and the salt concentration. Using the optimized condition, we successfully performed the separation, resulting in high recovery of hMab and the elimination of residual protein A.

  20. Control of non-conventional synchronous motors

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Classical synchronous motors are the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. However, numerous applications require efficient controls in non-conventional situations. Firstly, this is the case with synchronous motors supplied by thyristor line-commutated inverters, or with synchronous motors with faults on one or several phases. Secondly, many drive systems use non-conventional motors such as polyphase (more than three phases) synchronous motors, synchronous motors with double excitation, permanent magnet linear synchronous motors,

  1. Data on amyloid precursor protein accumulation, spontaneous physical activity, and motor learning after traumatic brain injury in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease

    Yasushi Kishimoto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains supporting information regarding the research article entitled “Traumatic brain injury accelerates amyloid-β deposition and impairs spatial learning in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer׳s disease” (H. Shishido, Y. Kishimoto, N. Kawai, Y. Toyota, M. Ueno, T. Kubota, Y. Kirino, T. Tamiya, 2016 [1]. Triple-transgenic (3×Tg-Alzheimer׳s disease (AD model mice exhibited significantly poorer spatial learning than sham-treated 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Correspondingly, amyloid-β (Aβ deposition within the hippocampus was significantly greater in 3×Tg-AD mice 28 days after TBI. However, data regarding the short-term and long-term influences of TBI on amyloid precursor protein (APP accumulation in AD model mice remain limited. Furthermore, there is little data showing whether physical activity and motor learning are affected by TBI in AD model mice. Here, we provide immunocytochemistry data confirming that TBI induces significant increases in APP accumulation in 3×Tg-AD mice at both 7 days and 28 days after TBI. Furthermore, 3×Tg-AD model mice exhibit a reduced ability to acquire conditioned responses (CRs during delay eyeblink conditioning compared to sham-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice 28 days after TBI. However, physical activity and motor performance are not significantly changed in TBI-treated 3×Tg-AD model mice.

  2. Fragile X mental retardation protein recognizes a G quadruplex structure within the survival motor neuron domain containing 1 mRNA 5'-UTR.

    McAninch, Damian S; Heinaman, Ashley M; Lang, Cara N; Moss, Kathryn R; Bassell, Gary J; Rita Mihailescu, Mihaela; Evans, Timothy L

    2017-07-25

    G quadruplex structures have been predicted by bioinformatics to form in the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of several thousand mature mRNAs and are believed to play a role in translation regulation. Elucidation of these roles has primarily been focused on the 3'-UTR, with limited focus on characterizing the G quadruplex structures and functions in the 5'-UTR. Investigation of the affinity and specificity of RNA binding proteins for 5'-UTR G quadruplexes and the resulting regulatory effects have also been limited. Among the mRNAs predicted to form a G quadruplex structure within the 5'-UTR is the survival motor neuron domain containing 1 (SMNDC1) mRNA, encoding a protein that is critical to the spliceosome. Additionally, this mRNA has been identified as a potential target of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), whose loss of expression leads to fragile X syndrome. FMRP is an RNA binding protein involved in translation regulation that has been shown to bind mRNA targets that form G quadruplex structures. In this study we have used biophysical methods to investigate G quadruplex formation in the 5'-UTR of SMNDC1 mRNA and analyzed its interactions with FMRP. Our results show that SMNDC1 mRNA 5'-UTR forms an intramolecular, parallel G quadruplex structure comprised of three G quartet planes, which is bound specifically by FMRP both in vitro and in mouse brain lysates. These findings suggest a model by which FMRP might regulate the translation of a subset of its mRNA targets by recognizing the G quadruplex structure present in their 5'-UTR, and affecting their accessibility by the protein synthesis machinery.

  3. Immunisation With Immunodominant Linear B Cell Epitopes Vaccine of Manganese Transport Protein C Confers Protection against Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Wei, Chao; Yang, Liu-Yang; Zuo, Qian-Fei; Zhuang, Yuan; Feng, You-Jun; Srinivas, Swaminath; Zeng, Hao; Zou, Quan-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination strategies for Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections have attracted much research attention. Recent efforts have been made to select manganese transport protein C, or manganese binding surface lipoprotein C (MntC), which is a metal ion associated with pathogen nutrition uptake, as potential candidates for an S. aureus vaccine. Although protective humoral immune responses to MntC are well-characterised, much less is known about detail...

  4. Simultaneous quantification of protein phosphorylation sites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics: a linear algebra approach for isobaric phosphopeptides.

    Xu, Feifei; Yang, Ting; Sheng, Yuan; Zhong, Ting; Yang, Mi; Chen, Yun

    2014-12-05

    As one of the most studied post-translational modifications (PTM), protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in almost all cellular processes. Current methods are able to predict and determine thousands of phosphorylation sites, whereas stoichiometric quantification of these sites is still challenging. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted proteomics is emerging as a promising technique for site-specific quantification of protein phosphorylation using proteolytic peptides as surrogates of proteins. However, several issues may limit its application, one of which relates to the phosphopeptides with different phosphorylation sites and the same mass (i.e., isobaric phosphopeptides). While employment of site-specific product ions allows for these isobaric phosphopeptides to be distinguished and quantified, site-specific product ions are often absent or weak in tandem mass spectra. In this study, linear algebra algorithms were employed as an add-on to targeted proteomics to retrieve information on individual phosphopeptides from their common spectra. To achieve this simultaneous quantification, a LC-MS/MS-based targeted proteomics assay was first developed and validated for each phosphopeptide. Given the slope and intercept of calibration curves of phosphopeptides in each transition, linear algebraic equations were developed. Using a series of mock mixtures prepared with varying concentrations of each phosphopeptide, the reliability of the approach to quantify isobaric phosphopeptides containing multiple phosphorylation sites (≥ 2) was discussed. Finally, we applied this approach to determine the phosphorylation stoichiometry of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) at Ser78 and Ser82 in breast cancer cells and tissue samples.

  5. Biologically relevant conformational features of linear and cyclic proteolipid protein (PLP) peptide analogues obtained by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics

    Kordopati, Golfo G.; Tzoupis, Haralambos; Troganis, Anastassios N.; Tsivgoulis, Gerasimos M.; Golic Grdadolnik, Simona; Simal, Carmen; Tselios, Theodore V.

    2017-09-01

    Proteolipid protein (PLP) is one of the main proteins of myelin sheath that are destroyed during the progress of multiple sclerosis (MS). The immunodominant PLP139-151 epitope is known to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, animal model of MS), wherein residues 144 and 147 are recognized by T cell receptor (TCR) during the formation of trimolecular complex with peptide-antigen and major histocompability complex. The conformational behavior of linear and cyclic peptide analogues of PLP, namely PLP139-151 and cyclic (139-151) (L144, R147) PLP139-151, have been studied in solution by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods in combination with unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that the side chains of mutated amino acids in the cyclic analogue have different spatial orientation compared with the corresponding side chains of the linear analogue, which can lead to reduced affinity to TCR. NMR experiments combined with theoretical calculations pave the way for the design and synthesis of potent restricted peptides of immunodominant PLP139-151 epitope as well as non peptide mimetics that rises as an ultimate goal.

  6. A Linear Electromagnetic Piston Pump

    Hogan, Paul H.

    Advancements in mobile hydraulics for human-scale applications have increased demand for a compact hydraulic power supply. Conventional designs couple a rotating electric motor to a hydraulic pump, which increases the package volume and requires several energy conversions. This thesis investigates the use of a free piston as the moving element in a linear motor to eliminate multiple energy conversions and decrease the overall package volume. A coupled model used a quasi-static magnetic equivalent circuit to calculate the motor inductance and the electromagnetic force acting on the piston. The force was an input to a time domain model to evaluate the mechanical and pressure dynamics. The magnetic circuit model was validated with finite element analysis and an experimental prototype linear motor. The coupled model was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm to explore the parameter space and maximize power density and efficiency. An experimental prototype linear pump coupled pistons to an off-the-shelf linear motor to validate the mechanical and pressure dynamics models. The magnetic circuit force calculation agreed within 3% of finite element analysis, and within 8% of experimental data from the unoptimized prototype linear motor. The optimized motor geometry also had good agreement with FEA; at zero piston displacement, the magnetic circuit calculates optimized motor force within 10% of FEA in less than 1/1000 the computational time. This makes it well suited to genetic optimization algorithms. The mechanical model agrees very well with the experimental piston pump position data when tuned for additional unmodeled mechanical friction. Optimized results suggest that an improvement of 400% of the state of the art power density is attainable with as high as 85% net efficiency. This demonstrates that a linear electromagnetic piston pump has potential to serve as a more compact and efficient supply of fluid power for the human scale.

  7. Screening and identification of T helper 1 and linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes in the spike 2 domain and the nucleocapsid protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus.

    Satoh, Ryoichi; Furukawa, Tomoko; Kotake, Masako; Takano, Tomomi; Motokawa, Kenji; Gemma, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Rie; Arai, Setsuo; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-02-17

    The antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) infection has been recognized in experimentally infected cats, and cellular immunity is considered to play an important role in preventing the onset of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). In the present study, we synthesized eighty-one kinds of peptides derived from the spike (S)2 domain of type I FIPV KU-2 strain, the S2 domain of type II FIPV 79-1146 strain, and the nucleocapcid (N) protein of FIPV KU-2 strain. To detect the T helper (Th)1 epitope, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from FIPV-infected cats were cultured with each peptide, and Th1-type immune responses were measured using feline interferon (fIFN)-γ production as an index. To detect the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitope, we investigated the reactivity of plasma collected from FIPV-infected cats against each peptide by ELISA. Four and 2 peptides containing Th1 epitopes were identified in the heptad repeat (HR)1 and inter-helical (IH) regions of the S2 domain of type I FIPV, respectively, and these were located on the N-terminal side of the regions. In the S2 domain of type II FIPV, 2, 3, and 2 peptides containing Th1 epitopes were identified in the HR1, IH, and HR2 regions, respectively, and these were mainly located on the C-terminal side of the regions. In the S2 domain of type I FIPV, 3 and 7 peptides containing linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes were identified in the IH and HR2 regions, respectively. In the S2 domain of type II FIPV, 4 peptides containing linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes were identified in the HR2 region. The Th1 epitopes in the S2 domain of type I and II FIPV were located in different regions, but the linear immunodominant antibody-binding epitopes were mostly located in the HR2 region. Eight peptides containing Th1 epitopes were identified in N protein, and 3 peptides derived from residues 81 to 100 and 137 to 164 showed strong

  8. Correlations and symmetry of interactions influence collective dynamics of molecular motors

    Celis-Garza, Daniel; Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic molecules that actively support many cellular processes, including transport, cell division and cell motility, are known as motor proteins or molecular motors. Experimental studies indicate that they interact with each other and they frequently work together in large groups. To understand the mechanisms of collective behavior of motor proteins we study the effect of interactions in the transport of molecular motors along linear filaments. It is done by analyzing a recently introduced class of totally asymmetric exclusion processes that takes into account the intermolecular interactions via thermodynamically consistent approach. We develop a new theoretical method that allows us to compute analytically all dynamic properties of the system. Our analysis shows that correlations play important role in dynamics of interacting molecular motors. Surprisingly, we find that the correlations for repulsive interactions are weaker and more short-range than the correlations for the attractive interactions. In addition, it is shown that symmetry of interactions affect dynamic properties of molecular motors. The implications of these findings for motor proteins transport are discussed. Our theoretical predictions are tested by extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations. (paper)

  9. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes motor function recovery and downregulates phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase expression in ischemic brain tissue of rats

    Bei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor function impairment is a common outcome of stroke. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT involving intensive use of the impaired limb while restraining the unaffected limb is widely used to overcome the effects of ′learned non-use′ and improve limb function after stroke. However, the underlying mechanism of CIMT remains unclear. In the present study, rats were randomly divided into a middle cerebral artery occlusion (model group, a CIMT + model (CIMT group, or a sham group. Restriction of the affected limb by plaster cast was performed in the CIMT and sham groups. Compared with the model group, CIMT significantly improved the forelimb functional performance in rats. By western blot assay, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi of cerebral ischemic rats in the CIMT group was significantly lower than that in the model group, and was similar to sham group levels. These data suggest that functional recovery after CIMT may be related to decreased expression of phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase in the bilateral cortex and hippocampi.

  10. Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Linear Epitope: Illustration by Three Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Proteins of Genetically Modified Cotton, Maize, and Tobacco.

    Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Ning, Xiangxue; Wang, Baomin; Liu, Yunjun; Li, Qing X

    2017-11-22

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac, Cry1Ia1, and Cry1Ie are δ-endotoxin insecticidal proteins widely implemented in genetically modified organisms (GMO), such as cotton, maize, and potato. Western blot assay integrates electrophoresis separation power and antibody high specificity for monitoring specific exogenous proteins expressed in GMO. Procedures for evoking monoclonal antibody (mAb) for Western blot were poorly documented. In the present study, Cry1Ac partially denatured at 100 °C for 5 min was used as an immunogen to develop mAbs selectively recognizing a linear epitope of Cry1Ac for Western blot. mAb 5E9C6 and 3E6E2 selected with sandwich ELISA strongly recognized the heat semidenatured Cry1Ac. Particularly, 3E6E2 recognized both E. coli and cotton seed expressed Cry1Ac in Western blot. Such strategy of using partially denatured proteins as immunogens and using sandwich ELISA for mAb screening was also successfully demonstrated with production of mAbs against Cry1Ie for Western blot assay in maize.

  11. Linear step drive

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  12. SLiMScape 3.x: a Cytoscape 3 app for discovery of Short Linear Motifs in protein interaction networks [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Emily Olorin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Short linear motifs (SLiMs are small protein sequence patterns that mediate a large number of critical protein-protein interactions, involved in processes such as complex formation, signal transduction, localisation and stabilisation. SLiMs show rapid evolutionary dynamics and are frequently the targets of molecular mimicry by pathogens. Identifying enriched sequence patterns due to convergent evolution in non-homologous proteins has proven to be a successful strategy for computational SLiM prediction. Tools of the SLiMSuite package use this strategy, using a statistical model to identify SLiM enrichment based on the evolutionary relationships, amino acid composition and predicted disorder of the input proteins. The quality of input data is critical for successful SLiM prediction. Cytoscape provides a user-friendly, interactive environment to explore interaction networks and select proteins based on common features, such as shared interaction partners. SLiMScape embeds tools of the SLiMSuite package for de novo SLiM discovery (SLiMFinder and QSLiMFinder and identifying occurrences/enrichment of known SLiMs (SLiMProb within this interactive framework. SLiMScape makes it easier to (1 generate high quality hypothesis-driven datasets for these tools, and (2 visualise predicted SLiM occurrences within the context of the network. To generate new predictions, users can select nodes from a protein network or provide a set of Uniprot identifiers. SLiMProb also requires additional query motif input. Jobs are then run remotely on the SLiMSuite server (http://rest.slimsuite.unsw.edu.au for subsequent retrieval and visualisation. SLiMScape can also be used to retrieve and visualise results from jobs run directly on the server. SLiMScape and SLiMSuite are open source and freely available via GitHub under GNU licenses.

  13. Identification of a novel linear B-cell epitope in the UL26 and UL26.5 proteins of Duck Enteritis Virus

    Kong Xiangang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Unique Long 26 (UL26 and UL26.5 proteins of herpes simplex virus are known to function during the assembly of the viruses. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV, which is an unassigned member of the family Herpesviridae, little information is available about the function of the two proteins. In this study, the C-terminus of DEV UL26 protein (designated UL26c, which contains the whole of UL26.5, was expressed, and the recombinant UL26c protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAb. The mAb 1C8 was generated against DEV UL26 and UL26.5 proteins and used subsequently to map the epitope in this region. Both the mAb and its defined epitope will provide potential tools for further study of DEV. Results A mAb (designated 1C8 was generated against the DEV UL26c protein, and a series of 17 partially overlapping fragments that spanned the DEV UL26c were expressed with GST tags. These peptides were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and western blotting analysis using mAb 1C8 to identify the epitope. A linear motif, 520IYYPGE525, which was located at the C-terminus of the DEV UL26 and UL26.5 proteins, was identified by mAb 1C8. The result of the ELISA showed that this epitope could be recognized by DEV-positive serum from mice. The 520IYYPGE525 motif was the minimal requirement for reactivity, as demonstrated by analysis of the reactivity of 1C8 with several truncated peptides derived from the motif. Alignment and comparison of the 1C8-defined epitope sequence with those of other alphaherpesviruses indicated that the motif 521YYPGE525 in the epitope sequence was conserved among the alphaherpesviruses. Conclusion A mAb, 1C8, was generated against DEV UL26c and the epitope-defined minimal sequence obtained using mAb 1C8 was 520IYYPGE525. The mAb and the identified epitope may be useful for further study of the design of diagnostic reagents for DEV.

  14. Pedigree with frontotemporal lobar degeneration – motor neuron disease and Tar DNA binding protein-43 positive neuropathology: genetic linkage to chromosome 9

    Loy Clement T

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD represents a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogenous neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by neurological signs such as motor neuron-related limb weakness, spasticity and paralysis, parkinsonism and gait disturbances. Linkage to chromosome 9p had been reported for pedigrees with the neurodegenerative disorder, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD and motor neuron disease (MND. The objective in this study is to identify the genetic locus in a multi-generational Australian family with FTLD-MND. Methods Clinical review and standard neuropathological analysis of brain sections from affected pedigree members. Genome-wide scan using microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphism fine mapping. Examination of candidate genes by direct DNA sequencing. Results Neuropathological examination revealed cytoplasmic deposition of the TDP-43 protein in three affected individuals. Moreover, we identify a family member with clinical Alzheimer's disease, and FTLD-Ubiquitin neuropathology. Genetic linkage and haplotype analyses, defined a critical region between markers D9S169 and D9S1845 on chromosome 9p21. Screening of all candidate genes within this region did not reveal any novel genetic alterations that co-segregate with disease haplotype, suggesting that one individual carrying a meiotic recombination may represent a phenocopy. Re-analysis of linkage data using the new affection status revealed a maximal two-point LOD score of 3.24 and a multipoint LOD score of 3.41 at marker D9S1817. This provides the highest reported LOD scores from a single FTLD-MND pedigree. Conclusion Our reported increase in the minimal disease region should inform other researchers that the chromosome 9 locus may be more telomeric than predicted by published recombination boundaries. Moreover, the existence of a family member with clinical Alzheimer's disease, and who shares the disease

  15. Protective effect of parvalbumin on excitotoxic motor neuron death

    Van den Bosch, L.; Schwaller, B.; Vleminckx, V.

    2002-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, AMPA receptor, calcium-binding proteins, calcium buffering, excitotoxity, kainic acid, motor neuron, parvalbumin......Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, AMPA receptor, calcium-binding proteins, calcium buffering, excitotoxity, kainic acid, motor neuron, parvalbumin...

  16. Linear algebra

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  17. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  18. Nucleophosmin integrates within the nucleolus via multi-modal interactions with proteins displaying R-rich linear motifs and rRNA.

    Mitrea, Diana M; Cika, Jaclyn A; Guy, Clifford S; Ban, David; Banerjee, Priya R; Stanley, Christopher B; Nourse, Amanda; Deniz, Ashok A; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2016-02-02

    The nucleolus is a membrane-less organelle formed through liquid-liquid phase separation of its components from the surrounding nucleoplasm. Here, we show that nucleophosmin (NPM1) integrates within the nucleolus via a multi-modal mechanism involving multivalent interactions with proteins containing arginine-rich linear motifs (R-motifs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Importantly, these R-motifs are found in canonical nucleolar localization signals. Based on a novel combination of biophysical approaches, we propose a model for the molecular organization within liquid-like droplets formed by the N-terminal domain of NPM1 and R-motif peptides, thus providing insights into the structural organization of the nucleolus. We identify multivalency of acidic tracts and folded nucleic acid binding domains, mediated by N-terminal domain oligomerization, as structural features required for phase separation of NPM1 with other nucleolar components in vitro and for localization within mammalian nucleoli. We propose that one mechanism of nucleolar localization involves phase separation of proteins within the nucleolus.

  19. The electric motor handbook

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Crystallographic and molecular dynamics analysis of loop motions unmasking the peptidoglycan-binding site in stator protein MotB of flagellar motor.

    Cyril F Reboul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The C-terminal domain of MotB (MotB-C shows high sequence similarity to outer membrane protein A and related peptidoglycan (PG-binding proteins. It is believed to anchor the power-generating MotA/MotB stator unit of the bacterial flagellar motor to the peptidoglycan layer of the cell wall. We previously reported the first crystal structure of this domain and made a puzzling observation that all conserved residues that are thought to be essential for PG recognition are buried and inaccessible in the crystal structure. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that peptidoglycan binding is preceded by, or accompanied by, some structural reorganization that exposes the key conserved residues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the structure of a new crystalline form (Form B of Helicobacter pylori MotB-C. Comparisons with the existing Form A revealed conformational variations in the petal-like loops around the carbohydrate binding site near one end of the β-sheet. These variations are thought to reflect natural flexibility at this site required for insertion into the peptidoglycan mesh. In order to understand the nature of this flexibility we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the MotB-C dimer. The results are consistent with the crystallographic data and provide evidence that the three loops move in a concerted fashion, exposing conserved MotB residues that have previously been implicated in binding of the peptide moiety of peptidoglycan. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our structural analysis provides a new insight into the mechanism by which MotB inserts into the peptidoglycan mesh, thus anchoring the power-generating complex to the cell wall.

  1. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  2. A review of linear compressors for refrigeration

    Liang, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Linear compressor has no crank mechanism compared with conventional reciprocating compressor. This allows higher efficiency, oil-free operation, lower cost and smaller size when linear compressors are used for vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) system. Typically, a linear compressor consists of a linear motor (connected to a piston) and suspension springs, operated at resonant frequency. This paper presents a review of linear compressors for refrigeration system. Different designs and mod...

  3. Screening of transgenic proteins expressed in transgenic food crops for the presence of short amino acid sequences identical to potential, IgE – binding linear epitopes of allergens

    Peijnenburg Ad ACM

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified food crops are evaluated for their potential allergenic properties prior to marketing, among others by identification of short identical amino acid sequences that occur both in the transgenic protein and allergenic proteins. A strategy is proposed, in which the positive outcomes of the sequence comparison with a minimal length of six amino acids are further screened for the presence of potential linear IgE-epitopes. This double track approach involves the use of literature data on IgE-epitopes and an antigenicity prediction algorithm. Results Thirty-three transgenic proteins have been screened for identities of at least six contiguous amino acids shared with allergenic proteins. Twenty-two transgenic proteins showed positive results of six- or seven-contiguous amino acids length. Only a limited number of identical stretches shared by transgenic proteins (papaya ringspot virus coat protein, acetolactate synthase GH50, and glyphosate oxidoreductase and allergenic proteins could be identified as (part of potential linear epitopes. Conclusion Many transgenic proteins have identical stretches of six or seven amino acids in common with allergenic proteins. Most identical stretches are likely to be false positives. As shown in this study, identical stretches can be further screened for relevance by comparison with linear IgE-binding epitopes described in literature. In the absence of literature data on epitopes, antigenicity prediction by computer aids to select potential antibody binding sites that will need verification of IgE binding by sera binding tests. Finally, the positive outcomes of this approach warrant further clinical testing for potential allergenicity.

  4. Motor homopolar

    Martín Muñoz, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Mostramos la construcción de un modelo de motor homopolar, uno de los más antiguos tipos de motores eléctricos. Se caracterizan porque el campo magnético del imán mantiene siempre la misma polaridad (de ahí su nombre, del griego homos, igual), de modo que, cuando una corriente eléctrica atraviesa el campo magnético, aparece una fuerza que hace girar los elementos no fijados mecánicamente. En el sencillísimo motor homopolar colgado (Schlichting y Ucke 2004), el imán puede girar ...

  5. Application of stepping motor

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  6. Linear gate

    Suwono.

    1978-01-01

    A linear gate providing a variable gate duration from 0,40μsec to 4μsec was developed. The electronic circuity consists of a linear circuit and an enable circuit. The input signal can be either unipolar or bipolar. If the input signal is bipolar, the negative portion will be filtered. The operation of the linear gate is controlled by the application of a positive enable pulse. (author)

  7. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics

  8. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  9. The Overexpression of TDP-43 Protein in the Neuron and Oligodendrocyte Cells Causes the Progressive Motor Neuron Degeneration in the SOD1 G93A Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Lu, Yi; Tang, Chunyan; Zhu, Lei; Li, Jiao; Liang, Huiting; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Renshi

    2016-01-01

    The recent investigation suggested that the TDP-43 protein was closely related to the motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the pathogenesis contributed to motor neuron degeneration largely remained unknown. Therefore, we detected the alteration of TDP-43 expression and distribution in the adult spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A transgenic mouse model for searching the possible pathogenesis of ALS. We examined the TDP-43 expression and distribution in the different anatomic regions, segments and neural cells in the adult spinal cord at the different stages of the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic model by the fluorescent immunohistochemical technology. We revealed that the amount of TDP-43 positive cell was cervical>lumbar>thoracic segment, that in the ventral horn was more than that in the dorsal horn, a few of TDP-43 protein sparsely expressed and distributed in the other regions, the TDP-43 protein weren't detected in the white matter and the central canal. The TDP-43 protein was mostly expressed and distributed in the nuclear of neuron cells and the cytoplasm of oligodendrocyte cells of the gray matter surrounding the central canal of spinal cord by the granular shape in the SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic mice. The amount of TDP-43 positive cell significantly increased at the onset and progression stages of ALS following with the increase of neuron death in spinal cord, particularly in the ventral horn of cervical segment at the progression stage. Our results suggested that the overexpression of TDP-43 protein in the neuron and oligodendrocyte cell causes the progressive motor neuron degeneration in the ALS-like mouse model.

  10. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls' physical activity behavior. A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R(2)=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001), and motor skill competence (R(2)=0.15, ᵝ=0.33, P= 0.001) resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R(2)=0.06, ᵝ=0.25, P=0.001) in physical activity. Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.

  11. Linear algebra

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2017-01-01

    This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...

  12. Linear ubiquitination in immunity.

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Taraborrelli, Lucia; Walczak, Henning

    2015-07-01

    Linear ubiquitination is a post-translational protein modification recently discovered to be crucial for innate and adaptive immune signaling. The function of linear ubiquitin chains is regulated at multiple levels: generation, recognition, and removal. These chains are generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), the only known ubiquitin E3 capable of forming the linear ubiquitin linkage de novo. LUBAC is not only relevant for activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in various signaling pathways, but importantly, it also regulates cell death downstream of immune receptors capable of inducing this response. Recognition of the linear ubiquitin linkage is specifically mediated by certain ubiquitin receptors, which is crucial for translation into the intended signaling outputs. LUBAC deficiency results in attenuated gene activation and increased cell death, causing pathologic conditions in both, mice, and humans. Removal of ubiquitin chains is mediated by deubiquitinases (DUBs). Two of them, OTULIN and CYLD, are constitutively associated with LUBAC. Here, we review the current knowledge on linear ubiquitination in immune signaling pathways and the biochemical mechanisms as to how linear polyubiquitin exerts its functions distinctly from those of other ubiquitin linkage types. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Induction and Persistence of Large γH2AX Foci by High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation in DNA-Dependent protein kinase–Deficient Cells

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Ibañez, Irene L.; Molinari, Beatriz; Palmieri, Mónica; Kreiner, Andrés; Valda, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cell response to DNA double-strand breaks induced by low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations when the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), an essential protein of the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway, lacks kinase activity. Methods and Materials: CHO10B2, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and its derived radiosensitive mutant cell line, irs-20, lacking DNA-PKcs activity, were evaluated after 0 to 3 Gy of γ-rays, plateau and Bragg peak protons, and lithium beams by clonogenic assay, and as a measurement of double-strand breaks, phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci number and size were quantified by immunocytofluorescence. Results: Irs-20 exhibited greater radiosensitivity and a higher amount of γH2AX foci than CHO10B2 at 6 hours after irradiation for all types of radiations. Remarkably, CHO10B2 and irs-20 maintained their difference in radiosensitivity after high-LET radiation. Six hours after low-LET radiations, irs-20 did not reach basal levels of γH2AX at high doses, whereas CHO10B2 recovered basal levels for all doses. After high-LET radiation, only CHO10B2 exhibited a reduction in γH2AX foci, but it never reached basal levels. Persistent foci in irs-20 confirmed a repair deficiency. Interestingly, after 30 minutes of high-LET radiation both cell lines exhibited large foci (size >0.9 μm 2 ) related to the damage nature, whereas at 6 hours irs-20 showed a higher amount of large foci than CHO10B2, with a 7-fold increase at 3 Gy, that could also be associated to radiosensitivity. Conclusions: We demonstrated, for the first time, an association between deficient DNA-PKcs activity and not only high levels of H2AX phosphorylation but also persistence and size increase of γH2AX foci after high-LET irradiation

  14. Induction and Persistence of Large γH2AX Foci by High Linear Energy Transfer Radiation in DNA-Dependent protein kinase–Deficient Cells

    Bracalente, Candelaria; Ibañez, Irene L. [Departamento de Micro y Nanotecnología, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Beatriz [Departamento de Radiobiología, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Palmieri, Mónica [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, Andrés [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, Alejandro [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the cell response to DNA double-strand breaks induced by low and high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations when the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), an essential protein of the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway, lacks kinase activity. Methods and Materials: CHO10B2, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and its derived radiosensitive mutant cell line, irs-20, lacking DNA-PKcs activity, were evaluated after 0 to 3 Gy of γ-rays, plateau and Bragg peak protons, and lithium beams by clonogenic assay, and as a measurement of double-strand breaks, phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci number and size were quantified by immunocytofluorescence. Results: Irs-20 exhibited greater radiosensitivity and a higher amount of γH2AX foci than CHO10B2 at 6 hours after irradiation for all types of radiations. Remarkably, CHO10B2 and irs-20 maintained their difference in radiosensitivity after high-LET radiation. Six hours after low-LET radiations, irs-20 did not reach basal levels of γH2AX at high doses, whereas CHO10B2 recovered basal levels for all doses. After high-LET radiation, only CHO10B2 exhibited a reduction in γH2AX foci, but it never reached basal levels. Persistent foci in irs-20 confirmed a repair deficiency. Interestingly, after 30 minutes of high-LET radiation both cell lines exhibited large foci (size >0.9 μm{sup 2}) related to the damage nature, whereas at 6 hours irs-20 showed a higher amount of large foci than CHO10B2, with a 7-fold increase at 3 Gy, that could also be associated to radiosensitivity. Conclusions: We demonstrated, for the first time, an association between deficient DNA-PKcs activity and not only high levels of H2AX phosphorylation but also persistence and size increase of γH2AX foci after high-LET irradiation.

  15. Design, analysis and fabrication of a linear permanent magnet ...

    MONOJIT SEAL

    Linear permanent magnet synchronous machine; LPMSM—fabrication; design optimisation; finite-element ... induction motor (LIM) prototype was patented in 1890 [1]. Since then, linear ..... Also, for manual winding, more slot area is allotted to ...

  16. Linear algebra

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  17. Linear programming

    Solow, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.

  18. Linear algebra

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  19. Linear algebra

    Berberian, Sterling K

    2014-01-01

    Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.

  20. Linear Models

    Searle, Shayle R

    2012-01-01

    This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.

  1. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  2. Dipeptide repeat protein inclusions are rare in the spinal cord and almost absent from motor neurons in C9ORF72 mutant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and are unlikely to cause their degeneration.

    Gomez-Deza, Jorge; Lee, Youn-Bok; Troakes, Claire; Nolan, Matthew; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Gallo, Jean-Marc; Shaw, Christopher E

    2015-06-25

    Cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions are the pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and tau-negative frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD). The G4C2 repeat mutation in C9ORF72 is the most common cause of ALS and FTLD in which, in addition to TDP-43 inclusions, five different di-peptide repeat (DPR) proteins have been identified. Di-peptide repeat proteins are translated in a non-canonical fashion from sense and antisense transcripts of the G4C2 repeat (GP, GA, GR, PA, PR). DPR inclusions are abundant in the cerebellum, as well as in the frontal and temporal lobes of ALS and FTLD patients and some are neurotoxic in a range of cellular and animal models, implying that DPR aggregation directly contributes to disease pathogenesis. Here we sought to quantify inclusions for each DPR and TDP-43 in ALS cases with and without the C9ORF72 mutation. We characterised the abundance of DPRs and their cellular location and compared this to cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions in order to explore the role of each inclusion in lower motor neuron degeneration. Spinal cord sections from ten cases positive for the C9ORF72 repeat expansion (ALS-C9+ve) and five cases that were not were probed by double immunofluorescence staining for individual DPRs and TDP-43. Inclusions immunoreactive for each of the DPRs were present in the spinal cord but they were rare or very rare in abundance (in descending order of frequency: GA, GP, GR, PA and PR). TDP-43 cytoplasmic inclusions were 45- to 750-fold more frequent than any DPR, and fewer than 4 % of DPR inclusions colocalized with TDP-43 inclusions. In motor neurons, a single cytoplasmic DPR inclusion was detected (0.1 %) in contrast to the 34 % of motor neurons that contained cytoplasmic TDP-43 inclusions. Furthermore, the number of TDP-43 inclusions in ALS cases with and without the C9ORF72 mutation was nearly identical. For all other neurodegenerative diseases, the neurotoxic protein aggregates are detected in the affected

  3. Shape memory alloy based motor

    1989a,b) that SMA spring or strip generates force as a non-linear function of its deformed length. ... magnetic property, smooth, jerk free operation and insensitivity to space radiations namely, electrons, protons ..... will be 1 Amp DC. The motor ...

  4. Linear regression

    Olive, David J

    2017-01-01

    This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...

  5. Linear Colliders

    Alcaraz, J.

    2001-01-01

    After several years of study e''+ e''- linear colliders in the TeV range have emerged as the major and optimal high-energy physics projects for the post-LHC era. These notes summarize the present status form the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC era. These notes summarize the present status, from the main accelerator and detector features to their physics potential. The LHC is expected to provide first discoveries in the new energy domain, whereas an e''+ e''- linear collider in the 500 GeV-1 TeV will be able to complement it to an unprecedented level of precision in any possible areas: Higgs, signals beyond the SM and electroweak measurements. It is evident that the Linear Collider program will constitute a major step in the understanding of the nature of the new physics beyond the Standard Model. (Author) 22 refs

  6. Linear algebra

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  7. Jidosha's Motors

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  8. Performance test of 100 W linear compressor

    Ko, J; Ko, D. Y.; Park, S. J.; Kim, H. B.; Hong, Y. J.; Yeom, H. K. [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, we present test results of developed 100 W class linear compressor for Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerator. The fabricated linear compressor has dual-opposed configuration, free piston and moving magnet type linear motor. Power transfer, efficiency and required pressure waveform are predicted with designed and measured specifications. In experiments, room temperature test with flow impedance is conducted to evaluate performance of developed linear compressor. Flow impedance is loaded to compressor with metering valve for flow resistance, inertance tube for flow inertance and buffer volumes for flow compliance. Several operating parameters such as input voltage, current, piston displacement and pressure wave are measured for various operating frequency and fixed input current level. Behaviors of dynamics and performance of linear compressor as varying flow impedance are discussed with measured experimental results. The developed linear compressor shows 124 W of input power, 86 % of motor efficiency and 60 % of compressor efficiency at its resonant operating condition.

  9. Linear programming

    Karloff, Howard

    1991-01-01

    To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...

  10. Reduction of Linear Programming to Linear Approximation

    Vaserstein, Leonid N.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that every Chebyshev linear approximation problem can be reduced to a linear program. In this paper we show that conversely every linear program can be reduced to a Chebyshev linear approximation problem.

  11. Controllable molecular motors engineered from myosin and RNA

    Omabegho, Tosan; Gurel, Pinar S.; Cheng, Clarence Y.; Kim, Laura Y.; Ruijgrok, Paul V.; Das, Rhiju; Alushin, Gregory M.; Bryant, Zev

    2018-01-01

    Engineering biomolecular motors can provide direct tests of structure-function relationships and customized components for controlling molecular transport in artificial systems1 or in living cells2. Previously, synthetic nucleic acid motors3-5 and modified natural protein motors6-10 have been developed in separate complementary strategies to achieve tunable and controllable motor function. Integrating protein and nucleic-acid components to form engineered nucleoprotein motors may enable additional sophisticated functionalities. However, this potential has only begun to be explored in pioneering work harnessing DNA scaffolds to dictate the spacing, number and composition of tethered protein motors11-15. Here, we describe myosin motors that incorporate RNA lever arms, forming hybrid assemblies in which conformational changes in the protein motor domain are amplified and redirected by nucleic acid structures. The RNA lever arm geometry determines the speed and direction of motor transport and can be dynamically controlled using programmed transitions in the lever arm structure7,9. We have characterized the hybrid motors using in vitro motility assays, single-molecule tracking, cryo-electron microscopy and structural probing16. Our designs include nucleoprotein motors that reversibly change direction in response to oligonucleotides that drive strand-displacement17 reactions. In multimeric assemblies, the controllable motors walk processively along actin filaments at speeds of 10-20 nm s-1. Finally, to illustrate the potential for multiplexed addressable control, we demonstrate sequence-specific responses of RNA variants to oligonucleotide signals.

  12. Perbedaan Asupan Energi, Protein, Zink, dan Perkembangan pada Balita Stunting dan non Stunting

    Adani, Farahiyah Yusni; Nindya, Triska Susila

    2017-01-01

     Background: Stunting is a nutritional problem caused by inadequate nutrition intake for  a long time and/or recurrent infectious diseases. The impacts of stunting are increase mortality,  morbidity,  health costs, decrease cognitive development, motor, and language development.There are nutrients that important to linear growth as energy, protein, and zinc. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences of intake of the energy, protein, Zinc, development in stunting and...

  13. Fine motor control

    ... gross (large, general) motor control. An example of gross motor control is waving an arm in greeting. Problems ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To ...

  14. Structure characterization of the central repetitive domain of high molecular weight gluten proteins .1. Model studies using cyclic and linear peptides

    VanDijk, AA; VanWijk, LL; VanVliet, A; Haris, P; VanSwieten, E; Tesser, GI; Robillard, GT

    The high molecular weight (HMW) proteins from wheat contain a repetitive domain that forms 60-80% of their sequence. The consensus peptides PGQGQQ and GYYPTSPQQ form more than 90% of the domain; both are predicted to adopt beta-turn structure. This paper describes the structural characterization of

  15. Effects of drift gas on collision cross sections of a protein standard in linear drift tube and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Jurneczko, Ewa; Kalapothakis, Jason; Campuzano, Iain D G; Morris, Michael; Barran, Perdita E

    2012-10-16

    There has been a significant increase in the use of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to investigate conformations of proteins and protein complexes following electrospray ionization. Investigations which employ traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TW IM-MS) instrumentation rely on the use of calibrants to convert the arrival times of ions to collision cross sections (CCS) providing "hard numbers" of use to structural biology. It is common to use nitrogen as the buffer gas in TW IM-MS instruments and to calibrate by extrapolating from CCS measured in helium via drift tube (DT) IM-MS. In this work, both DT and TW IM-MS instruments are used to investigate the effects of different drift gases (helium, neon, nitrogen, and argon) on the transport of multiply charged ions of the protein myoglobin, frequently used as a standard in TW IM-MS studies. Irrespective of the drift gas used, recorded mass spectra are found to be highly similar. In contrast, the recorded arrival time distributions and the derived CCS differ greatly. At low charge states (7 ≤ z ≤ 11) where the protein is compact, the CCS scale with the polarizability of the gas; this is also the case for higher charge states (12 ≤ z ≤ 22) where the protein is more unfolded for the heavy gases (neon, argon, and nitrogen) but not the case for helium. This is here interpreted as a different conformational landscape being sampled by the lighter gas and potentially attributable to increased field heating by helium. Under nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) conditions, where myoglobin is sprayed from an aqueous solution buffered to pH 6.8 with 20 mM ammonium acetate, in the DT IM-MS instrument, each buffer gas can yield a different arrival time distribution (ATD) for any given charge state.

  16. Direct linear driving systems; Les entrainements lineaires directs

    Favre, E.; Brunner, C.; Piaget, D. [ETEL SA (France)

    1999-11-01

    The linear motor is one of the most important developments in electrical drive technology. However, it only, began to be adopted on a large scale at the beginning of the 1990's and will not be considered a mature technology until well into the next millennium. Actuators based on linear motor technology have a number of technical advantages including high speed, high positional accuracy and fine resolution. They also require fewer component parts. Some precautions are necessary when using linear motors. Care must be taken to avoid overheating and excessive vibration, and the magnetic components must be protected.

  17. linear-quadratic-linear model

    Tanwiwat Jaikuna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL model. Material and methods : The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR, and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2 was calculated using biological effective dose (BED based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit. Results: Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. Conclusions : The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.

  18. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  19. Compression of the DNA substrate by a viral packaging motor is supported by removal of intercalating dye during translocation.

    Dixit, Aparna Banerjee; Ray, Krishanu; Black, Lindsay W

    2012-12-11

    Viral genome packaging into capsids is powered by high-force-generating motor proteins. In the presence of all packaging components, ATP-powered translocation in vitro expels all detectable tightly bound YOYO-1 dye from packaged short dsDNA substrates and removes all aminoacridine dye from packaged genomic DNA in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of packaging, the purified T4 packaging ATPase alone can only remove up to ∼1/3 of DNA-bound intercalating YOYO-1 dye molecules in the presence of ATP or ATP-γ-S. In sufficient concentration, intercalating dyes arrest packaging, but rare terminase mutations confer resistance. These distant mutations are highly interdependent in acquiring function and resistance and likely mark motor contact points with the translocating DNA. In stalled Y-DNAs, FRET has shown a decrease in distance from the phage T4 terminase C terminus to portal consistent with a linear motor, and in the Y-stem DNA compression between closely positioned dye pairs. Taken together with prior FRET studies of conformational changes in stalled Y-DNAs, removal of intercalating compounds by the packaging motor demonstrates conformational change in DNA during normal translocation at low packaging resistance and supports a proposed linear "DNA crunching" or torsional compression motor mechanism involving a transient grip-and-release structural change in B form DNA.

  20. Prolonged high frequency electrical stimulation is lethal to motor axons of mice heterozygously deficient for the myelin protein P0 gene

    Alvarez, Susana; Moldovan, Mihai; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    demyelinating neuropathy reminiscent of CMT Type 1b. Accumulating evidence suggests that impulse conduction can become lethal to acutely demyelinated central and peripheral axons. Here we investigated the vulnerability of motor axons to long-lasting, high-frequency repetitive stimulation (RS) in P₀+/- mice...... as compared to WT littermates at 7, 12, and 20 months of age. RS was carried out in interrupted trains of 200 Hz trains for 3h. Tibial nerves were stimulated at the ankle while the evoked compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and the ascending compound nerve action potentials (CNAPs) were recorded from...... aging and the dysmyelinating disease process may contribute to the susceptibility to activity-induced axonal degeneration. It is possible that in aging mice and in P₀+/- there is inadequate energy-dependent Na(+)/K(+) pumping, as indicated by the reduced post-stimulation hyperpolarization, which may...

  1. A Reconsideration of the Link between the Energetics of Water and of ATP Hydrolysis Energy in the Power Strokes of Molecular Motors in Protein Structures

    Wilfred F. Widdas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Fick’s work, energetics were revised by Joule’s experiments which founded the First Law of Thermodynamics. Fenn in 1923/24 found that frog muscle contractions generated extra heat proportional to the amount of work done in shortening the muscle. This was fully consistent with the Joule, Helmholtz concept used for the First Law of Thermodynamics. The link between the energetics of water and ATP hydrolysis in molecular motors is recommended for reconsideration.

  2. Non-linear dynamics in Parkinsonism

    Olivier eDarbin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the functions (and dysfunctions of the sensory-motor circuitry have been mostly conceptualized using linear modelizations which have resulted in two main models: the "rate hypothesis" and the "oscillatory hypothesis". In these two models, the basal ganglia data stream is envisaged as a random temporal combination of independent simple patterns issued from its probability distribution of interval interspikes or its spectrum of frequencies respectively.More recently, non-linear analyses have been introduced in the modelization of motor circuitry activities, and they have provided evidences that complex temporal organizations exist in basal ganglia neuronal activities. Regarding movement disorders, these complex temporal organizations in the basal ganglia data stream differ between conditions (i.e. parkinsonism, dyskinesia, healthy control and are responsive to treatments (i.e. L-DOPA,DBS. A body of evidence has reported that basal ganglia neuronal entropy (a marker for complexity/irregularity in time series is higher in hypokinetic state. In line with these findings, an entropy-based model has been recently formulated to introduce basal ganglia entropy as a marker for the alteration of motor processing and a factor of motor inhibition. Importantly, non-linear features have also been identified as a marker of condition and/or treatment effects in brain global signals (EEG, muscular activities (EMG or kinetic of motor symptoms (tremor, gait of patients with movement disorders. It is therefore warranted that the non-linear dynamics of motor circuitry will contribute to a better understanding of the neuronal dysfunctions underlying the spectrum of parkinsonian motor symptoms including tremor, rigidity and hypokinesia.

  3. Drosophila Syd-1, liprin-α, and protein phosphatase 2A B' subunit Wrd function in a linear pathway to prevent ectopic accumulation of synaptic materials in distal axons.

    Li, Long; Tian, Xiaolin; Zhu, Mingwei; Bulgari, Dinara; Böhme, Mathias A; Goettfert, Fabian; Wichmann, Carolin; Sigrist, Stephan J; Levitan, Edwin S; Wu, Chunlai

    2014-06-18

    During synaptic development, presynaptic differentiation occurs as an intrinsic property of axons to form specialized areas of plasma membrane [active zones (AZs)] that regulate exocytosis and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Genetic and biochemical studies in vertebrate and invertebrate model systems have identified a number of proteins involved in AZ assembly. However, elucidating the molecular events of AZ assembly in a spatiotemporal manner remains a challenge. Syd-1 (synapse defective-1) and Liprin-α have been identified as two master organizers of AZ assembly. Genetic and imaging analyses in invertebrates show that Syd-1 works upstream of Liprin-α in synaptic assembly through undefined mechanisms. To understand molecular pathways downstream of Liprin-α, we performed a proteomic screen of Liprin-α-interacting proteins in Drosophila brains. We identify Drosophila protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B' [Wrd (Well Rounded)] as a Liprin-α-interacting protein, and we demonstrate that it mediates the interaction of Liprin-α with PP2A holoenzyme and the Liprin-α-dependent synaptic localization of PP2A. Interestingly, loss of function in syd-1, liprin-α, or wrd shares a common defect in which a portion of synaptic vesicles, dense-core vesicles, and presynaptic cytomatrix proteins ectopically accumulate at the distal, but not proximal, region of motoneuron axons. Strong genetic data show that a linear syd-1/liprin-α/wrd pathway in the motoneuron antagonizes glycogen synthase kinase-3β kinase activity to prevent the ectopic accumulation of synaptic materials. Furthermore, we provide data suggesting that the syd-1/liprin-α/wrd pathway stabilizes AZ specification at the nerve terminal and that such a novel function is independent of the roles of syd-1/liprin-α in regulating the morphology of the T-bar structural protein BRP (Bruchpilot). Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348474-14$15.00/0.

  4. Drosophila Syd-1, Liprin-α, and Protein Phosphatase 2A B′ Subunit Wrd Function in a Linear Pathway to Prevent Ectopic Accumulation of Synaptic Materials in Distal Axons

    Li, Long; Tian, Xiaolin; Zhu, Mingwei; Bulgari, Dinara; Böhme, Mathias A.; Goettfert, Fabian; Wichmann, Carolin; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2014-01-01

    During synaptic development, presynaptic differentiation occurs as an intrinsic property of axons to form specialized areas of plasma membrane [active zones (AZs)] that regulate exocytosis and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Genetic and biochemical studies in vertebrate and invertebrate model systems have identified a number of proteins involved in AZ assembly. However, elucidating the molecular events of AZ assembly in a spatiotemporal manner remains a challenge. Syd-1 (synapse defective-1) and Liprin-α have been identified as two master organizers of AZ assembly. Genetic and imaging analyses in invertebrates show that Syd-1 works upstream of Liprin-α in synaptic assembly through undefined mechanisms. To understand molecular pathways downstream of Liprin-α, we performed a proteomic screen of Liprin-α-interacting proteins in Drosophila brains. We identify Drosophila protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B′ [Wrd (Well Rounded)] as a Liprin-α-interacting protein, and we demonstrate that it mediates the interaction of Liprin-α with PP2A holoenzyme and the Liprin-α-dependent synaptic localization of PP2A. Interestingly, loss of function in syd-1, liprin-α, or wrd shares a common defect in which a portion of synaptic vesicles, dense-core vesicles, and presynaptic cytomatrix proteins ectopically accumulate at the distal, but not proximal, region of motoneuron axons. Strong genetic data show that a linear syd-1/liprin-α/wrd pathway in the motoneuron antagonizes glycogen synthase kinase-3β kinase activity to prevent the ectopic accumulation of synaptic materials. Furthermore, we provide data suggesting that the syd-1/liprin-α/wrd pathway stabilizes AZ specification at the nerve terminal and that such a novel function is independent of the roles of syd-1/liprin-α in regulating the morphology of the T-bar structural protein BRP (Bruchpilot). PMID:24948803

  5. Experimental device for measuring the dynamic properties of diaphragm motors

    Fojtášek, Kamil; Dvořák, Lukáš; Mejzlík, Jan

    The subject of this paper is to design and description of the experimental device for the determination dynamic properties of diaphragm pneumatic motors. These motors are structurally quite different from conventional pneumatic linear cylinders. The working fluid is typically compressed air, the piston of motor is replaced by an elastic part and during the working cycle there is a contact of two elastic environments. In the manufacturers catalogs of these motors are not given any working characteristics. Description of the dynamic behavior of diaphragm motor will be used for verification of mathematical models.

  6. Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes

    Dirba J.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force or angle ε (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.

  7. Features of Synchronous Electronically Commutated Motors in Servomotor Operation Modes

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.; Dobriyan, R.

    2017-04-01

    The authors consider the features and operation specifics of the synchronous permanent magnet motors and the synchronous reluctance motors with electronic commutation in servomotor operation modes. Calculation results show that mechanical and control characteristics of studied motors are close to a linear shape. The studied motor control is proposed to implement similar to phase control of induction servomotor; it means that angle θ (angle between vectors of the supply voltage and non-load electromotive force) or angle ɛ (angle between rotor direct axis and armature magnetomotive force axis) is changed. The analysis results show that synchronous electronically commutated motors could be used as servomotors.

  8. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  9. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  10. Towards an exact theory of linear absorbance and circular dichroism of pigment-protein complexes: Importance of non-secular contributions

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Q y transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9 ∘ than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b

  11. Towards an exact theory of linear absorbance and circular dichroism of pigment-protein complexes: Importance of non-secular contributions

    Dinh, Thanh-Chung; Renger, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.renger@jku.at [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2015-01-21

    A challenge for the theory of optical spectra of pigment-protein complexes is the equal strength of the pigment-pigment and the pigment-protein couplings. Treating both on an equal footing so far can only be managed by numerically costly approaches. Here, we exploit recent results on a normal mode analysis derived spectral density that revealed the dominance of the diagonal matrix elements of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the exciton state representation. We use a cumulant expansion technique that treats the diagonal parts exactly, includes an infinite summation of the off-diagonal parts in secular and Markov approximations, and provides a systematic perturbative way to include non-secular and non-Markov corrections. The theory is applied to a model dimer and to chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b homodimers of the reconstituted water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) from cauliflower. The model calculations reveal that the non-secular/non-Markov effects redistribute oscillator strength from the strong to the weak exciton transition in absorbance and they diminish the rotational strength of the exciton transitions in circular dichroism. The magnitude of these corrections is in a few percent range of the overall signal, providing a quantitative explanation of the success of time-local convolution-less density matrix theory applied earlier. A close examination of the optical spectra of Chl a and Chl b homodimers in WSCP suggests that the opening angle between Q{sub y} transition dipole moments in Chl b homodimers is larger by about 9{sup ∘} than for Chl a homodimers for which a crystal structure of a related WSCP complex exists. It remains to be investigated whether this change is due to a different mutual geometry of the pigments or due to the different electronic structures of Chl a and Chl b.

  12. Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 CD4+-T-cell epitopes are evenly distributed in conserved and hypervariable regions (HVR), whereas linear B-cell epitopes are predominantly located in the HVR.

    Abbott, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Guy H; Howard, Chris J; Hope, Jayne C; Brown, Wendy C

    2004-12-01

    Organisms in the genus Anaplasma express an immunodominant major surface protein 2 (MSP2), composed of a central hypervariable region (HVR) flanked by highly conserved regions. Throughout Anaplasma marginale infection, recombination results in the sequential appearance of novel MSP2 variants and subsequent control of rickettsemia by the immune response, leading to persistent infection. To determine whether immune evasion and selection for variant organisms is associated with a predominant response against HVR epitopes, T-cell and linear B-cell epitopes were localized by measuring peripheral blood gamma interferon-secreting cells, proliferation, and antibody binding to 27 overlapping peptides spanning MSP2 in 16 cattle. Similar numbers of MSP2-specific CD4(+) T-cell epitopes eliciting responses of similar magnitude were found in conserved and hypervariable regions. T-cell epitope clusters recognized by the majority of animals were identified in the HVR (amino acids [aa] 171 to 229) and conserved regions (aa 101 to 170 and 272 to 361). In contrast, linear B-cell epitopes were concentrated in the HVR, residing within hydrophilic sequences. The pattern of recognition of epitope clusters by T cells and of HVR epitopes by B cells is consistent with the influence of protein structure on epitope recognition.

  13. Magnet pole shape design for reduction of thrust ripple of slotless permanent magnet linear synchronous motor with arc-shaped magnets considering end-effect based on analytical method

    Kyung-Hun Shin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The shape of the magnet is essential to the performance of a slotless permanent magnet linear synchronous machine (PMLSM because it is directly related to desirable machine performance. This paper presents a reduction in the thrust ripple of a PMLSM through the use of arc-shaped magnets based on electromagnetic field theory. The magnetic field solutions were obtained by considering end effect using a magnetic vector potential and two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. The analytical solution of each subdomain (PM, air-gap, coil, and end region is derived, and the field solution is obtained by applying the boundary and interface conditions between the subdomains. In particular, an analytical method was derived for the instantaneous thrust and thrust ripple reduction of a PMLSM with arc-shaped magnets. In order to demonstrate the validity of the analytical results, the back electromotive force results of a finite element analysis and experiment on the manufactured prototype model were compared. The optimal point for thrust ripple minimization is suggested.

  14. Gabapentin-lactam, but not gabapentin, reduces protein aggregates and improves motor performance in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Zucker, Birgit; Ludin, Dagmar E; Gerds, Thomas A; Lücking, Carl H; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Feuerstein, Thomas J

    2004-08-01

    Gabapentin (GBP), an anti-convulsant widely used in the treatment of neuropathic pain syndromes, has been suggested to have neuroprotective properties. There is evidence, however, that the neuroprotective properties attributed to GBP are rather associated with a derivative of GBP, gabapentin-lactam (GBP-L), which opens mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channels, in contrast to GBP. We explored whether GBP and GBP-L may attenuate the course of a monogenetic autosomal neurodegenerative disorder, Huntington's disease (HD), using a transgenic mouse model. R6/2 mice treated with GBP-L performed walking on a narrow beam better than mice receiving no treatment, vehicle or GBP, suggesting a beneficial effect of GBP-L on motor function. In addition, a marked reduction of neuronal nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions was observed in brains of mice treated with GBP-L. The pharmacokinetics of GBP-L yielded a mean plasma concentration near the EC50 of GBP-L to open mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channels. These findings support the role of GBP-L as a novel neuroprotective substance in vivo.

  15. Speed controller for an alternating - current motor

    Bolie, V.W.

    1984-01-01

    A controller for a multi-phase ac motor that is subject to a large inertial load, e.g. an induction motor driving a heavy spinning rotor of a neutron chopper that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal Esub(L) having a meandering line frequency, includes a sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor which is compared (by counting clock pulses between feedback pulses) with a reference clock signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal Esub(c). The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error signal, a phase error signal, and a drift error signal, the magnitudes of which are recalculated and updated with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is constant for large speed errors but highly sensitive to small speed errors. The stator windings of the motor are driven by variable-frequency power amplifiers which are controlled by the motor control signal Esub(c) via PROMs which store digital representations of sine and cosine waveforms in quadrature. (author)

  16. Human myosin VIIA responsible for the Usher 1B syndrome: a predicted membrane-associated motor protein expressed in developing sensory epithelia.

    Weil, D; Levy, G; Sahly, I; Levi-Acobas, F; Blanchard, S; El-Amraoui, A; Crozet, F; Philippe, H; Abitbol, M; Petit, C

    1996-04-16

    The gene encoding human myosin VIIA is responsible for Usher syndrome type III (USH1B), a disease which associates profound congenital sensorineural deafness, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. The reconstituted cDNA sequence presented here predicts a 2215 amino acid protein with a typical unconventional myosin structure. This protein is expected to dimerize into a two-headed molecule. The C terminus of its tail shares homology with the membrane-binding domain of the band 4.1 protein superfamily. The gene consists of 48 coding exons. It encodes several alternatively spliced forms. In situ hybridization analysis in human embryos demonstrates that the myosin VIIA gene is expressed in the pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor cells of the retina, thus indicating that both cell types may be involved in the USH1B retinal degenerative process. In addition, the gene is expressed in the human embryonic cochlear and vestibular neuroepithelia. We suggest that deafness and vestibular dysfunction in USH1B patients result from a defect in the morphogenesis of the inner ear sensory cell stereocilia.

  17. AC Application of HTS Conductors in Highly Dynamic Electric Motors

    Oswald, B; Best, K-J; Setzer, M; Duffner, E; Soell, M; Gawalek, W; Kovalev, L K

    2006-01-01

    Based on recent investigations we design highly dynamic electric motors up to 400 kW and linear motors up to 120 kN linear force using HTS bulk material and HTS tapes. The introduction of HTS tapes into AC applications in electric motors needs fundamental studies on double pancake coils under transversal magnetic fields. First theoretical and experimental results on AC field distributions in double-pancake-coils and corresponding AC losses will be presented. Based on these results the simulation of the motor performance confirms extremely high power density and efficiency of both types of electric motors. Improved characteristics of rare earth permanent magnets used in our motors at low temperatures give an additional technological benefit

  18. GDE2 regulates subtype-specific motor neuron generation through inhibition of Notch signaling.

    Sabharwal, Priyanka; Lee, Changhee; Park, Sungjin; Rao, Meenakshi; Sockanathan, Shanthini

    2011-09-22

    The specification of spinal interneuron and motor neuron identities initiates within progenitor cells, while motor neuron subtype diversification is regulated by hierarchical transcriptional programs implemented postmitotically. Here we find that mice lacking GDE2, a six-transmembrane protein that triggers motor neuron generation, exhibit selective losses of distinct motor neuron subtypes, specifically in defined subsets of limb-innervating motor pools that correlate with the loss of force-generating alpha motor neurons. Mechanistically, GDE2 is expressed by postmitotic motor neurons but utilizes extracellular glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase activity to induce motor neuron generation by inhibiting Notch signaling in neighboring motor neuron progenitors. Thus, neuronal GDE2 controls motor neuron subtype diversity through a non-cell-autonomous feedback mechanism that directly regulates progenitor cell differentiation, implying that subtype specification initiates within motor neuron progenitor populations prior to their differentiation into postmitotic motor neurons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of a High Protein Food Supplement on Physical Activity, Motor Performance and Health Related Quality of Life of HIV Infected Botswana Children on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART).

    Malete, Leapetswe; Mokgatlhe, Lucky; Nnyepi, Maria; Jackson, Jose; Wen, Fujun; Bennink, Maurice; Anabwani, Gabriel; Makhanda, Jerry; Thior, Ibou; Lyoka, Philemon; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    Despite existing evidence about the benefits of nutrition, physical activity (PA) and sport to the overall health and wellbeing of children, knowledge gaps remain on this relationship in children living with chronic conditions like HIV/AIDS. Such knowledge should inform context specific programs that could enhance the quality of life of children. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of integrating a nutrition intervention (culturally tailored food supplement) into antiretroviral therapy (ART) on psychosocial outcomes and physical activity among HIV-positive children in Botswana. 201 HIV-positive children (6-15 years; M = 9.44, SD = 2.40) were recruited and randomly assigned (stratified by age and gender) to two groups. The intervention group (n = 97) received a high protein (bean-sorghum plus micronutrients) food supplement, while the control group (n = 104) received a sorghum plus micronutrients supplement. Participants were followed over 12 months. Anthropometric measures, PA, motor performance, and health related quality of life (HRQL) were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Mixed repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant time effect of the food supplement on target variables except body fat percentage, speed, and school functioning. Time × treatment interaction was found for physical functioning, psychosocial functioning and total quality of life score. Scores on physical functioning and total of quality life in the intervention group significantly increased from baseline to 6 months compared with the control group ( p = 0.015). A combination of ART and nutritional intervention had a positive effect on physical functioning and total quality of life of HIV-positive children in this study. There were also improvements to physical activity and motor performance tests over time. More research is needed on long term effects of nutrition and PA interventions on HRQL in children living with HIV.

  20. Identification of a defined linear epitope in the OspA protein of the Lyme disease spirochetes that elicits bactericidal antibody responses: Implications for vaccine development.

    Izac, Jerilyn R; Oliver, Lee D; Earnhart, Christopher G; Marconi, Richard T

    2017-05-31

    The lipoprotein OspA is produced by the Lyme disease spirochetes primarily in unfed ticks. OspA production is down-regulated by the blood meal and it is not produced in mammals except for possible transient production during late stage infection in patients with Lyme arthritis. Vaccination with OspA elicits antibody (Ab) that can target spirochetes in the tick midgut during feeding and inhibit transmission to mammals. OspA was the primary component of the human LYMErix™ vaccine. LYMErix™ was available from 1998 to 2002 but then pulled from the market due to declining sales as a result of unsubstantiated concerns about vaccination induced adverse events and poor efficacy. It was postulated that a segment of OspA that shares sequence similarity with a region in human LFA-1 and may trigger putative autoimmune events. While evidence supporting such a link has not been demonstrated, most efforts to move forward with OspA as a vaccine component have sought to eliminate this region of concern. Here we identify an OspA linear epitope localized within OspA amino acid residues 221-240 (OspA 221-240 ) that lacks the OspA region suggested to elicit autoimmunity. A peptide consisting of residues 221-240 was immunogenic in mice. Ab raised against OspA 221-240 peptide surface labeled B. burgdorferi in IFAs and displayed potent Ab mediated-complement dependent bactericidal activity. BLAST analyses identified several variants of OspA 221-240 and a closely related sequence in OspB. It is our hypothesis that integration of the OspA 221-240 epitope into a multivalent-OspC based chimeric epitope based vaccine antigen (chimeritope) could result in a subunit vaccine that protects against Lyme disease through synergistic mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.