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Sample records for linear electro-optic properties

  1. Linear electro-optical properties of tetragonal BaTiO 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Linear optical susceptibility and clamped linear electro-optical tensor coefficients of tetragonal BaTiO3 are calculated using a formalism based on bond charge theory. Calculated values are in close agreement with experimental data. The covalent Ti–O bonds constituting distorted TiO6 octahedral groups are found to be ...

  2. Electro-optical properties of tetragonal KNbO 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Linear electro-optical tensor coefficients and optical susceptibility of tetragonal KNbO3 are calculated using a formalism based on bond charge theory. Results are in close agreement with the experimental data. The covalent Nb–O bonding network comprising the distorted NbO6 octahedral groups in the structure is found to ...

  3. The Relationship between the Monomer Chain Length and the Electro-Optical Properties of Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Five polymers dispersed liquid crystalline (LC films were fabricated using photo-polymerizable monomers with different lengths of carbon chains. These LC films have shown different electro-optical (EO properties. Through their SEM pictures, the relationship between the linear electro-optical effect and the mesh size of the polymer network was explored. With the increase of number of photo-polymerizable monomers, the mesh size of the polymer network would become larger. So the liquid crystal molecules would be easily oriented in the electric field and therefore, the threshold voltage and saturation voltage would decrease. The open state response times were also reduced and the off state response times would be extended. The DFT simulations have shown principal role of the ground state dipole moments in the observed electro-optical efficiency.

  4. Effects of gold nanoparticles on the electro-optical properties of a polymer dispersed liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, A.; Shive, C.; Sharma, Suresh

    2010-03-01

    We have studied the electro-optical properties of a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) as functions of relative concentrations of gold nanoparticles. PDLC samples were synthesized between indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slides, separated by SiO2 spacers, by using liquid crystal E44, a monofunctional acrylic oligomer (CN135), and a tetrafunctional crosslinker (SR295). A UV photoinitiator (SR1124) was used to facilitate the curing of the monomer exposed to UV radiation from a Hg spectral lamp. A He-Ne laser was used to measure optical transmission through the PDLC as a function of applied ac electric field (1 kHz). The PDLC without gold nanoparticles shows the expected behavior; transmission through the PDLC increases from a minimum (opaque) to a maximum (transparent) with increasing electric field. The electro-optical behavior of the PDLC is altered significantly (e. g., relatively low switching field) upon addition of relatively low concentrations of gold nanoparticles into the starting PDLC syrup. We present electro-optical data as functions of gold nanoparticle concentration and discuss possible mechanism to understand our results.

  5. Linear electro-optic coefficient in multilayer self-organized InAs quantum dot structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akca, I.B.; Dana, A.; Aydinli, A.; Rossetti, M.; Li, L.; Dagli, N.; Fiore, A.

    2007-01-01

    The electro-optic coefficients of self-organized InAs quantum dot layers in molecular beam epitaxy grown laser structures in reverse bias have been investigated. Enhanced electrooptic coefficients compared to bulk GaAs were observed.

  6. Theory of Electro-Optical Properties of Graphene Nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Gundra, Kondayya; Shukla, Alok

    2010-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical absorption and electro-absorption spectra of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) using a $\\pi-$electron approach, incorporating long-range Coulomb interactions within the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian. The approach is carefully bench marked by computing quantities such as the band structure, electric-field driven half metallicity, and linear optical absorption spectra of GNRs of various types, and the results are in good agreement with those obtaine...

  7. Effect of temperature on the morphology and electro-optical properties of liquid crystal physical gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaw, W.L.; Mamat, C.R.; Triwahyono, S.; Jalil, A.A.; Bidin, N.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystal physical gels were (thermally) prepared with cholesteryl stearate as a gelator in nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl. The electro-optical performance of liquid crystal physical gels is almost entirely dependent on the gels' inherent morphology. This study involved an empirical investigation of the relationships among all of the gelation temperature, morphology, and electro-optical properties. Besides continuous cooling at room temperature, isothermal cooling was also performed at both 18 and 0 °C, corresponding to near-solid and solid phases of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl respectively. Nevertheless, the liquid crystal physical gel was also isothermally rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen. Polarizing optical microscopy showed that the gel structure became thinner when isothermal cooling was carried out. These thinner gel aggregates then interconnected to form larger liquid crystal domains. Moreover, it was also revealed that the gel networks were randomized. Electron spin resonance results showed that the liquid crystal director orientation was severely randomized in the presence of gel networks. Conversely, isothermal cooling using liquid nitrogen generated a higher liquid crystal director orientation order. The 6.0 wt% cholesteryl stearate/4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl physical gel that was isothermally cooled using liquid nitrogen showed the lowest response time in a twisted nematic mode optical cell. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystal physical gel was prepared using nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl and cholesteryl stearate as gelator. Isothermal cooling at lower temperature produced thinner gel network and larger liquid crystal domain. - Highlights: • 5CB nematic liquid crystal was successfully gelled by cholesteryl stearate gelator. • The morphology of gel network was controlled by different cooling conditions. • Thinner gel network was formed by the rapid cooling using liquid nitrogen. • Enhanced

  8. Effect of temperature on the morphology and electro-optical properties of liquid crystal physical gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaw, W.L. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Mamat, C.R., E-mail: che@kimia.fs.utm.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Triwahyono, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Jalil, A.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Univerisiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bidin, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-12-01

    Liquid crystal physical gels were (thermally) prepared with cholesteryl stearate as a gelator in nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl. The electro-optical performance of liquid crystal physical gels is almost entirely dependent on the gels' inherent morphology. This study involved an empirical investigation of the relationships among all of the gelation temperature, morphology, and electro-optical properties. Besides continuous cooling at room temperature, isothermal cooling was also performed at both 18 and 0 °C, corresponding to near-solid and solid phases of 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl respectively. Nevertheless, the liquid crystal physical gel was also isothermally rapidly cooled using liquid nitrogen. Polarizing optical microscopy showed that the gel structure became thinner when isothermal cooling was carried out. These thinner gel aggregates then interconnected to form larger liquid crystal domains. Moreover, it was also revealed that the gel networks were randomized. Electron spin resonance results showed that the liquid crystal director orientation was severely randomized in the presence of gel networks. Conversely, isothermal cooling using liquid nitrogen generated a higher liquid crystal director orientation order. The 6.0 wt% cholesteryl stearate/4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl physical gel that was isothermally cooled using liquid nitrogen showed the lowest response time in a twisted nematic mode optical cell. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystal physical gel was prepared using nematic liquid crystal, 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl and cholesteryl stearate as gelator. Isothermal cooling at lower temperature produced thinner gel network and larger liquid crystal domain. - Highlights: • 5CB nematic liquid crystal was successfully gelled by cholesteryl stearate gelator. • The morphology of gel network was controlled by different cooling conditions. • Thinner gel network was formed by the rapid cooling using liquid nitrogen.

  9. Thermo- and electro-optical properties of photonic liquid crystal fibers doped with gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Siarkowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermo- and electro-optical properties of a photonic liquid crystal fiber (PLCF enhanced by the use of dopants have been investigated. A 6CHBT nematic liquid crystal was doped with four different concentrations of gold nanoparticles (NPs, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 wt %, for direct comparison of the influence of the dopant on the properties of the PLCF. The thermo-optical effects of the liquid crystal doped with gold NPs were compared in three setups, an LC cell, a microcapillary and within the PLCF, to determine if the observed responses to external factors are caused by the properties of the infiltration material or due to the setup configuration. The results obtained indicated that with increasing NP doping a significant reduction of the rise time under an external electric field occurs with a simultaneous decrease in the nematic–isotropic phase transition temperature, thus improving the thermo- and electro-optical properties of the PLCF.

  10. Thermo- and electro-optical properties of photonic liquid crystal fibers doped with gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkowska, Agata; Chychłowski, Miłosz; Budaszewski, Daniel; Jankiewicz, Bartłomiej; Bartosewicz, Bartosz; Woliński, Tomasz R

    2017-01-01

    Thermo- and electro-optical properties of a photonic liquid crystal fiber (PLCF) enhanced by the use of dopants have been investigated. A 6CHBT nematic liquid crystal was doped with four different concentrations of gold nanoparticles (NPs), 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 wt %, for direct comparison of the influence of the dopant on the properties of the PLCF. The thermo-optical effects of the liquid crystal doped with gold NPs were compared in three setups, an LC cell, a microcapillary and within the PLCF, to determine if the observed responses to external factors are caused by the properties of the infiltration material or due to the setup configuration. The results obtained indicated that with increasing NP doping a significant reduction of the rise time under an external electric field occurs with a simultaneous decrease in the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature, thus improving the thermo- and electro-optical properties of the PLCF.

  11. Electro-optic polymers for high speed modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A.; Faccini, M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David; Leinse, Arne; Megret, P.; Wuilpart, M.; Bette, S.; Staquet, N.

    2005-01-01

    Different electro-optic polymer systems are analyzed with respect to their electro-optic activity, glass transition temperature $(T_g)$ and photodefinable properties. The polymers tested are polysulfone (PS) and polycarbonate (PC). The electro-optic chromophore,

  12. Linear electro-optic effect in sputtered polycrystalline LiNbO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, G.; Ruschin, S.; Croitoru, N.

    1989-04-01

    Light guiding and modulation was demonstrated in sputtered LiNbO3 films deposited on glass substrates. We report on films' exceptionally low attenuation (<2 dB/cm) and the highest electro-optical coefficient reported so far for this kind of film (1.34×10-12 m/V).

  13. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Ido [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Aluma, Yaniv; Ilan, Micha [Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Kityk, Iwan [Institute of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University, Czestochowa 42-201 (Poland); Mastai, Yitzhak, E-mail: Yitzhak.Mastai@biu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica. - Graphical abstract: The phase transformation of biosilica from marine sponges to Cristobalite under thermal treatment was investigated using photoinduced electro optics measurements. The figure shows the changes of the electro-optic coefficient of cristobalite and biosilica. - Highlights: • We examine phase transformation of biosilica. • We report transition from amorphous biosilica to crystalline Cristobalite. • Biosilica transformation to Cristobalite at temperature of 850 °C. • Biosilica transformation is studied with photoinduced measurements. • We examine changes in the photoinduced linear electro optics properties.

  14. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Ido; Aluma, Yaniv; Ilan, Micha; Kityk, Iwan; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica. - Graphical abstract: The phase transformation of biosilica from marine sponges to Cristobalite under thermal treatment was investigated using photoinduced electro optics measurements. The figure shows the changes of the electro-optic coefficient of cristobalite and biosilica. - Highlights: • We examine phase transformation of biosilica. • We report transition from amorphous biosilica to crystalline Cristobalite. • Biosilica transformation to Cristobalite at temperature of 850 °C. • Biosilica transformation is studied with photoinduced measurements. • We examine changes in the photoinduced linear electro optics properties

  15. Electro-optical and dielectric properties of CdSe quantum dots and 6CHBT liquid crystals composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, U. B.; Pandey, M. B., E-mail: mbpandey@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Vikramajit Singh Sanatan Dharama College, Kanpur-208002 (India); Dhar, R; Pandey, A. S. [Centre of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Kumar, S. [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore-560080 (India); Dabrowski, R. [Institute of Applied Sciences and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908-Warswa (Poland)

    2014-11-15

    We have prepared the composites of a room temperature nematic liquid crystal namely 4-(trans-4-n-hexylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzoate (6CHBT) and Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (CdSe-QDs) and investigated their electro-optical and dielectric properties. Effect of dispersion of CdSe-QDs on various electro-optical and display parameters of host liquid crystalline material have been studied. Physical parameters, such as switching threshold voltage and splay elastic constant have been altered drastically for composites. Dispersion of QDs in a liquid crystals medium destabilizes nematic ordering of the host and decreases the nematic-to-isotropic transition temperature.

  16. Electro-optical and dielectric properties of CdSe quantum dots and 6CHBT liquid crystals composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, U. B.; Pandey, M. B.; Dhar, R; Pandey, A. S.; Kumar, S.; Dabrowski, R.

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared the composites of a room temperature nematic liquid crystal namely 4-(trans-4-n-hexylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzoate (6CHBT) and Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (CdSe-QDs) and investigated their electro-optical and dielectric properties. Effect of dispersion of CdSe-QDs on various electro-optical and display parameters of host liquid crystalline material have been studied. Physical parameters, such as switching threshold voltage and splay elastic constant have been altered drastically for composites. Dispersion of QDs in a liquid crystals medium destabilizes nematic ordering of the host and decreases the nematic-to-isotropic transition temperature

  17. Structural and optical properties of electro-optic material. Sputtered (Ba,Sr)TiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masato; Xu, Zhimou; Tanushi, Yuichiro; Yokoyama, Shin

    2006-01-01

    In order to develop a novel ring resonator optical switch, we have studied the structural and optical properties of the electro-optic material (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) deposited by RF sputtering on a SiO 2 cladding layer (1.0 μm). The crystallinity of the BST films is evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the optical propagation loss of the waveguides is measured using a He-Ne laser. As a result, it is found that there is a strong relationship between the optical propagation loss and crystallinity of the sputtered film. It is suggested that the propagating light is influenced by the crystal property, for example, the grain size and density of the polycrystalline BST film. (author)

  18. Defect enhanced optic and electro-optic properties of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Zhu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pb(Zr1-xTixO3 (PZT thin films near phase morphotropic phase boundary were deposited on (Pb0.86La0.14TiO3-coated glass by radio frequency sputtering. A retrieved analysis shows that the lattice parameters of the as-grown PZT thin films were similar to that of monoclinic PZT structure. Moreover, the PZT thin films possessed refractive index as high as 2.504 in TE model and 2.431 in TM model. The as-grown PZT thin film had one strong absorption peak at 632.6 nm, which attributed to lead deficiency by quantitative XPS analysis. From the attractive properties achieved, electro-optic and photovoltaic characteristic of the films were carried out.

  19. Linear electro-optical behavior of hybrid nanocomposites based on silicon carbide nanocrystals and polymer matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouclé, J.; Kassiba, A.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Reynaud, C.; Desert, A.; Emery, J.; Bulou, A.; Sanetra, J.; Pud, A. A.; Kodjikian, S.

    2006-11-01

    An electro-optical activity has been recently reported for hybrid nanocomposite thin films where inorganic silicon carbide nanocrystals (ncSiC) are incorporated into polymer matrices. The role of the interface SiC polymer is suggested as the origin of the observed second order nonlinear optical susceptibility in the hybrid materials based on poly-(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) or poly-( N -vinylcarbazole) matrices. In this work, we report an analysis of the electro-optical response of this hybrid system as a function of the ncSiC content and surface state in order to precise the interface effect in the observed phenomenon. Two specific ncSiC samples with similar morphology and different surface states are incorporated in the PMMA matrix. The effective Pockels parameters of the corresponding hybrid nanocomposites have been estimated up to 7.59±0.74pm/V ( 1wt.% of ncSiC in the matrix). The interfacial region ncSiC polymer is found to play the main role in the observed effect. Particularly, the electronic defects on the ncSiC nanocrystal surface modify the interfacial electrical interactions between the two components. The results are interpreted and discussed on the basis of the strong influence of these active centers in the interfacial region at the nanoscale, which are found to monitor the local hyperpolarizabilities and the macroscopic nonlinear optical susceptibilities. This approach allows us to complete the description and understanding of the electro-optical response in the hybrid SiC /polymer systems.

  20. Li n @B36 ( n = 1, 2) Nanosheet with Remarkable Electro-Optical Properties: A DFT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimannejad, Mohammad; Kamalinahad, Saeedeh; Shakerzadeh, Ehsan

    2017-07-01

    In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate alteration in electro-optical properties of bowl-shape B36 nanosheet due to interaction with one and two Li atoms. Our results reveal that the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gap of B36 nanosheet is decreased because of a high energy level which is formed under influence of interactions with Li atoms. Gigantic enhancement in the first hyperpolarizability ( β 0) of the studied nanosheet up to 4920.62 au is indicated owing to the effect of Li adsorption. The result of the present study may be eventuating to design and fabrication of a nanosheet with tunable electro-optical properties.

  1. Effect of elastic constants of liquid crystals in their electro-optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Z.; Ghaffary, T.; Gharahbeigi, M. M.

    Recently following the success of the density functional theory (DFT) in obtaining the structure and thermodynamics of homogeneous and inhomogeneous classical systems such as simple fluids, dipolar fluid and binary hard spheres, this theory was also applied to obtain the density profile of a molecular fluid in between hard planar walls by Kalpaxis and Rickayzen. In the theory of molecular fluids, the direct correlation function (DCF) can be used to calculate the equation of state, free energy, phase transition, elastic constants, etc. It is well known that the hard core molecular models play an important role in understanding complex liquids such as liquid crystals. In this paper, a classical fluid of nonspherical molecules is studied. The required homogeneous (DCF) is obtained by solving Orenstein-Zernike (OZ) integral equation numerically. Some of the molecules in the liquid crystals have a sphere shape and this kind of molecular fluid is considered here. The DCF sphere of the molecular fluid is calculated and it will be shown that the results are in good agreement with the pervious works and the results of computer simulation. Finally the electro-optical properties of ellipsoid liquid crystal using DCF of these molecules are calculated.

  2. Effect of a Polymercaptan Material on the Electro-Optical Properties of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films

    OpenAIRE

    Yujian Sun; Cuihong Zhang; Le Zhou; Hua Fang; Jianhua Huang; Haipeng Ma; Yi Zhang; Jie Yang; Lan-Ying Zhang; Ping Song; Yanzi Gao; Jiumei Xiao; Fasheng Li; Kexuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films were prepared by the ultraviolet-light-induced polymerization of photopolymerizable monomers in nematic liquid crystal/chiral dopant/thiol-acrylate reaction monomer composites. The effects of the chiral dopant and crosslinking agents on the electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were systematically investigate. While added the chiral dopant S811 into the PDLC films, the initial off-state transmittance of the films was decreased. It was found...

  3. Synthesis, characterization and electro-optic properties of novel siloxane liquid crystalline with a large tilt angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chien-Tung; Lee, Jiunn-Yih; Lai, Chiu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this study we report the synthesis and characterization of new ferroelectric liquid crystal material. → We examined the influence of the addition of a trisiloxane end-group on one side-chain of an achiral alkyl chain on the phase transition. → Finally, the properties of the chiral smectic C (SmC*) phase were measured for target compounds. - Abstract: This paper presents a study of the ferroelectric behavior in low molar mass organosiloxane liquid crystal materials. A few novel series of compounds with a large tilt angle were synthesized, and the mesophases exhibited were compared. The mesophases under discussion were investigated by means of polarizing microscopy (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electro-optical experiments. The influence of the molecular structure on the occurrence of the chiral smectic C (SmC*) phase was investigated. Finally, the electro-optical properties of the SmC* phase, such as tilt angle, dielectric permittivity and switching behavior were also measured. As a consequence, the correlation between the electro-optical properties and chemical structures of these compounds was investigated.

  4. Synthesis and electro-optic properties of the chromophore-containing NLO polyarylate polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haohui; Peng, Chengcheng; Bo, Shuhui; Fan, Guofang; Xu, Guangming; Zhao, Hui; Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Xinhou

    2014-03-01

    Base on the same two monomers, diphenolic acid (DPA) and isophthaloyl chloride (IPC), three chromophore-containing nonlinear optical (NLO) polyarylate polymers were prepared. A tricyanofuran (TCF)-acceptor type chromophore group was in main-chain (mPAR-chr1), side-chain (sPAR-chr1) and side-chain with a 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (BPAPF) group (sPAR-F-chr1), respectively. The obtained polymers were characterized and evaluated by UV-Vis, 1H NMR, DSC and TGA. All the polymers exhibited good electro-optic (EO) activity. The relationship between EO coefficients (r33) and the chromophore concentration of the three polymers were also characterized and discussed. There were no obvious differences found in EO activity between mPAR-chr1 and sPAR-chr1 polyarylates with the same chromophore. The fluorinated block polyarylate sPAR-F-chr1 has the largest r33 value in these three polyarylates which is 52 pm/V at the wavelength of 1310 nm (which is almost twice the r33 value of normal polymers contained the same chormophore at the same content), when the concentration of chromophore 1 is 18wt.%. 85% of the r33 value was retained in the sPAR-F-chr1 after being heated at 85°C for 600 hours. The polymer sPAR-F-chr1, with good solubility, high Tg (above 200 °C) and side functional group at the same time, may probably be a practical NLO material. These properties make the new polyarylates have potential applications in EO devices such as EO modulators and switches.

  5. Electro-optical properties of dislocations in silicon and their possible application for light emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguirov, Tzanimir Vladimirov

    2007-10-14

    This thesis addresses the electro-optical properties of silicon, containing dislocations. The work demonstrates that dislocation specific radiation may provide a means for optical diagnostics of solar cell grade silicon. It provides insight into the mechanisms governing the dislocation recombination activity, their radiation, and how are they influenced by other defects present in silicon. We demonstrate that photoluminescence mapping is useful for monitoring the recombination activity in solar cell grade silicon and can be applied for identification of contaminants, based on their photoluminescence signatures. It is shown that the recombination at dislocations is strongly influenced by the presence of metals at the dislocation sites. The dislocation radiation activity correlates with their electrical activity. It is shown that the dislocation and band-to-band luminescence are essentially anti-correlated. {beta}FeSi{sub 2} precipitates, with a luminescence at 0.8 eV, were detected within the grains of block cast materials. They exhibit a characteristic feature of quantum dots, namely blinking. The second aspect of the thesis concerns the topic of silicon based light emitters for on-chip optical interconnects. The goal is an enhancement of sub-band-gap or band-to-band radiation by controlled formation of dislocation-rich areas in microelectronics-grade silicon as well as understanding of the processes governing such enhancement. For light emitters based on band-to-band emission it is shown, that internal quantum efficiency of nearly 2 % can be achieved, but the emission is essentially generated in the bulk of the wafer. On the other hand, light emitters utilizing the emission from dislocation-rich areas of a well localized wafer depth were explored. Three different methods for reproducible formation of a dislocation-rich region beneath the wafer surface were investigated and evaluated in view of their room temperature sub-band-gap radiation: (1) silicon implantation

  6. Theoretical exploration of structural, electro-optical and magnetic properties of gallium-doped silicon carbide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Somayeh; Chegel, Raad; Moradian, Rostam; Shahrokhi, Masoud

    2014-09-01

    The effects of gallium doping on the structural, electro-optical and magnetic properties of (8,0) silicon carbide nanotube (SiCNT) are investigated by using spin-polarized density functional theory. It is found from the calculation of the formation energies that gallium substitution for silicon atom is preferred. Our results show that gallium substitution at either single carbon or silicon atom site in SiCNT could induce spontaneous magnetization. The optical studies based on dielectric function indicate that new transition peaks and a blue shift are observed after gallium doping.

  7. Effect of a Polymercaptan Material on the Electro-Optical Properties of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujian; Zhang, Cuihong; Zhou, Le; Fang, Hua; Huang, Jianhua; Ma, Haipeng; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Lan-Ying; Song, Ping; Gao, Yanzi; Xiao, Jiumei; Li, Fasheng; Li, Kexuan

    2016-12-30

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films were prepared by the ultraviolet-light-induced polymerization of photopolymerizable monomers in nematic liquid crystal/chiral dopant/thiol-acrylate reaction monomer composites. The effects of the chiral dopant and crosslinking agents on the electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were systematically investigate. While added the chiral dopant S811 into the PDLC films, the initial off-state transmittance of the films was decreased. It was found that the weight ratio among acrylate monomers, thiol monomer PETMP and the polymercaptan Capcure 3-800 showed great influence on the properties of the fabricated PDLC films because of the existence of competition between thiol-acrylate reaction and acrylate monomer polymerization reaction. While adding polymercaptans curing agent Capcure 3-800 with appropriate concentration into the PDLC system, lower driven voltage and higher contrast ratio were achieved. This made the polymer network and electro-optical properties of the PDLC films easily tunable by the introduction of the thiol monomers.

  8. Effect of a Polymercaptan Material on the Electro-Optical Properties of Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujian Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC films were prepared by the ultraviolet-light-induced polymerization of photopolymerizable monomers in nematic liquid crystal/chiral dopant/thiol-acrylate reaction monomer composites. The effects of the chiral dopant and crosslinking agents on the electro-optical properties of the PDLC films were systematically investigate. While added the chiral dopant S811 into the PDLC films, the initial off-state transmittance of the films was decreased. It was found that the weight ratio among acrylate monomers, thiol monomer PETMP and the polymercaptan Capcure 3-800 showed great influence on the properties of the fabricated PDLC films because of the existence of competition between thiol-acrylate reaction and acrylate monomer polymerization reaction. While adding polymercaptans curing agent Capcure 3-800 with appropriate concentration into the PDLC system, lower driven voltage and higher contrast ratio were achieved. This made the polymer network and electro-optical properties of the PDLC films easily tunable by the introduction of the thiol monomers.

  9. Theory-inspired development of organic electro-optic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, Larry R., E-mail: dalton@chem.washington.ed [Department of Chemistry, Bagley Hall 202D, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Bagley Hall 202D, Box 351700, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)

    2009-11-30

    Real-time, time-dependent density functional theory (RTTDDFT) and pseudo-atomistic Monte Carlo-molecular dynamics (PAMCMD) calculations have been used in a correlated manner to achieve quantitative definition of structure/function relationships necessary for the optimization of electro-optic activity in organic materials. Utilizing theoretical guidance, electro-optic coefficients (at telecommunication wavelengths) have been increased to 500 pm/V while keeping optical loss to less than 2 dB/cm. RTTDDFT affords the advantage of permitting explicit treatment of time-dependent electric fields, both applied fields and internal fields. This modification has permitted the quantitative simulation of the variation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of chromophores and the electro-optic activity of materials with optical frequency and dielectric permittivity. PAMCMD statistical mechanical calculations have proven an effective means of treating the full range of spatially-anisotropic intermolecular electrostatic interactions that play critical roles in defining the degree of noncentrosymmetric order that is achieved by electric field poling of organic electro-optic materials near their glass transition temperatures. New techniques have been developed for the experimental characterization of poling-induced acentric order including a modification of variable angle polarization absorption spectroscopy (VAPAS) permitting a meaningful correlation of theoretical and experimental data related to poling-induced order for a variety of complex organic electro-optic materials.

  10. Theory-inspired development of organic electro-optic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    Real-time, time-dependent density functional theory (RTTDDFT) and pseudo-atomistic Monte Carlo-molecular dynamics (PAMCMD) calculations have been used in a correlated manner to achieve quantitative definition of structure/function relationships necessary for the optimization of electro-optic activity in organic materials. Utilizing theoretical guidance, electro-optic coefficients (at telecommunication wavelengths) have been increased to 500 pm/V while keeping optical loss to less than 2 dB/cm. RTTDDFT affords the advantage of permitting explicit treatment of time-dependent electric fields, both applied fields and internal fields. This modification has permitted the quantitative simulation of the variation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of chromophores and the electro-optic activity of materials with optical frequency and dielectric permittivity. PAMCMD statistical mechanical calculations have proven an effective means of treating the full range of spatially-anisotropic intermolecular electrostatic interactions that play critical roles in defining the degree of noncentrosymmetric order that is achieved by electric field poling of organic electro-optic materials near their glass transition temperatures. New techniques have been developed for the experimental characterization of poling-induced acentric order including a modification of variable angle polarization absorption spectroscopy (VAPAS) permitting a meaningful correlation of theoretical and experimental data related to poling-induced order for a variety of complex organic electro-optic materials.

  11. Electro-optic and magneto-dielectric properties of multifunctional nitride and oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ambesh

    Materials that simultaneously exhibit different physical properties provide a rich area of research leading to the development of new devices. For example, materials having a strong coupling between charge and spin degrees of freedom are essential to realizing a new class of devices referred to generally as spintronics. However, these multifunctional systems pose new scientific challenges in understanding the origin and mechanisms for cross-control of different functionalities. The core of this Ph.D. dissertation deals with multifunctional nitride and oxide compound semiconductors as well as multiferroic magnetic oxide systems by investigating structural, optical, electrical, magnetic, magnetodielectric and magnetoelectric properties. Thin films of InN nitride compound semiconductors and closely related alloys have been investigated to understand the effects of intrinsic defects on the materials properties while considering possible applications of highly degenerate InN thin films. As grown rf sputtered InN films on c-axis (0001) sapphire exhibit highly degenerate n-type behaviour due to oxygen defects introduced during growth. The effect of oxygen in InN matrix has been further investigated by intentionally adding oxygen into the films. These studies confirm that oxygen is one of the main sources of donor electrons in degenerate InN. Above some critical concentration of oxygen, secondary phases of In 2O3 and In-O-N complexes were formed. It was also possible to tune the carrier concentration to produce changes in the plasmon frequency, which varied from 0.45 eV to 0.8 eV. This characteristic energy scale suggests that these highly degenerate InN thin films could be used for thermophotovoltaic cells, optical filters, and other IR electro-optic applications. To probe the magnetism in transition metal doped InN system, In 0.98Cr0.02N and In0.95Cr0.05N thin films were fabricated. Our results suggest that these films develop ferromagnetic order above room temperature

  12. Investigation of electro-optical properties of InSb under the influence of spin-orbit interaction at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilal, Muhammad; Rashid, Bahroz; Khan, Shah Haider; Khan, Afzal, E-mail: afzal_khan@upesh.edu.pk

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the electro-optical properties of indium antimonide (InSb) for photo-voltaic applications, we performed first principles calculations using density functional theory (DFT). Our DFT calculations are based on full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method implemented by WIEN2K code. These calculations are carried out using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and Tran Blaha modified Becke Johnson (TB-mBJ) approximation for exchange co-relation potential. All the calculations are performed with and without the addition of spin-orbit interaction (SOI) to GGA and TB-mBJ potentials. Addition of SOI gives the results very close to their experimental values and makes the calculations independent of k-points consideration. All the results are calculated by considering the temperature as high as 300 K. To the best of our knowledge, all the previously published theoretical results were calculated at 0 K and no such results have been reported at 300 K. In this article, we are reporting band structure, density of states (DOS) and the band gap dependent optical properties of InSb. The calculated direct band gap is 0.17 eV, refractive index is 3.79 and extinction coefficient as 3.22. - Highlights: • Room temperature calculations of electro-optical properties of InSb. • Effect of SOI on the band structure and critical points. • The addition of SOI made the calculation k-points independent. • Optical properties were calculated without broadening or applying scissor potential.

  13. Electro-optical properties of low viscosity driven holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, K. R.; Bae, S. Y.; Kim, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Relative diffraction efficiency (RDE), operating voltage, and response times are most important performance characteristics of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLC). Two types of triallyl isocyanurate (TI) having different structures were incorporated into the conventional transmission grating of HPDLC. Premix viscosity decreased by 13-18% with up to 3% TI, beyond which it increased. TI eliminated induction period and augmented initial grating formation rate at all contents. Saturation RDE increased over 200% while threshold voltage and rise time decreased to about half and 2/3, respectively up to 3% TI, beyond which the tendencies were reversed. Among the two TIs, low viscosity monomer (TA) showed high RDE, while high miscibility monomer (TE) low characteristic voltages and short response times. It is concluded that grating formation is largely favored by low viscosity, while interface tensions and electro-optical performances by miscibility at similar viscosities.

  14. Electro-optical properties of zigzag and armchair boron nitride nanotubes under a transverse electric field: Tight binding calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2012-02-01

    The electro-optical properties of zigzag and armchair BNNTs in a uniform transverse electric field are investigated within tight binding approximation. It is found that the electric field modifies the band structure and splits band degeneracy where these effects reflect in the DOS and JDOS spectra. A decrease in the band gap, as a function of the electric field, is observed. This gap reduction increases with the diameter and it is independent of chirality. An analytic function to estimate the electric field needed for band gap closing is proposed which is in good agreement with DFT results. In additional, we show that the larger diameter tubes are more sensitive than small ones. Number and position of peaks in DOS and JDOS spectra for armchair and zigzag tubes with similar radius are dependent on electric field strength.

  15. Investigation of electro-optical properties for electrochemical luminescence device with a new electrode structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Jung-Woo; Pooyodying, Pattarapon; Anuntahirunrat, Jirapat; Sung, Youl-Moon

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate electrochemical luminescent (ECL) device with a new structure and the ECL cell device with proposed electrode configuration works reliably at AC voltage. In particular, the conventional ECL cell has counter electrodes in which a cathode and an anode are opposed to each other, whereas the proposed structure has parallel electrodes in which a cathode and an anode are arranged on a single substrate. The proposed electrode configuration has a structural feature that electric short-circuiting is less likely to occur during bending than the conventional electrode configuration. The electro-optical characteristics of the new electrode configuration such as the current density, the light emission intensity, and the time evolution of the emission are investigated. The proposed ECL device exhibited higher light emitting efficiency than the conventional structure. Especially, at AC operation mode, the new structure showed the distinctive luminescence characteristic which is combined the first luminescence near the surface of electrode with the delayed second luminescence near the center of between electrodes. It was closely related to the behavior of luminescent particles. The proposed the ECL cell structure is expected to be utilized as a flexible display device by taking advantage of its characteristics and practicality.

  16. Highly stable and low loss electro-optic polymer waveguides for high speed microring modulators using photodefinition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A.; Faccini, M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David; Leinse, Arne; Sidorin, Y.; Waechter, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Different electro-optic polymer systems are analyzed with respect to their electro-optic activity, glass transition temperature (Tg) and photodefinable properties. The polymers tested are polysulfone (PS) and SU8. The electro-optic chromophore, tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA), which

  17. Electro-Optical and Electrochemical Properties of a Conjugated Polymer Prepared by the Cyclopolymerization of Diethyl Dipropargylmalonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Soon Gal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The electro-optical and electrochemical properties of poly(diethyl dipropargylmalonate were measured and discussed. Poly(diethyl dipropargylmalonate prepared by (NBDPdCl2 catalyst was used for study. The chemical structure of poly(diethyl dipropargylmalonate was characterized by such instrumental methods as NMR (1H-, 13C-, IR, and UV-visible spectroscopies to have the conjugated cyclopolymer backbone system. The microstructure analysis of polymer revealed that this polymer have the six-membered ring moieties majorly. The photoluminescence peak of polymer was observed at 543 nm, which is corresponded to the photon energy of 2.51 eV. The cyclovoltamograms of the polymer exhibited the irreversible electrochemical behaviors between the doping and undoping peaks. It was found that the kinetics of the redox process of this conjugated cyclopolymer might be controlled by the diffusion-control process from the experiment of the oxidation current density of polymer versus the scan rate.

  18. Electro-optical properties of a polymer light-emitting diode with an injection-limited hole contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, T; Blom, PWM; Huiberts, JN

    2003-01-01

    The electro-optical characteristics of a polymer light-emitting diode with a strongly reduced hole injection have been investigated. A silver contact on poly-dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene decreases the hole injection by five orders of magnitude, resulting in both a highly reduced light output and

  19. Electro-optic and thermo-optic and properties of phase separated polymer dispersed liquid crystal films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malik, P.; Bubnov, Alexej M.; Raina, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 494, č. 12 (2008), s. 242-251 ISSN 1542-1406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : polymer dispersed liquid crystals * electro-optics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.537, year: 2008

  20. Electro-optical and physic-mechanical properties of colored alicyclic polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, V.; Umerzakova, M.; Korobova, N.; Timoshenkov, S.; Timoshenkov, V.; Orlov, S.; Iskakov, R.; Prikhodko, O.

    2016-09-01

    Main optical, thermal and mechanical properties of new compositions based on alicyclic polyimide and active bright red 6C synthetic dye have been studied. It was shown that the transmission ratio of the new material in the region of 400-900 nm and 2.0 wt.% dye concentration was around 60-70%. Thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of new colored compositions were comparable with the properties of original polyimide.

  1. Analytic Study of Optical, Electro-optical and Magnetooptical Properties of Cabon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarifi, Abbas

    Multi-wall and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNs) have attracted considerable amount of attention in nanoscience due to their unique physical properties and great potential for nanotechnology applications. The SWCNs are more fundamental and had been the basis for a large body of theoretical...

  2. Electro-optic and dielectric properties of new binary ferroelectric and antiferroelectric liquid crystalline mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fitas, J.; Marzec, M.; Kurp, K.; Żurowska, M.; Tykarska, M.; Bubnov, Alexej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 9 (2017), s. 1468-1476 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA ČR GA15-02843S Grant - others:EU - ICT(XE) COST Action IC1208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * ferroelectric and antiferroelectric phase * binary mixture * dielectric spectroscopy * switching time * tilt angle Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 2.661, year: 2016

  3. Structural and electro-optical properties of bilayer graphyne like BN sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2016-12-01

    The structural, electronic and optical properties of bilayer graphyne like BN sheet (BNyne) with different stacking manners have been explored by the first-principles calculations. The stabilities of α-BNyne bilayers with different stacking manners are compared. The α-BNyne Bilayers have wide band gaps. Compared to the single α-BNyne, the numbers of energy bands are doubled due to the interlayer interactions and the band gap is reduced. The AB-I configuration has a direct band gap while the band gap becomes indirect for AA-II. The calculated ε2 (ω) of bilayer α-BNyne for (Eǁx) is similar to that of the monolayer α-BNyne, except for the small changes of peak positions and increasing of peak intensities. For (Eǁz), the first absorption peak occures at 3.86 eV, and the prominant peak of monolayer at 9.17 eV becomes broadened. These changes are related to the new transitions resulting from the band splitting.

  4. Optical and electro-optic anisotropy of epitaxial PZT thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minmin; Du, Zehui; Jing, Lin; Yoong Tok, Alfred Iing; Tong Teo, Edwin Hang

    2015-07-01

    Strong optical and electro-optic (EO) anisotropy has been investigated in ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.48Ti0.52)O3 thin films epitaxially grown on Nb-SrTiO3 (001), (011), and (111) substrates using magnetron sputtering. The refractive index, electro-optic, and ferroelectric properties of the samples demonstrate the significant dependence on the growth orientation. The linear electro-optic coefficients of the (001), (011), and (111)-oriented PZT thin films were 270.8, 198.8, and 125.7 pm/V, respectively. Such remarkable anisotropic EO behaviors have been explained according to the structure correlation between the orientation dependent distribution, spontaneous polarization, epitaxial strain, and domain pattern.

  5. Synthesis, structural, electronic and linear electro-optical features of new quaternary Ag{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SiS{sub 6} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, M., E-mail: m.piasecki@ajd.czest.pl [Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42-201 Czestochowa (Poland); Myronchuk, G.L. [Department of Solid State Physics, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Ave., Lutsk 43025 (Ukraine); Parasyuk, O.V. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Ave., Lutsk 43025 (Ukraine); Khyzhun, O.Y. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky St., Kyiv 03142 (Ukraine); Fedorchuk, A.O. [Department of Inorganic and Organic Chemistry, Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnologies, 50 Pekarska Street, Lviv 79010 (Ukraine); Pavlyuk, V.V. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 6 Kyryla and Mefodiya St., 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Institute of Chemistry, Environment Protection and Biotechnology, Jan Dlugosz University, al. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Kozer, V.R.; Sachanyuk, V.P. [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, 13 Voli Ave., Lutsk 43025 (Ukraine); El-Naggar, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abassia, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); Research Chair of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Applications in Saudi Arabia, Physics & Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Albassam, A.A. [Research Chair of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Applications in Saudi Arabia, Physics & Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Jedryka, J.; Kityk, I.V. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University Technology, Armii Krajowej 17, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    For the first time phase equilibria and phase diagram of the AgGaS{sub 2}–SiS{sub 2} system were successfully explored by differential thermal and X-ray phase analysis methods. Crystal structure of low-temperature (LT) modification of Ag{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SiS{sub 6} (LРў- Ag{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SiS{sub 6}) was studied by X-ray powder method and it belongs to tetragonal space group I-42d, with unit cell parameters a=5.7164(4) Å, c=9.8023(7) Å, V=320.32(7) Å{sup 3}. Additional details regarding the crystal structure exploration are available at the web page Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe. X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra were measured for pristine LРў- Ag{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SiS{sub 6} crystal surface. In addition, the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of LРў-Ag{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SiS{sub 6} was matched on a common energy scale with the X-ray emission S Kβ{sub 1,3} and Ga Kβ{sub 2} bands, which give information on the energy distribution of the S 3p and Ga 4p states, respectively. The presented X-ray spectroscopy results indicate that the valence S p and Ga p atomic states contribute mainly to the upper and central parts of the valence band of LРў-Ag{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SiS{sub 6}, respectively, with a less significant contribution also to other valence-band regions. Band gap energy was estimated by measuring the quantum energy in the spectral range of the fundamental absorption. We have found that energy gap Eg is equal to 2.35 eV at 300 K. LT-Ag{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SiS{sub 6} is a photosensitive material and reveals two spectral maxima on the curve of spectral photoconductivity spectra at λ{sub max1} =590 nm and λ{sub max2} =860 nm. Additionally, linear electro-optical effect of LT-Ag{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SiS{sub 6} for the wavelengths of a cw He-Ne laser at 1150 nm was explored. - Graphical abstract: Manuscript present the technology of growth and investigation of properties a new quaternary compound Ag{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}SiS{sub 6

  6. Influence of crystal phases on electro-optic properties of epitaxially grown lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shin; Seki, Atsushi; Masuda, Yoichiro

    2010-02-01

    We describe here how we have improved the crystal qualities and controlled the crystal phase of the lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) film without changing the composition ratio using an oxygen-pressure crystallization process. A PLZT film deposited on a SrTiO3 substrate with the largest electro-optic (EO) coefficient of 498 pm/V has been achieved by controlling the crystal phase of the film. Additionally, a fatigue-free lead zirconate titanate (PZT) capacitor with platinum electrodes has been realized by reducing the oxygen vacancies in the films.

  7. Hydrogen bonding intermolecular effect on electro-optical response of doped 6PCH nematic liquid crystal with some azo dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, S.; Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Tajalli, H.

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies on the electro-optical responses of dye-doped liquid crystal have shown that dopant material have a considerable effect on their electro-optical responses. Despite the studies carried out on electro-optical properties of dye-doped liquid crystal, no attention has been paid to study of the interaction and structural effects in this procedure. In this paper, linear dyes and with similar structure were selected as dopants. The only difference in used dyes is the functional groups in their tails. So, doping of these dyes into liquid crystals determines the influence of interaction type on electro-optical behaviours of the doped systems. Therefore, in this work, two aminoazobenzene (;A-dye;: hydrogen bond donor) and dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (;B-dye;) dyes with different compositional percentages in liquid crystal host were used. Electro-optical Kerr behaviour, the pre-transition temperature and third order nonlinear susceptibility were investigated. The obtained results effectively revealed that type of interactions between the dye and liquid crystal is determinative of behavioral difference of doped system, compared to pure liquid crystal. Also, pre-transitional behaviour and thereupon Kerr electro-optical responses were affected by formed interactions into doped systems. In other words, it will be shown that addition of any dopants in liquid crystal, regardless of the nature of interactions, cannot cause appropriate electro-optical responses. In fact, type of dye, nature of interactions between dopant and liquid crystalline host as well as concentration of dye are the key factors in selecting the appropriate liquid crystal and dopant dye.

  8. Synthesis, structural, electronic and linear electro-optical features of new quaternary Ag2Ga2SiS6 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, M.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Pavlyuk, V. V.; Kozer, V. R.; Sachanyuk, V. P.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Albassam, A. A.; Jedryka, J.; Kityk, I. V.

    2017-02-01

    For the first time phase equilibria and phase diagram of the AgGaS2-SiS2 system were successfully explored by differential thermal and X-ray phase analysis methods. Crystal structure of low-temperature (LT) modification of Ag2Ga2SiS6 (LT- Ag2Ga2SiS6) was studied by X-ray powder method and it belongs to tetragonal space group I-42d, with unit cell parameters a=5.7164(4) Å, c=9.8023(7) Å, V=320.32(7) Å3. Additional details regarding the crystal structure exploration are available at the web page Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe. X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra were measured for pristine LT- Ag2Ga2SiS6 crystal surface. In addition, the X-ray photoelectron valence-band spectrum of LT-Ag2Ga2SiS6 was matched on a common energy scale with the X-ray emission S Kβ1,3 and Ga Kβ2 bands, which give information on the energy distribution of the S 3p and Ga 4p states, respectively. The presented X-ray spectroscopy results indicate that the valence S p and Ga p atomic states contribute mainly to the upper and central parts of the valence band of LT-Ag2Ga2SiS6, respectively, with a less significant contribution also to other valence-band regions. Band gap energy was estimated by measuring the quantum energy in the spectral range of the fundamental absorption. We have found that energy gap Eg is equal to 2.35 eV at 300 K. LT-Ag2Ga2SiS6 is a photosensitive material and reveals two spectral maxima on the curve of spectral photoconductivity spectra at λmax1 =590 nm and λmax2 =860 nm. Additionally, linear electro-optical effect of LT-Ag2Ga2SiS6 for the wavelengths of a cw He-Ne laser at 1150 nm was explored.

  9. Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Kosc, T.Z.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Physics, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Beuhler, A.J.; Wargowski, D.A. [Amoco Research Center, Amoco Chemical Co., Naperville, Illinois 60566 (United States); Cahill, P.A.; Seager, C.H.; Meinhardt, M.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Division 1811, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1407 (United States); Ermer, S. [Lockheed Research and Development Division, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    1995-11-15

    We report studies of the optical and electro-optic properties of guest--host polymeric nonlinear optical materials based on aromatic, fluorinated, fully imidized, organic soluble, thermally, and photochemically crosslinkable, guest--host polyimides. We have introduced temperature stable nonlinear optical chromophores into these polyimides and studied optical losses, electric field poling, electro-optic properties, and orientational stability. We measured electro-optic coefficients of 5.5 and 12.0 pm/V for ((2,6-Bis(2-(3-(9-(ethyl)carbazolyl))ethenyl)4H-pyran-4-ylidene)propanedinitrile) (4-(Dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p -dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran) DCM-doped guest--host systems at 800 nm using a poling field of 1.3 MV/cm. Poling induced nonlinearities in single-layer films were in agreement with the oriented gas model, but were lower in three-layer films due to voltage division across the layers. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Barium Titanate Photonic Crystal Electro-Optic Modulators for Telecommunication and Data Network Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girouard, Peter D.

    The microwave, optical, and electro-optic properties of epitaxial barium titanate thin films grown on (100) MgO substrates and photonic crystal electro-optic modulators fabricated on these films were investigated to demonstrate the applicability of these devices for telecommunication and data networks. The electrical and electro-optical properties were characterized up to modulation frequencies of 50 GHz, and the optical properties of photonic crystal waveguides were determined for wavelengths spanning the optical C band between 1500 and 1580 nm. Microwave scattering parameters were measured on coplanar stripline devices with electrode gap spacings between 5 and 12 mum on barium titanate films with thicknesses between 230 and 680 nm. The microwave index and device characteristic impedance were obtained from the measurements. Larger (lower) microwave indices (impedances) were obtained for devices with narrower electrode gap spacings and on thicker films. Thinner film devices have both lower index mismatch between the co-propagating microwave and optical signals and lower impedance mismatch to a 50O system, resulting in a larger predicted electro-optical 3 dB bandwidth. This was experimentally verified with electro-optical frequency response measurements. These observations were applied to demonstrate a record high 28 GHz electro-optic bandwidth measured for a BaTiO3 conventional ridge waveguide modulator having 1mm long electrodes and 12 mum gap spacing on a 260nm thick film. The half-wave voltage and electro-optic coefficients of barium titanate modulators were measured for films having thicknesses between 260 and 500 nm. The half-wave voltage was directly measured at low frequencies using a polarizer-sample-compensator-analyzer setup by over-driving waveguide integrated modulators beyond their linear response regime. Effective in-device electro-optic coefficients were obtained from the measured half-wave voltages. The effective electro-optic coefficients were

  11. Electro-optic diffraction grating tuned laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    An electro-optic diffraction grating tuned laser comprising a laser medium, output mirror, retro-reflective grating and an electro-optic diffraction grating beam deflector positioned between the laser medium and the reflective diffraction grating is described. An optional angle multiplier may be used between the electro-optic diffraction grating and the reflective grating. (auth)

  12. Mechanical control of the electro-optical properties of monolayer and bilayer BC3 by applying the in-plane biaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a new two-dimensional (2D) material, the 2D BC3 crystal, has been synthesized. Here, the mechanical control of the electro-optical properties of monolayer and bilayer BC3 by applying the biaxial strain is investigated. The electronic structure calculations showed that the strain-free monolayer and bilayer BC3 are indirect band-gap semiconductors with band gap of 0.62 and 0.29 eV, respectively, where the conduction band minimum (CBM) is at the M point whereas the valence band maximum (VBM) is at the Γ point. The doubly degenerated bands in the monolayer BC3 are splitted in the bilayer BC3 due to the interlayer interactions. Both monolayer and bilayer BC3 remain indirect gap semiconductor under biaxial tensile strain and their band gaps increases with strain. On the other hand, by increasing the magnitude of tensile strain, the optical spectra shift to the lower energies and the static dielectric constant increases. These findings suggest the potential of strain-engineered 2D BC3 in electronic and optoelectronic device applications.

  13. Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Borel, Peter Ingo

    2006-01-01

    For decades, silicon has been the material of choice for mass fabrication of electronics. This is in contrast to photonics, where passive optical components in silicon have only recently been realized1, 2. The slow progress within silicon optoelectronics, where electronic and optical...... functionalities can be integrated into monolithic components based on the versatile silicon platform, is due to the limited active optical properties of silicon3. Recently, however, a continuous-wave Raman silicon laser was demonstrated4; if an effective modulator could also be realized in silicon, data...... processing and transmission could potentially be performed by all-silicon electronic and optical components. Here we have discovered that a significant linear electro-optic effect is induced in silicon by breaking the crystal symmetry. The symmetry is broken by depositing a straining layer on top...

  14. Effects of CdCl2 treatment on the recrystallization and electro-optical properties of CdTe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, H.R.; Al-Jassim, M.M.; Levi, D.H.; Dippo, P.C.; Kazmerski, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of CdCl 2 processing on the physical and electro-optical properties of CdTe were evaluated for thin films produced by physical vapor deposition and close-spaced sublimation (CSS). Two substrates (CdS and Indium - tin - oxide) were used with the physical vapor deposition (PVD) films specifically to isolate the effects of the Cd(S x Te 1-x ) alloy formed during the treatment of films deposited on CdS. The samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and photoluminescence. The observed changes in microstructure were caused by recrystallization, which consisted of the nucleation and development of a new CdTe structure and subsequent grain growth. Nevertheless, for these processes to take place, it was necessary that enough lattice-strain energy was available in the films. For this reason, PVD films did recrystallize, while CSS films did not. For the first time, recrystallization was observed directly in AFM images of CdTe films and confirmed by XRD analysis, which indicated the existence of two lattice parameters in PVD samples treated at 350 degree C. For samples treated at 400 degree C, the CdCl 2 treatment improved the minority-carrier lifetime of the films by more than one order of magnitude. This improvement was attributed to the elimination of deep defect levels within the band gap of the CdTe films as a result of the treatment. The sulfur diffusion into CdTe films deposited on CdS, during the CdCl 2 treatment at 400 degree C, strongly affected the defect structure

  15. Rational design of organic electro-optic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dalton, L R

    2003-01-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations are used to optimize the molecular first hyperpolarizability of organic chromophores and statistical mechanical calculations are used to optimize the translation of molecular hyperpolarizability to macroscopic electro-optic activity (to values of greater than 100 pm V sup - sup 1 at telecommunications wavelengths). Macroscopic material architectures are implemented exploiting new concepts in nanoscale architectural engineering. Multi-chromophore-containing dendrimers and dendronized polymers not only permit optimization of electro-optic activity but also of auxiliary properties including optical loss (both absorption and scattering), thermal and photochemical stability and processability. New reactive ion etching and photolithographic techniques permit the fabrication of three-dimensional optical circuitry and the integration of that circuitry with semiconductor very-large-scale integration electronics and silica fibre optics. Electro-optic devices have been fabricated exploiti...

  16. Role of annealing temperature on microstructural and electro-optical properties of ITO films produced by sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Abdulkadir; Gulen, Mahir; Yildirim, Gurcan; Ozturk, Ozgur; Varilci, Ahmet; Terzioglu, Cabir; Belenli, Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of annealing temperature on electrical, optical and microstructural properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited onto Soda lime glass substrates by conventional direct current (DC) magnetron reactive sputtering technique at 100 watt using an ITO ceramic target (In2O3:SnO2, 90:10 wt. %) in argon atmosphere at room temperature. The films obtained are exposed to the calcination process at different temperature up to 700 ° C. Resistivity, Hall Effect, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), ultra violet-visible spectrometer (UV-vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements are performed to characterize the samples. Moreover, phase purity, surface morphology, optical and photocatalytic properties of the films are compared with each other. Furthermore, mobility, carrier density and conductivity characteristics of the samples prepared are carried out as function of temperature in the range of 80-300 K at the magnetic field of 0.550 T. The results obtained show that all the properties depend strongly on the annealing temperature and in fact the film annealed at 400 ° C obtains the better optical properties due to the high refractive index while the film produced at 100 °C exhibits much better photoactivity than the other films as a result of the large optical energy band gap.

  17. Nickel oxide films by thermal annealing of ion-beam-sputtered Ni: Structure and electro-optical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Remeš, Zdeněk; Bejšovec, Václav; Vacík, Jiří; Daniš, S.; Kormunda, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 640, č. 10 (2017), s. 52-59 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : NiO * ion beam sputtering * thermal annealing * nuclear analytical methods * optical properties Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Coating and films; Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  18. Electro-optical tunable birefringent filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinton, Fred M [Princeton, NJ

    2012-01-31

    An electrically tunable Lyot type filter is a Lyot that include one or more filter elements. Each filter element may have a planar, solid crystal comprised of a material that exhibits birefringence and is electro-optically active. Transparent electrodes may be coated on each face of the crystal. An input linear light polarizer may be located on one side of the crystal and oriented at 45 degrees to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal. An output linear light polarizer may be located on the other side of the crystal and oriented at -45 degrees with respect to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal. When an electric voltage is applied between the electrodes, the retardation of the crystal changes and so does the spectral transmission of the optical filter.

  19. Missile Electro-Optical Countermeasures Simulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory comprises several hardware-in-the-loop missile flight simulations designed specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of electro-optical air defense...

  20. Electro-Optics/Low Observables Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electro-Optics/Low Observables Laboratory supports graduate instruction for students enrolled in the Low Observables program. Its purpose is to introduce these...

  1. Electro-optical properties of poly[di(2-thiophenyl)carborane] and its opto-electronic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansu-Ergun, Emine Gul; Cihaner, Atilla

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical and optical properties of a hybrid carborane based polymer called poly(di(2-thiophenyl)carborane) (P1) obtained electrochemically were reported as well as its electrochromic device application. Thiophene donor units and m-carborane acceptor unit were combined under the same umbrella via donor–acceptor–donor approach to obtain di(2-thiophenyl)carborane (1). Contrary to the literature, extreme conditions like highly dried solvent or inert atmosphere were not used for polymerization and characterization. Polymer P1 has an ambipolar character since it exhibited a reversible oxidation peak at a half wave potential (E 1/2 ) of 1.08 V and a quasi reversible reduction peak at E 1/2 = −1.82 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The polymer film has an optical band gap of 1.95 eV with a maximum absorption band centered at 488 nm. Also, it exhibited multicolor electrochromic behavior between its reduced and oxidized states changing from dark orange to light blue. Furthermore, the electrochromic device prepared based on P1 film was stable and robust. - Highlights: • Electrochromic properties of a carborane based conjugated polymer were reported. • The polymer exhibited an ambipolar character and multicolor behaviors. • It is the first electrochromic device based on a carborane unit

  2. Structure-dependent tuning of electro-optic and thermoplastic properties in triphenyl groups containing molecular glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traskovskis, Kaspars, E-mail: kaspars.traskovskis@rtu.lv [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, 3/7 Paula Valdena Street, Riga LV-1048 (Latvia); Zarins, Elmars; Laipniece, Lauma [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, 3/7 Paula Valdena Street, Riga LV-1048 (Latvia); Tokmakovs, Andrejs [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia); Kokars, Valdis [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, 3/7 Paula Valdena Street, Riga LV-1048 (Latvia); Rutkis, Martins [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga LV-1063 (Latvia)

    2015-04-01

    The series of seven molecular compounds composed of D–π–A chromophores and triphenylmethyl auxiliary groups were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and quantum chemical calculations. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of compounds were determined by second harmonic generation measurements in corona poled thin glassy films. The results show that triphenylmethyl auxiliary groups are effective at shielding undesirable dipole interactions in solid phase thus increasing NLO efficiency of materials. Thermal stability up to 108 °C was achieved for a polar order in poled samples. - Highlights: • Triphenylmethyl groups can be used to reduce solid phase dipole interactions in organic molecular materials. • NLO efficiency of a poled material is higher, if a number of present triphenyl groups increases. • NLO efficiency of materials decreases, if polarity of used chromophores increases. • Thermal stability of polar order up to 108 °C can be achieved in poled organic glasses.

  3. Proposal for electro-optic multiplier based on dual transverse electro-optic Kerr effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng

    2008-10-20

    A novel electro-optic multiplier is proposed, which can perform voltage multiplication operation by use of the Kerr medium exhibiting dual transverse electro-optic Kerr effect. In this kind of Kerr medium, electro-optic phase retardation is proportional to the square of its applied electric field, and orientations of the field-induced birefringent axes are only related to the direction of the field. Based on this effect, we can design an electro-optic multiplier by selecting the crystals of 6/mmm, 432, and m3m classes and isotropic Kerr media such as glass. Simple calculation demonstrates that a kind of glass-ceramic material with a large Kerr constant can be used for the design of the proposed electro-optic multiplier.

  4. Magneto-optic and electro-optic modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Price, T.R.; Staats, P.A.; Sluis, K.L.V.

    1982-01-01

    An important aspect of the Faraday rotation diagnostic for tokamak plasma measurement has been the development of suitable polarization modulators for submillimeter wavelength. The problems are to obtain high optical transmission and fast modulation frequencies. In ORNL, the authors have developed both a magneto-optic and an electro-optic submillimeter-wave modulators. These devices have been operated at modulation frequency of approximately 100 kHz, and both have high transmission. The original magneto-optic modulator consists of a 3 mm thick by 1.4 cm diameter 2-111 ferrite disk mounted at the center of an air core coil. Recently, a new ferrite modulator has been tested, which allows a much higher modulation frequency than the original device. A laboratory set-up designed to simulate a plasma heterodyne interferometer/polarimeter experiment has been used to determine the modulator characteristics. A mechanical polarization rotor was used to simulate the rotation by plasma. The transmission of the ferrite disk was 80 % at a wavelength of 0.447 mm. The authors have also performed preliminary measurement on an electro-optic modulator first demonstrated by Fetterman at Lincoln Laboratory, U.S. This device is a classical electro-optic modulator using a cryogenically cooled (4.2 K) LiTaO 3 crystal. Experiments are underway to determine the electro-optic properties of the crystal over the temperature range from 4.2 K to 77 K and over the range of wavelength from 0.118 mm to 0.447 mm. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Rational design of organic electro-optic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, L R

    2003-01-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations are used to optimize the molecular first hyperpolarizability of organic chromophores and statistical mechanical calculations are used to optimize the translation of molecular hyperpolarizability to macroscopic electro-optic activity (to values of greater than 100 pm V -1 at telecommunications wavelengths). Macroscopic material architectures are implemented exploiting new concepts in nanoscale architectural engineering. Multi-chromophore-containing dendrimers and dendronized polymers not only permit optimization of electro-optic activity but also of auxiliary properties including optical loss (both absorption and scattering), thermal and photochemical stability and processability. New reactive ion etching and photolithographic techniques permit the fabrication of three-dimensional optical circuitry and the integration of that circuitry with semiconductor very-large-scale integration electronics and silica fibre optics. Electro-optic devices have been fabricated exploiting stripline, cascaded prism and microresonator device structures. Sub-1 V drive voltages and operational bandwidths of greater than 100 GHz have been demonstrated. Both single-and double-ring microresonators have been fabricated for applications such as active wavelength division multiplexing. Free spectral range values of 1 THz and per channel modulation bandwidths of 15 GHz have been realized permitting single-chip data rates of 500 Gb s -1 . Other demonstrated devices include phased array radar, optical gyroscopes, acoustic spectrum analysers, ultrafast analog/digital converters and ultrahigh bandwidth signal generators. (topical review)

  6. Electro-optically actuated liquid-lens zoom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütsch, O.; Loosen, P.

    2012-06-01

    Progressive miniaturization and mass market orientation denote a challenge to the design of dynamic optical systems such as zoom-lenses. Two working principles can be identified: mechanical actuation and application of active optical components. Mechanical actuation changes the focal length of a zoom-lens system by varying the axial positions of optical elements. These systems are limited in speed and often require complex coupled movements. However, well established optical design approaches can be applied. In contrast, active optical components change their optical properties by varying their physical structure by means of applying external electric signals. An example are liquidlenses which vary their curvatures to change the refractive power. Zoom-lenses benefit from active optical components in two ways: first, no moveable structures are required and second, fast response characteristics can be realized. The precommercial development of zoom-lenses demands simplified and cost-effective system designs. However the number of efficient optical designs for electro-optically actuated zoom-lenses is limited. In this paper, the systematic development of an electro-optically actuated zoom-lens will be discussed. The application of aberration polynomials enables a better comprehension of the primary monochromatic aberrations at the lens elements during a change in magnification. This enables an enhanced synthesis of the system behavior and leads to a simplified zoom-lens design with no moving elements. The change of focal length is achieved only by varying curvatures of targeted integrated electro-optically actuated lenses.

  7. Electro-optical Detection of Charged Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The electric field of charged particles can induce transient changes in the polarization of light that produce sub-picosecond modulation of a laser beam. This is a consequence of the electro-optical effect in which the presence of the electric field in an electro-optical medium produces a change in the index of refraction of the medium resulting in a phase retardation between polarization components parallel and perpendicular to the electric field. We have observed the electro-optical effect due to 10 picosecond electron beam bunches with rise times that were limited by the bandwidth of our data acquisition system. This technology is being applied to particle beam diagnostics and has the potential to produce charged particle detectors combining excellent spatial resolution with unprecedented temporal precision.

  8. Fabrication of an electro optic polymer ringresonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinse, Arne; Driessen, A.; Diemeer, Mart; de Ridder, R.M.; de Ridder, R.M; Altena, G.; Altena, G; Geuzebroek, D.H.; Dekker, R; Dekker, R.

    2003-01-01

    A ringresonator made of an electro optic (EO) polymer was designed, realized and characterized. The ring was made of a 4-dimethylamino-4-nitrostilbene (DANS) containing polymer and used in a vertical coupling with the waveguides. The waveguides were made of the photo-definable SU8, preventing an

  9. Development of two U.H.F. band resonators for application to CO2 laser electro-optical modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.G.; Blanc, P.; Sexton, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the design and testing of two U.H.F. band resonators destined for use in the linear electro-optical modulator of the CO 2 Laser Rapid Interferometer diagnostic at present under development for the WEGA Tokamak. The resonators take the form of a re-entrant coaxial line cavity and an interdigital line filter, both of which possess the regions of high electric field necessary to activate the linear electro-optical effect

  10. Theory-Guided Design of Organic Electro-Optic Materials and Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Benight

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrated (multi-scale quantum and statistical mechanical theoretical methods have guided the nano-engineering of controlled intermolecular electrostatic interactions for the dramatic improvement of acentric order and thus electro-optic activity of melt-processable organic polymer and dendrimer electro-optic materials. New measurement techniques have permitted quantitative determination of the molecular order parameters, lattice dimensionality, and nanoscale viscoelasticity properties of these new soft matter materials and have facilitated comparison of theoretically-predicted structures and thermodynamic properties with experimentally-defined structures and properties. New processing protocols have permitted further enhancement of material properties and have facilitated the fabrication of complex device structures. The integration of organic electro-optic materials into silicon photonic, plasmonic, and metamaterial device architectures has led to impressive new performance metrics for a variety of technological applications.

  11. Electro-optical rendezvous and docking sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, David J.; Kesler, Lynn O.; Sirko, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Electro-optical sensors provide unique and critical functionality for space missions requiring rendezvous, docking, and berthing. McDonnell Douglas is developing a complete rendezvous and docking system for both manned and unmanned missions. This paper examines our sensor development and the systems and missions which benefit from rendezvous and docking sensors. Simulation results quantifying system performance improvements in key areas are given, with associated sensor performance requirements. A brief review of NASA-funded development activities and the current performance of electro-optical sensors for space applications is given. We will also describe current activities at McDonnell Douglas for a fully functional demonstration to address specific NASA mission needs.

  12. Applications of quantum electro-optic control and squeezed light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The control theory of electronic feedback or feedforward is a topic well understood by many scientists and engineers. With many of the modern equipment relying on automation and robotics, an understanding of this classical control theory is a common requisite for many technologists. In the field of optics, electronic control theory is also commonly used in many situations. From the temperature controlling of laser systems, the auto-alignment of optical elements, to the locking of optical resonators, all make use of electronic control theory in their operations. In this talk, we present the use the control theory in the context of quantum optics. In much the same as its classical counterpart, the 'quantum electro-optic' control loop consists simply of an optical beam splitter, a detector and an electro-optic modulator. This simple system, however, can offer many interesting applications when used in combination with nonclassical states of light. One well-known example of non-classical light is that of the squeezed state of light. A light beam is referred to as being amplitude 'squeezed' when its amplitude has less noise when compared to that of a coherent light state. In fact, the field fluctuation of such light states in some sense lower that the field fluctuation of the photonic vacuum state. Yet another interesting non-classical light state is the so-called 'Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen' entangled pair. This consists of two beams of light, each of which has properties that are highly dependent on each other. Using both the quantum electro-optic control loops and these light states, we demonstrate schemes which allow us to perform noiseless optical amplification, quantum non-demolition measurement and quantum teleportation. These schemes may be important building blocks to the realisation of future quantum communications and quantum information networks

  13. Hybrid electro-optics and chipscale integration of electronics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, L. R.; Robinson, B. H.; Elder, D. L.; Tillack, A. F.; Johnson, L. E.

    2017-08-01

    Taken together, theory-guided nano-engineering of organic electro-optic materials and hybrid device architectures have permitted dramatic improvement of the performance of electro-optic devices. For example, the voltage-length product has been improved by nearly a factor of 104 , bandwidths have been extended to nearly 200 GHz, device footprints reduced to less than 200 μm2 , and femtojoule energy efficiency achieved. This presentation discusses the utilization of new coarse-grained theoretical methods and advanced quantum mechanical methods to quantitatively simulate the physical properties of new classes of organic electro-optic materials and to evaluate their performance in nanoscopic device architectures, accounting for the effect on chromophore ordering at interfaces in nanoscopic waveguides.

  14. Highly stable and low loss electro-optic polymer waveguides for high speed microring modulators using photodefinition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, M. B. J.; Driessen, A.; Faccini, M.; Verboom, W.; Reinhoudt, D. N.; Leinse, A.

    2006-02-01

    Different electro-optic polymer systems are analyzed with respect to their electro-optic activity, glass transition temperature (T g) and photodefinable properties. The polymers tested are polysulfone (PS) and SU8. The electro-optic chromophore, tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA), which was reported to have a high photochemical stability 1 has been employed in the current work. Tert-butyl-TCVDPA, having bulky side groups, was synthesized and a doubling of the electro-optic coefficient (r33) compared to the unmodified TCVDPA was shown. A microring resonator design was made based on the PS-TCVDPA system. SU8 (passive) and TCVDPA (active) channel waveguides were fabricated by the photodefinition technique and the passive waveguide losses were measured to be 5 dB/cm at 1550 nm.

  15. The structural, electro-optical, charge transport and nonlinear optical properties of oxazole (4Z-4-Benzylidene-2-(4-methylphenyl-1,3-oxazol-5(4H-one derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Irfan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxazole compounds are being used for multifunctional purposes ranging from organic light emitting diodes, organic thin film transistors, and photovoltaic to the nonlinear optical materials. In this study, several structural, electro-optical, charge transport and nonlinear optical properties of (4Z-4-Benzylidene-2-(4-methylphenyl-1,3-oxazol-5(4H-one (BMPO have been investigated. Density functional theory (DFT and time dependent DFT are very accurate and reasonable approaches to optimize the ground and excited state geometries, respectively. Thus, in the present study DFT and TDDFT methods with the B3LYP/6-31G∗∗ levels of theory have been applied to shed some light on the structure-property relationship, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs, optical properties. A clear intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT from the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs has been observed. The ionization potentials (IP, electron affinities (EA, total and partial densities of states have been discussed intensively. The electron reorganization energy of oxazole compound (BMPO is smaller than the hole reorganization energy revealing that it might be good electron transport contender in OLED. The electron reorganization energy of BMPO is calculated to be 0.223 eV that is smaller than the perfluoropentacene (value is 0.250 eV, which is famous n-type semiconductor material. The first pathway of BMPO has almost comparable hole and electron transfer integral values whereas the calculated electron reorganization energy (0.223 eV is considerably lower than the hole reorganization energy (0.381 eV which leads to superior electron intrinsic mobility of the studied oxazole derivative as compared to the hole one. It is expected that BMPO might be excellent electron transport material.

  16. Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System (EDATS) dynamically tracks and measures target signatures. It consists of an instrumentation van integrated...

  17. Lanthanide-Assisted Deposition of Strongly Electro-optic PZT Thin Films on Silicon: Toward Integrated Active Nanophotonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J P; Smet, P F; Botterman, J; Bliznuk, V; Woestenborghs, W; Van Thourhout, D; Neyts, K; Beeckman, J

    2015-06-24

    The electro-optical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films depend strongly on the quality and crystallographic orientation of the thin films. We demonstrate a novel method to grow highly textured PZT thin films on silicon using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) process. We report the use of ultrathin (5-15 nm) lanthanide (La, Pr, Nd, Sm) based intermediate layers for obtaining preferentially (100) oriented PZT thin films. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate preferentially oriented intermediate Ln2O2CO3 layers providing an excellent lattice match with the PZT thin films grown on top. The XRD and scanning electron microscopy measurements reveal that the annealed layers are dense, uniform, crack-free and highly oriented (>99.8%) without apparent defects or secondary phases. The EDX and HRTEM characterization confirm that the template layers act as an efficient diffusion barrier and form a sharp interface between the substrate and the PZT. The electrical measurements indicate a dielectric constant of ∼650, low dielectric loss of ∼0.02, coercive field of 70 kV/cm, remnant polarization of 25 μC/cm(2), and large breakdown electric field of 1000 kV/cm. Finally, the effective electro-optic coefficients of the films are estimated with a spectroscopic ellipsometer measurement, considering the electric field induced variations in the phase reflectance ratio. The electro-optic measurements reveal excellent linear effective pockels coefficients of 110 to 240 pm/V, which makes the CSD deposited PZT thin film an ideal candidate for Si-based active integrated nanophotonic devices.

  18. Electro-optical fuel pin identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.L.

    1978-09-01

    A prototype Electro-Optical Fuel Pin Identification System referred to as the Fuel Pin Identification System (FPIS) has been developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) presently under construction at HEDL. The system is designed to remotely read an alpha-numeric identification number that is roll stamped on the top of the fuel pin end cap. The prototype FPIS consists of four major subassemblies: optical read head, digital compression electronics, video display, and line printer

  19. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semertzidis, Y.K.; Castillo, V.; Kowalski, L.; Kraus, D.E.; Larsen, R.; Lazarus, D.M.; Magurno, B.; Nikas, D.; Ozben, C.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams

  20. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO sub 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  1. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semertzidis, Y.K.; Castillo, V.; Kowalski, L.; Kraus, D.E.; Larsen, R.; Lazarus, D.M. E-mail: lazarus@sun2.bnl.gov; Magurno, B.; Nikas, D.; Ozben, C.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T

    2000-10-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  2. Electro Optic Modulation In a Polymer Ringresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinse, A.; Driessen, A.; Diemeer, M. B. J.

    2004-05-01

    A thermo optic and electro optic (EO) tunable polymer ringresonator was realized and tested. The device consisted of a microring resonator made of the 4-dimethylamino-4‵-nitrostilbene (DANS) containing polymer and measurements were done on the through port of this device. The ring was used in a vertical coupling structure. The port waveguides were made of the photo-definable epoxy (SU8). The rings used had a diameter of 100 μm and thermo optic tuning of about 170 pm/°C was measured. EO modulation was measured for TE polarization.

  3. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  4. Multi-scale theory-assisted nano-engineering of plasmonic-organic hybrid electro-optic device performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Delwin L.; Johnson, Lewis E.; Tillack, Andreas F.; Robinson, Bruce H.; Haffner, Christian; Heni, Wolfgang; Hoessbacher, Claudia; Fedoryshyn, Yuriy; Salamin, Yannick; Baeuerle, Benedikt; Josten, Arne; Ayata, Masafumi; Koch, Ueli; Leuthold, Juerg; Dalton, Larry R.

    2018-02-01

    Multi-scale (correlated quantum and statistical mechanics) modeling methods have been advanced and employed to guide the improvement of organic electro-optic (OEO) materials, including by analyzing electric field poling induced electro-optic activity in nanoscopic plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) waveguide devices. The analysis of in-device electro-optic activity emphasizes the importance of considering both the details of intermolecular interactions within organic electro-optic materials and interactions at interfaces between OEO materials and device architectures. Dramatic improvement in electro-optic device performance-including voltage-length performance, bandwidth, energy efficiency, and lower optical losses have been realized. These improvements are critical to applications in telecommunications, computing, sensor technology, and metrology. Multi-scale modeling methods illustrate the complexity of improving the electro-optic activity of organic materials, including the necessity of considering the trade-off between improving poling-induced acentric order through chromophore modification and the reduction of chromophore number density associated with such modification. Computational simulations also emphasize the importance of developing chromophore modifications that serve multiple purposes including matrix hardening for enhanced thermal and photochemical stability, control of matrix dimensionality, influence on material viscoelasticity, improvement of chromophore molecular hyperpolarizability, control of material dielectric permittivity and index of refraction properties, and control of material conductance. Consideration of new device architectures is critical to the implementation of chipscale integration of electronics and photonics and achieving the high bandwidths for applications such as next generation (e.g., 5G) telecommunications.

  5. Defence electro-optics: European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Jari

    2011-11-01

    In 2009 the United States invested in defence R&T 3,6 times and in defence research and development 6,8 times as much as all member states of the European Defence Agency (EDA) combined while the ratio in the total defence expenditure was 2,6 in the US' favour. The European lack of investments in defence research and development has a negative impact on the competitiveness of European defence industry and on the European non-dependence. In addition, the efficiency of investment is reduced due to duplication of work in different member states. The Lisbon Treaty tasks EDA to support defence technology research, and coordinate and plan joint research activities and the study of technical solutions meeting future operational needs. This paper gives an overview how EDA meets the challenge of improving the efficiency of European defence R&T investment with an emphasis on electro-optics and describes shortly the ways that governmental and industrial partners can participate in the EDA cooperation. Examples of joint R&T projects addressing electro-optics are presented.

  6. Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Tani, M.; Jiang, Zhiping; Zhang, X.-C.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the reciprocal behavior of the optical rectification and the electro-optic effect in a nonlinear optical crystal, an electro-optic transceiver can alternately transmit pulsed electromagnetic radiation (optical rectification) and detect the return signal (electro-optic effect) in the same crystal. However, the optimal condition of the electro-optic transceiver may be very different from that of the spatially separated emitter and receiver. We present a detailed description of the crystal-orientation dependence of the electro-optic terahertz devices (transmitter, receiver, and transceiver). It is found that for a (110) zinc-blende electro-optical crystal, the efficiency of the electro-optic transceiver will be optimized when the angle between the polarization of the optical pump beam and the crystallographic z axis [0,0,1] is 26 degree. Meanwhile, for a (111) crystal, the angle between the optical beam and the crystallographic direction [-1,-1,2] should be 23 degree. The experimental results from a (110) ZnTe transceiver verify theoretical calculations and demonstrate a direct way to optimize the working efficiency of an electro-optic terahertz transceiver. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  7. Future electro-optical sensors and processing in urban operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grönwall, C.; Schwering, P.B.; Rantakokko, J.; Benoist, K.W.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Steinvall, O.; Letalick, D.; Björkert, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the electro-optical sensors and processing in urban operations (ESUO) study we pave the way for the European Defence Agency (EDA) group of Electro-Optics experts (IAP03) for a common understanding of the optimal distribution of processing functions between the different platforms. Combinations of

  8. Electro-optical frequency shifting of lasers for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, P.R.

    1977-07-01

    An electro-optical frequency shifting device is proposed as an aid for plasma physics heterodyne interferometry and heterodyne scattering experiments. The method has the advantage over other electro-optic shifters, that a pure separable frequency shifted beam can be obtained even when less than half wave voltage is applied. (orig.) [de

  9. Electro-Optical Laser Technology. Curriculum Utilization. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawn, John H.

    This report describes a program to prepare students for employment as laser technicians and laser operators and to ensure that they have the necessary skills required by the industry. The objectives are to prepare a curriculum and syllabus for an associate degree program in Electro-Optical Laser Technology. The 2-year Electro-Optical Laser program…

  10. Effects of copper concentration on electro-optical and structural properties of chemically deposited nanosized (Zn-Cd)S:Cu films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, Ayush

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline (Zn-Cd)S films have been co-deposited on glass slide substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique at 70 deg. C for 75 min. Electroluminescent (EL), photoluminescent (PL) and structural characteristics of these films doped with Cu have been investigated. Cu doping has significant effects on the growth, structural and optical properties of the deposited (Zn-Cd)S films. EL studies show the essentiality of copper for EL emission. The effect of Cu concentration is examined on XRD, SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, etc. The morphology of these films investigated with SEM and XRD is used to determine crystalline nature of the films. The optical absorption coefficient of the films has been found to increase with increase in Cu concentration. Voltage and frequency dependence shows the effectiveness of acceleration-collision mechanism. The trap-depth values are calculated from temperature dependence of EL brightness.

  11. Effects of inter-tube coupling on the electro-optical properties of silicon carbide nanotube bundles studied by density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2015-09-01

    The electronic and optical properties of bundled armchair and zigzag silicon carbide nanotubes (SiCNTs) are investigated by using density functional theory. The effects of inter-tube coupling on the electronic dispersions of SiCNT bundles are demonstrated. It was found that the band structure of (6, 0) SiCNT bundle shows metallic feature. The calculated dielectric functions of the armchair and zigzag bundles are similar to that of the isolated tubes, except for the appearance of broadened peaks, small shifts of peak positions about 0.1 eV and increasing of peak intensities. For (6, 0) SiCNT with smaller radius, by considering interband and interaband transitions, the band structure coupling causes an extra peak at low energies.

  12. Comparative study of structural and electro-optical properties of ZnO:Ga films grown by steered cathodic arc plasma evaporation and sputtering on plastic and their application on polymer-based organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chih-Hao, E-mail: dataman888@hotmail.com [R& D Division, Walsin Technology Corporation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hsiao, Yu-Jen [National Nano Device Laboratories, National Applied Research Laboratories, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Weng-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films with various thicknesses (105–490 nm) were deposited on PET substrates at a low temperature of 90 °C by a steered cathodic arc plasma evaporation (steered CAPE), and a GZO film with a thickness of 400 nm was deposited at 90 °C by a magnetron sputtering (MS) for comparison. The comparative analysis of the microstructure, residual stress, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties, chemical states, and doping efficiency of the films produced by the steered CAPE and MS processes was performed, and the effect of thickness on the CAPE-grown GZO films was investigated in detail. The results showed that the GZO films grown by steered CAPE exhibited higher crystallinity and lower internal stress than those deposited by MS. The transmittance and electrical properties were also enhanced for the steered CAPE-grown films. The figure of merit (Φ = T{sup 10}/R{sub s}, where T is the transmittance and R{sub s} is the sheet resistance in Ω/□). was used to evaluate the performance of the electro-optical properties. The GZO films with a thickness of 400 nm deposited by CAPE had the highest Φ value, 1.94 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}, a corresponding average visible transmittance of 88.8% and resistivity of 6.29 × 10{sup −4} Ω·cm. In contrast, the Φ value of MS-deposited GZO film with a thickness of 400 nm is only 1.1 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1}. This can be attributed to the increase in crystalline size, [0001] preferred orientation, decrease in stacking faults density and Ar contamination in steered CAPE-grown films, leading to increases in the Hall mobility and carrier density. In addition, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells was significantly improved by using the CAPE-grown GZO electrode, and the PCE values were 1.2% and 1.7% for the devices with MS-grown and CAPE-grown GZO electrodes, respectively. - Highlights: • ZnO:Ga (GZO) films were grown on PET by steered cathodic arc plasma evaporation (CAPE

  13. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    The slip ring is a rotary electrical interface, collector, swivel or rotary joint. It is a physical system that can perform continuous data transfer and data exchange between a stationary and a rotating structure. A slip ring is generally used to transfer data or power from an unrestrained, continuously rotating electro-mechanical system in real-time, thereby simplifying operations and eliminating damage-prone wires dangling from moving joints. Slip rings are widely used for testing, evaluating, developing and improving various technical equipment and facilities with rotating parts. They are widely used in industry, especially in manufacturing industries employing turbo machinery, as in aviation, shipbuilding, aerospace, defense, and in precise facilities having rotating parts such as medical Computerized Tomography (CT) and MRI scanners and so forth. Therefore, any improvement in slip ring technology can impact large markets. Research and development in this field will have broad prospects long into the future. The goal in developing the current slip ring technology is to improve and increase the reliability, stability, anti-interference, and high data fidelity between rotating and stationary structures. Up to now, there have been numerous approaches used for signal and data transfer utilizing a slip ring such as metal contacts, wires, radio transmission, and even liquid media. However, all suffer from drawbacks such as data transfer speed limitations, reliability, stability, electro-magnetic interference and durability. The purpose of the current research is to break through these basic limitations using an optical solution, thereby improving performance in current slip ring applications. This dissertation introduces a novel Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring technology, which makes "through the air" digital-optical communication between stationary and rotating systems a reality with high data transfer speed, better reliability and low interference susceptibility

  14. Design principles and realization of electro-optical circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschon, Felix; Lamprecht, Tobias; Halter, Markus; Beyer, Stefan; Peterson, Harry

    2013-02-01

    The manufacturing of electro-optical circuit boards (EOCB) is based to a large extent on established technologies. First products with embedded polymer waveguides are currently produced in series. The range of applications within the sensor and data communication markets is growing with the increasing maturity level. EOCBs require design flows, processes and techniques similar to existing printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing and appropriate for optical signal transmission. A key aspect is the precise and automated assembly of active and passive optical components to the optical waveguides which has to be supported by the technology. The design flow is described after a short introduction into the build-up of EOCBs and the motivation for the usage of this technology within the different application fields. Basis for the design of EOCBs are the required optical signal transmission properties. Thereafter, the devices for the electro-optical conversion are chosen and the optical coupling approach is defined. Then, the planar optical elements (waveguides, splitters, couplers) are designed and simulated. This phase already requires co-design of the optical and electrical domain using novel design flows. The actual integration of an optical system into a PCB is shown in the last part. The optical layer is thereby laminated to the purely electrical PCB using a conventional PCB-lamination process to form the EOCB. The precise alignment of the various electrical and optical layers is thereby essential. Electrical vias are then generated, penetrating also the optical layer, to connect the individual electrical layers. Finally, the board has to be tested electrically and optically.

  15. Microwave photonic filters with negative coefficients based on phase inversion in an electro-optic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Pastor, Daniel; Martinez, Alfonso; Ortega, Beatriz; Sales, Salvador

    2003-08-15

    We report on a novel technical approach to the implementation of photonic rf filters that is based on the pi phase inversion that a rf modulating signal suffers in an electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulator, which depends on whether the positive or the negative linear slope of the signal's modulation transfer function is employed. Experimental evidence is provided of the implementation of filters with negative coefficients that shows excellent agreement with results predicted by the theory.

  16. Photodefinable electro-optic polymer for high-speed modulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Faccini, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Verboom, Willem; Driessen, A.; Reinhoudt, David; Leinse, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Direct waveguide definition of a negative photoresist (SU8) containing tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA) as electro-optic (EO) chromophore, has been demonstrated for the first time. This was possible by utilising the chromophore low absorption window in the UV region allowing

  17. Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, B.R.

    2007-07-01

    Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)

  18. Electro-optic methods for longitudinal bunch diagnostics at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, B.R.

    2007-07-15

    Precise measurements of the temporal profile of sub-picosecond electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of VUV and X-ray free electron lasers. In this thesis, the shortest electro-optic signals measured so far for electron bunch diagnostics are presented, reaching a time resolution of better than 50 fs (rms). The e ects that introduce signal distortions and limit the time resolution are studied in numerical simulations for different electro-optic detection materials and techniques. The time resolution is mainly limited by lattice resonances of the electro-optic crystal. Electro-optic signals as short as 54 fs (rms) are obtained with gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals in a crossed polarizer detection scheme using temporally resolved electro-optic detection. Measuring near crossed polarization, where the electro-optic signal is proportional to the velocity field of the relativistic electron bunch, the shortest obtained signal width is 70 fs (rms). The electro-optic signals are compared to electron bunch shapes that are measured simultaneously with a transverse deflecting structure with 20 fs resolution. Numerical simulations using the bunch shapes as determined with the transverse deflecting cavity as input data are in excellent agreement with electro-optical signals obtained with GaP, both for temporally and spectrally resolved measurements. In the case of zinc telluride (ZnTe) the observed signals are slightly broader and significantly smaller than expected from simulations. These discrepancies are probably due to the poor optical quality of the available ZnTe crystals. (orig.)

  19. Electro-optical muzzle flash detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Jürgen; Eisele, Christian; Seiffer, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Localizing a shooter in a complex scenario is a difficult task. Acoustic sensors can be used to detect blast waves. Radar technology permits detection of the projectile. A third method is to detect the muzzle flash using electro-optical devices. Detection of muzzle flash events is possible with focal plane arrays, line and single element detectors. In this paper, we will show that the detection of a muzzle flash works well in the shortwave infrared spectral range. Important for the acceptance of an operational warning system in daily use is a very low false alarm rate. Using data from a detector with a high sampling rate the temporal signature of a potential muzzle flash event can be analyzed and the false alarm rate can be reduced. Another important issue is the realization of an omnidirectional view required on an operational level. It will be shown that a combination of single element detectors and simple optics in an appropriate configuration is a capable solution.

  20. Single-shot electro-optic experiments for electron bunch diagnostics at Tsinghua Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Du, Yingchao; Yan, Lixin; Hua, Jianfei; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Wenhui, E-mail: huangwh@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang, Chuanxiang [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Ming [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-10-21

    The electro-optic (EO) technique detects the Coulomb electric field distribution of relativistic electron bunches to obtain the associated longitudinal profile. This diagnostic method allows the direct time-resolved single-shot measurement and thus the real-time monitoring of the bunch profile and beam arrival time in a non-destructive way with sub-picosecond temporal resolution. In this paper, we report the measurement of the longitudinal profile of an electron bunch through electro-optic spectral decoding detection, in which the bunch profile is encoded into the spectra of the linearly chirped laser pulse. The experimental setup and measurement results of a 40 MeV electron bunch are presented, with a temporal profile length of 527 fs rms (~1.24 ps FWHM) and a beam arrival time jitter of 471 fs rms. Temporal resolution and future experimental improvement are also discussed.

  1. Electro-optic properties of epitaxial Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 films grown on MgO substrates using LixNi2-xO buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. T.; Du, P. Y.; Ye, H.; Mak, C. L.; Wong, K. H.

    2008-08-01

    Textured LixNi2-xO (LNO) thin films have been fabricated on (001)MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique. The as-deposited LNO films shows a conductivity of 2.5×10-3 Ω m and possess a transmittance of about 35% in the visible region. Subsequent deposition of Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 (SBN60) thin film on these LNO-coated MgO substrates resulted in a textured SBN layer with a orientation perpendicular to the substrate plane. Phi scans on the (221) plane of the SBN layer indicated that the films have two in-plane orientations with respect to the substrate. The SBN unit cells were rotated in the plane of the film by ± 8.2° as well as ± 45° with respect to the LNO/MgO substrate. Besides the highly (00l)-orientation, the SBN films also exhibited a dense microstructure as shown by scanning electron microscopy. The electro-optic coefficient (r33) of the SBN film was measured to be 186 pm/V. On the basis of our results, we have demonstrated that the LNO film can be used as a buffer layer as well as a transparent bottom electrode for waveguide applications. The SBN/LNO heterostructure is also a suitable candidate for integrated electro-optics devices.

  2. Optical modulation techniques for analog signal processing and CMOS compatible electro-optic modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Douglas M.; Rasras, Mahmoud; Tu, Kun-Yii; Chen, Young-Kai; White, Alice E.; Patel, Sanjay S.; Carothers, Daniel; Pomerene, Andrew; Kamocsai, Robert; Beattie, James; Kopa, Anthony; Apsel, Alyssa; Beals, Mark; Mitchel, Jurgen; Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C.

    2008-02-01

    Integrating electronic and photonic functions onto a single silicon-based chip using techniques compatible with mass-production CMOS electronics will enable new design paradigms for existing system architectures and open new opportunities for electro-optic applications with the potential to dramatically change the management, cost, footprint, weight, and power consumption of today's communication systems. While broadband analog system applications represent a smaller volume market than that for digital data transmission, there are significant deployments of analog electro-optic systems for commercial and military applications. Broadband linear modulation is a critical building block in optical analog signal processing and also could have significant applications in digital communication systems. Recently, broadband electro-optic modulators on a silicon platform have been demonstrated based on the plasma dispersion effect. The use of the plasma dispersion effect within a CMOS compatible waveguide creates new challenges and opportunities for analog signal processing since the index and propagation loss change within the waveguide during modulation. We will review the current status of silicon-based electrooptic modulators and also linearization techniques for optical modulation.

  3. Applications of lasers and electro-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, B.C.; Low, K.S.; Chen, Y.H.; Harith bin Ahmad; Tou, T.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Supported by the IRPA Programme on Laser Technology and Applications, many types of lasers have been designed, constructed and applied in various areas of science, medicine and industries. Amongst these lasers constructed were high power carbon dioxide lasers, rare gas halide excimer lasers, solid state Neodymium-YAG lasers, nitrogen lasers, flashlamp pumped dye lasers and nitrogen and excimer laser pumped dye lasers. These lasers and the associated electro-optics system, some with computer controlled, are designed and developed for the following areas of applications: 1. Industrial applications of high power carbon dioxide lasers for making of i.c. components and other materials processing purposes. Prototype operational systems have been developed. 2. Medical applications of lasers for cancer treatment using the technique of photodynamic therapy. A new and more effective treatment protocol has been proposed. 3. Agricultural applications of lasers in palm oil and palm fruit-fluorescence diagnostic studies. Fruit ripeness signature has been developed and palm oil oxidation level were investigated. 4. Development of atmospheric pollution monitoring systems using laser lidar techniques. Laboratory scale systems were developed. 5. Other applications of lasers including laser holographic and interferometric methods for the non destructive testing of materials. The activities of the group (from 1988-1990) have resulted in the submission of a patent for a laser device, publication of many research paper sin local and overseas journals and conference proceedings, completion of 1 Ph.D. dissertation and 6 M. Phil theses. Currently (1991), a total of 3 Ph.D., 6 M. Phil research programmes are involved in this research and development programme

  4. Active material, optical mode and cavity impact on nanoscale electro-optic modulation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rubab; Suer, Can; Ma, Zhizhen; Sarpkaya, Ibrahim; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sorger, Volker J.

    2017-10-01

    Electro-optic modulation is a key function in optical data communication and possible future optical compute engines. The performance of modulators intricately depends on the interaction between the actively modulated material and the propagating waveguide mode. While a variety of high-performance modulators have been demonstrated, no comprehensive picture of what factors are most responsible for high performance has emerged so far. Here we report the first systematic and comprehensive analytical and computational investigation for high-performance compact on-chip electro-optic modulators by considering emerging active materials, model considerations and cavity feedback at the nanoscale. We discover that the delicate interplay between the material characteristics and the optical mode properties plays a key role in defining the modulator performance. Based on physical tradeoffs between index modulation, loss, optical confinement factors and slow-light effects, we find that there exist combinations of bias, material and optical mode that yield efficient phase or amplitude modulation with acceptable insertion loss. Furthermore, we show how material properties in the epsilon near zero regime enable reduction of length by as much as by 15 times. Lastly, we introduce and apply a cavity-based electro-optic modulator figure of merit, Δλ/Δα, relating obtainable resonance tuning via phase shifting relative to the incurred losses due to the fundamental Kramers-Kronig relations suggesting optimized device operating regions with optimized modulation-to-loss tradeoffs. This work paves the way for a holistic design rule of electro-optic modulators for high-density on-chip integration.

  5. Structural control of side-chain chromophores to achieve highly efficient electro-optic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Zhuo; Liu, Jialei; Xiao, Hongyan; Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Xinhou; Jiang, Guohua

    2017-05-10

    A series of chromophores J1-J4 have been synthesized based on julolidine donors modified with different rigid steric hindrance groups. Compared with the chromophore (J1) without the isolation group, chromophores J2, J3 and J4 show better stability. Structural analysis and photophysical property measurements were carried out to compare the molecular mobility and steric hindrance effect of the different donor-modified chromophores. All of these chromophores with isolation groups showed superb thermal stabilities with high thermal decomposition temperatures above 250 °C. Furthermore, with rigid steric hindrance, chromophores J3 and J4 showed more enhanced thermal stabilities with thermal decomposition temperatures of 269 °C and 275 °C, respectively. Density functional theory was used to calculate the hyperpolarizability (β), and the high molecular hyperpolarizability of these chromophores can be effectively translated into large electro-optic coefficients. The electro-optic coefficients of poled films containing 20 wt% of these new chromophores doped in amorphous polycarbonate were 127, 266 and 209 pm V -1 at 1310 nm for chromophores J1-J3, respectively, while the film containing chromophore J4 showed the largest r 33 value of only 97 pm V -1 at 25 wt%. These results indicated that the introduced isolation group can reduce intermolecular electrostatic interactions, thus enhancing the macroscopic electro-optic activity, while the size of the isolation group should be suitable.

  6. Present status of metrology of electro-optical surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a significant progress in equipment for testing electro-optical surveillance systems over the last decade. Modern test systems are increasingly computerized, employ advanced image processing and offer software support in measurement process. However, one great challenge, in form of relative low accuracy, still remains not solved. It is quite common that different test stations, when testing the same device, produce different results. It can even happen that two testing teams, while working on the same test station, with the same tested device, produce different results. Rapid growth of electro-optical technology, poor standardization, limited metrology infrastructure, subjective nature of some measurements, fundamental limitations from laws of physics, tendering rules and advances in artificial intelligence are major factors responsible for such situation. Regardless, next decade should bring significant improvements, since improvement in measurement accuracy is needed to sustain fast growth of electro-optical surveillance technology.

  7. Night vision and electro-optics technology transfer, 1972 - 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, R. W.; Mason, G. F.

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this special report, 'Night Vision and Electro-Optics Technology Transfer 1972-1981,' is threefold: To illustrate, through actual case histories, the potential for exploiting a highly developed and available military technology for solving non-military problems. To provide, in a layman's language, the principles behind night vision and electro-optical devices in order that an awareness may be developed relative to the potential for adopting this technology for non-military applications. To obtain maximum dollar return from research and development investments by applying this technology to secondary applications. This includes, but is not limited to, applications by other Government agencies, state and local governments, colleges and universities, and medical organizations. It is desired that this summary of Technology Transfer activities within Night Vision and Electro-Optics Laboratory (NV/EOL) will benefit those who desire to explore one of the vast technological resources available within the Defense Department and the Federal Government.

  8. Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi

    1999-09-14

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  9. Building electro-optical systems making it all work

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Philip C D

    2009-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work.""-Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexit

  10. Quantum model for electro-optical amplitude modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R

    2010-11-22

    We present a quantum model for electro-optic amplitude modulation, which is built upon quantum models of the main photonic components that constitute the modulator, that is, the guided-wave beamsplitter and the electro-optic phase modulator and accounts for all the different available modulator structures. General models are developed both for single and dual drive configurations and specific results are obtained for the most common configurations currently employed. Finally, the operation with two-photon input for the control of phase-modulated photons and the important topic of multicarrier modulation are also addressed.

  11. Electro-Optical Characterization of Bistable Smectic A Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktanir, Ebru Aylin

    My dissertation focuses the characterization and optimization of the electro-optical properties of smectic A (SmA) based liquid crystal (LC) displays. I present the development of robust and flexible bistable SmA LC displays utilizing polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) technology. The SmA PDLC displays produced on plastic substrates present electrically reversible memory, high contrast ratio, paper-like sunlight readability, and wide viewing angle characteristics. In order to optimize the SmA PDLC display, I investigated polymerization conditions, such as polymer concentration effect, polymerization temperature, and UV-light intensity variations. I characterized the electro-optical responses-such as static-response, time-response, threshold characteristics, and contrast ratio values' of the optimized SmA PDLC display and compared them to those of the pure SmA LC. The best electro-optical performance of SmA PDLC formulation was obtained using the combination of low mW/cm 2 and high mW/cm2 UV-light curing intensity. The contrast ratio of the optimum SmA PDLC at a 5o collection angle was 83% of that of the pure SmA material on plastic substrates. I fabricated 2.5 x 2.5 in., 4 x 4 in., and 6 x 6 in. sized monochrome flexible SmA PDLC displays, as well as red, yellow, and fluorescent dyes colored SmA PDLC displays on plastic substrates. The electro-optic performance of the bistable SmA LC display consisting of a patterned field-induced polymer wall infrastructure was also studied and compared to those of pure SmA material. I found that the contrast ratio of the SmA LC encapsulated between polymer walls was much greater than that of the SmA PDLC system, approaching the contrast ratio value of the pure SmA material. I also improved the electro-optical characteristics of bistable SmA LC displays by adding ferroparticles into the system. Finally, I illustrated the unique capabilities of polarized confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) to resolve the orientational order of Sm

  12. An automated thermoelectric power apparatus using electro-optic relays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, A.; Ranganathan, R.

    1992-01-01

    We report the design and construction of a thermoelectric power apparatus using home-made electro-optic relays with Z-80A microprocessor for automatic data acquisition and control. The advantages of such relays made out of LED-LDR combinations for the measurement of ΔE and ΔT are discussed in details. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  13. High speed electro optic polymer micro-ringresonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinse, Arne; Diemeer, Mart; Driessen, A.

    2004-01-01

    An electro-optic polymer micro-ring resonator for high speed modulation was designed, realized and characterized. The design of layer-stack and electrodes was done such that modulation frequencies up till 1 GHz should be possible. The device consists of a ridge waveguide, defined in a negative

  14. Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, Don

    The total system capability, including all the special purpose and general purpose hardware comprising the Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation (AEOSS) System, is described. The functional relationship between hardware portions is described together with interface to the software portion of the computer image generation. Supporting rationale…

  15. Electro-optical effects in porous PET films filled with liquid crystal: new possibilities for fiber optics and THZ applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, A; Pasechnik, S; Semerenko, D; Shmeliova, D; Dubtsov, A; Srivastava, A K; Chigrinov, V

    2014-03-15

    The results of investigation of electro-optical properties of porous polyethylene terephthalate films filled with a nematic liquid crystal (5 CB) are presented. It is established that the optical response of the samples on the applied voltage drastically depends on the frequency range. At low frequencies of applied electrical field (foptical response arises as an impulse of light intensity, which decays for the time essentially shorter than the electric pulse duration. At high frequencies (f>fc) electric field induces an overall change in the light intensity, which is typical for an electro-optical response of a liquid crystal (LC) layer in a conventional "sandwich"-like cell. The dependences of critical frequency fc, threshold voltages, and characteristic times on a pore diameter d were established. The peculiarities of electro-optical effects can be explained in the framework of the approach which connects the variations of light intensity with the corresponding changes of the effective refractive index n(eff) of a composite LC media. The unusual behavior of the electro-optical response at low frequencies is assigned to the orienting action of the specific shear flow typical for electrokinetic phenomena in polar liquids.

  16. An optical, electro-optic and thermal characterisation of various organic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochran, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    The organic materials S - 3 - methyl - 5 - nitro - N - (1 - phenylethyl) - 2 - pyridinamine [3- methyl-MBANP] and S - N - methyl - 5 - nitro - N -(1 - phenylethyl) - 2 - pyridinamine [N- methyl-MBANP] belong to a family of compounds based on the 2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5- nitropyridine molecule and were identified as promising nonlinear optical materials by the powder disk test. Large single crystals were grown from solution for N-methyl-MBANP, which crystallises in a monoclinic space group, and from the melt and solution for 3-methyl-MBANP which crystallises in an orthorhombic space group. Orthoscopic examination of N-methyl-MBANP revealed no dispersion of the dielectric axes unlike the parent molecule and the position of the dielectric axes was correlated with the molecular structure. Preparation of prisms from single crystals of both materials facilitated the measurement of refractive indices in the visible and the near infra-red. The values obtained were correlated with the crystal structure and a Sellmeier equation fitted to each of the dispersion curves. The nonlinear optical properties of both materials were evaluated by use of the Maker fringe technique and phase matched intensities. By means of these two methods, the full nonlinear d ij tensor was obtained for both materials at a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm. The linear electro-optic properties of N-methyl-MBANP were evaluated using a conoscopic experiment and correlated with the crystal structure together with the magnitude of all non-zero elements in the d ij tensor. Separately, the thermal properties of N-methylurea (NMU), 4-nitro-4'-methylbenzylidene aniline (NMBA) and Zinc TrisThiourea Sulfate (ZTS) were evaluated and all correlated with the crystal structure and bonding. (author)

  17. Electro-optic sampling of THz pulses at the CTR source at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, Steffen

    2012-06-01

    Several applications in material science, non-linear optics and solid-state physics require short pulses with a high pulse energy of radiation in the far-infrared and in the terahertz (THz) regime in particular. As described in the following, coherent transition radiation generated by high-relativistic electron bunches at FLASH provides broadband single-cycle pulses of sub-picosecond length. The pulses are characterized using the quantitative and time-resolved technique of electro-optic sampling showing peak field strengths in the order of 1 MV/cm.

  18. Electro-optic sampling of THz pulses at the CTR source at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Steffen

    2012-06-15

    Several applications in material science, non-linear optics and solid-state physics require short pulses with a high pulse energy of radiation in the far-infrared and in the terahertz (THz) regime in particular. As described in the following, coherent transition radiation generated by high-relativistic electron bunches at FLASH provides broadband single-cycle pulses of sub-picosecond length. The pulses are characterized using the quantitative and time-resolved technique of electro-optic sampling showing peak field strengths in the order of 1 MV/cm.

  19. Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Xiaolong; Xiao, Sanshui

    2015-01-01

    Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultra-large absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. In particular, the opportunity to control optoelectronic properties through tuning of the Fermi level enables electro-optical modula......Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultra-large absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. In particular, the opportunity to control optoelectronic properties through tuning of the Fermi level enables electro...... with an extinction ratio of 3.8 dB is successfully demonstrated by applying a square-waveform with a 4 V peak-to-peak voltage....

  20. Electro-optic tunable multi-channel filter in two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yulan; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-01-01

    An electro-optic tunable multi-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal made of barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by an applied voltage or by adjusting the structural parameters. The channel shifts about 30 nm under excitation of an applied voltage of 54.8 V. The influences of the structural disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  1. Development of laser marking system with electro-optic Q-switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Kwang Suk; Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon.

    1995-11-01

    We developed a high repetition electro-optic Q switch Nd:YAG laser and scan system for laser marking. We localized the scan mirrors and their mounts. We made the database for the optical properties of commercial flat-field lenses with our optics design software. We fabricated the detailed network between the galvanometer based beam scanning system and the laser generator. To accelerate the commercialization by the joint company, the training and transfer of technology were pursued in the joint participation by company researchers from the early stage. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 27 figs

  2. Graphene photonics for resonator-enhanced electro-optic devices and all-optical interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Dirk R.; Gan, Xuetao

    2017-03-21

    Techniques for coupling light into graphene using a planar photonic crystal having a resonant cavity characterized by a mode volume and a quality factor and at least one graphene layer positioned in proximity to the planar photonic crystal to at least partially overlap with an evanescent field of the resonant cavity. At least one mode of the resonant cavity can couple into the graphene layer via evanescent coupling. The optical properties of the graphene layer can be controlled, and characteristics of the graphene-cavity system can be detected. Coupling light into graphene can include electro-optic modulation of light, photodetection, saturable absorption, bistability, and autocorrelation.

  3. Development of laser marking system with electro-optic Q-switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Kwang Suk; Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon

    1995-11-01

    We developed a high repetition electro-optic Q switch Nd:YAG laser and scan system for laser marking. We localized the scan mirrors and their mounts. We made the database for the optical properties of commercial flat-field lenses with our optics design software. We fabricated the detailed network between the galvanometer based beam scanning system and the laser generator. To accelerate the commercialization by the joint company, the training and transfer of technology were pursued in the joint participation by company researchers from the early stage. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 27 figs.

  4. Electro-Optic Sampling of Transient Electric Fields from Charged Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, Michael James [Rochester U.

    2000-01-01

    The passage of a relativistic charged particle beam bunch through a structure is accompanied by transient electromagnetic fields. By causality, these fields must be behind the bunch, and are called "wakefields." The wakefields act back on the beam, and cause instabilities such as the beam break-up instability, and the headtail instability, which limit the luminosity of linear colliders. The wakefields are particularly important for short bunches with high charge. A great deal of effort is devoted to analytical and numerical calculations of wakefields, and wakefield effects. Experimental numbers are needed. In this thesis, we present measurements of the transient electric fields induced by a short high-charge electron bunch passing through a 6-way vacuum cross. These measurements are performed in the time domain using electro-optic sampling with a time resolution of approximately 5 picoseconds. With different orientations of the electro-optic crystal, we have measured different vector components of the electric field. The Fourier transform of the time-domain data yields the product of the beam impedance with the excitation spectrum of the bunch. Since the bunch length is known from streak camera measurements, the k loss factor is directly obtained. There is reasonably good agreement between the experimental k loss factor with calculations from the code MAFIA. To our knowledge, this is the first direct measurement of the k loss factor for bunch lengths shorter than one millimeter ( nns). We also present results of magnetic bunch compression (using a dipole chicane) of a high-charge photoinjector beam for two different UV laser pulse lengths on the pholocalhode. Al best compression, a 13.87 nC bunch was compressed to 0.66 mm (2.19 ps) rms, or a peak current of 3 kA. Other results from the photoinjeclor are given, and the laser system for pholocalhode excitation and electro-optic sampling is described.

  5. Electro-optics of novel polymer-liquid crystalline composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, T.D.; Bayramov, G.M.; Imamaliyev, A.R.; Bayramov, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The polymer network liquid crystals based on the liquid crystals H37 and 5CB with PMVP and PEG have been developed. Mesogene substance HOBA is served for stabilization of obtaining composites. Kinetics of network formation is investigated by methods of polarization microscopy and integrated small-angle scattering. It is shown that gel-like states of the composite H-37+PMVP+HOBA and 5CB+PEG+HOBA are formed at polymer concentration above 7 percent and 9 percent, correspondingly. The basic electro-optic parameters of the obtained composites are determined at room temperature. Experimental results are explained by phase separation of the system, diminution of a working area of electro-optical effects and influence of areas with high polymer concentration on areas with their low concentration

  6. Electro-Optical/Meteorological Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    597 586 535 529 513 522 535 FISUZ 0.7133 0.6116 0.5223 0.3490 0.2827 0.2414 0.2181 0. 2829 LINEAR PEG 0.6242 0.59116 6.5610 0.4781 0.4074 0.3471 0.2521...1 3350 TTG, Weather Training Branch, Chanute AFB, IL 61868

  7. Electro-optical switching of liquid crystals of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jang-Kun

    Electric field effects on aqueous graphene-oxide (GO) dispersions are reviewed in this chapter. In isotropic and biphasic regimes of GO dispersions, in which the inter-particle friction is low, GO particles sensitively respond to the application of electric field, producing field-induced optical birefringence. The electro-optical sensitivity dramatically decreases as the phase transits to the nematic phase; the increasing inter-particle friction hinders the rotational switching of GO particles. The corresponding Kerr coefficient reaches the maximum near the isotropic to biphasic transition concentration, at which the Kerr coefficient is found be c.a. 1:8 · 10-5 mV-2, the highest value ever reported in all Kerr materials. The exceptionally large Kerr effect arises from the Maxwell- Wagner polarization of GO particles with an extremely large aspect ratio and a thick electrical double layer (EDL). The polarization sensitively depends on the ratio of surface and bulk conductivities in dispersions. As a result, low ion concentration in bulk solvent is highly required to achieve a quality electro-optical switching in GO dispersions. Spontaneous vinylogous carboxylic reaction in GO particles produces H+ ions, resulting in spontaneous degradation of electro-optical response with time, hence the removal of residual ions by using a centrifuge cleaning process significantly improves the electro-optical sensitivity. GO particle size is another important parameter for the Kerr coefficient and the response time. The best performance is observed in a GO dispersion with c.a. 0.5 μm mean size. Dielectrophoretic migration of GO particles can be also used to manipulate GO particles in solution. Using these unique features of GO dispersions, one can fabricate GO liquid crystal devices similar to conventional liquid crystal displays; the large Kerr effect allows fabricating a low power device working at extremely low electric fields.

  8. Contribution of electro-optics to plasma research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillet, A.; Jacquot, C.; Stevenin, P.

    1967-01-01

    Two electro-optical devices useful for plasma diagnostic are described. The first includes two image converters and is able to record any luminous transient phenomenon (for instance, fast spectrography) with a photon gain sufficient to distinguish the physically observable luminous thresholds. The second makes use of the Faraday effect to measure magnetic fields without perturbation. A fast device has a pass band up to 30 MHz. A slower one can detect the '' of arc. (authors) [fr

  9. Magneto-optic and electro-optic modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Ma, C.H.; Price, T.R.; Staats, P.A.; Vander Sluis, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    An important aspect of the Faraday rotation diagnostic for tokamak plasma measurements has been the development of suitable polarization modulators for submillimeter wavelengths. The problems are to obtain high optical transmission and fast modulation frequencies. At ORNL we have developed both a magneto-optic and an electro-optic submillimeter-wave modulators. These devices have been operated at modulation frequencies of approximately 100 kHz and both have high transmission

  10. Proceedings of the conference on lasers and electro-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the papers discussed at a conference on the subject of electro-optics and lasers. Some of the topics discussed were: laser fusion and interactions; implosion experiments; tunable integrated Bragg lasers, CO 2 lasers; present status of integrated lasers; DFB lasers; transition metal lasers-solid state lasers, mirror laser resonators, multiquantumwell lasers; fusion laser technology; and dynamics and characteristics of diode lasers

  11. Electro-Optical Parameters Of Hairy Rod Polymer/Dimethylformamide System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasevska, Hristina

    2003-01-01

    Rigid rod polymers are materials with special features, that is the reason why they have large scientific and technological applications like isotropic-nematic and other types of transition. One of the biggest problems that happen while investigation to these polymers, at molecular level, is their poor solubility in most of the common solvents. Solubility gets better if while synthesize junctions flexible side chains, [1]. Remaining polymers belong on one new class - hairy rod polymers and have big potential for their technological applications. Because of their nonlinear optical properties and opportunity for self-organization in super molecular structures (films and fibers), can be used in electronics and telecommunications industry either at display-technologies [2]. That is the main reason why controlling the remaining polymer features and connection of their microscopic and macroscopic characteristics, like an complete characterization (in solutions and solid state) is from essential scientific interest, actually it is an imperative. The polymer POD-2/that is subject of investigation, bellows to hairy rod polymers and it is synthesized for the first time [3] by giving a support to their characterization. Measures on diluted solutions from the system POD-2/dimethylformamide are made by the method electric birefringence, at three temperatures (25, 40 and 55 o C). For different concentrations on system, from obtained electro-optical signals (EOS), dependence on electric birefringence (Δn) against applied electric field (E 2 ), is determined. By investigation of electro-optical effects, especially studding the way of their maintenance and losing, while applying electric square impulses, relaxation time τ o of polymer molecules is calculated. From these parameters, as presented data for EOS rise and decay too, deformational electro-optical effect has been determined. (Author)

  12. Thermal management evaluation of the complex electro-optical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijemčević Srećko S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal management of a complex electro-optical system aimed for outdoor application is challenging task due to the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure, harsh working environment, and an additional thermal load generated by sunlight. It is essential to consider the effect of heating loads in the system components, as well as the internal temperature distribution, that can have influence on the system life expectancy, operational readiness and parameters, and possibility for catastrophic failure. The main objective of this paper is to analyze internal temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system component operation capability. The electro-optical system simplified model was defined and related thermal balance simulation model based on Solid Works thermal analysis module was set and applied for temperature distribution calculation. Various outdoor environment scenarios were compared to evaluate system temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system operation, reliability, and life time in application environment. This work was done during the design process as a part of the electro-optical system optimization. The results show that temperature distribution will not be cause for catastrophic failure and malfunction operation during operation in the expected environment.

  13. Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Irvine, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Dongping; Spencer, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The first observation is reported of the electrooptic effect of cubic silicon carbide (beta-SiC) grown by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using the hydrogen, silane, and propane gas system. At a wavelength of 633 nm, the value of the electrooptic coefficient r41 in beta-SiC is determined to be 2.7 +/- 0.5 x 10 (exp-12) m/V, which is 1.7 times larger than that in gallium arsenide measured at 10.6 microns. Also, a half-wave voltage of 6.4 kV for beta-SiC is obtained. Because of this favorable value of electrooptic coefficient, it is believed that silicon carbide may be a promising candidate in electrooptic applications for high optical intensity in the visible region.

  14. Electro-optic routing of photons from a single quantum dot in photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midolo, Leonardo; Hansen, Sofie L.; Zhang, Weili; Papon, Camille; Schott, Rüdiger; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Lodahl, Peter; Stobbe, Søren

    2017-12-01

    Recent breakthroughs in solid-state photonic quantum technologies enable generating and detecting single photons with near-unity efficiency as required for a range of photonic quantum technologies. The lack of methods to simultaneously generate and control photons within the same chip, however, has formed a main obstacle to achieving efficient multi-qubit gates and to harness the advantages of chip-scale quantum photonics. Here we propose and demonstrate an integrated voltage-controlled phase shifter based on the electro-optic effect in suspended photonic waveguides with embedded quantum emitters. The phase control allows building a compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer with two orthogonal arms, taking advantage of the anisotropic electro-optic response in gallium arsenide. Photons emitted by single self-assembled quantum dots can be actively routed into the two outputs of the interferometer. These results, together with the observed sub-microsecond response time, constitute a significant step towards chip-scale single-photon-source de-multiplexing, fiber-loop boson sampling, and linear optical quantum computing.

  15. Sol-Gel Material-Enabled Electro-Optic Polymer Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelhuber, Roland; Norwood, Robert A.; Enami, Yasufumi; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Sol-gels are an important material class, as they provide easy modification of material properties, good processability and are easy to synthesize. In general, an electro-optic (EO) modulator transforms an electrical signal into an optical signal. The incoming electrical signal is most commonly information encoded in a voltage change. This voltage change is then transformed into either a phase change or an intensity change in the light signal. The less voltage needed to drive the modulator and the lower the optical loss, the higher the link gain and, therefore, the better the performance of the modulator. In this review, we will show how sol-gels can be used to enhance the performance of electro-optic modulators by allowing for designs with low optical loss, increased poling efficiency and manipulation of the electric field used for driving the modulator. The optical loss is influenced by the propagation loss in the device, as well as the losses occurring during fiber coupling in and out of the device. In both cases, the use of sol-gel materials can be beneficial due to the wide range of available refractive indices and low optical attenuation. The influence of material properties and synthesis conditions on the device performance will be discussed. PMID:26225971

  16. The structural and electro-optical characteristics of AZO/Cr:Cu/AZO transparent conductive film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tien-Chai [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 195, Kun-Da Road, Yung-Kang Dist., Tainan 71003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Wen-Chang, E-mail: wchuang@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 195, Kun-Da Road, Yung-Kang Dist., Tainan 71003, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Fu-Chun [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 195, Kun-Da Road, Yung-Kang Dist., Tainan 71003, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-08-31

    A novel triple-layered transparent conductive film, AZO/Cr:Cu/AZO (ACCA), was presented in the paper. The structural and electro-optical properties of the ACCA film were discussed. The thickness of the middle metal layer was constant and those of the AZO layers were varied. The ACCA film shows an obvious ZnO (002) c-axis preferential growth. No diffraction peaks related to Cr and Cu were observed through x-ray diffraction analysis. The middle Cr:Cu layer showed a thickness of 8.16 nm with a continuous and amorphous structure by the observation of a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). For the electro-optical characteristic, a best figure of merit (FOM) value of 3.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1} with a corresponding transmittance of 85% was obtained at the thickness of 116 nm of ACCA film. The high FOM value of the film is due to the improvement of conductivity and small sacrifices of transparency. - Highlights: • A novel triple-layered transparent conductive film, AZO/Cr:Cu/AZO is developed. • Chromium is added to copper to reduce the oxidation–reduction reaction. • The film has a FOM of 3.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1} with a corresponding transmittance of 85%. • The Cr:Cu layer shows a continuous and amorphous structure.

  17. Development of Nanostructured Antireflection Coatings for Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal G. Pethuraja

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic infrared technologies and systems operating from ultraviolet (UV to long-wave infrared (LWIR spectra are being developed for a variety of defense and commercial systems applications. Loss of a significant portion of the incident signal due to reflection limits the performance of electro-optic infrared (IR sensing systems. A critical technology being developed to overcome this limitation and enhance the performance of sensing systems is advanced antireflection (AR coatings. Magnolia is actively involved in the development and advancement of nanostructured AR coatings for a wide variety of defense and commercial applications. Ultrahigh AR performance has been demonstrated for UV to LWIR spectral bands on various substrates. The AR coatings enhance the optical transmission through optical components and devices by significantly minimizing reflection losses, a substantial improvement over conventional thin-film AR coating technologies. Nanostructured AR coatings have been fabricated using a nanomanufacturable self-assembly process on substrates that are transparent for a given spectrum of interest ranging from UV to LWIR. The nanostructured multilayer structures have been designed, developed and optimized for various optoelectronic applications. The optical properties of optical components and sensor substrates coated with AR structures have been measured and the process parameters fine-tuned to achieve a predicted high level of performance. In this paper, we review our latest work on high quality nanostructure-based AR coatings, including recent efforts on the development of nanostructured AR coatings on IR substrates.

  18. The structural and electro-optical characteristics of AZO/Cr:Cu/AZO transparent conductive film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tien-Chai; Huang, Wen-Chang; Tsai, Fu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    A novel triple-layered transparent conductive film, AZO/Cr:Cu/AZO (ACCA), was presented in the paper. The structural and electro-optical properties of the ACCA film were discussed. The thickness of the middle metal layer was constant and those of the AZO layers were varied. The ACCA film shows an obvious ZnO (002) c-axis preferential growth. No diffraction peaks related to Cr and Cu were observed through x-ray diffraction analysis. The middle Cr:Cu layer showed a thickness of 8.16 nm with a continuous and amorphous structure by the observation of a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). For the electro-optical characteristic, a best figure of merit (FOM) value of 3.54 × 10 −3 Ω −1 with a corresponding transmittance of 85% was obtained at the thickness of 116 nm of ACCA film. The high FOM value of the film is due to the improvement of conductivity and small sacrifices of transparency. - Highlights: • A novel triple-layered transparent conductive film, AZO/Cr:Cu/AZO is developed. • Chromium is added to copper to reduce the oxidation–reduction reaction. • The film has a FOM of 3.54 × 10 −3 Ω −1 with a corresponding transmittance of 85%. • The Cr:Cu layer shows a continuous and amorphous structure

  19. Electro-optical study of the exposure of Azospirillum brasilense carbohydrate epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliy, Olga I; Matora, Larisa Yu; Dykman, Lev A; Staroverov, Sergey A; Burygin, Gennady L; Bunin, Viktor D; Burov, Andrei M; Ignatov, Oleg V

    2015-01-01

    The exposure of Azospirillum brasilense carbohydrate epitopes was investigated by electro-optical analysis of bacterial cell suspensions. To study changes in the electro-optical (EO) properties of the suspensions, we used antibodies generated to the complete lipopolysaccharide of A. brasilense type strain Sp7 and also antibodies to the smooth and rough O polysaccharides of Sp7. After 18 hr of culture growth, the EO signal of the suspension treated with antibodies to smooth O polysaccharide was approximately 20% lower than that of the suspension treated with antibodies to complete lipopolysaccharide (control). After 72 hr of culture growth, the strongest EO signal was observed for the cells treated with antibodies to rough O polysaccharide (approximately 46% greater than the control), whereas for the cells treated with antibodies to smooth O polysaccharide, it was much lower (approximately 23% of the control). These data were confirmed by electron microscopy. The results of the study may have importance for the rapid evaluation of changes in lipopolysaccharide form in microbial biotechnology, when the antigenic composition of the bacterial surface requires close control.

  20. Study of electro-optic effect in asymmetrically ramped AlInGaAs multiple quantum well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq, Muhammad Usman; Peters, Frank H.; Corbett, Brian [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); O' Callaghan, James; Roycroft, Brendan; Thomas, Kevin; Pelucchi, Emanuele [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    We investigate the electro-optic properties of two oppositely ramped asymmetric quantum well structures in the AlInGaAs material system. The grading of the bandgap in the quantum wells has been achieved by changing the ratio of Al to Ga in the quaternary alloy during the epitaxial growth. The surface normal photo-response and the Fabry-Perot fringe shift in straight waveguides are compared for both structures as a function of applied voltage at 1550 nm for TE-polarized light. The measurements show a change in the refractive index due to a red shift of the excitonic resonances due to the quantum-confined Stark effect. The 10 quantum well structure with a ramp up of the bandgap in the growth direction leads to the figure of merit of the voltage for a π phase shift, V{sub π} by length, L, V{sub π} x L, of 6 as compared to 7 V . mm in the structure with a ramp in opposite direction. Further investigations show that the reduction in V{sub π} is due to increased absorption at high reverse bias which induces a non-linear phase change. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Radiation resistance of electro-optic polymer-based modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Edward W.; Nichter, James E.; Nash, Fazio D.; Haas, Franz; Szep, Attila A.; Michalak, Richard J.; Flusche, Brian M.; Cook, Paul R.; McEwen, Tom A.; McKeon, Brian F.; Payson, Paul M.; Brost, George A.; Pirich, Andrew R.; Castaneda, Carlos; Tsap, Boris; Fetterman, Harold R.

    2005-01-01

    Mach-Zehnder interferometric electro-optic polymer modulators composed of highly nonlinear phenyltetraene bridge-type chromophores within an amorphous polycarbonate host matrix were investigated for their resistance to gamma rays and 25.6 MeV protons. No device failures were observed and the majority of irradiated modulators exhibited decreases in half-wave voltage and optical insertion losses compared to nonirradiated control samples undergoing aging processes. Irradiated device responses were attributed to scission, cross-linking, and free volume processes. The data suggests that strongly poled devices are less likely to de-pole under the influence of ionizing radiation

  2. Measurement of the internal stress and electric field in a resonating piezoelectric transformer for high-voltage applications using the electro-optic and photoelastic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGordon, James A; Kovaleski, Scott D; Norgard, Peter; Gall, Brady B; Dale, Gregory E

    2014-02-01

    The high output voltages from piezoelectric transformers are currently being used to accelerate charged particle beams for x-ray and neutron production. Traditional methods of characterizing piezoelectric transformers (PTs) using electrical probes can decrease the voltage transformation ratio of the device due to the introduction of load impedances on the order of hundreds of kiloohms to hundreds of megaohms. Consequently, an optical diagnostic was developed that used the photoelastic and electro-optic effects present in piezoelectric materials that are transparent to a given optical wavelength to determine the internal stress and electric field. The combined effects of the piezoelectric, photoelastic, and electro-optic effects result in a time-dependent change the refractive indices of the material and produce an artificially induced, time-dependent birefringence in the piezoelectric material. This induced time-dependent birefringence results in a change in the relative phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary wave components of a helium-neon laser beam. The change in phase difference between the wave components was measured using a set of linear polarizers. The measured change in phase difference was used to calculate the stress and electric field based on the nonlinear optical properties, the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and the boundary conditions of the PT. Maximum stresses of approximately 10 MPa and electric fields of as high as 6 kV/cm were measured with the optical diagnostic. Measured results were compared to results from both a simple one-dimensional (1D) model of the piezoelectric transformer and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. Measured stresses and electric fields along the length of an operating length-extensional PT for two different electrical loads were within at least 50 % of 3D finite element simulated results. Additionally, the 3D finite element results were more accurate than the results from the 1D model

  3. Measurement of the internal stress and electric field in a resonating piezoelectric transformer for high-voltage applications using the electro-optic and photoelastic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanGordon, James A.; Kovaleski, Scott D., E-mail: kovaleskis@missouri.edu; Norgard, Peter; Gall, Brady B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [High Power Electrodynamics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The high output voltages from piezoelectric transformers are currently being used to accelerate charged particle beams for x-ray and neutron production. Traditional methods of characterizing piezoelectric transformers (PTs) using electrical probes can decrease the voltage transformation ratio of the device due to the introduction of load impedances on the order of hundreds of kiloohms to hundreds of megaohms. Consequently, an optical diagnostic was developed that used the photoelastic and electro-optic effects present in piezoelectric materials that are transparent to a given optical wavelength to determine the internal stress and electric field. The combined effects of the piezoelectric, photoelastic, and electro-optic effects result in a time-dependent change the refractive indices of the material and produce an artificially induced, time-dependent birefringence in the piezoelectric material. This induced time-dependent birefringence results in a change in the relative phase difference between the ordinary and extraordinary wave components of a helium-neon laser beam. The change in phase difference between the wave components was measured using a set of linear polarizers. The measured change in phase difference was used to calculate the stress and electric field based on the nonlinear optical properties, the piezoelectric constitutive equations, and the boundary conditions of the PT. Maximum stresses of approximately 10 MPa and electric fields of as high as 6 kV/cm were measured with the optical diagnostic. Measured results were compared to results from both a simple one-dimensional (1D) model of the piezoelectric transformer and a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model. Measured stresses and electric fields along the length of an operating length-extensional PT for two different electrical loads were within at least 50 % of 3D finite element simulated results. Additionally, the 3D finite element results were more accurate than the results from the 1D model

  4. Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

    2000-08-29

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  5. Anisotropic electro-optic effect on InGaAs quantum dot chain modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana; Fetterman, Harold

    2013-10-15

    We investigated the anisotropic electro-optic (EO) effect on InGaAs quantum dot (QD) chain modulators. The linear EO coefficients were determined as 24.3 pm/V (33.8 pm/V) along the [011] direction and 30.6 pm/V (40.3 pm/V) along the [011¯] direction at 1.55 μm (1.32 μm) operational wavelength. The corresponding half-wave voltages (Vπs) were measured to be 5.35 V (4.35 V) and 4.65 V (3.86 V) at 1.55 μm (1.32 μm) wavelength. This is the first report on the anisotropic EO effect on QD chain structures. These modulators have 3 dB bandwidths larger than 10 GHz.

  6. Electro-optic study of PZT ferroelectric ceramics using modulation of reflected light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazkov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optic coefficients of variations in the refractive index of PZT and PLZT ceramic materials induced by ac electric field are estimated using modulation of reflected light. The electro-optic coefficients of PLZT ceramics measured with the aid of conventional birefringence using the phase shift of transmitted radiation and the proposed method of birefringence using the modulation of reflected light are compared.

  7. Dataset on electro-optically tunable smart-supercapacitors based on oxygen-excess nanograin tungsten oxide thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar I. Inamdar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The dataset presented here is related to the research article entitled “Highly Efficient Electro-optically Tunable Smart-supercapacitors Using an Oxygen-excess Nanograin Tungsten Oxide Thin Film” (Akbar et al., 2017 [9] where we have presented a nanograin WO3 film as a bifunctional electrode for smart supercapacitor devices. In this article we provide additional information concerning nanograin tungsten oxide thin films such as atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Moreover, their electrochemical properties such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical supercapacitor properties, and electrochromic properties including coloration efficiency, optical modulation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are presented.

  8. Electro-optical characteristics of a liquid crystal cell with graphene electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nune H. Hakobyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In liquid crystal devices (LCDs the indium tin oxide (ITO films are traditionally used as transparent and conductive electrodes. However, today, due to the development of multichannel optical communication, the need for flexible LCDs and multilayer structures has grown. For this application ITO films cannot be used in principle. For this problem, graphene (an ultrathin material with unique properties, e.g., high optical transparency, chemical inertness, excellent conductivity is an excellent candidate. In this work, the electro-optical and dynamic characteristics of a liquid crystal (LC cell with graphene and ITO transparent conducting layers are investigated. To insure uniform thickness of the LC layer, as well as the same orientation boundary conditions, a hybrid LC cell containing graphene and ITO conductive layers has been prepared. The characteristics of LC cells with both types of conducting layers were found to be similar, indicating that graphene can be successfully used as a transparent conductive layer in LC devices.

  9. Reversible unidirectional reflection and absorption of PT-symmetry structure under electro-optical modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Zhang, Yi-chi; Xia, Jing

    2018-06-01

    In order to obtain tunable unidirectional device, we assumed an ideal periodic layered Parity-Time (PT) symmetry structure inserted by doped LiNbO3 (LN) interlayers. LN is a typical electro-optical material of which the refractive index depends on the external electric field. In our work, we theoretically investigate the modulation effect of the external electric field on the transmittance and reflectance of the structure through numerical method. Through selected structural parameters, the one-way enhanced reflection and high absorption (above 0.9) behaviors are found. Within a special frequency band (not a single frequency), our theoretical model performs enhanced reflection in one incidence direction and high absorption in the other direction. Furthermore, the directions of enhanced reflection and absorption can be reversed through reversing the direction of applied electric field. Such structure with reversible properties has the potential in designing new optical devices.

  10. Extending electro-optic detection to ultrashort electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Helle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to extend noninvasive electro-optic detection of relativistic electron beams to bunch lengths of ≃10  fs. This is made possible by detecting the frequency mixing that occurs between the optical probe and the space charge fields of the beam, while simultaneously time resolving the resulting mixed frequency signal. The necessary formalism to describe this technique is developed and numerical solutions for various possible experimental conditions are made. These solutions are then compared to simulation results for consistency. Finally, the method to reconstruct the original bunch profile from the proposed diagnostic is discussed and an example showing a 15 fs test beam reconstructed to within an accuracy of 15% is given.

  11. Electro-optic polymeric reflection modulator based on plasmonic metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, A.; Swillam, M.

    2018-02-01

    A novel low power design for polymeric Electro-Optic reflection modulator is proposed based on the Extraordinary Reflection of light from multilayer structure consisting of a plasmonic metasurface with a periodic structure of sub wavelength circular apertures in a gold film above a thin layer of EO polymer and above another thin gold layer. The interference of the different reflected beams from different layer construct the modulated beam, The applied input driving voltage change the polymer refractive index which in turn determine whether the interference is constructive or destructive, so both phase and intensity modulation could be achieved. The resonant wavelength is tuned to the standard telecommunication wavelength 1.55μm, at this wavelength the reflection is minimum, while the absorption is maximum due to plasmonic resonance (PR) and the coupling between the incident light and the plasmonic metasurface.

  12. Numerical studies on the electro-optic detection of femtosecond electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casalbuoni

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The electro-optic (EO effect is a powerful diagnostic tool for determining the time profile of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. When a relativistic bunch passes within a few mm of an electro-optic crystal, its transient electric field is equivalent to a half-cycle THz pulse passing through the crystal. The induced birefringence can be detected with polarized femtosecond laser pulses. A simulation code has been written in order to understand the faithfulness and the limitations of electron bunch shape reconstruction by EO sampling. The THz pulse and the laser pulse are propagated as wave packets through the EO crystal. Alternatively, the response function method is applied. Using experimental data on the material properties of zinc telluride (ZnTe and gallium phosphide (GaP, the effects of velocity mismatch, pulse shape distortion, and signal broadening are explicitly taken into account. The simulations show that the most severe limitation on the time resolution is given by the transverse-optical (TO lattice oscillation in the EO crystal. The lowest TO frequency is 5.3 THz in ZnTe and 11 THz in GaP. Only the Fourier components below the TO resonance are usable for the bunch shape reconstruction. This implies that the shortest rms bunch length which can be resolved with moderate distortion amounts to σ≈90  fs in ZnTe and σ≈50  fs in GaP. The influence of the crystal thickness on the amplitude and width of the EO signal is studied. The optimum thickness is in the range from 100 to 300  μm for ZnTe and from 50 to 100  μm for GaP.

  13. Investigation of superior electro-optical properties of SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite over its individual counterpart SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naveen Kumar, P.; Sahaya Selva Mary, J.; Chandrakala, V.; Jothi Jeyarani, W.; Merline Shyla, J., E-mail: jmshyla@gmail.com

    2017-06-01

    A comparative investigation of SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite with SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles has been conducted in the present study with the intent of learning the probable enhancement of the properties of the nanocomposite over those of the bare nanoparticles which has not been widely reported before. SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite have been synthesized via the facile and versatile sol-gel method. The samples were characterized with X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) studies, Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–Visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy and Field-dependent photo conductivity technique for the evaluation of their crystallite size, structure & morphology, surface, chemical, optical and electrical properties respectively. Scherrer’s equation was used to determine the crystallite size of the as-synthesized samples from the XRD data. The particle size of SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite as observed through HRSEM was found to be reduced when compared with the bare SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles suggesting a possible increase in the optical band gap of the former which has been further confirmed in the optical studies. The surface area of SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite revealed a remarkable enrichment by approximately 5 folds in comparison with that of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles which suggests an enhancement in its corresponding optical and electrical properties. The SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite recorded appreciated values of field-dependent photo and dark currents with several folds of augmentation thereby qualifying as an efficient photoconducting material. Attributed with an improved surface area and increased photoconducting nature, the SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite could be presented as an excellent photoanode material for nanomaterials based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). - Highlights: • SnO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2

  14. Secure communications of CAP-4 and OOK signals over MMF based on electro-optic chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhou; Wang, Lulu; Wang, Jian

    2017-09-15

    Chaos-based secure communication can provide a high level of privacy in data transmission. Here, we experimentally demonstrate secure signal transmission over two kinds of multimode fiber (MMF) based on electro-optic intensity chaos. High-quality synchronization is achieved in an electro-optic feedback configuration. Both 5  Gbit/s carrier-less amplitude/phase (CAP-4) modulation and 10  Gbit/s on-off key (OOK) signals are recovered efficiently in electro-optic chaos-based communication systems. Degradations of chaos synchronization and communication system due to mismatch of various hardware keys are also discussed.

  15. Electro-optic spatial decoding on the spherical-wavefront Coulomb fields of plasma electron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K; Esirkepov, T; Koga, J K; Kotaki, H; Mori, M; Hayashi, Y; Nakanii, N; Bulanov, S V; Kando, M

    2018-02-13

    Detections of the pulse durations and arrival timings of relativistic electron beams are important issues in accelerator physics. Electro-optic diagnostics on the Coulomb fields of electron beams have the advantages of single shot and non-destructive characteristics. We present a study of introducing the electro-optic spatial decoding technique to laser wakefield acceleration. By placing an electro-optic crystal very close to a gas target, we discovered that the Coulomb field of the electron beam possessed a spherical wavefront and was inconsistent with the previously widely used model. The field structure was demonstrated by experimental measurement, analytic calculations and simulations. A temporal mapping relationship with generality was derived in a geometry where the signals had spherical wavefronts. This study could be helpful for the applications of electro-optic diagnostics in laser plasma acceleration experiments.

  16. Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is an advanced Airborne Thematic Thermal InfraRed and Electro-Optical Imaging System (ATTIREOIS). ATTIREOIS sensor payload consists of two sets of...

  17. High performance electro-optical modulator based on photonic crystal and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekmohammad, M.; Asadi, R.

    2017-07-01

    An electro-optical modulator is demonstrated based on Fano-resonance effect in an out-of-plane illumination of one-dimensional slab photonic crystal composed of two graphene layers. It has been shown that high sensitivity of the Fano-resonance and electro-refractive tuning of graphene layers provides a suitable condition to obtain an electro-optical modulator with low energy consumption (8 pJ) with contrast of 0.4.

  18. An electro-optic spatial light modulator for thermoelastic generation of programmably focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The concept proposed is an electro-optic technique that would make it possible to spatially modulate a high power pulsed laser beam to thermoelastically induce focused ultrasound in a test material. Being a purely electro-optic device, the modulator, and therefore the depth at which the acoustic focus occurs, can be programmed electronically at electronic speeds. If successful, it would become possible to scan ultrasound continuously in three dimensions within the component or structure under test.

  19. Electro-Optical Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying

    2006-01-01

    An electro-optical (E-O) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS), now under development, is a prototype of improved imaging spectrometers to be used for hyperspectral imaging, especially in the infrared spectral region. Unlike both imaging and non-imaging traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers, the E-O IFTS does not contain any moving parts. Elimination of the moving parts and the associated actuator mechanisms and supporting structures would increase reliability while enabling reductions in size and mass, relative to traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers that offer equivalent capabilities. Elimination of moving parts would also eliminate the vibrations caused by the motions of those parts. Figure 1 schematically depicts a traditional Fourier-transform spectrometer, wherein a critical time delay is varied by translating one the mirrors of a Michelson interferometer. The time-dependent optical output is a periodic representation of the input spectrum. Data characterizing the input spectrum are generated through fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) post-processing of the output in conjunction with the varying time delay.

  20. Configuration of electro-optic fire source detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Ram Z.; Steiner, Zeev; Hofman, Nir

    2007-04-01

    The recent fighting activities in various parts of the world have highlighted the need for accurate fire source detection on one hand and fast "sensor to shooter cycle" capabilities on the other. Both needs can be met by the SPOTLITE system which dramatically enhances the capability to rapidly engage hostile fire source with a minimum of casualties to friendly force and to innocent bystanders. Modular system design enable to meet each customer specific requirements and enable excellent future growth and upgrade potential. The design and built of a fire source detection system is governed by sets of requirements issued by the operators. This can be translated into the following design criteria: I) Long range, fast and accurate fire source detection capability. II) Different threat detection and classification capability. III) Threat investigation capability. IV) Fire source data distribution capability (Location, direction, video image, voice). V) Men portability. ) In order to meet these design criteria, an optimized concept was presented and exercised for the SPOTLITE system. Three major modular components were defined: I) Electro Optical Unit -Including FLIR camera, CCD camera, Laser Range Finder and Marker II) Electronic Unit -including system computer and electronic. III) Controller Station Unit - Including the HMI of the system. This article discusses the system's components definition and optimization processes, and also show how SPOTLITE designers successfully managed to introduce excellent solutions for other system parameters.

  1. Electro-optical design for efficient visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    1995-03-01

    Visual communication, in the form of telephotography and television, for example, can be regarded as efficient only if the amount of information that it conveys about the scene to the observer approaches the maximum possible and the associated cost approaches the minimum possible. Elsewhere we have addressed the problem of assessing the end-to-end performance of visual communication systems in terms of their efficiency in this sense by integrating the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering into classical communication theory. We use this approach to assess the electro-optical design of image-gathering devices as a function of the f number and apodization of the objective lens and the aperture size and sampling geometry of the photodetection mechanism. Results show that an image-gathering device that is designed to optimize information capacity performs similarly to the human eye. For both, the performance approaches the maximum possible, in terms of the efficiency with which the acquired information can be transmitted as decorrelated data, and the fidelity, sharpness, and clarity with which fine detail can be restored.

  2. Electro-Optical Design for Efficient Visual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Friedrich O.; Fales, Carl L.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1995-01-01

    Visual communication, in the form of telephotography and television, for example, can be regarded as efficient only if the amount of information that it conveys about the scene to the observer approaches the maximum possible and the associated cost approaches the minimum possible. Elsewhere we have addressed the problem of assessing the end to end performance of visual communication systems in terms of their efficiency in this sense by integrating the critical limiting factors that constrain image gathering into classical communications theory. We use this approach to assess the electro-optical design of image gathering devices as a function of the f number and apodization of the objective lens and the aperture size and sampling geometry of the phot-detection mechanism. Results show that an image gathering device that is designed to optimize information capacity performs similarly to the human eye. For both, the performance approaches the maximum possible, in terms of the efficiency with which the acquired information can be transmitted as decorrelated data, and the fidelity, sharpness, and clearity with which fine detail can be restored.

  3. Electro-optical parameters of bond polarizability model for aluminosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Konstantin S; Bougeard, Daniel; Tandon, Poonam

    2006-04-06

    Electro-optical parameters (EOPs) of bond polarizability model (BPM) for aluminosilicate structures were derived from quantum-chemical DFT calculations of molecular models. The tensor of molecular polarizability and the derivatives of the tensor with respect to the bond length are well reproduced with the BPM, and the EOPs obtained are in a fair agreement with available experimental data. The parameters derived were found to be transferable to larger molecules. This finding suggests that the procedure used can be applied to systems with partially ionic chemical bonds. The transferability of the parameters to periodic systems was tested in molecular dynamics simulation of the polarized Raman spectra of alpha-quartz. It appeared that the molecular Si-O bond EOPs failed to reproduce the intensity of peaks in the spectra. This limitation is due to large values of the longitudinal components of the bond polarizability and its derivative found in the molecular calculations as compared to those obtained from periodic DFT calculations of crystalline silica polymorphs by Umari et al. (Phys. Rev. B 2001, 63, 094305). It is supposed that the electric field of the solid is responsible for the difference of the parameters. Nevertheless, the EOPs obtained can be used as an initial set of parameters for calculations of polarizability related characteristics of relevant systems in the framework of BPM.

  4. Electro-optical properties, decomposition pathways and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... group P-43N(IT:218) with a = 11.3640 Å. On this aspect. [23,34], there ... potential hydrogen storage compounds [43]. ...... [15] Jepsen L H, Ley M B, Lee Y-S, Cho Y W, Dornheim M, Jensen ... [46] Wanderbilt D 1990 Phys. Rev ...

  5. Direct electro-optic effect in langasites and α-quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vadim

    2018-05-01

    Strain-constant (clamped) electro-optic coefficients r11S of langasite La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), langatate La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT), catangasite Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) and α-quartz are measured at 1540 nm in the frequency range of 3-25 MHz. Experimental ratio of clamped and unclamped electro-optic coefficients r11S/r11T is 0.97 for LGS, 0.91 for LGT, 0.31 for CTGS, and 0.49 for quartz. Most of direct electro-optic effect in LGS and LGT is associated with lanthanum ions: clamped electro-optic coefficient r11S in lanthanum-free CTGS is 14 times less than in LGS. Low piezoelectric contribution to unclamped electro-optic coefficient r11T makes LGS and LGT promising materials for electro-optic devices, whose performance can be deteriorated by piezoelectric effect, especially, for high-voltage optical voltage sensors.

  6. RF Energy Interaction With Electro-Optic Materials (Single Investigator Award Proposed to Address Research Topic Area 6.4. Electromagnetics and RF Circuit Integration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-27

    sacrificial wet etching and transferred to silicon waveguides using a pick-and-place process. To demonstrate the technique, a hybrid silicon and...identified. Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is then performed at 1000 °C for 30 s to repair the crystal lattice and restore the electro-optical properties of...material to increase the scattering loss of the acoustic wave [24,25]. The surface roughness can be produced by dry or wet etching . Sufficiently

  7. Atmospheric lidar co-alignment sensor: flight model electro-optical characterization campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde Guijarro, Ángel Luis; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás.; Laguna Hernandez, Hugo; Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo

    2017-10-01

    Due to the difficulty in studying the upper layer of the troposphere by using ground-based instrumentation, the conception of a space-orbit atmospheric LIDAR (ATLID) becomes necessary. ATLID born in the ESA's EarthCare Programme framework as one of its payloads, being the first instrument of this kind that will be in the Space. ATLID will provide vertical profiles of aerosols and thin clouds, separating the relative contribution of aerosol and molecular scattering to know aerosol optical depth. It operates at a wavelength of 355 nm and has a high spectral resolution receiver and depolarization channel with a vertical resolution up to 100m from ground to an altitude of 20 km and, and up to 500m from 20km to 40km. ATLID measurements will be done from a sun-synchronous orbit at 393 km altitude, and an alignment (co-alignment) sensor (CAS) is revealed as crucial due to the way in which LIDAR analyses the troposphere. As in previous models, INTA has been in charge of part of the ATLID instrument co-alignment sensor (ATLID-CAS) electro-optical characterization campaign. CAS includes a set of optical elements to take part of the useful signal, to direct it onto the memory CCD matrix (MCCD) used for the co-alignment determination, and to focus the selected signal on the MCCD. Several tests have been carried out for a proper electro-optical characterization: CAS line of sight (LoS) determination and stability, point spread function (PSF), absolute response (AbsRes), pixel response non uniformity (PRNU), response linearity (ResLin) and spectral response. In the following lines, a resume of the flight model electrooptical characterization campaign is reported on. In fact, results concerning the protoflight model (CAS PFM) will be summarized. PFM requires flight-level characterization, so most of the previously mentioned tests must be carried out under simulated working conditions, i.e., the vacuum level (around 10-5 mbar) and temperature range (between 50°C and -30°C) that

  8. CuInS2/ZnS QD-ferroelectric liquid crystal mixtures for faster electro-optical devices and their energy storage aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Pratap; Vimal, Tripti; Mange, Yatin J.; Varia, Mahesh C.; Nann, Thomas; Pandey, K. K.; Manohar, Rajiv; Douali, Redouane

    2018-01-01

    CuInS2/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (CIS/ZnS QDs) dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) mixtures have been characterized for their application in electro-optical devices, energy storage, and solar cells. Physical properties of the CIS/ZnS QD-FLC (ferroelectric liquid crystal) mixtures have also been investigated with varying QD concentrations in order to optimize the critical concentration of QDs in mixtures. The presence of QDs breaks the geometrical symmetry in the FLC matrix, which results in a change in the physical properties of the mixtures. We observed the reduced values of primary and secondary order parameters (tilt angle and spontaneous polarization, respectively) for mixtures, which also depend on the concentration of QDs. The reduction of spontaneous polarization in QDs-FLC mixtures is attributed to the adverse role of flexoelectric contribution in the mixtures. The 92% faster electro-optic response and enhanced capacitance indicate the possible application of these mixtures in electro-optical devices and solar cells. Photoluminescence emission of pure FLC and QDs-FLC mixtures has been thermally tailored, which is explained by suitable models.

  9. Cascade photonic integrated circuit architecture for electro-optic in-phase quadrature/single sideband modulation or frequency conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hall, Trevor

    2015-11-01

    A photonic integrated circuit architecture for implementing frequency upconversion is proposed. The circuit consists of a 1×2 splitter and 2×1 combiner interconnected by two stages of differentially driven phase modulators having 2×2 multimode interference coupler between the stages. A transfer matrix approach is used to model the operation of the architecture. The predictions of the model are validated by simulations performed using an industry standard software tool. The intrinsic conversion efficiency of the proposed design is improved by 6 dB over the alternative functionally equivalent circuit based on dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulators known in the prior art. A two-tone analysis is presented to study the linearity of the proposed circuit, and a comparison is provided over the alternative. The proposed circuit is suitable for integration in any platform that offers linear electro-optic phase modulation such as LiNbO(3), silicon, III-V, or hybrid technology.

  10. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Infrared and Electro-Optic Signals for High Resolution Night Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lawrence

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic (EO image sensors exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level at daytime, but they do not work in dark environments. Infrared (IR image sensors exhibit poor resolution and cannot separate objects with similar temperature. Therefore, we propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge from EO images, which improves the resolution of IR images and helps us distinguish objects at night. Our framework superimposing/blending the edges of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image improves their resolution. In this framework, we adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF proposed by Hardie et al. for the IR image, which has the modulation transfer function (MTF of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we design an inverse filter for the proposed PSF and use it for the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps: (1 inverse filter-based IR image transformation; (2 EO image edge detection; (3 registration; and (4 blending/superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results show both blended and superimposed IR images, and demonstrate that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images. Additionally, based on the same steps, simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available.

  11. Measurement of Sub-Picosecond Electron Bunches via Electro-Optic Sampling of Coherent Transition Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Timothy John [Northern Illinois U.

    2012-01-01

    Future collider applications as well as present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron lasers operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. We present results on the single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory. A longitudinal double-pulse modulation of the electron beam is also realized by transverse beam masking followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. Live profile tuning is demonstrated by upstream beam focusing in conjunction with downstream monitoring of single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of the coherent transition radiation.

  12. SCALE FACTOR DETERMINATION METHOD OF ELECTRO-OPTICAL MODULATOR IN FIBER-OPTIC GYROSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Aleynik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. We propose a method for dynamic measurement of half-wave voltage of electro-optic modulator as part of a fiber optic gyroscope. Excluding the impact of the angular acceleration o​n measurement of the electro-optical coefficient is achieved through the use of homodyne demodulation method that allows a division of the Sagnac phase shift signal and an auxiliary signal for measuring the electro-optical coefficient in the frequency domain. Method. The method essence reduces to decomposition of step of digital serrodyne modulation in two parts with equal duration. The first part is used for quadrature modulation signals. The second part comprises samples of the auxiliary signal used to determine the value of the scale factor of the modulator. Modeling is done in standalone model, and as part of a general model of the gyroscope. The applicability of the proposed method is investigated as well as its qualitative and quantitative characteristics: absolute and relative accuracy of the electro-optic coefficient, the stability of the method to the effects of angular velocities and accelerations, method resistance to noise in actual devices. Main Results. The simulation has showed the ability to measure angular velocity changing under the influence of angular acceleration, acting on the device, and simultaneous measurement of electro-optical coefficient of the phase modulator without interference between these processes. Practical Relevance. Featured in the paper the ability to eliminate the influence of the angular acceleration on the measurement accuracy of the electro-optical coefficient of the phase modulator will allow implementing accurate measurement algorithms for fiber optic gyroscopes resistant to a significant acceleration in real devices.

  13. Coulomb field strength measurement by electro-optic spectral decoding system at the CALIFES beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, R; Lefevre, T; Gillepsie, WA; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Electro-optic (EO) techniques are increasingly used for longitudinal bunch profile measurements. A bunch profile monitor, based on electro-optic spectral decoding(EOSD), has been developed and demonstrated on the CALIFES beam line at CERN. The EO response is analysed using a frequency domain description, and two methods for extraction of absolute Coulomb field strengths from the electron bunch are demonstrated. Measurements at field strengths up to 1.3 MV/m agree with the expectation based on independent charge measurements.

  14. Silicon-integrated thin-film structure for electro-optic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline thin-film structure suited for use in any of an number of electro-optic applications, such as a phase modulator or a component of an interferometer, includes a semiconductor substrate of silicon and a ferroelectric, optically-clear thin film of the perovskite BaTiO.sub.3 overlying the surface of the silicon substrate. The BaTiO.sub.3 thin film is characterized in that substantially all of the dipole moments associated with the ferroelectric film are arranged substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate to enhance the electro-optic qualities of the film.

  15. 100 GHz pulse waveform measurement based on electro-optic sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhigang; Zhao, Kejia; Yang, Zhijun; Miao, Jingyuan; Chen, He

    2018-05-01

    We present an ultrafast pulse waveform measurement system based on an electro-optic sampling technique at 1560 nm and prepare LiTaO3-based electro-optic modulators with a coplanar waveguide structure. The transmission and reflection characteristics of electrical pulses on a coplanar waveguide terminated with an open circuit and a resistor are investigated by analyzing the corresponding time-domain pulse waveforms. We measure the output electrical pulse waveform of a 100 GHz photodiode and the obtained rise times of the impulse and step responses are 2.5 and 3.4 ps, respectively.

  16. Systems engineering and analysis of electro-optical and infrared systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arrasmith, William Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Electro-optic and Infrared (EO/IR) Systems Engineering?Radiation in the Visible and Infrared Parts of the Electromagnetic SpectrumRadiation SourcesThe Effect of the Atmosphere on Optical PropagationBasic OpticsOptical ModulationThe Detection of Optical RadiationNoise in the Optical Detection ProcessTechnical Performance Measures and Metrics of Optical DetectorsModern Detectors and their Measures of PerformanceThe Effects of Cooling on Optical Detector NoiseSignal and Image ProcessingElectro-Optic and Infrared Systems AnalysisLaser Imaging Systems?Spectral Imaging?LIDAR and LADA

  17. Electro-optic architecture for servicing sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed design of a fiber optic propulsion control system, integrating favored sensors and electro-optics architecture is presented. Layouts, schematics, and sensor lists describe an advanced fighter engine system model. Components and attributes of candidate fiber optic sensors are identified, and evaluation criteria are used in a trade study resulting in favored sensors for each measurand. System architectural ground rules were applied to accomplish an electro-optics architecture for the favored sensors. A key result was a considerable reduction in signal conductors. Drawings, schematics, specifications, and printed circuit board layouts describe the detailed system design, including application of a planar optical waveguide interface.

  18. Submicrosecond electro-optic switching in the liquid-crystal smectic A phase: The soft-mode ferroelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, G.; Dahl, I.; Keller, P.; Kuczyński, W.; Lagerwall, S. T.; Skarp, K.; Stebler, B.

    1987-08-01

    A new liquid-crystal electro-optic modulating device similar to the surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid-crystal device is described. It uses the same kind of ferroelectric chiral smectics and the same geometry as that device (thin sample in the ``bookshelf '' layer arrangement) but instead of using a tilted smectic phase like the C* phase, it utilizes the above-lying, nonferroelectric A phase, taking advantage of the electroclinic effect. The achievable optical intensity modulation that can be detected through the full range of the A phase is considerably lower than for the surface-stabilized device, but the response is much faster. Furthermore, the response is strictly linear with respect to the applied electric field. The device concept is thus appropriate for modulator rather than for display applications. We describe the underlying physics and present measurements of induced tilt angle, of light modulation depth, and of rise time.

  19. Development of zwitterionic chromophores for electro-optic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying

    In order to unlock the full potential of the zwitterionic NLO chromophores for electro-optic (EO) applications, a new series of PeQDM chromophores with large first hyperpolarizabilities (beta0 ˜ 600 x 10-30 esu) have been designed and synthesized. A large EO coefficient (r33) of 110 pm/V at 1550 nm has been realized with a 5 wt% (corresponding to 3.8 wt% core content) chromophore doped polymer. The EO study of guest-host polymers reveals that dipolar dye aggregation in a less polar medium is responsible for a low chromophore loading and low EO activity. Modification of NLO chromophore by attaching large dendrons can effectively increase the chromophore loading in a host and improve the poling efficiency. Crosslinkable NLO polymers have also been prepared to improve the temporal stability of the poled noncentrosymmetric order. The following are some important highlights from this thesis work. (1) A series of thermally stable zwitterionic chromophores (PeQDM) with large first hyperpolarizabilities (beta up to -1797 x 10-30 esu) are synthesized in good yields (˜ 50%). The charge-separated ground state is evident by a negative solvatochromism. X-ray crystallographic data further confirms the zwitterionic nature and demonstrates a face-to-face anti-parallel H-aggregation of two monomers due to strong electrostatic interactions between the dipoles. (2) PeQDM chromophores are also NIR fluorescent (lambdaPL ˜ 840-870 nm in solution) and labile to acid, making them potential candidates for NIR pH sensor applications. (3) The hydroxyl-containing PeQDM chromophores are modified with ES-dendron, which exhibit good solubility in solvents and polymers. Self-forming films can be prepared by direct casting or spin-coating of two dendrons modified chromophores (ES-PeQDM-2 and ES-PeQDM-3), in which the chromophore core contents reach 14.9 and 16.9 wt%, respectively. Compared to ES-PeQDM-2 with two dendrons only at the donor part (r33 = 0 pm/V), ES-PeQDM-3 with the bulky ES

  20. Progress in nano-electro optics characterization of nano-optical materials and optical near-field interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2005-01-01

    This volume focuses on the characterization of nano-optical materials and optical-near field interactions. It begins with the techniques for characterizing the magneto-optical Kerr effect and continues with methods to determine structural and optical properties in high-quality quantum wires with high spatial uniformity. Further topics include: near-field luminescence mapping in InGaN/GaN single quantum well structures in order to interpret the recombination mechanism in InGaN-based nano-structures; and theoretical treatment of the optical near field and optical near-field interactions, providing the basis for investigating the signal transport and associated dissipation in nano-optical devices. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  1. Electro-optic chaotic system based on the reverse-time chaos theory and a nonlinear hybrid feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingxing; Cheng, Mengfan; Luo, Fengguang; Deng, Lei; Fu, Songnian; Ke, Changjian; Zhang, Minming; Tang, Ming; Shum, Ping; Liu, Deming

    2016-12-12

    A novel electro-optic chaos source is proposed on the basis of the reverse-time chaos theory and an analog-digital hybrid feedback loop. The analog output of the system can be determined by the numeric states of shift registers, which makes the system robust and easy to control. The dynamical properties as well as the complexity dependence on the feedback parameters are investigated in detail. The correlation characteristics of the system are also studied. Two improving strategies which were established in digital field and analog field are proposed to conceal the time-delay signature. The proposed scheme has the potential to be used in radar and optical secure communication systems.

  2. Tests, measurements, and characterization of electro-optic devices and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadekar, S.G.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on tests, measurements and characterization of electro-optic devices and systems. Topics covered include: Measurement of spectral dynamics in single-quantum-well lasers, High power computer controlled laser diode characterization tester, and Laser diode characterization instrumentation

  3. High-power electro-optic switch technology based on novel transparent ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-Jiao, Zhang; Qing, Ye; Rong-Hui, Qu; Hai-wen, Cai

    2016-03-01

    A novel high-power polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology based on a reciprocal structure Sagnac interferometer and a transparent quadratic electro-optic ceramic is proposed and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The electro-optic ceramic is used as a phase retarder for the clockwise and counter-clockwise polarized light, and their polarization directions are adjusted to their orthogonal positions by using two half-wave plates. The output light then becomes polarization-independent with respect to the polarization direction of the input light. The switch characteristics, including splitter ratios and polarization states, are theoretically analyzed and simulated in detail by the matrix multiplication method. An experimental setup is built to verify the analysis and experimental results. A new component ceramic is used and a non-polarizing cube beam splitter (NPBS) replaces the beam splitter (BS) to lower the ON/OFF voltage to 305 V and improve the extinction ratio by 2 dB. Finally, the laser-induced damage threshold for the proposed switch is measured and discussed. It is believed that potential applications of this novel polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology will be wide, especially for ultrafast high-power laser systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61137004, 61405218, and 61535014).

  4. Assessment of Spacecraft Operational Status Using Electro-Optical Predictive Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    panel appendages, may require enhanced preflight characterization processes to support monitoring by passive, remote, nonimaging optical sensors...observing and characterizing key spacecraft features. The simulation results are based on electro-optical signatures apparent to nonimaging sensors, along...and communication equipment, may require enhanced preflight characterization processes to support monitoring by passive, remote, nonimaging optical

  5. Proceedings of the IEEE laser and electro-optics society annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.J.B.; Raney, H.; Raney, D.; Spalaris, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    This book is covered under the following headings: Electro-optic systems; Emerging laser technology; Optical sensors and measurements; Optoelectronics; Semiconductor diode lasers; Solid state lasers; UV and short wavelength; Applied optical diagnostics of semiconductor materials and devices symposium and optical sensors and measurements; and Applied optical diagnostics of semiconductor materials and devices symposium

  6. High-power electro-optic switch technology based on novel transparent ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue-Jiao; Ye Qing; Qu Rong-Hui; Cai Hai-wen

    2016-01-01

    A novel high-power polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology based on a reciprocal structure Sagnac interferometer and a transparent quadratic electro-optic ceramic is proposed and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The electro-optic ceramic is used as a phase retarder for the clockwise and counter-clockwise polarized light, and their polarization directions are adjusted to their orthogonal positions by using two half-wave plates. The output light then becomes polarization-independent with respect to the polarization direction of the input light. The switch characteristics, including splitter ratios and polarization states, are theoretically analyzed and simulated in detail by the matrix multiplication method. An experimental setup is built to verify the analysis and experimental results. A new component ceramic is used and a non-polarizing cube beam splitter (NPBS) replaces the beam splitter (BS) to lower the ON/OFF voltage to 305 V and improve the extinction ratio by 2 dB. Finally, the laser-induced damage threshold for the proposed switch is measured and discussed. It is believed that potential applications of this novel polarization-independent electro-optic switch technology will be wide, especially for ultrafast high-power laser systems. (paper)

  7. Electro-optical effect of a magnetically biased ferronematic liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S H; Liang, B J

    1988-09-01

    The electro-optical effect of a magnetically biased ferronematic liquid-crystal film is investigated by using birefringence measurements. When a magnetic field is applied, the threshold voltage of the Freedericksz transition no longer exists. The dependence of the birefringence on the magnetic field strength in the low field regime is presented. A theory that accounts for the results is given.

  8. Quantum nondemolition measurement with a nonclassical meter input and an electro-optic enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchler, B.C.; Bachor, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical quantum nondemolition measurements are performed using a beamsplitter with a nonclassical meter input and a electro-optic feedforward loop. The nonclassical meter input is provided by a stable 4.5 dB amplitude squeezed source generated by an optical parametric amplifier. We show...

  9. Giant quadratic electro-optical effect during polarization switching in ultrathin ferroelectric polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L. M., E-mail: lev39blinov@gmail.com; Lazarev, V V; Palto, S P; Yudin, S G [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-15

    The low-frequency quadratic electro-optical effect with a maximum electro-optical coefficient of g = 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -19} m{sup 2}/V{sup 2} (i.e., four orders of magnitude greater than the standard high-frequency value) has been studied in thin films of ferroelectric polymer PVDF(70%)-TrFE(30%). The observed effect is related to the process of spontaneous polarization switching, during which the electron oscillators of C-F and C-H dipole groups rotate to become parallel to the applied field. As a result, the ellipsoid of the refractive index exhibits narrowing in the direction perpendicular to the field. The field dependence of the electro-optical coefficient g correlates with that of the apparent dielectric permittivity, which can be introduced under the condition of ferroelectric polarization switching. The observed electro-optical effect strongly decreases when the frequency increases up to several hundred hertz. The temperature dependence of the effect exhibits clearly pronounced hysteresis in the region of the ferroelectric phase transition.

  10. Large-area Fabry-Perot modulator based on electro-optic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benter, Nils; Bertram, Ralph Peter; Soergel, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    We present a large-area electro-optic Fabry-Perot modulator utilizing a photoaddressable bis-azo polymer placed between two dielectric mirrors with an open aperture of 2 cm. A modulation efficientcy of 1% at an effective modulation voltage of 20 V for a wavelength of 1.55 mymeter is demonstrated...

  11. Development of Articulated Competency-Based Curriculum in Laser/Electro-Optics Technology. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzerne County Community Coll., Nanticoke, PA.

    A project was conducted at the Community College of Luzerne County (Pennsylvania) to develop, in cooperation with area vocational-technical schools, the first year of a competency-based curriculum in laser/electro-optics technology. Existing programs were reviewed and private sector input was sought in developing the curriculum and identifying…

  12. Extreme nonlinear terahertz electro-optics in diamond for ultrafast pulse switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Mostafa; Vicario, Carlo; Hauri, Christoph P.

    2017-03-01

    Polarization switching of picosecond laser pulses is a fundamental concept in signal processing [C. Chen and G. Liu, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 203 (1986); V. R. Almeida et al., Nature 431, 1081 (2004); and A. A. P. Pohl et al., Photonics Sens. 3, 1 (2013)]. Conventional switching devices rely on the electro-optical Pockels effect and work at radio frequencies. The ensuing gating time of several nanoseconds is a bottleneck for faster switches which is set by the performance of state-of-the-art high-voltage electronics. Here we show that by substituting the electric field of several kV/cm provided by modern electronics by the MV/cm field of a single-cycle THz laser pulse, the electro-optical gating process can be driven orders of magnitude faster, at THz frequencies. In this context, we introduce diamond as an exceptional electro-optical material and demonstrate a pulse gating time as fast as 100 fs using sub-cycle THz-induced Kerr nonlinearity. We show that THz-induced switching in the insulator diamond is fully governed by the THz pulse shape. The presented THz-based electro-optical approach overcomes the bandwidth and switching speed limits of conventional MHz/GHz electronics and establishes the ultrafast electro-optical gating technology for the first time in the THz frequency range. We finally show that the presented THz polarization gating technique is applicable for advanced beam diagnostics. As a first example, we demonstrate tomographic reconstruction of a THz pulse in three dimensions.

  13. Research on a Micro-Nano Si/SiGe/Si Double Heterojunction Electro-Optic Modulation Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The electro-optic modulator is a very important device in silicon photonics, which is responsible for the conversion of optical signals and electrical signals. For the electro-optic modulator, the carrier density of waveguide region is one of the key parameters. The traditional method of increasing carrier density is to increase the external modulation voltage, but this way will increase the modulation loss and also is not conducive to photonics integration. This paper presents a micro-nano Si/SiGe/Si double heterojunction electro-optic modulation structure. Based on the band theory of single heterojunction, the barrier heights are quantitatively calculated, and the carrier concentrations of heterojunction barrier are analyzed. The band and carrier injection characteristics of the double heterostructure structure are simulated, respectively, and the correctness of the theoretical analysis is demonstrated. The micro-nano Si/SiGe/Si double heterojunction electro-optic modulation is designed and tested, and comparison of testing results between the micro-nano Si/SiGe/Si double heterojunction micro-ring electro-optic modulation and the micro-nano Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI micro-ring electro-optic modulation, Free Spectrum Range, 3 dB Bandwidth, Q value, extinction ratio, and other parameters of the micro-nano Si/SiGe/Si double heterojunction micro-ring electro-optic modulation are better than others, and the modulation voltage and the modulation loss are lower.

  14. Applied electro-optics educational and training program with multiple entrance and exit pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Patricia; Zhou, Feng; Zilic, Dorothy

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents an innovative hands-on training program designed to create a pipeline of highly-skilled technical workers for today's workforce economy. The 2+2+2 Pennsylvania Integrated Workforce Leadership Program in Electro-Optics prepares students for a career in this new high-tech field. With seamless transition from high school into college, the program offers the versatility of multiple entrance and exit pathways. After completion of each educational level, students can exit the program with various skill levels, including certificates, an associate's degree, or a bachelor's degree. Launched by Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) in partnership with Lenape Vocational School (Lenape), the 2+2+2 educational pathway program was implemented to promote early training of high-school students. During the first level, students in their junior and/or senior year enroll in four Electro-Optics courses at Lenape. Upon completion of these courses and an Advanced Placement Equivalency course with an appropriate exam score, students can earn a certificate from Lenape for the 15+ credits, which also can be articulated into IUP's associate degree program in Electro-Optics. During the second level, students can earn an associate's degree in Electro-Optics, offered only at the IUP Northpointe Campus. After completion of the Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.), students are prepared to enter the workforce as senior technicians. During the third level, students who have completed the Associate of Science (A.S.) in Electro-Optics have the opportunity to matriculate at IUP's Indiana Campus to earn a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in Applied Physics with a track in Electro-Optics. Hence, the name 2+2+2 refers to getting started in high school, continuing the educational experience with an associate's degree program, and optionally moving on to a bachelor's degree. Consequently, students move from one educational level to the next with advanced credits toward the next

  15. Design of an Electro-Optic Modulator for High Speed Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, David

    The telecommunications and computer technology industries have been requiring higher communications speeds at all levels for devices, components and interconnected systems. Optical devices and optical interconnections are a viable alternative over other traditional technologies such as copper-based interconnections. Latency reductions can be achieved through the use of optical interconnections. Currently, a particular architecture for optical interconnections is being studied at the University of Colorado at Boulder in the EMT/NANO project, called Broadcast Optical Interconnects for Global Communication in Many-Core Chip Multiprocessor. As with most types of networks, including optical networks, one of the most important components are modulators. Therefore adequate design and fabrication techniques for modulators contribute to higher modulation rates which lead to improve the efficiency and reductions in the latency of the optical network. Electro-optical modulators are presented in this study as an alternative to achieve this end. In recent years, nonlinear optical (NLO) materials have been used for the fabrication of high-speed electro-optical modulators. Polymers doped with chromophores are an alternative among NLO materials because they can develop large electro-optic coefficients and low dielectric constants. These two factors are critical for achieving high-speed modulation rates. These polymer-based electro-optical modulators can be fabricated using standard laboratory techniques, such as polymer spin-coating onto substrates, UV bleaching to achieve a refractive index variation and poling techniques to align the chromophores in cured polymers. The design of the electro-optic modulators require the use of the optical parameters of the materials to be used. Therefore the characterization of these materials is a required previous step. This characterization is performed by the fabrication of chromophores-doped polymer samples and conducting transmission and

  16. Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, T.P.

    1977-01-01

    Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)

  17. The linear canonical transformation : definition and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, Martin J.; Alieva, Tatiana; Healy, J.J.; Kutay, M.A.; Ozaktas, H.M.; Sheridan, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the class of linear canonical transformations, which includes as particular cases the Fourier transformation (and its generalization: the fractional Fourier transformation), the Fresnel transformation, and magnifier, rotation and shearing operations. The basic properties

  18. Numerical simulation and optimal design of Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for Electro-Optical Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qiuhui; Shen, Yijie; Yuan, Meng; Gong, Mali

    2017-12-01

    Segmented Planar Imaging Detector for Electro-Optical Reconnaissance (SPIDER) is a cutting-edge electro-optical imaging technology to realize miniaturization and complanation of imaging systems. In this paper, the principle of SPIDER has been numerically demonstrated based on the partially coherent light theory, and a novel concept of adjustable baseline pairing SPIDER system has further been proposed. Based on the results of simulation, it is verified that the imaging quality could be effectively improved by adjusting the Nyquist sampling density, optimizing the baseline pairing method and increasing the spectral channel of demultiplexer. Therefore, an adjustable baseline pairing algorithm is established for further enhancing the image quality, and the optimal design procedure in SPIDER for arbitrary targets is also summarized. The SPIDER system with adjustable baseline pairing method can broaden its application and reduce cost under the same imaging quality.

  19. Method and apparatus for the electro-optic convolution of a one-dimensional signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Procedure for the electro-optic convolution of a signal and a filter function, whereby the one dimensional electro-optical signal would be portrayed as a line along which the clarity varies and whereby filter function is determined by one or more masks, whilst after each mask is placed a light detector, with which the light passing through the masks may be detected, whilst a one-dimensional portrayal of the signal along the masks will be developed, characterised in that a one dimensional portrayal of the signal, with the aid of an optical system in a direction across the line, will be enlarged, and that this enlarged signal in the direction of the line along the masks will be affected which the masks closing fields will contain, which are either fully transparent or are fully non-transparent. (Auth.)

  20. Improvement of chirped pulse contrast using electro-optic birefringence scanning filter method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Shuguang; Wang Xianglin; Wang Qishan; Zhang Bin; Sun Nianchun; Wang Fei

    2013-01-01

    A method using scanning filter to improve the contrast of chirped pulse is proposed, and the principle of this method is analyzed. The scanning filter is compared with the existing pulse-picking technique and nonlinear filtering technique. The scanning filter is a temporal gate that is independent on the intensity of the pulses, but on the instantaneous wavelengths of light. Taking the electro-optic birefringence scanning filter as an example, the application of scanning filter methods is illustrated. Based on numerical simulation and experimental research, it is found that the electro-optic birefringence scanning filter can eliminate a prepulse which is several hundred picoseconds before the main pulse, and the main pulse can maintain a high transmissivity. (authors)

  1. Dielectric and electro-optical parameters of two ferroelectric liquid crystals: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Misra, Abhishek; Kumar Srivastava, Abhishek; Shukla, J P; Manohar, Rajiv

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric relaxation and an electro-optical study of two ferroelectric liquid crystals having different spontaneous polarizations (Felix 16/100 and Felix 17/000) showing SmC* and SmA phases have been performed in the temperature range 30-80 compfn C. The experimental data have been used to determine different relaxation parameters, viz. distribution parameter, relaxation frequency, dielectric strength and rotational viscosity. The Goldstone mode of dielectric permittivity has been well observed for both the samples under investigation. The activation energy of both the samples has also been determined by the best theoretical fitting of the Arrhenius plot. We have also evaluated the optical response time and anchoring energy coefficients from electro-optical measurement techniques for these samples.

  2. Complete achromatic and robustness electro-optic switch between two integrated optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Kyoseva, Elica

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel design of electro-optic modulator and optical switching device, based on current integrated optics technique. The advantages of our optical switching device are broadband of input light wavelength, robustness against varying device length and operation voltages, with reference to previous design. Conforming to our results of previous paper [Huang et al, phys. lett. a, 90, 053837], the coupling of the waveguides has a hyperbolic-secant shape. while detuning has a sign flip at maximum coupling, we called it as with a sign flip of phase mismatch model. The a sign flip of phase mismatch model can produce complete robust population transfer. In this paper, we enhance this device to switch light intensity controllable, by tuning external electric field based on electro-optic effect.

  3. Pulsed-diode-pumped, all-solid-state, electro-optically controlled picosecond Nd:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunkov, Mikhail V; Shabalin, Yu V; Konyashkin, A V; Kostryukov, P V; Olenin, A N; Tunkin, V G; Morozov, V B; Rusov, V A; Telegin, L S; Yakovlev, D V

    2005-01-01

    The results of the development of repetitively pulsed, diode-pumped, electro-optically controlled picosecond Nd:YAG lasers of two designs are presented. The first design uses the active-passive mode locking with electro-optical lasing control and semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM). This design allows the generation of 15-50-ps pulses with an energy up to 0.5 mJ and a maximum pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz. The laser of the second design generates 30-ps pulses due to combination of positive and negative electro-optical feedback and the control of the electro-optical modulator by the photocurrent of high-speed semiconductor structures. (active media. lasers)

  4. Electro-optical measurements of 3D-stc detectors fabricated at ITC-irst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Department of ICT, University of Trento, via Sommarive, 14 - 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)], E-mail: zoboli@dit.unitn.it; Boscardin, Maurizio [ITC-irst, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 - 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, Luciano [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Trieste, via A. Valerio, 2 - 34127 Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Department of ICT, University of Trento, via Sommarive, 14 - 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Piemonte, Claudio; Pozza, Alberto; Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola [ITC-irst, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 - 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    In the past two years 3D silicon radiation detectors have been developed at ITC-irst (Trento, Italy). As a first step toward full 3D devices, simplified structures featuring columnar electrodes of one doping type only were fabricated. This paper reports the electro-optical characterization of 3D test diodes made with this approach. Experimental results and TCAD simulations provide good insight into the charge collection mechanism and response speed limitation of these structures.

  5. Measurement of strains at high temperatures by means of electro-optics holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, G.; Vaitekunas, Jeffrey

    Electro-optics holographic-moire interferometry is used to measure strains at temperatures up to 1000 C. A description of the instrumentation developed to carry out the measurements is given. The data processing technique is also explained. Main problems encountered in recording patterns at high temperatures are analyzed and possible solutions are outlined. Optical results are compared with strain gage values obtained with instrumented specimens and with theoretical results. Very good agreement is found between optical, strain gage and theoretical results.

  6. Optical logic gates based on electro-optic modulation with Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiliang; Zhu, Mengyun; Li, Dongqiang; Zhang, Zhen; Wei, Yizhen; Hu, Miao; Zhou, Xuefang; Tang, Xianghong

    2014-07-20

    In this work, we present a new structure to realize optical logic operation in a Sagnac interferometer with electro-optical modulation. In the scheme, we divide two counterpropagation signals in a Sagnac loop to two different arms with the electro-optical crystal by using two circulators. Lithium niobate materials whose electro-optical coefficient can be as large as 32.2×10(-12)  m/V make up the arms of the waveguides. Using the transfer matrix of the fiber coupler, we analyze the propagation of signals in this system and obtain the transmission characteristic curves and the extinction ratio. The results indicate that this optical switching has a high extinction ratio of about 60 dB and an ultrafast response time of 2.036 ns. In addition, the results reveal that the change of the dephasing between the two input signals and the modification of the modulation voltage added to the electro-optical crystal leads to the change of the extinction ratio. We also conclude that, in cases of the dephasing of two initial input signals Δφ=0, we can obtain the various logical operations, such as the logical operations D=A¯·B, D=A·B¯, C=A+B, and D=A⊕B in ports C and D of the system by adjusting the modulation voltage. When Δφ≠0, we obtain the arithmetic operations D=A+B, C=A⊕B, D=A·B¯, and C=A¯·B in ports C and D. This study is significant for the design of all optical networks by adjusting the modulation voltage.

  7. Electro-optical study of nanoscale Al-Si-truncated conical photodetector with subwavelength aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelits, Matityahu; Mandelbaum, Yaakov; Chelly, Avraham; Karsenty, Avi

    2017-10-01

    A type of silicon photodiode has been designed and simulated to probe the optical near field and detect evanescent waves. These waves convey subwavelength resolution. This photodiode consists of a truncated conical shaped, silicon Schottky diode having a subwavelength aperture of 150 nm. Electrical and electro-optical simulations have been conducted. These results are promising toward the fabrication of a new generation of photodetector devices.

  8. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs for compact, low power ToF PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, Matthew F; Levin, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate time of flight (ToF) performance from analog electro-optical transmission of SiPM-based PET detector signals. In electro-optical readout schemes, scintillation signals are converted to near-infrared light by a laser diode and transmitted out of the MRI bore with fiber-optics [], greatly reducing the PET system's footprint, power consumption, and mutual interference with the MRI.

  9. Novel Electro-Optical Coupling Technique for Magnetic Resonance-Compatible Positron Emission Tomography Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Olcott

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-compatible positron emission tomography (PET detector design is being developed that uses electro-optical coupling to bring the amplitude and arrival time information of high-speed PET detector scintillation pulses out of an MRI system. The electro-optical coupling technology consists of a magnetically insensitive photodetector output signal connected to a nonmagnetic vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL diode that is coupled to a multimode optical fiber. This scheme essentially acts as an optical wire with no influence on the MRI system. To test the feasibility of this approach, a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a single pixel of a solid-state photomultiplier array was placed in coincidence with a lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube with both the new nonmagnetic VCSEL coupling and the standard coaxial cable signal transmission scheme. No significant change was observed in 511 keV photopeak energy resolution and coincidence time resolution. This electro-optical coupling technology enables an MRI-compatible PET block detector to have a reduced electromagnetic footprint compared with the signal transmission schemes deployed in the current MRI/PET designs.

  10. Novel electro-optical coupling technique for magnetic resonance-compatible positron emission tomography detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, Peter D; Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S

    2009-01-01

    A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible positron emission tomography (PET) detector design is being developed that uses electro-optical coupling to bring the amplitude and arrival time information of high-speed PET detector scintillation pulses out of an MRI system. The electro-optical coupling technology consists of a magnetically insensitive photodetector output signal connected to a nonmagnetic vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diode that is coupled to a multimode optical fiber. This scheme essentially acts as an optical wire with no influence on the MRI system. To test the feasibility of this approach, a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a single pixel of a solid-state photomultiplier array was placed in coincidence with a lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube with both the new nonmagnetic VCSEL coupling and the standard coaxial cable signal transmission scheme. No significant change was observed in 511 keV photopeak energy resolution and coincidence time resolution. This electro-optical coupling technology enables an MRI-compatible PET block detector to have a reduced electromagnetic footprint compared with the signal transmission schemes deployed in the current MRI/PET designs.

  11. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-01

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  12. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-15

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  13. Electro-optic architecture (EOA) for sensors and actuators in aircraft propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, W. L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study to design an optimal architecture for electro-optical sensing and control in advanced aircraft and space systems are described. The propulsion full authority digital Electronic Engine Control (EEC) was the focus for the study. The recommended architecture is an on-engine EEC which contains electro-optic interface circuits for fiber-optic sensors on the engine. Size and weight are reduced by multiplexing arrays of functionally similar sensors on a pair of optical fibers to common electro-optical interfaces. The architecture contains common, multiplex interfaces to seven sensor groups: (1) self luminous sensors; (2) high temperatures; (3) low temperatures; (4) speeds and flows; (5) vibration; (6) pressures; and (7) mechanical positions. Nine distinct fiber-optic sensor types were found to provide these sensing functions: (1) continuous wave (CW) intensity modulators; (2) time division multiplexing (TDM) digital optic codeplates; (3) time division multiplexing (TDM) analog self-referenced sensors; (4) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) digital optic code plates; (5) wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) analog self-referenced intensity modulators; (6) analog optical spectral shifters; (7) self-luminous bodies; (8) coherent optical interferometers; and (9) remote electrical sensors. The report includes the results of a trade study including engine sensor requirements, environment, the basic sensor types, and relevant evaluation criteria. These figures of merit for the candidate interface types were calculated from the data supplied by leading manufacturers of fiber-optic sensors.

  14. High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Jeremy D.; Valery, Joseph A.; Arrangoiz-Arriola, Patricio; Sarabalis, Christopher J.; Hill, Jeff T.; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.

    2017-04-01

    Future quantum networks, in which superconducting quantum processors are connected via optical links, will require microwave-to-optical photon converters that preserve entanglement. A doubly-resonant electro-optic modulator (EOM) is a promising platform to realize this conversion. Here, we present our progress towards building such a modulator by demonstrating the optically-resonant half of the device. We demonstrate high quality (Q) factor ring, disk and photonic crystal resonators using a hybrid silicon-on-lithium-niobate material system. Optical Q factors up to 730,000 are achieved, corresponding to propagation loss of 0.8 dB/cm. We also use the electro-optic effect to modulate the resonance frequency of a photonic crystal cavity, achieving a electro-optic modulation coefficient between 1 and 2 pm/V. In addition to quantum technology, we expect that our results will be useful both in traditional silicon photonics applications and in high-sensitivity acousto-optic devices.

  15. Electro-optic modulation measurement technique and enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Shim

    2005-01-01

    indeks bølgeleder blev påbegyndt. Når denne koefficient opnås i en sådan bølgeleder vil fremtidige forsøg kunne fastlægge hvor stor den inducerede ikke-lineare koefficient i silicium kan blive. Fremtidige forsøg vil også fastlægge om den inducerede effekt eksisterer for hurtig elektrisk modulation....

  16. Electro-optical phenomena based on ionic liquids in an optofluidic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaodong; Shao, Qunfeng; Cao, Pengfei; Kong, Weijie; Sun, Jiqian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Deng, Youquan

    2015-03-07

    An optofluidic waveguide with a simple two-terminal electrode geometry, when filled with an ionic liquid (IL), forms a lateral electric double-layer capacitor under a direct current (DC) electric field, which allows the realization of an extremely high carrier density in the vicinity of the electrode surface and terminals to modulate optical transmission at room temperature under low voltage operation (0 to 4 V). The unique electro-optical phenomenon of ILs was investigated at three wavelengths (663, 1330 and 1530 nm) using two waveguide geometries. Strong electro-optical modulations with different efficiencies were observed at the two near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, while no detectable modulation was observed at 663 nm. The first waveguide geometry was used to investigate the position-dependent modulation along the waveguide; the strongest modulation was observed in the vicinity of the electrode terminal. The modulation phase is associated with the applied voltage polarity, which increases in the vicinity of the negative electrode and decreases at the positive electrode. The second waveguide geometry was used to improve the modulation efficiency. Meanwhile, the electro-optical modulations of seven ILs were compared at an applied voltage ranging from ±2 V to ±3.5 V. The results reveal that the modulation amplitude and response speed increase with increasing applied voltage, as well as the electrical conductivity of ILs. Despite the fact that the response speed isn't fast due to the high ionic density of ILs, the modulation amplitude can reach up to 6.0 dB when a higher voltage (U = ±3.5 V) is applied for the IL [Emim][BF4]. Finally, the physical explanation of the phenomenon was discussed. The effect of the change in IL structure on the electro-optical phenomena was investigated in another new experiment. The results reveal that the electro-optical phenomenon is probably caused mainly by the change in carrier concentration (ion redistribution near charged

  17. Electric field measurements with electro-optical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, R.

    1992-03-01

    When electric field calculations on the surface of electrodes and electrical insulation present difficulties due to complex geometries and diverse dielectric properties, it is sometimes very useful to resort to direct measurements. However, conventional probes, based on the capacitive effect, are not quite suitable for this purpose due to strong perturbations introduced by probes themselves and to difficulties in isolating the sensors from the instrumentation at points of measurement with a high potential. To avoid these difficulties, a measurement system was developed which incorporates a Pockels effect crystal sensor, a moveable HeNe laser beam for signal transmission and beam polarization modulation, and a laser beam analyzer which detects variations in polarization induced by the sensor. This paper describes the key design, operation and performance characteristics of this device

  18. Emerging electro-optical technologies for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Ser, W.; Er, Meng H.; Chan, Philip

    1999-11-01

    Technological breakthroughs in the field of imaging and non- imaging sensor sand the related signal processors helped the military users to achieve 'force multiplication'. Present day 'smart-weapon systems' are being converted to 'brilliant-weapon systems' to bridge the gap until the most potent new 'fourth generation systems' come on line based on nanotechnology. The recent military tactics have evolved to take advantage of ever improving technologies to improve the quality and performance over time. The drive behind these technologies is to get a first-pass-mission-success against the target with negligible collateral damage, protecting property and the lives of non-combatants. These technologies revolve around getting target information, detection, designation, guidance, aim-point selection, and mission accomplishment. The effectiveness of these technologies is amply demonstrated during recent wars. This paper brings out the emerging trends in visible/IR/radar smart-sensors and the related signal processing technologies that lead to brilliant guided weapon systems. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview to the readers about futuristic systems. This paper also addresses various system configurations including sensor-fusion.

  19. Nanomaterials for LightManagement in Electro-Optical Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, Vo-Van [Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, H4B 1R6, Canada; Singh, Jai [Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia; Tanemura, Sakae [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya, Japan; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, nanostructured materials and nanoparticles have emerged as the necessary ingredients for electrooptical applications and enhancement of device performance, in particular by making use of the light management aspects of the nanomaterials. The application areas that are being transformed profoundly include smart coating devices (e.g., electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic devices), solar energy, and sensing. Despite the large volume of work in the past on smart coating devices, and in particular on electrochromic devices and thermochromic fenestrations, for optical transmission or reflection control, applications remain limited because of slow response time and nonuniformity in the case of large surfaces. Recent works in the field indicate that nanostructured electrochromic coatings would be an integral part of the solution to the above problem. One aspect that can thus be focused on would be the fabrication and characterization of the nanostructured smart coating materials and their compatibility with other layers in the overall smart coating device. In the area of solar photovoltaics, nanomaterials have been used in designing light-trapping schemes for inorganic as well as organic solar cells. One particular category of solar cells that has attracted much interest is the plasmonic solar cells in which metallic nanoparticles are incorporated, helping in enhancing their energy conversion efficiency. Nanostructured solar cells would eventually develop into a 'game changing' technology for making solar cells that are affordable and highly efficient, providing a sizeable alternative energy source for our ever-increasing energy needs. Sensors based on the optical properties of constituting nanostructures and nanoparticles also form a most interesting class of bio- and electrochemical sensing devices. The possibility of synthetizing nanoparticles and structures of specifically desired sizes and shapes has indeed opened a whole new

  20. Wannier–Stark electro-optical effect, quasi-guided and photonic modes in 2D macroporous silicon structures with SiO_2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachevtseva, L.; Goltviansky, Yu.; Sapelnikova, O.; Lytvynenko, O.; Stronska, O.; Bo, Wang; Kartel, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The IR absorption spectra of oxidized macroporous silicon were studied. • The Wannier–Stark electro-optical effect on Si-SiO_2 boundary was confirmed. • An additional electric field of quasi-guided optical modes was evaluated. • The photonic modes and band gaps were measured as peculiarities in absorption spectra. - Abstract: Opportunities to enhance the properties of structured surfaces were demonstrated on 2D macroporous silicon structures with SiO_2 coatings. We investigated the IR light absorption oscillations in macroporous silicon structures with SiO2 coatings 0–800 nm thick. The Wannier–Stark electro-optical effect due to strong electric field on Si-SiO_2boundary and an additional electric field of quasi-guided optical modes were taken into account. The photonic modes and band gaps were also considered as peculiarities in absorbance spectra of macroporous silicon structures with a thick SiO_2 coating. The photonic modes do not coincide with the quasi-guided modes in the silicon matrix and do not appear in absorption spectra of 2D macroporous silicon structures with surface nanocrystals.

  1. Dense electro-optic frequency comb generated by two-stage modulation for dual-comb spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Fan, Xinyu; Xu, Bingxin; He, Zuyuan

    2017-10-01

    An electro-optic frequency comb enables frequency-agile comb-based spectroscopy without using sophisticated phase-locking electronics. Nevertheless, dense electro-optic frequency combs over broad spans have yet to be developed. In this Letter, we propose a straightforward and efficient method for electro-optic frequency comb generation with a small line spacing and a large span. This method is based on two-stage modulation: generating an 18 GHz line-spacing comb at the first stage and a 250 MHz line-spacing comb at the second stage. After generating an electro-optic frequency comb covering 1500 lines, we set up an easily established mutually coherent hybrid dual-comb interferometer, which combines the generated electro-optic frequency comb and a free-running mode-locked laser. As a proof of concept, this hybrid dual-comb interferometer is used to measure the absorption and dispersion profiles of the molecular transition of H 13 CN with a spectral resolution of 250 MHz.

  2. Characteristics of Electro-Optic Device Using Conducting Polymers, Polythiophene and Polypyrrole Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneto, Keiichi; Yoshino, Katsumi; Inuishi, Yoshio

    1983-07-01

    Detailed characteristics of electro-optic elements (color switching and memory) utilizing the spectral change of conducting polymers by electrochemical doping and undoping are studied. The response time of color switching, for example, red≤ftrightarrowblue in polythiophene film in the electrolyte of LiBF4/acetonitrile is 30˜100 msec under the applied voltages of -2.0{≤ftrightarrow}+4.0 V vs. Li plate. More than 103 cycles of color switch are observed quite reproducibly. Three color states of yellow green, dark brown and blue are demonstrated for polypyrrole film.

  3. Microring resonator based modulator made by direct photodefinition of an electro-optic polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, M.; Faccini, M.; Diemeer, M. B. J.; Klein, E. J.; Sengo, G.; Driessen, A.; Verboom, W.; Reinhoudt, D. N.

    2008-04-01

    A laterally coupled microring resonator was fabricated by direct photodefinition of negative photoresist SU8, containing tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene chromophore, by exploiting the low ultraviolet absorption window of this chromophore. The ring resonator was first photodefined by slight cross-linking. Thereafter, poling (to align the chromophores) and further cross-linking (to increase the glass transition temperature) were simultaneously carried out. The material showed excellent photostability and the electro-optic modulation with an r33 of 11pm/V was demonstrated at 10MHz.

  4. Ultracompact electro-optic phase modulator based on III-V-on-silicon microdisk resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, J; Kumar, R; Sales, S; Ramos, F; Morthier, G; Mechet, P; Spuesens, T; Van Thourhout, D; Olivier, N; Fédéli, J-M; Capmany, J

    2012-06-15

    A novel ultracompact electro-optic phase modulator based on a single 9 μm-diameter III-V microdisk resonator heterogeneously integrated on and coupled to a nanophotonic waveguide is presented. Modulation is enabled by effective index modification through carrier injection. Proof-of-concept implementation involving binary phase shift keying modulation format is assembled. A power imbalance of ∼0.6  dB between both symbols and a modulation rate up to 1.8 Gbps are demonstrated without using any special driving technique.

  5. Ultra-fast solid state electro-optical modulator based on liquid crystal polymer and liquid crystal composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouskova, Elena; Sio, Luciano De, E-mail: luciano@beamco.com; Vergara, Rafael; Tabiryan, Nelson [Beam Engineering for Advanced Measurements Company, Winter Park, Florida 32789 (United States); White, Timothy J.; Bunning, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7707 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    A different generation of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) based on a liquid crystalline polymer host is reported wherein the fluid behavior of the reactive mesogenic monomer is an enabler to concentration windows (liquid crystal polymer/liquid crystal) (and subsequent morphologies) not previously explored. These liquid crystal (LC) polymer/LC composites, LCPDLCs, exhibit excellent optical and electro-optical properties with negligible scattering losses in both the ON and OFF states. These systems thus have application in systems where fast phase modulation of optical signal instead of amplitude control is needed. Polarized optical microscopy and high resolution scanning electron microscopy confirm a bicontinuous morphology composed of aligned LC polymer coexisting with a phase separated LC fluid. Operating voltages, switching times, and spectra of LCPDLCs compare favourably to conventional PDLC films. The LCPDLCs exhibit a low switching voltage (4–5 V/μm), symmetric and submillisecond (200 μs) on/off response times, and high transmission in both the as formed and switched state in a phase modulation geometry.

  6. A Fabry-Pérot electro-optic sensing system using a drive-current-tuned wavelength laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Kai; Wu, Pei-Yu; Lee, Chang-Ching

    2010-05-01

    A Fabry-Pérot enhanced electro-optic sensing system that utilizes a drive-current-tuned wavelength laser diode is presented. An electro-optic prober made of LiNbO(3) crystal with an asymmetric Fabry-Pérot cavity is used in this system. To lock the wavelength of the laser diode at resonant condition, a closed-loop power control scheme is proposed. Experiment results show that the system can keep the electro-optic prober at high sensitivity for a long working time when the closed-loop control function is on. If this function is off, the sensitivity may be fluctuated and only one-third of the best level in the worst case.

  7. A deterministic guide for material and mode dependence of on-chip electro-optic modulator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Rubab; Suer, Can; Ma, Zhizhen; Sarpkaya, Ibrahim; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sorger, Volker J.

    2017-10-01

    Electro-optic modulation is a key function in optical data communication and possible future optical computing engines. The performance of modulators intricately depends on the interaction between the actively modulated material and the propagating waveguide mode. While high-performing modulators were demonstrated before, the approaches were taken as ad-hoc. Here we show the first systematic investigation to incorporate a holistic analysis for high-performance and ultra-compact electro-optic modulators on-chip. We show that intricate interplay between active modulation material and optical mode plays a key role in the device operation. Based on physical tradeoffs such as index modulation, loss, optical confinement factors and slow-light effects, we find that bias-material-mode regions exist where high phase modulation and high loss (absorption) modulation is found. This work paves the way for a holistic design rule of electro-optic modulators for on-chip integration.

  8. Progress in Nano-Electro-Optics III Industrial Applications and Dynamics of the Nano-Optical System

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2005-01-01

    This unique monograph series "Progress in Nano-Electro Optics" reviews the results of advanced studies of electro-optics on the nanometric scale. This third volume covers the most recent topics of theoretical and experimental interest including classical and quantum optics, organic and inorganic material science and technology, surface science, spectroscopy, atom manipulation, photonics, and electronics. Each chapter is written by one or more leading scientists from the relevant field. Thus, high-quality scientific and technical information is provided to scientists, engineers, and students engaged in nano-electro optics and nanophotonics research. The first two volumes addressed the "Basics and Theory of Near Field Optics" (2002) and "Novel Devices and Atom Manipulation" (2003).

  9. Controlling Fringe Sensitivity of Electro-Optic Holography Systems Using Laser Diode Current Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Shannon J.

    2001-01-01

    Electro-Optic Holography (EOH) is a non-intrusive, laser-based, displacement measurement technique capable of static and dynamic displacement measurements. EOH is an optical interference technique in which fringe patterns that represent displacement contour maps are generated. At excessively large displacements the fringe density may be so great that individual fringes are not resolvable using typical EOH techniques. This thesis focuses on the development and implementation of a method for controlling the sensitivity of the EOH system. This method is known as Frequency Translated Electro-Optic Holography (FTEOH). It was determined that by modulating the current source of the laser diode at integer multiples of the object vibration, the fringe pattern is governed by higher order Bessel function of the first kind and the number of fringes that represent a given displacement can be controlled. The reduction of fringes is theoretically unlimited but physically limited by the frequency bandwidth of the signal generator, providing modulation to the laser diode. Although this research technique has been verified theoretically and experimentally in this thesis, due to the current laser diode capabilities it is a tedious and time consuming process to acquire data using the FTEOH technique.

  10. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ji Feng, E-mail: wjfcom2000@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Graduate School of China Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Key Laboratory of Laser Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chang, Yan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Key Laboratory of Laser Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, Li Qun [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  11. Electro-optical logic gates based on graphene-silicon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Yang, Longzhi; Wang, Pengjun; Zhang, Yawei; Zhou, Liqiang; Yang, Tianjun; Wang, Yang; Yang, Jianyi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, designs of electro-optical AND/NAND, OR/ NOR, XOR/XNOR logic gates based on cascaded silicon graphene switches and regular 2×1 multimode interference combiners are presented. Each switch consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in which silicon slot waveguides embedded with graphene flakes are designed for phase shifters. High-speed switching function is achieved by applying an electrical signal to tune the Fermi levels of graphene flakes causing the variation of modal effective index. Calculation results show the crosstalk in the proposed optical switch is lower than -22.9 dB within a bandwidth from 1510 nm to 1600 nm. The designed six electro-optical logic gates with the operation speed of 10 Gbit/s have a minimum extinction ratio of 35.6 dB and a maximum insertion loss of 0.21 dB for transverse electric modes at 1.55 μm.

  12. EVALUATION METHOD FOR PARASITIC EFFECTS OF THE ELECTRO-OPTICAL MODULATOR IN A FIBER OPTIC GYROSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Volkovskiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper proposes an original method for studying the parasitic effects in the electro-optic modulator of the fiber optic gyroscope. Proposed method is based on the usage of a special waveform phase modulation signal. Method. The essence of the proposed method lies in modification of serrodyne modulation signal, thereby providing a periodic displacement of the phase difference signal to the maximum of the interference curve. In this case, the intensity level reflects the influence of parasitic effects with the degree of manifestation being determined by the sequence of voltage control signals applied to the modulator. Enumeration of combinations of control signals and the corresponding intensity levels gives the possibility to observe an empirical dependence of the parasitic effects and use it later for compensation. Main Results. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by the program model of the fiber optic gyroscope. The results of the method application on a production sample of the device were obtained. Comparison with the results of direct estimate of the parasitic intensity modulation effect testifies to the effectiveness of the proposed method. Practical Relevance. The method can be used as a diagnostic tool to quantify the influence of parasitic effects in the electro-optic modulator of the fiber optic gyroscope as well as for their subsequent compensation.

  13. Electro-optic sampling for time resolving relativistic ultrafast electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoby, C. M.; Musumeci, P.; Moody, J.; Gutierrez, M.; Tran, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Pegasus laboratory at UCLA features a state-of-the-art electron photoinjector capable of producing ultrashort (<100 fs) high-brightness electron bunches at energies of 3.75 MeV. These beams recently have been used to produce static diffraction patterns from scattering off thin metal foils, and it is foreseen to take advantage of the ultrashort nature of these bunches in future pump-probe time-resolved diffraction studies. In this paper, single shot 2-d electro-optic sampling is presented as a potential technique for time of arrival stamping of electron bunches used for diffraction. Effects of relatively low bunch charge (a few 10's of pC) and modestly relativistic beams are discussed and background compensation techniques to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio are explored. From these preliminary tests, electro-optic sampling is suitable to be a reliable nondestructive time stamping method for relativistic ultrafast electron diffraction at the Pegasus lab.

  14. Graphene as transmissive electrodes and aligning layers for liquid-crystal-based electro-optic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Rajratan; Shalov, Samuel A

    2017-07-01

    In a conventional liquid crystal (LC) cell, polyimide layers are used to align the LC homogeneously in the cell, and transmissive indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes are used to apply the electric field to reorient the LC along the field. It is experimentally presented here that monolayer graphene films on the two glass substrates can function concurrently as the LC aligning layers and the transparent electrodes to fabricate an LC cell, without using the conventional polyimide and ITO substrates. This replacement can effectively decrease the thickness of all the alignment layers and electrodes from about 100 nm to less than 1 nm. The interaction between LC and graphene through π-π electron stacking imposes a planar alignment on the LC in the graphene-based cell-which is verified using a crossed polarized microscope. The graphene-based LC cell exhibits an excellent nematic director reorientation process from planar to homeotropic configuration through the application of an electric field-which is probed by dielectric and electro-optic measurements. Finally, it is shown that the electro-optic switching is significantly faster in the graphene-based LC cell than in a conventional ITO-polyimide LC cell.

  15. Novel RF Interrogation of a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Using Bidirectional Modulation of a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang-Jin; Mao, Wankai; Pan, Jae-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the novel radio-frequency (RF) interrogation of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor using bidirectional modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical modulator (MZ-EOM). Based on the microwave photonic technique and active detection, the transfer function of the proposed system was obtained, and the time delay was calculated from the change in the free spectral range (FSR) at different wavelengths over the optimal measuring range. The results show that the time delay and the wavelength variation have a good linear relationship, with a gradient of 9.31 ps/nm. An actual measurement taken with a sensing FBG for temperature variation shows the relationship with a gradient of 0.93 ps/10 °C. The developed system could be used for FBG temperature or strain sensing and other multiplexed sensor applications. PMID:23820744

  16. Linear factor copula models and their properties

    KAUST Repository

    Krupskii, Pavel; Genton, Marc G.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a special case of factor copula models with additive common factors and independent components. These models are flexible and parsimonious with O(d) parameters where d is the dimension. The linear structure allows one to obtain closed form expressions for some copulas and their extreme‐value limits. These copulas can be used to model data with strong tail dependencies, such as extreme data. We study the dependence properties of these linear factor copula models and derive the corresponding limiting extreme‐value copulas with a factor structure. We show how parameter estimates can be obtained for these copulas and apply one of these copulas to analyse a financial data set.

  17. Linear factor copula models and their properties

    KAUST Repository

    Krupskii, Pavel

    2018-04-25

    We consider a special case of factor copula models with additive common factors and independent components. These models are flexible and parsimonious with O(d) parameters where d is the dimension. The linear structure allows one to obtain closed form expressions for some copulas and their extreme‐value limits. These copulas can be used to model data with strong tail dependencies, such as extreme data. We study the dependence properties of these linear factor copula models and derive the corresponding limiting extreme‐value copulas with a factor structure. We show how parameter estimates can be obtained for these copulas and apply one of these copulas to analyse a financial data set.

  18. Signal transmission in a human body medium-based body sensor network using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jingwen; Jin, Xuefeng; Sun, He

    2012-11-30

    The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO) sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  19. On the design and construction of drifting-mine test targets for sonar, radar and electro-optical detection experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    The timely detection of small hazardous objects at the sea surface, such as drifting mines, is challenging for ship-mounted sensor systems, both for underwater sensor systems like sonar and above-water sensor systems like radar and electro-optics (lidar, infrared/visual cameras). This is due to the

  20. Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We report on a method to obtain a subwavelength resolution in terahertz time-domain imaging. In our method, a sharp copper tip is used to locally distort and concentrate the THz electric field. The distorted electric field, present mainly in the near field of the tip, is electro-optically measured

  1. A 130 GHz Electro-Optic Ring Modulator with Double-Layer Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The optical absorption coefficient of graphene will change after injecting carriers. Based on this principle, a high-speed double-layer graphene electro-optic modulator with a ring resonator structure was designed in this paper. From the numerical simulations, we designed a modulator. Its optical bandwidth is larger than 130 GHz, the switching energy is 0.358 fJ per bit, and the driven voltage is less than 1.2 V. At the same time, the footprint of the proposed modulator is less than 10 microns squared, which makes the process compatible with the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS process. This will provide the possibility for the on-chip integration of the photoelectric device.

  2. Loop-locked coherent population trapping magnetometer based on a fiber electro-optic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Feng, Y Y; Xu, Chi; Xue, H B; Sun, Li

    2014-04-01

    We have set up a coherent population trapping (CPT)-based magnetometer prototype with the D1 line of ⁸⁷Rb atoms. The dichromatic light field is derived from a fiber electro-optic modulator (FEOM) connected to an external cavity laser diode. A CPT resonance signal with a 516 Hz linewidth is observed. By feeding back the derivative of the resonance curve to the FEOM with a proportional integral controller, of which the voltage output is directly converted to the measured magnetic field intensity, the resonance peak is locked to the environmental magnetic field. The measurement data we have achieved are well matched with the data measured by a commercial fluxgate magnetometer within 2 nT, and the sensitivity is better than 8 pT/√Hz in a parallel B field.

  3. Role of misalignment-induced angular chirp in the electro-optic detection of THz waves

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, D A; Pan, R; Snedden, E W; Graham, D M; Gillespie, W A; Jamison, S P

    2014-01-01

    A general description of electro-optic detection including non-collinear phase matching and finite transverse beam profiles is presented. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that non-collinear phase matching in ZnTe (and similar materials) produces an angular chirp in the chi((2))-generated optical signal. Due to this, in non-collinear THz and probe arrangements such as single-shot THz measurements or through accidental misalignment, measurement of an undistorted THz signal is critically dependent on having sufficient angular acceptance in the optical probe path. The associated spatial walk-off can also preclude the phase retardation approximation used in THz-TDS. The rate of misalignment-induced chirping in commonly used ZnTe and GaP schemes is tabulated, allowing ready analysis of a detection system. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America.

  4. Airborne Systems Course Textbook. Electro-Optical Systems Test and Evaluation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    by twice the angle between the reflecting faces. The porro - prism shown in Figure 2.2.3.1(c) is used to deflect the beam by 1800. Beam Retro-Reflection...Reflection of Electromagnetic Radiation at the Interface Between Two Media 2.13 2.2 Optics 2.15 2.2.1 The Lens 2.15 2.2.2 The Mirror 2.25 2.2.3 The Prism 2.30...2.5.2 The Optical Resonator 2.77 2.5.3 Laser Implementation 2.79 2.5.4 Laser Radiation Characteristics 2.81 2.6 Electro-Optical Sensors 2.83 2.6.1

  5. Demonstration of an optical phased array using electro-optic polymer phase shifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshikuni; Motoyama, Yasushi; Tanaka, Katsu; Machida, Kenji; Yamada, Toshiki; Otomo, Akira; Kikuchi, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    We have been investigating an optical phased array (OPA) using electro-optic (EO) polymers in phase shifters to achieve ultrafast optical beam steering. In this paper, we describe the basic structures of the OPA using EO polymer phase shifters and show the beam steering capability of the OPA. The designed OPA has a multimode interference (MMI) beam splitter and 8-channel polymer waveguides with EO polymer phase shifters. We compare 1 × 8 MMI and cascaded 1 × 2 MMI beam splitters numerically and experimentally, and then obtain uniform intensity outputs from the 1 × 8 beam splitter. We fabricate the EO polymer OPA with a 1 × 8 MMI beam splitter to prevent intensity dispersion due to radiation loss in bending waveguides. We also evaluate the optical beam steering capability of the fabricated OPA and found a 2.7° deflection of far-field patterns when applying a voltage difference of 25 V in adjacent phase shifters.

  6. Electro-optical techniques for the investigation of photoplethysmographic signals in human abdominal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriacou, P A; Crerar-Gilber, A; Langford, R M; Jones, D P

    2006-01-01

    There is a need for reliable continuous monitoring of abdominal organ oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ). Splanchnic ischaemia may ultimately lead to cellular hypoxia and necrosis and may well contribute to the development of multiple organ failures and increased mortality. A new reflectance electro-optical photoplethysmographic (PPG) probe and signal processing system were developed. PPG signals from abdominal organs (bowel, liver, and kidney) and the finger were obtained from 12 anaesthetised patients. The amplitudes of the abdominal organ PPGs were, on average, approximately the same as those obtained simultaneously from the finger. These observations suggest that pulse oximetry may be a valid monitoring technique for abdominal organs such as the bowel liver and kidney

  7. Crenelated fast oscillatory outputs of a two-delay electro-optic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weicker, Lionel; Erneux, Thomas; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne; Larger, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    An electro-optic oscillator subject to two distinct delayed feedbacks has been designed to develop pronounced broadband chaotic output. Its route to chaos starts with regular pulsating gigahertz oscillations that we investigate both experimentally and theoretically. Of particular physical interest are the transitions to various crenelated fast time-periodic oscillations, prior to the onset of chaotic regimes. The two-delay problem is described mathematically by two coupled delay-differential equations, which we analyze by using multiple-time-scale methods. We show that the interplay of a large delay and a relatively small delay is responsible for the onset of fast oscillations modulated by a slowly varying square-wave envelope. As the bifurcation parameter progressively increases, this envelope undergoes a sequence of bifurcations that corresponds to successive fixed points of a sine map.

  8. Polymer waveguides for electro-optical integration in data centers and high-performance computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Roger; Hofrichter, Jens; Horst, Folkert; Jubin, Daniel; La Porta, Antonio; Meier, Norbert; Soganci, Ibrahim Murat; Weiss, Jonas; Offrein, Bert Jan

    2015-02-23

    To satisfy the intra- and inter-system bandwidth requirements of future data centers and high-performance computers, low-cost low-power high-throughput optical interconnects will become a key enabling technology. To tightly integrate optics with the computing hardware, particularly in the context of CMOS-compatible silicon photonics, optical printed circuit boards using polymer waveguides are considered as a formidable platform. IBM Research has already demonstrated the essential silicon photonics and interconnection building blocks. A remaining challenge is electro-optical packaging, i.e., the connection of the silicon photonics chips with the system. In this paper, we present a new single-mode polymer waveguide technology and a scalable method for building the optical interface between silicon photonics chips and single-mode polymer waveguides.

  9. A compact plasmonic MOS-based 2×2 electro-optic switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chenran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a three-waveguide electro-optic switch for compact photonic integrated circuits and data routing applications. The device features a plasmonic metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS mode for enhanced light-matter-interactions. The switching mechanism originates from a capacitor-like design where the refractive index of the active medium, indium-tin-oxide, is altered via shifting the plasma frequency due to carrier accumulation inside the waveguide-based MOS structure. This light manipulation mechanism controls the transmission direction of transverse magnetic polarized light into either a CROSS or BAR waveguide port. The extinction ratio of 18 (7 dB for the CROSS (BAR state, respectively, is achieved via a gating voltage bias. The ultrafast broadband fJ/bit device allows for seamless integration with silicon-on-insulator platforms for low-cost manufacturing.

  10. Electro-optical memory of a nematic liquid crystal doped by multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dolgov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A pronounced irreversible electro-optical response (memory effect has been recently observed for nematic liquid crystal (LC EBBA doped by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs near the percolation threshold of the MWCNTs (0.02÷0.05 wt. %. It is caused by irreversible homeotropic-to-planar reorientation of LC in an electric field. This feature is explained by electro-hydrodynamically stimulated dispergation of MWCNTs in LC and by the formation of a percolation MWCNT network which acts as a spatially distributed surface stabilizing the planar state of the LC. This mechanism is confirmed by the absence of memory in the EBBA/MWCNT composites, whose original structure is fixed by a polymer. The observed effect suggests new operation modes for the memory type and bistable LC devices, as well as a method for in situ dispergation of carbon nanotubes in LC cells.

  11. High stable electro-optical cavity-dumped Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y F; Yu, X; Zhang, J W; Li, H

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an electro-optical cavity-dumped 10 Hz Nd:Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (Nd:YAG) laser was demonstrated. We designed an optimized high stable concavo-convex cavity according to the thermal-insensitive theory that the cavity could be deep stable and be insensitive to the change of thermal lens of laser crystal when g 1 *g 2 = 1/2. The output pulse width was constant at 6.0±0.1 ns. The maximum output energy was 40 mJ. The laser had outstanding stability of output characteristics. The fluctuations of average output energy and divergence angle within 8 cycles were 1.24% and 0.06 mrad, respectively

  12. Electro-optical modulator in a polymerinfiltrated silicon slotted photonic crystal waveguide heterostructure resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbern, Jan Hendrik; Petrov, Alexander; Eich, Manfred

    2009-01-05

    We present a novel concept of a compact, ultra fast electro-optic modulator, based on photonic crystal resonator structures that can be realized in two dimensional photonic crystal slabs of silicon as core material employing a nonlinear optical polymer as infiltration and cladding material. The novel concept is to combine a photonic crystal heterostructure cavity with a slotted defect waveguide. The photonic crystal lattice can be used as a distributed electrode for the application of a modulation signal. An electrical contact is hence provided while the optical wave is kept isolated from the lossy metal electrodes. Thereby, well known disadvantages of segmented electrode designs such as excessive scattering are avoided. The optical field enhancement in the slotted region increases the nonlinear interaction with an external electric field resulting in an envisaged switching voltage of approximately 1 V at modulation speeds up to 100 GHz.

  13. Enhancement of tracking performance in electro-optical system based on servo control algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJin; Kim, SungSu; Jung, DaeYoon; Seo, HyoungKyu

    2017-10-01

    Modern electro-optical surveillance and reconnaissance systems require tracking capability to get exact images of target or to accurately direct the line of sight to target which is moving or still. This leads to the tracking system composed of image based tracking algorithm and servo control algorithm. In this study, we focus on the servo control function to minimize the overshoot in the tracking motion and do not miss the target. The scheme is to limit acceleration and velocity parameters in the tracking controller, depending on the target state information in the image. We implement the proposed techniques by creating a system model of DIRCM and simulate the same environment, validate the performance on the actual equipment.

  14. Q selection for an electro-optical earth imaging system: theoretical and experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Andy; Schulz, Kevin; Kendrick, Rick; Bell, Ray

    2013-09-23

    This paper explores practical design considerations for selecting Q for an electro-optical earth imaging system, where Q is defined as (λ FN) / pixel pitch. Analytical methods are used to show that, under imaging conditions with high SNR, increasing Q with fixed aperture cannot lead to degradation of image quality regardless of the angular smear rate of the system. The potential for degradation of image quality under low SNR is bounded by an increase of the detector noise scaling as Q. An imaging test bed is used to collect representative imagery for various Q configurations. The test bed includes real world errors such as image smear and haze. The value of Q is varied by changing the focal length of the imaging system. Imagery is presented over a broad range of parameters.

  15. Bunch length measurements using electro-optical sampling at the SLS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.

    2004-07-01

    A mode-locked titanium-sapphire laser with 15 fs pulse width is used to determine the time profile of the picosecond electron bunches in the Swiss light source linac of the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen Switzerland. This was done using the electro-optic effect in Zinc-Telluride crystals and sampling the change induced by coherent transition radiation with the TiSa laser. The development, implementation and results of an analogue synchronisation system to synchronise the repetition rate of the TiSa laser to the radio frequency of the accelerator with a short term stability of 40 fs is presented. The experimental setup of the bunch length measurements is described and results are presented on the coincidence measurements between the laser pulses and the coherent transition radiation pulses generated by the electron bunches. (orig.)

  16. Linear and nonlinear properties of segmented waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.

    1998-07-01

    This dissertation deals with Periodically Segmented Waveguides (PSW), which are applied on KTiOP0 4 (KTP) crystals, by chemical ion-exchange process. In these waveguides, the crystal polarity and refractive index are periodically modulated to obtain Quasi Phase Matching (QPM) between the fundamental and second-harmonic waves. PSW is a relatively new optical device which exhibits unique optical properties in comparison with a continuous waveguide. The possibility of utilizing the KTP-PSW as a compact, cw, blue-violet, source by doubling infra-red light, is the main motivation for studying the optical properties of KTP segmented waveguides. Nevertheless, much attention in this work is also given to the study of linear optical properties of KTP-PSW, most of which, to my best knowledge, has not been studied yet. Controlling and understanding the linear optical properties of KTP-PSW, are required, for applying the PSW as an optical device by its own, and for control and characterization of the non-linear optical properties of the waveguide. In this work the dependence of the linear optical properties of KTP-PSW on geometrical parameters (period size, duty cycle and waveguide width) were studied. The experimental measured parameters include the PSW near field and the Bragg reflections, which appear due lo the grating structure of the waveguide. The possibility of controlling the wavelength and intensity, of the segmented waveguide Bragg reflections of regular period and super-period, is shown theoretically and experimentally. An unexpected dependence was found, by the experimental measurement, between the index profile and the ion-exchanged segment area,. The segmented waveguide dispersion curve, n eff (λ) in the infra-red region was found, A main part of the research work is dedicated to the study of nonlinear characteristics of PSW. The different factors, which effect the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG), are measured experimentally and analyzed. The experimental

  17. An electro-optical timing diagnostic for pump-probe experiments at the free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azima, Armin

    2009-07-15

    Femtosecond pump-probe experiments have extensively been used to follow atomic and molecular motion in time. The very intense extreme ultraviolet XUV light of the Free electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH facility allows to investigate fundamental processes such as direct one or few photon inner shell ionizations. A supplementary Ti:Sapphire near infrared femtosecond laser system allows to perform two-color pump-probe experiments with FLASH involving intense laser fields of hugely different photon energies. Within this work a bunch arrival measurement system has been built, which assists these two-color pump-probe experiments to reduce the temporal jitter of FLASH and to increase the temporal resolution. The diagnostic is based upon an electro-optical detection scheme and measures the relative arrival time between the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulse and the electron bunch, which generates the self-amplified by stimulated emission SASE XUV pulse in the undulator section of FLASH. Key feature of the diagnostic is a 150 m long glass fiber pulse transport line, which inflicts non-linear dispersion. A dispersion control system to compensate for this higher order dispersion has been developed including the control and programming of a spatial light phase modulator. It was possible to transport a 90 fs FWHM short near infrared femtosecond laser pulse Fourier limited by the dispersion compensated glass fiber. The electro-optical signal induced by the FLASH electron bunch was generated, characterized and optimized. The signal features beside the designated bunch arrival timing capability the additional possibility to measure the longitudinal electron bunch density distribution of an arbitrary bunch of FLASH in a single shot with a temporal resolution of below 100 fs RMS. Timing and bunch analysis capabilities of the developed diagnostic have been cross-checked with other comparable diagnostics at FLASH like the transversal deflecting cavity structure named LOLA. Finally, the

  18. An electro-optical timing diagnostic for pump-probe experiments at the free-electron laser in Hamburg FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azima, Armin

    2009-07-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe experiments have extensively been used to follow atomic and molecular motion in time. The very intense extreme ultraviolet XUV light of the Free electron LASer in Hamburg FLASH facility allows to investigate fundamental processes such as direct one or few photon inner shell ionizations. A supplementary Ti:Sapphire near infrared femtosecond laser system allows to perform two-color pump-probe experiments with FLASH involving intense laser fields of hugely different photon energies. Within this work a bunch arrival measurement system has been built, which assists these two-color pump-probe experiments to reduce the temporal jitter of FLASH and to increase the temporal resolution. The diagnostic is based upon an electro-optical detection scheme and measures the relative arrival time between the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond pulse and the electron bunch, which generates the self-amplified by stimulated emission SASE XUV pulse in the undulator section of FLASH. Key feature of the diagnostic is a 150 m long glass fiber pulse transport line, which inflicts non-linear dispersion. A dispersion control system to compensate for this higher order dispersion has been developed including the control and programming of a spatial light phase modulator. It was possible to transport a 90 fs FWHM short near infrared femtosecond laser pulse Fourier limited by the dispersion compensated glass fiber. The electro-optical signal induced by the FLASH electron bunch was generated, characterized and optimized. The signal features beside the designated bunch arrival timing capability the additional possibility to measure the longitudinal electron bunch density distribution of an arbitrary bunch of FLASH in a single shot with a temporal resolution of below 100 fs RMS. Timing and bunch analysis capabilities of the developed diagnostic have been cross-checked with other comparable diagnostics at FLASH like the transversal deflecting cavity structure named LOLA. Finally, the

  19. Electro-optic modulator with ultra-low residual amplitude modulation for frequency modulation and laser stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Zhaoyang; Yan, Lulu; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaofei; Guo, Wenge; Zhang, Shougang; Jiang, Haifeng

    2016-12-01

    The reduction of the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) induced by electro-optic modulation is essential for many applications of frequency modulation spectroscopy requiring a lower system noise floor. Here, we demonstrate a simple passive approach employing an electro-optic modulator (EOM) cut at Brewster's angle. The proposed EOM exhibits a RAM of a few parts per million, which is comparable with that achieved by a common EOM under critical active temperature and bias voltage controls. The frequency instability of a 10 cm cavity-stabilized laser induced by the RAM effect of the proposed EOM is below 3×10-17 for integration times from 1 to 1000 s, and below 4×10-16 for comprehensive noise contributions for integration times from 1 to 100 s.

  20. Visualization of frequency-modulated electric field based on photonic frequency tracking in asynchronous electro-optic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatake, Shintaro; Yamaguchi, Koki; Uchida, Hirohisa; Tojyo, Makoto; Oikawa, Yoichi; Miyaji, Kunio; Nagatsuma, Tadao

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new asynchronous measurement system to visualize the amplitude and phase distribution of a frequency-modulated electromagnetic wave. The system consists of three parts: a nonpolarimetric electro-optic frequency down-conversion part, a phase-noise-canceling part, and a frequency-tracking part. The photonic local oscillator signal generated by electro-optic phase modulation is controlled to track the frequency of the radio frequency (RF) signal to significantly enhance the measurable RF bandwidth. We demonstrate amplitude and phase measurement of a quasi-millimeter-wave frequency-modulated continuous-wave signal (24 GHz ± 80 MHz with a 2.5 ms period) as a proof-of-concept experiment.

  1. Piezo-optical and electro-optical behaviour of nematic liquid crystals dispersed in a ferroelectric copolymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Lakshmi Meena; Wirges, Werner; Gerhard, Reimund; Mellinger, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (PDLCs) are composite materials that consist of micrometre-sized liquid-crystal (LC) droplets embedded in a polymer matrix. From ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and a nematic LC, PDLC films containing 10 and 60 wt% LC were prepared, and their electro-optical and piezo-optical behaviour was investigated. The electric field that is generated by the application of mechanical stress leads to changes in the transmittance of the PDLC film through a combination of piezoelectric and electro-optical effects. Such a piezo-optical PDLC material may be useful, e.g., in sensing and visualization applications.

  2. Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Kyoung

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the Phase I SBIR project entitled "Embedded Electro-Optic Sensor Network for the On-Site Calibration and Real-Time Performance Monitoring of Large-Scale Phased Arrays...

  3. Comprehensive study of electro-optic and passive Q-switching in solid state lasers for altimeter applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Atul; Agrawal, Lalita; Pal, Suranjan; Kumar, Anil

    2006-12-01

    Laser Science and Technology Center (LASTEC), Delhi, is developing a space qualified diode pumped Nd: YAG laser transmitter capable of generating 10 ns pulses of 30 mJ energy @ 10 pps. This paper presents the results of experiments for comparative studies between electro-optic and passively Q-switched Nd: YAG laser in a crossed porro prism based laser resonator. Experimental studies have been performed by developing an economical bench model of flash lamp pumped Nd: YAG laser (rod dimension, \

  4. Electric field measurement in microwave discharge ion thruster with electro-optic probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Toshiyuki; Tsukizaki, Ryudo; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the internal phenomena in a microwave discharge ion thruster, it is important to measure the distribution of the microwave electric field inside the discharge chamber, which is directly related to the plasma production. In this study, we proposed a novel method of measuring a microwave electric field with an electro-optic (EO) probe based on the Pockels effect. The probe, including a cooling system, contains no metal and can be accessed in the discharge chamber with less disruption to the microwave distribution. This method enables measurement of the electric field profile under ion beam acceleration. We first verified the measurement with the EO probe by a comparison with a finite-difference time domain numerical simulation of the microwave electric field in atmosphere. Second, we showed that the deviations of the reflected microwave power and the beam current were less than 8% due to inserting the EO probe into the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. Finally, we successfully demonstrated the measurement of the electric-field profile in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration. These measurements show that the electric field distribution in the thruster dramatically changes in the ion thruster under ion beam acceleration as the propellant mass flow rate increases. These results indicate that this new method using an EO probe can provide a useful guide for improving the propulsion of microwave discharge ion thrusters.

  5. Commissioning of an electro-optic electron bunch length monitor at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunlin, Jonas

    2011-03-01

    The demands on the electron beam qualities for free-electron lasers (FEL) are challenging in terms of high peak currents. At FLASH, the high-gain FEL in Hamburg, longitudinal bunch compression is performed to achieve the requested high charge densities in short bunches. The precise control of the bunch compression process requires advanced diagnostics on the longitudinal bunch profile. The bunch length monitor presented in this thesis is based on a non-destructive detection using the electro-optic effect. The focus is on a compact and reliable system for permanent bunch diagnostics. The monitor provides single-shot measurements of the longitudinal bunch profiles with lengths of a few picoseconds by spectrally encoding their charge distribution. First measurements for characterization purpose have been performed. It has been shown that the monitor is suitable for monitoring the longitudinal bunch profile behind the first bunch compressor at FLASH. Electron bunch profiles with slopes corresponding to a full width half maximum of about 1.4 ps have been detected. That is the intrinsic resolution limit of the utilized method. (orig.)

  6. Simulation and optimization of a polymer directional coupler electro-optic switch with push pull electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Ma, Chun-Sheng; Yan, Xin; Wang, Xian-Yin; Zhang, Da-Ming

    2008-07-01

    Structural model and design technique are proposed for a polymer directional coupler electro-optic switch with rib waveguides and push-pull electrodes, of which the electric field distribution is analyzed by the conformal transforming method and image method. In order to get the minimum mode loss and the minimum switching voltage, the parameters of the waveguide and electrode are optimized, such as the core with, core thickness, buffer layer between the core and the electrode, coupling gap between the waveguides, electrode thickness, electrode width and electrode gap. Switching Characteristics are analyzed, which include the output power, insertion loss, and crosstalk. To realize normal switching function, the fabrication error, spectrum shift, and coupling loss between a single mode fiber (SMF) and the waveguide are discussed. Simulation results show that the coupling length is 3082 μm, push-pull switching voltage is 2.14 V, insertion loss is less than 1.17 dB, and crosstalk is less than -30 dB for the designed device.

  7. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Roman, Julio E; Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Poiana, Dragos A; Acedo, Pablo

    2016-11-26

    Optical frequency combs (OFC) generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz). Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz) are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal.

  8. Ultra-thin silicon/electro-optic polymer hybrid waveguide modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Feng; Spring, Andrew M. [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Sato, Hiromu [Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maeda, Daisuke; Ozawa, Masa-aki; Odoi, Keisuke [Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-10-1 Tuboi Nishi, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8507 (Japan); Aoki, Isao; Otomo, Akira [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiyoshi, E-mail: s-yokoyama@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Ultra-thin silicon and electro-optic (EO) polymer hybrid waveguide modulators have been designed and fabricated. The waveguide consists of a silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm. The cladding is an EO polymer. Optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field around the silicon extends into the EO polymer in the TE mode. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator was prepared using common coplanar electrodes. The measured half-wave voltage of the MZI with 7 μm spacing and 1.3 cm long electrodes is 4.6 V at 1550 nm. The evaluated EO coefficient is 70 pm/V, which is comparable to that of the bulk EO polymer film. Using ultra-thin silicon is beneficial in order to reduce the side-wall scattering loss, yielding a propagation loss of 4.0 dB/cm. We also investigated a mode converter which couples light from the hybrid EO waveguide into a strip silicon waveguide. The calculation indicates that the coupling loss between these two devices is small enough to exploit the potential fusion of a hybrid EO polymer modulator together with a silicon micro-photonics device.

  9. ELECTRON BUNCH CHARACTERIZATION WITH SUBPICOSECOND RESOLUTION USING ELECTRO-OPTIC TECHNIQUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMERTZIDIS, Y.K.; CASTILLO, V.; LARSEN, R.; LAZARUS, D.M.; NIKAS, D.; OZBEN, C.; SRINIVASAN-RAO, T.; STILLMAN, A.; TSANG, T.; KOWALSKI, L.

    2001-01-01

    In the past decade, the bunch lengths of electrons in accelerators have decreased dramatically and are in the range off a few millimeters. Measurement of the length as well as the longitudinal profile of these short bunches have been a topic of research in a number of institutions. One of the techniques uses the electric field induced by the passage of electrons in the vicinity of a birefringent crystal to change its optical characteristics. Well-established electro-optic techniques can then be used to measure the temporal characteristics of the electron bunch. The inherent fast response of the crystal facilitates the measurement to femtosecond time resolution. However, the resolution in experiments so far has been limited to 70 ps, by the bandwidth of the detection equipment. Use of a streak camera can improve this resolution to a few picoseconds. In this paper we present a novel, non-invasive, single-shot approach to improve the resolution to tens of femtoseconds so that sub mm bunch length can be measured

  10. Resonator-Based Silicon Electro-Optic Modulator with Low Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Maoqing; Danner, Aaron J.; Eng Png, Ching; Thor Lim, Soon

    2009-04-01

    This paper demonstrates, via simulation, an electro-optic modulator based on a subwavelength Fabry-Perot resonator cavity with low power consumption of 86 µW/µm. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest power reported for silicon photonic bandgap modulators. The device is modulated at a doped p-i-n junction overlapping the cavity in a silicon waveguide perforated with etched holes, with the doping area optimized for minimum power consumption. The surface area of the entire device is only 2.1 µm2, which compares favorably to other silicon-based modulators. A modulation speed of at least 300 MHz is detected from the electrical simulator after sidewall doping is introduced which is suitable for sensing or fiber to the home (FTTH) technologies, where speed can be traded for low cost and power consumption. The device does not rely on ultra-high Q, and could serve as a sensor, modulator, or passive filter with built-in calibration.

  11. 2×2 polymeric electro-optic MZI switch using multimode interference couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. P.; Liao, J. K.; Tang, X. G.; Lu, R. G.; Liu, Y. Z.

    2009-11-01

    We present the design of a 2×2 photonic switch operating at 1.55-μm wavelength using electro-optic (EO) polymer waveguides. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is used to implement the proposed switch in which two identical 2×2 multimode interference (MMI) couplers are connected by two identical parallel single mode waveguides (two MZI arms). These two single-mode waveguides with electrodes allow modulating the phase difference between the two MZI arms based on the EO effect. In the proposed switch, the EO polymer, IPC-E/polysulfone, is used for the core layer of optical waveguides. UV15 and NOA61 are employed for the lower and upper cladding layers, respectively. The singlemode waveguide structure and 2×2 MMI coupler have been designed and analyzed for the EO switch. Device performance has been simulated using the beam propagation method. It is found that the switch performance is most sensitive to the MMI width and less sensitive to the MMI length. Optimized structure has been obtained for the 2×2 polymeric EO switch, which has a crosstalk level better than -25 dB and insertion loss lower than -1.8 dB. This performance makes the switch a potential candidate for practical use in photonic systems.

  12. Magnitude and nature of the quadratic electro-optic effect in potassium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, Mark J.; Raab, Roger E.; Kucharczyk, Wlodimierz

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of the magnitude and the sign of certain quadratic electro-optic coefficients of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) were made with an actively stabilized Michelson interferometer. The results obtained for these coefficients are, in units of 10 -20 m 2 V -2 (as opposed to literature values of order 10 -18 m 2 V -2 ), as follows: (KDP)g xxxx =-3.4±0.5, g yyxx =-0.2±0.4, and g zzxx =-0.7±0.4; (ADP)g xxxx =-7.4±1.0, g yyxx =-1.7±0.9, and g zzxx =-1.4±0.9. The quadratic Faust--Henry coefficient describing the lattice and the electronic contributions to the quadratic electro-optic effect in KDP and ADP is estimated from our results. These show that the nonlinear susceptibility responsible for the quadratic electro-optic effect in these crystals is due mainly to nonlinear interactions of the low-frequency electric field with the crystal lattice. Copyright 2001 Optical Society of America

  13. thermally poled channel waveguides with polarization independent electro-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Yitao; Marckmann, Carl Johan; Arentoft, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the poling-induced electrooptic (EO) effect in germanium and nitrogen codoped channel waveguides. The channel waveguides show attractive properties: (1) almost polarization independent EO effect; (2) a flat frequency response with the modulation frequency up...... to 100 kHz; and (3) low linear loss and low polarization dependent loss, which demonstrate great technological potential...

  14. Fast Interrogation of Fiber Bragg Gratings with Electro-Optical Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Posada-Roman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical frequency combs (OFC generated by electro-optic modulation of continuous-wave lasers provide broadband coherent sources with high power per line and independent control of line spacing and the number of lines. In addition to their application in spectroscopy, they offer flexible and optimized sources for the interrogation of other sensors based on wavelength change or wavelength filtering, such as fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. In this paper, a dual-OFC FBG interrogation system based on a single laser and two optical-phase modulators is presented. This architecture allows for the configuration of multimode optical source parameters such as the number of modes and their position within the reflected spectrum of the FBG. A direct read-out is obtained by mapping the optical spectrum onto the radio-frequency spectrum output of the dual-comb. This interrogation scheme is proposed for measuring fast phenomena such as vibrations and ultrasounds. Results are presented for dual-comb operation under optimized control. The optical modes are mapped onto detectable tones that are multiples of 0.5 MHz around a center radiofrequency tone (40 MHz. Measurements of ultrasounds (40 kHz and 120 kHz are demonstrated with this sensing system. Ultrasounds induce dynamic strain onto the fiber, which generates changes in the reflected Bragg wavelength and, hence, modulates the amplitude of the OFC modes within the reflected spectrum. The amplitude modulation of two counterphase tones is detected to obtain a differential measurement proportional to the ultrasound signal.

  15. Electro-optical system for the high speed reconstruction of computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tresp, V.

    1989-01-01

    An electro-optical system for the high-speed reconstruction of computed tomography (CT) images has been built and studied. The system is capable of reconstructing high-contrast and high-resolution images at video rate (30 images per second), which is more than two orders of magnitude faster than the reconstruction rate achieved by special purpose digital computers used in commercial CT systems. The filtered back-projection algorithm which was implemented in the reconstruction system requires the filtering of all projections with a prescribed filter function. A space-integrating acousto-optical convolver, a surface acoustic wave filter and a digital finite-impulse response filter were used for this purpose and their performances were compared. The second part of the reconstruction, the back projection of the filtered projections, is computationally very expensive. An optical back projector has been built which maps the filtered projections onto the two-dimensional image space using an anamorphic lens system and a prism image rotator. The reconstructed image is viewed by a video camera, routed through a real-time image-enhancement system, and displayed on a TV monitor. The system reconstructs parallel-beam projection data, and in a modified version, is also capable of reconstructing fan-beam projection data. This extension is important since the latter are the kind of projection data actually acquired in high-speed X-ray CT scanners. The reconstruction system was tested by reconstructing precomputed projection data of phantom images. These were stored in a special purpose projection memory and transmitted to the reconstruction system as an electronic signal. In this way, a projection measurement system that acquires projections sequentially was simulated

  16. Some Properties of Multiple Parameters Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoqin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a linear programming problem in which the right-hand side vector depends on multiple parameters. We study the characters of the optimal value function and the critical regions based on the concept of the optimal partition. We show that the domain of the optimal value function f can be decomposed into finitely many subsets with disjoint relative interiors, which is different from the result based on the concept of the optimal basis. And any directional derivative of f at any point can be computed by solving a linear programming problem when only an optimal solution is available at the point.

  17. Some Properties of Multiple Parameters Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We consider a linear programming problem in which the right-hand side vector depends on multiple parameters. We study the characters of the optimal value function and the critical regions based on the concept of the optimal partition. We show that the domain of the optimal value function can be decomposed into finitely many subsets with disjoint relative interiors, which is different from the result based on the concept of the optimal basis. And any directional derivative of at any point can be computed by solving a linear programming problem when only an optimal solution is available at the point.

  18. Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS ...systems are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions

  19. Linear viscoelastic properties of aging suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnomo, E.H.; Purnomo, E.H; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the linear viscoelastic behavior of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel suspensions in order to obtain insight in the aging processes in these densely packed suspensions at various temperatures below the volume transition temperature. The system is found to display a strong

  20. Nonlinear intermodulation distortion suppression in coherent analog fiber optic link using electro-optic polymeric dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ku; Liu, Wei; Pei, Qibing; Dalton, Larry R; Fetterman, Harold R

    2011-04-11

    A linearized dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) based on electro-optic (EO) polymer was both fabricated, and experimentally used to suppress the third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) in a coherent analog fiber optic link. This optical transmitter design was based on a new EO chromophore called B10, which was synthesized for applications dealing with the fiber-optic communication systems. The chromophore was mixed with amorphous polycarbonate (APC) to form the waveguide's core material. The DPMZM was configured with two MZMs, of different lengths in parallel, with unbalanced input and output couplers and a phase shifter in one arm. In this configuration each of the MZMs carried a different optical power, and imposed a different depth of optical modulation. When the two optical beams from the MZMs were combined to generate the transmitted signal it was possible to set the IMD3 produced by each modulator to be equal in amplitude but 180° out of phase from the other. Therefore, the resulting IMD3 of the DPMZM transmitter was effectively canceled out during two-tone experiments. A reduction of the IMD3 below the noise floor was observed while leaving fifth-order distortion (IMD5) as the dominant IMD product. This configuration has the capability of broadband operation and shot-noise limited operation simultaneously. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  1. Influence of In doping on electro-optical properties of ZnO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Doped-zinc oxide; microstructure; optical parameters; electrical conductivity. 1. Introduction ..... In-interstitial atoms determine the widening of the bandgap caused by .... Melendez-Lira M A and de la Olvera L M 2005 Thin Solid Films. 490 132.

  2. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin XIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9558

  3. Advanced processing methods to introduce and preserve dipole orientation in organic electro-optic materials for next generation photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Su

    Organic electro-optic (E-O) materials have attracted considerable research attention in the past 20 years due to their rising potentials in a lot of novel photonic applications, such as high-speed telecommunication, terahertz generation and ultra-fast optical interconnections. Chapter 2 of this dissertation focuses on a barrier layer approach to improve the poling efficiency of electro-optic polymers. First of all, high conduction current from excessive charge injection is identified as a fundamental challenge of effective poling. After analyzing the conduction mechanism, we introduce a sol-gel derived thin titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer that can significantly block excessive charge injection and reduce the leakage current during high field poling. Ultralarge E-O coefficients, up to 160-350 pm/V at 1310 nm have been achieved by poling with such a barrier, which are 26%-40% higher than the results poled without such a TiO2 layer. This enhancement is explained by the suppressed charge injection and space charge accumulation by the insertion of the high injection barrier from the TiO2 barrier layer. In Chapter 3, the impact of the inserted barrier layer on the temporal alignment stability of E-O polymers is discussed. Considerable stability enhancement is confirmed using both standard 500-hour temporal alignment stability test at 85 °C and thermally stimulated discharge method. We suggest that the enhancement comes from improved stability of the screening charge. During poling the additional barrier layer helps to lower the injection and thus the space charge accumulation. And this reduced space charge accumulation further helps to replace the space charge part in the total formulation of screening charge with more stable interface trapped charge. We thus expand this knowledge to a group of other materials that can also block excessive charge injection and suppressed space charge accumulation, including dielectric polymers polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly(4-vinylphenol

  4. Progress in Nano-Electro-Optics VII Chemical, Biological, and Nanophotonic Technologies for Nano-Optical Devices and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on chemical and nanophotonic technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices and systems. It begins with temperature- and photo-induced phase transition of ferromagnetic materials. Further topics include: energy transfer in artificial photosynthesis, homoepitaxial multiple quantum wells in ZnO, near-field photochemical etching and nanophotonic devices based on a nonadiabatic process and optical near-field energy transfer, respectively and polarization control in the optical near-field for optical information security. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  5. Very high repetition-rate electro-optical cavity-dumped Nd: YVO4 laser with optics and dynamics stabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; Shi, Zhaohui; Huang, Yutao; Fan, Zhongwei; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a very high repetition-rate, short-pulse, electro-optical cavity-dumped Nd: YVO4 laser is experimentally and theoretically investigated. The laser performance is optimized from two aspects. Firstly, the laser resonator is designed for a good thermal stability under large pump power fluctuation through optics methods. Secondly, dynamics simulation as well as experiments verifies that cavity dumping at very high repetition rate has better stability than medium/high repetition rate. At 30 W, 880 nm pump power, up to 500 kHz, constant 5 ns, stable 1064 nm fundamental-mode laser pulses can be obtained with 10 W average output power.

  6. Lidar Technology at the Goddard Laser and Electro-Optics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, William S.; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Laser and Electro-Optics Branch at Goddard Space flight Center was established about three years ago to provide a focused center of engineering support and technology development in these disciplines with an emphasis on spaced based instruments for Earth and Space Science. The Branch has approximately 15 engineers and technicians with backgrounds in physics, optics, and electrical engineering. Members of the Branch are currently supporting a number of space based lidar efforts as well as several technology efforts aimed at enabling future missions. The largest effort within the Branch is support of the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESAT) carrying the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument. The ICESAT/GLAS primary science objectives are: 1) To determine the mass balance of the polar ice sheets and their contributions to global sea level change; and 2) To obtain essential data for prediction of future changes in ice volume and sea-level. The secondary science objectives are: 1) To measure cloud heights and the vertical structure of clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere; 2) To map the topography of land surfaces; and 3) To measure roughness, reflectivity, vegetation heights, snow-cover, and sea-ice surface characteristics. Our efforts have concentrated on the GLAS receiver component development, the Laser Reference Sensor for the Stellar Reference System, the GLAS fiber optics subsystems, and the prelaunch calibration facilities. We will report on our efforts in the development of the space qualified interference filter [Allan], etalon filter, photon counting detectors, etalor/laser tracking system, and instrument fiber optics, as well as specification and selection of the star tracker and development of the calibration test bed. We are also engaged in development work on lidar sounders for chemical species. We are developing new lidar technology to enable a new class of miniature lidar instruments that are compatible with small

  7. A novel method to produce nonlinear empirical physical formulas for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals: Feedforward neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Nihat, E-mail: nyildiz@cumhuriyet.edu.t [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Physics, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); San, Sait Eren; Okutan, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 141, Gebze 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kaya, Hueseyin [Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Physics, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Among other significant obstacles, inherent nonlinearity in experimental physical response data poses severe difficulty in empirical physical formula (EPF) construction. In this paper, we applied a novel method (namely layered feedforward neural network (LFNN) approach) to produce explicit nonlinear EPFs for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). Our motivation was that, as we showed in a previous theoretical work, an appropriate LFNN, due to its exceptional nonlinear function approximation capabilities, is highly relevant to EPF construction. Therefore, in this paper, we obtained excellently produced LFNN approximation functions as our desired EPFs for above-mentioned highly nonlinear response data of NLCs. In other words, by using suitable LFNNs, we successfully fitted the experimentally measured response and predicted the new (yet-to-be measured) response data. The experimental data (response versus input) were diffraction and dielectric properties versus bias voltage; and they were all taken from our previous experimental work. We conclude that in general, LFNN can be applied to construct various types of EPFs for the corresponding various nonlinear physical perturbation (thermal, electronic, molecular, electric, optical, etc.) data of doped NLCs.

  8. A novel method to produce nonlinear empirical physical formulas for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals: Feedforward neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, Nihat; San, Sait Eren; Okutan, Mustafa; Kaya, Hueseyin

    2010-01-01

    Among other significant obstacles, inherent nonlinearity in experimental physical response data poses severe difficulty in empirical physical formula (EPF) construction. In this paper, we applied a novel method (namely layered feedforward neural network (LFNN) approach) to produce explicit nonlinear EPFs for experimental nonlinear electro-optical responses of doped nematic liquid crystals (NLCs). Our motivation was that, as we showed in a previous theoretical work, an appropriate LFNN, due to its exceptional nonlinear function approximation capabilities, is highly relevant to EPF construction. Therefore, in this paper, we obtained excellently produced LFNN approximation functions as our desired EPFs for above-mentioned highly nonlinear response data of NLCs. In other words, by using suitable LFNNs, we successfully fitted the experimentally measured response and predicted the new (yet-to-be measured) response data. The experimental data (response versus input) were diffraction and dielectric properties versus bias voltage; and they were all taken from our previous experimental work. We conclude that in general, LFNN can be applied to construct various types of EPFs for the corresponding various nonlinear physical perturbation (thermal, electronic, molecular, electric, optical, etc.) data of doped NLCs.

  9. Electro-optical and charge injection investigations of the donor-π-acceptor triphenylamine, oligocene–thiophene–pyrimidine and cyanoacetic acid based multifunctional dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Irfan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The corner stone of present study is to tune the electro-optical and charge transport properties of donor-bridge-acceptor (D-π-A triphenylamine (TPA derivatives. In the present investigation, an electron deficient moiety (pyrimidine, electron-rich moiety (thiophene and oligocene (benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene and pentacene have been incorporated as π-spacer between the donor TPA unit and cyanoacetic acid acceptor and anchoring group. The elongation of bridge usually affects the energy levels, i.e., higher the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO while lower the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO thus reduces the HOMO–LUMO energy gap. The lowered LUMO energy levels of cyano-{2-[6-(4-diphenylamino-phenyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-tetraceno[2,3-b]thiophen-8-yl}-acetic acid (TPA-PTT4 and cyano-{2-[6-(4-diphenylamino-phenyl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-pentaceno[2,3-b]thiophen-9-yl}-acetic acid (TPA-PPT5 dyes revealed that electron injected from dye to semiconductor surface might be auxiliary stable resulting in impediment of quenching. The broken co-planarity between the π-spacer conceiving LUMO and the TPA moiety would help to impede the recombination process. Moreover, it is expected that TPA derivatives with the tetracenothiophene and pentacenothiophene moieties as π-bridge would show better photovoltaic performance due to lowered LUMO energy level, higher electronic coupling constant, light harvesting efficiency and electron injection values.

  10. Decay properties of linear thermoelastic plates: Cattaneo versus Fourier law

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the decay properties of the linear thermoelastic plate equations in the whole space for both Fourier and Cattaneo's laws of heat conduction. We point out that while the paradox of infinite propagation speed inherent

  11. Tuning electro-optic susceptibity via strain engineering in artificial PZT multilayer films for high-performance broadband modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minmin; Du, Zehui; Li, Hongling; Chen, Bensong; Jing, Lin; Tay, Roland Ying Jie; Lin, Jinjun; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2017-12-01

    A series of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 multilayer films alternatively stacked by Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 and Pb(Zr0.35Ti0.65)O3 layers have been deposited on corning glass by magnetron sputtering. The films demonstrate pure perovskite structure and good crystallinity. A large tetragonality (c/a) of ∼1.061 and a shift of ∼0.08 eV for optical bandgap were investigated at layer engineered films. In addition, these samples exhibited a wild tunable electro-optic behavior from tens to ∼250.2 pm/V, as well as fast switching time of down to a few microseconds. The giant EO coefficient was attribute the strain-polarization coupling effect and also comparable to that of epitaxial (001) single crystal PZT thin films. The combination of high transparency, large EO effect, fast switching time, and huge phase transition temperature in PZT-based thin films show the potential on electro-optics from laser to information telecommunication.

  12. Electro-optic deflectors deliver advantages over acousto-optical deflectors in a high resolution, ultra-fast force-clamp optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Michael S; Capitanio, Marco; Ostap, E Michael; Goldman, Yale E

    2018-04-30

    We characterized experimental artifacts arising from the non-linear response of acousto-optical deflectors (AODs) in an ultra-fast force-clamp optical trap and have shown that using electro-optical deflectors (EODs) instead eliminates these artifacts. We give an example of the effects of these artifacts in our ultra-fast force clamp studies of the interaction of myosin with actin filaments. The experimental setup, based on the concept of Capitanio et al. [Nat. Methods 9, 1013-1019 (2012)] utilizes a bead-actin-bead dumbbell held in two force-clamped optical traps which apply a load to the dumbbell to move it at a constant velocity. When myosin binds to actin, the filament motion stops quickly as the total force from the optical traps is transferred to the actomyosin attachment. We found that in our setup, AODs were unsuitable for beam steering due to non-linear variations in beam intensity and deflection angle as a function of driving frequency, likely caused by low-amplitude standing acoustic waves in the deflectors. These aberrations caused instability in the force feedback loops leading to artifactual jumps in the trap position. We demonstrate that beam steering with EODs improves the performance of our instrument. Combining the superior beam-steering capability of the EODs, force acquisition via back-focal-plane interferometry, and dual high-speed FPGA-based feedback loops, we apply precise and constant loads to study the dynamics of interactions between actin and myosin. The same concept applies to studies of other biomolecular interactions.

  13. Novel electro-optical phase modulator based on GaInAs/InP modulation-doped quantum-well structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel electro-optical phase modulator working at 1.55 µm is analyzed and proposed. It is shown by a numerical model that in a GaInAs/InP pn-nin-pn multiple-quantum-well waveguide structure, large optical phase modulation can be obtained at small intensity modulation and with improved performance...

  14. Characterization and control of the electro-optic phase dispersion in lithium niobate modulators for wide spectral band interferometry applications in the mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, S; Ulliac, G; Courjal, N; Martin, G

    2017-05-10

    Mid-infrared wideband modulation (3.2-3.7 μm) is achieved in an electro-optic Y-junction using lithium niobate waveguides in TE polarized light. Comparison between external (scanning mirror) and internal (electro-optical) modulation allows studying the chromatic polynomial dependence of the relative phase. Internal modulation consists on a V AC ramp up to 370 V at 0.25 Hz, applied over 14 mm long electrodes with 14 μm separation. The overall V π L π obtained is 17.5 V·cm, meaning that using a 300 V generator we can actively scan and track the whole L-band (3.4-4.1 μm) wideband fringes. We observe a dramatic reduction of the coherence length under electro-optic modulation, which is attributed to a strong nonlinear dependence of the electro-optic effect on the wavelength upon application of such high voltages. We study the effect of applying a V DC offset, from -50  V to 200 V (50 V step). We characterize this dispersion and propose an improved dispersion model that is used to show active dispersion compensation in wideband fringe modulation in the mid-infrared. This can be useful for long baseline interferometry or pulse compression applications when light propagates along fibers, in order to compensate for chromatic effects that induce differential dispersion or pulse spreading, respectively.

  15. Statistical Real-time Model for Performance Prediction of Ship Detection from Microsatellite Electro-Optical Imagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapierre FabianD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For locating maritime vessels longer than 45 meters, such vessels are required to set up an Automatic Identification System (AIS used by vessel traffic services. However, when a boat is shutting down its AIS, there are no means to detect it in open sea. In this paper, we use Electro-Optical (EO imagers for noncooperative vessel detection when the AIS is not operational. As compared to radar sensors, EO sensors have lower cost, lower payload, and better computational processing load. EO sensors are mounted on LEO microsatellites. We propose a real-time statistical methodology to estimate sensor Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves. It does not require the computation of the entire image received at the sensor. We then illustrate the use of this methodology to design a simple simulator that can help sensor manufacturers in optimizing the design of EO sensors for maritime applications.

  16. High-speed 2 × 2 silicon-based electro-optic switch with nanosecond switch time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue-Jun, Xu; Shao-Wu, Chen; Hai-Hua, Xu; Yang, Sun; Yu-De, Yu; Jin-Zhong, Yu; Qi-Ming, Wang

    2009-01-01

    A 2 × 2 electro-optic switch is experimentally demonstrated using the optical structure of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on a submicron rib waveguide and the electrical structure of a PIN diode on silicon-on-insulator (SOI). The switch behaviour is achieved through the plasma dispersion effect of silicon. The device has a modulation arm of 1 mm in length and cross-section of 400 nm×340 nm. The measurement results show that the switch has a V π L π figure of merit of 0.145 V·cm and the extinction ratios of two output ports and cross talk are 40 dB, 28 dB and −28 dB, respectively. A 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 90 MHz and a switch time of 6.8 ns for the rise edge and 2.7 ns for the fall edge are also demonstrated

  17. Double-Arched LD Array Stagger Pumped Electro-Optic Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser without Water Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin-Yu, Chen; Guang-Yong, Jin; Yong-Ji, Yu; Chao, Wang; Da-Wei, Hao; Yi-Bo, Wang

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study on a double-arched LD array stagger pumped electro-optic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser without water cooling by using a convex-concave compensate resonator. Perfect matching of the gain field inside the rod and the fundamental mode of the cavity is made by this structure. When the repetition rate is 20 Hz, A maximum output energy at 1064 nm wavelength of 176 mJ (M 2 = 1.55) and 9.6 ns FWHM pulse width in fundamental mode Q-switch operation is obtained with LD injection current 120 A. The optical-optical conversion efficiency is 14.7%, the divergence angle of the output beam is about 1.8 mrad. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  18. Duty cycle dependence of a periodically poled LiNbO3-based electro-optic Solc filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Eyal; Arie, Ady

    2006-01-20

    We demonstrate that the performance of a periodically poled LiNbO3- (PPLN-) based electro-optic Solc filter is dependent on the duty cycle of the crystal. This may limit the performance of the device for applications such as add-drop filtering and switching, owing to the deterioration of the extinction ratio. It is shown that by adding a retarder to the Solc filter it is possible to improve the extinction ratio; thus the dependence of the filter on the duty cycle can be reduced. Using Jones calculus, we analyzed the effect of a variable retarder that can also be rotated on the extinction ratio. We experimentally observed a 6 dB increase in the extinction ratio when we used a half-wavelength retarder.

  19. Integrated X-ray testing of the electro-optical breadboard model for the XMM reflection grating spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bixler, J.V.; Craig, W.; Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarts, H.; Boggende, T. den; Brinkman, A.C. [Space Research Organization Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Burkert, W.; Brauninger, H. [Max-Planck Institute fur Extraterrestische Physik, Testanlage (Germany); Branduardi-Raymont, G. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Dubbeldam, L. [Space Research Organization Netherlands, Leiden (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-07-12

    X-ray calibration of the Electro-Optical Breadboard Model (EOBB) of the XXM Reflection Grating Spectrometer has been carried out at the Panter test facility in Germany. The EOBB prototype optics consisted of a four-shell grazing incidence mirror module followed by an array of eight reflection gratings. The dispersed x-rays were detected by an array of three CCDs. Line profile and efficiency measurements where made at several energies, orders, and geometric configurations for individual gratings and for the grating array as a whole. The x-ray measurements verified that the grating mounting method would meet the stringent tolerances necessary for the flight instrument. Post EOBB metrology of the individual gratings and their mountings confirmed the precision of the grating boxes fabrication. Examination of the individual grating surface`s at micron resolution revealed the cause of anomalously wide line profiles to be scattering due to the crazing of the replica`s surface.

  20. Integrating undergraduate research into the electro-optics and laser engineering technology program at Indiana University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Andrew F.

    2014-07-01

    Bringing research into an undergraduate curriculum is a proven and powerful practice with many educational benefits to students and the professional rewards to faculty mentors. In recent years, undergraduate research has gained national prominence as an effective problem-based learning strategy. Developing and sustaining a vibrant undergraduate research program of high quality and productivity is an outstanding example of the problem-based learning. To foster student understanding of the content learned in the classroom and nurture enduring problem-solving and critical-thinking abilities, we have created a collaborative learning environment by building research into the Electro-Optics curriculum for the first- and second-year students. The teaching methodology is described and examples of the research projects are given. Such a research-integrated curriculum effectively enhances student learning and critical thinking skills, and strengthens the research culture for the first- and second-year students.

  1. Electro-optic analysis of the influence of target geometry on electromagnetic pulses generated by petawatt laser-matter interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Timothy; Giltrap, Samuel; Eardley, Samuel; Consoli, Fabrizio; De Angelis, Riccardo; Ingenito, Francesco; Stuart, Nicholas; Verona, Claudio; Smith, Roland A.

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis of strong laser-driven electromagnetic pulses using novel electro-optic diagnostic techniques. A range of targets were considered, including thin plastic foils (20-550 nm) and mass-limited, optically-levitated micro-targets. Results from foils indicate a dependence of EMP on target thickness, with larger peak electric fields observed with thinner targets. Spectral analysis suggests high repeatability between shots, with identified spectral features consistently detected with earth following ejection of hot electrons from the plasma, in contrast to predictions for pin-mounted foils in the Poyé EMP generation model. With levitated targets, no EMP was measurable above the noise threshold of any diagnostic, despite observation of protons accelerated to >30 MeV energies, suggesting the discharge current contribution to EMP is dominant.

  2. Coupling a single nitrogen-vacancy center with a superconducting qubit via the electro-optic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Hao; Li, Peng-Bo

    2018-05-01

    We propose an efficient scheme for transferring quantum states and generating entangled states between two qubits of different nature. The hybrid system consists of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center and a superconducting (SC) qubit, which couple to an optical cavity and a microwave resonator, respectively. Meanwhile, the optical cavity and the microwave resonator are coupled via the electro-optic effect. By adjusting the relative parameters, we can achieve high-fidelity quantum state transfer as well as highly entangled states between the NV center and the SC qubit. This protocol is within the reach of currently available techniques, and may provide interesting applications in quantum communication and computation with single NV centers and SC qubits.

  3. Electro-optics/Laser International '80 UK Proceedings of the Conference, Brighton, England, March 25-27, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerrard, H G [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented concerning recent developments in the fields of electro-optics, particularly as it relates to the use of lasers, and other laser applications. Specific topics include loss measurements in graded index compound glass optical fibers, coherent optical two-dimensional signal analysis for picture deblurring applications, applications of the high-resolution holography of large volumes, laser speckle vibrometry for measurements of microscopic motions at audio frequencies, laser hazard control under field conditions, laser coupling to a gaseous medium through resonance saturations, a time-of-flight laser anemometer for remote wind velocity measurement, an electron-beam-pumped excimer laser system, the evaluation of thermal imaging systems, and a flat-plate capacitor discharge N/sub 2/ laser.

  4. Intense transient electric field sensor based on the electro-optic effect of LiNbO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qing, E-mail: yangqing@cqu.edu.cn; Sun, Shangpeng; Han, Rui; Sima, Wenxia; Liu, Tong [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment & System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400044 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Intense transient electric field measurements are widely applied in various research areas. An optical intense E-field sensor for time-domain measurements, based on the electro-optic effect of lithium niobate, has been studied in detail. Principles and key issues in the design of the sensor are presented. The sensor is insulated, small in size (65 mm × 15 mm × 15 mm), and suitable for high-intensity (<801 kV/m) electric field measurements over a wide frequency band (10 Hz–10 MHz). The input/output characteristics of the sensor were obtained and the sensor calibrated. Finally, an application using this sensor in testing laboratory lightning impulses and in measuring transient electric fields during switch-on of a disconnector confirmed that the sensor is expected to find widespread use in transient intense electric field measurement applications.

  5. Quantum mechanical design and structure of the Li@B10H14 basket with a remarkably enhanced electro-optical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Shabbir; Xu, Hongliang; Liao, Yi; Kan, Yuhe; Su, Zhongmin

    2009-08-26

    An innovative type of lithium decahydroborate (Li@B(10)H(14)) complex with a basketlike complexant of decaborane (B(10)H(14)) has been designed using quantum mechanical methods. As Li atom binds in a handle fashion to terminal electrophilic boron atoms of the decaborane basket, its NBO charge q (Li) is found to be 0.876, close to +1. This shows that the Li atom has been ionized to form a cation and an anion at the open end of B(10)H(14). The most fascinating feature of this Li doping is its loosely bound valence electron, which has been pulled into the cavity of the B(10)H(14) basket and become diffuse by the electron-deficient morphological features of the open end of the B(10)H(14) basket. Strikingly, the first hyperpolarizability (beta(0)) of Li@B(10)H(14) is about 340 times larger than that of B(10)H(14), computed to be 23,075 au (199 x 10(-30) esu) and 68 au, respectively. Besides this, the intercalation of the Li atom to the B(10)H(14) basket brings some distinctive changes in its Raman, (11)B NMR, and UV-vis spectra along with its other electronic properties that might be used by the experimentalists to identify this novel kind of Li@B(10)H(14) complex with a large electro-optical response. This study may evoke the possibility to explore a new thriving area, i.e., alkali metal-boranes for NLO application.

  6. Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J M [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G J [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.

  7. Highly-hermetic feedthrough fiber pigtailed circular TO-can electro-optic sensor for avionics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Jocelyn; Leduc, Lorrain; Bessette, Daniel; Bélanger, Nicolas

    2012-06-01

    Electro-optic sensors made of lasers or photodetectors assemblies can be associated with a window interface. In order to use these sensors in an avionics application, this interface has to be set on the periphery of the aircraft. This creates constraints on both the position/access of the associated electronics circuit card and the aircraft fuselage. Using an optical fiber to guide the light signal to a sensor being situated inside the aircraft where electronics circuit cards are deployed is an obvious solution that can be readily available. Fiber collimators that adapt to circular TO-can type window sensors do exist. However, they are bulky, add weight to the sensor and necessitate regular maintenance of the optical interface since both the sensor window and the collimator end-face are unprotected against contamination. Such maintenance can be complex since the access to the electronics circuit card, where the sensor is sitting, is usually difficult. This interface alignment can also be affected by vibrations and mechanical shocks, thus impacting sensor performances. As a solution to this problem, we propose a highly-hermetic feedthrough fiber pigtailed circular TO-can package. The optical element to optical fiber interface being set inside the hermetic package, there is no risk of contamination and thus, such a component does not require any maintenance. The footprint of these sensors being identical to their window counterparts, they offer drop-in replacement opportunities. Moreover, we have validated such packaged electro-optic sensors can be made to operate between -55 to 115°C, sustain 250 temperature cycles, 1500G mechanical shocks, 20Grms random vibrations without any performance degradations. Their water content is much smaller than the 0.5% limit set by MIL-STD-883, Method 1018. They have also been verified to offer a fiber pigtail strain relief resistance over 400g. Depending on the electronics elements inside these sensors, they can be made to have a

  8. Linear and Branched PEIs (Polyethylenimines and Their Property Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu N. Lungu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A chemical property space defines the adaptability of a molecule to changing conditions and its interaction with other molecular systems determining a pharmacological response. Within a congeneric molecular series (compounds with the same derivatization algorithm and thus the same brute formula the chemical properties vary in a monotonic manner, i.e., congeneric compounds share the same chemical property space. The chemical property space is a key component in molecular design, where some building blocks are functionalized, i.e., derivatized, and eventually self-assembled in more complex systems, such as enzyme-ligand systems, of which (physico-chemical properties/bioactivity may be predicted by QSPR/QSAR (quantitative structure-property/activity relationship studies. The system structure is determined by the binding type (temporal/permanent; electrostatic/covalent and is reflected in its local electronic (and/or magnetic properties. Such nano-systems play the role of molecular devices, important in nano-medicine. In the present article, the behavior of polyethylenimine (PEI macromolecules (linear LPEI and branched BPEI, respectively with respect to the glucose oxidase enzyme GOx is described in terms of their (interacting energy, geometry and topology, in an attempt to find the best shape and size of PEIs to be useful for a chosen (nanochemistry purpose.

  9. Electro-optic sampling at 90 degree interaction geometry for time-of-arrival stamping of ultrafast relativistic electron diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. Scoby; P. Musumeci; J. T. Moody; M. S. Gutierrez

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study a new geometry setup for electro-optic sampling (EOS) where the electron beam runs parallel to the ⟨110⟩ face of a ZnTe crystal and the probe laser is perpendicular to it and to the beam path. The simple setup is used to encode the time-of-arrival information of a 3.5  MeV

  10. Distributing Correlation Coefficients of Linear Structure-Activity/Property Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity/property relationships are mathematical relationships linking chemical structure and activity/property in a quantitative manner. These in silico approaches are frequently used to reduce animal testing and risk-assessment, as well as to increase time- and cost-effectiveness in characterization and identification of active compounds. The aim of our study was to investigate the pattern of correlation coefficients distribution associated to simple linear relationships linking the compounds structure with their activities. A set of the most common ordnance compounds found at naval facilities with a limited data set with a range of toxicities on aquatic ecosystem and a set of seven properties was studied. Statistically significant models were selected and investigated. The probability density function of the correlation coefficients was investigated using a series of possible continuous distribution laws. Almost 48% of the correlation coefficients proved fit Beta distribution, 40% fit Generalized Pareto distribution, and 12% fit Pert distribution.

  11. Linear elastic properties derivation from microstructures representative of transport parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh Tan; Bonnet, Guy; Tuan Luu, Hoang; Perrot, Camille

    2014-06-01

    It is shown that three-dimensional periodic unit cells (3D PUC) representative of transport parameters involved in the description of long wavelength acoustic wave propagation and dissipation through real foam samples may also be used as a standpoint to estimate their macroscopic linear elastic properties. Application of the model yields quantitative agreement between numerical homogenization results, available literature data, and experiments. Key contributions of this work include recognizing the importance of membranes and properties of the base material for the physics of elasticity. The results of this paper demonstrate that a 3D PUC may be used to understand and predict not only the sound absorbing properties of porous materials but also their transmission loss, which is critical for sound insulation problems.

  12. Optic and electro-optic investigations on SmQ, SmCA* and L phases in highly chiral compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, M.; Gharbi, A.; Marcerou, J.P.; Nguyen, H.T.; Rouillon, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Chiral molecules give rise to a large variety of mesophases. Well-known examples are cholesteric or ferroelectric smectic phases where the chirality tends to favor a macroscopic twist. Furthermore, the molecular core length (l) plays an important role on the range of the mesophases and on the temperature (T NI ) for the onset of orientational order. The tendency for T NI is to increase (going over 200 - bar C for some compounds) with increasing l. We report in this paper on a selection of compounds which have been designed in order to favor an anticlinic smectic ordering together with high chirality. As a common feature, they have a long rigid core with four benzene rings and a chiral chain (usually the same) at each end. They display a locally anisotropic liquid phase referred to as ''L phase'' in a large temperature range between T NI and the low temperature SmQ or SmC A * phase. Optical rotatory power (ORP), birefringence and electro-optic studies have been performed with these compounds

  13. Large Electro-Optic Kerr-Effect in Ionic Liquid Crystals: Connecting Features of Liquid Crystals and Polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick, Michael Christian; Kapernaum, Nadia; Neidhardt, Manuel; Wöhrle, Tobias; Stöckl, Yannick; Laschat, Sabine; Gießelmann, Frank

    2018-06-06

    The electro-optic Kerr effect in the isotropic phase of two ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) is investigated and compared to the Kerr effect in non-ionic liquid crystals (LCs) with same phase sequences, namely direct isotropic to hexagonal columnar transitions and direct isotropic to smectic-A transitions. Up to electric field amplitudes of some 106 V m-1, the optical birefringence induced in the isotropic phases follows Kerr's law and strongly increases when the temperature approaches the transition temperature into the particular liquid crystalline phase. Close to the transition, maximum Kerr constants in the order of 10-11 m V-2 are found, which are more than ten times higher than the Kerr constant of nitrobenzene, a strongly dipolar fluid with a huge Kerr effect applied in optical shutters and phase modulators. In comparison to their non-ionic LC counterparts the Kerr effect in ILCs is found to be enhanced in magnitude, but slowed-down in speed, showing rise times in the order of ten milliseconds. These remarkable differences are attributed to the presence of counterion polarization well-known from complex ionic fluids such as polyelectrolytes or ionic micellar solutions. ILCs thus combine the Kerr effect features of liquid crystals and complex ionic fluids. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 Laser and Electro-Optic Technology for Space-Based Sodium Lidar Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Janches, Diego; Jones, Sarah L.; Blagojevic, Branimir; Chen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a laser and electro-optic technology to remotely measure Sodium (Na) by adapting existing lidar technology with space flight heritage. The developed instrumentation will serve as the core for the planning of an Heliophysics mission targeted to study the composition and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere based on a spaceborne lidar that will measure the mesospheric Na layer. We present performance results from our diode-pumped tunable Q-switched self-Raman c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with intra-cavity frequency doubling that produces multi-watt 589 nm wavelength output. The c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has a fundamental wavelength that is tunable from 1063-1067 nanometers. A CW (Continuous Wave) External Cavity diode laser is used as a injection seeder to provide single-frequency grating tunable output around 1066 nanometers. The injection-seeded self-Raman shifted Nd:VO4 laser is tuned across the sodium vapor D2 line at 589 nanometers. We will review technologies that provide strong leverage for the sodium lidar laser system with strong heritage from the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). These include a space-qualified frequency-doubled 9 watts-at-532-nanometer wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser, a tandem interference filter temperature-stabilized fused-silica-etalon receiver and high-bandwidth photon-counting detectors.

  15. 2D materials in electro-optic modulation: energy efficiency, electrostatics, mode overlap, material transfer and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhizhen; Hemnani, Rohit; Bartels, Ludwig; Agarwal, Ritesh; Sorger, Volker J.

    2018-02-01

    Here we discuss the physics of electro-optic modulators deploying 2D materials. We include a scaling laws analysis and show how energy-efficiency and speed change for three underlying cavity systems as a function of critical device length scaling. A key result is that the energy-per-bit of the modulator is proportional to the volume of the device, thus making the case for submicron-scale modulators possible deploying a plasmonic optical mode. We then show how Graphene's Pauli-blocking modulation mechanism is sensitive to the device operation temperature, whereby a reduction of the temperature enables a 10× reduction in modulator energy efficiency. Furthermore, we show how the high-index tunability of graphene is able to compensate for the small optical overlap factor of 2D-based material modulators, which is unlike classical silicon-based dispersion devices. Lastly, we demonstrate a novel method towards a 2D material printer suitable for cross-contamination free and on-demand printing. The latter paves the way to integrate 2D materials seamlessly into taped-out photonic chips.

  16. Precise real-time polarization measurement of terahertz electromagnetic waves by a spinning electro-optic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumatsu, Naoya; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    We propose and develop a method to quickly and precisely determine the polarization direction of coherent terahertz electromagnetic waves generated by femtosecond laser pulses. The measurement system consists of a conventional terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system with the electro-optic (EO) sampling method, but we add a new functionality in the EO crystal which is continuously rotating with the angular frequency ω. We find a simple yet useful formulation of the EO signal as a function of the crystal orientation, which enables a lock-in-like detection of both the electric-field amplitude and the absolute polarization direction of the terahertz waves with respect to the probe laser pulse polarization direction at the same time. The single measurement finishes around two periods of the crystal rotations (∼21 ms), and we experimentally prove that the accuracy of the polarization measurement does not suffer from the long-term amplitude fluctuation of the terahertz pulses. Distribution of the measured polarization directions by repeating the measurements is excellently fitted by a gaussian distribution function with a standard deviation of σ = 0.56°. The developed technique is useful for the fast direct determination of the polarization state of the terahertz electromagnetic waves for polarization imaging applications as well as the precise terahertz Faraday or Kerr rotation spectroscopy.

  17. Nonlinearity effect of electro-optical modulator response in double spread CDMA radio-over-fiber transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Fa; Yen, Chih-Ta; Li, Tzung-Yen

    2008-07-01

    This study presents a double-spread code-division multiple-access (CDMA) scheme for radio-over-fiber (RoF) transmissions. The network coder/decoders (codecs) are implemented using arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) routers coded with maximal-length sequence ( M-sequence) codes. The effects of phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) and multiple-access interference (MAI) on the system performance are evaluated numerically for different values of the optical modulation index (OMI) during the nonlinear electro-optical modulator (EOM) response. At low OMI optical device noise is dominant, but at high OMI nonlinear effect becomes significant. Numerical result shows that the system performance is highly sensitive to the OMI. Therefore, specifying an appropriate value of the OMI is essential in optimizing the system performance. The influence of the degree of polarization (DOP) in the system is also discussed. By employing the scrambler in front of the balanced photo-detector, the system performance can be enhanced. The high-performance, low-cost characteristics of the double-spread CDMA render the scheme an ideal solution for radio-CDMA wireless system cascaded with optical CDMA network.

  18. Optical filter based on Fabry-Perot structure using a suspension of goethite nanoparticles as electro-optic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Samir; Dupont, Laurent; Dozov, Ivan; Davidson, Patrick; Chanéac, Corinne

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of optical tunable filters based on a Fabry-Perot etalon that uses a suspension of goethite (α-FeOOH) nanorods as electro-optic material for application in optical telecommunications in the near IR range. These synthetic nanoparticles have a high optical anisotropy that give rise to a very strong Kerr effect in their colloidal suspensions. Currently, these particles are dispersed in aqueous solvent, with pH2 to ensure the colloidal electrostatic stability. However, the high conductivity of these suspensions requires using high-frequency electric fields (f > 1 MHz), which brings about a high power consumption of the driver. To decrease the field frequency, we have changed the solvent to ethylene glycol which has a lower electrical conductivity than the aqueous solvent. We have built a Fabry-Perot cell, filled with this colloidal suspension in the isotropic phase, and showed that a phase shift of 14 nm can be obtained in a field of 3V/μm. Therefore, the device can operate as a tunable filter. A key advantage of this filter is that it is, by principle, completely insensitive to the polarization of the input light. However, several technological issues still need to be solved, such as ionic contamination of the suspension from the blocking layers, and dielectrophoretic and thermal effects.

  19. Single-crystal films of a combination of materials (co-crystal) involving DAST and IR-125 for electro-optic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, A.; Titus, J.; Rajagopalan, H.; Vippa, P.; Thakur, M.

    2006-03-01

    Single-crystal film of DAST (4'-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate) has been shown [1] to have exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients (r11 ˜ 770 pm/V at 633 nm). In this report, single crystal film of a combination of materials (co-crystal) involving DAST and a dye molecule IR-125 will be discussed. Modified shear method was used to prepare the co-crystal films. The film has been characterized using polarized optical microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The optical absorption spectrum has two major bands: one at about 350--600 nm corresponding to DAST and the other at about 600-900 nm corresponding to IR-125. The x-ray diffraction results show peaks involving the presence of DAST and IR-125 within the co-crystal film. Since the co-crystal has strong absorption at longer wavelengths it is expected to show higher electro-optic coefficients at longer wavelengths. Preliminary measurements at 1.55 μm indicate a high electro-optic coefficient of the co-crystal film. [1] Swamy, Kutty, Titus, Khatavkar, Thakur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2004, 85, 4025; Kutty, Thakur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005, 87, 191111.

  20. Realization of a free-space 2 × 4 90° optical hybrid based on the birefringence and electro-optic effects of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Lingyu; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Liren; Sun, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    A free-space 2 × 4 90° optical hybrid with electro-optic modulation is presented. The hybrid principally consists of two pairs of electro-optic crystal plates coated with gold electrodes and a polarization analyzer. The optical hybrid uses the birefringence effect of a crystal to split and combine a signal beam and a local oscillator beam, uses the electro-optic effect to introduce a phase modulation and produce a phase shift, and outputs four-channel signal/local oscillator mixed beams whose phase difference can be adjusted continuously. A LiNbO 3 crystal is used to design and manufacture the space optical hybrid, and an experimental system is used to verify its performance. The results show that the output phase of the hybrid is continuously adjustable, enabling the hybrid to function perfectly as a 2 × 4 90° space optical hybrid under an appropriate electric field, and that the phase error can be compensated for by an electric field adjustment. (paper)

  1. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  2. Electro-optic investigation of the n-alkanethiol GaAs(001) interface: Surface phenomena and applications to photoluminescence-based biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gregory M.

    Semiconductor surfaces coupled to molecular structures derived from organic chemistry form the basis of an emerging class of field-effect devices. In addition to molecular electronics research, these interfaces are developed for a variety of sensor applications in the electronic and optical domains. Of practical interest are self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) comprised of n-alkanethiols [HS(CH2)n], which couple to the GaAs(001) surface through S-GaAs covalent bond formation. These SAMs offer potential functionality in terms of the requisite sensor chemistry and the passivation effect such coupling is known to afford. In this thesis, the SAM-GaAs interface is investigated in the context of a photonic biosensor based on photoluminescence (PL) variation. The scope of the work is categorized into three parts: i) the structural and compositional analysis of the surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ii) the investigation of electronic properties at the interface under equilibrium conditions using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, the Kelvin probe method, and XPS, and iii) the analysis of the electro-optic response under steady-state photonic excitation, specifically, the surface photovoltage (SPV) and PL intensity. Using a partial overlayer model of angle-resolved XPS spectra in which the component assignments are shown to be quantitatively valid, the coverage fraction of methyl-terminated SAMs is shown to exceed 90%. Notable among the findings are a low-oxide, Ga-rich surface with elemental As present in sub-monolayer quantities consistent with theoretical surface morphologies. Modal analysis of transmission IR spectra show that the SAM molecular order is sufficient to support a Beer-Lambert determination of the IR optical constants, which yields the observation of a SAM-specific absorbance enhancement. By correlation of the IR absorbance with the SAM dipole layer potential, the enhancement mechanism is attributed to the vibrational moments added by the

  3. High definition in-situ electro-optical characterization for Roll to Roll printed electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Resume: Printed electronics is emerging as a new, large scale and cost effective technology that will be disruptive in fields such as energy harvesting, consumer electronics and medical sensors. The performance of printed organic electronic devices relies principally on the carrier mobility...... and molecular packing of the polymer semiconductor material. Unfortunately, the analysis of such materials is generally performed with destructive techniques, which are hard to make compatible with in situ measurements, and pose a great obstacle for the mass production of printed electronics devices. A rapid......-photon induced photoluminescence (TPPL) and second harmonic response. We anticipate that this non-linear optical method will substantially contribute to the understanding of printed electronic devices and demonstrate it as a promising novel tool for non-destructive and facile testing of materials during printing...

  4. The electro-optical and charge transport study of imidazolidin derivative: Quantum chemical investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Irfan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Imidazolidin derivatives gained significant attention in our daily life from better biological activity to the semiconducting materials. The present investigation deals with the in depth study of (Z-2-sulfanylidene-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethylideneimidazolidin-4-one (STMI with respect to their structural, electronic, optical and charge transport properties as semiconducting material. The ground and first excited state geometries were optimized by applying density functional theory (DFT and time dependent DFT, respectively. The light has been shed on the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs and observed comprehensible intramolecular charge transfer (ICT from the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs. The absorption, emission, ionization potentials (IP, electron affinities (EA, total and partial densities of states and structure-property relationship have been discussed. Finally, hole as well as electron reorganization energies, transfer integrals and intrinsic mobilities have been calculated then charge transport behavior of STMI was discussed, intensively.

  5. Electronic and geometric structure of electro-optically active organic films and associated interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanco, J.; Haber, T.; Resel, R.; Netzer, F.P.; Ramsey, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of sexiphenyl and sexithiophene films grown under ultra-high vacuum conditions on a variety of well-controlled substrate surfaces have been examined. We show that, in contradiction with the general notion, the ionisation potential of the organic films is not a material constant. Considering the variable ionisation potential, the validity of the Schottky-Mott relationship, which expresses a dependence of the band alignment on the substrate work function, is analysed. We also briefly discuss the relevance of the built-in potential behaviour in organic films for the band-bending concept

  6. Afrika Statistika ISSN 2316-090X Further properties of linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties of linear prediction sufficiency and the BLUPs in the linear model with new observations. ...... a wide range of applications, for example, plant variety trials, animal breeding, selection ..... Linear Algebra Appl., 430, 2622–2641. DOI.

  7. Designing and commissioning of a setup for timing-jitter measurements using electro-optic temporal decoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borissenko, Dennis

    2016-12-01

    Precise measurements of the arrival time jitter between the ionization laser, used to create the plasma, and the driver beam in the PWFA setup of the FLASHForward project are of high interest for the operation and optimization of the experiment. In this thesis, an electro-optic temporal decoding (EOTD) setup with near crossed polarizer detection scheme is presented, which can measure the timing-jitter to an accuracy of around 30 fs. This result was obtained during several measurements conducted at the coherent transition radiation beamline CTR141 at FLASH, using a 100 μm thick GaP crystal and coherent diffraction/transition radiation, generated from the FLASH1 electron bunches. Measurements were performed during long and short electron bunch operation at FLASH, showing that best results are obtained with CDR from long electron bunches. Utilizing CTR led to a higher EO signal and ''over-compensation'' of the SHG background level during the measurement, which resulted in a double-peak structure of the observed THz pulses. To resolve the single-cycle nature of these THz pulses, the SHG background had to be adjusted properly. Furthermore, EOTD measurements during a short bunch operation run at FLASH exhibited strong oscillations in the EO signal, which were suspected to come either from internal lattice resonances of the EO crystal or internal reflections, or excitation of water vapor in the humid air in the laboratory. The oscillations spoiled the observed EOTD trace leading to no sensible measurements of the arrival time jitter during this short bunch operation. To evaluate the capabilities of the setup for monitoring the timing jitter of short PWFA accelerated electron bunches or very short driver bunches at FLASHForward, further investigations on the observed oscillations in the EOTD traces have to be performed during short bunch operation at FLASH with different crystals and under vacuum conditions, to understand the oscillations of the EO signal better.

  8. Designing and commissioning of a setup for timing-jitter measurements using electro-optic temporal decoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borissenko, Dennis

    2016-12-15

    Precise measurements of the arrival time jitter between the ionization laser, used to create the plasma, and the driver beam in the PWFA setup of the FLASHForward project are of high interest for the operation and optimization of the experiment. In this thesis, an electro-optic temporal decoding (EOTD) setup with near crossed polarizer detection scheme is presented, which can measure the timing-jitter to an accuracy of around 30 fs. This result was obtained during several measurements conducted at the coherent transition radiation beamline CTR141 at FLASH, using a 100 μm thick GaP crystal and coherent diffraction/transition radiation, generated from the FLASH1 electron bunches. Measurements were performed during long and short electron bunch operation at FLASH, showing that best results are obtained with CDR from long electron bunches. Utilizing CTR led to a higher EO signal and ''over-compensation'' of the SHG background level during the measurement, which resulted in a double-peak structure of the observed THz pulses. To resolve the single-cycle nature of these THz pulses, the SHG background had to be adjusted properly. Furthermore, EOTD measurements during a short bunch operation run at FLASH exhibited strong oscillations in the EO signal, which were suspected to come either from internal lattice resonances of the EO crystal or internal reflections, or excitation of water vapor in the humid air in the laboratory. The oscillations spoiled the observed EOTD trace leading to no sensible measurements of the arrival time jitter during this short bunch operation. To evaluate the capabilities of the setup for monitoring the timing jitter of short PWFA accelerated electron bunches or very short driver bunches at FLASHForward, further investigations on the observed oscillations in the EOTD traces have to be performed during short bunch operation at FLASH with different crystals and under vacuum conditions, to understand the oscillations of the EO

  9. Topological, chemical and electro-optical characteristics of riboflavin-doped artificial and natural DNA thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Son, Junyoung; Park, Sung Ha

    2018-02-01

    DNA is considered as a useful building bio-material, and it serves as an efficient template to align functionalized nanomaterials. Riboflavin (RF)-doped synthetic double-crossover DNA (DX-DNA) lattices and natural salmon DNA (SDNA) thin films were constructed using substrate-assisted growth and drop-casting methods, respectively, and their topological, chemical and electro-optical characteristics were evaluated. The critical doping concentrations of RF ([RF]C, approx. 5 mM) at given concentrations of DX-DNA and SDNA were obtained by observing the phase transition (from crystalline to amorphous structures) of DX-DNA and precipitation of SDNA in solution above [RF]C. [RF]C are verified by analysing the atomic force microscopy images for DX-DNA and current, absorbance and photoluminescence (PL) for SDNA. We study the physical characteristics of RF-embedded SDNA thin films, using the Fourier transform infrared spectrum to understand the interaction between the RF and DNA molecules, current to evaluate the conductance, absorption to understand the RF binding to the DNA and PL to analyse the energy transfer between the RF and DNA. The current and UV absorption band of SDNA thin films decrease up to [RF]C followed by an increase above [RF]C. By contrast, the PL intensity illustrates the reverse trend, as compared to the current and UV absorption behaviour as a function of the varying [RF]. Owing to the intense PL characteristic of RF, the DNA lattices and thin films with RF might offer immense potential to develop efficient bio-sensors and useful bio-photonic devices.

  10. Stretching of red blood cells using an electro-optics trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Mozzammel; Moisescu, Mihaela G; Valkai, Sándor; Dér, András; Savopol, Tudor

    2015-01-01

    The stretching stiffness of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) was investigated using a combination of an AC dielectrophoretic apparatus and a single-beam optical tweezer. The experiments were performed at 10 MHz, a frequency high enough to avoid conductivity losses, but below the second turnover point between positive and negative dielectrophoresis. By measuring the geometrical parameters of single healthy human RBCs as a function of the applied voltage, the elastic modulus of RBCs was determined (µ = 1.80 ± 0.5 µN/m) and compared with similar values of the literature got by other techniques. The method is expected to be an easy-to-use, alternative tool to determine the mechano-elastic properties of living cells, and, on this basis, to distinguish healthy and diseased cells.

  11. Investigation of Electron Transfer-Based Photonic and Electro-Optic Materials and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Abbott, Edwin H; Dickensheets, David; Donovan, Richard P; Hobbs, J D; Spangler, Lee; McGuirl, Michele A; Spangler, Charles; Rebane, Aleksander; Rosenburg, Edward; Schmidt, V H; Singel, David J

    2008-03-28

    Montana's state program began its sixth year in 2006. The project's research cluster focused on physical, chemical, and biological materials that exhibit unique electron-transfer properties. Our investigators have filed several patents and have also have established five spin-off businesses (3 MSU, 2 UM) and a research center (MT Tech). In addition, this project involved faculty and students at three campuses (MSU, UM, MT Tech) and has a number of under-represented students, including 10 women and 5 Native Americans. In 2006, there was an added emphasis on exporting seminars and speakers via the Internet from UM to Chief Dull Knife Community College, as well as work with the MT Department of Commerce to better educate our faculty regarding establishing small businesses, licensing and patent issues, and SBIR program opportunities.

  12. Characteristics and Properties of a Simple Linear Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowal Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple linear regression model is one of the pillars of classic econometrics. Despite the passage of time, it continues to raise interest both from the theoretical side as well as from the application side. One of the many fundamental questions in the model concerns determining derivative characteristics and studying the properties existing in their scope, referring to the first of these aspects. The literature of the subject provides several classic solutions in that regard. In the paper, a completely new design is proposed, based on the direct application of variance and its properties, resulting from the non-correlation of certain estimators with the mean, within the scope of which some fundamental dependencies of the model characteristics are obtained in a much more compact manner. The apparatus allows for a simple and uniform demonstration of multiple dependencies and fundamental properties in the model, and it does it in an intuitive manner. The results were obtained in a classic, traditional area, where everything, as it might seem, has already been thoroughly studied and discovered.

  13. Model-Checking of Linear-Time Properties in Multi-Valued Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yongming; Droste, Manfred; Lei, Lihui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study model-checking of linear-time properties in multi-valued systems. Safety property, invariant property, liveness property, persistence and dual-persistence properties in multi-valued logic systems are introduced. Some algorithms related to the above multi-valued linear-time properties are discussed. The verification of multi-valued regular safety properties and multi-valued $\\omega$-regular properties using lattice-valued automata are thoroughly studied. Since the law o...

  14. Study of Structure and Electro-Optical Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Khusayfan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ITO thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation of ceramic ITO target. The films were subsequently annealed in air atmosphere at the temperatures 300°C and 600°C in order to improve their optical and electrical properties. The crystal structure and morphology of the films are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope techniques, respectively. The films exhibited cubic structure with predominant orientation of growth along (222 direction, and the crystallite size increases by rising annealing temperature. Transparency of the films, over the visible light region, is increased by annealing temperature. The resulting increase in the carrier concentration and in the carrier mobility decreases the resistivity of the films due to annealing. The absorption coefficient of the films is calculated and analyzed. The direct allowed optical band gap for as-deposited films is determined as 3.81 eV; this value is increased to 3.88 and 4.0 eV as a result of annealing at 300°C and 600°C, respectively. The electrical sheet resistance is significantly decreased by increasing annealing temperature, whereas figure of merit is increased.

  15. Electro-optic studies of the flexoelectric effect in chiral nematic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrave, B.

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of global telecommunications networks and the Internet, the development of portable display technology has gained a new impetus. Liquid crystal devices have played a major role in this area, most conspicuously as displays in laptop computers. To date, these liquid crystalline devices have been generally based on the rather slow (∼ 30 ms) dielectric response of the achiral nematic liquid crystal phase, although more expensive devices based on the faster ( -1 m -1 , and are the highest measured to date: the highest value previously published is 0.12 C N -1 m -1 , measured for the commercial mixture TM216. In order to interpret the effect of the bimesogens' molecular structure, achiral nematic monomesogens and bimesogens have been doped with chiral additives and the resultant mixtures' flexoelectro-optic properties have been analysed. From this work it has been possible to determine that the polar cyanobiphenyl group is the key to the strong response in the estradiol-cyanobiphenyl materials. In conclusion, a recommendation is made, for the first time, for a general molecular structure likely to exhibit a strong flexoelectro-optic response: namely, bimesogenic materials composed of highly polar end groups separated by a flexible spacer. (author)

  16. RF properties of periodic accelerating structures for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.

    1989-07-01

    With the advent of the SLAC electron-positron linear collider (SLC) in the 100 GeV center-of-mass energy range, research and development work on even higher energy machines of this type has started in several laboratories in the United States, Europe, the Soviet Union and Japan. These linear colliders appear to provide the only promising approach to studying e + e - physics at center-of-mass energies approaching 1 TeV. This thesis concerns itself with the study of radio frequency properties of periodic accelerating structures for linear colliders and their interaction with bunched beams. The topics that have been investigated are: experimental measurements of the energy loss of single bunches to longitudinal modes in two types of structures, using an equivalent signal on a coaxial wire to simulate the beam; a method of canceling the energy spread created within a single bunch by longitudinal wakefields, through appropriate shaping of the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch; derivation of the complete transient beam-loading equation for a train of bunches passing through a constant-gradient accelerator section, with application to the calculation and minimization of multi-bunch energy spread; detailed study of field emission and radio frequency breakdown in disk-loaded structures at S-, C- and X-band frequencies under extremely high-gradient conditions, with special attention to thermal effects, radiation, sparking, emission of gases, surface damage through explosive emission and its possible control through RF-gas processing. 53 refs., 49 figs., 9 tabs

  17. Magnetodynamic non-linearity of electric properties of uncompensated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol', V.R.; Mazurenko, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetodynamic non-linearity of electric properties of normal metals is investigated both experimentally and analytically provided that the drift of charge carriers of high density in crossed electric and magnetic fields results in generation of a self current field. The measurements were made on high purity polycrystalline aluminium cylindrical conductors under the action of the magnetic field, coaxial the sample axis, on the radial current. The electric potential and its nonlinear correction are determined in a wide range of energy dissipation values up to the levels corresponding to the crisis of liquid helium boiling. In the approximation of contribution additivity to the resistive effect of both the external and self magnetic field agreement between the experimental data and the results calculated using the macroscopic field equations is attained. The problems of magnetic energy concentration for cylindrical conductors is discussed in the approximation of long and short solenoids

  18. Decay properties of linear thermoelastic plates: Cattaneo versus Fourier law

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2013-02-01

    In this article, we investigate the decay properties of the linear thermoelastic plate equations in the whole space for both Fourier and Cattaneo\\'s laws of heat conduction. We point out that while the paradox of infinite propagation speed inherent in Fourier\\'s law is removed by changing to the Cattaneo law, the latter always leads to a loss of regularity of the solution. The main tool used to prove our results is the energy method in the Fourier space together with some integral estimates. We prove the decay estimates for initial data U0 ∈ Hs(ℝ) ∩ L1(ℝ). In addition, by restricting the initial data to U0 ∈ Hs(ℝ) ∩ L1,γ(ℝ) and γ ∈ [0, 1], we can derive faster decay estimates with the decay rate improvement by a factor of t-γ/2. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  19. Structural and Interfacial Properties of Hyperbranched-Linear Polymer Surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Taotao; Bu, Qiaoqiao; Huang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Xuechuan

    2014-01-01

    With oleic acid grafting modification, a series of hyperbranched-linear polymer surfactants (HLPS) were prepared by hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP), which was gained through a step synthesis method using trimethylolpropane and AB 2 monomer. The AB 2 monomers were obtained through the Michael addition reaction of methyl acrylate and diethanol amine. The structures of HLPS were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which indicated that HBP was successfully modified by oleic acid. Furthermore, the properties of surface tension and critical micelle concentration of HLPS solution showed that HLPS can significantly reduce the surface tension of water. The morphology of the HLPS solution was characterised by dynamic light scattering, which revealed that HLPS exhibited a nonmonotonic appearance in particle size at different scattering angles owing to the different replaced linear portions. The relationships of the surface pressure to monolayer area and time were measured using the Langmuir-Blodgett instrument, which showed that the surface tension of monolayer molecules increased with the increasing of hydrophobic groups. In addition, the interface conditions of different replaced HLPS solutions were simulated.

  20. Measuring high-frequency responses of an electro-optic phase modulator based on dispersion induced phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shangjian; Wang, Heng; Wang, Yani; Zou, Xinhai; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the phase modulation to intensity modulation conversion in dispersive fibers for measuring frequency responses of electro-optic phase modulators, and demonstrate two typical measurements with cascade path and fold-back path. The measured results achieve an uncertainty of less than 2.8% within 20 GHz. Our measurements show stable and repeatable results because the optical carrier and its phase-modulated sidebands are affected by the same fiber impairments. The proposed method requires only dispersive fibers and works without any small-signal assumption, which is applicable for swept frequency measurement at different driving levels and operating wavelengths.

  1. A dual approach to study the electro-optical properties of a noncentrosymmetric L-asparagine monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkir, Mohd; Muhammad, Shabbir; AlFaify, S; Irfan, Ahmad; Yahia, I S

    2015-02-25

    In this work we reports the experimental and theoretical investigation on an organic noncentrosymmetric monohydrated L-asparagine (LAM) molecule. LAM single crystals were grown in specially designed beaker for the first time. Structural confirmation was done by identifying the vibrational modes using IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic studies. The ultra violet-visible-near infrared absorbance, diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded in the spectral range 190-2500 nm. The optical transparency was calculated and found to be ∼80%. Its optical band gap was calculated found to be ∼5.100 eV. Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to optimize the molecular geometry of LAM using B3LYP/6-31G(∗) basis set of theory. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap of 6.047 eV and transition energy of 176 nm (f0=0.024) have been found in semi-quantitative agreement with our experimental results. The dipole moment, polarizability and first hyperpolarizability were calculated at the same level of theory. The obtained results reveals that the titled compound can be a decent contender for nonlinear applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of grain boundary diffusion on the electro-optical properties of CdTe/CdS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, D.H.; Albin, D.S.; Gessert, T.A.; Reedy, R.C.; Ahrenkiel, R.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Woods, L.M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors report on a study of the effects of diffusion of metals through polycrystalline CdTe thin films. The metals Ni, Pd, Cu, Cr, and Te are deposited onto the back surface of 10-{micro}m thick CdTe/CdS device structures using room-temperature evaporation. The authors found that four out of the five metals produce significant changes in the photoluminescence (PL) of the near-junction CdTe material. These changes are explained in terms of spatial variations of the photoexcited carrier distribution and spatial variations in the sulfur composition of the CdTeS alloy material near the CdTeS interface. The changes in carrier distribution appear to be associated with band bending and electric fields induced by diffusion of the metals to the CdTe/CdS interface. In addition to PL measurements, the authors have also utilized a technique for detaching the CdTe film from the CdS/TCO/glass superstrate to directly access the front surface of the CdTe absorber layer. The authors have used secondary ion mass spectroscopy to measure the metal diffusion profiles from this interface.

  3. On the feasibility of self-mixing interferometer sensing for detection of the surface electrocardiographic signal using a customized electro-optic phase modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, A Ashrif A; Lim, Yah Leng; Wilson, Stephen J; Fuentes, Miguel; Bertling, Karl; Taimre, Thomas; Rakić, Aleksandar D; Bosch, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Optical sensing offers an attractive option for detection of surface biopotentials in human subjects where electromagnetically noisy environments exist or safety requirements dictate a high degree of galvanic isolation. Such circumstances may be found in modern magnetic resonance imaging systems for example. The low signal amplitude and high source impedance of typical biopotentials have made optical transduction an uncommon sensing approach. We propose a solution consisting of an electro-optic phase modulator as a transducer, coupled to a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and the self-mixing signal detected via a photodiode. This configuration is physically evaluated with respect to synthesized surface electrocardiographic (EKG) signals of varying amplitudes and using differing optical feedback regimes. Optically detected EKG signals using strong optical feedback show the feasibility of this approach and indicate directions for optimization of the electro-optic transducer for improved signal-to-noise ratios. This may provide a new means of biopotential detection suited for environments characterized by harsh electromagnetic interference. (paper)

  4. Impact of severe cracked germanium (111 substrate on aluminum indium gallium phosphate light-emitting-diode’s electro-optical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaniah Luruthudass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cracked die is a serious failure mode in the Light Emitting Diode (LED industry – affecting LED quality and long-term reliability performance. In this paper an investigation has been carried out to find the correlation between severe cracked germanium (Ge substrate of an aluminum indium gallium phosphate (AlInGaP LED and its electro-optical performance after the Temperature Cycle (TC test. The LED dice were indented at several bond forces using a die bonder. The indented dice were analysed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. The result showed that severe cracks were observed at 180 gF onward. As the force of indentation increases, crack formation also becomes more severe thus resulting in the chipping of the substrate. The cracked dies were packaged and the TC test was performed. The results did not show any electro-optical failure or degradation, even after a 1000 cycle TC test. Several mechanically cross-sectioned cracked die LEDs, were analysed using SEM and found that no crack reached the active layer. This shows that severely cracked Ge substrate are able to withstand a −40°C/+100°C TC test up to 1000 cycles and LED optical performance is not affected. A small leakage current was observed in all of the cracked die LEDs in comparison to the reference unit. However, this value is smaller than the product specification and is of no concern.

  5. Long range surface plasmon resonance enhanced electro-optically tunable Goos-Hänchen shift and Imbert-Fedorov shift in ZnSe prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nabamita; Kar, Aparupa; Saha, Ardhendu

    2014-11-01

    A new theoretical approach towards the tuning of Goos-Hänchen shift and Imbert-Fedorov shift for the reflected light beam is observed, designed and simulated in this paper through electro-optically tunable liquid crystal at an incident wavelength of 1550 nm within the communication window. Here the considered Kretschmann-Raether geometry comprises a ZnSe prism and a liquid crystal layer of E44 between two metal layers of silver, where with the application of electric field from (0-10) V electro-optically tuning of the Goos-Hänchen shift from 64.09 μm to -53.408 μm and the Imbert-Fedorov shift from 122.8 μm to -32.5 μm for a change in refractive index of the liquid crystal layer from 1.52-1.79 are envisaged. This idea expedites the scope of fine tuning in optical switching within the μm ranges.

  6. Non-Linear Rheological Properties and Neutron Scattering Investigation on Dilute Ring-Linear Blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyckhout-Hintzen, W.; Bras, A.R.; Wischnewski, A.

    in a filament stretching rheometer, followed by quenching, strong anisotropic scattering patterns were obtained which were described by affinely deformed rings which function as giant, polymeric chemical crosslinks or sliplinks and more or less isotropic topological contributions from the entangling...... with interpenetrating linear chains. At the same time the non-linear rheological and mechanical data fit to a non-affine slip-tube model as for moderately crosslinked networks and to interchain pressure models or a modified non-linear Doi-Edwards description for the observed strain hardening during the extensional...

  7. A property of assignment type mixed integer linear programming problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, J.F.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we will proof that rather tight upper bounds can be given for the number of non-unique assignments that are achieved after solving the linear programming relaxation of some types of mixed integer linear assignment problems. Since in these cases the number of splitted assignments is

  8. Land cover classification accuracy from electro-optical, X, C, and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Mark Gregory

    The fusion of electro-optical (EO) multi-spectral satellite imagery with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data was explored with the working hypothesis that the addition of multi-band SAR will increase the land-cover (LC) classification accuracy compared to EO alone. Three satellite sources for SAR imagery were used: X-band from TerraSAR-X, C-band from RADARSAT-2, and L-band from PALSAR. Images from the RapidEye satellites were the source of the EO imagery. Imagery from the GeoEye-1 and WorldView-2 satellites aided the selection of ground truth. Three study areas were chosen: Wad Medani, Sudan; Campinas, Brazil; and Fresno- Kings Counties, USA. EO imagery were radiometrically calibrated, atmospherically compensated, orthorectifed, co-registered, and clipped to a common area of interest (AOI). SAR imagery were radiometrically calibrated, and geometrically corrected for terrain and incidence angle by converting to ground range and Sigma Naught (?0). The original SAR HH data were included in the fused image stack after despeckling with a 3x3 Enhanced Lee filter. The variance and Gray-Level-Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture measures of contrast, entropy, and correlation were derived from the non-despeckled SAR HH bands. Data fusion was done with layer stacking and all data were resampled to a common spatial resolution. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) decision rule was used for the supervised classifications. Similar LC classes were identified and tested for each study area. For Wad Medani, nine classes were tested: low and medium intensity urban, sparse forest, water, barren ground, and four agriculture classes (fallow, bare agricultural ground, green crops, and orchards). For Campinas, Brazil, five generic classes were tested: urban, agriculture, forest, water, and barren ground. For the Fresno-Kings Counties location 11 classes were studied: three generic classes (urban, water, barren land), and eight specific crops. In all cases the addition of SAR to EO resulted

  9. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  10. Research on volume metrology method of large vertical energy storage tank based on internal electro-optical distance-ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huadong; Shi, Haolei; Yi, Pengju; Liu, Ying; Li, Cunjun; Li, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    A Volume Metrology method based on Internal Electro-optical Distance-ranging method is established for large vertical energy storage tank. After analyzing the vertical tank volume calculation mathematical model, the key processing algorithms, such as gross error elimination, filtering, streamline, and radius calculation are studied for the point cloud data. The corresponding volume values are automatically calculated in the different liquids by calculating the cross-sectional area along the horizontal direction and integrating from vertical direction. To design the comparison system, a vertical tank which the nominal capacity is 20,000 m3 is selected as the research object, and there are shown that the method has good repeatability and reproducibility. Through using the conventional capacity measurement method as reference, the relative deviation of calculated volume is less than 0.1%, meeting the measurement requirements. And the feasibility and effectiveness are demonstrated.

  11. Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X; Vahala, K; Li, J; Diddams, S; Ycas, G; Plavchan, P; Leifer, S; Sandhu, J; Vasisht, G; Chen, P; Gao, P; Gagne, J; Furlan, E; Bottom, M; Martin, E C; Fitzgerald, M P; Doppmann, G; Beichman, C

    2016-01-27

    An important technique for discovering and characterizing planets beyond our solar system relies upon measurement of weak Doppler shifts in the spectra of host stars induced by the influence of orbiting planets. A recent advance has been the introduction of optical frequency combs as frequency references. Frequency combs produce a series of equally spaced reference frequencies and they offer extreme accuracy and spectral grasp that can potentially revolutionize exoplanet detection. Here we demonstrate a laser frequency comb using an alternate comb generation method based on electro-optical modulation, with the comb centre wavelength stabilized to a molecular or atomic reference. In contrast to mode-locked combs, the line spacing is readily resolvable using typical astronomical grating spectrographs. Built using commercial off-the-shelf components, the instrument is relatively simple and reliable. Proof of concept experiments operated at near-infrared wavelengths were carried out at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Keck-II telescope.

  12. Polarization-sensitive electro-optic detection of terahertz wave using three different types of crystal symmetry: Toward broadband polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Hotsumi; Okano, Makoto; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated polarization-sensitive electro-optic (EO) detection of terahertz (THz) waves by using two uniaxial crystals: a c-cut gallium selenide and a c-cut lithium niobate crystals. We formulated a general frequency-domain description of EO detection by in-plane isotropic EO crystals, which holds regardless of the frequency. Based on this description, the polarization of THz waves can be derived by analyzing EO sampling signals measured with two orthogonal configurations of the in-plane isotropic EO crystals as well as typical (111) zinc-blende EO crystals. In addition, we experimentally demonstrated that the frequency-dependent polarization of THz waves can be reproducibly retrieved using three EO crystals with different crystal symmetries and with different phase matching conditions. Our description provides essential information for practical polarization sensing in the THz frequency range as well as in the mid-infrared range

  13. Asymptotic properties for half-linear difference equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cecchi, M.; Došlá, Z.; Marini, M.; Vrkoč, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 4 (2006), s. 347-363 ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/04/0580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : half-linear second order difference equation * nonoscillatory solutions * Riccati difference equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. On spectral properties of linear combinations of idempotents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Du, H.-K.; Deng, Ch-Y.; Mbekhta, M.; Müller, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 180, č. 3 (2007), s. 211-217 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear combinations of idempotents * closed range * complemented subspaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2007

  15. Effect of linear and non-linear components in the temperature dependences of thermoelectric properties on the energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    The new thermal rate equations were built up by taking the linear and non-linear components in the temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficient α, the electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of a thermoelectric (TE) material into the thermal rate equations on the assumption that their temperature dependences are expressed by a quadratic function of temperature T. The energy conversion efficiency η for a single TE element was formulated using the new thermal rate ones proposed here. By applying it to the high-performance half-Heusler compound, the non-linear component in the temperature dependence of α among those of the TE properties has the greatest effect on η, so that η/η 0 was increased by 11% under the condition of T = 510 K and ΔT = 440 K, where η 0 is a well-known conventional energy conversion efficiency. It was thus found that the temperature dependences of TE properties have a significant influence on η. When one evaluates the accurate achievement rate of η exp obtained experimentally for a TE generator, therefore, η exp should be compared with η the estimated from the theoretical expression proposed here, not with η 0 , particularly when there is a strong non-linearity in the temperature dependence of TE properties.

  16. Application of nanostructural materials in electro optical measuring sets of big powers based on usage of optical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihov, Aidar I.; Tljavlin, Anfar Z.; Kusimov, Salavat M.

    2005-06-01

    Optically transparent nanostructural materials show to themselves a heightened interest owing to display in them the new physic mechanical properties. Variation of structure of the materials received by methods of intensive plastic deformation, results in variation of many fundamental parameters. Among them special interest was caused with variations of fundamental magnetic characteristics. One of them is the magnetization of saturation, which is usually structurally tolerant, but reflects changes in an atomic-crystal structure of solids. Even in the first probing of the transparent nanostructures, received by intensive deformation by torsion of samples, was found that the magnetization of saturation was revealed at room temperature in comparison with coarse-grained samples. High-power measuring devices are based on Faraday effect, representing itself rotation of a plane of polarization of linearly polarized light in optical active substances under action of a magnetic field. Application of nanostructural materials in the optical insulator, which is the main part of the measuring device, allows improving the measuring characteristics of instruments qualitatively. Brought losses in Faraday cell make 0,35 -0,89 dB instead of 0,7 - I,2 dB, and value of the backward losses makes not less than 62 dB instead of 55 dB. Undoubtedly, improvement of the given parameters allows making the measuring operations with the greater accuracy, reducing both absolute, and relative errors.

  17. Linear Polarization Properties of Parsec-Scale AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Pushkarev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We used 15 GHz multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA polarization sensitive observations of 484 sources within a time interval 1996–2016 from the MOJAVE program, and also from the NRAO data archive. We have analyzed the linear polarization characteristics of the compact core features and regions downstream, and their changes along and across the parsec-scale active galactic nuclei (AGN jets. We detected a significant increase of fractional polarization with distance from the radio core along the jet as well as towards the jet edges. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have a higher degree of polarization and exhibit more stable electric vector position angles (EVPAs in their core features and a better alignment of the EVPAs with the local jet direction. The latter is accompanied by a higher degree of linear polarization, suggesting that compact bright jet features might be strong transverse shocks, which enhance magnetic field regularity by compression.

  18. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of borate crystals as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    crystal series, with an accuracy acceptable for materials development/design, and answer the questions often ... Optical property; nonlinear optical crystals; first principles calculation. 1. ..... system, and is not in concept suitable to excitation pro-.

  19. Structural and Interfacial Properties of Hyperbranched-Linear Polymer Surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Taotao; Bu, Qiaoqiao; Huang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Xuechuan

    2014-01-01

    With oleic acid grafting modification, a series of hyperbranched-linear polymer surfactants (HLPS) were prepared by hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP), which was gained through a step synthesis method using trimethylolpropane and AB2 monomer. The AB2 monomers were obtained through the Michael addition reaction of methyl acrylate and diethanol amine. The structures of HLPS were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), whic...

  20. Mechanical Properties of Potato- Starch Linear Low Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical properties of potato-starch filled LLDPE such as Young's Modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break were studied. Apart from the Young's Modulus, the tensile strength and elongation at break reduced with increased starch content. This is attributed to poor adhesion between starch and the polymer ...

  1. PROPERTIES OF INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE FROM GRADIENTS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Gaensler, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in the interstellar magnetic field and ionized gas density resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We used a set of statistical tools to analyze images of the spatial gradient of linearly polarized radio emission (|∇P|) for both observational data from a test image of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS) and isothermal three-dimensional simulations of MHD turbulence. Visually, in both observations and simulations, a complex network of filamentary structures is seen. Our analysis shows that the filaments in |∇P| can be produced both by interacting shocks and random fluctuations characterizing the non-differentiable field of MHD turbulence. The latter dominates for subsonic turbulence, while the former is only present in supersonic turbulence. We show that supersonic and subsonic turbulence exhibit different distributions as well as different morphologies in the maps of |∇P|. Particularly, filaments produced by shocks show a characteristic 'double jump' profile at the sites of shock fronts resulting from delta function-like increases in the density and/or magnetic field, while those produced by subsonic turbulence show a single jump profile. In order to quantitatively characterize these differences, we use the topology tool known as the genus curve as well as the probability distribution function moments of the image distribution. We find that higher values for the moments correspond to cases of |∇P| with larger sonic Mach numbers. The genus analysis of the supersonic simulations of |∇P| reveals a 'swiss cheese' topology, while the subsonic cases have characteristics of a 'clump' topology. Based on the analysis of the genus and the higher order moments, the SGPS test region data have a distribution and morphology that match subsonic- to transonic-type turbulence, which confirms what is now expected for the warm ionized medium.

  2. PROPERTIES OF INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE FROM GRADIENTS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 N. Charter St., WI 53711 (United States); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2012-04-20

    Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio signals provides a very sensitive probe of fluctuations in the interstellar magnetic field and ionized gas density resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We used a set of statistical tools to analyze images of the spatial gradient of linearly polarized radio emission (|{nabla}P|) for both observational data from a test image of the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS) and isothermal three-dimensional simulations of MHD turbulence. Visually, in both observations and simulations, a complex network of filamentary structures is seen. Our analysis shows that the filaments in |{nabla}P| can be produced both by interacting shocks and random fluctuations characterizing the non-differentiable field of MHD turbulence. The latter dominates for subsonic turbulence, while the former is only present in supersonic turbulence. We show that supersonic and subsonic turbulence exhibit different distributions as well as different morphologies in the maps of |{nabla}P|. Particularly, filaments produced by shocks show a characteristic 'double jump' profile at the sites of shock fronts resulting from delta function-like increases in the density and/or magnetic field, while those produced by subsonic turbulence show a single jump profile. In order to quantitatively characterize these differences, we use the topology tool known as the genus curve as well as the probability distribution function moments of the image distribution. We find that higher values for the moments correspond to cases of |{nabla}P| with larger sonic Mach numbers. The genus analysis of the supersonic simulations of |{nabla}P| reveals a 'swiss cheese' topology, while the subsonic cases have characteristics of a 'clump' topology. Based on the analysis of the genus and the higher order moments, the SGPS test region data have a distribution and morphology that match subsonic- to transonic-type turbulence, which confirms what is now

  3. Linear, non-linear and thermal properties of single crystal of LHMHCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shobha; Shrivastava, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    The single crystal of amino acid of L-histidine monohydrochloride was grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. High optical quality and appropriate size of crystals were grown under optimized growth conditions. The grown crystals were transparent. Crystals are characterized with different characterizations such as Solubility test, UV-Visible, optical band gap (Eg). With the help of optical data to be calculate absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (k), refractive index (n), dielectric constant (ɛ). These optical constants are shows favorable conditions for photonics devices. Second harmonic generation (NLO) test show the green light emission which is confirm that crystal have properties for laser application. Thermal stability of grown crystal is confirmed by TG/DTA.

  4. Structure and linear spectroscopic properties of near IR polymethine dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Scott; Padilha, Lazaro A.; Hu Honghua; Przhonska, Olga V.; Hagan, David J.; Van Stryland, Eric W.; Bondar, Mikhail V.; Davydenko, Iryna G.; Slominsky, Yuriy L.; Kachkovski, Alexei D.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a detailed experimental investigation and quantum-chemical analysis of a new series of near IR polymethine dyes with 5-butyl-7,8-dihydrobenzo[cd]furo[2,3-f]indolium terminal groups. We also synthesized and studied two neutral dyes, squaraine and tetraone, with the same terminal groups and performed a comparison of the spectroscopic properties of this set of 'near IR' dyes (polymethine, squaraine, and tetraone) with an analogous set of 'visible' dyes with simpler benzo[e]indolium terminal groups. From these measurements, we find that the dyes with dihydrobenzo[cd]furo[2,3-f]indolium terminal groups are characterized by a remarkably large shift ∼300 nm (∼200 nm for tetraone) of their absorption bands towards the red region. We discuss the difference in electronic structure for these molecules and show that the 'near IR' dyes are characterized by an additional weak fluorescence band from the higher lying excited states connected with the terminal groups. Absorption spectra for the longest polymethines are solvent-dependent and are characterized by a broadening of the main band in polar solvents, which is explained by ground state symmetry breaking and reduced charge delocalization within the polymethine chromophore. The results of these experiments combined with the agreement of quantum chemical calculations moves us closer to a predictive capability for structure-property relations in cyanine-like molecules

  5. On some properties of the block linear multi-step methods | Chollom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The convergence, stability and order of Block linear Multistep methods have been determined in the past based on individual members of the block. In this paper, methods are proposed to examine the properties of the entire block. Some Block Linear Multistep methods have been considered, their convergence, stability and ...

  6. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Royle, G.; Blue, A.; Liang, H. X.; Clark, A.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Speller, R.

    2007-01-01

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525x525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25x25 μm pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10 5 electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 μm, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at ∼0.44 μC/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a:Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled to structured CsI:Tl can

  7. Effects of an electric field on the electronic and optical properties of zigzag boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad; Behzad, Somayeh

    2011-02-01

    We have investigated the electro-optical properties of zigzag BNNTs, under an external electric field, using the tight binding approximation. It is found that an electric field modifies the band structure and splits the band degeneracy. Also the large electric strength leads to coupling the neighbor subbands which these effects reflect in the DOS and JDOS spectrum. It has been shown that, unlike CNTs, the band gap of BNNTs can be reduced linearly by applying a transverse external electric field. Also we show that the larger diameter tubes are more sensitive than small ones. The semiconducting metallic transition can be achieved through increasing the applied fields. The number and position of peaks in the JDOS spectrum are dependent on electric field strength. It is found that at a high electric field, the two lowest subbands are oscillatory with multiple nodes at the Fermi level.

  8. Theoretical considerations for the selection of electro-optic crystals for the grating-based laser beam modulators-deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, V.

    1977-03-01

    The optical properties of a crystal can be altered by the application of an external electric field. The electrically induced changes of the crystal properties may, in some cases, be utilized to modulate an optical beam. The nature of propagation of electromagnetic waves inside an optically anisotropic crystal and the variation of the optical properties with an applied electric field are discussed in this paper. The general criteria that must be satisfied by the crystals for efficient modulation and deflection are analyzed. In particular, the properties and suitable orientations of a Li Nb O 3 crystal are analyzed in some detail for using as an efficient modulator

  9. Voltages and electric currents mensuration - class 15 kV - for systems electro-optical and magneto-optical; Medicao de tensoes e correntes - classe 15 kv - por sistemas eletro-opticos e magneto-opticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Marcos Rodrigues

    1996-07-01

    The technical feasibility of the development of a novel system measuring of high voltage and current in 15 kV distribution lines was presented. The system is basically the combination of two other systems, one conventional and other electro-optical. The conventional subsystem is based on voltage dividers and magnetic rings while the electro-optical subsystem uses LEDs, resistors, optical-fibers and photodetectors. The system was completely tested in laboratory and its main characteristics are low price, easy of installation and flexibility. Two software for data acquisition by GPIB and A/D boards were also developed. The can provide reports on voltages, currents, power and phase-power. (author)

  10. Synthesis, growth, physicochemical properties and DFT calculations of 2-naphthol substituted Mannich base 1-(morpholino(phenyl) methyl) naphthalen-2-ol: A non linear optical single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis Raj, A.; Jeeva, M.; Shankar, M.; Venkatesa Prabhu, G.; Vimalan, M.; Vetha Potheher, I.

    2017-11-01

    2-Naphthol substituted Mannich base 1-morpholino(phenyl)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol (MPMN), a potential NLO active organic single crystal was developed using acetonitrile as a solvent by slow evaporation method. The experimental and theoretical analysis made towards the exploitation in the field of electro-optic and NLO applications. The cubic structure with non-centrosymmetric space group Cc was confirmed and cell dimensions of the grown crystal were obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The formation of the Csbnd Nsbnd C vibrational band at 1115 cm-1 in Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis confirms the formation of MPMN compound. The placement of protons and carbons of MPMN were identified from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) analysis. The wide optical absorption window and the lower cutoff wavelength of MPMN show the suitability of the material for the various laser related applications. The presence of dislocations and growth pattern of crystal were analyzed using chemical etching technique. The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of MPMN was found to be 1.57 times greater than the standard KDP crystal. The laser damage threshold was measured by using Nd: YAG laser beam passed through the sample and it was found to be 1.006 GW/cm2. The electronic structure of the molecular system and the optical properties were also studied from quantum chemical calculations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and reported for the first time.

  11. Electro-optically responsive composites of gold nanospheres in 5CB liquid crystal under direct current and alternating current joint action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G.; Bruno, Emanuela; Marino, Lucia; Scaramuzza, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Direct current (DC) electro-optical (EO) control of transmitted laser beam intensity based on EO controlled coherent light scattering and diffraction by stationary longitudinal texture pattern (LTP) is achieved in planar-oriented cells with a composite mixture of polymer-coated gold spherical nanoparticles (Au-NPs) with a mean diameter of about 12 nm and the room-temperature nematic pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB). At relatively low DC voltage of about 5 V, the effective scattering/diffraction by Au-NPs/5CB composites leads to a spatial spreading of transmitted coherent light from a low-power continuous wave laser beam, resulting in a drastic reduction of its local intensity. The effect is polarization dependent and is strongest when the polarization of the input laser beam is along the LTP. The EO response of Au-NPs/5CB mixtures is studied under DC and alternating current (AC) joint action with the aim of the potential use of these composite materials as EO controlled diffusers. The specific V-shaped sharp dip in the DC voltage-dependent coherent light transmittance of Au-NPs/5CB planar films, as well as the possibility for erasing the scattering/diffractive LTP in the films by joint low AC voltage, can be useful for EO applications in the field of process control and for detection of weak dynamic electric fields

  12. Electro-optically responsive composites of gold nanospheres in 5CB liquid crystal under direct current and alternating current joint action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjichristov, Georgi B.; Marinov, Yordan G.; Petrov, Alexander G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Bruno, Emanuela [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, Cubo 31C, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Marino, Lucia, E-mail: lucia.marino@fis.unical.it [CNR-IPCF UoS di Cosenza, Licryl Laboratory, and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Scaramuzza, Nicola [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, Cubo 31C, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); CNR-IPCF UoS di Cosenza, Licryl Laboratory, and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, Università della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2014-02-28

    Direct current (DC) electro-optical (EO) control of transmitted laser beam intensity based on EO controlled coherent light scattering and diffraction by stationary longitudinal texture pattern (LTP) is achieved in planar-oriented cells with a composite mixture of polymer-coated gold spherical nanoparticles (Au-NPs) with a mean diameter of about 12 nm and the room-temperature nematic pentylcyanobiphenyl (5CB). At relatively low DC voltage of about 5 V, the effective scattering/diffraction by Au-NPs/5CB composites leads to a spatial spreading of transmitted coherent light from a low-power continuous wave laser beam, resulting in a drastic reduction of its local intensity. The effect is polarization dependent and is strongest when the polarization of the input laser beam is along the LTP. The EO response of Au-NPs/5CB mixtures is studied under DC and alternating current (AC) joint action with the aim of the potential use of these composite materials as EO controlled diffusers. The specific V-shaped sharp dip in the DC voltage-dependent coherent light transmittance of Au-NPs/5CB planar films, as well as the possibility for erasing the scattering/diffractive LTP in the films by joint low AC voltage, can be useful for EO applications in the field of process control and for detection of weak dynamic electric fields.

  13. Electro-optical time gating based on Mach-Zehnder modulator for multiple access interference elimination in optical code-division multiple access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinfang; Wang, Rong; Fang, Tao; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Zhu, Huatao

    2014-05-01

    An electro-optical time gating technique, which is based on an electrical return-to-zero (RZ) pulse driven Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) for eliminating multiple access interference (MAI) in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. This technique is successfully simulated in an eight-user two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading system, as well as in a three-user temporal phase encoding system. Results show that in both systems the MAI noise is efficiently removed and the average received power penalty improved. Both achieve error-free transmissions at a bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s. In addition, we also individually discuss effects of parameters in two systems, such as the extinction ratio of the MZM, the duty cycle of the driven RZ pulse, and the time misalignment between the driven pulse and the decoded autocorrelation peak, on the output bit error rate performance. Our work shows that employing a common MZM as a thresholder provides another probability and an interesting cost-effective choice for a smart size, low energy, and less complex thresholding technique for integrated detection in OCDMA networks.

  14. Phase Velocity Estimation of a Microstrip Line in a Stoichiometric Periodically Domain-Inverted LiTaO3 Modulator Using Electro-Optic Sampling Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Hisatake

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the phase velocity of a modulation microwave in a quasi-velocity-matched (QVM electro-optic (EO phase modulator (QVM-EOM using EO sampling which is accurate and the most reliable technique for measuring voltage waveforms at an electrode. The substrate of the measured QVM-EOM is a stoichiometric periodically domain-inverted LiTaO3 crystal. The electric field of a standing wave in a resonant microstrip line (width: 0.5 mm, height: 0.5 mm is measured by employing a CdTe crystal as an EO sensor. The wavelength of the traveling microwave at 16.0801 GHz is determined as 3.33 mm by fitting the theoretical curve to the measured electric field distribution. The phase velocity is estimated as vm=5.35×107 m/s, though there exists about 5% systematic error due to the perturbation by the EO sensor. Relative dielectric constant of εr=41.5 is led as the maximum likelihood value that derives the estimated phase velocity.

  15. High efficiency and good beam quality of electro-optic, cavity-dumped and double-end pumped Nd:YLF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X. X.; Fan, Z. W.; Qiu, J. S.; Lian, F. Q.; Zhang, X. L.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a Nd:YLF laser based on high-speed RTP electro-optical cavity dumping technique. Two home-made 150 W fiber pump modules are used from both sides to pump Nd:YLF crystal. Coupling systems are the key elements in end-pumped solid-state lasers, the aberrations of which greatly affect the efficiency of the lasers. In order to get high efficient and good quality laser output, the optical software ZEMAX is used to design a four-piece coupling system. When the pumped energy is 32 mJ at the repetition rate of 1 Hz, the output energy is 6.5 mJ with 2.5 ns pulse width. When the pumped energy is 13.1 W at the repetition rate of 200 Hz, the output energy is 2.2 W with small M 2 factor where M {/x 2} is 1.04, and M {/y 2} is 1.05, and the light-light conversion efficiency is up to 16.8%.

  16. The design of the layout of faceted multi-channel electro-optical spatial coordinates measuring instrument for point-like bright objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repin, Vladislav A.; Gorbunova, Elena V.; Chertov, Aleksandr N.; Korotaev, Valery V.

    2017-06-01

    For many applied problems it is necessary to obtain information about the situation in a wide angular field in order to measure various parameters of objects: their spatial coordinates, instantaneous velocities, and so on. In this case, one interesting bionic approach can be used - a mosaic (or discrete, otherwise, facet) angular field. Such electro-optical system constructively imitates the visual apparatus of insects: many photodetectors like ommatidia (elements of the facet eye structure) are located on a non-planar surface. Such devices can be used in photogrammetry and aerial photography systems (if the space is sufficient), in the transport sector as vehicle orientation organs, as systems for monitoring in unmanned aerial vehicles, in endoscopy for obtaining comprehensive information on the state of various cavities, in intelligent robotic systems. In this manuscript discusses the advantages and disadvantages of multi-channeled optoelectronic systems with a mosaic angular field, presents possible options for their use, and discusses some of the design procedures performed when developing a layout of a coordinate measuring device.

  17. Results from the electro-optic sensors domain of the materials and components for missiles innovation and technology partnership (phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark E.; Shears, Robert A.

    2013-10-01

    The Materials and Components for Missiles Innovation and Technology Partnership (ITP) is a research programme supporting research for guided weapons at Technology Readiness Levels 1 to 4. The Anglo-French initiative is supported by the DGA and the MoD, with matched funding from industry. A major objective is to foster projects which partner UK and French universities, SMEs and larger companies. The first projects started in January 2008 and the first phase completed in spring 2013. Providing funding is secured, the next phase of the programme is due to start later in 2013. Selex ES leads Domain 3 of the MCM-ITP which develops Electro-Optic sensor technology. In collaboration with DGA, MoD and MBDA, the prime contractor, we identified 4 key objectives for the first ITP phase and focussed resources on achieving these. The objectives were to enable better imagery, address operationally stressing scenarios, provide low overall through life cost and improve active and semi-active sensors Nine normal projects and one ITP innovation fund project have been supported within the domain. The technology providers have included 3 SMEs and 8 research centres from both the United Kingdom and France. Highlights of the projects are included. An outline of the priorities for the domain for the new phase ise provided and we encourage organisations with suitable technology to contact us to get involved.

  18. Electro-optic sampling at 90 degree interaction geometry for time-of-arrival stamping of ultrafast relativistic electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Scoby

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a new geometry setup for electro-optic sampling (EOS where the electron beam runs parallel to the ⟨110⟩ face of a ZnTe crystal and the probe laser is perpendicular to it and to the beam path. The simple setup is used to encode the time-of-arrival information of a 3.5  MeV<10  pC electron bunch on the spatial profile of the laser pulse. The electric field lines inside the dielectric bend at an angle due to a relatively large (n∼3 index of refraction of the ZnTe crystal. We found theoretically and experimentally that the EOS signal can be maximized with a proper choice of incoming laser polarization angle. We achieved single-shot nondestructive measurement of the relative time of arrival between the pump and the probe beams thus improving the temporal resolution of ultrafast relativistic electron diffraction experiments.

  19. The effect of linear imperfection in [001] direction on the thermal properties of silver crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Davoodi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this investigation was to calculate the thermal properties of silver crystal in the presence of linear imperfection. The simulations were performed by molecular dynamics simulation technique in NPT as well as NVT ensemble based on quantum Sutton-Chen many body potential. The thermal properties including cohesive energy, melting temperature, isobaric heat capacity and thermal expansion of imperfect silver crystal were calculated and compared to those of the perfect crystal. Moreover, the quantities such as radial distribution function, order parameter and lindemann index were calculated in order to obtain information on crystal structure and disorder in atoms. All calculations were done both with liner imperfection in [001] direction and without imperfection at different temperature. The simulation results show that cohesive energy, linear thermal expansion coefficient increase and melting temperature, latent heat of fusion decrease with increasing linear imperfection. Also, the results show that linear imperfection has no effect on the heat capacity.

  20. The Linear Stability Properties of Medium- to High- n TAEs in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, N N; Budny, R V; Kessel, C E; Kramer, G J; McCune, D; Manickam, J; Nazikian, R

    2008-02-14

    This document provides a detailed report on the successful completion of the DOE OFES Theory Milestone for FY2007: Improve the simulation resolution of linear stability properties of Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAE) driven by energetic particles and neutral beams in ITER by increasing the numbers of toroidal modes used to 15.

  1. Magnetic Properties of linear chain compounds formed by lanthanide (III) ions and nitronyl-nitroxide radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benelli, C.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Pardi, L. (Florence Univ. (IT)); Rey, P. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (FR). Dept. de Recherche Fondamentale)

    1988-12-01

    The magnetic properties of novel linear chain compounds containing lanthanide (III) ions (gadolinium, europium) coupled to stable nitronyl-nitroxide radicals are reported. The metal ions and the radicals are regularly alternating along the chain. The magnetic behaviors appears to be dominated by antiferromagnetic interactions between the radicals.

  2. Magnetic Properties of linear chain compounds formed by lanthanide (III) ions and nitronyl-nitroxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benelli, C.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Pardi, L.; Rey, P.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic properties of novel linear chain compounds containing lanthanide (III) ions (gadolinium, europium) coupled to stable nitronyl-nitroxide radicals are reported. The metal ions and the radicals are regularly alternating along the chain. The magnetic behaviors appears to be dominated by antiferromagnetic interactions between the radicals

  3. Power properties of invariant tests for spatial autocorrelation in linear regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martellosio, F.

    2006-01-01

    Many popular tests for residual spatial autocorrelation in the context of the linear regression model belong to the class of invariant tests. This paper derives a number of exact properties of the power function of such tests. In particular, we extend the work of Krämer (2005, Journal of Statistical

  4. Structural, optical and nonlinear optical studies of AZO thin film prepared by SILAR method for electro-optic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edison, D. Joseph; Nirmala, W.; Kumar, K. Deva Arun; Valanarasu, S.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; AlFaify, S.

    2017-10-01

    Aluminium doped (i.e. 3 at%) zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were prepared by simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method with different dipping cycles. The structural and surface morphology of AZO thin films were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical parameters such as, transmittance, band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant and nonlinear optical properties of AZO films were investigated. XRD pattern revealed the formation of hexagonal phase ZnO and the intensity of the film was found to increase with increasing dipping cycle. The crystallite size was found to be in the range of 29-37 nm. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images show the presence of small sized grains, revealing that the smoothest surface was obtained at all the films. The EDAX spectrum of AZO conforms the presence of Zn, O and Al. The optical transmittance in the visible region is high 87% and the band gap value is 3.23 eV. The optical transmittance is decreased with respect to dipping cycles. The room temperature PL studies revealed that the AZO films prepared at (30 cycles) has good film quality with lesser defect density. The third order nonlinear optical parameters were also studied using Z-scan technique to know the applications of deposited films in nonlinear devices. The third order nonlinear susceptibility value is found to be 1.69 × 10-7, 3.34 × 10-8, 1.33 × 10-7and 2.52 × 10-7 for AZO films deposited after 15, 20, 25 and 30 dipping cycles.

  5. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Micrometer-Scale Gold Nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Lan; Peng Xiao-Niu; Yang Zhong-Jian; Li Min; Zhou Li

    2011-01-01

    Micrometer-scale gold nanoplates have been synthesized in high yield through a polyol process. The morphology, crystal structure and linear optical extinction of the gold nanoplates have been characterized. These gold nanoplates are single-crystalline with triangular, truncated triangular and hexagonal shapes, exhibiting strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) extinction in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) region. The linear optical properties of gold nanoplates are also investigated by theoretical calculations. We further investigate the nonlinear optical properties of the gold nanoplates in solution by Z-scan technique. The nonlinear absorption (NLA) coefficient and nonlinear refraction (NLR) index are measured to be 1.18×10 2 cm/GW and −1.04×10 −3 cm 2 /GW, respectively. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. A comparative study of key properties of glycine glycinium picrate (GGP and glycinium picrate (GP: A combined experimental and quantum chemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shkir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using experimental and computational techniques, a comparative study of electro-optical properties for glycine glycinium picrate (GGP and glycinium picrate (GP compounds has been performed. The single crystal of GGP has been grown using slow evaporation technique that was further subjected to experimental characterization of its electro-optical properties. The good optical transparency and mechanical strength at micro level was confirmed from optical and nanoindentation measurements using the Oliver–Pharr method of the grown single crystals. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC analysis was done to probe the thermal stability of the grown single crystals. Using the density functional theory (DFT methods, we have not only investigated the GGP but also proposed GP molecule. Additionally, we have shed light on the molecular geometries, infrared and Raman spectra, linear and nonlinear optical properties of both GGP and GP at molecular level. The time dependent DFT (TD-DFT approach was adopted to calculate the excitation energies of the molecules in different phases including gas, water, acetone, cyclohexane and chloroform as well. For GGP, its wavelength of maximum absorption is calculated to be ∼390 nm at B3LYP/6-31G∗ level of theory. The calculated amplitudes of first hyperpolarizability (βtot for GGP and GP are found to be 712 and 970 a. u., respectively, which are about 16 and 23 times larger than that of the urea molecule (a prototype NLO molecule. Thus the present study not only brings to limelight the optical and nonlinear optical properties of GGP but also sheds light on the possible potential of GP as new NLO molecule.

  7. A First: Detailed Tracking of an Erupting Undersea Volcano and its Impacts on the Overlying Ocean via a Submarine Electro-Optical Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    The scientifically diverse and technologically advanced cabled array component of the NSF's Ocean Observatories Initiative consists of 900 km of electro-optical fiber deployed from Pacific City, OR, across active portions of the Juan de Fuca (JdF) tectonic plate, and upward into the overlying ocean. This array, completed in 2014 on time and under budget, enables real-time, high-bandwidth, 2-way communication with seafloor and water column sensor arrays across: 1. the Cascadia accretionary prism, 2. the JdF spreading center, and, 3. portions of the overlying NE Pacific. Oceanographic processes in coastal waters, the California Current, and up to 400 km offshore, are captured by six remote-controlled, profiling moorings covering full-ocean depths. Currently, 6 primary nodes, 17 junction boxes, and 85% of 150 instruments are transmitting data ashore to the Internet via the Pacific NW Gigapop (http://www.pnwgp.net/). All data are archived at the U. of Washington, pending completion of the OOI CyberInfrastructure in October 2015. In 2014, community requests to access data to assess inflation at Axial Seamount, resulted in NSF releasing real-time data from 7 seismometers and 3 pressure sensors (IRIS: http://www.iris.edu/hq/). On April 20-22, 90 participants, met in Seattle to explore scientific responses to an eruption (http://novae.ocean.washington.edu). On April 24, Axial did erupt; seismic events rose dramatically to many hundreds/hour the Axial caldera floor dropped 2.4 m in 16 hours and water temperatures rose by 0.7°C, then declined in 3 weeks to normal values. Water-borne acoustic signals indicated seafloor activity along the rift zone north of Axial. Water column observations also indicated that a large plume of hydrothermal fluid was released during the eruptions. Follow-on field programs documented a 127 m thick lava flow on the northern rift, and a thin eruption within the caldera. These events signal a new era in Ocean Sciences as instantaneous Internet

  8. Comparison of boundedness and monotonicity properties of one-leg and linear multistep methods

    KAUST Repository

    Mozartova, A.; Savostianov, I.; Hundsdorfer, W.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. One-leg multistep methods have some advantage over linear multistep methods with respect to storage of the past results. In this paper boundedness and monotonicity properties with arbitrary (semi-)norms or convex functionals are analyzed for such multistep methods. The maximal stepsize coefficient for boundedness and monotonicity of a one-leg method is the same as for the associated linear multistep method when arbitrary starting values are considered. It will be shown, however, that combinations of one-leg methods and Runge-Kutta starting procedures may give very different stepsize coefficients for monotonicity than the linear multistep methods with the same starting procedures. Detailed results are presented for explicit two-step methods.

  9. Effect of linear energy on the properties of an AL alloy in DPMIG welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tianfa; Jin, Li; Xue, Jiaxiang

    2018-01-01

    The effect of different linear energy parameters on the DPMIG welding performance of AA1060 aluminium alloy is studied in this paper. The stability of the welding process is verified with a Labview electrical signal acquisition system, and the microstructure and tensile properties of the welded joint are studied via optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electrical tensile tests. The test results show that the welding process for the DPMIG methods stable and that the weld beads appear as scales. Tensile strength results indicate that, with increasing linear energy, the tensile strength first increases and then decreases. The tensile strength of the joint is maximized when the linear energy is 120.5 J / mm-1.

  10. Comparison of boundedness and monotonicity properties of one-leg and linear multistep methods

    KAUST Repository

    Mozartova, A.

    2015-05-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. One-leg multistep methods have some advantage over linear multistep methods with respect to storage of the past results. In this paper boundedness and monotonicity properties with arbitrary (semi-)norms or convex functionals are analyzed for such multistep methods. The maximal stepsize coefficient for boundedness and monotonicity of a one-leg method is the same as for the associated linear multistep method when arbitrary starting values are considered. It will be shown, however, that combinations of one-leg methods and Runge-Kutta starting procedures may give very different stepsize coefficients for monotonicity than the linear multistep methods with the same starting procedures. Detailed results are presented for explicit two-step methods.

  11. Alfven wave. [Book on linear and nonlinear properties for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, A.; Uberoi, C.

    1978-11-01

    Seven chapters are included. Chapters 1 and 2 introduce the Alfven wave and describe its linear properties in a homogeneous medium. Chapters 3 and 4 cover the effects of inhomogeneities on these linear properties. Particular emphasis is placed on the appearance of a continuum spectrum and the associated absorption of the Alfven wave which arise due to the inhomogeneity. The explanation of the physical origin of absorption is given using kinetic theory. Chapter 5 is devoted to the associated plasma instabilities. Nonlinear effects discussed in Chapter 6 include quasilinear diffusion, decay, a solitary wave, and a modulational instability. The principles of Alfven wave heating, a design example and present-day experimental results are described in Chapter 7.

  12. Linear analysis using secants for materials with temperature dependent nonlinear elastic modulus and thermal expansion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, John W.

    2017-08-01

    Thermally induced stress is readily calculated for linear elastic material properties using Hooke's law in which, for situations where expansion is constrained, stress is proportional to the product of the material elastic modulus and its thermal strain. When material behavior is nonlinear, one needs to make use of nonlinear theory. However, we can avoid that complexity in some situations. For situations in which both elastic modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion vary with temperature, solutions can be formulated using secant properties. A theoretical approach is thus presented to calculate stresses for nonlinear, neo-Hookean, materials. This is important for high acuity optical systems undergoing large temperature extremes.

  13. Spintronic and transport properties of linear atomic strings of transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Neha, E-mail: nehatyagi.phy@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K. [Discipline of Physics, PDPM-Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design & Manufacturing, Jabalpur (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Nanomaterials Research Group, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management, Gwalior (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present work, first-principles investigations have been performed to study the spintronic and transport properties of linear atomic strings of Fe, Co and Ni. The structural stabilities of the considered strings were compared on the basis of binding energies which revealed that all the strings are energetically feasible to be achieved. Further, all the considered strings are found to be ferromagnetic and the observed magnetic moment ranges from 1.38 to 1.71 μ{sub B}. The observed transport properties and high spin polarization points towards their potential for nano interconnects and spintronic applications.

  14. Transport properties of a piecewise linear transformation and deterministic Levy flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige

    2006-01-01

    The transport properties of a 1-dimensional piecewise linear dynamical system are investigated through the spectrum of its Frobenius-Perron operator. For a class of initial densities, eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Frobenius-Perron operator are obtained explicitly. It is also found that in the long length wave limit, this system exhibits normal diffusion and super diffusion called Levy flight. The diffusion constant and stable index are derived from the eigenvalues. (author)

  15. A General Construction of Linear Differential Equations with Solutions of Prescribed Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neuman, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2004), s. 71-76 ISSN 0893-9659 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019902; GA ČR GA201/99/0295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : construction of linear differential equations * prescribed qualitative properties of solutions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.414, year: 2004

  16. Algebraic Properties of First Integrals for Scalar Linear Third-Order ODEs of Maximal Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Mahomed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By use of the Lie symmetry group methods we analyze the relationship between the first integrals of the simplest linear third-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs and their point symmetries. It is well known that there are three classes of linear third-order ODEs for maximal cases of point symmetries which are 4, 5, and 7. The simplest scalar linear third-order equation has seven-point symmetries. We obtain the classifying relation between the symmetry and the first integral for the simplest equation. It is shown that the maximal Lie algebra of a first integral for the simplest equation y′′′=0 is unique and four-dimensional. Moreover, we show that the Lie algebra of the simplest linear third-order equation is generated by the symmetries of the two basic integrals. We also obtain counting theorems of the symmetry properties of the first integrals for such linear third-order ODEs. Furthermore, we provide insights into the manner in which one can generate the full Lie algebra of higher-order ODEs of maximal symmetry from two of their basic integrals.

  17. System and Method for Generating a Frequency Modulated Linear Laser Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrottet, Diego F. (Inventor); Petway, Larry B. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Farzin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Lockard, George E. (Inventor); Hines, Glenn D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system for generating a frequency modulated linear laser waveform includes a single frequency laser generator to produce a laser output signal. An electro-optical modulator modulates the frequency of the laser output signal to define a linear triangular waveform. An optical circulator passes the linear triangular waveform to a band-pass optical filter to filter out harmonic frequencies created in the waveform during modulation of the laser output signal, to define a pure filtered modulated waveform having a very narrow bandwidth. The optical circulator receives the pure filtered modulated laser waveform and transmits the modulated laser waveform to a target.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Nonlinear Optical Properties of P-Substituted Poly Gamma-Benzyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hoon

    Poly gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly gamma-p-fluorobenzyl -L-glutamate (PGLU(pFB)), poly gamma -p-nitrobenzyl-L-glutamate (PGLU(pNB)), and poly gamma-p-trifluoromethylbenzyl-L-glutamate (PGLU(pTFMB)) have been synthesized. These PBLG polymers show variations in the side chain conformations in the solid state and solution state. In the solid state, the side chain orientation was assigned to a longitudinal or transverse direction by virtue of the polarized infrared spectrum of each PBLG analogue. The characteristics of the lyotropic liquid crystalline behavior could be observed. The optical waveguiding property of these polymers facilitated measurement of the refractive index and the thickness of each polymer film. Poling the polymer films and using the simple reflection technique, the electro -optic coefficients of the PBLG analogues could be determined. The effect of the para substitution on benzyl ester as it effected the electro-optic coefficient and the relation between the dielectric properties and the electro-optic effect of each polymer were investigated. These studies were able to demonstrate which conformation of the side chain in para substituted poly gamma-benzyl -L-glutamates is a more favorable conformation for enhancing the electro-optic behavior of these polymers.

  19. Minimal agent based model for financial markets II. Statistical properties of the linear and multiplicative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfi, V.; Cristelli, M.; Pietronero, L.; Zaccaria, A.

    2009-02-01

    We present a detailed study of the statistical properties of the Agent Based Model introduced in paper I [Eur. Phys. J. B, DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2009-00028-4] and of its generalization to the multiplicative dynamics. The aim of the model is to consider the minimal elements for the understanding of the origin of the stylized facts and their self-organization. The key elements are fundamentalist agents, chartist agents, herding dynamics and price behavior. The first two elements correspond to the competition between stability and instability tendencies in the market. The herding behavior governs the possibility of the agents to change strategy and it is a crucial element of this class of models. We consider a linear approximation for the price dynamics which permits a simple interpretation of the model dynamics and, for many properties, it is possible to derive analytical results. The generalized non linear dynamics results to be extremely more sensible to the parameter space and much more difficult to analyze and control. The main results for the nature and self-organization of the stylized facts are, however, very similar in the two cases. The main peculiarity of the non linear dynamics is an enhancement of the fluctuations and a more marked evidence of the stylized facts. We will also discuss some modifications of the model to introduce more realistic elements with respect to the real markets.

  20. Syntheses, structures and third-order non-linear optical properties of homometal clusters containing molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Lu Jing; Cui Xiaobing; Xu Jiqing; Li Kechang; Sun Huaying; Li Guanghua; Pan Lingyun; Yang Qingxin

    2005-01-01

    Both the homometal cluster [P(ph 4 )] 2 [Mo 2 O 2 (μ-S) 2 (S 2 ) 2 ] (1) and [Mo 2 O 2 (μ-S) 2 (Et 2 dtc) 2 ] (2) (Et 2 dtc=diethyl-dithiocarbamate) were successfully synthesized by low-temperature solid-state reactions. X-ray single-crystal diffraction studies suggest that compound (1) is a dinuclear anion cluster, and compound (2) is a dinuclear neutral cluster. The two compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and UV-Vis spectra. The third-order non-linear optical (NLO) properties of the clusters were also investigated and all exhibited nice non-linear absorption and self-defocusing performance with moduli of the hyperpolarizabilities 5.145x10 -30 esu for (1) and 5.428x10 -30 esu for (2)

  1. Structural, electronic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of ZnCdTe{sub 2} chalcopyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Tarik [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tlemcen, B.P. 230, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); Reshak, Ali H. [Institute of Physical Biology, South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Microelectronic Engineering, University of Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Block A, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian, 02600 Arau Jejawi, Perlis (Malaysia); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique, Universite de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Baltache, H.; Amrani, B. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique, Universite de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Bouhemadou, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Setif, Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2011-03-15

    We report results of first-principles density functional calculations using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the Engel-Vosko-GGA (EV-GGA) formalism were used for the exchange-correlation energy to calculate the structural, electronic, linear, and nonlinear optical properties of the chalcopyrite ZnCdTe{sub 2} compound. The valence band maximum and the conduction band minimum are located at the {gamma}-point, resulting in a direct band gap of about 0.71 eV for GGA and 1.29 eV for EV-GGA. The results of bulk properties, such as lattice parameters (a, c, and u), bulk modulus B, and its pressure derivative B' are evaluated. The optical properties of this compound, namely the real and the imaginary parts of the dielectric function, reflectivity, and refractive index, show a considerable anisotropy as a consequence ZnCdTe{sub 2} posseses a strong birefringence. In addition, the extinction coefficient, the electron energy loss function, and the nonlinear susceptibility are calculated and their spectra are analyzed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Non-linear optical techniques and optical properties of condensed molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citroni, Margherita

    2013-06-01

    Structure, dynamics, and optical properties of molecular systems can be largely modified by the applied pressure, with remarkable consequences on their chemical stability. Several examples of selective reactions yielding technologically attractive products can be cited, which are particularly efficient when photochemical effects are exploited in conjunction with the structural conditions attained at high density. Non-linear optical techniques are a basic tool to unveil key aspects of the chemical reactivity and dynamic properties of molecules. Their application to high-pressure samples is experimentally challenging, mainly because of the small sample dimensions and of the non-linear effects generated in the anvil materials. In this talk I will present results on the electronic spectra of several aromatic crystals obtained through two-photon induced fluorescence and two-photon excitation profiles measured as a function of pressure (typically up to about 25 GPa), and discuss the relationship between the pressure-induced modifications of the electronic structure and the chemical reactivity at high pressure. I will also present the first successful pump-probe infrared measurement performed as a function of pressure on a condensed molecular system. The system under examination is liquid water, in a sapphire anvil cell, up to 1 GPa along isotherms at 298 and 363 K. These measurements give a new enlightening insight into the dynamical properties of low- and high-density water allowing a definition of the two structures.

  3. The Component Slope Linear Model for Calculating Intensive Partial Molar Properties: Application to Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.

    2013-01-01

    Partial molar properties are the changes occurring when the fraction of one component is varied while the fractions of all other component mole fractions change proportionally. They have many practical and theoretical applications in chemical thermodynamics. Partial molar properties of chemical mixtures are difficult to measure because the component mole fractions must sum to one, so a change in fraction of one component must be offset with a change in one or more other components. Given that more than one component fraction is changing at a time, it is difficult to assign a change in measured response to a change in a single component. In this study, the Component Slope Linear Model (CSLM), a model previously published in the statistics literature, is shown to have coefficients that correspond to the intensive partial molar properties. If a measured property is plotted against the mole fraction of a component while keeping the proportions of all other components constant, the slope at any given point on a graph of this curve is the partial molar property for that constituent. Actually plotting this graph has been used to determine partial molar properties for many years. The CSLM directly includes this slope in a model that predicts properties as a function of the component mole fractions. This model is demonstrated by applying it to the constant pressure heat capacity data from the NaOH-NaAl(OH 4 H 2 O system, a system that simplifies Hanford nuclear waste. The partial molar properties of H 2 O, NaOH, and NaAl(OH) 4 are determined. The equivalence of the CSLM and the graphical method is verified by comparing results detennined by the two methods. The CSLM model has been previously used to predict the liquidus temperature of spinel crystals precipitated from Hanford waste glass. Those model coefficients are re-interpreted here as the partial molar spinel liquidus temperature of the glass components

  4. Using a 2D detector array for meaningful and efficient linear accelerator beam property validations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Timothy A; Gallagher, Ian; Roberson, Peter L

    2014-11-08

    Following linear accelerator commissioning, the qualified medical physicist is responsible for monitoring the machine's ongoing performance, detecting and investigating any changes in beam properties, and assessing the impact of unscheduled repairs. In support of these responsibilities, the authors developed a method of using a 2D ionization chamber array to efficiently test and validate important linear accelerator photon beam properties. A team of three physicists identified critical properties of the accelerator and developed constancy tests that were sensitive to each of the properties. The result was a 14-field test plan. The test plan includes large and small fields at varying depths, a reduced SSD field at shallow depth for sensitivity to extra focal photon and electron components, and analysis of flatness, symmetry, dose, dose profiles, and dose ratios. Constancy tests were repeated five times over a period of six weeks and used to set upper and lower investigation levels at ± 3 SDs. Deliberate variations in output, penumbra, and energy were tested to determine the suitability of the proposed method. Measurements were also performed on a similar, but distinct, machine to assess test sensitivity. The results demonstrated upper and lower investigation levels significantly smaller than the comparable TG-142 annual recommendations, with the exception of the surrogate used for output calibration, which still fell within the TG-142 monthly recommendation. Subtle changes in output, beam energy, and penumbra were swiftly identified for further investigation. The test set identified the distinct nature of the second accelerator. The beam properties of two photon energies can be validated in approximately 1.5 hrs using this method. The test suite can be used to evaluate the impact of minor repairs, detect changes in machine performance over time, and supplement other machine quality assurance testing.

  5. Anomalous property of coherent bremsstrahlung linear polarization of relativistic electrons in a crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapko, V.P.; Nasonov, N.N.; Truten', V.I.

    1993-01-01

    Polarization and spectral-and-angular properties of γ-radiation of the relativistic electron flux moving in a crystal under uncorrelated collisions with crystal atomic chains, are studied theoretically. Direction of linear polarization of radiation is shown to vary with energy of emitted photon. Reasons of occurrence of this effect are discussed. The results of numerical calculations demonstrating the possibility to form an intensive source of polarized γ-quanta on the basis of coherent radiation of relativistic electrons during low-angular scattering at crystal atom chains, are given

  6. SYMMETRY PROPERTIES OF THE COULOMB POTENTIAL WITH A LINEAR DEPENDENCE ON ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Budaca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The D-dimensional Schr ̈odinger equation for a Coulomb potential with a coupling constant depending linearly on energy is analytically solved. The energy spectrum in the asymptotic regime of the slope parameter is found to be fully determined up to a scale only by its quantum numbers. The raising and lowering operators for this limiting model are determined from the recurrence properties of the associated solutions. It is shown that they satisfy the commutation relations of an SU(1,1 algebra and act on wave-functions which are normalized differently from the case of the usual bound state problem for an energy independent Coulomb potential.

  7. Structural, Linear, and Nonlinear Optical and Mechanical Properties of New Organic L-Serine Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear optical single crystal of organic amino acid L-Serine (LS was grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility study of the compound was measured and metastable zone width was found. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study was carried out for the grown crystal. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of the crystal were confirmed by UV-Vis analysis and powder SHG tester. FT-IR spectrum was recorded and functional groups were analyzed. Vickers’ microhardness studies showed the mechanical strength of the grown crystal. Laser damage threshold value of the crystal was calculated. Photoconductivity studies reveal the conductivity of the crystal.

  8. Dielectric function and electro-optical properties of (Al,Ga)N/GaN-heterostructures; Dielektrische Funktion und elektrooptische Eigenschaften von (Al,Ga)N/GaN-Heterostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheim, Carsten

    2010-04-23

    In this work extensive investigations on nitride semiconductors by optical spectroscopy are presented. The ordinary and the extraordinary component of the dielectric function of GaN in the spectral range from 1.2 to 9.8 eV is shown for the first time. It is demonstrated, that the transparent spectral range is clearly influenced by higher energetic critical points of the band structure. The optical selection rules for GaN and AlN are verified considering the actual strain state. The change of the valence band ordering of AlN in comparison to GaN is proven and the crystal field splitting is estimated for AlN. The ordinary dielectric function of AlGaN is determined for different Al contents. The data are used for developing an analytical model, which includes excitonic effects and bowings. It allows the calculation of the dielectric function for arbitrary alloy compositions. (GaN/)AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry as well as by photoreflectance and electroreflectance. The optical data yields the electric field strengths of the individual layers to determine the density of the two-dimensional carrier gases at the heterointerfaces with high accuracy. The surface potential is calculated from the combination of experiments and Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. Its dependency on the Al content is quantified. For the special case of thick cap layers the coexistence of electron and hole gases in one sample is experimentally proven for the first time. Several interband transitions between quantized states in AlN/GaN superlattices are observed by electroreflectance. The comparison to quantum mechanical calculations demonstrates the influence of strain and electrical fields (quantum confined Stark effect). For both the ratio of the thicknesses of quantum wells and barriers is crucial. From the dielectric function of the superlattices it becomes obvious, that quantum size effects are not only important for the vicinity of the bandgap, but also play a significant role for higher energetic critical points of the band structure. (orig.)

  9. Thickness dependence of electro-optical properties of WO{sub 3} films as an electrochromic functional material for energy-efficient applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmail, Ayat; Hashem, Hany; Soltan, Soltan; Hammam, Mahmoud; Ramadan, Ahmed [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-01-15

    WO{sub 3} films of different thicknesses (100, 200, and 300 nm) were prepared by two vacuum physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods (thermal evaporation and an electron gun). Electrophysical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) were carried out using a potentiostat in an electrochromic cell (liquid device) that consists of a substrate coated with double layers of F: SnO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} served as working electrodes. X-ray diffraction showed an amorphous structure for all the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films. While the transmission in the bleached state does not change and it is close to the as-deposited state, it is slightly less at larger thickness. The cyclic voltammogram was more open (more current flow) for thicker films due to the less dense structure with many channels. Also, the coloration efficiency was higher at low thickness. The response time was of the order of seconds and decreased for coloration, while it increased for the bleaching process as the film thickness increases. According to the proposed figure of merit, the electrochromic performance deteriorates as the WO{sub 3} film thickness decreases. However, the thickness is more effective in the case of an electron gun. Generally, continuous films but thinner than 200 nm, are recommended for deposition methods. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Electro-optical properties of Cd1-xZnxS films and fabrication of Cd1-xZnxS/InP heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, A.K.; Dhar, A.; Mondal, A.; Basak, R.L.; Chaudhuri, S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe Cd 1-x Zn x S films (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) characterized by electrical and optical measurements to obtain optimum deposition condition for device fabrication on p-type single crystal InP (Zn doped) with (100) orientation. The devices were studied by I-V, C-V and spectral response measurements

  11. Ion beam properties after mass filtering with a linear radiofrequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, R.; Kwiatkowski, A.A.; Bollen, G.; Lincoln, D.L.; Morrissey, D.J.; Pang, G.K.; Ringle, R.; Savory, J.; Schwarz, S.

    2014-01-01

    The properties of ion beams passing through a linear radiofrequency quadrupole mass filter were investigated with special attention to their dependence on the mass resolving power. Experimentally, an increase of the transverse emittance was observed as the mass-to-charge selectivity of the mass filter was raised. The experimental behavior was confirmed by beam transport simulations. -- Highlights: • The ion-optical properties of a Quadrupole Mass Filter (QMF) are presented. • Measured beam emittances follow a trend to larger values for smaller A/Q ratios and increasing mass resolution. • The experimental behavior was confirmed by beam transport simulations. • The use of a QMF for mass filtering comes at the cost of emittance growth of the ion beam

  12. Influence analysis of structural parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Zheng, T.Q.; Zhang, W.; Fang, J.; Liu, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new type high temperature superconductor linear induction motor is designed and analyzed as a prototype to ensure applicability aimed at industrial motors. Made of Bi-2223/Ag, primary windings are distributed with the double-layer concentrated structure. The motor is analyzed by 2D electromagnetic Finite Element Method to get magnetic field distribution, thrust force, vertical force and so on. The critical current of motor and the electromagnetic force are mostly decided by the leakage flux density of primary slot and by the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively. The structural parameters of motor have a great influence on the distribution of magnetic field. Under constant currents, the properties of motor are analyzed with different slot widths, slot heights and winding turns. The properties of motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust and motor vertical force, are analyzed with different structural parameters.

  13. A Hybrid Density Functional Theory/Molecular Mechanics Approach for Linear Response Properties in Heterogeneous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Li, Xin; Sandberg, Jaime A R; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Ågren, Hans

    2014-03-11

    We introduce a density functional theory/molecular mechanical approach for computation of linear response properties of molecules in heterogeneous environments, such as metal surfaces or nanoparticles embedded in solvents. The heterogeneous embedding environment, consisting from metallic and nonmetallic parts, is described by combined force fields, where conventional force fields are used for the nonmetallic part and capacitance-polarization-based force fields are used for the metallic part. The presented approach enables studies of properties and spectra of systems embedded in or placed at arbitrary shaped metallic surfaces, clusters, or nanoparticles. The capability and performance of the proposed approach is illustrated by sample calculations of optical absorption spectra of thymidine absorbed on gold surfaces in an aqueous environment, where we study how different organizations of the gold surface and how the combined, nonadditive effect of the two environments is reflected in the optical absorption spectrum.

  14. Quasi-linear viscoelastic properties of the human medial patello-femoral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscenti, G; De Maria, C; Sebastiani, E; Tei, M; Placella, G; Speziali, A; Vozzi, G; Cerulli, G

    2015-12-16

    The evaluation of viscoelastic properties of human medial patello-femoral ligament is fundamental to understand its physiological function and contribution as stabilizer for the selection of the methods of repair and reconstruction and for the development of scaffolds with adequate mechanical properties. In this work, 12 human specimens were tested to evaluate the time- and history-dependent non linear viscoelastic properties of human medial patello-femoral ligament using the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory formulated by Fung et al. (1972) and modified by Abramowitch and Woo (2004). The five constant of the QLV theory, used to describe the instantaneous elastic response and the reduced relaxation function on stress relaxation experiments, were successfully evaluated. It was found that the constant A was 1.21±0.96MPa and the dimensionless constant B was 26.03±4.16. The magnitude of viscous response, the constant C, was 0.11±0.02 and the initial and late relaxation time constants τ1 and τ2 were 6.32±1.76s and 903.47±504.73s respectively. The total stress relaxation was 32.7±4.7%. To validate our results, the obtained constants were used to evaluate peak stresses from a cyclic stress relaxation test on three different specimens. The theoretically predicted values fit the experimental ones demonstrating that the QLV theory could be used to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of the human medial patello-femoral ligament. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic and material independent variation of electrical, optical, and chemical properties of Ln-materials over the Ln-series (Ln=La,Ce,Pr,..,Lu)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kolk, E.; Dorenbos, P.

    2007-01-01

    A model is presented that successfully predicts electro-optical properties of Lanthanide materials, irrespective whether these materials are inorganic or organic, diluted or concentrated, metallic, semi-conducting or insulating. The model is firmly based on recent experimental data revealing that

  16. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Sb-doped GeSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Chen, Fen; Lu, Shun-Bin; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shi-Xun; Nie, Qiu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Sb-doped GeSe2 chalcogenide thin films are prepared by the magnetron co-sputtering method. The linear optical properties of as-deposited films are derived by analyzing transmission spectra. The refractive index rises and the optical band gap decreases from 2.08 eV to 1.41 eV with increasing the Sb content. X-ray photoelectron spectra further confirm the formation of a covalent Sb-Se bond. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin films are investigated under femtosecond laser excitation at 800 nm. The results show that the third-order nonlinear optical properties are enhanced with increasing the concentration of Sb. The nonlinear refraction indices of these thin films are measured to be on the order of 10-18 m2/W with a positive sign and the nonlinear absorption coefficients are obtained to be on the order of 10-10 m/W. These excellent properties indicate that Sb-doped Ge-Se films have a good prospect in the applications of nonlinear optical devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB722703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377061), the Young Leaders of Academic Climbing Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. pd2013092), the Program for Innovative Research Team of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2009B217), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  17. Properties of Linear Contrails Detected in 2012 Northern Hemisphere MODIS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Chee, Thad; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Bedka, Sarah; Spangenberg, Doug; Minnis, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Observation of linear contrail cirrus coverage and retrieval of their optical properties are valuable data for validating atmospheric climate models that represent contrail formation explicitly. These data can reduce our uncertainty of the regional effects of contrail-generated cirrus on global radiative forcing, and thus improve our estimation of the impact of commercial aviation on climate change. We use an automated contrail detection algorithm (CDA) to determine the coverage of linear persistent contrails over the Northern Hemisphere during 2012. The contrail detection algorithm is a modified form of the Mannstein et al. (1999) method, and uses several channels from thermal infrared MODIS data to reduce the occurrence of false positive detections. A set of contrail masks of varying sensitivity is produced to define the potential range of uncertainty in contrail coverage estimated by the CDA. Global aircraft emissions waypoint data provided by FAA allow comparison of detected contrails with commercial aircraft flight tracks. A pixel-level product based on the advected flight tracks defined by the waypoint data and U-V wind component profiles from the NASA GMAO GEOS-4 reanalysis has been developed to assign a confidence of contrail detection for the contrail mask. To account for possible contrail cirrus missed by the CDA, a post-processing method based on the assumption that pixels adjacent to detected linear contrails will have radiative signatures similar to those of the detected contrails is applied to the Northern Hemisphere data. Results from several months of MODIS observations during 2012 will be presented, representing a near-global climatology of contrail coverage. Linear contrail coverage will be compared with coverage estimates determined previously from 2006 MODIS data.

  18. Photonic Heterostructures with Properties of Ferroelectrics and Light Polarizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P., E-mail: palto@online.ru; Draginda, Yu A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The optical and electro-optical properties of a new type of photonic heterostructure composed of alternating ferroelectric molecular layers and optically anisotropic layers of another material are considered. A numerical simulation of the real prototype of this heterostructure, which can be prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method from layers of a ferroelectric copolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and an azo dye with photoinduced optical anisotropy, has been performed. It is shown that this heterostructure has pronounced polarization optical properties and yields a significant change in the polarization state of light at the photonic band edges in the ranges of the maximum density of photon states. The latter property can be used to obtain an enhanced electro-optic effect at small spectral shifts of the photonic band (the latter can be provided by the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric layers).

  19. Effect of Li Termination on the Electronic and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Linear Carbon Chains: A TAO-DFT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seenithurai, Sonai; Chai, Jeng-Da

    2017-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the electronic and hydrogen storage properties of linear carbon chains (C n ) and Li-terminated linear carbon chains (Li2C n ), with n carbon atoms (n?=?5?10), has been very challenging for traditional electronic structure methods, due to the presence of strong static correlation effects. To meet the challenge, we study these properties using our newly developed thermally-assisted-occupation density functional theory (TAO-DFT), a very efficient electronic structure meth...

  20. Electro-optic control of a PPLN-unpoled LiNbO3 boundary for low-voltage Q switching of an intracavity frequency-doubled Nd3+:YVO4 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, A J; Maestre, H; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Pereda, J A; Capmany, J

    2009-08-01

    We present a simple technique to integrate an electro-optic Q switch in a periodically poled bulk lithium niobate crystal bounded by two unpoled (monodomain) regions. The technique exploits the high sensitivity to low applied electric fields of the total internal reflection condition in the periodic poled-unpoled boundary for the small grazing incidence angles associated with the diffraction of a focused Gaussian beam that propagates in the periodically poled region with its axis parallel to the boundary. When the arrangement is placed intracavity to a 1064 nm diode-pumped Nd(3+):YVO(4) laser, it performs simultaneously as a Q switch and as a second-harmonic generator, with Q switching starting at applied voltages as low as 1 V over a 500 microm thickness and with no additional optical elements.

  1. Investigation on electromechanical properties of a muscle-like linear actuator fabricated by bi-film ionic polymer metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuangzhi; Zhao, Gang; Qiao, Dongpan; Song, Wenlong

    2017-12-01

    Artificial muscles have attracted great attention for their potentials in intelligent robots, biomimetic devices, and micro-electromechanical system. However, there are many performance bottlenecks restricting the development of artificial muscles in engineering applications, e.g., the little blocking force and short working life. Focused on the larger requirements of the output force and the lack characteristics of the linear motion, an innovative muscle-like linear actuator based on two segmented IPMC strips was developed to imitate linear motion of artificial muscles. The structures of the segmented IPMC strip of muscle-like linear actuator were developed and the established mathematical model was to determine the appropriate segmented proportion as 1:2:1. The muscle-like linear actuator with two segmented IPMC strips assemble by two supporting link blocks was manufactured for the study of electromechanical properties. Electromechanical properties of muscle-like linear actuator under the different technological factors were obtained to experiment, and the corresponding changing rules of muscle-like linear actuators were presented to research. Results showed that factors of redistributed resistance and surface strain on both end-sides were two main reasons affecting the emergence of different electromechanical properties of muscle-like linear actuators.

  2. A Smoothing-Type Algorithm for Solving Linear Complementarity Problems with Strong Convergence Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenghai; Gu Weizhe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we construct an augmented system of the standard monotone linear complementarity problem (LCP), and establish the relations between the augmented system and the LCP. We present a smoothing-type algorithm for solving the augmented system. The algorithm is shown to be globally convergent without assuming any prior knowledge of feasibility/infeasibility of the problem. In particular, if the LCP has a solution, then the algorithm either generates a maximal complementary solution of the LCP or detects correctly solvability of the LCP, and in the latter case, an existing smoothing-type algorithm can be directly applied to solve the LCP without any additional assumption and it generates a maximal complementary solution of the LCP; and that if the LCP is infeasible, then the algorithm detect correctly infeasibility of the LCP. To the best of our knowledge, such properties have not appeared in the existing literature for smoothing-type algorithms

  3. Study of SUSY particles properties at the future International Linear Collider with the International Large Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Letters of Intent (LoI) for experiments at the International Linear Collider (ILC) have been submitted. Among the three proposals is the International Large Detector (ILD) concept which is at the focus of these studies. From various subjects addressed in the LoI, a wide spectrum of studies of SUSY particle properties is presented here. Most of them are benchmark reactions for the ILC and can be used both in physics studies and in work on detector design and optimization, respectively. All studies were performed with a full detector simulation using GEANT4, which is a great improvement compared to the previous results with much less detailed, so called f ast , simulation (SIMDET). The importance of this improved simulation is reflected in the results. The presented analyzes have been chosen to be the most challenging for the detector to study its performance and guide the detector development. Additionally an important problem of unavoidable beam induced backgrounds at linear colliders is addressed and ways of reducing its impact on physics studies are shown for an example SUSY analysis. (author)

  4. Cage and linear structured polysiloxane/epoxy hybrids for coatings: Surface property and film permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanli; He, Ling; Jia, Mengjun; Zhao, Lingru; Zuo, Yanyan; Hu, Pingan

    2017-08-15

    Three polysiloxane/epoxy hybrids obtained by evolving cage- or linear-structured polysiloxane into poly glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA) matrix are compared used as coatings. One is the cage-structured hybrid of P(GMA/MA-POSS) copolymer obtained by GMA and methacrylisobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (MA-POSS) via free radical polymerization, the other two are PGMA/NH 2 -POSS and PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS hybrids by cage-structured aminopropyllsobutyl POSS (NH 2 -POSS) or linear-structured diamino terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (NH 2 -PDMS) to cure PGMA. The effect of MA-POSS, NH 2 -POSS and NH 2 -PDMS on polysiloxane/epoxy hybrid films is characterized according to their surface morphology, transparency, permeability, adhesive strength and thermo-mechanical properties. Due to caged POSS tending to agglomerate onto the film surface, P(GMA/MA-POSS) and PGMA/NH 2 -POSS films exhibit much more heterogeneous surfaces than PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS film, but the well-compatibility between epoxy matrix and MA-POSS has provided P(GMA/MA-POSS) film with much higher transmittance (98%) than PGMA/NH 2 -POSS film (24%), PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS film (27%) and traditional epoxy resin film (5%). The introduction of polysiloxane into epoxy matrix is confirmed to create hybrids with strong adhesive strength (526-1113N) and high thermos-stability (T g =262-282°C), especially the cage-structured P(GMA/MA-POSS) hybrid (1113N and 282°C), but the flexible PDMS improves PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS hybrid with much higher storage modulus (519MPa) than PGMA/NH 2 -POSS (271MPa), which suggests that PDMS is advantage in improving the film stiffness than POSS cages. However, cage-structured P(GMA/MA-POSS) and PGMA/NH 2 -POSS indicate higher permeability than PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS and traditional epoxy resin. Comparatively, the cage-structured P(GMA/MA-POSS) hybrid is the best coating in transparency, permeability, adhesive strength and thermostability, but linear-structured PGMA/NH 2 -PDMS hybrid behaviors the best coating in

  5. How preservation time changes the linear viscoelastic properties of porcine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, C; Stoll, A; Fröhlich, M; Arndt, S; Lippert, H

    2013-01-01

    The preservation time of a liver graft is one of the crucial factors for the success of a liver transplantation. Grafts are kept in a preservation solution to delay cell destruction and cellular edema and to maximize organ function after transplantation. However, longer preservation times are not always avoidable. In this paper we focus on the mechanical changes of porcine liver with increasing preservation time, in order to establish an indicator for the quality of a liver graft dependent on preservation time. A time interval of 26 h was covered and the rheological properties of liver tissue studied using a stress-controlled rheometer. For samples of 1 h preservation time 0.8% strain was found as the limit of linear viscoelasticity. With increasing preservation time a decrease in the complex shear modulus as an indicator for stiffness was observed for the frequency range from 0.1 to 10 Hz. A simple fractional derivative representation of the Kelvin Voigt model was applied to gain further information about the changes of the mechanical properties of liver with increasing preservation time. Within the small shear rate interval of 0.0001-0.01 s⁻¹ the liver showed Newtonian-like flow behavior.

  6. Linear and nonlinear properties of numerical methods for the rotating shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred, Chris

    The shallow water equations provide a useful analogue of the fully compressible Euler equations since they have similar conservation laws, many of the same types of waves and a similar (quasi-) balanced state. It is desirable that numerical models posses similar properties, and the prototypical example of such a scheme is the 1981 Arakawa and Lamb (AL81) staggered (C-grid) total energy and potential enstrophy conserving scheme, based on the vector invariant form of the continuous equations. However, this scheme is restricted to a subset of logically square, orthogonal grids. The current work extends the AL81 scheme to arbitrary non-orthogonal polygonal grids, by combining Hamiltonian methods (work done by Salmon, Gassmann, Dubos and others) and Discrete Exterior Calculus (Thuburn, Cotter, Dubos, Ringler, Skamarock, Klemp and others). It is also possible to obtain these properties (along with arguably superior wave dispersion properties) through the use of a collocated (Z-grid) scheme based on the vorticity-divergence form of the continuous equations. Unfortunately, existing examples of these schemes in the literature for general, spherical grids either contain computational modes; or do not conserve total energy and potential enstrophy. This dissertation extends an existing scheme for planar grids to spherical grids, through the use of Nambu brackets (as pioneered by Rick Salmon). To compare these two schemes, the linear modes (balanced states, stationary modes and propagating modes; with and without dissipation) are examined on both uniform planar grids (square, hexagonal) and quasi-uniform spherical grids (geodesic, cubed-sphere). In addition to evaluating the linear modes, the results of the two schemes applied to a set of standard shallow water test cases and a recently developed forced-dissipative turbulence test case from John Thuburn (intended to evaluate the ability the suitability of schemes as the basis for a climate model) on both hexagonal

  7. Silicon Photonics: All-Optical Devices for Linear and Nonlinear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Jeffrey B.

    Silicon photonics has grown rapidly since the first Si electro-optic switch was demonstrated in 1987, and the field has never grown more quickly than it has over the past decade, fueled by milestone achievements in semiconductor processing technologies for low loss waveguides, high-speed Si modulators, Si lasers, Si detectors, and an enormous toolbox of passive and active integrated devices. Silicon photonics is now on the verge of major commercialization breakthroughs, and optical communication links remain the force driving integrated and Si photonics towards the first commercial telecom and datacom transceivers; however other potential and future applications are becoming uncovered and refined as researchers reveal the benefits of manipulating photons on the nanoscale. This thesis documents an exploration into the unique guided-wave and nonlinear properties of deeply-scaled high-index-contrast sub-wavelength Si waveguides. It is found that the tight confinement inherent to single-mode channel waveguides on the silicon-on-insulator platform lead to a rich physics, which can be leveraged for new devices extending well beyond simple passive interconnects and electro-optic devices. The following chapters will concentrate, in detail, on a number of unique physical features of Si waveguides and extend these attributes towards new and interesting devices. Linear optical properties and nonlinear optical properties are investigated, both of which are strongly affected by tight optical confinement of the guided waveguide modes. As will be shown, tight optical confinement directly results in strongly vectoral modal components, where the electric and magnetic fields of the guided modes extend into all spatial dimensions, even along the axis of propagation. In fact, the longitudinal electric and magnetic field components can be just as strong as the transverse fields, directly affecting the modal group velocity and energy transport properties since the longitudinal fields

  8. Linear optical absorption spectra of mesoscopic structures in intense THz fields: Free-particle properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    We theoretically study the effect of THz radiation on the linear optical absorption spectra of semiconductor structures. A general theoretical framework, based on nonequilibrium Green functions, is formulated and applied to the calculation of linear optical absorption spectrum for several...

  9. Structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of co-doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, E. R.; El-Hagary, M.; Moustafa, El Sayed; Hassan, H. Shokry; Ismail, Yasser A. M.; Emam-Ismail, M.; Ali, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Different compositions of Co-doped zinc oxide [(Zn(1- x)Co x O) ( x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10)] thin films were evaporated onto highly clean glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique using a modified source. The structural properties investigated by X-ray diffraction revealed hexagonal wurtzite ZnO-type structure. The crystallite size of the films was found to decrease with increasing Co content. The optical characterization of the films has been carried out using spectral transmittance and reflectance obtained in the wavelength range from 300 to 2500 nm. The refractive index has been found to increase with increasing Co content. It was further found that optical energy gap decreases from 3.28 to 3.03 eV with increasing Co content from x = 0 to x = 0.10, respectively. The dispersion of refractive index has been analyzed in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico (WDD) single-oscillator model. The oscillator parameters, the single-oscillator energy ( E o), the dispersion energy ( E d), and the static refractive index ( n 0), were determined. The nonlinear refractive index of the Zn(1- x)Co x O thin films was calculated and revealed well correlation with the linear refractive index and WDD parameters which in turn depend on the density and molar volume of the system.

  10. Kinetic Effects on the Stability Properties of Field-reversed Configurations: I. Linear Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elena V. Belova; Ronald C. Davidson; Hantao Ji; Masaaki Yamada

    2003-01-28

    New computational results are presented which advance the understanding of the stability properties of the Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC). We present results of hybrid and two-fluid (Hall-MHD) simulations of prolate FRCs. The n = 1 tilt instability mechanism and growth rate reduction mechanisms are investigated in detail including resonant particle effects, finite Larmor radius and Hall stabilization, and profile effects. It is shown that the Hall effect determines the mode rotation and the change in the linear mode structure in the kinetic regime; however, the reduction in the growth rate is mostly due to finite Larmor radius effects. Resonant wave-particle interactions are studied as a function of (a) elongation, (b) the kinetic parameter S*, which is proportional to the ratio of the separatrix radius to the thermal ion Larmor radius, and (c) the separatrix shape. It is demonstrated that, contrary to the usually assumed stochasticity of the ion orbits in the FRC, a large fraction of the orbits are regular in long configurations when S* is small. A stochasticity condition is found, and a scaling with the S* parameter is presented. Resonant particle effects are shown to maintain the instability in the large gyroradius regime regardless of the separatrix shape.

  11. Analysis of the static properties of cluster formations in symmetric linear multiblock copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytas, N G; Theodorakis, P E

    2011-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the static properties of a single linear multiblock copolymer chain under poor solvent conditions varying the block length N, the number of blocks n, and the solvent quality by variation of the temperature T. We study the most symmetrical case, where the number of blocks of monomers of type A, n A , equals that of monomers B, n B (n A = n B = n/2), the length of all blocks is the same irrespective of their type, and the potential parameters are also chosen symmetrically, as for a standard Lennard-Jones fluid. Under poor solvent conditions the chains collapse and blocks with monomers of the same type form clusters, which are phase separated from the clusters with monomers of the other type. We study the dependence of the size of the clusters formed on n, N and T. Furthermore, we discuss our results with respect to recent simulation data on the phase behaviour of such macromolecules, providing a complete picture for the cluster formations in single multiblock copolymer chains under poor solvent conditions.

  12. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of multilayered spherical quantum dots: Effects of geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, M.J.; Rezaei, G.; Nazari, M.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the effective mass and parabolic one band approximations, simultaneous effects of the geometrical size, hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, and temperature on the intersubband optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in multilayered spherical quantum dots are studied. Energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors are calculated using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta method and optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The results indicate that the hydrogenic impurity, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and geometrical parameters such as the well and barrier widths have a great influence on the linear, the third-order nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes. -- Highlights: • Hydrogenic impurity effects on the optical properties of a MSQD are investigated. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature effects are also studied. • Hydrogenic impurity has a great influence on the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs. • Hydrostatic pressure and temperature change the linear and nonlinear ACs and RICs

  13. THE EFFECT OF DIAMETER ON THE MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES OF AMORPHOUS-CARBON FIBERS FROM LINEAR LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENNING, JP; LAGCHER, R; PENNINGS, AJ

    The mechanical properties of amorphous carbon fibers, derived from linear low density polyethylene strongly depend on the fibre diameter, which may be attributed to the presence of a skin/core structure in these fibres. High strength carbon fibres could thus be prepared by using thin precursor

  14. Non-linear properties of R-R distributions as a measure of heart rate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irurzun, I.M.; Bergero, P.; Cordero, M.C.; Defeo, M.M.; Vicente, J.L.; Mola, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the dynamic quality of the R-R interbeat intervals of electrocardiographic signals from healthy people and from patients with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) by applying different measure algorithms to standardised public domain data sets of heart rate variability. Our aim is to assess the utility of these algorithms for the above mentioned purposes. Long and short time series, 24 and 0.50 h respectively, of interbeat intervals of healthy and PVC subjects were compared with the aim of developing a fast method to investigate their temporal organization. Two different methods were used: power spectral analysis and the integral correlation method. Power spectral analysis has proven to be a powerful tool for detecting long-range correlations. If it is applied in a short time series, power spectra of healthy and PVC subjects show a similar behavior, which disqualifies power spectral analysis as a fast method to distinguish healthy from PVC subjects. The integral correlation method allows us to study the fractal properties of interbeat intervals of electrocardiographic signals. The cardiac activity of healthy and PVC people stems from dynamics of chaotic nature characterized by correlation dimensions d f equal to 3.40±0.50 and 5.00±0.80 for healthy and PVC subjects respectively. The methodology presented in this article bridges the gap between theoretical and experimental studies of non-linear phenomena. From our results we conclude that the minimum number of coupled differential equations to describe cardiac activity must be six and seven for healthy and PVC individuals respectively. From the present analysis we conclude that the correlation integral method is particularly suitable, in comparison with the power spectral analysis, for the early detection of arrhythmias on short time (0.5 h) series

  15. Measuring the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of brain tissue with shear waves and inverse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Li, Guoyang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liang, Si; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping

    2015-10-01

    We use supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) technique to measure not only the linear but also the nonlinear elastic properties of brain matter. Here, we tested six porcine brains ex vivo and measured the velocities of the plane shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force at different states of pre-deformation when the ultrasonic probe is pushed into the soft tissue. We relied on an inverse method based on the theory governing the propagation of small-amplitude acoustic waves in deformed solids to interpret the experimental data. We found that, depending on the subjects, the resulting initial shear modulus [Formula: see text] varies from 1.8 to 3.2 kPa, the stiffening parameter [Formula: see text] of the hyperelastic Demiray-Fung model from 0.13 to 0.73, and the third- [Formula: see text] and fourth-order [Formula: see text] constants of weakly nonlinear elasticity from [Formula: see text]1.3 to [Formula: see text]20.6 kPa and from 3.1 to 8.7 kPa, respectively. Paired [Formula: see text] test performed on the experimental results of the left and right lobes of the brain shows no significant difference. These values are in line with those reported in the literature on brain tissue, indicating that the SSI method, combined to the inverse analysis, is an efficient and powerful tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissue, which is of great importance for computer simulation of traumatic brain injury and virtual neurosurgery.

  16. Comparison of the Tangent Linear Properties of Tracer Transport Schemes Applied to Geophysical Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, James; Holdaway, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A number of geophysical applications require the use of the linearized version of the full model. One such example is in numerical weather prediction, where the tangent linear and adjoint versions of the atmospheric model are required for the 4DVAR inverse problem. The part of the model that represents the resolved scale processes of the atmosphere is known as the dynamical core. Advection, or transport, is performed by the dynamical core. It is a central process in many geophysical applications and is a process that often has a quasi-linear underlying behavior. However, over the decades since the advent of numerical modelling, significant effort has gone into developing many flavors of high-order, shape preserving, nonoscillatory, positive definite advection schemes. These schemes are excellent in terms of transporting the quantities of interest in the dynamical core, but they introduce nonlinearity through the use of nonlinear limiters. The linearity of the transport schemes used in Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5), as well as a number of other schemes, is analyzed using a simple 1D setup. The linearized version of GEOS-5 is then tested using a linear third order scheme in the tangent linear version.

  17. Contractivity properties of a class of linear multistep methods for nonlinear neutral delay differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wansheng; Li Shoufu; Wang Wenqiang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that under identical conditions which guarantee the contractivity of the theoretical solutions of general nonlinear NDDEs, the numerical solutions obtained by a class of linear multistep methods are also contractive.

  18. Properties of Linear Entropy in k-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model with Stark Shift and Kerr-Like Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qinghong; Wang Yueyuan; Liu Shutian; Ahmad, Muhammad Ashfaq

    2010-01-01

    The time evolution of the linear entropy of an atom in k-photon Jaynes-Cummings model is investigated taking into consideration Stark shift and Kerr-like medium. The effect of both the Stark shift and Kerr-like medium on the linear entropy is analyzed using a numerical technique for the field initially in coherent state and in even coherent state. The results show that the presence of the Kerr-like medium and Stark shift has an important effect on the properties of the entropy and entanglement. It is also shown that the setting of the initial state plays a significant role in the evolution of the linear entropy and entanglement. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Preparation and tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene/rambutan peels (Nephelium chryseum Blum.) flour blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhirah, A. Ainatun.; Sam, S. T.; Noriman, N. Z.; Voon, C. H.; Samera, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of rambutan peels flour (RPF) content on the tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene filled with rambutan peel flour was studied. RPF was melt blended with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE). LLDPE/RPF blends were prepared by using internal mixer (brabender) at 160 °C with the flour content ranged from 0 to 15 wt%. The tensile properties were tested by using a universal testing machine (UTM) according to ASTM D638. The highest tensile strength was observed for pure LLDPE while the tensile strength LLDPE/RPF decreased gradually with the addition of rambutan peels flour content from 0% to 15%. Young's modulus of 63 µm to 250 µm rambutan peels blends with LLDPE with the fiber loading of 0 - 15 wt% increased with increasing fiber loading.

  20. An invariance property of the common trends under linear transformations of the data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Juselius, Katarina

    It is well known that if X(t) is a nonstationary process and Y(t) is a linear function of X(t), then cointegration of Y(t) implies cointegration of X(t). We want to find an analogous result for common trends if X(t) is generated by a finite order VAR. We first show that Y(t) has an infinite order...... VAR representation in terms of its prediction errors, which are a linear process in the prediction error for X(t). We then apply this result to show that the limit of the common trends for Y(t) are linear functions of the common trends for X(t)....

  1. An Invariance Property of the Common Trends under Linear Transformations of the Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Juselius, Katarina

    It is well known that if X(t) is a nonstationary process and Y(t) is a linear function of X(t), then cointegration of Y(t) implies cointegration of X(t). We want to find an analogous result for common trends if X(t) is generated by a finite order VAR. We first show that Y(t) has an infinite order...... VAR representation in terms of its prediction errors, which are a linear process in the prediction error for X(t). We then apply this result to show that the limit of the common trends for Y(t) are linear functions of the common trends for X(t). We illustrate the findings with a small analysis...... of the term structure of interest rates....

  2. Properties of Confined Star-Branched and Linear Chains. A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romiszowski, P.; Sikorski, A.

    2004-01-01

    A model of linear and star-branched polymer chains confined between two parallel and impenetrable surfaces was built. The polymer chains were restricted to a simple cubic lattice. Two macromolecular architectures of the chain: linear and star branched (consisted of f = 3 branches of equal length) were studied. The excluded volume was the only potential introduced into the model (the athermal system). Monte Carlo simulations were carried out using a sampling algorithm based on chain's local changes of conformation. The simulations were carried out at different confinement conditions: from light to high chain's compression. The scaling of chain's size with the chain length was studied and discussed. The influence of the confinement and the macromolecular architecture on the shape of a chain was studied. The differences in the shape of linear and star-branched chains were pointed out. (author)

  3. Some peculiarities of electro-optical effect in lead magno-niobate in strong alternative electric fields in the region of washing off phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnik, N.N.; Trepakov, V.A.; Kamzina, L.S.; Sakharov, D.G.; Volik, B.A.; Pis'mennyj, V.A.; Skornyakova, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the transverse electrooptic effect in PbMgsub(1/3)Nbsub(2/3)O 3 subjected to alternating fields of 0-20 kV/cm intensity and 2.10-10 4 Hz frequency in the region of the broad ferroelectric phase tansition. The quadratic electrooptic coefficients (R 11 -R 12 ) exhibited relaxation-type maxima in the temperature dependences, whereas no such maxima were observed for the linear coefficients (r 33 -r 13 ) in the investigated temperature range: The latter coefficients rose monotonically when the temperature was lowered. It was concluded that the predominant despersion mechanism in strong fields was the inertia of the growth of ferroelectric domains and nuclei. The coefficients (M 11 -M 12 ), which were quadratic in respect of the polarization, increased with rising temperature and this was explained qualitatively by allowing for the contribution of orientation processes to the overall electric polarization and birefrigence. (author)

  4. Property - preserving convergent sequences of invariant sets for linear discrete - time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Athanasopoulos, N.; Lazar, M.; Bitsoris, G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: New sequences of monotonically increasing sets are introduced, for linear discrete-time systems subject to input and state constraints. The elements of the set sequences are controlled invariant and admissible regions of stabilizability. They are generated from the iterative application of

  5. Linear and nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glasses in the terahertz frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Popescu, A.

    2014-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) waves have the potential to improve a wide range of devices in the space, defense and semiconductor industries as well as offering the possibility of investigating various molecules of interest in biology, medicine, art etc. For this reason, THz sources, detectors and passive linear...

  6. Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. I. Theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Richard L.

    2002-12-01

    Polarization properties and electro-optical switching behavior of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (HPDLC) reflection and transmission gratings are studied. A theoretical model is developed that combines anisotropic coupled-wave theory with an elongated liquid-crystal-droplet switching model and includes the effects of a statistical orientational distribution of droplet-symmetry axes. Angle- and polarization-dependent switching behaviors of HPDLC gratings are elucidated, and the effects on dynamic range are described. A new type of electro-optical switching not seen in ordinary polymer-dispersed liquid crystals, to the best of the author's knowledge, is presented and given a physical interpretation. The model provides valuable insight to the physics of these gratings and can be applied to the design of HPDLC holographic optical elements.

  7. Non-linear Response and Viscoelastic Properties of Lipid-Coated Microbubbles: DSPC versus DPPC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, T.; Luan, Y.; Renaud, G.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Versluis, Michel; de Jong, N.; Kooiman, K.

    2015-01-01

    For successful in vivo contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging (CEUS) and ultrasound molecular imaging, detailed knowledge of stability and acoustical properties of the microbubbles is essential. Here, we compare these aspects of lipid-coated microbubbles that have either

  8. Linear and nonlinear intraband optical properties of ZnO quantum dots embedded in SiO2 matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Maikhuri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate some optical properties of semiconductor ZnO spherical quantum dot embedded in an amorphous SiO2 dielectric matrix. Using the framework of effective mass approximation, we have studied intraband S-P, and P-D transitions in a singly charged spherical ZnO quantum dot. The optical properties are investigated in terms of the linear and nonlinear photoabsorption coefficient, the change in refractive index, and the third order nonlinear susceptibility and oscillator strengths. Using the parabolic confinement potential of electron in the dot these parameters are studied with the variation of the dot size, and the energy and intensity of incident radiation. The photoionization cross sections are also obtained for the different dot radii from the initial ground state of the dot. It is found that dot size, confinement potential, and incident radiation intensity affects intraband optical properties of the dot significantly.

  9. Comparison of Properties among Dendritic and Hyperbranched Poly(ether ether ketones and Linear Poly(ether ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Morikawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ether ether ketone dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers were prepared from 3,5-dimethoxy-4′-(4-fluorobenzoyldiphenyl ether and 3,5-dihydroxy-4′-(4-fluorobenzoyldiphenyl ether through aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. 1-(tert-Butyldimethylsiloxy-3,5-bis(4-fluorobenzoylbenzene was polycondensed with bisphenols, followed by cleavage of the protective group to form linear poly(ether ketones having the same hydroxyl groups in the side chains as the chain ends of the dendrimer and hyperbranched polymers. Their properties, such as solubilities, reduced viscosities, and thermal properties, were compared with one another. Similar comparisons were also carried out among the corresponding methoxy group polymers, and the size of the molecules was shown to affect the properties.

  10. Design and property analysis of a hybrid linear actuator based on shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Hu, Jinhong; Mao, Shixin; Dong, Erbao; Yang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces two methods for solving two bottlelike problems regarding the shape memory alloy (SMA) application as actuators. These methods are ‘rotating output,’ which aims to solve the problem of the low working frequency caused by the demand for cool time, and ‘accumulated shifting,’ which solves the problem of difficult-to-obtain output displacements in a large scale. We also introduce a hybrid linear actuator that applies the two methods and achieves both a strong force and an accurate large output displacement while working at a high frequency based on the SMA wires and DC motors. A prototype of this actuator was fabricated and tested to verify the two methods. This hybrid actuator system dynamic model, which was composed of the constitutive model of the SMA, the electrical and heat transfer behavior of the SMA wires and the dynamics of the linear actuation system, was established and discussed. Our study aims to illuminate the application of an SMA in actuators with the proposed methods with regard to its two main problems. An actuator with a high power-weight ratio and the capability to work at a high frequency, as well as accurate linear step displacements in a large scale, is also presented. (paper)

  11. Linear LIDAR versus Geiger-mode LIDAR: impact on data properties and data quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, A.; Pfennigbauer, M.

    2016-05-01

    LIDAR has become the inevitable technology to provide accurate 3D data fast and reliably even in adverse measurement situations and harsh environments. It provides highly accurate point clouds with a significant number of additional valuable attributes per point. LIDAR systems based on Geiger-mode avalanche photo diode arrays, also called single photon avalanche photo diode arrays, earlier employed for military applications, now seek to enter the commercial market of 3D data acquisition, advertising higher point acquisition speeds from longer ranges compared to conventional techniques. Publications pointing out the advantages of these new systems refer to the other category of LIDAR as "linear LIDAR", as the prime receiver element for detecting the laser echo pulses - avalanche photo diodes - are used in a linear mode of operation. We analyze the differences between the two LIDAR technologies and the fundamental differences in the data they provide. The limitations imposed by physics on both approaches to LIDAR are also addressed and advantages of linear LIDAR over the photon counting approach are discussed.

  12. Non-linear optical properties of SiO2 with synthesized by implantation copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.L.; Olivares, J.; Requejo-Isidro, J.; Del Coso, R.; De Nalda, R.; Solis, J.; Afonso, C.N.; Hole, D.; Townsend, P.D.; Naudon, A.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in composite dielectrics containing metal nanoparticles for their potential application in wave-guide integrated all-optical non-linear switching devices. In present work, low energy high current ion implantation (50 keV) in silica at a well controlled substrate temperature (20 0 C) at a dose of 8·10 16 ion/cm 2 has been used to produce novel composites containing a large concentration of spherical Cu clusters with an average diameter of 4 nm and a very narrow size distribution. A very large value for the third order optical susceptibility, χ (3) = 10 -7 esu, has been measured in the vicinity of the surface plasmon resonance by degenerate four wave mixing at 585 nm. This value is among the largest values ever reported for Cu nano composites. Additionally, the response time of the non-linearity has been found to be shorter than 2 ps. The superior non-linear optical response of these implants is discussed in terms of the implantation conditions

  13. InP/ZnS quantum-dot-dispersed nematic liquid crystal illustrating characteristic birefringence and enhanced electro-optical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aradhana; Pathak, Govind; Herman, Jakub; Inamdar, Sanjeev R.; Srivastava, Atul; Manohar, Rajiv

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigates the influence of InP/ZnS core/shell QDs on various parameters of Nematic LC sample 1832A, based on 4-(4-alkyl-cyclohexyl)benzene isothiocyanates and 4-(4-alkyl-cyclohexyl)biphenyl isothiocyanates. Observations recorded consist of distinguished functioning of birefringence phenomenon along with characteristic response time measurement. Further study of rotational viscosity and splay elastic constant portrays stupendous behavior strengthening the appositeness of the composites for low-charge consumable devices. The addition of 0.2 ml of core/shell QDs producing more than two times faster response and enhanced birefringence at low-temperature range can be employed in development of thermostable photonic devices. In addition, dielectric properties comprising of relative permittivity and conductivity have been reported supporting the outcome of the investigation in applicative LC-based technologies.

  14. Commentary on the statistical properties of noise and its implication on general linear models in functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Theodore J

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique that uses low levels of light to measure changes in cerebral blood oxygenation levels. In the majority of NIRS functional brain studies, analysis of this data is based on a statistical comparison of hemodynamic levels between a baseline and task or between multiple task conditions by means of a linear regression model: the so-called general linear model. Although these methods are similar to their implementation in other fields, particularly for functional magnetic resonance imaging, the specific application of these methods in fNIRS research differs in several key ways related to the sources of noise and artifacts unique to fNIRS. In this brief communication, we discuss the application of linear regression models in fNIRS and the modifications needed to generalize these models in order to deal with structured (colored) noise due to systemic physiology and noise heteroscedasticity due to motion artifacts. The objective of this work is to present an overview of these noise properties in the context of the linear model as it applies to fNIRS data. This work is aimed at explaining these mathematical issues to the general fNIRS experimental researcher but is not intended to be a complete mathematical treatment of these concepts.

  15. Properties of a novel linear sulfur response mode in a multiple flame photometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian G; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2014-01-24

    A new linear sulfur response mode was established in the multiple flame photometric detector (mFPD) by monitoring HSO* emission in the red spectral region above 600nm. Optimal conditions for this mode were found by using a 750nm interference filter and oxygen flows to the worker flames of this device that were about 10mL/min larger than those used for monitoring quadratic S2* emission. By employing these parameters, this mode provided a linear response over about 4 orders of magnitude, with a detection limit near 5.8×10(-11)gS/s and a selectivity of sulfur over carbon of about 3.5×10(3). Specifically, the minimum detectable masses for 10 different sulfur analytes investigated ranged from 0.4 to 3.6ng for peak half-widths spanning 4-6s. The response toward ten different sulfur compounds was examined and produced an average reproducibility of 1.7% RSD (n=10) and an average equimolarity value of 1.0±0.1. In contrast to this, a conventional single flame S2* mode comparatively yielded respective values of 6.7% RSD (n=10) and 1.1±0.4. HSO* emission in the mFPD was also found to be relatively much less affected by response quenching due to hydrocarbons compared to a conventional single flame S2* emission mode. Results indicate that this new alternative linear mFPD response mode could be beneficial for sulfur monitoring applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a hydrogenic donor in lens-shaped quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahdani, M.R.K.; Rezaei, G.

    2009-01-01

    Optical transitions in a Lens-Shaped Quantum Dot (LSD) are investigated in the presence of a hydrogenic impurity. The electronic wave functions are obtained analytically and the energy eigenvalues are calculated numerically. The density matrix formulation with the intersubband relaxation are used to evaluate the (linear and third order nonlinear) absorption coefficient (AC) and the change in the refractive indices (RI) analytically. The effect of the size of the LSD and optical intensity on the AC and RI are investigated. It is found that AC and RI are strongly affected by the optical intensity and the size of the LSD.

  17. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a hydrogenic donor in lens-shaped quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahdani, M.R.K. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, G., E-mail: grezaei@mail.yu.ac.i [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-08-17

    Optical transitions in a Lens-Shaped Quantum Dot (LSD) are investigated in the presence of a hydrogenic impurity. The electronic wave functions are obtained analytically and the energy eigenvalues are calculated numerically. The density matrix formulation with the intersubband relaxation are used to evaluate the (linear and third order nonlinear) absorption coefficient (AC) and the change in the refractive indices (RI) analytically. The effect of the size of the LSD and optical intensity on the AC and RI are investigated. It is found that AC and RI are strongly affected by the optical intensity and the size of the LSD.

  18. Position-controlled MOVPE growth and electro-optical characterization of core-shell InGaN/GaN microrod LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpke, Tilman; Lugauer, H.-J.; Avramescu, A.; Varghese, T.; Koller, A.; Hartmann, J.; Ledig, J.; Waag, A.; Strassburg, M.

    2016-03-01

    Today's InGaN-based white LEDs still suffer from a significant efficiency reduction at elevated current densities, the so-called "Droop". Core-shell microrods, with quantum wells (QWs) covering their entire surface, enable a tremendous increase in active area scaling with the rod's aspect ratio. Enlarging the active area on a given footprint area is a viable and cost effective route to mitigate the droop by effectively reducing the local current density. Microrods were grown in a large volume metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor on GaN-on-sapphire substrates with a thin, patterned SiO2 mask for position control. Out of the mask openings, pencil-shaped n-doped GaN microrod cores were grown under conditions favoring 3D growth. In a second growth step, these cores are covered with a shell containing a quantum well and a p-n junction to form LED structures. The emission from the QWs on the different facets was studied using resonant temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. The crystal quality of the structures was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing the absence of extended defects like threading dislocations in the 3D core. In order to fabricate LED chips, dedicated processes were developed to accommodate for the special requirements of the 3D geometry. The electrical and optical properties of ensembles of tens of thousands microrods connected in parallel are discussed.

  19. Effects of applied electromagnetic fields on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in an inverse parabolic quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sökmen, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this present work, we have investigated theoretically the effects of applied electric and magnetic fields on the linear and nonlinear optical properties in a GaAs/Al x Ga 1−x As inverse parabolic quantum well for different Al concentrations at the well center. The Al concentration at the barriers was always x max =0.3. The energy levels and wave functions are calculated within the effective mass approximation and the envelope function approach. The analytical expressions of optical properties are obtained by using the compact density-matrix approach. The linear, third-order nonlinear and total absorption and refractive index changes depending on the Al concentration at the well center are investigated as a function of the incident photon energy for the different values of the applied electric and magnetic fields. The results show that the applied electric and magnetic fields have a great effect on these optical quantities. - Highlights: ► The x c concentration has a great effect on the optical characteristics of these structures. ► The EM fields have a great effect on the optical properties of these structures. ► The total absorption coefficients increased as the electric and magnetic field increases. ► The RICs reduced as the electric and magnetic field increases.

  20. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  1. Linear expansion, specific heat and thermodynamic properties of the CdTl2Te4 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of studying temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient for poly- and monocrystalline samples of CdTl 2 Te 4 . The coefficient of linear expansion in a perpendicular direction to the axis of growth (0010) is shown to be larger than the coefficient of linear expansion along the axis. Temperature dependence of thermal capacity (Csub(p)(T)) has been obtained, which is used to plot tables of adjusted values of Csub(p)(T); the values of entropy and enthalpy are calculated. Standard values of these parameters are as follows: Csub(p)=42.90 cal/molxgrad; Ssub(298.15K)sup(.)=78.95+-0.32 cal/mol, and Δsub(298.15K)sup(.)=10629+-31 cal/mol. Lattice contribution and thermal expansion contribution into thermal capacity are calculated. Determined are Debye characteristic temperature, isothermal coefficient of compressibility, and Grueneisen constant. The calculations testify to the prevalence of the repulsive force along the axis (0010) over the attractive force

  2. Physical properties of a linear accelerator-based stereotactic installed at national cancer institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attala, E.M.; Deiab, N.A.; Elawady, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the dosimetry and mechanical accuracy of the first dedicated Siemens PRIMUS M6/6ST linear accelerator-based Stereotactic installed in National Cancer Institute for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy (SRS/SRT). The data were obtained during the installation, acceptance test procedure, and commissioning of the unit. The Primus M6/6ST has a single 6-MV beam with the same beam characteristics as that of the mother unit, the Siemens. The dosimetric data were taken using pin point ion chamber. The cone sizes vary from 12.5 to 40.0 mm diameter. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. The variations in isocenter position with table, gantry, and collimator rotation were found to be < 0.5 mm with a compounded accuracy of < or = 1.0 mm. The beam profiles of all cones in the x and y directions were within +/- 0.5 mm and match with the physical size of the cone. The basic dosimetry parameters such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), off-axis ratio (OAR) and cone factor needed for patient treatment were evaluated. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics including dose linearity of this unit are presented and found to be suitable for SRS/SRT. The difficulty in absolute dose measurement for small cone is discussed

  3. Measuring the Extensional Properties of linear and branched Polymer Melts using Membrane Inflation into a Cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eggen, Svein; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2001-01-01

    The bubble inflation technique has been used for some time as a rheological characterization method for polymeric materials. Recently, this technique has been modified to the inflation of a polymeric sheet into a circular cylinder. In this work, the experimental inflation of sheets (or membranes......) of polymeric melts into a circular cylinder is modelled numerically to obtain the general extensional properties of the material....

  4. Influence of adipic acid on tensile and morphology properties of linear low density polyethylene/rambutan peels flour blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhirah, A. A.; Sam, S. T.; Noriman, N. Z.; Ragunathan, S.; Ismail, H.

    2015-07-01

    This study investigate about the tensile and morphological properties of degradable polymer produced from linear low density polyethylene/rambutan peel flour (LLDPE/RPF) blends and adipic acid (AA) was used as a compatibilizer by varying the rambutan peel flour (RPF) amount from 0-25wt%. The samples were subjected to tensile and morphological tests. AA compatibilized showed higher strength compared to uncompatibilized blends. The Young's modulus for LLDPE/RPF blends increased with increasing flour content. However, the addition of adipic acid had reduced the Young's Modulus.

  5. Polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules H2+ in linearly polarized laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fulong; Tian, Yiqun; Yu, Shujuan; Wang, Shang; Yang, Shiping; Chen, Yanjun

    2015-07-13

    We investigate the polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields numerically and analytically. We focus on lower-order harmonics (LOHs). Our simulations show that the ellipticity of below-threshold LOHs depends strongly on the orientation angle and differs significantly for different harmonic orders. Our analysis reveals that this LOH ellipticity is closely associated with resonance effects and the axis symmetry of the molecule. These results shed light on the complex generation mechanism of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules.

  6. Physical and dynamical properties of the anomalous comet 249P/LINEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Julio A.; Licandro, Javier; Moreno, Fernando; Sosa, Andrea; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; de León, Julia; Birtwhistle, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Images and low-resolution spectra of the near-Earth Jupiter family comet (JFC) 249P/LINEAR in the visible range obtained with the instrument OSIRIS in the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) (La Palma, Spain) on January 3, 4, 6 and February 6, 2016 are presented, together with a series of images obtained with the 0.4m telescope of the Great Shefford Observatory obtained on Oct. 22 and 27, and Nov. 1 and 24, 2006. The reflectance spectrum of 249P is similar to that of a B-type asteroid. The comet has an absolute (visual) nuclear magnitude HV = 17.0 ± 0.4 , which corresponds to a radius of about 1-1.3 km for a geometric albedo ∼ 0.04 - 0.07 . From the analysis of GTC images using a Monte Carlo dust tail code we find that the time of maximum dust ejection rate was around 1.6 days before perihelion. The analysis of the dust tails during the 2006 and 2016 perihelion approaches reveals that, during both epochs, the comet repeated the same dust ejection pattern, with a similar short-lived activity period of about 20 days (FWHM) around perihelion and a dust loss rate peaking at 145 ± 50 kg/s. The total dust mass ejected during its last perihelion passage was (2.5 ± 0.9) × 108 kg, almost all this mass being emitted before the first observation of January 3, 2016. The activity onset, duration, and total ejected mass were very similar during the 2006 perihelion passage. This amount of dust mass is very low as compared with that from other active JFCs. The past orbital evolution of 249P and 100 clones were also followed over a time scale of ∼ 5 × 104 yr. The object and more than 60% of the clones remained bound to the near-Earth region for the whole computed period, keeping its perihelion distance within the range q ≃ 0.4 - 1.1 au. The combination of photometric and spectroscopic observations and dynamical studies show that the near-Earth comet 249P/LINEAR has several peculiar features that clearly differentiate it from typical JFCs. We may be in front of a new

  7. Effective properties of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media: Internal variables formulation and extension to ageing behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.M.; Masson, R.; Masson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Laplace-Carson transform classically used for homogenization of linear viscoelastic heterogeneous media yields integral formulations of effective behaviours. These are far less convenient than internal variables formulations with respect to computational aspects as well as to theoretical extensions to closely related problems such as ageing viscoelasticity. Noticing that the collocation method is usually adopted to invert the Laplace-Carson transforms, we first remark that this approximation is equivalent to an internal variables formulation which is exact in some specific situations. This result is illustrated for a two-phase composite with phases obeying a compressible Maxwellian behaviour. Next, an incremental formulation allows to extend at each time step the previous general framework to ageing viscoelasticity. Finally, with the help of a creep test of a porous viscoelastic matrix reinforced with elastic inclusions, it is shown that the method yields accurate predictions (comparing to reference results provided by periodic cell finite element computations). (authors)

  8. Properties of linear integral equations related to the six-vertex model with disorder parameter II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, Hermann; Göhmann, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We study certain functions arising in the context of the calculation of correlation functions of the XXZ spin chain and of integrable field theories related to various scaling limits of the underlying six-vertex model. We show that several of these functions that are related to linear integral equations can be obtained by acting with (deformed) difference operators on a master function Φ. The latter is defined in terms of a functional equation and of its asymptotic behavior. Concentrating on the so-called temperature case, we show that these conditions uniquely determine the high-temperature series expansions of the master function. This provides an efficient calculation scheme for the high-temperature expansions of the derived functions as well. (paper)

  9. Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and lamellar zirconium phosphate (Zr P) composites: morphology and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Daniela F.; Mandes, Luis C.; Lino, Adan S.

    2011-01-01

    Composites of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) were prepared by extrusion in the molten state, containing 2 (w%) of the lamellar filler. The filler was previously synthesized by direct precipitation method and characterized. After processing, the composite and the pure virgin polymer were molded by compression in order to obtain films of 1 mm thick which were characterized by X-ray diffraction at high angle (WAXD), stress-strain mechanical analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The WAXD and SEM analysis showed that there was no intercalation of LLDPE in zirconium phosphate, possibly due to the fact that the layers do not have spacing enough to allow the intercalation of polymer chains in the galleries of the filler and thus allow the exfoliation. (author)

  10. Tight focusing properties of linearly polarized Gaussian beam with a pair of vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ziyang [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Information Science and Engineering, Institute of Optics and Photonics, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China); Pu, Jixiong [College of Information Science and Engineering, Institute of Optics and Photonics, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China); Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-07-25

    The properties of a pair of vortices embedded in a Gaussian beam focused by a high numerical-aperture are studied on the basis of vector Debye integral. The vortices move and rotate in the vicinity of the focal plane for a pair of vortices with equal topological charges. For incident beam with a pair of vortices with opposite topological charges, the vortices move toward each other, annihilate and revive in the vicinity of focal plane. -- Highlights: → The properties of a pair of vortices focused by a high numerical-aperture are studied. → It is shown that the focusing vortices with equal topological charges move toward and rotate. → It is shown that the focusing vortices with opposite topological charges move toward each other, annihilate and revive.

  11. Perturbative calculations of flow patterns in free convection between coaxial cylinders. Non-linear temperature dependences of the fluid properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, J. A.; Madariaga, J. A.; Santamaria, C. M.; Saviron, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    10 refs. Flow pattern calculations in natural convection between two vertical coaxial cylinders are reported. It is assumed trough the paper. that fluid properties, viscosity, thermal conductivity and density, depend no-linearly on temperature and that the aspects (height/radius) ratio of the cylinders is high. Velocity profiles are calculated trough a perturbative scheme and analytic results for the three first perturbation orders are presented. We outline also an iterative method to estimate the perturbations on the flow patterns which arise when a radial composition gradient is established by external forces in a two-component fluid. This procedure, based on semiempirical basis, is applied to gaseous convection. The influence of the molecules gas properties on tho flow is also discussed. (Author) 10 refs

  12. A Solution Method for Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear MDOF Systems with Random Properties subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micaletti, R. C.; Cakmak, A. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    structural properties. The resulting state-space formulation is a system of ordinary stochastic differential equations with random coefficient and deterministic initial conditions which are subsequently transformed into ordinary stochastic differential equations with deterministic coefficients and random......A method for computing the lower-order moments of randomly-excited multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems with random structural properties is proposed. The method is grounded in the techniques of stochastic calculus, utilizing a Markov diffusion process to model the structural system with random...... initial conditions. This transformation facilitates the derivation of differential equations which govern the evolution of the unconditional statistical moments of response. Primary consideration is given to linear systems and systems with odd polynomial nonlinearities, for in these cases...

  13. Linearization Method and Linear Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    We focus on the relationship between the linearization method and linear complexity and show that the linearization method is another effective technique for calculating linear complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a linearization method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates linear complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(≅2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of linear complexity. Therefore, a linear complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a linearization method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of linear complexity.

  14. Pseudo-random properties of a linear congruential generator investigated by b-adic diaphony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoev, Peter; Stoilova, Stanislava

    2017-12-01

    In the proposed paper we continue the study of the diaphony, defined in b-adic number system, and we extend it in different directions. We investigate this diaphony as a tool for estimation of the pseudorandom properties of some of the most used random number generators. This is done by evaluating the distribution of specially constructed two-dimensional nets on the base of the obtained random numbers. The aim is to see how the generated numbers are suitable for calculations in some numerical methods (Monte Carlo etc.).

  15. Spectroscopic properties of the S1 state of linear carotenoids after excess energy excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Fuciman, Marcel; Polívka, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    Properties of the S1 state of neurosporene, spheroidene and lycopene were studied after excess energy excitation in the S2 state. Excitation of carotenoids into higher vibronic levels of the S2 state generates excess vibrational energy in the S1 state. The vibrationally hot S1 state relaxes faster when carotenoid is excited into the S2 state with excess energy, but the S1 lifetime remains constant regardless of which vibronic level of the S2 state is excited. The S∗ signal depends on excitation energy only for spheroidene, which is likely due to asymmetry of the molecule, facilitating conformations responsible for the S∗ signal.

  16. Swelling and Shrinking Properties of Thermo-Responsive Polymeric Ionic Liquid Hydrogels with Embedded Linear pNIPAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gallagher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA, to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50–80 °C, it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%. This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL.

  17. First-principles study of structural, electronic, linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ga{2}PSb ternary chalcopyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouahrani, T.; Reshak, A. H.; de La Roza, A. Otero; Mebrouki, M.; Luaña, V.; Khenata, R.; Amrani, B.

    2009-12-01

    We report results from first-principles density functional calculations using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the Engel-Vosko-generalized gradient approximation (EV-GGA) were used for the exchange-correlation energy of the structural, electronic, linear and nonlinear optical properties of the chalcopyrite Ga2PSb compound. The valence band maximum (VBM) is located at the Γv point, and the conduction band minimum (CBM) is located at the Γc point, resulting in a direct band gap of about 0.365 eV for GGA and 0.83 eV for EV-GGA. In comparison with the experimental one (1.2 eV) we found that EV-GGA calculation gives energy gap in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The spin orbit coupling has marginal influence on the optical properties. The ground state quantities such as lattice parameters (a, c and u), bulk modules B and its pressure derivative B^primeare evaluated.

  18. Enhanced mechanical properties of linear segmented shape memory poly(urethane-urea) by incorporating flexible PEG400 and rigid piperazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Yu-Fei; Li, Yong-Gang; Wang, Pin-Pin; Wang, Yuan-Liang; Luo, Yan-Feng

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study is to design and synthesize a linear segmented shape memory poly(urethane-urea) (SMPUU) that possesses near-body-temperature shape memory temperature ( T tran) and enhanced mechanical properties by incorporating flexible poly(ethylene glycol) 400 (PEG400) to form poly(D,L-lactic acid)-based macrodiols (PDLLA-PEG400-PDLLA) and then rigid piperazine (PPZ) as a chain extender to form the desired SMPUUs (PEG400-PUU-PPZ). PEG400 increased M n while maintaining a lower T g of PDLLA-PEG400-PDLLA, which together with PPZ improved the mechanical properties of PEG400-PUU-PPZ. The obtained optimum SMPUU with enhanced mechanical properties ( σ y = 24.28 MPa; ɛ f = 698%; U f = 181.5 MJ/m3) and a T g of 40.62°C exhibited sound shape memory properties as well, suggesting a promising SMPUU for in vivo biomedical applications.

  19. Effect of linear temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties on energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    New thermal rate equations were developed by taking the temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of the thermoelectric (TE) materials into the thermal rate equations on the assumption that they vary linearly with temperature T. The relative energy conversion efficiency η/η 0 for a single TE element was formulated by approximate analysis, where η and η 0 are the energy conversion efficiencies derived from the new and conventional thermal rate equations, respectively. Applying it to Si-Ge alloys, the temperature dependence of ρ is stronger than that of κ, so the former has a more significant effect on η/η 0 than the latter. However, the degree of contribution from both of them to η/η 0 was a little lower than 1% at the temperature difference ΔT of 600 K. When the temperature dependence of κ was increased to become equal to that of ρ, however, it was found that η/η 0 is increased by about 10% at ΔT = 600 K. It is clarified here that the temperature dependences of ρ and κ are also important factors for an improvement in η

  20. Effect of weak nonsphericity on linear and nonlinear optical properties of small particle composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, A.V.; Popelnukh, V.V.; Venger, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    A small particle composite in which the inclusions are slightly nonspherical and distributed in shape is considered. Within the framework of the mean-field approximation, the functions of linear and nonlinear optical responses are calculated in terms of a nonsphericity parameter specifying the width of the distribution function in shape. To estimate the effect of weak nonsphericity on the functions, their second derivatives with respect to the nonsphericity parameter are computed. The derivatives are shown to be complexly structured surfaces in the coordinates (Re(ε i /ε m ), Im(ε i /ε m )), where ε i and ε m are the inclusion and matrix permittivity, respectively. Based on the results obtained, applicability area of the classical Maxwell Garnett theory is discussed. The main conclusion is that weak nonsphericity is significant only in the close vicinity of a dipole resonance of a single ball made of inclusion material. At the same time, the role of nonsphericity increases with decreasing the imaginary part of inclusion permittivity. (author)

  1. Motor properties from persistence: a linear molecular walker lacking spatial and temporal asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckermann, Martin J; Forde, Nancy R; Angstmann, Christopher N; Schmitt, Regina; Linke, Heiner; Blab, Gerhard A; Bromley, Elizabeth HC; Curmi, Paul MG

    2015-01-01

    The stepping direction of linear molecular motors is usually defined by a spatial asymmetry of the motor, its track, or both. Here we present a model for a molecular walker that undergoes biased directional motion along a symmetric track in the presence of a temporally symmetric chemical cycle. Instead of using asymmetry, directionality is achieved by persistence. At small load force the walker can take on average thousands of steps in a given direction until it stochastically reverses direction. We discuss a specific experimental implementation of a synthetic motor based on this design and find, using Langevin and Monte Carlo simulations, that a realistic walker can work against load forces on the order of picoNewtons with an efficiency of ∼18%, comparable to that of kinesin. In principle, the walker can be turned into a permanent motor by externally monitoring the walker’s momentary direction of motion, and using feedback to adjust the direction of a load force. We calculate the thermodynamic cost of using feedback to enhance motor performance in terms of the Shannon entropy, and find that it reduces the efficiency of a realistic motor only marginally. We discuss the implications for natural protein motor performance in the context of the strong performance of this design based only on a thermal ratchet. (paper)

  2. Mechanism of linear and nonlinear optical properties of bis-thiourea cadmium chloride single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.T.; Luo, S.J.; Yi, L.; Laref, A.

    2013-01-01

    Within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), a calculation of the electronic structure of a semiorganic crystal named bis-thiourea cadmium chloride (BTCC) was performed, then the linear and nonlinear optical responses were obtained over a wide energy range, using a scissor energy of 1.30 eV, and our results are in good agreement with the experiments. The accurate full-potential projected augmented wave (FP-PAW) method was used. The prominent spectrum of the second harmonic generation (SHG) was successfully correlated with the dielectric function in terms of single- and double-photon resonances. Both the virtual electron (VE) and virtual hole (VH) processes make contributions to the SHG of BTCC crystal, and the VH process is enhanced by the Cd-centered tetrahedron. The SHG effect of the semiorganic material is attributed to the charge transfer (CT). The CT model for the semiorganic crystal is named as “M-Π O ⋯X”. “M” is a metal atom providing electrons, “Π O ” is a π-conjugated covalent of an organic molecule, and “X” is a high electronegativity atom. The CT across the BTCC molecule is along a π-electron conjugation covalence bond, and the delocalized electrons of sulfur provide an excellent bridge. The strong “pull” effect for the CT is due to the intramolecular hydrogen bonds provided by the chlorine with the high electron affinity.

  3. Comparison of the convergence properties of linear-scaling electronic-structure schemes for nonorthogonal bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed comparison of the convergence properties of density-matrix and localized-orbital O(N) functionals within 512-atom cells of amorphous carbon using a first-principles local-orbital Hamiltonian. The functionals were minimized by means of the conventional but tensorially incorrect covariant derivatives as well as the correct contravariant derivatives. While the correct derivatives result in a much faster minimization, the energies obtained in this case are somewhat higher compared to using the covariant derivatives. However, we present a representation of the density-matrix functional which requires shorter minimization times and yet returns more accurate energies for practical sizes of the localization regions. Furthermore, while the density-matrix functional is superior in efficiency to the orbital-based functional when using the incorrect derivatives, both functionals exhibit similar decay properties in terms of conjugate-gradient iterations for the correct derivatives. This makes the orbital-based functional faster, especially when minimal sets of Wannier-like functions and projected initial functions can be used

  4. Physical Properties of Main-belt Comet 176P/LINEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Ishiguro, Masateru; Lacerda, Pedro; Jewitt, David

    2011-07-01

    We present a physical characterization of comet 176P/LINEAR, the third discovered member of the new class of main-belt comets, which exhibit cometary activity but are dynamically indistinguishable from main-belt asteroids. Observations show the object exhibiting a fan-shaped tail for at least one month in late 2005, but then becoming inactive in early 2006. During this active period, we measure broadband colors of B - V = 0.63 ± 0.02, V - R = 0.35 ± 0.02, and R - I = 0.31 ± 0.04. Using data from when the object was observed to be inactive, we derive best-fit IAU phase function parameters of H = 15.10 ± 0.05 mag and G = 0.15 ± 0.10, and best-fit linear phase function parameters of m(1, 1, 0) = 15.35 ± 0.05 mag and β = 0.038 ± 0.005 mag deg-1. From this baseline phase function, we find that 176P exhibits a mean photometric excess of ~30% during its active period, implying an approximate total coma dust mass of Md ~ (7.2 ± 3.6) × 104 kg. From inactive data obtained in early 2007, we find a rotation period of P rot = 22.23 ± 0.01 hr and a peak-to-trough photometric range of Δm ~ 0.7 mag. Phasing our photometric data from 176P's 2005 active period to this rotation period, we find that the nucleus exhibits a significantly smaller photometric range than in 2007 that cannot be accounted for by coma damping effects, and as such, are attributed by us to viewing geometry effects. A detailed analysis of these geometric effects showed that 176P is likely to be a highly elongated object with an axis ratio of 1.8 data presented herein were obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership. Additionally, some of the presented data were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National

  5. Statistical properties of the linear σ model used in dynamical simulations of DCC formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.

    1997-01-01

    The present work develops a simple approximate framework for initializing and interpreting dynamical simulations with the linear σ model exploring the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in high-energy collisions. By enclosing the system in a rectangular box with periodic boundary conditions, it is possible to decompose uniquely the chiral field into its spatial average (the order parameter) and its fluctuations (the quasiparticles) which can be treated in the Hartree approximation. The quasiparticle modes are then described approximately by Klein-Gordon dispersion relations containing an effective mass depending on both the temperature and the magnitude of the order parameter; their fluctuations are instrumental in shaping the effective potential governing the order parameter, and the emerging statistical description is thermodynamicially consistent. The temperature dependence of the statistical distribution of the order parameter is discussed, as is the behavior of the associated effective masses; as the system is cooled, the field fluctuations subside, causing a smooth change from the high-temperature phase in which chiral symmetry is approximately restored towards the normal phase. Of practical interest is the fact that the equilibrium field configurations can be sampled in a simple manner, thus providing a convenient means for specifying the initial conditions in dynamical simulations of the nonequilibrium relaxation of the chiral field; in particular, the correlation function is much more realistic than those emerging in previous initialization methods. It is illustrated how such samples remain approximately invariant under propagation by the unapproximated equation of motion over times that are long on the scale of interest, thereby suggesting that the treatment is sufficiently accurate to be of practical utility. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Electrode erosion properties of gas spark switches for fast linear transformer drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2017-12-01

    Fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) are a popular and potential route for high-power devices employing multiple "bricks" in series and parallel, but they put extremely stringent demands on gas switches. Electrode erosion of FLTD gas switches is a restrictive and unavoidable factor that degrades performance and limits stability. In this paper, we systematically investigated the electrode erosion characteristics of a three-electrode field distortion gas switch under the typical working conditions of FLTD switches, and the discharge current was 7-46 kA with 46-300 ns rise time. A high speed frame camera and a spectrograph were used to capture the expansion process and the spectral emission of the spark channel was used to estimate the current density and the spark temperature, and then the energy fluxes and the external forces on the electrode surface were calculated. A tens of kilo-ampere nanosecond pulse could generate a 1011 W/m2 energy flux injection and 1.3-3.5 MPa external pressure on the electrode surface, resulting in a millimeter-sized erosion crater with the maximum peak height Rz reaching 100 μm magnitude. According to the morphological images by a laser scanning confocal microscope, the erosion crater of a FLTD switch contained three kinds of local morphologies, namely a center boiling region, an overflow region and a sputtering region. In addition, the crater size, the surface roughness, and the mass loss were highly dependent on the current amplitude and the transferred charge. We also observed Morphology Type I and Type II, respectively, with different pulse parameters, which had an obvious influence on surface roughness and mass loss. Finally, the quantitative relationship between the electrode mass loss and the pulse parameter was clarified. The transferred charge and the current amplitude were proved to be the main factors determining the electrode mass loss of a FLTD switch, and a least squares fitting expression for mass loss was also obtained.

  7. Tunable electro-optic filter stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecchio, Adam K.; Shriyan, Sameet K.; Bellingham, Alyssa

    2017-09-05

    A holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) tunable filter exhibits switching times of no more than 20 microseconds. The HPDLC tunable filter can be utilized in a variety of applications. An HPDLC tunable filter stack can be utilized in a hyperspectral imaging system capable of spectrally multiplexing hyperspectral imaging data acquired while the hyperspectral imaging system is airborne. HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be utilized in high speed switchable optical shielding systems, for example as a coating for a visor or an aircraft canopy. These HPDLC tunable filter stacks can be fabricated using a spin coating apparatus and associated fabrication methods.

  8. Electro-Optical Method for polarimetric measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Diaz, L. J.

    2011-01-01

    When passing a pulsing beam of polarized light of an LED or a semiconductor laser thru an optical system and two photodiodes spatially arranged at 900 to each other and both with their detection faces parallel to the transmission shaft of light, and polarization axis oriented at 450 of the vertices of the edges where the photodiodes join, in the outputs of two operational amplifiers, we have two signals with the same shape in time, i.e. a pulse train with the same phase, but when you turn the polarization plane, change the radiance of the light projected onto the photodiodes, being out of phase signals to the outputs of the amplifiers, where the difference between the fronts of the pulses is proportional to the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization of light. In a digital circuit phase discriminator, a pulse is obtained equal to the time difference between two sides of the rise in the output of two amplifiers. The width of this is directly proportional to the value of rotation the plane of polarization of light, that is, the greater the rotation, the greater the width of this pulse. (Author)

  9. Environmental Support for Electro Optics Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    particles of the atmosphere, it is desirable to determine the size, number concentration, chemical composition, charge carried, if any, radioactivity , if...Proceedings of Symposium on Multiple-Source Urban Diffusion Models, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Air Polution Control Office, Research Triangle Park

  10. Electro optical system to measure strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Bhat, G.

    With the advent of the so called speckle interferometry, interferograms of objects can be obtained in real time by using a TV camera as the recording medium. The basic idea of this instrument is to couple the photoelectric registration by a TV camera with the subsequent electronic processing, to develop an efficient device for the measurement of deformations. This paper presents a new and improved instrument, which has a very important feature, portability, that can be operated in different modes and is capable of producing interferograms using holography, speckle, and moire methods. The basic features of the instrument are presented and some of the theoretical points at the foundation of operation of the instrument are analyzed. Examples are given of the application to moire, speckle, and holographic interferometry.

  11. Electro-optic techniques for VLSI interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, J. A.

    1985-03-01

    A major limitation to achieving significant speed increases in very large scale integration (VLSI) lies in the metallic interconnects. They are costly not only from the charge transport standpoint but also from capacitive loading effects. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, in pursuit of the fifth generation supercomputer, is investigating alternatives to the VLSI metallic interconnects, especially the use of optical techniques to transport the information either inter or intrachip. As the on chip performance of VLSI continues to improve via the scale down of the logic elements, the problems associated with transferring data off and onto the chip become more severe. The use of optical carriers to transfer the information within the computer is very appealing from several viewpoints. Besides the potential for gigabit propagation rates, the conversion from electronics to optics conveniently provides a decoupling of the various circuits from one another. Significant gains will also be realized in reducing cross talk between the metallic routings, and the interconnects need no longer be constrained to the plane of a thin film on the VLSI chip. In addition, optics can offer an increased programming flexibility for restructuring the interconnect network.

  12. Importance of the alignment of polar π conjugated molecules inside carbon nanotubes in determining second-order non-linear optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumura, Takashi; Yamamoto, Wataru

    2017-09-20

    We employed density functional theory (DFT) calculations with dispersion corrections to investigate energetically preferred alignments of certain p,p'-dimethylaminonitrostilbene (DANS) molecules inside an armchair (m,m) carbon nanotube (n × DANS@(m,m)), where the number of inner molecules (n) is no greater than 3. Here, three types of alignments of DANS are considered: a linear alignment in a parallel fashion and stacking alignments in parallel and antiparallel fashions. According to DFT calculations, a threshold tube diameter for containing DANS molecules in linear or stacking alignments was found to be approximately 1.0 nm. Nanotubes with diameters smaller than 1.0 nm result in the selective formation of linearly aligned DANS molecules due to strong confinement effects within the nanotubes. By contrast, larger diameter nanotubes allow DANS molecules to align in a stacking and linear fashion. The type of alignment adopted by the DANS molecules inside a nanotube is responsible for their second-order non-linear optical properties represented by their static hyperpolarizability (β 0 values). In fact, we computed β 0 values of DANS assemblies taken from optimized n × DANS@(m,m) structures, and their values were compared with those of a single DANS molecule. DFT calculations showed that β 0 values of DANS molecules depend on their alignment, which decrease in the following order: linear alignment > parallel stacking alignment > antiparallel stacking alignment. In particular, a linear alignment has a β 0 value more significant than that of the same number of isolated molecules. Therefore, the linear alignment of DANS molecules, which is only allowed inside smaller diameter nanotubes, can strongly enhance their second-order non-linear optical properties. Since the nanotube confinement determines the alignment of DANS molecules, a restricted nanospace can be utilized to control their second-order non-linear optical properties. These DFT findings can assist in the

  13. Role of Mn2+ concentration in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ni1-xMnxSe nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugop, B.; Prasanth, S.; Rithesh Raj, D.; Vineeshkumar, T. V.; Pranitha, S.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Sudarsanakumar, C.

    2016-12-01

    Ni1-xMnxSe nanoparticles (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) were successfully synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and their structural and optical properties were studied using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Visible absorption and photo luminescence spectroscopy. XRD pattern reveals the hexagonal structure of the particles and the peak positions were shifted to higher 2θ values with increase in Mn2+ concentration. The average particle size determined from XRD varies from 6 to 11 nm. The UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows absorption edge around the blue region and is red-shifted with increasing Mn2+ concentration consequently the optical bandgap energy is decreasing. The PL emission spectrum shows a broad emission around 380 nm, and the intensity of the emission decreases with increase in Mn2+ concentration. The nonlinear optical properties of the samples were analysed using Z-scan technique and the samples show optical limiting behaviour and the 2 PA coefficient increases with increasing Mn2+ concentration. Overall, manganese concentration influences the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ni1-xMnxSe nanoparticles.

  14. The synthesis and properties of linear A-π-D-π-A type organic small molecule containing diketopyrrolopyrrole terminal units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Niu, Qingfen; Sun, Tao; Li, Yang; Li, Tianduo; Liu, Haixia

    2017-08-01

    A novel linear A-π-D-π-A-type organic small molecule Ph2(PDPP)2 consisting diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) as acceptor unit, biphenylene as donor unit and acetylene unit as π-linkage has been successfully designed and synthesized. Its corresponding thermal, photophysical and electrochemical properties as well as the photoinduced charge-separation process were investigated. Ph2(PDPP)2 exhibits high thermal stability and it can be soluble in common organic solvents such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran. The photophysical properties show that DPP2Ph2 harvests sunlight over the entire visible spectrum range in the thin-film state (300-800 nm). DPP2Ph2 has lower band gaps and appropriate energy levels to satisfy the requirement of solution-processable organic solar cells. The efficient photoinduced charge separation process was clearly observed between DPP2Ph2 with PC61BM and the Ksv value was found to be as high as 2.13 × 104 M- 1. Therefore, these excellent properties demonstrate that the designed A-π-D-π-A-type small molecule Ph2(PDPP)2 is the prospective candidate as donor material for organic photovoltaic material.

  15. Incorporated W Roles on Microstructure and Properties of W-C:H Films by a Hybrid Linear Ion Beam Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available W-incorporated diamond-like carbon (W-C:H films were fabricated by a hybrid beams system consisting of a DC magnetron sputtering and a linear ion source. The W concentration (1.08~31.74 at.% in the film was controlled by varying the sputtering current. The cross-sectional topography, composition, and microstructure of the W-C:H films were investigated by SEM, XPS, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The mechanical and tribological properties of the films as a function of W concentration were evaluated by a stress-tester, nanoindentation, and ball-on-disk tribometer, respectively. The results showed that films mainly exhibited the feature of amorphous carbon when W concentration of the films was less than 4.38 at.%, where the incorporated W atoms would be bonded with C atoms and resulted in the formation of WC1-x nanoparticles. The W-C:H film with 4.38 at.% W concentration showed a minimum value of residual compressive stress, a higher hardness, and better tribological properties. Beyond this W concentration range, both the residual stress and mechanical properties were deteriorated due to the growth of tungsten carbide nanoparticles in the carbon matrix.

  16. Impurity strength and impurity domain modulated frequency-dependent linear and second non-linear response properties of doped quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Nirmal Kumar [Department of Physics, Suri Vidyasagar College, Suri, Birbhum 731 101, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2011-08-15

    We explore the pattern of frequency-dependent linear and second non-linear optical responses of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots harmonically confined in two dimensions. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes a Gaussian form and it is doped into an on-center location. The quantum dot is subject to a periodically oscillating external electric field. For some fixed values of transverse magnetic field strength ({omega}{sub c}) and harmonic confinement potential ({omega}{sub 0}), the influence of impurity strength (V{sub 0}) and impurity domain ({xi}) on the diagonal components of the frequency-dependent linear ({alpha}{sub xx} and {alpha}{sub yy}) and second non-linear ({gamma}{sub xxxx} and {gamma}{sub yyyy}) responses of the dot are computed through a linear variational route. The investigations reveal that the optical responses undergo enhancement with increase in both V{sub 0} and {xi} values. However, in the limitingly small dopant strength regime one observes a drop in the optical responses with increase in V{sub 0}. A time-average rate of energy transfer to the system is often invoked to support the findings. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. On the asymptotic preserving property of the unified gas kinetic scheme for the diffusion limit of linear kinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieussens, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) of K. Xu et al. (2010) [37], originally developed for multiscale gas dynamics problems, is applied in this paper to a linear kinetic model of radiative transfer theory. While such problems exhibit purely diffusive behavior in the optically thick (or small Knudsen) regime, we prove that UGKS is still asymptotic preserving (AP) in this regime, but for the free transport regime as well. Moreover, this scheme is modified to include a time implicit discretization of the limit diffusion equation, and to correctly capture the solution in case of boundary layers. Contrary to many AP schemes, this method is based on a standard finite volume approach, it does neither use any decomposition of the solution, nor staggered grids. Several numerical tests demonstrate the properties of the scheme

  18. Application of Linear Viscoelastic Properties in Semianalytical Finite Element Method with Recursive Time Integration to Analyze Asphalt Pavement Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, asphalt pavements are considered as linear elastic materials in finite element (FE method to save computational time for engineering design. However, asphalt mixture exhibits linear viscoelasticity at small strain and low temperature. Therefore, the results derived from the elastic analysis will inevitably lead to discrepancies from reality. Currently, several FE programs have already adopted viscoelasticity, but the high hardware demands and long execution times render them suitable primarily for research purposes. Semianalytical finite element method (SAFEM was proposed to solve the abovementioned problem. The SAFEM is a three-dimensional FE algorithm that only requires a two-dimensional mesh by incorporating the Fourier series in the third dimension, which can significantly reduce the computational time. This paper describes the development of SAFEM to capture the viscoelastic property of asphalt pavements by using a recursive formulation. The formulation is verified by comparison with the commercial FE software ABAQUS. An application example is presented for simulations of creep deformation of the asphalt pavement. The investigation shows that the SAFEM is an efficient tool for pavement engineers to fast and reliably predict asphalt pavement responses; furthermore, the SAFEM provides a flexible, robust platform for the future development in the numerical simulation of asphalt pavements.

  19. Linear and nonlinear auditory response properties of interneurons in a high-order avian vocal motor nucleus during wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raksin, Jonathan N; Glaze, Christopher M; Smith, Sarah; Schmidt, Marc F

    2012-04-01

    Motor-related forebrain areas in higher vertebrates also show responses to passively presented sensory stimuli. However, sensory tuning properties in these areas, especially during wakefulness, and their relation to perception, are poorly understood. In the avian song system, HVC (proper name) is a vocal-motor structure with auditory responses well defined under anesthesia but poorly characterized during wakefulness. We used a large set of stimuli including the bird's own song (BOS) and many conspecific songs (CON) to characterize auditory tuning properties in putative interneurons (HVC(IN)) during wakefulness. Our findings suggest that HVC contains a diversity of responses that vary in overall excitability to auditory stimuli, as well as bias in spike rate increases to BOS over CON. We used statistical tests to classify cells in order to further probe auditory responses, yielding one-third of neurons that were either unresponsive or suppressed and two-thirds with excitatory responses to one or more stimuli. A subset of excitatory neurons were tuned exclusively to BOS and showed very low linearity as measured by spectrotemporal receptive field analysis (STRF). The remaining excitatory neurons responded well to CON stimuli, although many cells still expressed a bias toward BOS. These findings suggest the concurrent presence of a nonlinear and a linear component to responses in HVC, even within the same neuron. These characteristics are consistent with perceptual deficits in distinguishing BOS from CON stimuli following lesions of HVC and other song nuclei and suggest mirror neuronlike qualities in which "self" (here BOS) is used as a referent to judge "other" (here CON).

  20. Broadband demonstrations of true-time delay using linear sideband chirped programming and optical coherent transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, R.R.; Barber, Z.W.; Fischer, J.A.; Tian, M.; Babbitt, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Linear sideband chirped (LSC) programming is introduced as a means of configuring spatial-spectral holographic gratings for optical coherent transient processors. Similar to linear frequency chirped programming, LSC programming allows the use of broadband integrated electro-optic phase modulators to produce chirps instead of using elaborate broadband chirped lasers. This approach has several advantages including the ability to use a stabilized laser for the optical carrier as well as stable, reproducible chirped optical signals when the modulator is driven digitally. Using LSC programming, we experimentally demonstrate broadband true-time delay as a proof of principle for the optical control of phased array radars. Here both cw phase modulated and binary phase shift keyed probe signals are true-time delayed with bandwidths of 1 GHz and delay resolutions better than 60 ps