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Sample records for linear hamilton systems

  1. Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems

    Xu Xuejun; Qin Maochang; Mei Fengxiang

    2005-01-01

    The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results.

  2. Hamilton-Jacobi theory of continuos systems

    Guler, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation for classical field systems is obtained in a 5n-dimensional phase space and it is integrated by the method of characteristics. Space-time partial derivatives of Hamilton's principal functions S μ (Φ i , x v ) (μ, v = 1, 2, 3, 4) are identified as the energy-momentum tensor of the system

  3. Solutions to estimation problems for scalar hamilton-jacobi equations using linear programming

    Claudel, Christian G.; Chamoin, Timothee; Bayen, Alexandre M.

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents new convex formulations for solving estimation problems in systems modeled by scalar Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. Using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the constraints resulting from a HJ equation are convex, and can be written as a set of linear inequalities. We use this fact to pose various (and seemingly unrelated) estimation problems related to traffic flow-engineering as a set of linear programs. In particular, we solve data assimilation and data reconciliation problems for estimating the state of a system when the model and measurement constraints are incompatible. We also solve traffic estimation problems, such as travel time estimation or density estimation. For all these problems, a numerical implementation is performed using experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment. In the context of reproducible research, the code and data used to compute the results presented in this brief have been posted online and are accessible to regenerate the results. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Lie-Hamilton systems on curved spaces: a geometrical approach

    Herranz, Francisco J.; de Lucas, Javier; Tobolski, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    A Lie-Hamilton system is a nonautonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations describing the integral curves of a t-dependent vector field taking values in a finite-dimensional Lie algebra, a Vessiot-Guldberg Lie algebra, of Hamiltonian vector fields relative to a Poisson structure. Its general solution can be written as an autonomous function, the superposition rule, of a generic finite family of particular solutions and a set of constants. We pioneer the study of Lie-Hamilton systems on Riemannian spaces (sphere, Euclidean and hyperbolic plane), pseudo-Riemannian spaces (anti-de Sitter, de Sitter, and Minkowski spacetimes) as well as on semi-Riemannian spaces (Newtonian spacetimes). Their corresponding constants of motion and superposition rules are obtained explicitly in a geometric way. This work extends the (graded) contraction of Lie algebras to a contraction procedure for Lie algebras of vector fields, Hamiltonian functions, and related symplectic structures, invariants, and superposition rules.

  5. Hamilton-Jacobi theorems for regular reducible Hamiltonian systems on a cotangent bundle

    Wang, Hong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, some of formulations of Hamilton-Jacobi equations for Hamiltonian system and regular reduced Hamiltonian systems are given. At first, an important lemma is proved, and it is a modification for the corresponding result of Abraham and Marsden (1978), such that we can prove two types of geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theorem for a Hamiltonian system on the cotangent bundle of a configuration manifold, by using the symplectic form and dynamical vector field. Then these results are generalized to the regular reducible Hamiltonian system with symmetry and momentum map, by using the reduced symplectic form and the reduced dynamical vector field. The Hamilton-Jacobi theorems are proved and two types of Hamilton-Jacobi equations, for the regular point reduced Hamiltonian system and the regular orbit reduced Hamiltonian system, are obtained. As an application of the theoretical results, the regular point reducible Hamiltonian system on a Lie group is considered, and two types of Lie-Poisson Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the regular point reduced system are given. In particular, the Type I and Type II of Lie-Poisson Hamilton-Jacobi equations for the regular point reduced rigid body and heavy top systems are shown, respectively.

  6. Nonlinear H-infinity control, Hamiltonian systems and Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Aliyu, MDS

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of nonlinear Haeu control theory for both continuous-time and discrete-time systems, Nonlinear Haeu-Control, Hamiltonian Systems and Hamilton-Jacobi Equations covers topics as diverse as singular nonlinear Haeu-control, nonlinear Haeu -filtering, mixed H2/ Haeu-nonlinear control and filtering, nonlinear Haeu-almost-disturbance-decoupling, and algorithms for solving the ubiquitous Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equations. The link between the subject and analytical mechanics as well as the theory of partial differential equations is also elegantly summarized in a single chapter

  7. Perturbation to Unified Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for Relativistic Hamilton Systems

    Zhang Mingjiang; Fang Jianhui; Lu Kai; Pang Ting; Lin Peng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to unified symmetry and adiabatic invariants for relativistic Hamilton systems are studied. The definition of the perturbation to unified symmetry for the system is presented, and the criterion of the perturbation to unified symmetry is given. Meanwhile, the Noether adiabatic invariants, the generalized Hojman adiabatic invariants, and the Mei adiabatic invariants for the perturbed system are obtained. (general)

  8. Non linear system become linear system

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  9. Linear system theory

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  10. Integrating factors and conservation theorems for Hamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems

    李仁杰; 乔永芬; 刘洋

    2002-01-01

    We present a general approach to the construction of conservation laws for variable mass nonholonomic noncon-servative systems. First, we give the definition of integrating factors, and we study in detail the necessary conditionsfor the existence of the conserved quantities. Then, we establish the conservation theorem and its inverse theorem forHamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems. Finally,we give an example to illustrate the application of the results.

  11. William Rowan Hamilton: Mathematical genius

    Wilkins, D.R. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)]. E-mail: dwilkins@maths.tcd.ie

    2005-08-01

    This year Ireland celebrates the bicentenary of the mathematician William Rowan Hamilton, best remembered for 'quaternions' and for his pioneering work on optics and dynamics. Two centuries after his birth, the extent to which terms such as 'Hamiltonian' and 'Hamiltonian system' have entered the everyday language of mathematicians and physicists testifies to the continuing impact of the scientific work of William Rowan Hamilton. (U.K.)

  12. William Rowan Hamilton: Mathematical genius

    Wilkins, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    This year Ireland celebrates the bicentenary of the mathematician William Rowan Hamilton, best remembered for quaternions and for his pioneering work on optics and dynamics. Two centuries after his birth, the extent to which terms such as Hamiltonian and Hamiltonian system have entered the everyday language of mathematicians and physicists testifies to the continuing impact of the scientific work of William Rowan Hamilton. (U.K.)

  13. Hamilton : the electric city

    Gilbert, R [Richard Gilbert Consultant, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-04-13

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Hamilton : the electric city

    Gilbert, R.

    2006-01-01

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Dynamical and geometric aspects of Hamilton-Jacobi and linearized Monge-Ampère equations VIASM 2016

    Tran, Hung

    2017-01-01

    Consisting of two parts, the first part of this volume is an essentially self-contained exposition of the geometric aspects of local and global regularity theory for the Monge–Ampère and linearized Monge–Ampère equations. As an application, we solve the second boundary value problem of the prescribed affine mean curvature equation, which can be viewed as a coupling of the latter two equations. Of interest in its own right, the linearized Monge–Ampère equation also has deep connections and applications in analysis, fluid mechanics and geometry, including the semi-geostrophic equations in atmospheric flows, the affine maximal surface equation in affine geometry and the problem of finding Kahler metrics of constant scalar curvature in complex geometry. Among other topics, the second part provides a thorough exposition of the large time behavior and discounted approximation of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, which have received much attention in the last two decades, and a new approach to the subject, the n...

  16. Dynamics of unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear systems using finite elements in time

    Wang, Yu

    1995-08-01

    The dynamic response and stability of a single-degree-of-freedom system with unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear stiffness are analyzed using the finite element method in the time domain. Based on a Hamilton's weak principle, this method provides a simple and efficient approach for predicting all possible fundamental and sub-periodic responses. The stability of the steady state response is determined by using Floquet's theory without any special effort for calculating transition matrices. This method is applied to a number of examples, demonstrating its effectiveness even for a strongly non-linear problem involving both clearance and continuous stiffness non-linearities. Close agreement is found between available published findings and the predictions of the finite element in time approach, which appears to be an efficient and reliable alternative technique for non-linear dynamic response and stability analysis of periodic systems.

  17. High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function

    Zhao Hongxia; Ma Shanjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.

  18. The Magnus problem in Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters

    Koshliakov, V. N.

    1984-04-01

    The formalism of Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters is applied to the Magnus problem related to the systematic drift of a gimbal-mounted astatic gyroscope due to the nutational vibration of the main axis of the rotor. It is shown that the use of the above formalism makes it possible to limit the analysis to a consideration of a linear system of differential equations written in perturbed values of Rodrigues-Hamilton parameters. A refined formula for the drift of the main axis of the gyroscope rotor is obtained, and an estimation is made of the effect of the truncation of higher-order terms.

  19. Linearization of the Lorenz system

    Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Thio, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation

  20. Linearization of the Lorenz system

    Li, Chunbiao, E-mail: goontry@126.com [School of Electronic & Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Engineering Technology Research and Development Center of Jiangsu Circulation Modernization Sensor Network, Jiangsu Institute of Commerce, Nanjing 211168 (China); Sprott, Julien Clinton [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Thio, Wesley [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-08

    A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system is proposed. The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. Additional further linearization leads naturally to a piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system. A chaotic circuit with a single amplitude controller is then implemented using a new switch element, producing a chaotic oscillation that agrees with the numerical calculation for the piecewise linear diffusionless Lorenz system. - Highlights: • A partial and complete piecewise linearized version of the Lorenz system are addressed. • The linearized versions have an independent total amplitude control parameter. • A piecewise linear version of the diffusionless Lorenz system is derived by further linearization. • A corresponding chaotic circuit without any multiplier is implemented for the chaotic oscillation.

  1. Construction of exact invariants of time-dependent linear nonholonomic dynamical systems

    Fu Jingli; Jimenez, Salvador; Tang Yifa; Vazquez, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we build exact dynamical invariants for time-dependent, linear, nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems in two dimensions. Our aim is to obtain an additional insight into the theoretical understanding of generalized Hamilton canonical equations. In particular, we investigate systems represented by a quadratic Hamiltonian subject to linear nonholonomic constraints. We use a Lie algebraic method on the systems to build the invariants. The role and scope of these invariants is pointed out

  2. Construction of exact invariants of time-dependent linear nonholonomic dynamical systems

    Fu Jingli [Institute of Mathematical Physics, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)], E-mail: sqfujingli@163.com; Jimenez, Salvador [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada TTII, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tang Yifa [State Key Laboratory of Scientific and Engineering Computing, ICMSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2719, Beijing 100080 (China); Vazquez, Luis [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada Facultad de Informatica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-03-03

    In this work, we build exact dynamical invariants for time-dependent, linear, nonholonomic Hamiltonian systems in two dimensions. Our aim is to obtain an additional insight into the theoretical understanding of generalized Hamilton canonical equations. In particular, we investigate systems represented by a quadratic Hamiltonian subject to linear nonholonomic constraints. We use a Lie algebraic method on the systems to build the invariants. The role and scope of these invariants is pointed out.

  3. Dynamical systems and linear algebra

    Colonius, Fritz (Prof.)

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical systems and linear algebra / F. Colonius, W. Kliemann. - In: Handbook of linear algebra / ed. by Leslie Hogben. - Boca Raton : Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2007. - S. 56,1-56,22. - (Discrete mathematics and its applications)

  4. The Wigner distribution function and Hamilton's characteristics of a geometric-optical system

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Four system functions have been defined for an optical system; each of these functions describes the system completely in terms of Fourier optics. From the system functions the Wigner distribution function of an optical system has been defined; although derived from Fourier optics, this Wigner

  5. Feedback systems for linear colliders

    Hendrickson, L; Himel, Thomas M; Minty, Michiko G; Phinney, N; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Raubenheimer, T O; Shoaee, H; Tenenbaum, P G

    1999-01-01

    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an intregal part of the design. Feedback requiremetns for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at hi...

  6. Data acquisition system for the Hamilton Standard W2 Electron Beam Welder

    Hopwood, J.

    1979-06-01

    A data acquisition system has been designed which will perform on-line weld-parameter sampling. It is a microprocessor-based program controller and calculator. The parameters sampled are beam current, accelerating voltage, focus-coil current, workpiece rpm, and filament voltage. Sampling in analog form occurs in pre-selected angular-rotation increments from 1 to 9 degrees. There are three data printout options: (A) all data displayed; (B) only out-of-tolerance values displayed; and (C) differences between nominal and sampled values in excess of preselected error bands displayed. A magnetic tape cartridge unit allows long-term data storage and easy retrieval. This report is a manual for system operation. It also describes the design--logic principles, circuitry, and programming--in detail

  7. Data acquisition system for the Hamilton Standard W2 Electron Beam Welder

    Hopwood, J.

    1979-06-01

    A data acquisition system has been designed which will perform on-line weld-parameter sampling. It is a microprocessor-based program controller and calculator. The parameters sampled are beam current, accelerating voltage, focus-coil current, workpiece rpm, and filament voltage. Sampling in analog form occurs in pre-selected angular-rotation increments from 1 to 9 degrees. There are three data printout options: (A) all data displayed; (B) only out-of-tolerance values displayed; and (C) differences between nominal and sampled values in excess of preselected error bands displayed. A magnetic tape cartridge unit allows long-term data storage and easy retrieval. This report is a manual for system operation. It also describes the design--logic principles, circuitry, and programming--in detail.

  8. Hamilton's indicators of the force of selection

    Baudisch, Annette

    2005-01-01

    To quantify the force of selection, Hamilton [Hamilton, W. D. (1966) J. Theor. Biol. 12, 12-45] derived expressions for the change in fitness with respect to age-specific mutations. Hamilton's indicators are decreasing functions of age. He concluded that senescence is inevitable: survival...... and fertility decline with age. I show that alternative parameterizations of mutational effects lead to indicators that can increase with age. I then consider the case of deleterious mutations with age-specific effects. In this case, it is the balance between mutation and selection pressure that determines...... the equilibrium number of mutations in a population. In this balance, the effects of different parameterizations cancel out, but only to a linear approximation. I show that mutation accumulation has little impact at ages when this linear approximation holds. When mutation accumulation matters, nonlinear effects...

  9. Feedback Systems for Linear Colliders

    1999-01-01

    Feedback systems are essential for stable operation of a linear collider, providing a cost-effective method for relaxing tight tolerances. In the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC), feedback controls beam parameters such as trajectory, energy, and intensity throughout the accelerator. A novel dithering optimization system which adjusts final focus parameters to maximize luminosity contributed to achieving record performance in the 1997-98 run. Performance limitations of the steering feedback have been investigated, and improvements have been made. For the Next Linear Collider (NLC), extensive feedback systems are planned as an integral part of the design. Feedback requirements for JLC (the Japanese Linear Collider) are essentially identical to NLC; some of the TESLA requirements are similar but there are significant differences. For NLC, algorithms which incorporate improvements upon the SLC implementation are being prototyped. Specialized systems for the damping rings, rf and interaction point will operate at high bandwidth and fast response. To correct for the motion of individual bunches within a train, both feedforward and feedback systems are planned. SLC experience has shown that feedback systems are an invaluable operational tool for decoupling systems, allowing precision tuning, and providing pulse-to-pulse diagnostics. Feedback systems for the NLC will incorporate the key SLC features and the benefits of advancing technologies

  10. Window observers for linear systems

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  11. Sir William Rowan Hamilton

    IAS Admin

    In this picture, wave fronts are defined as surfaces of constant S(x), while .... Recall here that physical quantities are represented in ... his memory imperishable? Hamilton ... self in the words Ptolemy used of Hipparchus: a lover of labour and a ...

  12. Systems of Inhomogeneous Linear Equations

    Scherer, Philipp O. J.

    Many problems in physics and especially computational physics involve systems of linear equations which arise e.g. from linearization of a general nonlinear problem or from discretization of differential equations. If the dimension of the system is not too large standard methods like Gaussian elimination or QR decomposition are sufficient. Systems with a tridiagonal matrix are important for cubic spline interpolation and numerical second derivatives. They can be solved very efficiently with a specialized Gaussian elimination method. Practical applications often involve very large dimensions and require iterative methods. Convergence of Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods is slow and can be improved by relaxation or over-relaxation. An alternative for large systems is the method of conjugate gradients.

  13. Linear collider systems and costs

    Loew, G.A.

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the systems and sub-systems involved in so-called ''conventional'' e + e - linear colliders and to study how their design affects the overall cost of these machines. There are presently a total of at least six 500 GeV c. of m. linear collider projects under study in the world. Aside from TESLA (superconducting linac at 1.3 GHz) and CLIC (two-beam accelerator with main linac at 30GHz), the other four proposed e + e - linear colliders can be considered ''conventional'' in that their main linacs use the proven technique of driving room temperature accelerator sections with pulsed klystrons and modulators. The centrally distinguishing feature between these projects is their main linac rf frequency: 3 GHz for the DESY machine, 11.424 GHz for the SLAC and JLC machines, and 14 GHz for the VLEPP machine. The other systems, namely the electron and positron sources, preaccelerators, compressors, damping rings and final foci, are fairly similar from project to project. Probably more than 80% of the cost of these linear colliders will be incurred in the two main linacs facing each other and it is therefore in their design and construction that major savings or extra costs may be found

  14. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton.

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    From the moment Max Hamilton started his psychiatric education, he considered psychometrics to be a scientific discipline on a par with biochemistry or pharmacology in clinical research. His clinimetric skills were in operation in the 1950s when randomised clinical trials were established as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without success. Using modern psychometric methods, the solution to this problem is a simple matter of reallocating the Hamilton scale items according to the scientific hypothesis under examination. Hamilton's original intention, to measure the global burden of the symptoms experienced by the patients with affective disorders, is in agreement with the DSM-IV and ICD-10 classification systems. Scale reliability and obtainment of valid information from patients and their relatives were the most important clinimetric innovations to be developed by Hamilton. Max Hamilton therefore belongs to the very exclusive family of eminent physicians celebrated by this journal with a tribute. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Beyond WKB quantum corrections to Hamilton-Jacobi theory

    Jurisch, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we develop quantum mechanics of quasi-one-dimensional systems upon the framework of the quantum-mechanical Hamilton-Jacobi theory. We will show that the Schroedinger point of view and the Hamilton-Jacobi point of view are fully equivalent in their description of physical systems, but differ in their descriptive manner. As a main result of this, a wavefunction in Hamilton-Jacobi theory can be decomposed into travelling waves in any point in space, not only asymptotically. Using the quasi-linearization technique, we derive quantum correction functions in every order of h-bar. The quantum correction functions will remove the turning-point singularity that plagues the WKB-series expansion already in zeroth order and thus provide an extremely good approximation to the full solution of the Schroedinger equation. In the language of quantum action it is also possible to elegantly solve the connection problem without asymptotic approximations. The use of quantum action further allows us to derive an equation by which the Maslov index is directly calculable without any approximations. Stationary quantum trajectories will also be considered and thoroughly discussed

  16. New Li-Yau-Hamilton Inequalities for the Ricci Flow via the Space-Time Approach

    Chow, Bennett; Knopf, Dan

    2002-01-01

    We generalize Hamilton's matrix Li-Yau-type Harnack estimate for the Ricci flow by considering the space of all LYH (Li-Yau-Hamilton) quadratics that arise as curvature tensors of space-time connections satisfying the Ricci flow with respect to the natural space-time degenerate metric. As a special case, we employ scaling arguments to derive a linear-type matrix LYH estimate. The new LYH quadratics obtained in this way are associated to the system of the Ricci flow coupled to a 1-form and a 2...

  17. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  18. Linear operator inequalities for strongly stable weakly regular linear systems

    Curtain, RF

    2001-01-01

    We consider the question of the existence of solutions to certain linear operator inequalities (Lur'e equations) for strongly stable, weakly regular linear systems with generating operators A, B, C, 0. These operator inequalities are related to the spectral factorization of an associated Popov

  19. Ground-water flow directions and estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley aquifer system, Hamilton Area, Ohio

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Bossenbroek, Karen E.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System is one of the most productive sources of potable water in the Midwest, yielding as much as 3,000 gallons per minute to wells. Many water-supply wells tapping this aquifer system are purposely placed near rivers to take advantage of induced infiltration from the rivers. The City of Hamilton's North Well Field consists of 10 wells near the Great Miami River, all completed in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. A well-drilling program and a multiple-well aquifer test were done to investigate ground-water flow directions and to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower part of the Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. Descriptions of lithology from 10 well borings indicate varying amounts and thickness of clay or till, and therefore, varying levels of potential aquifer confinement. Borings also indicate that the aquifer properties can change dramatically over relatively short distances. Grain-size analyses indicate an average bulk hydraulic conductivity value of aquifer materials of 240 feet per day; the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer material was 89 feet per day. Median grain sizes of aquifer material and clay units were 1.3 millimeters and 0.1 millimeters, respectively. Water levels in the Hamilton North Well Field are affected by stream stage in the Great Miami River and barometric pressure. Bank storage in response to stream stage is evident. Results from a multiple-well aquifer test at the well field indicate, as do the lithologic descriptions, that the aquifer is semiconfined in some areas and unconfined in others. Transmissivity and storage coefficient of the semiconfined part of the aquifer were 50,000 feet squared per day and 5x10-4, respectively. The average hydraulic conductivity (450 feet per day) based on the aquifer test is reasonable for glacial outwash but is higher than calculated from grain-size analyses, implying a scale effect

  20. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations for quantum control | Ogundiran ...

    The aim of this work is to study Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation for quantum control driven by quantum noises. These noises are annhihilation, creation and gauge processes. We shall consider the solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation via the Hamiltonian system measurable in time. JONAMP Vol. 11 2007: pp.

  1. Dynamic linearization system for a radiation gauge

    Panarello, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The linearization system and process converts a high resolution non-linear analog input signal, representative of the thickness of an object, into a high resolution linear analog output signal suitable for use in driving a variety of output devices. The system requires only a small amount of memory for storing pre-calculated non-linear correction coefficients. The system channels the input signal to separate circuit paths so that it may be used directly to; locate an appropriate correction coefficient; develop a correction term after an appropriate correction coefficient is located; and develop a linearized signal having the same high resolution inherent in the input signal. The system processes the linearized signal to compensate for the possible errors introduced by radiation source noise. The processed linearized signal is the high resolution linear analog output signal which accurately represents the thickness of the object being gauged

  2. Linear quadratic optimization for positive LTI system

    Muhafzan, Yenti, Syafrida Wirma; Zulakmal

    2017-05-01

    Nowaday the linear quadratic optimization subject to positive linear time invariant (LTI) system constitute an interesting study considering it can become a mathematical model of variety of real problem whose variables have to nonnegative and trajectories generated by these variables must be nonnegative. In this paper we propose a method to generate an optimal control of linear quadratic optimization subject to positive linear time invariant (LTI) system. A sufficient condition that guarantee the existence of such optimal control is discussed.

  3. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  4. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  5. Numerical solution of large sparse linear systems

    Meurant, Gerard; Golub, Gene.

    1982-02-01

    This note is based on one of the lectures given at the 1980 CEA-EDF-INRIA Numerical Analysis Summer School whose aim is the study of large sparse linear systems. The main topics are solving least squares problems by orthogonal transformation, fast Poisson solvers and solution of sparse linear system by iterative methods with a special emphasis on preconditioned conjuguate gradient method [fr

  6. Balanced truncation for linear switched systems

    Petreczky, Mihaly; Wisniewski, Rafal; Leth, John-Josef

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of the model reduction algorithm for linear switched systems from Shaker and Wisniewski (2011, 2009) and . This algorithm is a reminiscence of the balanced truncation method for linear parameter varying systems (Wood et al., 1996) [3]. Specifically...

  7. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  8. Isolators Including Main Spring Linear Guide Systems

    Goold, Ryan (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Ruebsamen, Dale Thomas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of isolators, such as three parameter isolators, including a main spring linear guide system are provided. In one embodiment, the isolator includes first and second opposing end portions, a main spring mechanically coupled between the first and second end portions, and a linear guide system extending from the first end portion, across the main spring, and toward the second end portion. The linear guide system expands and contracts in conjunction with deflection of the main spring along the working axis, while restricting displacement and rotation of the main spring along first and second axes orthogonal to the working axis.

  9. Linear systems a measurement based approach

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.

  10. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    Erickson, R.A.

    1987-11-01

    The final focus system of a linear collider must perform two primary functions, it must focus the two opposing beams so that their transverse dimensions at the interaction point are small enough to yield acceptable luminosity, and it must steer the beams together to maintain collisions. In addition, the final focus system must transport the outgoing beams to a location where they can be recycled or safely dumped. Elementary optical considerations for linear collider final focus systems are discussed, followed by chromatic aberrations. The design of the final focus system of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) is described. Tuning and diagnostics and steering to collision are discussed. Most of the examples illustrating the concepts covered are drawn from the SLC, but the principles and conclusions are said to be generally applicable to other linear collider designs as well. 26 refs., 17 figs

  11. On deformations of linear differential systems

    Gontsov, R.R.; Poberezhnyi, V.A.; Helminck, G.F.

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns deformations of meromorphic linear differential systems. Problems relating to their existence and classification are reviewed, and the global and local behaviour of solutions to deformation equations in a neighbourhood of their singular set is analysed. Certain classical

  12. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    59, No. 5. — journal of. November 2002 physics pp. 849–858. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC ... cryogenics facility, RF electronics development, facilities for fabricating niobium resonators indige- ... Prototype resonator was.

  13. Fast Solvers for Dense Linear Systems

    Kauers, Manuel [Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC), Altenbergerstrasse 69, A4040 Linz (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    It appears that large scale calculations in particle physics often require to solve systems of linear equations with rational number coefficients exactly. If classical Gaussian elimination is applied to a dense system, the time needed to solve such a system grows exponentially in the size of the system. In this tutorial paper, we present a standard technique from computer algebra that avoids this exponential growth: homomorphic images. Using this technique, big dense linear systems can be solved in a much more reasonable time than using Gaussian elimination over the rationals.

  14. Signals and transforms in linear systems analysis

    Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    2013-01-01

    Signals and Transforms in Linear Systems Analysis covers the subject of signals and transforms, particularly in the context of linear systems theory. Chapter 2 provides the theoretical background for the remainder of the text. Chapter 3 treats Fourier series and integrals. Particular attention is paid to convergence properties at step discontinuities. This includes the Gibbs phenomenon and its amelioration via the Fejer summation techniques. Special topics include modulation and analytic signal representation, Fourier transforms and analytic function theory, time-frequency analysis and frequency dispersion. Fundamentals of linear system theory for LTI analogue systems, with a brief account of time-varying systems, are covered in Chapter 4 . Discrete systems are covered in Chapters 6 and 7.  The Laplace transform treatment in Chapter 5 relies heavily on analytic function theory as does Chapter 8 on Z -transforms. The necessary background on complex variables is provided in Appendix A. This book is intended to...

  15. Linear integral equations and soliton systems

    Quispel, G.R.W.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of classical integrable dynamical systems in one temporal and one spatial dimension. The direct linearizations are given of several nonlinear partial differential equations, for example the Korteweg-de Vries equation, the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, the sine-Gordon equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, and the equation of motion for the isotropic Heisenberg spin chain; the author also discusses several relations between these equations. The Baecklund transformations of these partial differential equations are treated on the basis of a singular transformation of the measure (or equivalently of the plane-wave factor) occurring in the corresponding linear integral equations, and the Baecklund transformations are used to derive the direct linearization of a chain of so-called modified partial differential equations. Finally it is shown that the singular linear integral equations lead in a natural way to the direct linearizations of various nonlinear difference-difference equations. (Auth.)

  16. Self-consistent field theory based molecular dynamics with linear system-size scaling

    Richters, Dorothee [Institute of Mathematics and Center for Computational Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kühne, Thomas D., E-mail: kuehne@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Center for Computational Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2014-04-07

    We present an improved field-theoretic approach to the grand-canonical potential suitable for linear scaling molecular dynamics simulations using forces from self-consistent electronic structure calculations. It is based on an exact decomposition of the grand canonical potential for independent fermions and does neither rely on the ability to localize the orbitals nor that the Hamilton operator is well-conditioned. Hence, this scheme enables highly accurate all-electron linear scaling calculations even for metallic systems. The inherent energy drift of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, arising from an incomplete convergence of the self-consistent field cycle, is circumvented by means of a properly modified Langevin equation. The predictive power of the present approach is illustrated using the example of liquid methane under extreme conditions.

  17. STABILITY OF LINEAR SYSTEMS WITH MARKOVIAN JUMPS

    Jorge Enrique Mayta Guillermo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the stability of linear systems governed by a Markov chain, this family is known in the specialized literature as linear systems with Markov jumps or by its acronyms in English MJLS as it is denoted in [1]. Linear systems governed by a Markov chain are dynamic systems with abrupt changes. We give some denitions of stability for the MJLS system, where these types of stability are equivalent as long as the state space of the Markov chain is nite. Finally we present a theorem that characterizes the stochastic stability by means of an equation of the Lyapunov type. The result is a generalization of a theorem in classical theory.

  18. Correlated Levy Noise in Linear Dynamical Systems

    Srokowski, T.

    2011-01-01

    Linear dynamical systems, driven by a non-white noise which has the Levy distribution, are analysed. Noise is modelled by a specific stochastic process which is defined by the Langevin equation with a linear force and the Levy distributed symmetric white noise. Correlation properties of the process are discussed. The Fokker-Planck equation driven by that noise is solved. Distributions have the Levy shape and their width, for a given time, is smaller than for processes in the white noise limit. Applicability of the adiabatic approximation in the case of the linear force is discussed. (author)

  19. Introduction to linear systems of differential equations

    Adrianova, L Ya

    1995-01-01

    The theory of linear systems of differential equations is one of the cornerstones of the whole theory of differential equations. At its root is the concept of the Lyapunov characteristic exponent. In this book, Adrianova presents introductory material and further detailed discussions of Lyapunov exponents. She also discusses the structure of the space of solutions of linear systems. Classes of linear systems examined are from the narrowest to widest: 1)�autonomous, 2)�periodic, 3)�reducible to autonomous, 4)�nearly reducible to autonomous, 5)�regular. In addition, Adrianova considers the following: stability of linear systems and the influence of perturbations of the coefficients on the stability the criteria of uniform stability and of uniform asymptotic stability in terms of properties of the solutions several estimates of the growth rate of solutions of a linear system in terms of its coefficients How perturbations of the coefficients change all the elements of the spectrum of the system is defin...

  20. Final Focus Systems in Linear Colliders

    Raubenheimer, Tor

    1998-01-01

    In colliding beam facilities, the ''final focus system'' must demagnify the beams to attain the very small spot sizes required at the interaction points. The first final focus system with local chromatic correction was developed for the Stanford Linear Collider where very large demagnifications were desired. This same conceptual design has been adopted by all the future linear collider designs as well as the SuperConducting Supercollider, the Stanford and KEK B-Factories, and the proposed Muon Collider. In this paper, the over-all layout, physics constraints, and optimization techniques relevant to the design of final focus systems for high-energy electron-positron linear colliders are reviewed. Finally, advanced concepts to avoid some of the limitations of these systems are discussed

  1. Generalized Cross-Gramian for Linear Systems

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    The cross-gramian is a well-known matrix with embedded controllability and observability information. The cross-gramian is related to the Hankel operator and the Hankel singular values of a linear square system and it has several interesting properties. These properties make the cross...... square symmetric systems, the ordinary cross-gramian does not exist. To cope with this problem, a new generalized cross-gramian is introduced in this paper. In contrast to the ordinary cross-gramian, the generalized cross-gramian can be easily obtained for general linear systems and therefore can be used...

  2. Linear dynamic coupling in geared rotor systems

    David, J. W.; Mitchell, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of high frequency oscillations caused by the gear mesh, on components of a geared system that can be modeled as rigid discs are analyzed using linear dynamic coupling terms. The coupled, nonlinear equations of motion for a disc attached to a rotating shaft are presented. The results of a trial problem analysis show that the inclusion of the linear dynamic coupling terms can produce significant changes in the predicted response of geared rotor systems, and that the produced sideband responses are greater than the unbalanced response. The method is useful in designing gear drives for heavy-lift helicopters, industrial speed reducers, naval propulsion systems, and heavy off-road equipment.

  3. On output regulation for linear systems

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    For both continuous- and discrete-time systems, we revisit the output regulation problem for linear systems. We generalize the problem formulation in order • to expand the class of reference or disturbance signals, • to utilize the derivative or feedforward information of reference signals whenever

  4. Linear response theory for quantum open systems

    Wei, J. H.; Yan, YiJing

    2011-01-01

    Basing on the theory of Feynman's influence functional and its hierarchical equations of motion, we develop a linear response theory for quantum open systems. Our theory provides an effective way to calculate dynamical observables of a quantum open system at its steady-state, which can be applied to various fields of non-equilibrium condensed matter physics.

  5. When to call a linear system nonnegative

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will consider discrete time invariant linear systems that allow for an input-state-output representation with a finite dimensional state space, and that have a finite number of inputs and outputs. The basic issue in this paper is when to call these systems nonnegative. An important

  6. Tikhonov theorem for linear hyperbolic systems

    Tang , Ying; Prieur , Christophe; Girard , Antoine

    2015-01-01

    International audience; A class of linear systems of conservation laws with a small perturbation parameter is introduced. By setting the perturbation parameter to zero, two subsystems, the reduced system standing for the slow dynamics and the boundary-layer system representing the fast dynamics, are computed. It is first proved that the exponential stability of the full system implies the stability of both subsystems. Secondly, a counter example is given to indicate that the converse is not t...

  7. ITMETH, Iterative Routines for Linear System

    Greenbaum, A.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ITMETH is a collection of iterative routines for solving large, sparse linear systems. 2 - Method of solution: ITMETH solves general linear systems of the form AX=B using a variety of methods: Jacobi iteration; Gauss-Seidel iteration; incomplete LU decomposition or matrix splitting with iterative refinement; diagonal scaling, matrix splitting, or incomplete LU decomposition with the conjugate gradient method for the problem AA'Y=B, X=A'Y; bi-conjugate gradient method with diagonal scaling, matrix splitting, or incomplete LU decomposition; and ortho-min method with diagonal scaling, matrix splitting, or incomplete LU decomposition. ITMETH also solves symmetric positive definite linear systems AX=B using the conjugate gradient method with diagonal scaling or matrix splitting, or the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient method

  8. Conduction cooling systems for linear accelerator cavities

    Kephart, Robert

    2017-05-02

    A conduction cooling system for linear accelerator cavities. The system conducts heat from the cavities to a refrigeration unit using at least one cavity cooler interconnected with a cooling connector. The cavity cooler and cooling connector are both made from solid material having a very high thermal conductivity of approximately 1.times.10.sup.4 W m.sup.-1 K.sup.-1 at temperatures of approximately 4 degrees K. This allows for very simple and effective conduction of waste heat from the linear accelerator cavities to the cavity cooler, along the cooling connector, and thence to the refrigeration unit.

  9. Rf system specifications for a linear accelerator

    Young, A.; Eaton, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    A linear accelerator contains many systems; however, the most complex and costly is the RF system. The goal of an RF system is usually simply stated as maintaining the phase and amplitude of the RF signal within a given tolerance to accelerate the charged particle beam. An RF system that drives a linear accelerator needs a complete system specification, which should contain specifications for all the subsystems (i.e., high-power RF, low-level RF, RF generation/distribution, and automation control). This paper defines a format for the specifications of these subsystems and discusses each RF subsystem independently to provide a comprehensive understanding of the function of each subsystem. This paper concludes with an example of a specification spreadsheet allowing one to input the specifications of a subsystem. Thus, some fundamental parameters (i.e., the cost and size) of the RF system can be determined

  10. Chaos as an intermittently forced linear system.

    Brunton, Steven L; Brunton, Bingni W; Proctor, Joshua L; Kaiser, Eurika; Kutz, J Nathan

    2017-05-30

    Understanding the interplay of order and disorder in chaos is a central challenge in modern quantitative science. Approximate linear representations of nonlinear dynamics have long been sought, driving considerable interest in Koopman theory. We present a universal, data-driven decomposition of chaos as an intermittently forced linear system. This work combines delay embedding and Koopman theory to decompose chaotic dynamics into a linear model in the leading delay coordinates with forcing by low-energy delay coordinates; this is called the Hankel alternative view of Koopman (HAVOK) analysis. This analysis is applied to the Lorenz system and real-world examples including Earth's magnetic field reversal and measles outbreaks. In each case, forcing statistics are non-Gaussian, with long tails corresponding to rare intermittent forcing that precedes switching and bursting phenomena. The forcing activity demarcates coherent phase space regions where the dynamics are approximately linear from those that are strongly nonlinear.The huge amount of data generated in fields like neuroscience or finance calls for effective strategies that mine data to reveal underlying dynamics. Here Brunton et al.develop a data-driven technique to analyze chaotic systems and predict their dynamics in terms of a forced linear model.

  11. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    Helm, R.; Irwin, J.

    1992-08-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We will outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We will discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread, bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, will be described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC will be given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC)

  12. Final focus systems for linear colliders

    Helm, R.; Irwing, J.

    1992-01-01

    Final focus systems for linear colliders present many exacting challenges in beam optics, component design, and beam quality. Efforts to resolve these problems as they relate to a new generation of linear colliders are under way at several laboratories around the world. We outline criteria for final focus systems and discuss the current state of understanding and resolution of the outstanding problems. We discuss tolerances on alignment, field quality and stability for optical elements, and the implications for beam parameters such as emittance, energy spread , bunch length, and stability in position and energy. Beam-based correction procedures, which in principle can alleviate many of the tolerances, are described. Preliminary results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) under construction at SLAC are given. Finally, we mention conclusions from operating experience at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). (Author) 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2010-11-02

    A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).

  14. Consys Linear Control System Design Software Package

    Diamantidis, Z.

    1987-01-01

    This package is created in order to help engineers, researchers, students and all who work on linear control systems. The software includes all time and frequency domain analysises, spectral analysises and networks, active filters and regulators design aids. The programmes are written on Hewlett Packard computer in Basic 4.0

  15. Disturbance Decoupling of Switched Linear Systems

    Yurtseven, E.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Camlibel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider disturbance decoupling problems for switched linear systems. We will provide necessary and sufficient conditions for three different versions of disturbance decoupling, which differ based on which signals are considered to be the disturbance. In the first version the

  16. Uzawa method for fuzzy linear system

    Ke Wang

    2013-01-01

    An Uzawa method is presented for solving fuzzy linear systems whose coefficient matrix is crisp and the right-hand side column is arbitrary fuzzy number vector. The explicit iterative scheme is given. The convergence is analyzed with convergence theorems and the optimal parameter is obtained. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the procedure and show the effectiveness and efficiency of the method.

  17. Collimation systems in the next linear collider

    Merminga, N.; Irwin, J.; Helm, R.; Ruth, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    Experience indicates that beam collimation will be an essential element of the next generation e + E - linear colliders. A proposal for using nonlinear lenses to drive beam tails to large amplitudes was presented in a previous paper. Here we study the optimization of such systems including effects of wakefields and optical aberrations. Protection and design of the scrapers in these systems are discussed. 9 refs., 7 figs

  18. Standard diffusive systems are well-posed linear systems

    Matignon, Denis; Zwart, Heiko J.

    2004-01-01

    The class of well-posed linear systems as introduced by Salamon has become a well-understood class of systems, see e.g. the work of Weiss and the book of Staffans. Many partial partial differential equations with boundary control and point observation can be formulated as a well-posed linear system.

  19. An optimal L1-minimization algorithm for stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Guermond, Jean-Luc; Popov, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for solving steady one-dimensional convex-like Hamilton-Jacobi equations using a L1-minimization technique on piecewise linear approximations. For a large class of convex Hamiltonians, the algorithm is proven

  20. Parameter identifiability of linear dynamical systems

    Glover, K.; Willems, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    It is assumed that the system matrices of a stationary linear dynamical system were parametrized by a set of unknown parameters. The question considered here is, when can such a set of unknown parameters be identified from the observed data? Conditions for the local identifiability of a parametrization are derived in three situations: (1) when input/output observations are made, (2) when there exists an unknown feedback matrix in the system and (3) when the system is assumed to be driven by white noise and only output observations are made. Also a sufficient condition for global identifiability is derived.

  1. Stability problems for linear hyperbolic systems

    Eckhoff, K.S.

    1975-05-01

    The stability properties for the trivial solution of a general linear hyperbolic system of partial differential equations of the first order are studied. It is shown that results may be obtained by studying the stability properties of certain systems of ordinary differential equations which can be constructed from the hyperbolic system (the so-called transport equations). In some cases the associated stability problem for the transport equations can in fact be shown to be equivalent to the stability problem for the hyperbolic system, but in general the transport equations will only give the necessary conditions for stability. (Auth.)

  2. Identification of general linear mechanical systems

    Sirlin, S. W.; Longman, R. W.; Juang, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    Previous work in identification theory has been concerned with the general first order time derivative form. Linear mechanical systems, a large and important class, naturally have a second order form. This paper utilizes this additional structural information for the purpose of identification. A realization is obtained from input-output data, and then knowledge of the system input, output, and inertia matrices is used to determine a set of linear equations whereby we identify the remaining unknown system matrices. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the number, type and placement of sensors and actuators are given which guarantee identificability, and less stringent conditions are given which guarantee generic identifiability. Both a priori identifiability and a posteriori identifiability are considered, i.e., identifiability being insured prior to obtaining data, and identifiability being assured with a given data set.

  3. Linear systems optimal and robust control

    Sinha, Alok

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Overview Contents of the Book State Space Description of a Linear System Transfer Function of a Single Input/Single Output (SISO) System State Space Realizations of a SISO System SISO Transfer Function from a State Space Realization Solution of State Space Equations Observability and Controllability of a SISO System Some Important Similarity Transformations Simultaneous Controllability and Observability Multiinput/Multioutput (MIMO) Systems State Space Realizations of a Transfer Function Matrix Controllability and Observability of a MIMO System Matrix-Fraction Description (MFD) MFD of a Transfer Function Matrix for the Minimal Order of a State Space Realization Controller Form Realization from a Right MFD Poles and Zeros of a MIMO Transfer Function Matrix Stability Analysis State Feedback Control and Optimization State Variable Feedback for a Single Input System Computation of State Feedback Gain Matrix for a Multiinput System State Feedback Gain Matrix for a Multi...

  4. Quantum Hamilton mechanics: Hamilton equations of quantum motion, origin of quantum operators, and proof of quantization axiom

    Yang, C.-D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a thorough investigation on formulating and solving quantum problems by extended analytical mechanics that extends canonical variables to complex domain. With this complex extension, we show that quantum mechanics becomes a part of analytical mechanics and hence can be treated integrally with classical mechanics. Complex canonical variables are governed by Hamilton equations of motion, which can be derived naturally from Schroedinger equation. Using complex canonical variables, a formal proof of the quantization axiom p → p = -ih∇, which is the kernel in constructing quantum-mechanical systems, becomes a one-line corollary of Hamilton mechanics. The derivation of quantum operators from Hamilton mechanics is coordinate independent and thus allows us to derive quantum operators directly under any coordinate system without transforming back to Cartesian coordinates. Besides deriving quantum operators, we also show that the various prominent quantum effects, such as quantization, tunneling, atomic shell structure, Aharonov-Bohm effect, and spin, all have the root in Hamilton mechanics and can be described entirely by Hamilton equations of motion

  5. Lectures on algebraic system theory: Linear systems over rings

    Kamen, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The presentation centers on four classes of systems that can be treated as linear systems over a ring. These are: (1) discrete-time systems over a ring of scalars such as the integers; (2) continuous-time systems containing time delays; (3) large-scale discrete-time systems; and (4) time-varying discrete-time systems.

  6. An injection system for a linear accelerator

    Santos, A.C.R.

    1978-03-01

    An injection system for the Linear Accelerator is developed using the parameters of machines at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and the Instituto Militar de Engenharia. The proposed system consists basically of a prebuncher and a chopper. The pre-buncher is used to improve the energy resolution and also to increase the accelerator target current. The chopper is used to remove from the beam the electrons that have no possibility of attaining the desired energy and that are usually lost in the walls and the cavity tube, thus producing undesirable background. Theoretical development of the chopper is performed in order to obtain its dimensions for future construction. The complete design the pre-buncher and its feed supply system and the experimental verication of its performance are also presented. It is intended to give the necessary information for the design and construction of the complete injection system proposed. (Author) [pt

  7. Operator approach to linear control systems

    Cheremensky, A

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of the optimization problem for linear control systems with quadratic performance index (LQP), the operator approach allows the construction of a systems theory including a number of particular infinite-dimensional optimization problems with hardly visible concreteness. This approach yields interesting interpretations of these problems and more effective feedback design methods. This book is unique in its emphasis on developing methods for solving a sufficiently general LQP. Although this is complex material, the theory developed here is built on transparent and relatively simple principles, and readers with less experience in the field of operator theory will find enough material to give them a good overview of the current state of LQP theory and its applications. Audience: Graduate students and researchers in the fields of mathematical systems theory, operator theory, cybernetics, and control systems.

  8. Iterative solution of large linear systems

    Young, David Matheson

    1971-01-01

    This self-contained treatment offers a systematic development of the theory of iterative methods. Its focal point resides in an analysis of the convergence properties of the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method, as applied to a linear system with a consistently ordered matrix. The text explores the convergence properties of the SOR method and related techniques in terms of the spectral radii of the associated matrices as well as in terms of certain matrix norms. Contents include a review of matrix theory and general properties of iterative methods; SOR method and stationary modified SOR meth

  9. a Continuous-Time Positive Linear System

    Kyungsup Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a computational method to construct positive realizations with sparse matrices for continuous-time positive linear systems with multiple complex poles. To construct a positive realization of a continuous-time system, we use a Markov sequence similar to the impulse response sequence that is used in the discrete-time case. The existence of the proposed positive realization can be analyzed with the concept of a polyhedral convex cone. We provide a constructive algorithm to compute positive realizations with sparse matrices of some positive systems under certain conditions. A sufficient condition for the existence of a positive realization, under which the proposed constructive algorithm works well, is analyzed.

  10. Linear and non-linear energy barriers in systems of interacting single-domain ferromagnetic particles

    Petrila, Iulian; Bodale, Ilie; Rotarescu, Cristian; Stancu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    A comparative analysis between linear and non-linear energy barriers used for modeling statistical thermally-excited ferromagnetic systems is presented. The linear energy barrier is obtained by new symmetry considerations about the anisotropy energy and the link with the non-linear energy barrier is also presented. For a relevant analysis we compare the effects of linear and non-linear energy barriers implemented in two different models: Preisach-Neel and Ising-Metropolis. The differences between energy barriers which are reflected in different coercive field dependence of the temperature are also presented. -- Highlights: → The linear energy barrier is obtained from symmetry considerations. → The linear and non-linear energy barriers are calibrated and implemented in Preisach-Neel and Ising-Metropolis models. → The temperature and time effects of the linear and non-linear energy barriers are analyzed.

  11. New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems

    concepts of fuzzy set theory and then define a fully fuzzy linear system of equations. .... To represent the above problem as fully fuzzy linear system, we represent x .... Fully fuzzy linear systems can be solved by Linear programming approach, ...

  12. SLAP, Large Sparse Linear System Solution Package

    Greenbaum, A.

    1987-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SLAP is a set of routines for solving large sparse systems of linear equations. One need not store the entire matrix - only the nonzero elements and their row and column numbers. Any nonzero structure is acceptable, so the linear system solver need not be modified when the structure of the matrix changes. Auxiliary storage space is acquired and released within the routines themselves by use of the LRLTRAN POINTER statement. 2 - Method of solution: SLAP contains one direct solver, a band matrix factorization and solution routine, BAND, and several interactive solvers. The iterative routines are as follows: JACOBI, Jacobi iteration; GS, Gauss-Seidel Iteration; ILUIR, incomplete LU decomposition with iterative refinement; DSCG and ICCG, diagonal scaling and incomplete Cholesky decomposition with conjugate gradient iteration (for symmetric positive definite matrices only); DSCGN and ILUGGN, diagonal scaling and incomplete LU decomposition with conjugate gradient interaction on the normal equations; DSBCG and ILUBCG, diagonal scaling and incomplete LU decomposition with bi-conjugate gradient iteration; and DSOMN and ILUOMN, diagonal scaling and incomplete LU decomposition with ORTHOMIN iteration

  13. ROBUST MPC FOR STABLE LINEAR SYSTEMS

    M.A. Rodrigues

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new model predictive controller (MPC, which is robust for a class of model uncertainties, is developed. Systems with stable dynamics and time-invariant model uncertainty are treated. The development herein proposed is focused on real industrial systems where the controller is part of an on-line optimization scheme and works in the output-tracking mode. In addition, the system has a time-varying number of degrees of freedom since some of the manipulated inputs may become constrained. Moreover, the number of controlled outputs may also vary during system operation. Consequently, the actual system may show operating conditions with a number of controlled outputs larger than the number of available manipulated inputs. The proposed controller uses a state-space model, which is aimed at the representation of the output-predicted trajectory. Based on this model, a cost function is proposed whereby the output error is integrated along an infinite prediction horizon. It is considered the case of multiple operating points, where the controller stabilizes a set of models corresponding to different operating conditions for the system. It is shown that closed-loop stability is guaranteed by the feasibility of a linear matrix optimization problem.

  14. Optimal Control of Switching Linear Systems

    Ali Benmerzouga

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A solution to the control of switching linear systems with input constraints was given in Benmerzouga (1997 for both the conventional enumeration approach and the new approach. The solution given there turned out to be not unique. The main objective in this work is to determine the optimal control sequences {Ui(k ,  i = 1,..., M ;  k = 0, 1, ...,  N -1} which transfer the system from a given initial state  X0  to a specific target state  XT  (or to be as close as possible by using the same discrete time solution obtained in Benmerzouga (1997 and minimizing a running cost-to-go function. By using the dynamic programming technique, the optimal solution is found for both approaches given in Benmerzouga (1997. The computational complexity of the modified algorithm is also given.

  15. Well logging system with linearity control

    Jones, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for controlling the gain of a nuclear well logging system comprising: (1) means for measuring the energy spectrum of gamma rays produced by earth formation materials surrounding a well borehole; (2) means for measuring the number of counts of a gamma rays having an energy falling within each of at least two predetermined energy band portions of the gamma ray energy spectrum; (3) means for generating a signal proportional to the ratio of the gamma ray counts and for comparing the ratio signal with at least one constant ratio calibration signal; (4) means for generating an error signal representative of the difference of the ratio signal and the constant ratio calibration signal; and (5) means for using the error signal to control the linearity of the well logging system. (author)

  16. Linear concentration system; Sistema de concentracion lineal

    Gonzalez Lugo, J.I; Leon Rovira, N; Aguayo Tellez, H [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)]. E-mails: a00812662@itesm.mx; noel.leon@itesm.mx; haguayo@itesm.mx

    2013-03-15

    Solar linear concentration technologies to generate high temperatures are limited to the ranges of 200 to 500 degrees Celsius. While its performance has been tested through prototypes and pilot plants around the world, there are still areas of opportunity that can be exploited to obtain a linear concentration that achieves temperatures above this range in order to have a better use of the available solar energy. Because of this: It is possible to develop a linear concentration system that can track the sun with minimal movement of the absorber-receiver while maintaining temperatures above 850 degrees Celsius sufficient for industrial processes that require that temperature. The methodology consists of a series of stages (conceptual design, simulation, evaluation, development concept, results and validation) through which concepts are generated that allow design and evaluation of solar concentrator configurations with the help of simulation software. We have designed a linear parabolic concentrating system which comprises a set of mirrors segments with different focal lengths that works within the range of 600 degrees Celsius; however, it is advancing in the development of a double concentration to reach 850 degrees Celsius. [Spanish] Las tecnologias de concentracion lineal solar para generar altas temperaturas se ven limitadas a los rangos de 200 a 500 grados centigrados. Si bien su funcionamiento ha sido probado a traves de prototipos y plantas piloto alrededor del mundo, aun existen areas de oportunidad que pueden ser aprovechadas para obtener un sistema de concentracion lineal que permita alcanzar temperaturas mayores a este rango para asi tener un mejor aprovechamiento de la energia solar disponible. Debido a esto: Es posible desarrollar un sistema de concentracion lineal capaz de seguir la trayectoria del Sol con minimo movimiento del absorbedor-recibidor al mismo tiempo que mantiene temperaturas superiores a los 850 grados centigrados suficientes para

  17. Linear Actuator System for the NASA Docking System

    Dick, Brandon N.; Oesch, Christopher; Rupp, Timothy W.

    2017-01-01

    The Linear Actuator System (LAS) is a major sub-system within the NASA Docking System (NDS). The NDS Block 1 will be used on the Boeing Crew Space Transportation (CST-100) system to achieve docking with the International Space Station. Critical functions in the Soft Capture aspect of docking are performed by the LAS. This paper describes the general function of the LAS, the system's key requirements and technical challenges, and the development and qualification approach for the system.

  18. Relative null controllability of linear systems with multiple delays in ...

    varying multiple delays in state and control are developed. If the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable, and if the linear system is controllable, then the linear system is null controllable. Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...

  19. Time-advance algorithms based on Hamilton's principle

    Lewis, H.R.; Kostelec, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Time-advance algorithms based on Hamilton's variational principle are being developed for application to problems in plasma physics and other areas. Hamilton's principle was applied previously to derive a system of ordinary differential equations in time whose solution provides an approximation to the evolution of a plasma described by the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. However, the variational principle was not used to obtain an algorithm for solving the ordinary differential equations numerically. The present research addresses the numerical solution of systems of ordinary differential equations via Hamilton's principle. The basic idea is first to choose a class of functions for approximating the solution of the ordinary differential equations over a specific time interval. Then the parameters in the approximating function are determined by applying Hamilton's principle exactly within the class of approximating functions. For example, if an approximate solution is desired between time t and time t + Δ t, the class of approximating functions could be polynomials in time up to some degree. The issue of how to choose time-advance algorithms is very important for achieving efficient, physically meaningful computer simulations. The objective is to reliably simulate those characteristics of an evolving system that are scientifically most relevant. Preliminary numerical results are presented, including comparisons with other computational methods

  20. Linear optical response of finite systems using multishift linear system solvers

    Hübener, Hannes; Giustino, Feliciano [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-28

    We discuss the application of multishift linear system solvers to linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. Using this technique the complete frequency-dependent electronic density response of finite systems to an external perturbation can be calculated at the cost of a single solution of a linear system via conjugate gradients. We show that multishift time-dependent density functional theory yields excitation energies and oscillator strengths in perfect agreement with the standard diagonalization of the response matrix (Casida's method), while being computationally advantageous. We present test calculations for benzene, porphin, and chlorophyll molecules. We argue that multishift solvers may find broad applicability in the context of excited-state calculations within density-functional theory and beyond.

  1. Control system analysis for the perturbed linear accelerator rf system

    Sung Il Kwon

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the modeling problem of the linear accelerator RF system in SNS. Klystrons are modeled as linear parameter varying systems. The effect of the high voltage power supply ripple on the klystron output voltage and the output phase is modeled as an additive disturbance. The cavity is modeled as a linear system and the beam current is modeled as the exogenous disturbance. The output uncertainty of the low level RF system which results from the uncertainties in the RF components and cabling is modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. Also, the feedback loop uncertainty and digital signal processing signal conditioning subsystem uncertainties are lumped together and are modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. Finally, the time delays in the loop are modeled as a lumped time delay. For the perturbed open loop system, the closed loop system performance, and stability are analyzed with the PI feedback controller.

  2. CONTROL SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR THE PERTURBED LINEAR ACCELERATOR RF SYSTEM

    SUNG-IL KWON; AMY H. REGAN

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the modeling problem of the linear accelerator RF system in SNS. Klystrons are modeled as linear parameter varying systems. The effect of the high voltage power supply ripple on the klystron output voltage and the output phase is modeled as an additive disturbance. The cavity is modeled as a linear system and the beam current is modeled as the exogenous disturbance. The output uncertainty of the low level RF system which results from the uncertainties in the RF components and cabling is modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. Also, the feedback loop uncertainty and digital signal processing signal conditioning subsystem uncertainties are lumped together and are modeled as multiplicative uncertainty. Finally, the time delays in the loop are modeled as a lumped time delay. For the perturbed open loop system, the closed loop system performance, and stability are analyzed with the PI feedback controller

  3. Linear-array systems for aerospace NDE

    Smith, Robert A.; Willsher, Stephen J.; Bending, Jamie M.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid large-area inspection of composite structures for impact damage and multi-layered aluminum skins for corrosion has been a recognized priority for several years in both military and civil aerospace applications. Approaches to this requirement have followed two clearly different routes: the development of novel large-area inspection systems, and the enhancement of current ultrasonic or eddy-current methods to reduce inspection times. Ultrasonic inspection is possible with standard flaw detection equipment but the addition of a linear ultrasonic array could reduce inspection times considerably. In order to investigate their potential, 9-element and 17-element linear ultrasonic arrays for composites, and 64-element arrays for aluminum skins, have been developed to DERA specifications for use with the ANDSCAN area scanning system. A 5 m 2 composite wing surface has been scanned with a scan resolution of approximately 3 mm in 6 hours. With subsequent software and hardware improvements all four composite wing surfaces (top/bottom, left/right) of a military fighter aircraft can potentially be inspected in less than a day. Array technology has been very widely used in the medical ultrasound field although rarely above 10 MHz, whereas lap-joint inspection requires a pulse center-frequency of 12 to 20 MHz in order to resolve the separate interfaces in the lap joint. A 128 mm-long multi-element array of 5 mmx2 mm ultrasonic elements for use with the ANDSCAN scanning software was produced to a DERA specification by an NDT manufacturer with experience in the medical imaging field. This paper analyses the performance of the transducers that have been produced and evaluates their use in scanning systems of different configurations

  4. Model Predictive Control for Linear Complementarity and Extended Linear Complementarity Systems

    Bambang Riyanto

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose model predictive control method for linear complementarity and extended linear complementarity systems by formulating optimization along prediction horizon as mixed integer quadratic program. Such systems contain interaction between continuous dynamics and discrete event systems, and therefore, can be categorized as hybrid systems. As linear complementarity and extended linear complementarity systems finds applications in different research areas, such as impact mechanical systems, traffic control and process control, this work will contribute to the development of control design method for those areas as well, as shown by three given examples.

  5. Thermodynamics of (1-alkanol + linear monoether) systems

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos; Riesco, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Densities, ρ, and speeds of sound, u, of systems formed by 1-heptanol, or 1-octanol, or 1-decanol and dibutylether have been measured at a temperature of (293.15, 298.15, and 303.15) K and atmospheric pressure using a vibrating tube densimeter and sound analyser Anton Paar model DSA-5000. The ρ and u values were used to calculate excess molar volumes, V E , and deviations from the ideal behaviour of the thermal expansion coefficient, Δα p and of the isentropic compressibilities, Δκ S . The available database on molar excess enthalpies, H E , and V E for (1-alkanol + linear monoether) systems was used to investigate interactional and structural effects in such mixtures. The enthalpy of the OH...O bonds is lower for methanol solutions, and for the remainder systems, it is practically independent of the mixture compounds. The V E variation with the chain length of the 1-alkanol points out the existence of structural effects for systems including longer 1-alkanols. The ERAS model is applied to the studied mixtures. ERAS represents quite accurately H E and V E data using parameters which consistently depend on the molecular structure

  6. Identification problems in linear transformation system

    Delforge, Jacques.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to solve the theoretical and numerical difficulties involved in the identification problem relative to the linear part of P. Delattre's theory of transformation systems. The theoretical difficulties are due to the very important problem of the uniqueness of the solution, which must be demonstrated in order to justify the value of the solution found. Simple criteria have been found when measurements are possible on all the equivalence classes, but the problem remains imperfectly solved when certain evolution curves are unknown. The numerical difficulties are of two kinds: a slow convergence of iterative methods and a strong repercussion of numerical and experimental errors on the solution. In the former case a fast convergence was obtained by transformation of the parametric space, while in the latter it was possible, from sensitivity functions, to estimate the errors, to define and measure the conditioning of the identification problem then to minimize this conditioning as a function of the experimental conditions [fr

  7. System theory as applied differential geometry. [linear system

    Hermann, R.

    1979-01-01

    The invariants of input-output systems under the action of the feedback group was examined. The approach used the theory of Lie groups and concepts of modern differential geometry, and illustrated how the latter provides a basis for the discussion of the analytic structure of systems. Finite dimensional linear systems in a single independent variable are considered. Lessons of more general situations (e.g., distributed parameter and multidimensional systems) which are increasingly encountered as technology advances are presented.

  8. Normal form of linear systems depending on parameters

    Nguyen Huynh Phan.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we resolve completely the problem to find normal forms of linear systems depending on parameters for the feedback action that we have studied for the special case of controllable linear systems. (author). 24 refs

  9. PWR control system design using advanced linear and non-linear methodologies

    Rabindran, N.; Whitmarsh-Everiss, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Consideration is here given to the methodology deployed for non-linear heuristic analysis in the time domain supported by multi-variable linear control system design methods for the purposes of operational dynamics and control system analysis. This methodology is illustrated by the application of structural singular value μ analysis to Pressurised Water Reactor control system design. (author)

  10. Optimal control linear quadratic methods

    Anderson, Brian D O

    2007-01-01

    This augmented edition of a respected text teaches the reader how to use linear quadratic Gaussian methods effectively for the design of control systems. It explores linear optimal control theory from an engineering viewpoint, with step-by-step explanations that show clearly how to make practical use of the material.The three-part treatment begins with the basic theory of the linear regulator/tracker for time-invariant and time-varying systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is introduced using the Principle of Optimality, and the infinite-time problem is considered. The second part outlines the

  11. Higher order derivatives via Hamilton-Jacobi approach

    Bertin, M.C.; Pimentel, B.M.; Pompeia, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we will show how can be derived a general method for dealing with Lagrangians containing high order derivatives using the Hamilton-Jacobi Formalism for singular systems. By the expansion the configuration space of a n dimensional system we will be able to introduce first order actions and build the equations of motion of the system. We will work with the Generalized Electrodynamics of Podolsky as an example. (author)

  12. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    This paper reports the construction of a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster to the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The LINAC will use superconducting niobium quarter wave resonators as the accelerating element. Construction of the linear accelerator has progressed ...

  13. Symmetric linear systems - An application of algebraic systems theory

    Hazewinkel, M.; Martin, C.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamical systems which contain several identical subsystems occur in a variety of applications ranging from command and control systems and discretization of partial differential equations, to the stability augmentation of pairs of helicopters lifting a large mass. Linear models for such systems display certain obvious symmetries. In this paper, we discuss how these symmetries can be incorporated into a mathematical model that utilizes the modern theory of algebraic systems. Such systems are inherently related to the representation theory of algebras over fields. We will show that any control scheme which respects the dynamical structure either implicitly or explicitly uses the underlying algebra.

  14. Linear response theory for long-range interacting systems in quasistationary states.

    Patelli, Aurelio; Gupta, Shamik; Nardini, Cesare; Ruffo, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Long-range interacting systems, while relaxing to equilibrium, often get trapped in long-lived quasistationary states which have lifetimes that diverge with the system size. In this work, we address the question of how a long-range system in a quasistationary state (QSS) responds to an external perturbation. We consider a long-range system that evolves under deterministic Hamilton dynamics. The perturbation is taken to couple to the canonical coordinates of the individual constituents. Our study is based on analyzing the Vlasov equation for the single-particle phase-space distribution. The QSS represents a stable stationary solution of the Vlasov equation in the absence of the external perturbation. In the presence of small perturbation, we linearize the perturbed Vlasov equation about the QSS to obtain a formal expression for the response observed in a single-particle dynamical quantity. For a QSS that is homogeneous in the coordinate, we obtain an explicit formula for the response. We apply our analysis to a paradigmatic model, the Hamiltonian mean-field model, which involves particles moving on a circle under Hamiltonian dynamics. Our prediction for the response of three representative QSSs in this model (the water-bag QSS, the Fermi-Dirac QSS, and the Gaussian QSS) is found to be in good agreement with N-particle simulations for large N. We also show the long-time relaxation of the water-bag QSS to the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium state. © 2012 American Physical Society

  15. A study on switched linear system identification using game ...

    A study on switched linear system identification using game-theoretic strategies and neural computing. ... This study deals with application of game-theoretic strategies and neural computing to switched linear ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Reduction of Linear Functional Systems using Fuhrmann's Equivalence

    Mohamed S. Boudellioua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Functional systems arise in the treatment of systems of partial differential equations, delay-differential equations, multidimensional equations, etc. The problem of reducing a linear functional system to a system containing fewer equations and unknowns was first studied by Serre. Finding an equivalent presentation of a linear functional system containing fewer equations and fewer unknowns can generally simplify both the study of the structural properties of the linear functional system and of different numerical analysis issues, and it can sometimes help in solving the linear functional system. In this paper, Fuhrmann's equivalence is used to present a constructive result on the reduction of under-determined linear functional systems to a single equation involving a single unknown. This equivalence transformation has been studied by a number of authors and has been shown to play an important role in the theory of linear functional systems.

  17. High density linear systems for fusion power

    Ellis, W.R.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The physics and technological limitations and uncertainties associated with the linear theta pinch are discussed in terms of a generalized energy balance, which has as its basis the ratio (Q/sub E/) of total electrical energy generated to net electrical energy consumed. Included in this total is the virtual energy of bred fissile fuel, if a hybrid blanket is used, as well as the actual of real energy deposited in the blanket by the fusion neutron. The advantages and disadvantages of the pulsed operation demanded by the linear theta pinch are also discussed

  18. Analysis of Linear Hybrid Systems in CLP

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a procedure for representing the semantics of linear hybrid automata (LHAs) as constraint logic programs (CLP); flexible and accurate analysis and verification of LHAs can then be performed using generic CLP analysis and transformation tools. LHAs provide an expressive...

  19. Linear System of Equations, Matrix Inversion, and Linear Programming Using MS Excel

    El-Gebeily, M.; Yushau, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we demonstrate with illustrations two different ways that MS Excel can be used to solve Linear Systems of Equation, Linear Programming Problems, and Matrix Inversion Problems. The advantage of using MS Excel is its availability and transparency (the user is responsible for most of the details of how a problem is solved). Further, we…

  20. A SYSTEMIC VISION OF BIOLOGY: OVERCOMING LINEARITY

    M. Mayer

    2005-07-01

    were used to build  a hipermedia  material.  This  technology  permit  overcomes a linear  communication, improving the  comprehension  of the network perspective.   The teachers  speeches revealed  their  conceptual  con- structions along the  course,  showed the development of the  competences  in identify  interconnection points  in the flow and chemical cycling of energy, compatible  with a systemic view of life.

  1. Solving Fully Fuzzy Linear System of Equations in General Form

    A. Yousefzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an approach for computing the positive solution of a fully fuzzy linear system where the coefficient matrix is a fuzzy $nimes n$ matrix. To do this, we use arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers that introduced by Kaffman in and convert the fully fuzzy linear system into two $nimes n$ and $2nimes 2n$ crisp linear systems. If the solutions of these linear systems don't satisfy in positive fuzzy solution condition, we introduce the constrained least squares problem to obtain optimal fuzzy vector solution by applying the ranking function in given fully fuzzy linear system. Using our proposed method, the fully fuzzy linear system of equations always has a solution. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of proposed method by solving some numerical examples.

  2. Reliability modelling and simulation of switched linear system ...

    Reliability modelling and simulation of switched linear system control using temporal databases. ... design of fault-tolerant real-time switching systems control and modelling embedded micro-schedulers for complex systems maintenance.

  3. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    Li, Yanning; Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can

  4. Energy balance in a system with quasispherical linear compression

    Es'kov, A.G.; Kozlov, N.P.; Kurtmullaev, R.K.; Semenov, V.N.; Khvesyuk, V.I.; Yaminskii, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    This letter reports the resists of some experimental studies and a numerical simulation of the Tor-linear fusion system, 1 in which a heavy plasma shell with a closed magnetic structure is compressed in a quasispherical manner. The parameters of the Tor-Linear, at the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy in Moscow are as follows: The energy stored in the system which accelerates the linear is E = 0.5 MJ; the linear mass is m = 0.2 kg; the working volume of the linear module is 1.5 x 10 -3 m 3 ; the linear velocity is approx.10 3 m/s; the guiding field in the toriod in the linear is 1--10 x 10 21 m -3 ; and the intial volume of the plasma in the linear chamber is 2.5 x 10 -4 m 3 . In this series of experiments, new solutions were developed for all the systems of the plasma--linear complex of the Tor-Linear: to produce a plasma toroid, to transport it, and to trap it in the linear cavity

  5. A Proposed Method for Solving Fuzzy System of Linear Equations

    Reza Kargar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for solving fuzzy system of linear equations with crisp coefficients matrix and fuzzy or interval right hand side. Some conditions for the existence of a fuzzy or interval solution of m×n linear system are derived and also a practical algorithm is introduced in detail. The method is based on linear programming problem. Finally the applicability of the proposed method is illustrated by some numerical examples.

  6. Indirect synthesis of multi-degree of freedom transient systems. [linear programming for a kinematically linear system

    Pilkey, W. D.; Chen, Y. H.

    1974-01-01

    An indirect synthesis method is used in the efficient optimal design of multi-degree of freedom, multi-design element, nonlinear, transient systems. A limiting performance analysis which requires linear programming for a kinematically linear system is presented. The system is selected using system identification methods such that the designed system responds as closely as possible to the limiting performance. The efficiency is a result of the method avoiding the repetitive systems analyses accompanying other numerical optimization methods.

  7. Minimal solution of general dual fuzzy linear systems

    Abbasbandy, S.; Otadi, M.; Mosleh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Fuzzy linear systems of equations, play a major role in several applications in various area such as engineering, physics and economics. In this paper, we investigate the existence of a minimal solution of general dual fuzzy linear equation systems. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for the minimal solution existence are given. Also, some examples in engineering and economic are considered

  8. Partial Linearization of Mechanical Systems with Application to Observer Design

    Sarras, Ioannis; Venkatraman, Aneesh; Ortega, Romeo; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    We consider general mechanical systems and establish a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a suitable change in the generalized momentum coordinates such that the new dynamics become linear in the transformed momenta. The class of systems which can be (partially) linearized by

  9. Simultaneous Balancing and Model Reduction of Switched Linear Systems

    Monshizadeh, Nima; Trentelman, Hendrikus; Camlibel, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, first, balanced truncation of linear systems is revisited. Then, simultaneous balancing of multiple linear systems is investigated. Necessary and sufficient conditions are introduced to identify the case where simultaneous balancing is possible. The validity of these conditions is not

  10. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  11. Algebra and Geometry of Hamilton's Quaternions

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 6. Algebra and Geometry of Hamilton's Quaternions: 'Well, Papa, Can You Multiply Triplets?' General Article Volume 21 Issue 6 June 2016 pp 529-544 ...

  12. Linear System Control Using Stochastic Learning Automata

    Ziyad, Nigel; Cox, E. Lucien; Chouikha, Mohamed F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explains the use of a Stochastic Learning Automata (SLA) to control switching between three systems to produce the desired output response. The SLA learns the optimal choice of the damping ratio for each system to achieve a desired result. We show that the SLA can learn these states for the control of an unknown system with the proper choice of the error criteria. The results of using a single automaton are compared to using multiple automata.

  13. Useful tools for non-linear systems: Several non-linear integral inequalities

    Agahi, H.; Mohammadpour, A.; Mesiar, Radko; Vaezpour, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-80 ISSN 0950-7051 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Monotone measure * Comonotone functions * Integral inequalities * Universal integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.058, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-useful tools for non-linear systems several non-linear integral inequalities.pdf

  14. Decentralized linear quadratic power system stabilizers for multi ...

    Introduction. Modern excitation systems considerably enhance the overall transient stability of power systems ..... to the local bus rather than the angle δ measured with respect to the remote bus. ... With this in view, the linear and nonlinear per-.

  15. A new active absorption system and its performance to linear and non-linear waves

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Clavero, M.; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •An active absorption system for wavemakers has been developed. •The theory for flush mounted gauges has been extended to cover also small gaps. •The new system has been validated in a wave flume with wavemakers in both ends. •A generation and absorption procedure for highly non-linear...

  16. On Optimal Feedback Control for Stationary Linear Systems

    Russell, David L.

    2010-01-01

    We study linear-quadratic optimal control problems for finite dimensional stationary linear systems AX+BU=Z with output Y=CX+DU from the viewpoint of linear feedback solution. We interpret solutions in relation to system robustness with respect to disturbances Z and relate them to nonlinear matrix equations of Riccati type and eigenvalue-eigenvector problems for the corresponding Hamiltonian system. Examples are included along with an indication of extensions to continuous, i.e., infinite dimensional, systems, primarily of elliptic type.

  17. Virtual Estimator for Piecewise Linear Systems Based on Observability Analysis

    Morales-Morales, Cornelio; Adam-Medina, Manuel; Cervantes, Ilse; Vela-Valdés and, Luis G.; García Beltrán, Carlos Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a virtual sensor for piecewise linear systems based on observability analysis that is in function of a commutation law related with the system's outpu. This virtual sensor is also known as a state estimator. Besides, it presents a detector of active mode when the commutation sequences of each linear subsystem are arbitrary and unknown. For the previous, this article proposes a set of virtual estimators that discern the commutation paths of the system and allow estimating their output. In this work a methodology in order to test the observability for piecewise linear systems with discrete time is proposed. An academic example is presented to show the obtained results. PMID:23447007

  18. An optimal L1-minimization algorithm for stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Guermond, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for solving steady one-dimensional convex-like Hamilton-Jacobi equations using a L1-minimization technique on piecewise linear approximations. For a large class of convex Hamiltonians, the algorithm is proven to be convergent and of optimal complexity whenever the viscosity solution is q-semiconcave. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the performance of the method.

  19. Gradient remediability in linear distributed parabolic systems ...

    The aim of this paper is the introduction of a new concept that concerned the analysis of a large class of distributed parabolic systems. It is the general concept of gradient remediability. More precisely, we study with respect to the gradient observation, the existence of an input operator (gradient efficient actuators) ensuring ...

  20. Linearization of Nonautonomous Impulsive System with Nonuniform Exponential Dichotomy

    Yongfei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a version of Hartman-Grobman theorem for the impulsive differential equations. We assume that the linear impulsive system has a nonuniform exponential dichotomy. Under some suitable conditions, we proved that the nonlinear impulsive system is topologically conjugated to its linear system. Indeed, we do construct the topologically equivalent function (the transformation. Moreover, the method to prove the topological conjugacy is quite different from those in previous works (e.g., see Barreira and Valls, 2006.

  1. Hamilton Utilities Corporation annual report 2002 : people, performance, productivity : the business of public service

    2002-01-01

    A brief overview of the municipally-owned Hamilton Utilities Corporation was provided. When Ontario's electricity market opened to competition, it allowed wholesale and retail electricity marketers to operate on a competitive basis. This report describes how Hamilton Hydro, the largest subsidiary, successfully faced the challenges brought about by the open market. The strategy of growth as a multi-utility corporation progressed significantly. Major financial restructuring was completed, income level was maintained, as well as a strong balance sheet. The construction of Hamilton's first district energy system was effected by Hamilton Community Energy, another subsidiary. This project is expected to provide heat to 10 buildings in the downtown area, producing 3.5 megawatts of electricity for the City. The third subsidiary, FibreWired, applied its vast communications expertise to the health care sector. It offered Virtual Private Network (VPN) services to area hospitals and other health care providers in pharmaceutical and biotechnology. A major study was undertaken jointly with the City of Hamilton. It examined the feasibility of restructuring water and wastewater services into a municipally owned corporation under the umbrella of Hamilton Utilities Corporation. Various examples were provided throughout the report to better illustrate how corporate vision was translated into reality. tabs

  2. On the discretization of linear fractional representations of LPV systems

    Toth, R.; Lovera, M.; Heuberger, P.S.C.; Corno, M.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly, controllers for linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems are designed in continuous time using a linear fractional representation (LFR) of the plant. However, the resulting controllers are implemented on digital hardware. Furthermore, discrete-time LPV synthesis approaches require a

  3. Automatic frequency control system for driving a linear accelerator

    Helgesson, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    An automatic frequency control system is described for maintaining the drive frequency applied to a linear accelerator to produce maximum particle output from the accelerator. The particle output amplitude is measured and the frequency of the radio frequency source powering the linear accelerator is adjusted to maximize particle output amplitude

  4. Application of Nearly Linear Solvers to Electric Power System Computation

    Grant, Lisa L.

    To meet the future needs of the electric power system, improvements need to be made in the areas of power system algorithms, simulation, and modeling, specifically to achieve a time frame that is useful to industry. If power system time-domain simulations could run in real-time, then system operators would have situational awareness to implement online control and avoid cascading failures, significantly improving power system reliability. Several power system applications rely on the solution of a very large linear system. As the demands on power systems continue to grow, there is a greater computational complexity involved in solving these large linear systems within reasonable time. This project expands on the current work in fast linear solvers, developed for solving symmetric and diagonally dominant linear systems, in order to produce power system specific methods that can be solved in nearly-linear run times. The work explores a new theoretical method that is based on ideas in graph theory and combinatorics. The technique builds a chain of progressively smaller approximate systems with preconditioners based on the system's low stretch spanning tree. The method is compared to traditional linear solvers and shown to reduce the time and iterations required for an accurate solution, especially as the system size increases. A simulation validation is performed, comparing the solution capabilities of the chain method to LU factorization, which is the standard linear solver for power flow. The chain method was successfully demonstrated to produce accurate solutions for power flow simulation on a number of IEEE test cases, and a discussion on how to further improve the method's speed and accuracy is included.

  5. Feedback linearizing control of a MIMO power system

    Ilyes, Laszlo

    Prior research has demonstrated that either the mechanical or electrical subsystem of a synchronous electric generator may be controlled using single-input single-output (SISO) nonlinear feedback linearization. This research suggests a new approach which applies nonlinear feedback linearization to a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) model of the synchronous electric generator connected to an infinite bus load model. In this way, the electrical and mechanical subsystems may be linearized and simultaneously decoupled through the introduction of a pair of auxiliary inputs. This allows well known, linear, SISO control methods to be effectively applied to the resulting systems. The derivation of the feedback linearizing control law is presented in detail, including a discussion on the use of symbolic math processing as a development tool. The linearizing and decoupling properties of the control law are validated through simulation. And finally, the robustness of the control law is demonstrated.

  6. Portable, x-band, linear accelerator systems

    Schonberg, R.G.; Deruyter, H.; Fowkes, W.R.; Johnson, W.A.; Miller, R.H.; Potter, J.M.; Weaver, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Three light-weight, x-band, electron accelerators have been developed to provide a series of highly portable sources of x-rays and neutrons for nondestructive testing. The 1.5 MeV x-ray unit has a 200 kW magnetron for an RF source and an air-cooled, traveling wave accelerating structure to minimize its weight. The 4 and 6 MeV units share the same drive system which contains a 1.2 MW magnetron. The 4 MeV unit uses a traveling-wave guide to produce x-rays and the 6MeV unit uses a standing-wave guide to produce x-rays or neutrons. The choice of 9.3 GHz was dictated by the availability of a high power coaxial magnetron and by the obvious dimensional and weight advantages of a higher frequency over the more common S-band frequencies around 3 GHz

  7. Structure Learning in Stochastic Non-linear Dynamical Systems

    Morris, R. D.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Luchinsky, D. G.

    2005-12-01

    A great many systems can be modeled in the non-linear dynamical systems framework, as x˙ = f(x) + ξ(t), where f(x) is the potential function for the system, and ξ(t) is the driving noise. Modeling the potential using a set of basis functions, we derive the posterior for the basis coefficients. A more challenging problem is to determine the set of basis functions that are required to model a particular system. We show that using the Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) to rank models, and the beam search technique, that we can accurately determine the structure of simple non-linear dynamical system models, and the structure of the coupling between non-linear dynamical systems where the individual systems are known. This last case has important ecological applications, for example in predator-prey systems, where the very structure of the coupling between predator-prey pairs can have great ecological significance.

  8. Portable, x-band, linear accelerator systems

    Schonberg, R.G.; Deruyter, H.; Fowkes, W.R.; Johnson, W.A.; Miller, R.H.; Potter, J.M.; Weaver, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Three light-weight, x-band, electron accelerators have been developed to provide a series of highly portable sources of x-rays and neutrons for non-destructive testing. The 1.5 MeV x-ray unit has a 200 kW magnetron for an RF source and an air-cooled, traveling wave accelerating structure to minimize its weight. The 4 and 6 MeV units share the same drive system which contains a 1.2 MW magnetron. The 4 MeV unit uses a traveling-wave guide to produce x-rays and the 6MeV unit uses a standing-wave guide to produce x-rays or neutrons. The choice of 9.3 GHz was dictated by the availability of a high power coaxial magnetron and by the obvious dimensional and weight advantages of a higher frequency over the more common S-band frequencies around 3 GHz

  9. Linear quadratic Gaussian balancing for discrete-time infinite-dimensional linear systems

    Opmeer, MR; Curtain, RF

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the existence of linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG)-balanced realizations for discrete-time infinite-dimensional systems. LQG-balanced realizations are those for which the smallest nonnegative self-adjoint solutions of the control and filter Riccati equations are equal. We show

  10. Hamiltonization of theories with degenerate coordinates

    Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a class of Lagrangian theories where part of the coordinates does not have any time derivatives in the Lagrange function (we call such coordinates degenerate). We advocate that it is reasonable to reconsider the conventional definition of singularity based on the usual Hessian and, moreover, to simplify the conventional hamiltonization procedure. In particular, in such a procedure, it is not necessary to complete the degenerate coordinates with the corresponding conjugate momenta

  11. Hamiltonization of theories with degenerate coordinates

    Gitman, D.M. E-mail: gitman@fma.if.usp.br; Tyutin, I.V. E-mail: tyutin@lpi.ru

    2002-05-27

    We consider a class of Lagrangian theories where part of the coordinates does not have any time derivatives in the Lagrange function (we call such coordinates degenerate). We advocate that it is reasonable to reconsider the conventional definition of singularity based on the usual Hessian and, moreover, to simplify the conventional hamiltonization procedure. In particular, in such a procedure, it is not necessary to complete the degenerate coordinates with the corresponding conjugate momenta.

  12. Sparse Linear Solver for Power System Analysis Using FPGA

    Johnson, J. R; Nagvajara, P; Nwankpa, C

    2005-01-01

    .... Numerical solution to load flow equations are typically computed using Newton-Raphson iteration, and the most time consuming component of the computation is the solution of a sparse linear system...

  13. Perfect commuting-operator strategies for linear system games

    Cleve, Richard; Liu, Li; Slofstra, William

    2017-01-01

    Linear system games are a generalization of Mermin's magic square game introduced by Cleve and Mittal. They show that perfect strategies for linear system games in the tensor-product model of entanglement correspond to finite-dimensional operator solutions of a certain set of non-commutative equations. We investigate linear system games in the commuting-operator model of entanglement, where Alice and Bob's measurement operators act on a joint Hilbert space, and Alice's operators must commute with Bob's operators. We show that perfect strategies in this model correspond to possibly infinite-dimensional operator solutions of the non-commutative equations. The proof is based around a finitely presented group associated with the linear system which arises from the non-commutative equations.

  14. A conceptual design of Final Focus Systems for linear colliders

    Brown, K.L.

    1987-06-01

    Linear colliders are a relatively recent development in the evolution of particle accelerators. This report discusses some of the approaches that have been considered for the design of Final Focus Systems to demagnify the beam exiting from a linac to the small size suitable for collisions at the interaction point. The system receiving the most attention is the one adopted for the SLAC Linear Collider. However, the theory and optical techniques discussed should be applicable to the design efforts for future machines

  15. ON THE STABILIZATION OF THE LINEAR HYBRID SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    Kirillov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The linear control hybrid system, consisting of a fi- nite set of subsystems (modes having different dimensions, is considered. The moments of reset time are determined by some complementary function – evolutionary time. This function satisfies the special complementary ordinary differential equation. The mode stabilization problem is solved for some class of piecewise linear controls. The method of stabilization relies on the set of invariant planes, the existence of which is due to the special form of the hybrid system.

  16. Iterative algorithms for large sparse linear systems on parallel computers

    Adams, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    Algorithms for assembling in parallel the sparse system of linear equations that result from finite difference or finite element discretizations of elliptic partial differential equations, such as those that arise in structural engineering are developed. Parallel linear stationary iterative algorithms and parallel preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithms are developed for solving these systems. In addition, a model for comparing parallel algorithms on array architectures is developed and results of this model for the algorithms are given.

  17. Simultaneous Balancing and Model Reduction of Switched Linear Systems

    Monshizadeh, Nima; Trentelman, Hendrikus; Camlibel, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, first, balanced truncation of linear systems is revisited. Then, simultaneous balancing of multiple linear systems is investigated. Necessary and sufficient conditions are introduced to identify the case where simultaneous balancing is possible. The validity of these conditions is not limited to a certain type of balancing, and they are applicable for different types of balancing corresponding to different equations, like Lyapunov or Riccati equations. The results obtained are ...

  18. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system using a new linear actuator

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Castro, Javier

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a photovoltaic solar pumping system using a new linear actuator is presented. This linear actuator is a double-sided flat two-phase variable-reluctance linear stepper motor that moves a piston-type water pump with the help of a rope, a pulley and a counterweight. The entire actuator pump ensemble is controlled by a simple electronic unit that manages the electric power generated by a photovoltaic array. The proposed system is suitable for rural communities in developing...

  19. Phase and amplitude detection system for the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Fox, J.D.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    A computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system to measure and stabilize the rf power sources in the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. This system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 microsecond 2856 MHz rf pulse and will be used for phase feedback control and for amplitude and phase jitter detection. This paper discusses the measurement system performance requirements for the operation of the Stanford Linear Collider, and the design and implementation of the phase and amplitude detection system. The fundamental software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  20. Synchronization of linearly coupled unified chaotic systems based on linear balanced feedback scheme with constraints

    Chen, H.-H.; Chen, C.-S.; Lee, C.-I

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the synchronization of unidirectional and bidirectional coupled unified chaotic systems. A balanced coupling coefficient control method is presented for global asymptotic synchronization using the Lyapunov stability theorem and a minimum scheme with no constraints/constraints. By using the result of the above analysis, the balanced coupling coefficients are then designed to achieve the chaos synchronization of linearly coupled unified chaotic systems. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed chaos synchronization scheme are verified via numerical simulations.

  1. Solution of generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices

    Sogabe, Tomohiro; Hoshi, Takeo; Zhang, Shao-Liang; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    We develop the shifted COCG method [R. Takayama, T. Hoshi, T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, Linear algebraic calculation of Green’s function for large-scale electronic structure theory, Phys. Rev. B 73 (165108) (2006) 1–9] and the shifted WQMR method [T. Sogabe, T. Hoshi, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, On a weighted quasi-residual minimization strategy of the QMR method for solving complex symmetric shifted linear systems, Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 31 (2008) 126–140] for solving generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices that arise from the electronic structure theory. The complex symmetric Lanczos process with a suitable bilinear form plays an important role in the development of the methods. The numerical examples indicate that the methods are highly attractive when the inner linear systems can efficiently be solved.

  2. Economic MPC for a linear stochastic system of energy units

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Sokoler, Leo Emil; Standardi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes comprehensively the work in four recent PhD theses from the Technical University of Denmark related to Economic MPC of future power systems. Future power systems will consist of a large number of decentralized power producers and a large number of controllable power consumers...... in addition to stochastic power producers such as wind turbines and solar power plants. Control of such large scale systems requires new control algorithms. In this paper, we formulate the control of such a system as an Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) problem. When the power producers and controllable...... power consumers have linear dynamics, the Economic MPC may be expressed as a linear program. We provide linear models for a number of energy units in an energy system, formulate an Economic MPC for coordination of such a system. We indicate how advances in computational MPC makes the solutions...

  3. Stability analysis of switched linear systems defined by graphs

    Athanasopoulos, N.; Lazar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for global exponential stability for switched discrete-time linear systems, under arbitrary switching, which is constrained within a set of admissible transitions. The class of systems studied includes the family of systems under arbitrary switching,

  4. Euclidean null controllability of linear systems with delays in state ...

    Sufficient conditions are developed for the Euclidean controllability of linear systems with delay in state and in control. Namely, if the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable and the control equation proper, then the control system is Euclidean null controllable. Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...

  5. Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    , closed-loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can be extended...

  6. Stability and response bounds of non-conservative linear systems

    Pommer, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For a linear system of second order differential equations the stability is studied by Lyapunov's direct method. The Lyapunov matrix equation is solved and a sufficient condition for stability is expressed by the system matrices. For a system which satisfies the condition for stability the Lyapunov...

  7. Linear Optimization of Frequency Spectrum Assignments Across System

    2016-03-01

    selection tools, frequency allocation, transmission optimization, electromagnetic maneuver warfare, electronic protection, assignment model 15. NUMBER ...Characteristics Modeled ...............................................................29 Table 10.   Antenna Systems Modeled , Number of Systems and...surveillance EW early warning GAMS general algebraic modeling system GHz gigahertz IDE integrated development environment ILP integer linear program

  8. Stability analysis of switched linear systems defined by graphs

    Athanasopoulos, Nikolaos; Lazar, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for global exponential stability for switched discrete-time linear systems, under arbitrary switching, which is constrained within a set of admissible transitions. The class of systems studied includes the family of systems under arbitrary switching, periodic systems, and systems with minimum and maximum dwell time specifications. To reach the result, we describe the set of rules that define the admissible transitions with a weighted directed gra...

  9. Modeling and analysis of linear hyperbolic systems of balance laws

    Bartecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This monograph focuses on the mathematical modeling of distributed parameter systems in which mass/energy transport or wave propagation phenomena occur and which are described by partial differential equations of hyperbolic type. The case of linear (or linearized) 2 x 2 hyperbolic systems of balance laws is considered, i.e., systems described by two coupled linear partial differential equations with two variables representing physical quantities, depending on both time and one-dimensional spatial variable. Based on practical examples of a double-pipe heat exchanger and a transportation pipeline, two typical configurations of boundary input signals are analyzed: collocated, wherein both signals affect the system at the same spatial point, and anti-collocated, in which the input signals are applied to the two different end points of the system. The results of this book emerge from the practical experience of the author gained during his studies conducted in the experimental installation of a heat exchange cente...

  10. A convex optimization approach for solving large scale linear systems

    Debora Cores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known Conjugate Gradient (CG method minimizes a strictly convex quadratic function for solving large-scale linear system of equations when the coefficient matrix is symmetric and positive definite. In this work we present and analyze a non-quadratic convex function for solving any large-scale linear system of equations regardless of the characteristics of the coefficient matrix. For finding the global minimizers, of this new convex function, any low-cost iterative optimization technique could be applied. In particular, we propose to use the low-cost globally convergent Spectral Projected Gradient (SPG method, which allow us to extend this optimization approach for solving consistent square and rectangular linear system, as well as linear feasibility problem, with and without convex constraints and with and without preconditioning strategies. Our numerical results indicate that the new scheme outperforms state-of-the-art iterative techniques for solving linear systems when the symmetric part of the coefficient matrix is indefinite, and also for solving linear feasibility problems.

  11. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap systems

    Lehnert, B.

    1988-09-01

    The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field generated by currents in a set of external conductors. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap geometry is made in this paper. As compared to toroidal systems, linear geometry has the advantages of relative simplicity and of a current drive by means of electrodes. Linear devices are convenient for basic studies of Extrap, at moderately high pinch currents and plasma temperatures. Within the parameter ranges of experiments at high pinch currents and plasma temperatures, linear systems have on the other hand some substantial disadvantages, on account of the plasma interaction with the end regions. This results in a limitation of the energy confinement time, and leads in the case of an ohmically heated plasma to excessively high plasma densities and small pinch radii which also complicate the introduction of the external conductors. (author)

  12. Linear local stability of electrostatic drift modes in helical systems

    Yamagishi, O.; Nakajima, N.; Sugama, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the stability of the drift wave in helical systems. For this purpose, we solve the linear local gyrokinetic-Poisson equation, in the electrostatic regime. As a model of helical plasmas, Large helical Device (LHD) is considered. The equation we apply is rather exact in the framework of linear gyrokinetic theory, where only the approximation is the ballooning representation. In this paper, we consider only collisionless cases. All the frequency regime can be naturally reated without any assumptions, and in such cases, ion temperature gradient modes (ITG), trapped electron modes (TEM), and electron temperature gradient modes (ETG) are expected to become unstable linearly independently. (orig.)

  13. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Colmenares W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  14. Structured Control of Affine Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure to design structured controllers for discrete-time affine linear parametervarying systems (A LPV). The class of control structures includes decentralized of any order, fixed order output feedback, simultaneous plant-control design, among others. A parametervarying...... non-convex condition for an upper bound on the induced L2-norm performance is solved by an iterative linear matrix inequalities (LMI) optimization algorithm. Numerical examples demostrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach....

  15. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first...... placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without...

  16. On the stability of non-linear systems

    Guelman, M.

    1968-09-01

    A study is made of the absolute stability of nonlinear systems, using Liapounov's second method and taking into account the results obtained from V.M. Popov's work. The results already established are first presented, in particular concerning the frequency domain criterions for absolute stability of automatic control systems containing one single non linearity. The results have been extended to show the existence of a limiting parabola. New use is then made of the methods studied for deriving absolute stability criterions for a system containing a different type of non linearity. Finally, the results obtained are considered from the point of view of Aizerman's conjecture. (author) [fr

  17. Applications of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems

    Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The piping systems in nuclear power plants, even with conventional snubber supports, are highly complex nonlinear structures under severe earthquake loadings mainly due to various mechanical gaps in support structures. Some type of nonlinear analysis is necessary to accurately predict the piping responses under earthquake loadings. The application of equivalent linearization approaches (ELA) to seismic analyses of nonlinear piping systems is presented. Two types of ELA's are studied; i.e., one based on the response spectrum method and the other based on the linear random vibration theory. The test results of main steam and feedwater piping systems supported by snubbers and energy absorbers are used to evaluate the numerical accuracy and limitations

  18. State space and input-output linear systems

    Delchamps, David F

    1988-01-01

    It is difficult for me to forget the mild sense of betrayal I felt some ten years ago when I discovered, with considerable dismay, that my two favorite books on linear system theory - Desoer's Notes for a Second Course on Linear Systems and Brockett's Finite Dimensional Linear Systems - were both out of print. Since that time, of course, linear system theory has undergone a transformation of the sort which always attends the maturation of a theory whose range of applicability is expanding in a fashion governed by technological developments and by the rate at which such advances become a part of engineering practice. The growth of the field has inspired the publication of some excellent books; the encyclopedic treatises by Kailath and Chen, in particular, come immediately to mind. Nonetheless, I was inspired to write this book primarily by my practical needs as a teacher and researcher in the field. For the past five years, I have taught a one semester first year gradu­ ate level linear system theory course i...

  19. Unification of three linear models for the transient visual system

    Brinker, den A.C.

    1989-01-01

    Three different linear filters are considered as a model describing the experimentally determined triphasic impulse responses of discs. These impulse responses arc associated with the transient visual system. Each model reveals a different feature of the system. Unification of the models is

  20. Punctuated equilibrium in a non-linear system of action

    J.S. Timmermans (Jos)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractColeman's equilibrium model of social development, the Linear System of Action, is extended to cover the dynamics of societal transitions. The model implemented has the characteristics of a dissipative system. A variation and selection algorithm favoring the retention of relatively

  1. Lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear

    In this paper, the lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear terms via impulsive control is investigated. Based on the stability theory of impulsive delayed differential equations, some sufficient conditions are obtained guaranteeing the synchronized behaviours between two delayed chaotic systems.

  2. INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF LINEAR-DIFFERENTIAL ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS

    KUIJPER, M; SCHUMACHER, JM

    Systems of linear differential and algebraic equations occur in various ways, for instance, as a result of automated modeling procedures and in problems involving algebraic constraints, such as zero dynamics and exact model matching. Differential/algebraic systems may represent an input-output

  3. Frequency Interval Cross Gramians for Linear and Bilinear Systems

    Jazlan, Ahmad; Sreeram, Victor; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    In many control engineering problems, it is desired to analyze the systems at particular frequency intervals of interest. This paper focuses on the development of frequency interval cross gramians for both linear and bilinear systems. New generalized Sylvester equations for calculating the freque...

  4. Switching control of linear systems for generating chaos

    Liu Xinzhi; Teo, Kok-Lay; Zhang Hongtao; Chen Guanrong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new switching method is developed, which can be applied to generating different types of chaos or chaos-like dynamics from two or more linear systems. A numerical simulation is given to illustrate the generated chaotic dynamic behavior of the systems with some variable parameters. Finally, a circuit is built to realize various chaotic dynamical behaviors

  5. New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems

    In this paper, we present a method to solve fully fuzzy linear systems with symmetric coefficient matrix. The symmetric coefficient matrix is decomposed into two systems of equations by using Cholesky method and then a solution can be obtained. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our method.

  6. Criteria for stability of linear dynamical systems with multiple delays ...

    In this study we considered a linear Dynamical system with multiple delays and find suitable conditions on the systems parameters such that for a given initial function, we can define a mapping in a carefully chosen complete metric space on which the mapping has a unique fixed point. An asymptotic stability theory for the ...

  7. A data-acquisition system for high speed linear CCD

    Liu Zhiyan; Chen Xiangcai; Jiang Xiaoshan; Zhang Hongyu; Liang Zhongwang; Xiang Haisheng; Hu Jun

    2010-01-01

    A data-acquisition system for high speed linear CCD (Charge Coupled device) is mainly introduced. The optical fiber transmission technology is used. The data is sent to PC through USB or PCI interface. The construction of the system, the design of the PCI interface hardware, software design and the design of the control program running on host computer are also introduced. (authors)

  8. Partial Synchronization Manifolds for Linearly Time-Delay Coupled Systems

    Steur, Erik; van Leeuwen, Cees; Michiels, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Sometimes a network of dynamical systems shows a form of incomplete synchronization characterized by synchronization of some but not all of its systems. This type of incomplete synchronization is called partial synchronization. Partial synchronization is associated with the existence of partial synchronization manifolds, which are linear invariant subspaces of C, the state space of the network of systems. We focus on partial synchronization manifolds in networks of system...

  9. The linear sizes tolerances and fits system modernization

    Glukhov, V. I.; Grinevich, V. A.; Shalay, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    The study is carried out on the urgent topic for technical products quality providing in the tolerancing process of the component parts. The aim of the paper is to develop alternatives for improving the system linear sizes tolerances and dimensional fits in the international standard ISO 286-1. The tasks of the work are, firstly, to classify as linear sizes the elements additionally linear coordinating sizes that determine the detail elements location and, secondly, to justify the basic deviation of the tolerance interval for the element's linear size. The geometrical modeling method of real details elements, the analytical and experimental methods are used in the research. It is shown that the linear coordinates are the dimensional basis of the elements linear sizes. To standardize the accuracy of linear coordinating sizes in all accuracy classes, it is sufficient to select in the standardized tolerance system only one tolerance interval with symmetrical deviations: Js for internal dimensional elements (holes) and js for external elements (shafts). The main deviation of this coordinating tolerance is the average zero deviation, which coincides with the nominal value of the coordinating size. Other intervals of the tolerance system are remained for normalizing the accuracy of the elements linear sizes with a fundamental change in the basic deviation of all tolerance intervals is the maximum deviation corresponding to the limit of the element material: EI is the lower tolerance for the of the internal elements (holes) sizes and es is the upper tolerance deviation for the outer elements (shafts) sizes. It is the sizes of the material maximum that are involved in the of the dimensional elements mating of the shafts and holes and determine the fits type.

  10. Damped oscillations of linear systems a mathematical introduction

    Veselić, Krešimir

    2011-01-01

    The theory of linear damped oscillations was originally developed more than hundred years ago and is still of vital research interest to engineers, mathematicians and physicists alike. This theory plays a central role in explaining the stability of mechanical structures in civil engineering, but it also has applications in other fields such as electrical network systems and quantum mechanics. This volume gives an introduction to linear finite dimensional damped systems as they are viewed by an applied mathematician. After a short overview of the physical principles leading to the linear system model, a largely self-contained mathematical theory for this model is presented. This includes the geometry of the underlying indefinite metric space, spectral theory of J-symmetric matrices and the associated quadratic eigenvalue problem. Particular attention is paid to the sensitivity issues which influence numerical computations. Finally, several recent research developments are included, e.g. Lyapunov stability and ...

  11. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  12. System identication of a linearized hysteretic system using covariance driven stochastic subspace identication

    Bajric, Anela

    A single mass Bouc-Wen oscillator with linear static restoring force contribution is approximated by an equivalent linear system. The aim of the linearized model is to emulate the correct force-displacement response of the Bouc-Wenmodel with characteristic hysteretic behaviour. The linearized mod...

  13. Linearly and nonlinearly bidirectionally coupled synchronization of hyperchaotic systems

    Zhou Jin; Lu Junan; Wu Xiaoqun

    2007-01-01

    To date, there have been many results about unidirectionally coupled synchronization of chaotic systems. However, much less work is reported on bidirectionally-coupled synchronization. In this paper, we investigate the synchronization of two bidirectionally coupled Chen hyperchaotic systems, which are coupled linearly and nonlinearly respectively. Firstly, linearly coupled synchronization of two hyperchaotic Chen systems is investigated, and a theorem on how to choose the coupling coefficients are developed to guarantee the global asymptotical synchronization of two coupled hyperchaotic systems. Analysis shows that the choice of the coupling coefficients relies on the bound of the chaotic system. Secondly, the nonlinearly coupled synchronization is studied; a sufficient condition for the locally asymptotical synchronization is derived, which is independent of the bound of the hyperchaotic system. Finally, numerical simulations are included to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed theorems

  14. Linear dynamical quantum systems analysis, synthesis, and control

    Nurdin, Hendra I

    2017-01-01

    This monograph provides an in-depth treatment of the class of linear-dynamical quantum systems. The monograph presents a detailed account of the mathematical modeling of these systems using linear algebra and quantum stochastic calculus as the main tools for a treatment that emphasizes a system-theoretic point of view and the control-theoretic formulations of quantum versions of familiar problems from the classical (non-quantum) setting, including estimation and filtering, realization theory, and feedback control. Both measurement-based feedback control (i.e., feedback control by a classical system involving a continuous-time measurement process) and coherent feedback control (i.e., feedback control by another quantum system without the intervention of any measurements in the feedback loop) are treated. Researchers and graduates studying systems and control theory, quantum probability and stochastics or stochastic control whether from backgrounds in mechanical or electrical engineering or applied mathematics ...

  15. Nonautonomous linear system of the terrestrial carbon cycle

    Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon cycle has been studied by uses of observation through various networks, field and laboratory experiments, and simulation models. Much less has been done on theoretical thinking and analysis to understand fundament properties of carbon cycle and then guide observatory, experimental, and modeling research. This presentation is to explore what would be the theoretical properties of terrestrial carbon cycle and how those properties can be used to make observatory, experimental, and modeling research more effective. Thousands of published data sets from litter decomposition and soil incubation studies almost all indicate that decay processes of litter and soil organic carbon can be well described by first order differential equations with one or more pools. Carbon pool dynamics in plants and soil after disturbances (e.g., wildfire, clear-cut of forests, and plows of soil for cropping) and during natural recovery or ecosystem restoration also exhibit characteristics of first-order linear systems. Thus, numerous lines of empirical evidence indicate that the terrestrial carbon cycle can be adequately described as a nonautonomous linear system. The linearity reflects the nature of the carbon cycle that carbon, once fixed by photosynthesis, is linearly transferred among pools within an ecosystem. The linear carbon transfer, however, is modified by nonlinear functions of external forcing variables. In addition, photosynthetic carbon influx is also nonlinearly influenced by external variables. This nonautonomous linear system can be mathematically expressed by a first-order linear ordinary matrix equation. We have recently used this theoretical property of terrestrial carbon cycle to develop a semi-analytic solution of spinup. The new methods have been applied to five global land models, including NCAR's CLM and CABLE models and can computationally accelerate spinup by two orders of magnitude. We also use this theoretical property to develop an analytic framework to

  16. Refined Fuchs inequalities for systems of linear differential equations

    Gontsov, R R

    2004-01-01

    We refine the Fuchs inequalities obtained by Corel for systems of linear meromorphic differential equations given on the Riemann sphere. Fuchs inequalities enable one to estimate the sum of exponents of the system over all its singular points. We refine these well-known inequalities by considering the Jordan structure of the leading coefficient of the Laurent series for the matrix of the right-hand side of the system in the neighbourhood of a singular point

  17. The graphics software of the Saclay linear accelerator control system

    Gournay, J.F.

    1987-06-01

    The Control system of the Saclay Linear Accelerator is based upon modern technology hardware. In the graphic software, pictures are created in exactly the same manner for all the graphic devices supported by the system. The informations used to draw a picture are stored in an array called a graphic segment. Three output primitives are used to add graphic material in a segment. Three coordinate systems are defined

  18. Stability analysis of linear switching systems with time delays

    Li Ping; Zhong Shouming; Cui Jinzhong

    2009-01-01

    The issue of stability analysis of linear switching system with discrete and distributed time delays is studied in this paper. An appropriate switching rule is applied to guarantee the stability of the whole switching system. Our results use a Riccati-type Lyapunov functional under a condition on the time delay. So, switching systems with mixed delays are developed. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.

  19. Chaos synchronization of a unified chaotic system via partial linearization

    Yu Yongguang; Li Hanxiong; Duan Jian

    2009-01-01

    A partial linearization method is proposed for realizing the chaos synchronization of an unified chaotic system. Through synchronizing partial state of the chaotic systems can result in the synchronization of their entire states, and the resulting controller is singularity free. The results can be easily extended to the synchronization of other similar chaotic systems. Simulation results are conducted to show the effectiveness of the method.

  20. SNR Estimation in Linear Systems with Gaussian Matrices

    Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag; Alrashdi, Ayed; Ballal, Tarig; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2017-01-01

    This letter proposes a highly accurate algorithm to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a linear system from a single realization of the received signal. We assume that the linear system has a Gaussian matrix with one sided left correlation. The unknown entries of the signal and the noise are assumed to be independent and identically distributed with zero mean and can be drawn from any distribution. We use the ridge regression function of this linear model in company with tools and techniques adapted from random matrix theory to achieve, in closed form, accurate estimation of the SNR without prior statistical knowledge on the signal or the noise. Simulation results show that the proposed method is very accurate.

  1. SNR Estimation in Linear Systems with Gaussian Matrices

    Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag

    2017-09-27

    This letter proposes a highly accurate algorithm to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for a linear system from a single realization of the received signal. We assume that the linear system has a Gaussian matrix with one sided left correlation. The unknown entries of the signal and the noise are assumed to be independent and identically distributed with zero mean and can be drawn from any distribution. We use the ridge regression function of this linear model in company with tools and techniques adapted from random matrix theory to achieve, in closed form, accurate estimation of the SNR without prior statistical knowledge on the signal or the noise. Simulation results show that the proposed method is very accurate.

  2. Experimental quantum computing to solve systems of linear equations.

    Cai, X-D; Weedbrook, C; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Gu, Mile; Zhu, M-J; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2013-06-07

    Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2×2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm.

  3. Plasma heating by non-linear wave-Plasma interaction | Echi ...

    We simulate the non-linear interaction of waves with magnetized tritium plasma with the aim of determining the parameter values that characterize the response of the plasma. The wave-plasma interaction has a non-conservative Hamiltonian description. The resulting system of Hamilton's equations is integrated numerically ...

  4. Periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions

    Cheng Rong [Coll. of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Tech., Nanjing (China); Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China); Zhang Dongfeng [Dept. of Mathematics, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)

    2010-05-15

    In dynamical system theory, especially in many fields of applications from mechanics, Hamiltonian systems play an important role, since many related equations in mechanics can be written in an Hamiltonian form. In this paper, we study the existence of periodic solutions for a class of Hamiltonian systems. By applying the Galerkin approximation method together with a result of critical point theory, we establish the existence of periodic solutions of asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems without twist conditions. Twist conditions play crucial roles in the study of periodic solutions for asymptotically linear Hamiltonian systems. The lack of twist conditions brings some difficulty to the study. To the authors' knowledge, very little is known about the case, where twist conditions do not hold. (orig.)

  5. Theoretical analysis of balanced truncation for linear switched systems

    Petreczky, Mihaly; Wisniewski, Rafal; Leth, John-Josef

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present theoretical analysis of model reduction of linear switched systems based on balanced truncation, presented in [1,2]. More precisely, (1) we provide a bound on the estimation error using L2 gain, (2) we provide a system theoretic interpretation of grammians and their singu......In this paper we present theoretical analysis of model reduction of linear switched systems based on balanced truncation, presented in [1,2]. More precisely, (1) we provide a bound on the estimation error using L2 gain, (2) we provide a system theoretic interpretation of grammians...... for showing this independence is realization theory of linear switched systems. [1] H. R. Shaker and R. Wisniewski, "Generalized gramian framework for model/controller order reduction of switched systems", International Journal of Systems Science, Vol. 42, Issue 8, 2011, 1277-1291. [2] H. R. Shaker and R....... Wisniewski, "Switched Systems Reduction Framework Based on Convex Combination of Generalized Gramians", Journal of Control Science and Engineering, 2009....

  6. Linear-constraint wavefront control for exoplanet coronagraphic imaging systems

    Sun, He; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Groff, Tyler Dean

    2017-01-01

    A coronagraph is a leading technology for achieving high-contrast imaging of exoplanets in a space telescope. It uses a system of several masks to modify the diffraction and achieve extremely high contrast in the image plane around target stars. However, coronagraphic imaging systems are very sensitive to optical aberrations, so wavefront correction using deformable mirrors (DMs) is necessary to avoid contrast degradation in the image plane. Electric field conjugation (EFC) and Stroke minimization (SM) are two primary high-contrast wavefront controllers explored in the past decade. EFC minimizes the average contrast in the search areas while regularizing the strength of the control inputs. Stroke minimization calculates the minimum DM commands under the constraint that a target average contrast is achieved. Recently in the High Contrast Imaging Lab at Princeton University (HCIL), a new linear-constraint wavefront controller based on stroke minimization was developed and demonstrated using numerical simulation. Instead of only constraining the average contrast over the entire search area, the new controller constrains the electric field of each single pixel using linear programming, which could led to significant increases in speed of the wavefront correction and also create more uniform dark holes. As a follow-up of this work, another linear-constraint controller modified from EFC is demonstrated theoretically and numerically and the lab verification of the linear-constraint controllers is reported. Based on the simulation and lab results, the pros and cons of linear-constraint controllers are carefully compared with EFC and stroke minimization.

  7. Seismic analysis of equipment system with non-linearities such as gap and friction using equivalent linearization method

    Murakami, H.; Hirai, T.; Nakata, M.; Kobori, T.; Mizukoshi, K.; Takenaka, Y.; Miyagawa, N.

    1989-01-01

    Many of the equipment systems of nuclear power plants contain a number of non-linearities, such as gap and friction, due to their mechanical functions. It is desirable to take such non-linearities into account appropriately for the evaluation of the aseismic soundness. However, in usual design works, linear analysis method with rough assumptions is applied from engineering point of view. An equivalent linearization method is considered to be one of the effective analytical techniques to evaluate non-linear responses, provided that errors to a certain extent are tolerated, because it has greater simplicity in analysis and economization in computing time than non-linear analysis. The objective of this paper is to investigate the applicability of the equivalent linearization method to evaluate the maximum earthquake response of equipment systems such as the CANDU Fuelling Machine which has multiple non- linearities

  8. Design techniques for large scale linear measurement systems

    Candy, J.V.

    1979-03-01

    Techniques to design measurement schemes for systems modeled by large scale linear time invariant systems, i.e., physical systems modeled by a large number (> 5) of ordinary differential equations, are described. The techniques are based on transforming the physical system model to a coordinate system facilitating the design and then transforming back to the original coordinates. An example of a three-stage, four-species, extraction column used in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements is presented. The basic ideas are briefly discussed in the case of noisy measurements. An example using a plutonium nitrate storage vessel (reprocessing) with measurement uncertainty is also presented

  9. Decentralized linear quadratic power system stabilizers for multi ...

    Linear quadratic stabilizers are well-known for their superior control capabilities when compared to the conventional lead–lag power system stabilizers. However, they have not seen much of practical importance as the state variables are generally not measurable; especially the generator rotor angle measurement is not ...

  10. Force analysis of linear induction motor for magnetic levitation system

    Kuijpers, A.A.; Nemlioglu, C.; Sahin, F.; Verdel, A.J.D.; Compter, J.C.; Lomonova, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the analyses of thrust and normal forces of linear induction motor (LIM) segments which are implemented in a rotating ring system. To obtain magnetic levitation in a cost effective and sustainable way, decoupled control of thrust and normal forces is required. This study includes

  11. Input design for linear dynamic systems using maxmin criteria

    Sadegh, Payman; Hansen, Lars H.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of input design for maximizing the smallest eigenvalue of the information matrix for linear dynamic systems. The optimization of the smallest eigenvalue is of interest in parameter estimation and parameter change detection problems. We describe a simple cutting...

  12. Generating Nice Linear Systems for Matrix Gaussian Elimination

    Homewood, L. James

    2004-01-01

    In this article an augmented matrix that represents a system of linear equations is called nice if a sequence of elementary row operations that reduces the matrix to row-echelon form, through matrix Gaussian elimination, does so by restricting all entries to integers in every step. Many instructors wish to use the example of matrix Gaussian…

  13. Daylighting System Based on Novel Design of Linear Fresnel lens

    Thanh Tuan Pham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a design and optical simulation of a daylighting system using a novel design of linear Fresnel lens, which is constructed based on the conservation of optical path length and edge ray theorem. The linear Fresnel lens can achieve a high uniformity by using a new idea of design in which each groove of the lens distributes sunlight uniformly over the receiver so that the whole lens also uniformly distributes sunlight over the receiver. In this daylighting system, the novel design of linear Fresnel lens significantly improves the uniformity of collector and distributor. Therefore, it can help to improve the performance of the daylighting system. The structure of the linear Fresnel lenses is designed by using Matlab. Then, the structure of lenses is appreciated by ray tracing in LightToolsTM to find out the optimum lens shape. In addition, the simulation is performed by using LightToolsTM to estimate the efficiency of the daylighting system. The results show that the designed collector can achieve the efficiency of ~80% with the tolerance of ~0.60 and the concentration ratio of 340 times, while the designed distributor can reach a high uniformity of >90%.

  14. Robust self-triggered MPC for constrained linear systems

    Brunner, F.D.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Allgöwer, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a robust self-triggered model predictive control algorithm for linear systems with additive bounded disturbances and hard constraints on the inputs and state. In self-triggered control, at every sampling instant the time until the next sampling instant is computed online

  15. Stability Analysis for Multi-Parameter Linear Periodic Systems

    Seyranian, A.P.; Solem, Frederik; Pedersen, Pauli

    1999-01-01

    This paper is devoted to stability analysis of general linear periodic systems depending on real parameters. The Floquet method and perturbation technique are the basis of the development. We start out with the first and higher-order derivatives of the Floquet matrix with respect to problem...

  16. Relative controllability and null controllability of linear delay systems ...

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are established for the relative, absolute controllability and null controllability of the generalized linear delay system and its discrete prototype. The paper presents illuminating examples on previous controllability results by Manitius and Olbrot [7] and carries over the results of Onwuatu [8] ...

  17. Time-optimal feedback control for linear systems

    Mirica, S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper deals with the results of qualitative investigations of the time-optimal feedback control for linear systems with constant coefficients. In the first section, after some definitions and notations, two examples are given and it is shown that even the time-optimal control problem for linear systems with constant coefficients which looked like ''completely solved'' requires a further qualitative investigation of the stability to ''permanent perturbations'' of optimal feedback control. In the second section some basic results of the linear time-optimal control problem are reviewed. The third section deals with the definition of Boltyanskii's ''regular synthesis'' and its connection to Filippov's theory of right-hand side discontinuous differential equations. In the fourth section a theorem is proved concerning the stability to perturbations of time-optimal feedback control for linear systems with scalar control. In the last two sections it is proved that, if the matrix which defines the system has only real eigenvalues or is three-dimensional, the time-optimal feedback control defines a regular synthesis and therefore is stable to perturbations. (author)

  18. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    Sakalli, I.; Mirekhtiary, S. F.

    2013-10-01

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  19. Effect of the refractive index on the hawking temperature: an application of the Hamilton-Jacobi method

    Sakalli, I., E-mail: izzet.sakalli@emu.edu.tr; Mirekhtiary, S. F., E-mail: fatemeh.mirekhtiary@emu.edu.tr [Eastern Mediterranean University G. Magosa, Department of Physics (Turkey)

    2013-10-15

    Hawking radiation of a non-asymptotically flat 4-dimensional spherically symmetric and static dilatonic black hole (BH) via the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is studied. In addition to the naive coordinates, we use four more different coordinate systems that are well-behaved at the horizon. Except for the isotropic coordinates, direct computation by the HJ method leads to the standard Hawking temperature for all coordinate systems. The isotropic coordinates allow extracting the index of refraction from the Fermat metric. It is explicitly shown that the index of refraction determines the value of the tunneling rate and its natural consequence, the Hawking temperature. The isotropic coordinates in the conventional HJ method produce a wrong result for the temperature of the linear dilaton. Here, we explain how this discrepancy can be resolved by regularizing the integral possessing a pole at the horizon.

  20. Linear and non-linear systems identification for adaptive control in mechanical applications vibration suppression

    Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio; Ripamonti, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, more and more mechanical applications saw the introduction of active control strategies. In particular, the need of improving the performances and/or the system health is very often associated to vibration suppression. This goal can be achieved considering both passive and active solutions. In this sense, many active control strategies have been developed, such as the Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) or the resonant controllers (PPF, IRC, . . .). In all these cases, in order to tune and optimize the control strategy, the knowledge of the system dynamic behaviour is very important and it can be achieved both considering a numerical model of the system or through an experimental identification process. Anyway, dealing with non-linear or time-varying systems, a tool able to online identify the system parameters becomes a key-point for the control logic synthesis. The aim of the present work is the definition of a real-time technique, based on ARMAX models, that estimates the system parameters starting from the measurements of piezoelectric sensors. These parameters are returned to the control logic, that automatically adapts itself to the system dynamics. The problem is numerically investigated considering a carbon-fiber plate model forced through a piezoelectric patch.

  1. Observability of linear control systems on Lie groups

    Ayala, V.; Hacibekiroglu, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we study the observability problem for a linear control system Σ on a Lie group G. The drift vector field of Σ is an infinitesimal automorphism of G and the control vectors are elements in the Lie algebra of G. We establish algebraic conditions to characterize locally and globally observability for Σ. As in the linear case on R n , these conditions are independent of the control vector. We give an algorithm on the co-tangent bundle of G to calculate the equivalence class of the neutral element. (author). 6 refs

  2. Monitoring and control system of the Saclay electron linear accelerator

    Lafontaine, Antoine

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the automatic monitoring and control system of the 60MeV electron linear accelerator of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. The paper is mostly concerned with the programmation of the system. However, in a real time device, there is a very close association between computer and electronics, the latter are therefore described in details and make up most of the paper. [fr

  3. A new timing system for the Stanford Linear Collider

    Paffrath, L.; Bernstein, D.; Kang, H.; Koontz, R.; Leger, G.; Pierce, W.; Ross, M.; Wilmunder, A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to be able to meet the goals of the Stanford Linear Collider, a much more precise timing system had to be implemented. This paper describes the specification and design of this system, and the results obtained from its use on 1/3 of the SLAC linac. The functions of various elements are described, and a programmable delay unit (PDU) is described in detail

  4. Hyperchaotic encryption based on multi-scroll piecewise linear Systems

    García-Martínez, M.; Ontanon-García, L.J.; Campos-Cantón, E.; Čelikovský, Sergej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 270, č. 1 (2015), s. 413-424 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20433S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Hyperchaotic encryption * Piecewise linear systems * Stream cipher * Pseudo-random bit generator * Chaos theory * Multi-scrollattractors Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/TR/celikovsky-0446895.pdf

  5. Global Linear Representations of Nonlinear Systems and the Adjoint Map

    Banks, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we shall study the global linearization of nonlinear systems on a manifold by two methods. The first consists of an expansion of the vector field in the space of square integrable vector fields. In the second method we use the adjoint representation of the Lie algebra vector fields to obtain an infinite-dimensional matrix representation of the system. A connection between the two approaches will be developed.

  6. Comments on new iterative methods for solving linear systems

    Wang Ke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some new iterative methods were presented by Du, Zheng and Wang for solving linear systems in [3], where it is shown that the new methods, comparing to the classical Jacobi or Gauss-Seidel method, can be applied to more systems and have faster convergence. This note shows that their methods are suitable for more matrices than positive matrices which the authors suggested through further analysis and numerical examples.

  7. A representation theorem for linear discrete-space systems

    Sandberg Irwin W.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornerstone of the theory of discrete-time single-input single-output linear systems is the idea that every such system has an input–output map H that can be represented by a convolution or the familiar generalization of a convolution. This thinking involves an oversight which is corrected in this note by adding an additional term to the representation.

  8. A Sparse Approximate Inverse Preconditioner for Nonsymmetric Linear Systems

    Benzi, M.; Tůma, Miroslav

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (1998), s. 968-994 ISSN 1064-8275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/93/0067; GA AV ČR IAA230401 Keywords : large sparse systems * interative methods * preconditioning * approximate inverse * sparse linear systems * sparse matrices * incomplete factorizations * conjugate gradient -type methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.378, year: 1998

  9. Design and performance of the Stanford Linear Collider Control System

    Melen, R.E.

    1984-10-01

    The success of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) will be dependent upon the implementation of a very large advanced computer-based instrumentation and control system. This paper describes the architectural design of this system as well as a critique of its performance. This critique is based on experience obtained from its use in the control and monitoring of 1/3 of the SLAC linac and in support of an expensive experimental machine physics experimental program. 11 references, 3 figures

  10. Universal Linear Precoding for NBI-Proof Widely Linear Equalization in MC Systems

    Donatella Darsena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In multicarrier (MC systems, transmitter redundancy, which is introduced by means of finite-impulse response (FIR linear precoders, allows for perfect or zero-forcing (ZF equalization of FIR channels (in the absence of noise. Recently, it has been shown that the noncircular or improper nature of some symbol constellations offers an intrinsic source of redundancy, which can be exploited to design efficient FIR widely-linear (WL receiving structures for MC systems operating in the presence of narrowband interference (NBI. With regard to both cyclic-prefixed and zero-padded transmission techniques, it is shown in this paper that, with appropriately designed precoders, it is possible to synthesize in both cases WL-ZF universal equalizers, which guarantee perfect symbol recovery for any FIR channel. Furthermore, it is theoretically shown that the intrinsic redundancy of the improper symbol sequence also enables WL-ZF equalization, based on the minimum mean output-energy criterion, with improved NBI suppression capabilities. Finally, results of numerical simulations are presented, which assess the merits of the proposed precoding designs and validate the theoretical analysis carried out.

  11. Self-Tuning Control of Linear Systems Followed by Deadzones

    K. Kazlauskas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to increase the efficiency of self-tuning generalized minimum variance (GMV control of linear time-invariant (LTI systems followed by deadzone nonlinearities. An approach, based on reordering of observations to be processed for the reconstruction of an unknown internal signal that acts between LTI system and a static nonlinear block of the closed-loop Wiener system, has been developed. The results of GMV self-tuning control of the second order LTI system with an ordinary deadzone are given.

  12. Algorithmic Approach to Abstracting Linear Systems by Timed Automata

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an LMI-based algorithm for abstracting dynamical systems by timed automata, which enables automatic formal verification of linear systems. The proposed abstraction is based on partitioning the state space of the system using positive invariant sets, generated by Lyapunov...... functions. This partitioning ensures that the vector field of the dynamical system is transversal to all facets of the cells, which induces some desirable properties of the abstraction. The algorithm is based on identifying intersections of level sets of quadratic Lyapunov functions, and determining...

  13. Viscous warm inflation: Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    Akhtari, L.; Mohammadi, A.; Sayar, K.; Saaidi, Kh.

    2017-04-01

    Using Hamilton-Jacobi formalism, the scenario of warm inflation with viscous pressure is considered. The formalism gives a way of computing the slow-rolling parameter without extra approximation, and it is well-known as a powerful method in cold inflation. The model is studied in detail for three different cases of the dissipation and bulk viscous pressure coefficients. In the first case where both coefficients are taken as constant, it is shown that the case could not portray warm inflationary scenario compatible with observational data even it is possible to restrict the model parameters. For other cases, the results shows that the model could properly predicts the perturbation parameters in which they stay in perfect agreement with Planck data. As a further argument, r -ns and αs -ns are drown that show the acquired result could stand in acceptable area expressing a compatibility with observational data.

  14. Hamilton y el Descubrimiento de los Cuaterniones

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende ofrecer una visión general del descubrimiento de los llamados cuaterniones por parte del matemático irlandés William Rowan Hamilton. Se pretende dar al lector algunos detalles del nacimiento de los números imaginarios en el siglo XVI, su interpretación geométrica a principios del siglo XIX, y la extensión del plano complejo a las tres dimensiones a través de los cuaterniones, que abrirían el paso al estudio y el desarrollo de las nuevas álgebras no conmutativas y a una nueva interpretación tridimensional de la realidad física.

  15. Focal points and principal solutions of linear Hamiltonian systems revisited

    Šepitka, Peter; Šimon Hilscher, Roman

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present a novel view on the principal (and antiprincipal) solutions of linear Hamiltonian systems, as well as on the focal points of their conjoined bases. We present a new and unified theory of principal (and antiprincipal) solutions at a finite point and at infinity, and apply it to obtain new representation of the multiplicities of right and left proper focal points of conjoined bases. We show that these multiplicities can be characterized by the abnormality of the system in a neighborhood of the given point and by the rank of the associated T-matrix from the theory of principal (and antiprincipal) solutions. We also derive some additional important results concerning the representation of T-matrices and associated normalized conjoined bases. The results in this paper are new even for completely controllable linear Hamiltonian systems. We also discuss other potential applications of our main results, in particular in the singular Sturmian theory.

  16. Fundamentals of linear systems for physical scientists and engineers

    Puri, N N

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to the advent of inexpensive computing, it is possible to analyze, compute, and develop results that were unthinkable in the '60s. Control systems, telecommunications, robotics, speech, vision, and digital signal processing are but a few examples of computing applications. While there are many excellent resources available that focus on one or two topics, few books cover most of the mathematical techniques required for a broader range of applications. Fundamentals of Linear Systems for Physical Scientists and Engineers is such a resource. The book draws from diverse areas of engineering and the physical sciences to cover the fundamentals of linear systems. Assuming no prior knowledge of complex mathematics on the part of the reader, the author uses his nearly 50 years of teaching experience to address all of the necessary mathematical techniques. Original proofs, hundreds of examples, and proven theorems illustrate and clarify the material. An extensive table provides Lyapunov functions for differentia...

  17. Computer Based Dose Control System on Linear Accelerator

    Taxwim; Djoko-SP; Widi-Setiawan; Agus-Budi Wiyatna

    2000-01-01

    The accelerator technology has been used for radio therapy. DokterKaryadi Hospital in Semarang use electron or X-ray linear accelerator (Linac)for cancer therapy. One of the control parameter of linear accelerator isdose rate. It is particle current or amount of photon rate to the target. Thecontrol of dose rate in linac have been done by adjusting repetition rate ofanode pulse train of electron source. Presently the control is stillproportional control. To enhance the quality of the control result (minimalstationer error, velocity and stability), the dose control system has beendesigned by using the PID (Proportional Integral Differential) controlalgorithm and the derivation of transfer function of control object.Implementation of PID algorithm control system is done by giving an input ofdose error (the different between output dose and dose rate set point). Theoutput of control system is used for correction of repetition rate set pointfrom pulse train of electron source anode. (author)

  18. Linear and nonlinear dynamic systems in financial time series prediction

    Salim Lahmiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Autoregressive moving average (ARMA process and dynamic neural networks namely the nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (NARX are compared by evaluating their ability to predict financial time series; for instance the S&P500 returns. Two classes of ARMA are considered. The first one is the standard ARMA model which is a linear static system. The second one uses Kalman filter (KF to estimate and predict ARMA coefficients. This model is a linear dynamic system. The forecasting ability of each system is evaluated by means of mean absolute error (MAE and mean absolute deviation (MAD statistics. Simulation results indicate that the ARMA-KF system performs better than the standard ARMA alone. Thus, introducing dynamics into the ARMA process improves the forecasting accuracy. In addition, the ARMA-KF outperformed the NARX. This result may suggest that the linear component found in the S&P500 return series is more dominant than the nonlinear part. In sum, we conclude that introducing dynamics into the ARMA process provides an effective system for S&P500 time series prediction.

  19. A parallel solver for huge dense linear systems

    Badia, J. M.; Movilla, J. L.; Climente, J. I.; Castillo, M.; Marqués, M.; Mayo, R.; Quintana-Ortí, E. S.; Planelles, J.

    2011-11-01

    HDSS (Huge Dense Linear System Solver) is a Fortran Application Programming Interface (API) to facilitate the parallel solution of very large dense systems to scientists and engineers. The API makes use of parallelism to yield an efficient solution of the systems on a wide range of parallel platforms, from clusters of processors to massively parallel multiprocessors. It exploits out-of-core strategies to leverage the secondary memory in order to solve huge linear systems O(100.000). The API is based on the parallel linear algebra library PLAPACK, and on its Out-Of-Core (OOC) extension POOCLAPACK. Both PLAPACK and POOCLAPACK use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) as the communication layer and BLAS to perform the local matrix operations. The API provides a friendly interface to the users, hiding almost all the technical aspects related to the parallel execution of the code and the use of the secondary memory to solve the systems. In particular, the API can automatically select the best way to store and solve the systems, depending of the dimension of the system, the number of processes and the main memory of the platform. Experimental results on several parallel platforms report high performance, reaching more than 1 TFLOP with 64 cores to solve a system with more than 200 000 equations and more than 10 000 right-hand side vectors. New version program summaryProgram title: Huge Dense System Solver (HDSS) Catalogue identifier: AEHU_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHU_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 87 062 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 069 110 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90, C Computer: Parallel architectures: multiprocessors, computer clusters Operating system

  20. Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems

    Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.

  1. H(infinity)/H(2)/Kalman filtering of linear dynamical systems via variational techniques with applications to target tracking

    Rawicz, Paul Lawrence

    In this thesis, the similarities between the structure of the H infinity, H2, and Kalman filters are examined. The filters used in this examination have been derived through duality to the full information controller. In addition, a direct variation of parameters derivation of the Hinfinity filter is presented for both continuous and discrete time (staler case). Direct and controller dual derivations using differential games exist in the literature and also employ variational techniques. Using a variational, rather than a differential games, viewpoint has resulted in a simple relationship between the Riccati equations that arise from the derivation and the results of the Bounded Real Lemma. This same relation has previously been found in the literature and used to relate the Riccati inequality for linear systems to the Hamilton Jacobi inequality for nonlinear systems when implementing the Hinfinity controller. The Hinfinity, H2, and Kalman filters are applied to the two-state target tracking problem. In continuous time, closed form analytic expressions for the trackers and their performance are determined. To evaluate the trackers using a neutral, realistic, criterion, the probability of target escape is developed. That is, the probability that the target position error will be such that the target is outside the radar beam width resulting in a loss of measurement. In discrete time, a numerical example, using the probability of target escape, is presented to illustrate the differences in tracker performance.

  2. 78 FR 9001 - Airworthiness Directives; Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation Propellers

    2013-02-07

    ... airplane. The Hamilton Sundstrand investigation revealed some of their auxiliary feathering pump motors had internal corrosion that may cause the stator magnets in the pump motor to fail and rotate into the path of... using certain Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation auxiliary pumps and motors (auxiliary feathering pumps...

  3. An extended GS method for dense linear systems

    Niki, Hiroshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Abe, Kuniyoshi

    2009-09-01

    Davey and Rosindale [K. Davey, I. Rosindale, An iterative solution scheme for systems of boundary element equations, Internat. J. Numer. Methods Engrg. 37 (1994) 1399-1411] derived the GSOR method, which uses an upper triangular matrix [Omega] in order to solve dense linear systems. By applying functional analysis, the authors presented an expression for the optimum [Omega]. Moreover, Davey and Bounds [K. Davey, S. Bounds, A generalized SOR method for dense linear systems of boundary element equations, SIAM J. Comput. 19 (1998) 953-967] also introduced further interesting results. In this note, we employ a matrix analysis approach to investigate these schemes, and derive theorems that compare these schemes with existing preconditioners for dense linear systems. We show that the convergence rate of the Gauss-Seidel method with preconditioner PG is superior to that of the GSOR method. Moreover, we define some splittings associated with the iterative schemes. Some numerical examples are reported to confirm the theoretical analysis. We show that the EGS method with preconditioner produces an extremely small spectral radius in comparison with the other schemes considered.

  4. Essential uncontrollability of discrete linear, time-invariant, dynamical systems

    Cliff, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of a 'best approximating m-dimensional subspace' for a given set of vectors in n-dimensional whole space is introduced. Such a subspace is easily described in terms of the eigenvectors of an associated Gram matrix. This technique is used to approximate an achievable set for a discrete linear time-invariant dynamical system. This approximation characterizes the part of the state space that may be reached using modest levels of control. If the achievable set can be closely approximated by a proper subspace of the whole space then the system is 'essentially uncontrollable'. The notion finds application in studies of failure-tolerant systems, and in decoupling.

  5. The new control system of the Saclay linear accelerator

    Gournay, J.F.; Gourcy, G.; Garreau, F.; Giraud, A.; Rouault, J.

    1985-05-01

    A new control system for the Safety Linear Accelerator is now being designed. The computer control architecture is based on 3 dedicated VME crates with MC68000 micro-processors: one crate with a disk-based operating system will run the high level application programs and the data base management facilities, another one will manage the man-machine communications and the third one will interface the system to the linac equipments. Communications between the VME microcomputers will be done through 16 bit parallel links. The software is modular and organized in specific layers, the data base is fully distributed. About 90% of the code is written in Fortran

  6. Kalman filtering for time-delayed linear systems

    LU Xiao; WANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper is to study the linear minimum variance estimation for discrete- time systems. A simple approach to the problem is presented by developing re-organized innovation analysis for the systems with instantaneous and double time-delayed measurements. It is shown that the derived estimator involves solving three different standard Kalman filtering with the same dimension as the original system. The obtained results form the basis for solving some complicated problems such as H∞ fixed-lag smoothing, preview control, H∞ filtering and control with time delays.

  7. Fundamental Matrix for a Class of Point Delay Linear Systems

    Sen, M. de la; Alastruey, C. F.

    1998-01-01

    It is difficult to establish explicit analytic forms for fundamental matrices of delayed linear systems. In this paper, an explicit form of exponential type is given for such a matrix in the case of punctual delays. The existence of real and complex fundamental matrices, for the case of real parameterizations of the differential system, is studied and discussed. Some additional commutativity properties involving the matrices parameters and the fundamental matrices as well as explicit expressions for the solution of the delayed differential system are also given. (Author)

  8. Control of Non-linear Marine Cooling System

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing control laws for a marine cooling system used for cooling the main engine and auxiliary components aboard several classes of container vessels. We focus on achieving simple set point control for the system and do not consider compensation of the non-linearitie......-linearities, closed circuit flow dynamics or transport delays that are present in the system. Control laws are therefore designed using classical control theory and the performance of the design is illustrated through two simulation examples....

  9. Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.

  10. Optimal linear precoding for indoor visible light communication system

    Sifaou, Houssem

    2017-07-31

    Visible light communication (VLC) is an emerging technique that uses light-emitting diodes (LED) to combine communication and illumination. It is considered as a promising scheme for indoor wireless communication that can be deployed at reduced costs while offering high data rate performance. In this paper, we focus on the design of the downlink of a multi-user VLC system. Inherent to multi-user systems is the interference caused by the broadcast nature of the medium. Linear precoding based schemes are among the most popular solutions that have recently been proposed to mitigate inter-user interference. This paper focuses on the design of the optimal linear precoding scheme that solves the max-min signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) problem. The performance of the proposed precoding scheme is studied under different working conditions and compared with the classical zero-forcing precoding. Simulations have been provided to illustrate the high gain of the proposed scheme.

  11. Solution of the fully fuzzy linear systems using iterative techniques

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Hashemi, Behnam; Ghatee, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    This paper mainly intends to discuss the iterative solution of fully fuzzy linear systems which we call FFLS. We employ Dubois and Prade's approximate arithmetic operators on LR fuzzy numbers for finding a positive fuzzy vector x-tilde which satisfies A-tildex-tilde=b, where A-tilde and b-tilde are a fuzzy matrix and a fuzzy vector, respectively. Please note that the positivity assumption is not so restrictive in applied problems. We transform FFLS and propose iterative techniques such as Richardson, Jacobi, Jacobi overrelaxation (JOR), Gauss-Seidel, successive overrelaxation (SOR), accelerated overrelaxation (AOR), symmetric and unsymmetric SOR (SSOR and USSOR) and extrapolated modified Aitken (EMA) for solving FFLS. In addition, the methods of Newton, quasi-Newton and conjugate gradient are proposed from nonlinear programming for solving a fully fuzzy linear system. Various numerical examples are also given to show the efficiency of the proposed schemes

  12. Solution methods for large systems of linear equations in BACCHUS

    Homann, C.; Dorr, B.

    1993-05-01

    The computer programme BACCHUS is used to describe steady state and transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of a coolant in a fuel element with intact geometry in a fast breeder reactor. In such computer programmes generally large systems of linear equations with sparse matrices of coefficients, resulting from discretization of coolant conservation equations, must be solved thousands of times giving rise to large demands of main storage and CPU time. Direct and iterative solution methods of the systems of linear equations, available in BACCHUS, are described, giving theoretical details and experience with their use in the programme. Besides use of a method of lines, a Runge-Kutta-method, for solution of the partial differential equation is outlined. (orig.) [de

  13. Nonautonomous linear Hamiltonian systems oscillation, spectral theory and control

    Johnson, Russell; Novo, Sylvia; Núñez, Carmen; Fabbri, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains an in-depth analysis of the dynamics given by a linear Hamiltonian system of general dimension with nonautonomous bounded and uniformly continuous coefficients, without other initial assumptions on time-recurrence. Particular attention is given to the oscillation properties of the solutions as well as to a spectral theory appropriate for such systems. The book contains extensions of results which are well known when the coefficients are autonomous or periodic, as well as in the nonautonomous two-dimensional case. However, a substantial part of the theory presented here is new even in those much simpler situations. The authors make systematic use of basic facts concerning Lagrange planes and symplectic matrices, and apply some fundamental methods of topological dynamics and ergodic theory. Among the tools used in the analysis, which include Lyapunov exponents, Weyl matrices, exponential dichotomy, and weak disconjugacy, a fundamental role is played by the rotation number for linear Hami...

  14. Optimal approximation of linear systems by artificial immune response

    2006-01-01

    This paper puts forward a novel artificial immune response algorithm for optimal approximation of linear systems. A quaternion model of artificial immune response is proposed for engineering computing. The model abstracts four elements, namely, antigen, antibody, reaction rules among antibodies, and driving algorithm describing how the rules are applied to antibodies, to simulate the process of immune response. Some reaction rules including clonal selection rules, immunological memory rules and immune regulation rules are introduced. Using the theorem of Markov chain, it is proofed that the new model is convergent. The experimental study on the optimal approximation of a stable linear system and an unstable one show that the approximate models searched by the new model have better performance indices than those obtained by some existing algorithms including the differential evolution algorithm and the multi-agent genetic algorithm.

  15. Large linear magnetoresistivity in strongly inhomogeneous planar and layered systems

    Bulgadaev, S.A.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2005-01-01

    Explicit expressions for magnetoresistance R of planar and layered strongly inhomogeneous two-phase systems are obtained, using exact dual transformation, connecting effective conductivities of in-plane isotropic two-phase systems with and without magnetic field. These expressions allow to describe the magnetoresistance of various inhomogeneous media at arbitrary concentrations x and magnetic fields H. All expressions show large linear magnetoresistance effect with different dependencies on the phase concentrations. The corresponding plots of the x- and H-dependencies of R(x,H) are represented for various values, respectively, of magnetic field and concentrations at some values of inhomogeneity parameter. The obtained results show a remarkable similarity with the existing experimental data on linear magnetoresistance in silver chalcogenides Ag 2+δ Se. A possible physical explanation of this similarity is proposed. It is shown that the random, stripe type, structures of inhomogeneities are the most suitable for a fabrication of magnetic sensors and a storage of information at room temperatures

  16. L∞-error estimates of a finite element method for the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations

    Bouldbrachene, M.

    1994-11-01

    We study the finite element approximation for the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations involving a system of quasi-variational inequalities (QVI). We also give the optimal L ∞ -error estimates, using the concepts of subsolutions and discrete regularity. (author). 7 refs

  17. Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for Podolsky's electromagnetic theory on the null-plane

    Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Valcárcel, C. E.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2017-08-01

    We develop the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for Podolsky's electromagnetic theory on the null-plane. The main goal is to build the complete set of Hamiltonian generators of the system as well as to study the canonical and gauge transformations of the theory.

  18. Maximization of energy in the output of a linear system

    Dudley, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A time-limited signal which, when passed through a linear system, maximizes the total output energy is considered. Previous work has shown that the solution is given by the eigenfunction associated with the maximum eigenvalue in a Hilbert-Schmidt integral equation. Analytical results are available for the case where the transfer function is a low-pass filter. This work is extended by obtaining a numerical solution to the integral equation which allows results for reasonably general transfer functions

  19. Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability

    2016-06-29

    modulation and entanglement in a compound gradient echo memory, Physical Review A 93(2) 023809 2016. We present a theoretical model for a Kerr...Carvalho, M. Hedges and M R James, Analysis of the operation of gradient echo memories using a quantum input-output model, New Journal of Physics , 15...new structured uncertainty methods that ensure robust stability of quantum systems based on nominal linear models, and (v) physical realizability

  20. Dynamic logic architecture based on piecewise-linear systems

    Peng Haipeng; Liu Fei; Li Lixiang; Yang Yixian; Wang Xue

    2010-01-01

    This Letter explores piecewise-linear systems to construct dynamic logic architecture. The proposed schemes can discriminate the two input signals and obtain 16 kinds of logic operations by different combinations of parameters and conditions for determining the output. Each logic cell performs more flexibly, that makes it possible to achieve complex logic operations more simply and construct computing architecture with less logic cells. We also analyze the various performances of our schemes under different conditions and the characteristics of these schemes.

  1. CHEBYSHEV ACCELERATION TECHNIQUE FOR SOLVING FUZZY LINEAR SYSTEM

    S.H. Nasseri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Chebyshev acceleration technique is used to solve the fuzzy linear system (FLS. This method is discussed in details and followed by summary of some other acceleration techniques. Moreover, we show that in some situations that the methods such as Jacobi, Gauss-Sidel, SOR and conjugate gradient is divergent, our proposed method is applicable and the acquired results are illustrated by some numerical examples.

  2. CHEBYSHEV ACCELERATION TECHNIQUE FOR SOLVING FUZZY LINEAR SYSTEM

    S.H. Nasseri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Chebyshev acceleration technique is used to solve the fuzzy linear system (FLS. This method is discussed in details and followed by summary of some other acceleration techniques. Moreover, we show that in some situations that the methods such as Jacobi, Gauss-Sidel, SOR and conjugate gradient is divergent, our proposed method is applicable and the acquired results are illustrated by some numerical examples.

  3. Efficient Preconditioning of Sequences of Nonsymmetric Linear Systems

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Tůma, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2007), s. 1918-1941 ISSN 1064-8275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415; GA AV ČR KJB100300703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : preconditioned iterative methods * sparse matrices * sequences of linear algebraic systems * incomplete factorizations * factorization updates * Gauss–Jordan transformations * minimum spanning tree Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.784, year: 2007

  4. AZTEC: A parallel iterative package for the solving linear systems

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We describe a parallel linear system package, AZTEC. The package incorporates a number of parallel iterative methods (e.g. GMRES, biCGSTAB, CGS, TFQMR) and preconditioners (e.g. Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, polynomial, domain decomposition with LU or ILU within subdomains). Additionally, AZTEC allows for the reuse of previous preconditioning factorizations within Newton schemes for nonlinear methods. Currently, a number of different users are using this package to solve a variety of PDE applications.

  5. Feedback Linearization Controller for a Wind Energy Power System

    Muthana Alrifai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based variable speed wind turbine power system. A system of eight ordinary differential equations is used to model the wind energy conversion system. The generator has a wound rotor type with back-to-back three-phase power converter bridges between its rotor and the grid; it is modeled using the direct-quadrature rotating reference frame with aligned stator flux. An input-state feedback linearization controller is proposed for the wind energy power system. The controller guarantees that the states of the system track the desired states. Simulation results are presented to validate the proposed control scheme. Moreover, further simulation results are shown to investigate the robustness of the proposed control scheme to changes in some of the parameters of the system.

  6. Stochastic Reformulations of Linear Systems: Algorithms and Convergence Theory

    Richtarik, Peter; Taká č, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We develop a family of reformulations of an arbitrary consistent linear system into a stochastic problem. The reformulations are governed by two user-defined parameters: a positive definite matrix defining a norm, and an arbitrary discrete or continuous distribution over random matrices. Our reformulation has several equivalent interpretations, allowing for researchers from various communities to leverage their domain specific insights. In particular, our reformulation can be equivalently seen as a stochastic optimization problem, stochastic linear system, stochastic fixed point problem and a probabilistic intersection problem. We prove sufficient, and necessary and sufficient conditions for the reformulation to be exact. Further, we propose and analyze three stochastic algorithms for solving the reformulated problem---basic, parallel and accelerated methods---with global linear convergence rates. The rates can be interpreted as condition numbers of a matrix which depends on the system matrix and on the reformulation parameters. This gives rise to a new phenomenon which we call stochastic preconditioning, and which refers to the problem of finding parameters (matrix and distribution) leading to a sufficiently small condition number. Our basic method can be equivalently interpreted as stochastic gradient descent, stochastic Newton method, stochastic proximal point method, stochastic fixed point method, and stochastic projection method, with fixed stepsize (relaxation parameter), applied to the reformulations.

  7. Linear circuits, systems and signal processing: theory and application

    Byrnes, C.I.; Saeks, R.E.; Martin, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    In part because of its universal role as a first approximation of more complicated behaviour and in part because of the depth and breadth of its principle paradigms, the study of linear systems continues to play a central role in control theory and its applications. Enhancing more traditional applications to aerospace and electronics, application areas such as econometrics, finance, and speech and signal processing have contributed to a renaissance in areas such as realization theory and classical automatic feedback control. Thus, the last few years have witnessed a remarkable research effort expended in understanding both new algorithms and new paradigms for modeling and realization of linear processes and in the analysis and design of robust control strategies. The papers in this volume reflect these trends in both the theory and applications of linear systems and were selected from the invited and contributed papers presented at the 8th International Symposium on the Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems held in Phoenix on June 15-19, 1987

  8. Stochastic Reformulations of Linear Systems: Algorithms and Convergence Theory

    Richtarik, Peter

    2017-06-04

    We develop a family of reformulations of an arbitrary consistent linear system into a stochastic problem. The reformulations are governed by two user-defined parameters: a positive definite matrix defining a norm, and an arbitrary discrete or continuous distribution over random matrices. Our reformulation has several equivalent interpretations, allowing for researchers from various communities to leverage their domain specific insights. In particular, our reformulation can be equivalently seen as a stochastic optimization problem, stochastic linear system, stochastic fixed point problem and a probabilistic intersection problem. We prove sufficient, and necessary and sufficient conditions for the reformulation to be exact. Further, we propose and analyze three stochastic algorithms for solving the reformulated problem---basic, parallel and accelerated methods---with global linear convergence rates. The rates can be interpreted as condition numbers of a matrix which depends on the system matrix and on the reformulation parameters. This gives rise to a new phenomenon which we call stochastic preconditioning, and which refers to the problem of finding parameters (matrix and distribution) leading to a sufficiently small condition number. Our basic method can be equivalently interpreted as stochastic gradient descent, stochastic Newton method, stochastic proximal point method, stochastic fixed point method, and stochastic projection method, with fixed stepsize (relaxation parameter), applied to the reformulations.

  9. Identification of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Possessing Some Non-linearities

    Y. N. Pavlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is the problem of identification of nonlinear dynamic systems based on the experimental data obtained by applying test signals to the system. The goal is to determinate coefficients of differential equations of systems by experimental frequency hodographs and separate similar, but different, in essence, forces: dissipative forces with the square of the first derivative in the motion equations and dissipative force from the action of dry friction. There was a proposal to use the harmonic linearization method to approximate each of the nonlinearity of "quadratic friction" and "dry friction" by linear friction with the appropriate harmonic linearization coefficient.Assume that a frequency transfer function of the identified system has a known form. Assume as well that there are disturbances while obtaining frequency characteristics of the realworld system. As a result, the points of experimentally obtained hodograph move randomly. Searching for solution of the identification problem was in the hodograph class, specified by the system model, which has the form of the frequency transfer function the same as the form of the frequency transfer function of the system identified. Minimizing a proximity criterion (measure of the experimentally obtained system hodograph and the system hodograph model for all the experimental points described and previously published by one of the authors allowed searching for the unknown coefficients of the frequenc ransfer function of the system model. The paper shows the possibility to identify a nonlinear dynamic system with multiple nonlinearities, obtained on the experimental samples of the frequency system hodograph. The proposed algorithm allows to select the nonlinearity of the type "quadratic friction" and "dry friction", i.e. also in the case where the nonlinearity is dependent on the same dynamic parameter, in particular, on the derivative of the system output value. For the dynamic

  10. Linear filtering of systems with memory and application to finance

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the linear filtering problem for systems driven by continuous Gaussian processes V ( 1 and V ( 2 with memory described by two parameters. The processes V ( j have the virtue that they possess stationary increments and simple semimartingale representations simultaneously. They allow for straightforward parameter estimations. After giving the semimartingale representations of V ( j by innovation theory, we derive Kalman-Bucy-type filtering equations for the systems. We apply the result to the optimal portfolio problem for an investor with partial observations. We illustrate the tractability of the filtering algorithm by numerical implementations.

  11. Parametric Linear Hybrid Automata for Complex Environmental Systems Modeling

    Samar Hayat Khan Tareen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental systems, whether they be weather patterns or predator-prey relationships, are dependent on a number of different variables, each directly or indirectly affecting the system at large. Since not all of these factors are known, these systems take on non-linear dynamics, making it difficult to accurately predict meaningful behavioral trends far into the future. However, such dynamics do not warrant complete ignorance of different efforts to understand and model close approximations of these systems. Towards this end, we have applied a logical modeling approach to model and analyze the behavioral trends and systematic trajectories that these systems exhibit without delving into their quantification. This approach, formalized by René Thomas for discrete logical modeling of Biological Regulatory Networks (BRNs and further extended in our previous studies as parametric biological linear hybrid automata (Bio-LHA, has been previously employed for the analyses of different molecular regulatory interactions occurring across various cells and microbial species. As relationships between different interacting components of a system can be simplified as positive or negative influences, we can employ the Bio-LHA framework to represent different components of the environmental system as positive or negative feedbacks. In the present study, we highlight the benefits of hybrid (discrete/continuous modeling which lead to refinements among the fore-casted behaviors in order to find out which ones are actually possible. We have taken two case studies: an interaction of three microbial species in a freshwater pond, and a more complex atmospheric system, to show the applications of the Bio-LHA methodology for the timed hybrid modeling of environmental systems. Results show that the approach using the Bio-LHA is a viable method for behavioral modeling of complex environmental systems by finding timing constraints while keeping the complexity of the model

  12. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries.

  13. Synchronization and Control of Linearly Coupled Singular Systems

    Fang Qingxiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synchronization and control problem of linearly coupled singular systems is investigated. The uncoupled dynamical behavior at each node is general and can be chaotic or, otherwise the coupling matrix is not assumed to be symmetrical. Some sufficient conditions for globally exponential synchronization are derived based on Lyapunov stability theory. These criteria, which are in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI, indicate that the left and right eigenvectors corresponding to eigenvalue zero of the coupling matrix play key roles in the stability analysis of the synchronization manifold. The controllers are designed for state feedback control and pinning control, respectively. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed conditions.

  14. Demultiplexing of photonic temporal modes by a linear system

    Xu, Shuang; Shen, H. Z.; Yi, X. X.

    2018-03-01

    Temporally and spatially overlapping but field-orthogonal photonic temporal modes (TMs) that intrinsically span a high-dimensional Hilbert space are recently suggested as a promising means of encoding information on photons. Presently, the realization of photonic TM technology, particularly to retrieve the information it carries, i.e., demultiplexing of photonic TMs, is mostly dependent on nonlinear medium and frequency conversion. Meanwhile, its miniaturization, simplification, and optimization remain the focus of research. In this paper, we propose a scheme of TM demultiplexing using linear systems consisting of resonators with linear couplings. Specifically, we examine a unidirectional array of identical resonators with short environment correlations. For both situations with and without tunable couplers, propagation formulas are derived to demonstrate photonic TM demultiplexing capabilities. The proposed scheme, being entirely feasible with current technologies, might find potential applications in quantum information processing.

  15. Linear and Non-Linear Dielectric Response of Periodic Systems from Quantum Monte Carlo

    Umari, Paolo

    2006-03-01

    We present a novel approach that allows to calculate the dielectric response of periodic systems in the quantum Monte Carlo formalism. We employ a many-body generalization for the electric enthalpy functional, where the coupling with the field is expressed via the Berry-phase formulation for the macroscopic polarization. A self-consistent local Hamiltonian then determines the ground-state wavefunction, allowing for accurate diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations where the polarization's fixed point is estimated from the average on an iterative sequence. The polarization is sampled through forward-walking. This approach has been validated for the case of the polarizability of an isolated hydrogen atom, and then applied to a periodic system. We then calculate the linear susceptibility and second-order hyper-susceptibility of molecular-hydrogen chains whith different bond-length alternations, and assess the quality of nodal surfaces derived from density-functional theory or from Hartree-Fock. The results found are in excellent agreement with the best estimates obtained from the extrapolation of quantum-chemistry calculations.P. Umari, A.J. Williamson, G. Galli, and N. MarzariPhys. Rev. Lett. 95, 207602 (2005).

  16. Linearization Technologies for Broadband Radio-Over-Fiber Transmission Systems

    Xiupu Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Linearization technologies that can be used for linearizing RoF transmission are reviewed. Three main linearization methods, i.e. electrical analog linearization, optical linearization, and electrical digital linearization are presented and compared. Analog linearization can be achieved using analog predistortion circuits, and can be used for suppression of odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as third and fifth order. Optical linearization includes mixed-polarization, dual-wavelength, optical channelization and the others, implemented in optical domain, to suppress both even and odd order nonlinear distortion components, such as second and third order. Digital predistortion has been a widely used linearization method for RF power amplifiers. However, digital linearization that requires analog to digital converter is severely limited to hundreds of MHz bandwidth. Instead, analog and optical linearization provide broadband linearization with up to tens of GHz. Therefore, for broadband radio over fiber transmission that can be used for future broadband cloud radio access networks, analog and optical linearization are more appropriate than digital linearization. Generally speaking, both analog and optical linearization are able to improve spur-free dynamic range greater than 10 dB over tens of GHz. In order for current digital linearization to be used for broadband radio over fiber transmission, the reduced linearization complexity and increased linearization bandwidth are required. Moreover, some digital linearization methods in which the complexity can be reduced, such as Hammerstein type, may be more promising and require further investigation.

  17. Control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems with Applications

    Mohammadpour, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems with Applications compiles state-of-the-art contributions on novel analytical and computational methods to address system modeling and identification, complexity reduction, performance analysis and control design for time-varying and nonlinear systems in the LPV framework. The book has an interdisciplinary character by emphasizing techniques that can be commonly applied in various engineering fields. It also includes a rich collection of illustrative applications in diverse domains to substantiate the effectiveness of the design methodologies and provide pointers to open research directions. The book is divided into three parts. The first part collects chapters of a more tutorial character on the background of LPV systems modeling and control. The second part gathers chapters devoted to the theoretical advancement of LPV analysis and synthesis methods to cope with the design constraints such as uncertainties and time delay. The third part of the volume showcases con...

  18. The new control system of the Saclay linear accelerator

    Gournay, J.F.

    1985-10-01

    A new control system for the Saclay Linear Accelerator designed during the two past years is now in operation. The computer control architecture is based on 3 dedicated VME crates: one crate with a disk-based operating system runs the high level application programs and the database management facilities, another one manages the man-machine communications and the third one interfaces the system to the linac equipments. At the present time, communications between the VME micro-computers are done through 16 bit parallel links. The software is modular and organized in specific layers, the database is fully distributed. About 90% of the code is written in Fortran. The present status of the system is discussed and the hardware and software developments are described

  19. Core reset system design for linear induction accelerator

    Durga Praveen Kumar, D.; Mitra, S.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K.V.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    A repetitive pulsed power system based Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA-200) is being developed at BARC to get an electron beam of 200keV, 5kA, 50ns, 10-100 Hz. Amorphous core is the heart of these accelerators. It serves various functions in different subsystems viz. pulse power modulator, pulse transformer, magnetic switches and induction cavities. One of the factors that make the magnetic components compact is utilization of the total flux swing available in the core. In the present system, magnetic switches, pulse transformers, and induction cavity are designed to avail the full flux swing available in the core. For achieving this objective, flux density in the core has to be kept at the reverse saturation, before the main pulse is applied. The electrical circuit which makes it possible is called the core reset system. In this paper the details of core reset system designed for LIA-200 are described. (author)

  20. Hamilton's equations for a fluid membrane

    Capovilla, R; Guven, J; Rojas, E

    2005-01-01

    Consider a homogeneous fluid membrane described by the Helfrich-Canham energy, quadratic in the mean curvature of the membrane surface. The shape equation that determines equilibrium configurations is fourth order in derivatives and cubic in the mean curvature. We introduce a Hamiltonian formulation of this equation which dismantles it into a set of coupled first-order equations. This involves interpreting the Helfrich-Canham energy as an action; equilibrium surfaces are generated by the evolution of space curves. Two features complicate the implementation of a Hamiltonian framework. (i) The action involves second derivatives. This requires treating the velocity as a phase-space variable and the introduction of its conjugate momentum. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed on this phase space. (ii) The action possesses a local symmetry-reparametrization invariance. The two labels we use to parametrize points on the surface are themselves physically irrelevant. This symmetry implies primary constraints, one for each label, that need to be implemented within the Hamiltonian. The two Lagrange multipliers associated with these constraints are identified as the components of the acceleration tangential to the surface. The conservation of the primary constraints implies two secondary constraints, fixing the tangential components of the momentum conjugate to the position. Hamilton's equations are derived and the appropriate initial conditions on the phase-space variables are identified. Finally, it is shown how the shape equation can be reconstructed from these equations

  1. Practical application of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The use of mechanical energy absorbers as an alternative to conventional hydraulic and mechanical snubbers for piping supports has attracted a wide interest among researchers and practitioners in the nuclear industry. The basic design concept of energy absorbers (EA) is to dissipate the vibration energy of piping systems through nonlinear hysteretic actions of EA exclamation point s under design seismic loads. Therefore, some type of nonlinear analysis needs to be performed in the seismic design of piping systems with EA supports. The equivalent linearization approach (ELA) can be a practical analysis tool for this purpose, particularly when the response approach (RSA) is also incorporated in the analysis formulations. In this paper, the following ELA/RSA methods are presented and compared to each other regarding their practice and numerical accuracy: Response approach using the square root of sum of squares (SRSS) approximation (denoted RS in this paper). Classical ELA based on modal combinations and linear random vibration theory (denoted CELA in this paper). Stochastic ELA based on direct solution of response covariance matrix (denoted SELA in this paper). New algorithms to convert response spectra to the equivalent power spectral density (PSD) functions are presented for both the above CELA and SELA methods. The numerical accuracy of the three EL are studied through a parametric error analysis. Finally, the practicality of the presented analysis is demonstrated in two application examples for piping systems with EA supports

  2. A RECIPE FOR LINEAR COLLIDER FINAL FOCUS SYSTEM DESIGN

    Seryi, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The design of Final Focus systems for linear colliders is challenging because of the large demagnifications needed to produce nanometer-sized beams at the interaction point. Simple first- and second-order matrix matching have proven insufficient for this task, and minimization of third- and higher-order aberrations is essential. An appropriate strategy is required for the latter to be successful. A recipe for Final Focus design, and a set of computational tools used to implement this approach, are described herein. An example of the use of this procedure is given

  3. Periodic orbits from Δ-modulation of stable linear systems

    Xia, X.; Zinober, A.

    2004-01-01

    The �-modulated control of a single input, discrete time, linear stable system is investigated. The modulation direction is given by cTx where c �Rn/{0} is a given, otherwise arbitrary, vector. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of periodic points of a finite order. Some concrete results about the existence of a certain order of periodic points are also derived. We also study the relationship between certain polyhedra and the periodicity of the �-modulated orb...

  4. Probing LINEAR Collider Final Focus Systems in SuperKEKB

    Thrane, Paul Conrad Vaagen

    2017-01-01

    A challenge for future linear collider final focus systems is the large chromaticity produced by the final quadrupoles. SuperKEKB will be correcting high levels of chromaticity using the traditional scheme which has been also proposed for the CLIC FFS. We present early simulation results indicating that lowering β*у in the SuperKEKB Low Energy Ring might be possible given on-axis injection and low bunch current, opening the possibility of testing chromaticity correction beyond FFTB level, similar to ILC and approaching that of CLIC. CLIC – Note – 1077

  5. Optimal Robust Fault Detection for Linear Discrete Time Systems

    Nike Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers robust fault-detection problems for linear discrete time systems. It is shown that the optimal robust detection filters for several well-recognized robust fault-detection problems, such as ℋ−/ℋ∞, ℋ2/ℋ∞, and ℋ∞/ℋ∞ problems, are the same and can be obtained by solving a standard algebraic Riccati equation. Optimal filters are also derived for many other optimization criteria and it is shown that some well-studied and seeming-sensible optimization criteria for fault-detection filter design could lead to (optimal but useless fault-detection filters.

  6. A novel linear switched reluctance motor for railway transportation systems

    Daldaban, Ferhat; Ustkoyuncu, Nurettin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a new linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) structure, especially suitable for high-speed railway systems. The new model has a double active stator configuration and provides high force for many applications with low cost. The characteristics of the LSRM are obtained by using finite element analysis (FEA) and analytical calculations. The results of the FEA and analytical calculations are presented, and compared with experimental results. In addition, a classical double-sided LSRM (DSLSRM) is modeled with the same specifications of the new motor structure and the results are compared.

  7. Novel Approach to Linear Accelerator Superconducting Magnet System

    Kashikhin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting Linear Accelerators include a superconducting magnet system for particle beam transportation that provides the beam focusing and steering. This system consists of a large number of quadrupole magnets and dipole correctors mounted inside or between cryomodules with SCRF cavities. Each magnet has current leads and powered from its own power supply. The paper proposes a novel approach to magnet powering based on using superconducting persistent current switches. A group of magnets is powered from the same power supply through the common, for the group of cryomodules, electrical bus and pair of current leads. Superconducting switches direct the current to the chosen magnet and close the circuit providing the magnet operation in a persistent current mode. Two persistent current switches were fabricated and tested. In the paper also presented the results of magnetic field simulations, decay time constants analysis, and a way of improving quadrupole magnetic center stability. Such approach substantially reduces the magnet system cost and increases the reliability.

  8. Considering system non-linearity in transmission pricing

    Oloomi-Buygi, M.; Salehizadeh, M. Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a new approach for transmission pricing is presented. The contribution of a contract on power flow of a transmission line is used as extent-of-use criterion for transmission pricing. In order to determine the contribution of each contract on power flow of each transmission line, first the contribution of each contract on each voltage angle is determined, which is called voltage angle decomposition. To this end, DC power flow is used to compute a primary solution for voltage angle decomposition. To consider the impacts of system non-linearity on voltage angle decomposition, a method is presented to determine the share of different terms of sine argument in sine value. Then the primary solution is corrected in different iterations of decoupled Newton-Raphson power flow using the presented sharing method. The presented approach is applied to a 4-bus test system and IEEE 30-bus test system and the results are analyzed. (author)

  9. Data acquisition system for linear PSD based neutron diffractometer

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Behere, Anita; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Single or multi-PSD configurations are used in different neutron diffractometer setups. A data acquisition system is developed to serve the gross requirements of all the diffractometer setups. It is also customized to specific requirements of different setups. The hardware is developed as a Transputer based add-on card. Most of the hardware functionality is handled in the Transputer program thus improving throughput of the system. The card can handle 16 RDCs, a few motor controls and on/off controls. The software comprises of a front-end Windows98 application, a Transputer program and a device driver. The data acquisition system performs data acquisition, analysis, display and storage. Analysis includes converting raw data of linear PSD to equiangular format, merging and clubbing the data to make a continuous equiangular spectrum. Calibration of individual PSD is a crucial activity in correctly merging the data coming from PSDs. (author)

  10. Durand Neighbourhood Heritage Inventory: Toward a Digital Citywide Survey Approach to Heritage Planning in Hamilton

    Angel, V.; Garvey, A.; Sydor, M.

    2017-08-01

    In the face of changing economies and patterns of development, the definition of heritage is diversifying, and the role of inventories in local heritage planning is coming to the fore. The Durand neighbourhood is a layered and complex area located in inner-city Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and the second subject area in a set of pilot inventory studies to develop a new city-wide inventory strategy for the City of Hamilton,. This paper presents an innovative digital workflow developed to undertake the Durand Built Heritage Inventory project. An online database was developed to be at the centre of all processes, including digital documentation, record management, analysis and variable outputs. Digital tools were employed for survey work in the field and analytical work in the office, resulting in a GIS-based dataset that can be integrated into Hamilton's larger municipal planning system. Together with digital mapping and digitized historical resources, the Durand database has been leveraged to produce both digital and static outputs to shape recommendations for the protection of Hamilton's heritage resources.

  11. Hamilton Place - Ontario Canadá

    Garwood-Jones, T. P.

    1975-04-01

    Full Text Available Although comparatively modest as to its exterior, the interior of the theatre-auditorium Hamilton Place has been most successfully solved, both as regards design and acoustics. Construction techniques and elements have been utilized to achieve two different sections in one and the same hall with on one hand the capacity to be able to capture shades of the spoken word at theatrical functions and on the other to reproduce the sharpness and variety of orchestras and choirs. The following elements deserve special mention: the mobile wall which incorporates the orchestra into the hall by closing the proscenium arch; the two elevating platforms where the orchestra is placed; the vertical velvet surfaces, hung like banners which soften the repercussion of the sound; the mobile horizontal surfaces over the orchestra that direct and orient the sound. The most interesting construction techniques are: the subdivision of the building into different parts, each one with independent foundation so as to avoid the transmission of the sound from one section to the other; the texture of the brick walls that disperse the reflected sound; and the use of counterforts to create smaller more personal sections for varied use. The acoustic characteristics are improved by means of a sound installation, formed by small loudspeakers placed under each seat and by other bigger ones distributed in the walls that surround the hall. The building is completed by various service installations that are appropriate to this type of construction, as well as by a small theatre-studio for the rehearsals of the orchestra and the actors, while other functions are going on in the main hall.El teatro-auditorio Hamilton Place, aunque relativamente modesto por fuera, tiene soluciones muy afortunadas en el interior, tanto por su diseño como por su adecuación acústica. Se han utilizado elementos y técnicas constructivas destinadas a conseguir, en una única sala, dos espacios

  12. Final focus system tuning studies towards Compact Linear Collider feasibility

    Marin, E.; Latina, A.; Tomás, R.; Schulte, D.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the latest results regarding the tuning study of the baseline design of the final focus system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC-FFS). CLIC aims to provide collisions to the experiments at a luminosity above 1034 c m-2 s-1 . In order to deliver such luminosity in a single pass machine, the vertical beam size at the interaction point (IP) is reduced to about 1 nm, which imposes unprecedented tuning difficulties to the system. In previous studies, 90% of the machines reached 90% of the nominal luminosity at the expense of 18 000 luminosity measurements, when considering beam position monitor errors and transverse misalignments of magnets for a single beam case. In the present study, additional static imperfections as, roll misalignments, strength v2.epss are included. Moreover both e- and e+ beamlines are properly simulated. A new tuning procedure based on linear and nonlinear knobs is implemented to effectively cure the most relevant beam size aberrations at the IP. The obtained results for single and double beam studies under solely static imperfections are presented.

  13. Convergent Difference Schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Duisembay, Serikbolsyn

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider second-order fully nonlinear partial differential equations of elliptic type. Our aim is to develop computational methods using convergent difference schemes for stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equations with Dirichlet

  14. Researcher Profile: An Interview with Axton Betz-Hamilton

    Axton Betz-Hamilton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Axton Betz-Hamilton teaches consumer studies courses at Eastern Illinois University, including Personal and Family Finance, Housing, and Consumer Issues. She conducts research on identity theft as well as financial abuse within families.

  15. Efficient Feedforward Linearization Technique Using Genetic Algorithms for OFDM Systems

    García Paloma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feedforward is a linearization method that simultaneously offers wide bandwidth and good intermodulation distortion suppression; so it is a good choice for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM systems. Feedforward structure consists of two loops, being necessary an accurate adjustment between them along the time, and when temperature, environmental, or operating changes are produced. Amplitude and phase imbalances of the circuit elements in both loops produce mismatched effects that lead to degrade its performance. A method is proposed to compensate these mismatches, introducing two complex coefficients calculated by means of a genetic algorithm. A full study is carried out to choose the optimal parameters of the genetic algorithm applied to wideband systems based on OFDM technologies, which are very sensitive to nonlinear distortions. The method functionality has been verified by means of simulation.

  16. On modulated complex non-linear dynamical systems

    Mahmoud, G.M.; Mohamed, A.A.; Rauh, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of an approximate analytical method to investigate periodic solutions and their stability in the case of modulated non-linear dynamical systems whose equation of motion is describe. Such differential equations appear, for example, in problems of colliding particle beams in high-energy accelerators or one-mass systems with two or more degrees of freedom, e.g. rotors. The significance of periodic solutions lies on the fact that all non-periodic responses, if convergent, would approach to periodic solutions at the steady-state conditions. The example shows a good agreement between numerical and analytical results for small values of ε. The effect of the periodic modulation on the stability of the 2π-periodic solutions is discussed

  17. Thermodynamic Optimality criteria for biological systems in linear irreversible thermodynamics

    Chimal, J C; Sánchez, N; Ramírez, PR

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the methodology of the so-called Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics (LIT) is applied; although traditionally used locally to study general systems in non-equilibrium states in which it is consider both internal and external contributions to the entropy increments in order to analyze the efficiency of two coupled processes with generalized fluxes J 1 , J 2 and their corresponding forces X 1 , X 2 . We extend the former analysis to takes into account two different operating regimes namely: Omega Function and Efficient Power criterion, respectively. Results show analogies in the optimal performance between and we can say that there exist a criteria of optimization which can be used specially for biological systems where a good design of the biological parameters made by nature at maximum efficient power conditions lead to more efficient engines than those at the maximum power conditions or ecological conditions. (paper)

  18. Linear system identification via backward-time observer models

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to identify a state-space model of a linear system using a backward-time approach. The procedure consists of three basic steps. First, the Markov parameters of a backward-time observer are computed from experimental input-output data. Second, the backward-time observer Markov parameters are decomposed to obtain the backward-time system Markov parameters (backward-time pulse response samples) from which a backward-time state-space model is realized using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm. Third, the obtained backward-time state space model is converted to the usual forward-time representation. Stochastic properties of this approach will be discussed. Experimental results are given to illustrate when and to what extent this concept works.

  19. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    Lau, Kam Y

    2009-01-01

    Designed for a one-semester course on fiber-optics systems and communication links, this book provides a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers.

  20. Linear theory for filtering nonlinear multiscale systems with model error.

    Berry, Tyrus; Harlim, John

    2014-07-08

    In this paper, we study filtering of multiscale dynamical systems with model error arising from limitations in resolving the smaller scale processes. In particular, the analysis assumes the availability of continuous-time noisy observations of all components of the slow variables. Mathematically, this paper presents new results on higher order asymptotic expansion of the first two moments of a conditional measure. In particular, we are interested in the application of filtering multiscale problems in which the conditional distribution is defined over the slow variables, given noisy observation of the slow variables alone. From the mathematical analysis, we learn that for a continuous time linear model with Gaussian noise, there exists a unique choice of parameters in a linear reduced model for the slow variables which gives the optimal filtering when only the slow variables are observed. Moreover, these parameters simultaneously give the optimal equilibrium statistical estimates of the underlying system, and as a consequence they can be estimated offline from the equilibrium statistics of the true signal. By examining a nonlinear test model, we show that the linear theory extends in this non-Gaussian, nonlinear configuration as long as we know the optimal stochastic parametrization and the correct observation model. However, when the stochastic parametrization model is inappropriate, parameters chosen for good filter performance may give poor equilibrium statistical estimates and vice versa; this finding is based on analytical and numerical results on our nonlinear test model and the two-layer Lorenz-96 model. Finally, even when the correct stochastic ansatz is given, it is imperative to estimate the parameters simultaneously and to account for the nonlinear feedback of the stochastic parameters into the reduced filter estimates. In numerical experiments on the two-layer Lorenz-96 model, we find that the parameters estimated online , as part of a filtering

  1. Empty space-times with separable Hamilton-Jacobi equation

    Collinson, C.D.; Fugere, J.

    1977-01-01

    All empty space-times admitting a one-parameter group of motions and in which the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is (partially) separable are obtained. Several different cases of such empty space-times exist and the Riemann tensor is found to be either type D or N. The results presented here complete the search for empty space-times with separable Hamilton-Jacobi equation. (author)

  2. Linear analysis of rotationally invariant, radially variant tomographic imaging systems

    Huesmann, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method to analyze the linear imaging characteristics of rotationally invariant, radially variant tomographic imaging systems using singular value decomposition (SVD). When the projection measurements from such a system are assumed to be samples from independent and identically distributed multi-normal random variables, the best estimate of the emission intensity is given by the unweighted least squares estimator. The noise amplification of this estimator is inversely proportional to the singular values of the normal matrix used to model projection and backprojection. After choosing an acceptable noise amplification, the new method can determine the number of parameters and hence the number of pixels that should be estimated from data acquired from an existing system with a fixed number of angles and projection bins. Conversely, for the design of a new system, the number of angles and projection bins necessary for a given number of pixels and noise amplification can be determined. In general, computing the SVD of the projection normal matrix has cubic computational complexity. However, the projection normal matrix for this class of rotationally invariant, radially variant systems has a block circulant form. A fast parallel algorithm to compute the SVD of this block circulant matrix makes the singular value analysis practical by asymptotically reducing the computation complexity of the method by a multiplicative factor equal to the number of angles squared

  3. Linear homotopy solution of nonlinear systems of equations in geodesy

    Paláncz, Béla; Awange, Joseph L.; Zaletnyik, Piroska; Lewis, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental task in geodesy is solving systems of equations. Many geodetic problems are represented as systems of multivariate polynomials. A common problem in solving such systems is improper initial starting values for iterative methods, leading to convergence to solutions with no physical meaning, or to convergence that requires global methods. Though symbolic methods such as Groebner bases or resultants have been shown to be very efficient, i.e., providing solutions for determined systems such as 3-point problem of 3D affine transformation, the symbolic algebra can be very time consuming, even with special Computer Algebra Systems (CAS). This study proposes the Linear Homotopy method that can be implemented easily in high-level computer languages like C++ and Fortran that are faster than CAS by at least two orders of magnitude. Using Mathematica, the power of Homotopy is demonstrated in solving three nonlinear geodetic problems: resection, GPS positioning, and affine transformation. The method enlarging the domain of convergence is found to be efficient, less sensitive to rounding of numbers, and has lower complexity compared to other local methods like Newton-Raphson.

  4. The theory of a general quantum system interacting with a linear dissipative system

    Feynman, R.P.; Vernon, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    A formalism has been developed, using Feynman's space-time formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics whereby the behavior of a system of interest, which is coupled to other external quantum systems, may be calculated in terms of its own variables only. It is shown that the effect of the external systems in such a formalism can always be included in a general class of functionals (influence functionals) of the coordinates of the system only. The properties of influence functionals for general systems are examined. Then, specific forms of influence functionals representing the effect of definite and random classical forces, linear dissipative systems at finite temperatures, and combinations of these are analyzed in detail. The linear system analysis is first done for perfectly linear systems composed of combinations of harmonic oscillators, loss being introduced by continuous distributions of oscillators. Then approximately linear systems and restrictions necessary for the linear behavior are considered. Influence functionals for all linear systems are shown to have the same form in terms of their classical response functions. In addition, a fluctuation-dissipation theorem is derived relating temperature and dissipation of the linear system to a fluctuating classical potential acting on the system of interest which reduces to the Nyquist-Johnson relation for noise in the case of electric circuits. Sample calculations of transition probabilities for the spontaneous emission of an atom in free space and in a cavity are made. Finally, a theorem is proved showing that within the requirements of linearity all sources of noise or quantum fluctuation introduced by maser-type amplification devices are accounted for by a classical calculation of the characteristics of the maser

  5. Radii of Solvability and Unsolvability of Linear Systems

    Hladík, M.; Rohn, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 503, 15 August (2016), s. 120-134 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * linear equations * linear inequalities * matrix norm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  6. Numerical Study of Concentration Characteristics of Linear Fresnel Reflector System

    Lee, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jong Kyu; Lee, Sang Nam

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we numerically investigated the concentration characteristics of a linear Fresnel reflector system that can drive a solar thermal absorption refrigeration system to be installed in Saudi Arabia. Using an optical modeling program based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method, we simulated the concentrated solar flux, concentration efficiency, and concentrated solar energy on four representative days of the year - the vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumnal equinox, and winter solstice. Except the winter solstice, the concentrations were approximately steady from 9 AM to 15 PM, and the concentration efficiencies exceed 70%. Moreover, the maximum solar flux around the solar receiver center changes only within the range of 13.0 - 14.6 kW/m 2 . When we investigated the effects of the receiver installation height, reflector width, and reflector gap, the optimal receiver installation height was found to be 5 m. A smaller reflector width had a greater concentration efficiency. However, the design of the reflector width should be based on the capacity of the refrigeration system because it dominantly affects the concentrated solar energy. The present study was an essential prerequisite for thermal analyses of the solar receiver. Thus, an optical-thermal integration study in the future will assist with the performance prediction and design of the entire system

  7. Numerical Study of Concentration Characteristics of Linear Fresnel Reflector System

    Lee, Hyun Jin [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyu; Lee, Sang Nam [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we numerically investigated the concentration characteristics of a linear Fresnel reflector system that can drive a solar thermal absorption refrigeration system to be installed in Saudi Arabia. Using an optical modeling program based on the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method, we simulated the concentrated solar flux, concentration efficiency, and concentrated solar energy on four representative days of the year - the vernal equinox, summer solstice, autumnal equinox, and winter solstice. Except the winter solstice, the concentrations were approximately steady from 9 AM to 15 PM, and the concentration efficiencies exceed 70%. Moreover, the maximum solar flux around the solar receiver center changes only within the range of 13.0 - 14.6 kW/m{sup 2}. When we investigated the effects of the receiver installation height, reflector width, and reflector gap, the optimal receiver installation height was found to be 5 m. A smaller reflector width had a greater concentration efficiency. However, the design of the reflector width should be based on the capacity of the refrigeration system because it dominantly affects the concentrated solar energy. The present study was an essential prerequisite for thermal analyses of the solar receiver. Thus, an optical-thermal integration study in the future will assist with the performance prediction and design of the entire system.

  8. Periodic inventory system in cafeteria using linear programming

    Usop, Mohd Fais; Ishak, Ruzana; Hamdan, Ahmad Ridhuan

    2017-11-01

    Inventory management is an important factor in running a business. It plays a big role of managing the stock in cafeteria. If the inventories are failed to be managed wisely, it will affect the profit of the cafeteria. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to find the solution of the inventory management in cafeteria. Most of the cafeteria in Malaysia did not manage their stock well. Therefore, this study is to propose a database system of inventory management and to develop the inventory model in cafeteria management. In this study, new database system to improve the management of the stock in a weekly basis will be provided using Linear Programming Model to get the optimal range of the inventory needed for selected categories. Data that were collected by using the Periodic Inventory System at the end of the week within three months period being analyzed by using the Food Stock-take Database. The inventory model was developed from the collected data according to the category of the inventory in the cafeteria. Results showed the effectiveness of using the Periodic Inventory System and will be very helpful to the cafeteria management in organizing the inventory. Moreover, the findings in this study can reduce the cost of operation and increased the profit.

  9. Incomplete factorization technique for positive definite linear systems

    Manteuffel, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for solving the large sparse symmetric linear systems that arise from the application of finite element methods. The technique combines an incomplete factorization method called the shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization with the method of generalized conjugate gradients. The shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization produces a splitting of the matrix A that is dependent upon a parameter α. It is shown that if A is positive definite, then there is some α for which this splitting is possible and that this splitting is at least as good as the Jacobi splitting. The method is shown to be more efficient on a set of test problems than either direct methods or explicit iteration schemes

  10. Stability and complexity of small random linear systems

    Hastings, Harold

    2010-03-01

    We explore the stability of the small random linear systems, typically involving 10-20 variables, motivated by dynamics of the world trade network and the US and Canadian power grid. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the US Government. Neither the US Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the US Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the US Government or any agency thereof.

  11. IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF THE LINEAR SYSTEMS SOLVERS USING CUDA

    BOGDAN OANCEA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Parallel computing can offer an enormous advantage regarding the performance for very large applications in almost any field: scientific computing, computer vision, databases, data mining, and economics. GPUs are high performance many-core processors that can obtain very high FLOP rates. Since the first idea of using GPU for general purpose computing, things have evolved and now there are several approaches to GPU programming: CUDA from NVIDIA and Stream from AMD. CUDA is now a popular programming model for general purpose computations on GPU for C/C++ programmers. A great number of applications were ported to CUDA programming model and they obtain speedups of orders of magnitude comparing to optimized CPU implementations. In this paper we present an implementation of a library for solving linear systems using the CCUDA framework. We present the results of performance tests and show that using GPU one can obtain speedups of about of approximately 80 times comparing with a CPU implementation.

  12. Compressive System Identification in the Linear Time-Invariant framework

    Toth, Roland

    2011-12-01

    Selection of an efficient model parametrization (model order, delay, etc.) has crucial importance in parametric system identification. It navigates a trade-off between representation capabilities of the model (structural bias) and effects of over-parametrization (variance increase of the estimates). There exists many approaches to this widely studied problem in terms of statistical regularization methods and information criteria. In this paper, an alternative ℓ 1 regularization scheme is proposed for estimation of sparse linear-regression models based on recent results in compressive sensing. It is shown that the proposed scheme provides consistent estimation of sparse models in terms of the so-called oracle property, it is computationally attractive for large-scale over-parameterized models and it is applicable in case of small data sets, i.e., underdetermined estimation problems. The performance of the approach w.r.t. other regularization schemes is demonstrated in an extensive Monte Carlo study. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Sampled-data models for linear and nonlinear systems

    Yuz, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Sampled-data Models for Linear and Nonlinear Systems provides a fresh new look at a subject with which many researchers may think themselves familiar. Rather than emphasising the differences between sampled-data and continuous-time systems, the authors proceed from the premise that, with modern sampling rates being as high as they are, it is becoming more appropriate to emphasise connections and similarities. The text is driven by three motives: ·      the ubiquity of computers in modern control and signal-processing equipment means that sampling of systems that really evolve continuously is unavoidable; ·      although superficially straightforward, sampling can easily produce erroneous results when not treated properly; and ·      the need for a thorough understanding of many aspects of sampling among researchers and engineers dealing with applications to which they are central. The authors tackle many misconceptions which, although appearing reasonable at first sight, are in fact either p...

  14. Comparison of linear, mixed integer and non-linear programming methods in energy system dispatch modelling

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, three frequently used operation optimisation methods are examined with respect to their impact on operation management of the combined utility technologies for electric power and DH (district heating) of eastern Denmark. The investigation focusses on individual plant operation...... differences and differences between the solution found by each optimisation method. One of the investigated approaches utilises LP (linear programming) for optimisation, one uses LP with binary operation constraints, while the third approach uses NLP (non-linear programming). The LP model is used...... as a benchmark, as this type is frequently used, and has the lowest amount of constraints of the three. A comparison of the optimised operation of a number of units shows significant differences between the three methods. Compared to the reference, the use of binary integer variables, increases operation...

  15. 2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker trademark, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m 2 of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology. However

  16. Low-Rank Linear Dynamical Systems for Motor Imagery EEG.

    Zhang, Wenchang; Sun, Fuchun; Tan, Chuanqi; Liu, Shaobo

    2016-01-01

    The common spatial pattern (CSP) and other spatiospectral feature extraction methods have become the most effective and successful approaches to solve the problem of motor imagery electroencephalography (MI-EEG) pattern recognition from multichannel neural activity in recent years. However, these methods need a lot of preprocessing and postprocessing such as filtering, demean, and spatiospectral feature fusion, which influence the classification accuracy easily. In this paper, we utilize linear dynamical systems (LDSs) for EEG signals feature extraction and classification. LDSs model has lots of advantages such as simultaneous spatial and temporal feature matrix generation, free of preprocessing or postprocessing, and low cost. Furthermore, a low-rank matrix decomposition approach is introduced to get rid of noise and resting state component in order to improve the robustness of the system. Then, we propose a low-rank LDSs algorithm to decompose feature subspace of LDSs on finite Grassmannian and obtain a better performance. Extensive experiments are carried out on public dataset from "BCI Competition III Dataset IVa" and "BCI Competition IV Database 2a." The results show that our proposed three methods yield higher accuracies compared with prevailing approaches such as CSP and CSSP.

  17. A virtual linear accelerator for verification of treatment planning systems

    Wieslander, Elinore

    2000-01-01

    A virtual linear accelerator is implemented into a commercial pencil-beam-based treatment planning system (TPS) with the purpose of investigating the possibility of verifying the system using a Monte Carlo method. The characterization set for the TPS includes depth doses, profiles and output factors, which is generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The advantage of this method over conventional measurements is that variations in accelerator output are eliminated and more complicated geometries can be used to study the performance of a TPS. The difference between Monte Carlo simulated and TPS calculated profiles and depth doses in the characterization geometry is less than ±2% except for the build-up region. This is of the same order as previously reported results based on measurements. In an inhomogeneous, mediastinum-like case, the deviations between TPS and simulations are small in the unit-density regions. In low-density regions, the TPS overestimates the dose, and the overestimation increases with increasing energy from 3.5% for 6 MV to 9.5% for 18 MV. This result points out the widely known fact that the pencil beam concept does not handle changes in lateral electron transport, nor changes in scatter due to lateral inhomogeneities. It is concluded that verification of a pencil-beam-based TPS with a Monte Carlo based virtual accelerator is possible, which facilitates the verification procedure. (author)

  18. Stochastic linear hybrid systems: Modeling, estimation, and application

    Seah, Chze Eng

    Hybrid systems are dynamical systems which have interacting continuous state and discrete state (or mode). Accurate modeling and state estimation of hybrid systems are important in many applications. We propose a hybrid system model, known as the Stochastic Linear Hybrid System (SLHS), to describe hybrid systems with stochastic linear system dynamics in each mode and stochastic continuous-state-dependent mode transitions. We then develop a hybrid estimation algorithm, called the State-Dependent-Transition Hybrid Estimation (SDTHE) algorithm, to estimate the continuous state and discrete state of the SLHS from noisy measurements. It is shown that the SDTHE algorithm is more accurate or more computationally efficient than existing hybrid estimation algorithms. Next, we develop a performance analysis algorithm to evaluate the performance of the SDTHE algorithm in a given operating scenario. We also investigate sufficient conditions for the stability of the SDTHE algorithm. The proposed SLHS model and SDTHE algorithm are illustrated to be useful in several applications. In Air Traffic Control (ATC), to facilitate implementations of new efficient operational concepts, accurate modeling and estimation of aircraft trajectories are needed. In ATC, an aircraft's trajectory can be divided into a number of flight modes. Furthermore, as the aircraft is required to follow a given flight plan or clearance, its flight mode transitions are dependent of its continuous state. However, the flight mode transitions are also stochastic due to navigation uncertainties or unknown pilot intents. Thus, we develop an aircraft dynamics model in ATC based on the SLHS. The SDTHE algorithm is then used in aircraft tracking applications to estimate the positions/velocities of aircraft and their flight modes accurately. Next, we develop an aircraft conformance monitoring algorithm to detect any deviations of aircraft trajectories in ATC that might compromise safety. In this application, the SLHS

  19. Popov–Belevitch–Hautus type tests for the controllability of linear complementarity systems

    Camlibel, M. Kanat

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that checking certain controllability properties of very simple piecewise linear systems are undecidable problems. This paper deals with the controllability problem of a class of piecewise linear systems, known as linear complementarity systems. By exploiting the underlying

  20. Quantitative Compactness Estimates for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    Ancona, Fabio; Cannarsa, Piermarco; Nguyen, Khai T.

    2016-02-01

    We study quantitative compactness estimates in {W^{1,1}_{loc}} for the map {S_t}, {t > 0} that is associated with the given initial data {u_0in Lip (R^N)} for the corresponding solution {S_t u_0} of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation u_t+Hbig(nabla_{x} ubig)=0, qquad t≥ 0,quad xinR^N, with a uniformly convex Hamiltonian {H=H(p)}. We provide upper and lower estimates of order {1/\\varepsilon^N} on the Kolmogorov {\\varepsilon}-entropy in {W^{1,1}} of the image through the map S t of sets of bounded, compactly supported initial data. Estimates of this type are inspired by a question posed by Lax (Course on Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. XXVII Scuola Estiva di Fisica Matematica, Ravello, 2002) within the context of conservation laws, and could provide a measure of the order of "resolution" of a numerical method implemented for this equation.

  1. On computation of Groebner bases for linear difference systems

    Gerdt, Vladimir P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: gerdt@jinr.ru

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we present an algorithm for computing Groebner bases of linear ideals in a difference polynomial ring over a ground difference field. The input difference polynomials generating the ideal are also assumed to be linear. The algorithm is an adaptation to difference ideals of our polynomial algorithm based on Janet-like reductions.

  2. On computation of Groebner bases for linear difference systems

    Gerdt, Vladimir P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an algorithm for computing Groebner bases of linear ideals in a difference polynomial ring over a ground difference field. The input difference polynomials generating the ideal are also assumed to be linear. The algorithm is an adaptation to difference ideals of our polynomial algorithm based on Janet-like reductions

  3. Stability and Linear Quadratic Differential Games of Discrete-Time Markovian Jump Linear Systems with State-Dependent Noise

    Huiying Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We mainly consider the stability of discrete-time Markovian jump linear systems with state-dependent noise as well as its linear quadratic (LQ differential games. A necessary and sufficient condition involved with the connection between stochastic Tn-stability of Markovian jump linear systems with state-dependent noise and Lyapunov equation is proposed. And using the theory of stochastic Tn-stability, we give the optimal strategies and the optimal cost values for infinite horizon LQ stochastic differential games. It is demonstrated that the solutions of infinite horizon LQ stochastic differential games are concerned with four coupled generalized algebraic Riccati equations (GAREs. Finally, an iterative algorithm is presented to solve the four coupled GAREs and a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of it.

  4. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On differential operators generating iterative systems of linear ODEs of maximal symmetry algebra

    Ndogmo, J. C.

    2017-06-01

    Although every iterative scalar linear ordinary differential equation is of maximal symmetry algebra, the situation is different and far more complex for systems of linear ordinary differential equations, and an iterative system of linear equations need not be of maximal symmetry algebra. We illustrate these facts by examples and derive families of vector differential operators whose iterations are all linear systems of equations of maximal symmetry algebra. Some consequences of these results are also discussed.

  6. A generalization of Hamilton's rule--love others how much?

    Alger, Ingela; Weibull, Jörgen W

    2012-04-21

    According to Hamilton's (1964a, b) rule, a costly action will be undertaken if its fitness cost to the actor falls short of the discounted benefit to the recipient, where the discount factor is Wright's index of relatedness between the two. We propose a generalization of this rule, and show that if evolution operates at the level of behavior rules, rather than directly at the level of actions, evolution will select behavior rules that induce a degree of cooperation that may differ from that predicted by Hamilton's rule as applied to actions. In social dilemmas there will be less (more) cooperation than under Hamilton's rule if the actions are strategic substitutes (complements). Our approach is based on natural selection, defined in terms of personal (direct) fitness, and applies to a wide range of pairwise interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solution Hamilton-Jacobi equation for oscillator Caldirola-Kanai

    LEONARDO PASTRANA ARTEAGA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The method allows Hamilton-Jacobi explicitly determine the generating function from which is possible to derive a transformation that makes soluble Hamilton's equations. Using the separation of variables the partial differential equation of the first order called Hamilton-Jacobi equation is solved; as a particular case consider the oscillator Caldirola-Kanai (CK, which is characterized in that the mass presents a temporal evolution exponentially  . We demonstrate that the oscillator CK position presents an exponential decay in time similar to that obtained in the damped sub-critical oscillator, which reflects the dissipation of total mechanical energy. We found that in the limit that the damping factor  is small, the behavior is the same as an oscillator with simple harmonic motion, where the effects of energy dissipation is negligible.

  8. Electron linear accelerator system for natural rubber vulcanization

    Rimjaem, S.; Kongmon, E.; Rhodes, M. W.; Saisut, J.; Thongbai, C.

    2017-09-01

    Development of an electron accelerator system, beam diagnostic instruments, an irradiation apparatus and electron beam processing methodology for natural rubber vulcanization is underway at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The project is carried out with the aims to improve the qualities of natural rubber products. The system consists of a DC thermionic electron gun, 5-cell standing-wave radio-frequency (RF) linear accelerator (linac) with side-coupling cavities and an electron beam irradiation apparatus. This system is used to produce electron beams with an adjustable energy between 0.5 and 4 MeV and a pulse current of 10-100 mA at a pulse repetition rate of 20-400 Hz. An average absorbed dose between 160 and 640 Gy is expected to be archived for 4 MeV electron beam when the accelerator is operated at 400 Hz. The research activities focus firstly on assembling of the accelerator system, study on accelerator properties and electron beam dynamic simulations. The resonant frequency of the RF linac in π/2 operating mode is 2996.82 MHz for the operating temperature of 35 °C. The beam dynamic simulations were conducted by using the code ASTRA. Simulation results suggest that electron beams with an average energy of 4.002 MeV can be obtained when the linac accelerating gradient is 41.7 MV/m. The rms transverse beam size and normalized rms transverse emittance at the linac exit are 0.91 mm and 10.48 π mm·mrad, respectively. This information can then be used as the input data for Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the electron beam penetration depth and dose distribution in the natural rubber latex. The study results from this research will be used to define optimal conditions for natural rubber vulcanization with different electron beam energies and doses. This is very useful for development of future practical industrial accelerator units.

  9. Direct linear driving systems; Les entrainements lineaires directs

    Favre, E.; Brunner, C.; Piaget, D. [ETEL SA (France)

    1999-11-01

    The linear motor is one of the most important developments in electrical drive technology. However, it only, began to be adopted on a large scale at the beginning of the 1990's and will not be considered a mature technology until well into the next millennium. Actuators based on linear motor technology have a number of technical advantages including high speed, high positional accuracy and fine resolution. They also require fewer component parts. Some precautions are necessary when using linear motors. Care must be taken to avoid overheating and excessive vibration, and the magnetic components must be protected.

  10. First-order systems of linear partial differential equations: normal forms, canonical systems, transform methods

    Heinz Toparkus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider first-order systems with constant coefficients for two real-valued functions of two real variables. This is both a problem in itself, as well as an alternative view of the classical linear partial differential equations of second order with constant coefficients. The classification of the systems is done using elementary methods of linear algebra. Each type presents its special canonical form in the associated characteristic coordinate system. Then you can formulate initial value problems in appropriate basic areas, and you can try to achieve a solution of these problems by means of transform methods.

  11. Badly approximable systems of linear forms in absolute value

    Hussain, M.; Kristensen, Simon

    In this paper we show that the set of mixed type badly approximable simultaneously small linear forms is of maximal dimension. As a consequence of this theorem we settle the conjecture stated in [9]....

  12. The graphics software of the Saclay Linear Accelerator control system

    Gournay, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The graphics software used for the control of the Saclay Linear Accelerator is described. The specific requirements that such a software must have in this environment are outlined and some typical applications are presented. (orig.)

  13. Lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear ...

    delayed linear terms via impulsive control is investigated. Based on the stability theory of impulsive delayed differen- tial equations, some sufficient conditions are obtained guaranteeing the synchronized behaviours between two delayed chaotic ...

  14. Metrical theorems on systems of small inhomogeneous linear forms

    Hussain, Mumtaz; Kristensen, Simon

    In this paper we establish complete Khintchine-Groshev and Schmidt type theorems for inhomogeneous small linear forms in the so-called doubly metric case, in which the inhomogeneous parameter is not fixed.......In this paper we establish complete Khintchine-Groshev and Schmidt type theorems for inhomogeneous small linear forms in the so-called doubly metric case, in which the inhomogeneous parameter is not fixed....

  15. Metrical results on systems of small linear forms

    Hussain, M.; Kristensen, Simon

    In this paper the metric theory of Diophantine approximation associated with the small linear forms is investigated. Khintchine--Groshev theorems are established along with Hausdorff measure generalization without the monotonic assumption on the approximating function.......In this paper the metric theory of Diophantine approximation associated with the small linear forms is investigated. Khintchine--Groshev theorems are established along with Hausdorff measure generalization without the monotonic assumption on the approximating function....

  16. Robustness of Linear Systems towards Multi-Dissipative Pertubations

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    We consider the question of robust stability of a linear time invariant plant subject to dynamic perturbations, which are dissipative in the sense of Willems with respect to several quadratic supply rates. For instance, parasitic dynamics are often both small gain and passive. We reduce several...... robustness analysis questions to linear matrix inequalities: robust stability, robust H2 performance and robust performance in presence of disturbances with finite signal-to-noise ratios...

  17. Linear Matrix Inequalities for Analysis and Control of Linear Vector Second-Order Systems

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    the Lyapunov matrix and the system matrices by introducing matrix multipliers, which potentially reduce conservativeness in hard control problems. Multipliers facilitate the usage of parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions as certificates of stability of uncertain and time-varying vector second-order systems......SUMMARY Many dynamical systems are modeled as vector second-order differential equations. This paper presents analysis and synthesis conditions in terms of LMI with explicit dependence in the coefficient matrices of vector second-order systems. These conditions benefit from the separation between....... The conditions introduced in this work have the potential to increase the practice of analyzing and controlling systems directly in vector second-order form. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  18. A note on the time decay of solutions for the linearized Wigner-Poisson system

    Gamba, Irene; Gualdani, Maria; Sparber, Christof

    2009-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Wigner-Poisson system of plasma physics, linearized around a (spatially homogeneous) Lorentzian distribution and prove that the solution of the corresponding linearized problem decays to zero in time. We also give

  19. New approach to solve fully fuzzy system of linear equations using ...

    Known example problems are solved to illustrate the efficacy and ... The concept of fuzzy set and fuzzy number were first introduced by Zadeh .... (iii) Fully fuzzy linear systems can be solved by linear programming approach, Gauss elim-.

  20. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  1. Evaluation of Linear and Non-Linear Control Schemes Applied to a Hydraulic Servo System

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2005-01-01

    Due to the innovation of low-cost electronics such as sensors, microcontrollers etc., the focus on highperformance motion control is increasing. This work focuses on position control of single-input single-output hydraulic servo-systems in general. A hydraulically actuated robotic manipulator...

  2. Practical Implementations of Advanced Process Control for Linear Systems

    Knudsen, Jørgen K . H.; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process and a lineari......This paper describes some practical problems encountered, when implementing Advanced Process Control, APC, schemes on linear processes. The implemented APC controllers discussed will be LQR, Riccati MPC and Condensed MPC controllers illustrated by simulation of the Four Tank Process...... on pilot plant equipment on the department of Chemical Engineering DTU Lyngby....

  3. Numerical Solution of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations in High Dimension

    2012-11-23

    high dimension FA9550-10-1-0029 Maurizio Falcone Dipartimento di Matematica SAPIENZA-Universita di Roma P. Aldo Moro, 2 00185 ROMA AH930...solution of Hamilton-Jacobi equations in high dimension AFOSR contract n. FA9550-10-1-0029 Maurizio Falcone Dipartimento di Matematica SAPIENZA

  4. Proof of the 1-factorization and Hamilton decomposition conjectures

    Csaba, Béla; Lo, Allan; Osthus, Deryk; Treglown, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors prove the following results (via a unified approach) for all sufficiently large n: (i) [1-factorization conjecture] Suppose that n is even and D\\geq 2\\lceil n/4\\rceil -1. Then every D-regular graph G on n vertices has a decomposition into perfect matchings. Equivalently, \\chi'(G)=D. (ii) [Hamilton decomposition conjecture] Suppose that D \\ge \\lfloor n/2 \\rfloor . Then every D-regular graph G on n vertices has a decomposition into Hamilton cycles and at most one perfect matching. (iii) [Optimal packings of Hamilton cycles] Suppose that G is a graph on n vertices with minimum degree \\delta\\ge n/2. Then G contains at least {\\rm reg}_{\\rm even}(n,\\delta)/2 \\ge (n-2)/8 edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles. Here {\\rm reg}_{\\rm even}(n,\\delta) denotes the degree of the largest even-regular spanning subgraph one can guarantee in a graph on n vertices with minimum degree \\delta. (i) was first explicitly stated by Chetwynd and Hilton. (ii) and the special case \\delta= \\lceil n/2 \\rceil of (iii) answe...

  5. Smoothing identification of systems with small non-linearities

    Kozánek, Jan; Piranda, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2003), s. 71-84 ISSN 0025-6455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/1471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : identification * small non-linearities * smoothing methods Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.237, year: 2003

  6. Estimation of Physical Parameters in Linear and Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

    Knudsen, Morten

    variance and confidence ellipsoid is demonstrated. The relation is based on a new theorem on maxima of an ellipsoid. The procedure for input signal design and physical parameter estimation is tested on a number of examples, linear as well as nonlinear and simulated as well as real processes, and it appears...

  7. Estimation of failure probabilities of linear dynamic systems by ...

    An iterative method for estimating the failure probability for certain time-variant reliability problems has been developed. In the paper, the focus is on the displacement response of a linear oscillator driven by white noise. Failure is then assumed to occur when the displacement response exceeds a critical threshold.

  8. Linear wave systems on n-D spatial domains

    Kurula, Mikael; Zwart, Heiko J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the linear wave equation on an n-dimensional spatial domain.We show that there is a boundary triplet associated to the undamped wave equation. This enables us to characterise all boundary conditions for which the undamped wave equation possesses a unique solution

  9. Riccati transformations and principal solutions of discrete linear systems

    Ahlbrandt, C.D.; Hooker, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Consider a second-order linear matrix difference equation. A definition of principal and anti-principal, or recessive and dominant, solutions of the equation are given and the existence of principal and anti-principal solutions and the essential uniqueness of principal solutions is proven

  10. The duality in the topological vector spaces and the linear physical system theory

    Oliveira Castro, F.M. de.

    1980-01-01

    The excitation-response relation in a linear, passive, and causal physical system who has the property of this relation be invariant for a time translation is univocally determined by the general form of the linear and continuous functionals defined on the linear topological space chosen for the representation of the excitations. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Conjugate gradient type methods for linear systems with complex symmetric coefficient matrices

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    We consider conjugate gradient type methods for the solution of large sparse linear system Ax equals b with complex symmetric coefficient matrices A equals A(T). Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as the numerical solution of the complex Helmholtz equation. Furthermore, most complex non-Hermitian linear systems which occur in practice are actually complex symmetric. We investigate conjugate gradient type iterations which are based on a variant of the nonsymmetric Lanczos algorithm for complex symmetric matrices. We propose a new approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property. The resulting algorithm presents several advantages over the standard biconjugate gradient method. We also include some remarks on the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  12. A Hamilton-like vector for the special-relativistic Coulomb problem

    Munoz, Gerardo; Pavic, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic point charge moving in a Coulomb potential does not admit a conserved Hamilton vector. Despite this fact, a Hamilton-like vector may be developed that proves useful in the derivation and analysis of the particle's orbit

  13. 78 FR 73750 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hamilton, OH

    2013-12-09

    ...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Hamilton, OH. Decommissioning of the Hamilton nondirectional... the views and suggestions presented are particularly helpful in developing reasoned regulatory...

  14. Solution of systems of linear algebraic equations by the method of summation of divergent series

    Kirichenko, G.A.; Korovin, Ya.S.; Khisamutdinov, M.V.; Shmojlov, V.I.

    2015-01-01

    A method for solving systems of linear algebraic equations has been proposed on the basis on the summation of the corresponding continued fractions. The proposed algorithm for solving systems of linear algebraic equations is classified as direct algorithms providing an exact solution in a finite number of operations. Examples of solving systems of linear algebraic equations have been presented and the effectiveness of the algorithm has been estimated [ru

  15. A final focus system for the Next Linear Collider

    Zimmermann, F.; Brown, K.; Emma, P.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Tenenbaum, P.; Wilson, P.

    1995-06-01

    The final focus of the Next Linear Collider (NLC) demagnifies electron and positron beams of 250--750 GeV energy down to a transverse size of about 2.5 x 350 nm 2 at the interaction point (IP). The basic layout, momentum bandwidth, vibration tolerances, wakefield effects, and the tunability of the proposed final focus design are discussed. Also a perspective is given on the crab cavity and on effects of the solenoid field in the interaction region

  16. Algebraic coarsening methods for linear and nonlinear PDE and systems

    McWilliams, J C

    2000-01-01

    In [l] Brandt describes a general approach for algebraic coarsening. Given fine-grid equations and a prescribed relaxation method, an approach is presented for defining both the coarse-grid variables and the coarse-grid equations corresponding to these variables. Although, these two tasks are not necessarily related (and, indeed, are often performed independently and with distinct techniques) in the approaches of [1] both revolve around the same underlying observation. To determine whether a given set of coarse-grid variables is appropriate it is suggested that one should employ compatible relaxation. This is a generalization of so-called F-relaxation (e.g., [2]). Suppose that the coarse-grid variables are defined as a subset of the fine-grid variables. Then, F-relaxation simply means relaxing only the F-variables (i.e., fine-grid variables that do not correspond to coarse-grid variables), while leaving the remaining fine-grid variables (C-variables) unchanged. The generalization of compatible relaxation is in allowing the coarse-grid variables to be defined differently, say as linear combinations of fine-grid variables, or even nondeterministically (see examples in [1]). For the present summary it suffices to consider the simple case. The central observation regarding the set of coarse-grid variables is the following [1]: Observation 1--A general measure for the quality of the set of coarse-grid variables is the convergence rate of compatible relaxation. The conclusion is that a necessary condition for efficient multigrid solution (e.g., with convergence rates independent of problem size) is that the compatible-relaxation convergence be bounded away from 1, independently of the number of variables. This is often a sufficient condition, provided that the coarse-grid equations are sufficiently accurate. Therefore, it is suggested in [1] that the convergence rate of compatible relaxation should be used as a criterion for choosing and evaluating the set of coarse

  17. On stabilization of linear systems with stochastic disturbances and input saturation

    Stoorvogel, A.A.; Weiland, S.; Saberi, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is well-known that for linear systems internal asymptotic stability implies external stability in the sense that when the external input is in Lp then also the state will be in Lp. However, for the control of linear systems with saturation where the controlled system is nonlinear this implication

  18. New approach to solve fully fuzzy system of linear equations using ...

    This paper proposes two new methods to solve fully fuzzy system of linear equations. The fuzzy system has been converted to a crisp system of linear equations by using single and double parametric form of fuzzy numbers to obtain the non-negative solution. Double parametric form of fuzzy numbers is defined and applied ...

  19. Design of offline measuring system for radiation damage effects on linear CCD

    Zhang Yong; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Zujun; Huang Fang; Huang Shaoyan

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the hardware design of offline measuring system for radiation damage effects on linear CCD. Some credible results were achieved by using this system. The test results indicate that the system is available for the study of the radiation damage effects on linear CCD. (authors)

  20. Chaos M-ary modulation and demodulation method based on Hamilton oscillator and its application in communication.

    Fu, Yongqing; Li, Xingyuan; Li, Yanan; Yang, Wei; Song, Hailiang

    2013-03-01

    Chaotic communication has aroused general interests in recent years, but its communication effect is not ideal with the restriction of chaos synchronization. In this paper a new chaos M-ary digital modulation and demodulation method is proposed. By using region controllable characteristics of spatiotemporal chaos Hamilton map in phase plane and chaos unique characteristic, which is sensitive to initial value, zone mapping method is proposed. It establishes the map relationship between M-ary digital information and the region of Hamilton map phase plane, thus the M-ary information chaos modulation is realized. In addition, zone partition demodulation method is proposed based on the structure characteristic of Hamilton modulated information, which separates M-ary information from phase trajectory of chaotic Hamilton map, and the theory analysis of zone partition demodulator's boundary range is given. Finally, the communication system based on the two methods is constructed on the personal computer. The simulation shows that in high speed transmission communications and with no chaos synchronization circumstance, the proposed chaotic M-ary modulation and demodulation method has outperformed some conventional M-ary modulation methods, such as quadrature phase shift keying and M-ary pulse amplitude modulation in bit error rate. Besides, it has performance improvement in bandwidth efficiency, transmission efficiency and anti-noise performance, and the system complexity is low and chaos signal is easy to generate.

  1. On the convergence of linear passive complementarity systems

    Camlibel, M. Kanat; Wouw, Nathan van de

    2007-01-01

    The notion of convergent systems is a powerful tool both in the analysis and synthesis of nonlinear systems. Sufficient conditions for convergence have been under investigation for smooth systems and for classes of non-smooth switching systems in the literature. In this paper, we look at a very

  2. Dissipative open systems theory as a foundation for the thermodynamics of linear systems.

    Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Sandberg, Henrik

    2017-03-06

    In this paper, we advocate the use of open dynamical systems, i.e. systems sharing input and output variables with their environment, and the dissipativity theory initiated by Jan Willems as models of thermodynamical systems, at the microscopic and macroscopic level alike. We take linear systems as a study case, where we show how to derive a global Lyapunov function to analyse networks of interconnected systems. We define a suitable notion of dynamic non-equilibrium temperature that allows us to derive a discrete Fourier law ruling the exchange of heat between lumped, discrete-space systems, enriched with the Maxwell-Cattaneo correction. We complete these results by a brief recall of the steps that allow complete derivation of the dissipation and fluctuation in macroscopic systems (i.e. at the level of probability distributions) from lossless and deterministic systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. How to Use Linear Programming for Information System Performances Optimization

    Hell Marko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organisations nowadays operate in a very dynamic environment, and therefore, their ability of continuously adjusting the strategic plan to the new conditions is a must for achieving their strategic objectives. BSC is a well-known methodology for measuring performances enabling organizations to learn how well they are doing. In this paper, “BSC for IS” will be proposed in order to measure the IS impact on the achievement of organizations’ business goals. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to present the original procedure which is used to enhance the BSC methodology in planning the optimal targets of IS performances value in order to maximize the organization's effectiveness. Methods/Approach: The method used in this paper is the quantitative methodology - linear programming. In the case study, linear programming is used for optimizing organization’s strategic performance. Results: Results are shown on the example of a case study national park. An optimal performance value for the strategic objective has been calculated, as well as an optimal performance value for each DO (derived objective. Results are calculated in Excel, using Solver Add-in. Conclusions: The presentation of methodology through the case study of a national park shows that this methodology, though it requires a high level of formalisation, provides a very transparent performance calculation.

  4. A new linearized equation for servo valve in hydraulic control systems

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Ill Yeong

    2002-01-01

    In the procedure of the hydraulic control system analysis, a linearized approximate equation described by the first order term of Taylor's series has been widely used. Such a linearized equation is effective just near the operating point. And, as of now, there are no general standards on how to determine the operating point of a servo valve in the process of applying the linearized equation. So, in this study, a new linearized equation for valve characteristics is proposed as a modified form of the existing linearized equation. And, a method for selecting an optimal operating point is proposed for the new linearized equation. The effectiveness of the new linearized equation is confirmed through numerical simulations and experiments for a model hydraulic control system

  5. Source apportionment of PAH in Hamilton Harbour suspended sediments: comparison of two factor analysis methods.

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M; McCarry, Brian E; Marvin, Christopher H

    2008-08-15

    A total of 26 suspended sediment samples collected over a 5-year period in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada and surrounding creeks were analyzed for a suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocycles. Hamilton Harbour sediments contain relatively high levels of polycyclic aromatic compounds and heavy metals due to emissions from industrial and mobile sources. Two receptor modeling methods using factor analyses were compared to determine the profiles and relative contributions of pollution sources to the harbor; these methods are principal component analyses (PCA) with multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). Both methods identified four factors and gave excellent correlation coefficients between predicted and measured levels of 25 aromatic compounds; both methods predicted similar contributions from coal tar/coal combustion sources to the harbor (19 and 26%, respectively). One PCA factor was identified as contributions from vehicular emissions (61%); PMF was able to differentiate vehicular emissions into two factors, one attributed to gasoline emissions sources (28%) and the other to diesel emissions sources (24%). Overall, PMF afforded better source identification than PCA with MLR. This work constitutes one of the few examples of the application of PMF to the source apportionment of sediments; the addition of sulfur heterocycles to the analyte list greatly aided in the source identification process.

  6. El distribuidor de trafico de Hamilton-Inglaterra

    Babtie Shaw and Morton, Ingenieros Consultores

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article describes the initial stages in the construction of the complex traffic interchange at Hamilton, and gives details of all the special aspects which it involves. The second part deals with two of the three bridges at the Maryville interchange, and a detailed description is given of the most important features of these structures.La primera parte de este artículo muestra el trabajo de la primera etapa del complejo del distribuidor de tráfico de Hamilton, dándonos cuenta de las obras que engloba. La segunda parte trata de dos de los tres puentes que hay en el empalme de Maryville, describiéndolos y mostrando sus partes más importantes.

  7. Convergent Difference Schemes for Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    Duisembay, Serikbolsyn

    2018-05-07

    In this thesis, we consider second-order fully nonlinear partial differential equations of elliptic type. Our aim is to develop computational methods using convergent difference schemes for stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equations with Dirichlet and Neumann type boundary conditions in arbitrary two-dimensional domains. First, we introduce the notion of viscosity solutions in both continuous and discontinuous frameworks. Next, we review Barles-Souganidis approach using monotone, consistent, and stable schemes. In particular, we show that these schemes converge locally uniformly to the unique viscosity solution of the first-order Hamilton-Jacobi equations under mild assumptions. To solve the scheme numerically, we use Euler map with some initial guess. This iterative method gives the viscosity solution as a limit. Moreover, we illustrate our numerical approach in several two-dimensional examples.

  8. Regularization of Hamilton-Lagrangian guiding center theories

    Correa-Restrepo, D.; Wimmel, H.K.

    1985-04-01

    The Hamilton-Lagrangian guiding-center (G.C.) theories of Littlejohn, Wimmel, and Pfirsch show a singularity for B-fields with non-vanishing parallel curl at a critical value of vsub(parallel), which complicates applications. The singularity is related to a sudden breakdown, at a critical vsub(parallel), of gyration in the exact particle mechanics. While the latter is a real effect, the G.C. singularity can be removed. To this end a regularization method is defined that preserves the Hamilton-Lagrangian structure and the conservation theorems. For demonstration this method is applied to the standard G.C. theory (without polarization drift). Liouville's theorem and G.C. kinetic equations are also derived in regularized form. The method could equally well be applied to the case with polarization drift and to relativistic G.C. theory. (orig.)

  9. Hamilton-Jacobi equations and brane associated Lagrangians

    Baker, L.M.; Fairlie, D.B.

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to relate a recent proposal for the association of a covariant Field Theory with a string or brane Lagrangian to the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for strings and branes. It turns out that since in this special case, the Hamiltonian depends only upon the momenta of the Jacobi fields and not the fields themselves, it is the same as a Lagrangian, subject to a constancy constraint. We find that the associated Lagrangians for strings or branes have a covariant description in terms of the square root of the same Lagrangian. If the Hamilton-Jacobi function is zero, rather than a constant, then it is in in one dimension lower, reminiscent of the 'holographic' idea. In the second part of the paper, we discuss properties of these Lagrangians, which lead to what we have called 'Universal Field Equations', characteristic of covariant equations of motion

  10. Storage functions for dissipative linear systems are quadratic state functions

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, Jan C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with dissipative dynamical systems. Dissipative dynamical systems can be used as models for physical phenomena in which energy exchange with their environment plays a role. In a dissipative dynamical system, the book-keeping of energy is done via the supply rate and a storage

  11. [Anna Hamilton (1864-1935), the excellence of nursing.

    Diebolt, Évelyne

    2017-12-01

    A Frenchwoman, Anna Hamilton (1864-1935), daughter of a Franco-English couple, reads with passion the works of Florence Nightingale and takes an interest in nursing. In order to practice it, she first passes the equivalent of a bachelor’s degree in self-education and registers at the Marseille medical school. She wants to prepare a medical thesis on the nursing staff in the hospitals in Europe and is conducting an investigation throughout Europe. She passed her thesis on June 15, 1900 entitled “Considerations on hospital nurses”. This work is immediately published. That same year, she took up a post at the “Maison de santé protestante” in Bordeaux (MSP), founded in 1863. Without managerial staff, she is forced to recruit them abroad. She publishes a professional journal : “La Garde-Malade hospitalière” (1906-1914). Then the war turned the MSP into a military hospital, but the institution continued to receive local paying patients. She was given permission to call the school of nurses : Florence Nightingale School. Anna Hamilton is working with American women to create a medical and social service in Aisne. A graduate, Antoinette Hervey, then opened a medical-social service in Rouen, which would employ up to 30 visiting nurses. In 1916, the MSP received a donation from the domain of Bagatelle. The board of directors wants to sell it, but Anna Hamilton manages to finance a hospital-school thanks to families bereaved by the war and a subscription announced in the “Journal of Nursing”. Other establishments created by former students of the MSP opened : the School-hospital Ambroise Paré in Lille, a nursing home for nurses in Chambon-sur-Lignon in 1927 (the Edith-Seltzer foundation) and a sanatorium in Briançon. After a busy life, Anna Hamilton died of cancer in 1935 and is buried in Bordeaux.

  12. Nuclear power and the Hamilton-Jefferson debate

    Hacker, A.

    1980-01-01

    The basic sources of nuclear opposition derive from the philosophical arguments of Thomas Jefferson against Alexander Hamilton's vision of an industrial society with a strong central authority. Today's young people continue Jefferson's radical plea for the individual freedoms associated with personal ownership and limited government, but they accept the structure of the former while searching for the romanticism of the latter. The nuclear debate reflects this dichotomy and will continue even if the issues of waste disposal and safety are resolved

  13. Attractor reconstruction for non-linear systems: a methodological note

    Nichols, J.M.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Attractor reconstruction is an important step in the process of making predictions for non-linear time-series and in the computation of certain invariant quantities used to characterize the dynamics of such series. The utility of computed predictions and invariant quantities is dependent on the accuracy of attractor reconstruction, which in turn is determined by the methods used in the reconstruction process. This paper suggests methods by which the delay and embedding dimension may be selected for a typical delay coordinate reconstruction. A comparison is drawn between the use of the autocorrelation function and mutual information in quantifying the delay. In addition, a false nearest neighbor (FNN) approach is used in minimizing the number of delay vectors needed. Results highlight the need for an accurate reconstruction in the computation of the Lyapunov spectrum and in prediction algorithms.

  14. Linear and/or curvilinear rail mount system

    Thomas, Jackie D. (Inventor); Harris, Lawanna L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    One or more linear and/or curvilinear mounting rails are coupled to a structure. Each mounting rail defines a channel and at least one cartridge assembly is engaged in the channel. Each cartridge assembly includes a housing that slides within the channel. The housing defines a curvilinearly-shaped recess longitudinally aligned with the channel when the housing is in engagement therewith. The cartridge assembly also includes a cleat fitted in the recess for sliding engagement therealong. The cleat can be coupled to a fastener that passes through the mounting rail and the housing when the housing is so-engaged in the channel. The cleat is positioned in the recess by a position of the fastener.

  15. Dynamics and thermodynamics of linear quantum open systems.

    Martinez, Esteban A; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2013-03-29

    We analyze the evolution of the quantum state of networks of quantum oscillators coupled with arbitrary external environments. We show that the reduced density matrix of the network always obeys a local master equation with a simple analytical solution. We use this to study the emergence of thermodynamical laws in the long time regime demonstrating two main results: First, we show that it is impossible to build a quantum absorption refrigerator using linear networks (thus, nonlinearity is an essential resource for such refrigerators recently studied by Levy and Kosloff [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 070604 (2012)] and Levy et al. [Phys. Rev. B 85, 061126 (2012)]). Then, we show that the third law imposes constraints on the low frequency behavior of the environmental spectral densities.

  16. Parallel computation for solving the tridiagonal linear system of equations

    Ishiguro, Misako; Harada, Hiroo; Fujii, Minoru; Fujimura, Toichiro; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Nanba, Katsumi.

    1981-09-01

    Recently, applications of parallel computation for scientific calculations have increased from the need of the high speed calculation of large scale programs. At the JAERI computing center, an array processor FACOM 230-75 APU has installed to study the applicability of parallel computation for nuclear codes. We made some numerical experiments by using the APU on the methods of solution of tridiagonal linear equation which is an important problem in scientific calculations. Referring to the recent papers with parallel methods, we investigate eight ones. These are Gauss elimination method, Parallel Gauss method, Accelerated parallel Gauss method, Jacobi method, Recursive doubling method, Cyclic reduction method, Chebyshev iteration method, and Conjugate gradient method. The computing time and accuracy were compared among the methods on the basis of the numerical experiments. As the result, it is found that the Cyclic reduction method is best both in computing time and accuracy and the Gauss elimination method is the second one. (author)

  17. Weak regularizability and pole assignment for non-square linear systems

    Korotka, Tetiana; Loiseau, J. J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 6 (2012), s. 1065-1088 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/12/2431 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.619, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/korotka-0386325.pdf

  18. Iterative solution of linear systems in the 20­th century

    Saad, Y.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    2000-01-01

    This paper sketches the main research developments in the area of iterative methods for solving linear systems during the 20th century. Although iterative methods for solving linear systems find their origin in the early nineteenth century (work by Gauss), the field has seen an explosion of

  19. Dynamic Response of Non-Linear Inelsatic Systems to Poisson-Driven Stochastic Excitations

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Iwankiewicz, R.

    of an equivalent linearization techni que and substituting the non-analytical non-linearity in the original system by the cubic form in the pertinent state variables. The response moments are evaluated for the equivalent systems with the help of a generalized Ito's differential rule. The analytical results...

  20. Linear regressive model structures for estimation and prediction of compartmental diffusive systems

    Vries, D; Keesman, K.J.; Zwart, Heiko J.

    In input-output relations of (compartmental) diffusive systems, physical parameters appear non-linearly, resulting in the use of (constrained) non-linear parameter estimation techniques with its short-comings regarding global optimality and computational effort. Given a LTI system in state space

  1. Linear regressive model structures for estimation and prediction of compartmental diffusive systems

    Vries, D.; Keesman, K.J.; Zwart, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In input-output relations of (compartmental) diffusive systems, physical parameters appear non-linearly, resulting in the use of (constrained) non-linear parameter estimation techniques with its short-comings regarding global optimality and computational effort. Given a LTI system in state

  2. A canonical form of the equation of motion of linear dynamical systems

    Kawano, Daniel T.; Salsa, Rubens Goncalves; Ma, Fai; Morzfeld, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    The equation of motion of a discrete linear system has the form of a second-order ordinary differential equation with three real and square coefficient matrices. It is shown that, for almost all linear systems, such an equation can always be converted by an invertible transformation into a canonical form specified by two diagonal coefficient matrices associated with the generalized acceleration and displacement. This canonical form of the equation of motion is unique up to an equivalence class for non-defective systems. As an important by-product, a damped linear system that possesses three symmetric and positive definite coefficients can always be recast as an undamped and decoupled system.

  3. Safe Exploration for Identifying Linear Systems via Robust Optimization

    Lu, Tyler; Zinkevich, Martin; Boutilier, Craig; Roy, Binz; Schuurmans, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Safely exploring an unknown dynamical system is critical to the deployment of reinforcement learning (RL) in physical systems where failures may have catastrophic consequences. In scenarios where one knows little about the dynamics, diverse transition data covering relevant regions of state-action space is needed to apply either model-based or model-free RL. Motivated by the cooling of Google's data centers, we study how one can safely identify the parameters of a system model with a desired ...

  4. The response of a linear monostable system and its application in parameters estimation for PSK signals

    Duan, Chaowei; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    The output characteristics of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise are studied in this paper. Theoretical analysis shows that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases monotonously with the increasing noise intensity but the output SNR-gain is stable. Inspired by this high SNR-gain phenomenon, this paper applies the linear monostable system in the parameters estimation algorithm for phase shift keying (PSK) signals and improves the estimation performance. - Highlights: • The response of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise is analyzed. • The optimal parameter of this linear monostable system to maximum the output SNR-gain is obtained. • Application of this linear monostable system in parameters estimation algorithm for PSK signals obtains performance improvement.

  5. Linear Port-Hamiltonian Systems on Infinite-dimensional Spaces

    Jacob, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a self-contained introduction to the theory of infinite-dimensional systems theory and its applications to port-Hamiltonian systems. The textbook starts with elementary known results, then progresses smoothly to advanced topics in current research. Many physical systems can be formulated using a Hamiltonian framework, leading to models described by ordinary or partial differential equations. For the purpose of control and for the interconnection of two or more Hamiltonian systems it is essential to take into account this interaction with the environment. This book is the fir

  6. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    Igonine, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the

  7. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    Igonin, S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with $t$-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order $t$-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for

  8. Linear time heteronymous damping in nonlinear parametric systems

    Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena; Houfek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, 23-24 (2016), s. 10038-10051 ISSN 0307-904X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics of systems * parametric systems * time heteronymous damping * gears Subject RIV: JT - Propulsion, Motors ; Fuels Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016

  9. Experiment design for identification of structured linear systems

    Potters, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Experiment Design for system identification involves the design of an optimal input signal with the purpose of accurately estimating unknown parameters in a system. Specifically, in the Least-Costly Experiment Design (LCED) framework, the optimal input signal results from an optimisation problem in

  10. Optimal angle reduction - a behavioral approach to linear system appromixation

    Roorda, B.; Weiland, S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the problem of optimal state reduction under minimization of the angle between system behaviors. The angle is defined in a worst-case sense, as the largest angle that can occur between a system trajectory and its optimal approximation in the reduced-order model. This problem is

  11. Static linear Fresnel lenses as LCPV system in a greenhouse

    Sonneveld, P.J.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Zwart, de H.F.

    2011-01-01

    A low concentrating PV system with water cooling (LCPVT system) will result in electrical and thermal energy output from the solar energy excess entering a building or greenhouse. All the direct radiation could be converted, which corresponds to 75% of the incoming solar energy. This will

  12. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    Igonin, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the existence of higher conservation laws in terms of the system's symbol. For systems that violate this condition we give an effective upper bound on the order of conservation laws. Using this result, we completely describe conservation laws for viscous transonic equations, for the Brusselator model and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii system. To achieve this, we solve over an arbitrary field the matrix equations SA=A t S and SA=-A t S for a quadratic matrix A and its transpose A t , which may be of independent interest

  13. Mathematical models of non-linear phenomena, processes and systems: from molecular scale to planetary atmosphere

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of twenty seven chapters, which can be divided into three large categories: articles with the focus on the mathematical treatment of non-linear problems, including the methodologies, algorithms and properties of analytical and numerical solutions to particular non-linear problems; theoretical and computational studies dedicated to the physics and chemistry of non-linear micro-and nano-scale systems, including molecular clusters, nano-particles and nano-composites; and, papers focused on non-linear processes in medico-biological systems, including mathematical models of ferments, amino acids, blood fluids and polynucleic chains.

  14. Comparison of modal spectral and non-linear time history analysis of a piping system

    Gerard, R.; Aelbrecht, D.; Lafaille, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A typical piping system of the discharge line of the chemical and volumetric control system, outside the containment, between the penetration and the heat exchanger, an operating power plant was analyzed using four different methods: Modal spectral analysis with 2% constant damping, modal spectral analysis using ASME Code Case N411 (PVRC damping), linear time history analysis, non-linear time history analysis. This paper presents an estimation of the conservatism of the linear methods compared to the non-linear analysis. (orig./HP)

  15. A Type System for the Vectorial Aspect of the Linear-Algebraic Lambda-Calculus

    Pablo Arrighi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a type system for the linear-algebraic lambda-calculus. The type system accounts for the part of the language emulating linear operators and vectors, i.e. it is able to statically describe the linear combinations of terms resulting from the reduction of programs. This gives rise to an original type theory where types, in the same way as terms, can be superposed into linear combinations. We show that the resulting typed lambda-calculus is strongly normalizing and features a weak subject-reduction.

  16. Linear quadratic Gaussian controller design for plasma current, position and shape control system in ITER

    Belyakov, V.; Kavin, A.; Rumyantsev, E.; Kharitonov, V.; Misenov, B.; Ovsyannikov, A.; Ovsyannikov, D.; Veremei, E.; Zhabko, A.; Mitrishkin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is focused on the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller synthesis methodology for the ITER plasma current, position and shape control system as well as power derivative management system. It has been shown that some poloidal field (PF) coils have less influence on reference plasma-wall gaps control during plasma disturbances and hence they have been used to reduce total control power derivative by means of the additional non-linear feedback. The design has been done on the basis of linear models. Simulation was provided for non-linear model and results are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  17. Evolution of the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) control system

    Power, M.; Munson, F.

    2012-01-01

    Given that the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) recently celebrated its 25. anniversary, this paper will explore the past, present, and future of the ATLAS Control System, and how it has evolved along with the accelerator and control system technology. ATLAS as we know it today, originated with a Tandem Van de Graff in the sixties. With the addition of the Booster section in the late seventies, came the first computerized control. ATLAS itself was placed into service on June 25, 1985, and was the world's first superconducting linear accelerator for ions. Since its dedication as a National User Facility, more than a thousand experiments by more than 2,000 users worldwide, have taken advantage of the unique capabilities it provides. Today, ATLAS continues to be a user facility for physicists who study the particles that form the heart of atoms. Its most recent addition, CARIBU (Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade), creates special beams that feed into ATLAS. ATLAS is similar to a living organism, changing and responding to new technological challenges and research needs. As it continues to evolve, so does the control system: from the original days using a DEC PDP-11/34 computer and two CAMAC crates, to a DEC Alpha computer running Vsystem software and more than twenty CAMAC crates, to distributed computers and VME systems. Future upgrades are also in the planning stages that will continue to evolve the control system. (authors)

  18. On the stability of non-linear systems; Sur la stabilite des systemes non-lineaires

    Guelman, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, services scientifiques

    1968-09-01

    A study is made of the absolute stability of nonlinear systems, using Liapounov's second method and taking into account the results obtained from V.M. Popov's work. The results already established are first presented, in particular concerning the frequency domain criterions for absolute stability of automatic control systems containing one single non linearity. The results have been extended to show the existence of a limiting parabola. New use is then made of the methods studied for deriving absolute stability criterions for a system containing a different type of non linearity. Finally, the results obtained are considered from the point of view of Aizerman's conjecture. (author) [French] Dans ce travail, on etudie la stabilite absolue des systemes non lineaires utilisant la deuxieme methode de Liapounov en tenant compte des resultats acquis a partir des travaux de V.M. Popov. On fait d'abord un expose des resultats deja etablis, en particulier en ce qui concerne les criteres frequentiels de stabilite absolue pour le cas d'un systeme de commande automatique comportant une seule non linearite. On a prolonge ces resultats jusqu'a l'etablissement de l'existence d'une parabole limite. On fait ensuite une nouvelle utilisation des methodes etudiees, etablissant des criteres de stabilite absolue pour un systeme comportant un type different de non linearite. On etudie enfin les resultats obtenus, dans l'optique de la conjecture de Aizerman. (auteur)

  19. Stability Tests of Positive Fractional Continuous-time Linear Systems with Delays

    Tadeusz Kaczorek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of positive fractional continuous-time linear systems with many delays are established. It is shown that: 1 the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional system is independent of their delays, 2 the checking of the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional systems with delays can be reduced to checking of the asymptotic stability of positive standard linear systems without delays.

  20. Phase and amplitude control system for Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Yoo, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    The computer controlled phase and amplitude detection system measures the instantaneous phase and amplitude of a 1 micro-second 2856 MHz rf pulse at a 180 Hz rate. This will be used for phase feedback control, and also for phase and amplitude jitter measurement. The program, which was originally written by John Fox and Keith Jobe, has been modified to improve the function of the system. The software algorithms used in the measurement are described, as is the performance of the prototype phase and amplitude detector system

  1. Analysis, control and optimal operations in hybrid power systems advanced techniques and applications for linear and nonlinear systems

    Bizon, Nicu; Mahdavi Tabatabaei, Naser

    2014-01-01

    This book explains and analyzes the dynamic performance of linear and nonlinear systems, particularly for Power Systems including Hybrid Power Sources. Offers a detailed description of system stability using state space energy conservation principle, and more.

  2. Compressive System Identification in the Linear Time-Invariant framework

    Toth, Roland; Sanandaji, Borhan M.; Poolla, Kameshwar; Vincent, Tyrone L.

    2011-01-01

    Selection of an efficient model parametrization (model order, delay, etc.) has crucial importance in parametric system identification. It navigates a trade-off between representation capabilities of the model (structural bias) and effects of over-parametrization

  3. Adaptive Non-linear Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF).......Presentation of two new developed adaptive non-liner controllers for hydraulic actuator systems to give stable operation and improved performance.Results from the IMCIA project supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (STVF)....

  4. Biometric Authentication System using Non-Linear Chaos

    Dr.N.Krishnan; A.Senthil Arumugam,

    2010-01-01

    A major concern nowadays for any Biometric Credential Management System is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources; i.e. protecting a genuine user’s template from both internal and external threats. These days’ biometric authentication systems face various risks. One of the most serious threats is the ulnerability of the template's database. An attacker with access to a reference template could try to impersonate a legitimate user by reconstructing the biometric sample...

  5. On non-linear dynamics of a coupled electro-mechanical system

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Electro-mechanical devices are an example of coupled multi-disciplinary weakly non-linear systems. Dynamics of such systems is described in this paper by means of two mutually coupled differential equations. The first one, describing an electrical system, is of the first order and the second one...... excitation. The results are verified using a numerical model created in MATLAB Simulink environment. Effect of non-linear terms on dynamical response of the coupled system is investigated; the backbone and envelope curves are analyzed. The two phenomena, which exist in the electro-mechanical system: (a......, for mechanical system, is of the second order. The governing equations are coupled via linear and weakly non-linear terms. A classical perturbation method, a method of multiple scales, is used to find a steadystate response of the electro-mechanical system exposed to a harmonic close-resonance mechanical...

  6. A Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control for a Ball and Rigid Triangle System

    Carlos Aguilar-Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of linear flatness control along with active disturbance rejection control (ADRC for the local stabilization and trajectory tracking problems in the underactuated ball and rigid triangle system. To this end, an observer-based linear controller of the ADRC type is designed based on the flat tangent linearization of the system around its corresponding unstable equilibrium rest position. It was accomplished through two decoupled linear extended observers and a single linear output feedback controller, with disturbance cancelation features. The controller guarantees locally exponentially asymptotic stability for the stabilization problem and practical local stability in the solution of the tracking error. An advantage of combining the flatness and the ADRC methods is that it possible to perform online estimates and cancels the undesirable effects of the higher-order nonlinearities discarded by the linearization approximation. Simulation indicates that the proposed controller behaves remarkably well, having an acceptable domain of attraction.

  7. Improving the energy efficiency of sparse linear system solvers on multicore and manycore systems.

    Anzt, H; Quintana-Ortí, E S

    2014-06-28

    While most recent breakthroughs in scientific research rely on complex simulations carried out in large-scale supercomputers, the power draft and energy spent for this purpose is increasingly becoming a limiting factor to this trend. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current status in energy-efficient scientific computing by reviewing different technologies used to monitor power draft as well as power- and energy-saving mechanisms available in commodity hardware. For the particular domain of sparse linear algebra, we analyse the energy efficiency of a broad collection of hardware architectures and investigate how algorithmic and implementation modifications can improve the energy performance of sparse linear system solvers, without negatively impacting their performance. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Development Of Linear Quadratic Regulator Design For Small UAV System

    Cho Zin Myint

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to know the importance role of stability analysis for both unmanned aircraft system and for all control system. The objective of paper is to develop a method for dynamic stability analysis of the design process. These are categorized intoTo design model and stability analysis of UAV based on the forces and moment equations of aircraft dynamic model To choose the suitable controller for desired altitude of a particular UAV model To analyze the stability condition for aircraft using mathematical modeling and MATLAB. In this paper the analytical model of the longitudinal dynamic of flying wing UAV has been developed using aerodynamic data. The stability characteristics of UAV can be achieved from the system transfer function with LQR controller.

  9. Identification of linear error-models with projected dynamical systems

    Krejčí, Pavel; Kuhnen, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2004), s. 59-91 ISSN 1387-3954 Keywords : identification * error models * projected dynamical systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004 http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a713682517

  10. Linear Motion Systems. A Modular Approach for Improved Straightness Performance

    Nijsse, G.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with straight motion systems. A modular approach has been applied in order to find ways to improve the performance. The main performance parameters that are considered are position accuracy, repeatability and, to a lesser extent, cost. Because of the increasing requirements to

  11. Sparse symmetric preconditioners for dense linear systems in electromagnetism

    Carpentieri, Bruno; Duff, Iain S.; Giraud, Luc; Monga Made, M. Magolu

    2004-01-01

    We consider symmetric preconditioning strategies for the iterative solution of dense complex symmetric non-Hermitian systems arising in computational electromagnetics. In particular, we report on the numerical behaviour of the classical incomplete Cholesky factorization as well as some of its recent

  12. Variational Iterative Methods for Nonsymmetric Systems of Linear Equations.

    1981-08-01

    With a third matrix-vector product, b(i) can be computed as i j ( ATAr i+l’pj)/ApjpApj), and the previous (Apj) need not be saved. Page 8 I OCR I Orthomin... Economics and Mathematical Systems, Volume 134, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976. [51 Paul Concus, Gene H. Golub, and Dianne P. O’Leary. A generalized

  13. Quadratic theory and feedback controllers for linear time delay systems

    Lee, E.B.

    1976-01-01

    Recent research on the design of controllers for systems having time delays is discussed. Results for the ''open loop'' and ''closed loop'' designs will be presented. In both cases results for minimizing a quadratic cost functional are given. The usefulness of these results is not known, but similar results for the non-delay case are being routinely applied. (author)

  14. Stability and stabilization of linear systems with saturating actuators

    Tarbouriech, Sophie; Gomes da Silva Jr, João Manoel; Queinnec, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Gives the reader an in-depth understanding of the phenomena caused by the more-or-less ubiquitous problem of actuator saturation. Proposes methods and algorithms designed to avoid, manage or overcome the effects of actuator saturation. Uses a state-space approach to ensure local and global stability of the systems considered. Compilation of fifteen years' worth of research results.

  15. Linear algebra

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1977-01-01

    Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.

  16. Krylov Subspace Methods for Complex Non-Hermitian Linear Systems. Thesis

    Freund, Roland W.

    1991-01-01

    We consider Krylov subspace methods for the solution of large sparse linear systems Ax = b with complex non-Hermitian coefficient matrices. Such linear systems arise in important applications, such as inverse scattering, numerical solution of time-dependent Schrodinger equations, underwater acoustics, eddy current computations, numerical computations in quantum chromodynamics, and numerical conformal mapping. Typically, the resulting coefficient matrices A exhibit special structures, such as complex symmetry, or they are shifted Hermitian matrices. In this paper, we first describe a Krylov subspace approach with iterates defined by a quasi-minimal residual property, the QMR method, for solving general complex non-Hermitian linear systems. Then, we study special Krylov subspace methods designed for the two families of complex symmetric respectively shifted Hermitian linear systems. We also include some results concerning the obvious approach to general complex linear systems by solving equivalent real linear systems for the real and imaginary parts of x. Finally, numerical experiments for linear systems arising from the complex Helmholtz equation are reported.

  17. Linear systems surviving the first breakdown; Systemes unbaires survivant a la premiere panne

    Uberschlag, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Various types of linear systems are described which are not affected by the first breakdown. They make it possible to operate continuously and are thus very reliable. This is because the first breakdown which occurs affects only very slightly the operation. These components can be replaced during working. The operation, the errors, and the detection are briefly considered in the case of three different designs of linear servo systems. An attempt at comparison is made, it could be developed in a particular case. (author) [French] On decrit divers types de systemes lineaires survivant a la premiere panne. Ils permettent un fonctionnement permanent et sont donc d'une tres grande fiabilite. En effet, une panne, qui peut etre signalee, perturbe peu le fonctionnement. Ces composants peuvent etre remplaces en marche. Les considerations de fonctionnement, d'erreur, de detection des pannes sont succinctement presentees, sur trois schemas de systemes lineaires asservis. Une tentative de comparaison est faite, qui pourrait etre developpee dans des cas precis. (auteur)

  18. Principle and analysis of a linear motor driving system for HTS levitation applications

    Jin, Jian X.; Guo, You G.; Zhu, Jian G.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) high levitation force density with passive and self-stabilizing features allows a number of special applications to be developed. Linear motor driving systems are commonly required for those applications such as levitated transport systems. In this paper a prototype linear motor driving system with HTS is analyzed with calculation details including its magnetic fields and driving forces presented in the paper

  19. Global stabilization of linear continuous time-varying systems with bounded controls

    Phat, V.N.

    2004-08-01

    This paper deals with the problem of global stabilization of a class of linear continuous time-varying systems with bounded controls. Based on the controllability of the nominal system, a sufficient condition for the global stabilizability is proposed without solving any Riccati differential equation. Moreover, we give sufficient conditions for the robust stabilizability of perturbation/uncertain linear time-varying systems with bounded controls. (author)

  20. Non-linear and adaptive control of a refrigeration system

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2011-01-01

    are capable of adapting to variety of systems. This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems; namely by controlling the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed......In a refrigeration process heat is absorbed in an evaporator by evaporating a flow of liquid refrigerant at low pressure and temperature. Controlling the evaporator inlet valve and the compressor in such a way that a high degree of liquid filling in the evaporator is obtained at all compressor...... capacities ensures a high energy efficiency. The level of liquid filling is indirectly measured by the superheat. Introduction of variable speed compressors and electronic expansion valves enables the use of more sophisticated control algorithms, giving a higher degree of performance and just as important...

  1. Energy Recovery from a Non-Linear Electromagnetic System

    Kęcik Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents study of a pseudo-magnetic levitation system (pseudo-maglev dedicated for energy harvesting. The idea rely on motion of a pseudo-levitating magnet in a coil’s terminal. The study based on real prototype harvester system, which in the pendulum dynamic vibration absorber is applied. For some parameters, the stability loss caused by the period doubling bifurcation is detected. The coexistence of two stable solutions, one of which is much better for energy harvesting is observed. The influence of the pseudo-maglev parameters on the recovered current and stability of the periodic solutions is presented in detail. The obtained results show, that the best energy recovery occurs for the high pseudo-maglev stiffness and close to the coil resistance. The amplitude’s excitation, the load resistances and the coupling coefficient strongly influence on the system’s response.

  2. Portable linear-focused solar thermal energy collecting system

    Miller, C. G.; Pohl, J. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A solar heat collection system is provided by utilizing a line-focusing device that is effectively a cylindrically curved concentrator within a protected environment formed by a transparent inflatable casing. A target, such as a fluid or gas carrying conduit is positioned within or near the casing containing the concentrator, at the line focus of the concentrator. The casing can be inflated at the site of use by a low pressure air supply to form a unitary light weight structure. The collector, including casing, concentrator and target, is readily transportable and can be used either at ground level or on rooftops. The inflatable concentrator can be replaced with a rigid metal or other concentrator while maintaining the novel advantages of the whole solar heat collection system.

  3. Linear systems solvers - recent developments and implications for lattice computations

    Frommer, A.

    1996-01-01

    We review the numerical analysis' understanding of Krylov subspace methods for solving (non-hermitian) systems of equations and discuss its implications for lattice gauge theory computations using the example of the Wilson fermion matrix. Our thesis is that mature methods like QMR, BiCGStab or restarted GMRES are close to optimal for the Wilson fermion matrix. Consequently, preconditioning appears to be the crucial issue for further improvements. (orig.)

  4. Estimation and Control for Linear Systems with Additive Cauchy Noise

    2013-12-17

    man & Hall, New York, 1994. [11] J. L. Speyer and W. H. Chung, Stochastic Processes, Estimation, and Control, SIAM, 2008. [12] Nassim N. Taleb ...Gaussian control algorithms. 18 4 References [1] N. N. Taleb . The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable...the multivariable system. The estimator was then evaluated numerically for a third-order example. REFERENCES [1] N. N. Taleb , The Black Swan: The

  5. Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability

    2016-06-29

    has a history going back some 50 years, to the birth of modern control theory with Kalman’s foundational work on filtering and LQG optimal control...realizability conditions. DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 8 Shi Wang, Matthew R James H- Infinity control of...physical model for a quantum measurement-based feedback control system with time delay is presented for the H- infinity control. Luis Augusto

  6. Static Linear Fresnel Lenses as LCPV System in a Greenhouse

    Sonneveld, P. J.; Swinkels, G. L. A. M.; van Tuijl, B. A. J.; Janssen, H. J. J.; de Zwart, H. F.

    2011-12-01

    A low concentrating PV system with water cooling (LCPVT system) will result in electrical and thermal energy output from the solar energy excess entering a building or greenhouse. All the direct radiation could be converted, which corresponds to 75% of the incoming solar energy. This will significantly reduce the demand of cooling of the building. For an optimal performance it is beneficial to construct asymmetric roof elements with a steep inclination at the north side (the exact angle of course depends on the latitude of the building site). The Fresnel lens structure is oriented in upwards direction. In the current design, two of them are placed between an AR-coated double glass structure to prevent pollution and condensation on the lenses. Compared with a previous system, the number of lenses is reduced from 3 to 2 lenses, which reduces the costs of the system by limiting the number of receivers. By the upward facing of the lens structure, the focus quality is preserved over a much broader range of angles of incidence compared to a lens with downward facing structures. Each PMMA lens with a size of 1.20 m×1.60 m is composed of 12 `tiles' for easy production. The focal distance of the lens is 1,875 m and the concentration factor 50x. In most cases the focus line is thinner than 3 cm and the transmission is above 80%. The performance of these lenses with respect of the shape of the focal area and the position of the focal line has been analyzed with ray tracing techniques. From this analyses it was concluded that tracking of the receiver module is possible with two motors. One motor controls the distance between lens and receiver and one motor controls the translocation of the receivers parallel to the lens. The second conclusion was that the positions of the focal line are within the bounds of the greenhouse construction for almost the whole year. Only in winter, the focal line will be unreachable from time to time. A 480 m2 greenhouse with the LCPVT system

  7. Koopman Invariant Subspaces and Finite Linear Representations of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems for Control.

    Brunton, Steven L; Brunton, Bingni W; Proctor, Joshua L; Kutz, J Nathan

    2016-01-01

    In this wIn this work, we explore finite-dimensional linear representations of nonlinear dynamical systems by restricting the Koopman operator to an invariant subspace spanned by specially chosen observable functions. The Koopman operator is an infinite-dimensional linear operator that evolves functions of the state of a dynamical system. Dominant terms in the Koopman expansion are typically computed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). DMD uses linear measurements of the state variables, and it has recently been shown that this may be too restrictive for nonlinear systems. Choosing the right nonlinear observable functions to form an invariant subspace where it is possible to obtain linear reduced-order models, especially those that are useful for control, is an open challenge. Here, we investigate the choice of observable functions for Koopman analysis that enable the use of optimal linear control techniques on nonlinear problems. First, to include a cost on the state of the system, as in linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control, it is helpful to include these states in the observable subspace, as in DMD. However, we find that this is only possible when there is a single isolated fixed point, as systems with multiple fixed points or more complicated attractors are not globally topologically conjugate to a finite-dimensional linear system, and cannot be represented by a finite-dimensional linear Koopman subspace that includes the state. We then present a data-driven strategy to identify relevant observable functions for Koopman analysis by leveraging a new algorithm to determine relevant terms in a dynamical system by ℓ1-regularized regression of the data in a nonlinear function space; we also show how this algorithm is related to DMD. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of nonlinear observable subspaces in the design of Koopman operator optimal control laws for fully nonlinear systems using techniques from linear optimal control.ork, we explore finite

  8. On the efficacy of linear system analysis of renal autoregulation in rats

    Chon, K H; Chen, Y M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1993-01-01

    In order to assess the linearity of the mechanisms subserving renal blood flow autoregulation, broad-band arterial pressure fluctuations at three different power levels were induced experimentally and the resulting renal blood flow responses were recorded. Linear system analysis methods were...

  9. Linear problems and Baecklund transformations for the Hirota-Ohta system

    Adler, V.E.; Postnikov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    The auxiliary linear problems are presented for all discretization levels of the Hirota-Ohta system. The structure of these linear problems coincides essentially with the structure of Nonlinear Schroedinger hierarchy. The squared eigenfunction constraints are found which relate Hirota-Ohta and Kulish-Sklyanin vectorial NLS hierarchies.

  10. A note on the time decay of solutions for the linearized Wigner-Poisson system

    Gamba, Irene

    2009-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Wigner-Poisson system of plasma physics, linearized around a (spatially homogeneous) Lorentzian distribution and prove that the solution of the corresponding linearized problem decays to zero in time. We also give an explicit algebraic decay rate.

  11. Quadratic Plus Linear Operators which Preserve Pure States of Quantum Systems: Small Dimensions

    Saburov, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics says that a pure state of a quantum system corresponds to a vector of norm 1 and an observable is a self-adjoint operator on the space of states. It is of interest to describe all linear or nonlinear operators which preserve the pure states of the system. In the linear case, it is nothing more than isometries of Hilbert spaces. In the nonlinear case, this problem was open. In this paper, in the small dimensional spaces, we shall describe all quadratic plus linear operators which preserve pure states of the quantum system

  12. FAST modularization framework for wind turbine simulation: full-system linearization

    Jonkman, J. M.; Jonkman, B. J.

    2016-09-01

    The wind engineering community relies on multiphysics engineering software to run nonlinear time-domain simulations e.g. for design-standards-based loads analysis. Although most physics involved in wind energy are nonlinear, linearization of the underlying nonlinear system equations is often advantageous to understand the system response and exploit well- established methods and tools for analyzing linear systems. This paper presents the development and verification of the new linearization functionality of the open-source engineering tool FAST v8 for land-based wind turbines, as well as the concepts and mathematical background needed to understand and apply it correctly.

  13. Robust output feedback H-infinity control and filtering for uncertain linear systems

    Chang, Xiao-Heng

    2014-01-01

    "Robust Output Feedback H-infinity Control and Filtering for Uncertain Linear Systems" discusses new and meaningful findings on robust output feedback H-infinity control and filtering for uncertain linear systems, presenting a number of useful and less conservative design results based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Though primarily intended for graduate students in control and filtering, the book can also serve as a valuable reference work for researchers wishing to explore the area of robust H-infinity control and filtering of uncertain systems. Dr. Xiao-Heng Chang is a Professor at the College of Engineering, Bohai University, China.

  14. FAST Modularization Framework for Wind Turbine Simulation: Full-System Linearization: Preprint

    Jonkman, Jason; Jonkman, Bonnie

    2016-11-01

    The wind engineering community relies on multiphysics engineering software to run nonlinear time-domain simulations e.g. for design-standards-based loads analysis. Although most physics involved in wind energy are nonlinear, linearization of the underlying nonlinear system equations is often advantageous to understand the system response and exploit well-established methods and tools for analyzing linear systems. This paper presents the development and verification of the new linearization functionality of the open-source engineering tool FAST v8 for land-based wind turbines, as well as the concepts and mathematical background needed to understand and apply it correctly.

  15. Linear hydraulic drive system for a Stirling engine

    Walsh, Michael M.

    1984-02-21

    A hydraulic drive system operating from the periodic pressure wave produced by a Stirling engine along a first axis thereof and effecting transfer of power from the Stirling engine to a load apparatus therefor and wherein the movable, or working member of the load apparatus is reciprocatingly driven along an axis substantially at right angles to the first axis to achieve an arrangement of a Stirling engine and load apparatus assembly which is much shorter and the components of the load apparatus more readily accessible.

  16. Krylov subspace methods for solving large unsymmetric linear systems

    Saad, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Some algorithms based upon a projection process onto the Krylov subspace K/sub m/ = Span(r 0 , Ar 0 ,...,A/sup m/-1r 0 ) are developed, generalizing the method of conjugate gradients to unsymmetric systems. These methods are extensions of Arnoldi's algorithm for solving eigenvalue problems. The convergence is analyzed in terms of the distance of the solution to the subspace K/sub m/ and some error bounds are established showing, in particular, a similarity with the conjugate gradient method (for symmetric matrices) when the eigenvalues are real. Several numerical experiments are described and discussed

  17. Koopman Invariant Subspaces and Finite Linear Representations of Nonlinear Dynamical Systems for Control

    Brunton, Steven L.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Proctor, Joshua L.; Kutz, J. Nathan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we explore finite-dimensional linear representations of nonlinear dynamical systems by restricting the Koopman operator to an invariant subspace spanned by specially chosen observable functions. The Koopman operator is an infinite-dimensional linear operator that evolves functions of the state of a dynamical system. Dominant terms in the Koopman expansion are typically computed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). DMD uses linear measurements of the state variables, and it has recently been shown that this may be too restrictive for nonlinear systems. Choosing the right nonlinear observable functions to form an invariant subspace where it is possible to obtain linear reduced-order models, especially those that are useful for control, is an open challenge. Here, we investigate the choice of observable functions for Koopman analysis that enable the use of optimal linear control techniques on nonlinear problems. First, to include a cost on the state of the system, as in linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control, it is helpful to include these states in the observable subspace, as in DMD. However, we find that this is only possible when there is a single isolated fixed point, as systems with multiple fixed points or more complicated attractors are not globally topologically conjugate to a finite-dimensional linear system, and cannot be represented by a finite-dimensional linear Koopman subspace that includes the state. We then present a data-driven strategy to identify relevant observable functions for Koopman analysis by leveraging a new algorithm to determine relevant terms in a dynamical system by ℓ1-regularized regression of the data in a nonlinear function space; we also show how this algorithm is related to DMD. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of nonlinear observable subspaces in the design of Koopman operator optimal control laws for fully nonlinear systems using techniques from linear optimal control. PMID:26919740

  18. Robustness-tracking control based on sliding mode and H∞ theory for linear servo system

    TIAN Yan-feng; GUO Qing-ding

    2005-01-01

    A robustness-tracking control scheme based on combining H∞ robust control and sliding mode control is proposed for a direct drive AC permanent-magnet linear motor servo system to solve the conflict between tracking and robustness of the linear servo system. The sliding mode tracking controller is designed to ensure the system has a fast tracking characteristic to the command, and the H∞ robustness controller suppresses the disturbances well within the close loop( including the load and the end effect force of linear motor etc. ) and effectively minimizes the chattering of sliding mode control which influences the steady state performance of the system. Simulation results show that this control scheme enhances the track-command-ability and the robustness of the linear servo system, and in addition, it has a strong robustness to parameter variations and resistance disturbances.

  19. A new approach to modeling linear accelerator systems

    Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W.; Jameson, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A novel computer code is being developed to generate system level designs of radiofrequency ion accelerators with specific applications to machines of interest to Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT). The goal of the Accelerator System Model (ASM) code is to create a modeling and analysis tool that is easy to use, automates many of the initial design calculations, supports trade studies used in accessing alternate designs and yet is flexible enough to incorporate new technology concepts as they emerge. Hardware engineering parameters and beam dynamics are to be modeled at comparable levels of fidelity. Existing scaling models of accelerator subsystems were used to produce a prototype of ASM (version 1.0) working within the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Code (SPARC) graphical user interface. A small user group has been testing and evaluating the prototype for about a year. Several enhancements and improvements are now being developed. The current version of ASM is described and examples of the modeling and analysis capabilities are illustrated. The results of an example study, for an accelerator concept typical of ADTT applications, is presented and sample displays from the computer interface are shown

  20. Dose linearity and monitor unit stability of a G4 type cyberknife robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system

    Sudahar, H.; Kurup, P.G.G.; Murali, V.; Velmurugan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Dose linearity studies on conventional linear accelerators show a linearity error at low monitor units (MUs). The purpose of this study was to establish the dose linearity and MU stability characteristics of a cyberknife (Accuracy Inc., USA) stereotactic radiosurgery system. Measurements were done at a depth of 5 cm in a stereotactic dose verification phantom with a source to surface distance of 75 cm in a Generation 4 (G4) type cyberknife system. All the 12 fixed-type collimators starting from 5 to 60 mm were used for the dose linearity study. The dose linearity was examined in small (1-10), medium (15-100) and large (125-1000) MU ranges. The MU stability test was performed with 60 mm collimator for 10 MU and 20 MU with different combinations. The maximum dose linearity error of -38.8% was observed for 1 MU with 5 mm collimator. Dose linearity error in the small MU range was considerably higher than in the medium and large MU ranges. The maximum error in the medium range was -2.4%. In the large MU range, the linearity error varied between -0.7% and 1.2%. The maximum deviation in the MU stability was -3.03%. (author)

  1. Stochastic Modelling of Linear Programming Application to Brewing Operational Systems

    Akanbi O.P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available System where a large number of interrelated operations exist, technically-based operational mechanism is always required to achieve potential. An intuitive solution, which is common practice in most of the breweries, perhaps may not uncover the optimal solution, as there is hardly any guarantee to satisfy the best policy application. There is always high foreign exchange involved in procurement of imported raw materials and thus increases the cost of production, abandonment and poor utilization of available locally-sourced raw materials. This study focuses on the approaches which highlight the steps and mechanisms involved in optimizing the wort extract by the use of different types of adjuncts and formulating wort production models which are useful in proffering expected solutions. Optimization techniques, the generalized models and an overview of typical brewing processes were considered.

  2. Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems

    Vuglar, Shanon L; Amini, Hadis

    2014-01-01

    Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H ∞ optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs. (paper)

  3. Adaptive H∞ synchronization of chaotic systems via linear and nonlinear feedback control

    Fu Shi-Hui; Lu Qi-Shao; Du Ying

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive H ∞ synchronization of chaotic systems via linear and nonlinear feedback control is investigated. The chaotic systems are redesigned by using the generalized Hamiltonian systems and observer approach. Based on Lyapunov's stability theory, linear and nonlinear feedback control of adaptive H ∞ synchronization is established in order to not only guarantee stable synchronization of both master and slave systems but also reduce the effect of external disturbance on an H ∞ -norm constraint. Adaptive H ∞ synchronization of chaotic systems via three kinds of control is investigated with applications to Lorenz and Chen systems. Numerical simulations are also given to identify the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis. (general)

  4. A polynomial approach for generating a monoparametric family of chaotic attractors via switched linear systems

    Aguirre-Hernández, B.; Campos-Cantón, E.; López-Renteria, J.A.; Díaz González, E.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider characteristic polynomials of n-dimensional systems that determine a segment of polynomials. One parameter is used to characterize this segment of polynomials in order to determine the maximal interval of dissipativity and unstability. Then we apply this result to the generation of a family of attractors based on a class of unstable dissipative systems (UDS) of type affine linear systems. This class of systems is comprised of switched linear systems yielding strange attractors. A family of these chaotic switched systems is determined by the maximal interval of perturbation of the matrix that governs the dynamics for still having scroll attractors

  5. Finite Abstractions of Max-Plus-Linear Systems : Theory and Algorithms

    Adzkiya, D.

    2014-01-01

    Max-Plus-Linear (MPL) systems are a class of discrete-event systems with a continuous state space characterizing the timing of the underlying sequential discrete events. These systems are predisposed to describe the timing synchronization between interleaved processes. MPL systems are employed in

  6. Hamilton's gradient estimate for the heat kernel on complete manifolds

    Kotschwar, Brett

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we extend a gradient estimate of R. Hamilton for positive solutions to the heat equation on closed manifolds to bounded positive solutions on complete, non-compact manifolds with $Rc \\geq -Kg$. We accomplish this extension via a maximum principle of L. Karp and P. Li and a Bernstein-type estimate on the gradient of the solution. An application of our result, together with the bounds of P. Li and S.T. Yau, yields an estimate on the gradient of the heat kernel for complete manifol...

  7. Nuclear power and the Hamilton-Jefferson debate

    Hacker, A.

    The basic sources of nuclear opposition derive from the philosophical arguments of Thomas Jefferson against Alexander Hamilton's vision of an industrial society with a strong central authority. Today's young people continue Jefferson's radical plea for the individual freedoms associated with personal ownership and limited government, but they accept the structure of the former while searching for the romanticism of the latter. The nuclear debate reflects this dichotomy and will continue even if the issues of waste disposal and safety are resolved. (DCK)

  8. Hamilton and Hardy for the 21st Century

    Ogden, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Hamilton and Hardy’s Industrial Toxicology is now 80 years old, and the new sixth edition links us with a pioneer era. This is an impressive book, but the usefulness of the hardback version as a reference book is unfortunately limited by its poor index. There is now an ebook version, and for the practitioner on the move this has the great advantages of searchability and portability. However, Wiley ebooks can apparently only be downloaded when first purchased, so their lifetime is limited to that of the device. The Kindle edition should avoid this shortcoming.

  9. Multimodal electromechanical model of piezoelectric transformers by Hamilton's principle.

    Nadal, Clement; Pigache, Francois

    2009-11-01

    This work deals with a general energetic approach to establish an accurate electromechanical model of a piezoelectric transformer (PT). Hamilton's principle is used to obtain the equations of motion for free vibrations. The modal characteristics (mass, stiffness, primary and secondary electromechanical conversion factors) are also deduced. Then, to illustrate this general electromechanical method, the variational principle is applied to both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT models. A comparison of modal parameters, mechanical displacements, and electrical potentials are presented for both models. Finally, the validity of the electrodynamical model of nonhomogeneous Rosen-type PT is confirmed by a numerical comparison based on a finite elements method and an experimental identification.

  10. Linearity improvement on wide-range log signal of neutron measurement system for HANARO

    Kim, Young-Ki; Tuetken, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses engineering activities for improving the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal from the neutron measurement system for HANARO. This neutron measurement system uses a fission chamber based detector which covers 10.3 decade-wide range from 10 -8 % full power(FP) up to 200%FP, The Log Power signal is designed to control the reactor at low power levels where most of the reactor physics tests are carried out. Therefore, the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal is the major factor for accurate reactor power control. During the commissioning of the neutron measurement system, it was found that the linearity characteristics of the Log Power signal, especially near 10 -2 %FP, were not accurate enough for controlling the reactor during physics testing. Analysis of the system linearity data directly measured with reactor operating determined that the system was not operating per the design characteristics established from previous installations. The linearity data, which were taken as the reactor was increased in power, were sent to manufacturer's engineering group and a follow-up measures based on the analysis were then fed back to the field. Through step by step trouble-shooting activities, which included minor circuit modifications and alignment procedure changes, the linearity characteristics have been successfully improved and now exceed minimum performance requirements. This paper discusses the trouble-shooting techniques applied, the changes in the linearity characteristics, special circumstances in the HANARO application and the final resolution. (author)

  11. 13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives

    1993-01-01

    This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base

  12. An implicit iterative scheme for solving large systems of linear equations

    Barry, J.M.; Pollard, J.P.

    1986-12-01

    An implicit iterative scheme for the solution of large systems of linear equations arising from neutron diffusion studies is presented. The method is applied to three-dimensional reactor studies and its performance is compared with alternative iterative approaches

  13. 13th International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives

    1993-09-01

    This report contains short papers on research being conducted throughout the world on magnetically levitated systems, mainly consisting of trains, and magnetic linear drives. These papers have been index separately elsewhere on the data base.

  14. Controllability of non-linear systems: generic singularities and their stability

    Davydov, Alexey A; Zakalyukin, Vladimir M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the state of the art in applications of singularity theory to the analysis of generic singularities of controllability of non-linear systems on manifolds. Bibliography: 40 titles.

  15. Chosen interval methods for solving linear interval systems with special type of matrix

    Szyszka, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    The paper is devoted to chosen direct interval methods for solving linear interval systems with special type of matrix. This kind of matrix: band matrix with a parameter, from finite difference problem is obtained. Such linear systems occur while solving one dimensional wave equation (Partial Differential Equations of hyperbolic type) by using the central difference interval method of the second order. Interval methods are constructed so as the errors of method are enclosed in obtained results, therefore presented linear interval systems contain elements that determining the errors of difference method. The chosen direct algorithms have been applied for solving linear systems because they have no errors of method. All calculations were performed in floating-point interval arithmetic.

  16. Estimation of Multiple Point Sources for Linear Fractional Order Systems Using Modulating Functions

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an estimation algorithm for the characterization of multiple point inputs for linear fractional order systems. First, using polynomial modulating functions method and a suitable change of variables the problem of estimating

  17. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    Deliu, Ciprian; Deliu, C.; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2009-01-01

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely

  18. Improved electron collimation system design for Elekta linear accelerators.

    Pitcher, Garrett M; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Carver, Robert L

    2017-09-01

    V. These results allowed collimation system design for 6 × 6-25 × 25-cm 2 applicators. Reducing trimmer weights by as much as 4 kg (25 × 25-cm 2 applicator) should result in easier applicator handling by the radiotherapy team. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  19. The response of a linear monostable system and its application in parameters estimation for PSK signals

    Duan, Chaowei; Zhan, Yafeng

    2016-03-01

    The output characteristics of a linear monostable system driven with a periodic signal and an additive white Gaussian noise are studied in this paper. Theoretical analysis shows that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases monotonously with the increasing noise intensity but the output SNR-gain is stable. Inspired by this high SNR-gain phenomenon, this paper applies the linear monostable system in the parameters estimation algorithm for phase shift keying (PSK) signals and improves the estimation performance.

  20. Model-Checking of Linear-Time Properties in Multi-Valued Systems

    Li, Yongming; Droste, Manfred; Lei, Lihui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study model-checking of linear-time properties in multi-valued systems. Safety property, invariant property, liveness property, persistence and dual-persistence properties in multi-valued logic systems are introduced. Some algorithms related to the above multi-valued linear-time properties are discussed. The verification of multi-valued regular safety properties and multi-valued $\\omega$-regular properties using lattice-valued automata are thoroughly studied. Since the law o...

  1. On the use of small integrating spheres to improve the linearity range of RASNIKS systems

    Alberdi, J.; Burgos, C.; Ferrando, A.; Molinero, A.; Schvachkin, V.; Figueroa, C.F.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz, A.; Vila, I.

    1997-10-01

    Rasniks elements will be used in the CMS alignment system. The large displacements of the different sub detectors expected in the CMS experiment demands large linearity response of this system. By the use of a small integrating sphere we have optimized the source definition such that a factor three improvement in the linearity range with respect to conventional Rasniks configurations is obtained. The response range reached coincides with the maximum one can get with the components used in the test

  2. ORACLS: A system for linear-quadratic-Gaussian control law design

    Armstrong, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    A modern control theory design package (ORACLS) for constructing controllers and optimal filters for systems modeled by linear time-invariant differential or difference equations is described. Numerical linear-algebra procedures are used to implement the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) methodology of modern control theory. Algorithms are included for computing eigensystems of real matrices, the relative stability of a matrix, factored forms for nonnegative definite matrices, the solutions and least squares approximations to the solutions of certain linear matrix algebraic equations, the controllability properties of a linear time-invariant system, and the steady state covariance matrix of an open-loop stable system forced by white noise. Subroutines are provided for solving both the continuous and discrete optimal linear regulator problems with noise free measurements and the sampled-data optimal linear regulator problem. For measurement noise, duality theory and the optimal regulator algorithms are used to solve the continuous and discrete Kalman-Bucy filter problems. Subroutines are also included which give control laws causing the output of a system to track the output of a prescribed model.

  3. A system for monitoring the radiation effects of a proton linear accelerator

    Skorkin, V. M., E-mail: skorkin@inr.ru; Belyanski, K. L.; Skorkin, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The system for real-time monitoring of radioactivity of a high-current proton linear accelerator detects secondary neutron emission from proton beam losses in transport channels and measures the activity of radionuclides in gas and aerosol emissions and the radiation background in the environment affected by a linear accelerator. The data provided by gamma, beta, and neutron detectors are transferred over a computer network to the central server. The system allows one to monitor proton beam losses, the activity of gas and aerosol emissions, and the radiation emission level of a linear accelerator in operation.

  4. Application of Dynamic Systems Family for Synthesis of Fuzzy Control with Account of Non-linearities

    Andriy Lozynskyy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic system with nonlinearities has been considered. This system has been divided into a set of linear subsystems. A fuzzy controller of the considered system has been synthesized. It takes into account nonlinearities of the system and provides smooth switching between controllers of the linear subsystems. An unstable subsystem has been utilized, which provides better dynamic characteristics of the considered system. Comparison with traditional controller has been conducted. Corresponding qualitative and quantitative estimates have been provided. They testify the expediency of the proposed approach.

  5. Development of linear flow rate control system for eccentric butter-fly valve

    Kwak, K. K.; Cho, S. W.; Park, J. S.; Cho, J. H.; Song, I. T.; Kim, J. G.; Kwon, S. J.; Kim, I. J.; Park, W. K.

    1999-12-01

    Butter-fly valves are advantageous over gate, globe, plug, and ball valves in a variety of installations, particularly in the large sizes. The purpose of this project development of linear flow rate control system for eccentric butter-fly valve (intelligent butter-fly valve system). The intelligent butter-fly valve system consist of a valve body, micro controller. The micro controller consist of torque control system, pressure censor, worm and worm gear and communication line etc. The characteristics of intelligent butter-fly valve system as follows: Linear flow rate control function. Digital remote control function. guard function. Self-checking function. (author)

  6. The Inverse System Method Applied to the Derivation of Power System Non—linear Control Laws

    DonghaiLI; XuezhiJIANG; 等

    1997-01-01

    The differential geometric method has been applied to a series of power system non-linear control problems effectively.However a set of differential equations must be solved for obtaining the required diffeomorphic transformation.Therefore the derivation of control laws is very complicated.In fact because of the specificity of power system models the required diffeomorphic transformation may be obtained directly,so it is unnecessary to solve a set of differential equations.In addition inverse system method is equivalent to differential geometric method in reality and not limited to affine nonlinear systems,Its physical meaning is able to be viewed directly and its deduction needs only algebraic operation and derivation,so control laws can be obtained easily and the application to engineering is very convenient.Authors of this paper take steam valving control of power system as a typical case to be studied.It is demonstrated that the control law deduced by inverse system method is just the same as one by differential geometric method.The conclusion will simplify the control law derivations of steam valving,excitation,converter and static var compensator by differential geometric method and may be suited to similar control problems in other areas.

  7. Hamilton's inclusive fitness maintains heritable altruism polymorphism through rb = c.

    Wang, Changcao; Lu, Xin

    2018-02-20

    How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton's rule shows that the former process will occur when rb > c -the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act b , weighted by the relatedness between the social partners r , exceed the costs to the altruists c -drives altruistic genotypes spreading against nonaltruistic ones. From this rule, we infer that altruistic genotypes will persist in a population by forming a stable heritable polymorphism with nonaltruistic genotypes if rb = c makes inclusive fitness of the two morphs equal. We test this prediction using the data of 12 years of study on a cooperatively breeding bird, the Tibetan ground tit Pseudopodoces humilis , where helping is performed by males only and kin-directed. Individual variation in ever acting as a helper was heritable ( h 2 = 0.47), and the resultant altruism polymorphism remained stable as indicated by low-level annual fluctuation of the percentage of helpers among all adult males (24-28%). Helpers' indirect fitness gains from increased lifetime reproductive success of related breeders statistically fully compensated for their lifetime direct fitness losses, suggesting that rb = c holds. While our work provides a fundamental support for Hamilton's idea, it highlights the equivalent inclusive fitness returns to altruists and nonaltruists mediated by rb = c as a theoretically and realistically important mechanism to maintain social polymorphism.

  8. DURAND NEIGHBOURHOOD HERITAGE INVENTORY: TOWARD A DIGITAL CITYWIDE SURVEY APPROACH TO HERITAGE PLANNING IN HAMILTON

    V. Angel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the face of changing economies and patterns of development, the definition of heritage is diversifying, and the role of inventories in local heritage planning is coming to the fore. The Durand neighbourhood is a layered and complex area located in inner-city Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and the second subject area in a set of pilot inventory studies to develop a new city-wide inventory strategy for the City of Hamilton,. This paper presents an innovative digital workflow developed to undertake the Durand Built Heritage Inventory project. An online database was developed to be at the centre of all processes, including digital documentation, record management, analysis and variable outputs. Digital tools were employed for survey work in the field and analytical work in the office, resulting in a GIS-based dataset that can be integrated into Hamilton’s larger municipal planning system. Together with digital mapping and digitized historical resources, the Durand database has been leveraged to produce both digital and static outputs to shape recommendations for the protection of Hamilton’s heritage resources.

  9. Robust Stability and H∞ Control of Uncertain Piecewise Linear Switched Systems with Filippov Solutions

    Ahmadi, Mohamadreza; Mojallali, Hamed; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the robust stability and control problem of uncertain piecewise linear switched systems where, instead of the conventional Carathe ́odory solutions, we allow for Filippov solutions. In other words, in contrast to the previous studies, solutions with infinite switching in fini...... algorithm is proposed to surmount the aforementioned matrix inequality conditions....... time along the facets and on faces of arbitrary dimensions are also taken into account. Firstly, based on earlier results, the stability problem of piecewise linear systems with Filippov solutions is translated into a number of linear matrix inequality feasibility tests. Subsequently, a set of matrix...... inequalities are brought forward, which determines the asymptotic stability of the Filippov solutions of a given uncertain piecewise linear system. Afterwards, bilinear matrix inequality conditions for synthesizing a robust controller with a guaranteed H∞ per- formance are formulated. Finally, a V-K iteration...

  10. Feedback linearization based control of a variable air volume air conditioning system for cooling applications.

    Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2008-07-01

    Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.

  11. Solving large-scale sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems of equations for accelerator modeling

    Gene Golub; Kwok Ko

    2009-01-01

    The solutions of sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems constitute one of the key computational kernels in the discretization of partial differential equations for the modeling of linear accelerators. The computational challenges faced by existing techniques for solving those sparse eigenvalue problems and linear systems call for continuing research to improve on the algorithms so that ever increasing problem size as required by the physics application can be tackled. Under the support of this award, the filter algorithm for solving large sparse eigenvalue problems was developed at Stanford to address the computational difficulties in the previous methods with the goal to enable accelerator simulations on then the world largest unclassified supercomputer at NERSC for this class of problems. Specifically, a new method, the Hemitian skew-Hemitian splitting method, was proposed and researched as an improved method for solving linear systems with non-Hermitian positive definite and semidefinite matrices.

  12. Linear accelerator Dynaray-CH: a central component of the BBC radiotherapy system

    Vogt, H.

    1983-01-01

    The author describes the newly developed range of linear accelerators Dynaray-CH 4 to 20. These modern installations for radiotherapy are used to generate photon and electron beams. The accelerators employ the proven BBC control system PROCONTIC (registered trademark), innovatory systems for movement control and actual-value display as well as the new radiation monitor system. (Auth.)

  13. Closed-loop Identification for Control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    , closed- loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can...

  14. Recent results on stability and response bounds of linear systems - a review

    Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2006-01-01

    The literature on linear systems emerging from second order differential equations is extensive because such systems are ubiquitous in modeling, particularly modeling of mechanical systems. This paper offers an overview of some of the recent research in this field, in particular on the subject...

  15. Forecasting the EMU inflation rate: Linear econometric vs. non-linear computational models using genetic neural fuzzy systems

    Kooths, Stefan; Mitze, Timo Friedel; Ringhut, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the predictive power of linear econometric and non-linear computational models for forecasting the inflation rate in the European Monetary Union (EMU). Various models of both types are developed using different monetary and real activity indicators. They are compared according...

  16. Hamilton-Jacobi Approach to Pre-Big Bang Cosmology at Long-wavelengths

    Saygili, K

    1999-01-01

    We apply the long-wavelength approximation to the low energy effective string action in the context of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the effective string action is explicitly invariant under scale factor duality. We present the leading order, general solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach yields a solution consistent with the with the Lagrange formalism. The momentum constraints take an elegant, simple form. Furthermore this general solution reduces to the quasi-isotropic one, if the evolution of the gravitational field is neglected. Duality transformation for the general solution is written as a coordinate transformation in an abstract field space.

  17. Projective Synchronization of Chaotic Discrete Dynamical Systems via Linear State Error Feedback Control

    Baogui Xin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A projective synchronization scheme for a kind of n-dimensional discrete dynamical system is proposed by means of a linear feedback control technique. The scheme consists of master and slave discrete dynamical systems coupled by linear state error variables. A kind of novel 3-D chaotic discrete system is constructed, to which the test for chaos is applied. By using the stability principles of an upper or lower triangular matrix, two controllers for achieving projective synchronization are designed and illustrated with the novel systems. Lastly some numerical simulations are employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed projective synchronization scheme.

  18. Stability margin of linear systems with parameters described by fuzzy numbers.

    Husek, Petr

    2011-10-01

    This paper deals with the linear systems with uncertain parameters described by fuzzy numbers. The problem of determining the stability margin of those systems with linear affine dependence of the coefficients of a characteristic polynomial on system parameters is studied. Fuzzy numbers describing the system parameters are allowed to be characterized by arbitrary nonsymmetric membership functions. An elegant solution, graphical in nature, based on generalization of the Tsypkin-Polyak plot is presented. The advantage of the presented approach over the classical robust concept is demonstrated on a control of the Fiat Dedra engine model and a control of the quarter car suspension model.

  19. A behavioral framework for compositionality: linear systems, discrete event systems and hybrid systems

    Anak Agung Julius, A.A.J.; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we formulate a general framework based on the behavioral approach to dynamical systems, in which various issues regarding interconnection of systems can be addressed. The main part of the framework is that interconnections or compositions of systems can be modelled with interconnection

  20. Solution of linear and nonlinear matrix systems. Application to a nonlinear diffusion equation

    Bonnet, M.; Meurant, G.

    1978-01-01

    Different methods of solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic systems are applied to the nonlinear system obtained by discretizing a nonlinear diffusion equation. For linear systems, methods in general use of alternating directions type or Gauss Seidel's methods are compared to more recent ones of the type of generalized conjugate gradient; the superiority of the latter is shown by numerical examples. For nonlinear systems, a method on nonlinear conjugate gradient is studied as also Newton's method and some of its variants. It should be noted, however that Newton's method is found to be more efficient when coupled with a good method for solution of the linear system. To conclude, such methods are used to solve a nonlinear diffusion problem and the numerical results obtained are to be compared [fr

  1. Solution of linear and nonlinear matrix systems. Application to a nonlinear diffusion equation

    Bonnet, M.; Meurant, G.

    1978-01-01

    The object of this study is to compare different methods of solving linear and nonlinear algebraic systems and to apply them to the nonlinear system obtained by discretizing a nonlinear diffusion equation. For linear systems the conventional methods of alternating direction type or Gauss Seidel's methods are compared to more recent ones of the type of generalized conjugate gradient; the superiority of the latter is shown by numerical examples. For nonlinear systems, a method of nonlinear conjugate gradient is studied together with Newton's method and some of its variants. It should be noted, however, that Newton's method is found to be more efficient when coupled with a good method for solving the linear system. As a conclusion, these methods are used to solve a nonlinear diffusion problem and the numerical results obtained are compared [fr

  2. LMI-based gain scheduled controller synthesis for a class of linear parameter varying systems

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Anderson, Brian; Lanzon, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for constructing controllers for a class of single-input multiple-output (SIMO) linear parameter varying (LPV) systems. This class of systems encompasses many physical systems, in particular systems where individual components vary with time, and is therefore...... of significant practical relevance to control designers. The control design presented in this paper has the properties that the system matrix of the closed loop is multi-affine in the various scalar parameters, and that the resulting controller ensures a certain degree of stability for the closed loop even when...... as a standard linear time-invariant (LTI) design combined with a set of linear matrix inequalities, which can be solved efficiently with software tools. The design procedure is illustrated by a numerical example....

  3. Modeling of non-linear CHP efficiency curves in distributed energy systems

    Milan, Christian; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    Distributed energy resources gain an increased importance in commercial and industrial building design. Combined heat and power (CHP) units are considered as one of the key technologies for cost and emission reduction in buildings. In order to make optimal decisions on investment and operation...... for these technologies, detailed system models are needed. These models are often formulated as linear programming problems to keep computational costs and complexity in a reasonable range. However, CHP systems involve variations of the efficiency for large nameplate capacity ranges and in case of part load operation......, which can be even of non-linear nature. Since considering these characteristics would turn the models into non-linear problems, in most cases only constant efficiencies are assumed. This paper proposes possible solutions to address this issue. For a mixed integer linear programming problem two...

  4. On Active Surge Control of Compression Systems via Characteristic Linearization and Model Nonlinearity Cancellation

    Yohannes S.M. Simamora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple approach of active surge control of compression systems is presented. Specifically, nonlinear components of the pressure ratio and rotating speed states of the Moore-Greitzer model are transferred into the input vectors. Subsequently, the compressor characteristic is linearized into two modes, which describe the stable region and the unstable region respectively. As a result, the system’s state and input matrices both appear linear, to which linear realization and analysis are applicable. A linear quadratic regulator plus integrator is then chosen as closed-loop controller. By simulation it was shown that the modified model and characteristics can describe surge behavior, while the closed-loop controller can stabilize the system in the unstable operating region. The last-mentioned was achieved when massflow was 5.38 per cent less than the surge point.

  5. System and Method for Generating a Frequency Modulated Linear Laser Waveform

    Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor); Petway, Larry B. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Lockard, George E. (Inventor); Hines, Glenn D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system for generating a frequency modulated linear laser waveform includes a single frequency laser generator to produce a laser output signal. An electro-optical modulator modulates the frequency of the laser output signal to define a linear triangular waveform. An optical circulator passes the linear triangular waveform to a band-pass optical filter to filter out harmonic frequencies created in the waveform during modulation of the laser output signal, to define a pure filtered modulated waveform having a very narrow bandwidth. The optical circulator receives the pure filtered modulated laser waveform and transmits the modulated laser waveform to a target.

  6. Optimal Linear Responses for Markov Chains and Stochastically Perturbed Dynamical Systems

    Antown, Fadi; Dragičević, Davor; Froyland, Gary

    2018-03-01

    The linear response of a dynamical system refers to changes to properties of the system when small external perturbations are applied. We consider the little-studied question of selecting an optimal perturbation so as to (i) maximise the linear response of the equilibrium distribution of the system, (ii) maximise the linear response of the expectation of a specified observable, and (iii) maximise the linear response of the rate of convergence of the system to the equilibrium distribution. We also consider the inhomogeneous, sequential, or time-dependent situation where the governing dynamics is not stationary and one wishes to select a sequence of small perturbations so as to maximise the overall linear response at some terminal time. We develop the theory for finite-state Markov chains, provide explicit solutions for some illustrative examples, and numerically apply our theory to stochastically perturbed dynamical systems, where the Markov chain is replaced by a matrix representation of an approximate annealed transfer operator for the random dynamical system.

  7. Generation Method of Multipiecewise Linear Chaotic Systems Based on the Heteroclinic Shil’nikov Theorem and Switching Control

    Chunyan Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the heteroclinic Shil’nikov theorem and switching control, a kind of multipiecewise linear chaotic system is constructed in this paper. Firstly, two fundamental linear systems are constructed via linearization of a chaotic system at its two equilibrium points. Secondly, a two-piecewise linear chaotic system which satisfies the Shil’nikov theorem is generated by constructing heteroclinic loop between equilibrium points of the two fundamental systems by switching control. Finally, another multipiecewise linear chaotic system that also satisfies the Shil’nikov theorem is obtained via alternate translation of the two fundamental linear systems and heteroclinic loop construction of adjacent equilibria for the multipiecewise linear system. Some basic dynamical characteristics, including divergence, Lyapunov exponents, and bifurcation diagrams of the constructed systems, are analyzed. Meanwhile, computer simulation and circuit design are used for the proposed chaotic systems, and they are demonstrated to be effective for the method of chaos anticontrol.

  8. Noise analysis of fluid-valve system in a linear compressor using CAE

    Lee, Jun Ho; Jeong, Weui Bong; Kim, Dang Ju

    2009-01-01

    A linear compressor in a refrigerator uses piston motion to transfer refrigerant so its efficiency is higher than a previous reciprocal compressor. Because of interaction between refrigerant and valves system in the linear compressor, however, noise has been a main issue. In spite of doing many experimental researches, there is no way to rightly predict the noise. In order to solve this limitation, the CAE analysis is applied. For giving credit to these computational data, all of the data are experimentally validated.

  9. Econometrics analysis of consumer behaviour: a linear expenditure system applied to energy

    Giansante, C.; Ferrari, V.

    1996-12-01

    In economics literature the expenditure system specification is a well known subject. The problem is to define a coherent representation of consumer behaviour through functional forms easy to calculate. In this work it is used the Stone-Geary Linear Expenditure System and its multi-level decision process version. The Linear Expenditure system is characterized by an easy calculating estimation procedure, and its multi-level specification allows substitution and complementary relations between goods. Moreover, the utility function separability condition on which the Utility Tree Approach is based, justifies to use an estimation procedure in two or more steps. This allows to use an high degree of expenditure categories disaggregation, impossible to reach the Linear Expediture System. The analysis is applied to energy sectors

  10. New results for exponential synchronization of linearly coupled ordinary differential systems

    Tong Ping; Chen Shi-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the exponential synchronization of linearly coupled ordinary differential systems. The intrinsic nonlinear dynamics may not satisfy the QUAD condition or weak-QUAD condition. First, it gives a new method to analyze the exponential synchronization of the systems. Second, two theorems and their corollaries are proposed for the local or global exponential synchronization of the coupled systems. Finally, an application to the linearly coupled Hopfield neural networks and several simulations are provided for verifying the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (paper)

  11. Asymptotic Stabilization of Continuous-Time Linear Systems with Input and State Quantizations

    Sung Wook Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the asymptotic stabilization problem of linear systems with input and state quantizations. In order to achieve asymptotic stabilization of such systems, we propose a state-feedback controller comprising two control parts: the main part is used to determine the fundamental characteristics of the system associated with the cost, and the additional part is employed to eliminate the effects of input and state quanizations. In particular, in order to implement the additional part, we introduce a quantizer with a region-decision making process (RDMP for a certain linear switching surface. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  12. On the problem of linear calibration for a reading system of measuring devices

    Shigaev, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of gauging the frame of reference of a measuring device has been giVen a general approach which consists in finding an approximated inverse transformation on the basis of a partial diagram of a direct transformation which is defined on a given set, D, within the limits of the device measuring range. The following linear models of frame of reference are discussed: a general oblique system; a rectangular system with axes having different scales; a rectangular system with similar scale axes. Linear distortion for two rectangular models has been assessed. It is pointed out that the best approximation to the reduction operation should be found over the D set

  13. Preprocessing in Matlab Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution

    Sen, Symal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the . minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.

  14. Risk adjusted receding horizon control of constrained linear parameter varying systems

    Sznaier, M.; Lagoa, C.; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems (LPV) has been the object of considerable attention, as a way of formalizing the intuitively appealing idea of gain scheduling control for nonlinear systems. However, currently available LPV techniques are both computationally

  15. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations

  16. Theory and Applications of Discontinuous State Feedback Generating Chaos for Linear Systems

    Xiao-Dan, Zhang; Zhen, Wang; Pin-Dong, Zhao

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a kind of chaos generating technique on a type of n-dimensional linear differential systems by adding feedback control items under a discontinuous state. This method is checked with some examples of numeric simulation. A constructive theorem is proposed for generalized synchronization related to the above chaotic system

  17. GPU acceleration of preconditioned solvers for ill-conditioned linear systems

    Gupta, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the implementations of deflation and preconditioning techniques for solving ill-conditioned linear systems using iterative methods. Solving such systems can be a time-consuming process because of the jumps in the coefficients due to large difference in material properties. We

  18. State Estimation for Linear Systems Driven Simultaneously by Wiener and Poisson Processes.

    1978-12-01

    The state estimation problem of linear stochastic systems driven simultaneously by Wiener and Poisson processes is considered, especially the case...where the incident intensities of the Poisson processes are low and the system is observed in an additive white Gaussian noise. The minimum mean squared

  19. Advanced Thomson scattering system for high-flux linear plasma generator

    Meiden, van der H.J.; Lof, A.R.; Berg, van den M.A.; Brons, S.; Donné, A.J.H.; Eck, van H.J.N.; Koelman, Peter; Koppers, W.R.; Kruijt, O.G.; Naumenko, N.N.; Oyevaar, T.; Prins, P.R.; Rapp, J.; Scholten, J.; Schram, D.C.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Star, van der G.; Tugarinov, S.N.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced Thomson scattering system has been built for a linear plasma generator for plasma surface interaction studies. The Thomson scattering system is based on a Nd:YAG laser operating at the second harmonic and a detection branch featuring a high etendue (f /3) transmission grating

  20. Beam trajectory acquisition system for the arcs of the Stanford Linear Collider

    Pellegrin, J.L.; Ross, M.C.; Scott, B.D.; Wilson, D.S.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes the beam position monitoring system of the collider arcs at the Stanford Linear Collider. This beam position monitoring system is different from others at SLAC in its large amount of hardware and its use of ungated, self-triggered electronics. All of the processing electronics are installed in the accelerator tunnel