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Sample records for line ruby filters

  1. On-line filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, C.

    1978-01-01

    Present day electronic detectors used in high energy physics make it possible to obtain high event rates and it is likely that future experiments will face even higher data rates than at present. The complexity of the apparatus increases very rapidly with time and also the criteria for selecting desired events become more and more complex. So complex in fact that the fast trigger system cannot be designed to fully cope with it. The interesting events become thus contaminated with multitudes of uninteresting ones. To distinguish the 'good' events from the often overwhelming background of other events one has to resort to computing techniques. Normally this selection is made in the first part of the analysis of the events, analysis normally performed on a powerful scientific computer. This implies however that many uninteresting or background events have to be recorded during the experiment for subsequent analysis. A number of undesired consequences result; and these constitute a sufficient reason for trying to perform the selection at an earlier stage, in fact ideally before the events are recorded on magnetic tape. This early selection is called 'on-line filtering' and it is the topic of the present lectures. (Auth.)

  2. Timely Rubies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie

    2018-01-01

    Based on anthropological fieldwork in Greenland, I explore how rubies as a natural resource create and organise forms of temporality in order for the stones to appear as a valuable good. I suggest that a circular argument is at play with regard to the Greenlandic rubies, namely that time creates ...... embedded in and generated through social practices. Accordingly, time in relation to mining does not so much present a philosophical challenge, but is rather just a “thing” that happens to be good to think a Greenlandic resource landscape through – as are rubies.......Based on anthropological fieldwork in Greenland, I explore how rubies as a natural resource create and organise forms of temporality in order for the stones to appear as a valuable good. I suggest that a circular argument is at play with regard to the Greenlandic rubies, namely that time creates...... valuable rubies and rubies create time. I further argue that this interdependence is an important self-fulfilling driver in creating a viable mining industry for gemstones in Greenland. A focus on temporality enables me to engage in this circularity and thereby explore one component in the work of making...

  3. Stress measurements in a magnesium oxide single crystal under constant load using the R-line shifts in a ruby sphere on a Raman microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banini, G.K.

    2005-01-01

    Using a Renishaw Raman Microscope and a constructed mechanical apparatus, a novel method for determining the stress in the contact region between a ruby indenter and an MgO crystal under static contact lead is described. The experiment was performed under normal laboratory conditions at the Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK. Manual focusing using the white light on the microscope was made onto the ruby sphere and by replacing the light with a HeNe laser, luminescence frequency in the R-lines of chromium ions at the relaxed (unstressed) positions could be determined. The MgO crystal was then quasi-statically loaded by the ruby sphere, while in the mechanical loading apparatus, and placed on the Renishaw. Manual focusing onto the ruby sphere was made through the MgO and the shift in R-lines from the relaxed positions determined. Literature values of stress coefficients in ruby were used to convert the shifts determined in the R-lines into hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stresses at precise intervals across the contact region. It was revealed that large stresses hydrostatic occur in the contact region during quasi-static loading and these can be quantified for transparent solids (au)

  4. PSpice for filters and transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this book, PSpice for Filters and Transmission Lines, we examine a range of active and passive filters where each design is simulated using the latest Cadence Orcad V10.5 PSpice capture software. These filters cannot match the very high order digital signal processing (DSP) filters considered in PSpice for Digital Signal Processing, but nevertheless these filters have many uses. The active filters considered were designed using Butterworth and Chebychev approximation loss functions rather than using the 'cookbook approach' so that the final design will meet a given specification in an exact

  5. Truncation correction for oblique filtering lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Stefan; Hornegger, Joachim; Lauritsch, Guenter; Dennerlein, Frank; Noo, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    State-of-the-art filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms often define the filtering operation to be performed along oblique filtering lines in the detector. A limited scan field of view leads to the truncation of those filtering lines, which causes artifacts in the final reconstructed volume. In contrast to the case where filtering is performed solely along the detector rows, no methods are available for the case of oblique filtering lines. In this work, the authors present two novel truncation correction methods which effectively handle data truncation in this case. Method 1 (basic approach) handles data truncation in two successive preprocessing steps by applying a hybrid data extrapolation method, which is a combination of a water cylinder extrapolation and a Gaussian extrapolation. It is independent of any specific reconstruction algorithm. Method 2 (kink approach) uses similar concepts for data extrapolation as the basic approach but needs to be integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. Experiments are presented from simulated data of the FORBILD head phantom, acquired along a partial-circle-plus-arc trajectory. The theoretically exact M-line algorithm is used for reconstruction. Although the discussion is focused on theoretically exact algorithms, the proposed truncation correction methods can be applied to any FBP algorithm that exposes oblique filtering lines.

  6. The Ruby programming language

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    2008-01-01

    This book begins with a quick-start tutorial to the language, and then explains the language in detail from the bottom up: from lexical and syntactic structure to datatypes to expressions and statements and on through methods, blocks, lambdas, closures, classes and modules. The book also includes a long and thorough introduction to the rich API of the Ruby platform, demonstrating -- with heavily-commented example code -- Ruby's facilities for text processing, numeric manipulation, collections, input/output, networking, and concurrency. An entire chapter is devoted to Ruby's metaprogramming capabilities. The Ruby Programming Language documents the Ruby language definitively but without the formality of a language specification. It is written for experienced programmers who are new to Ruby, and for current Ruby programmers who want to challenge their understanding and increase their mastery of the language.

  7. Superconducting delay lines and chirp filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer, G.J.; Kratz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin films are now good enough to realize certain devices, particularly passive analog broadband devices requiring only a single layer of high quality material. This is especially true for long delay lines and related structures, e. g. chirp filters, where low loss and dispersion result in large usable bandwidths. The availability of these devices may hasten the commercialization of the high temperature superconductors, because they take full advantage of their unique properties. (orig.)

  8. DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.

    2005-01-01

    Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter...... is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned Le filter and a small-rated power active filter, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. Thus the required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone...... active filter. Simulation and experimental results obtained in laboratory confirmed the validity and effectiveness of the control....

  9. Ruby under a microscope learning Ruby internals through experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shaughnessy, Pat

    2013-01-01

    How Ruby Works Under the HoodRuby is a powerful programming language with a focus on simplicity, but beneath its elegant syntax it performs countless unseen tasks.Ruby Under a Microscope gives you a hands-on look at Ruby's core, using extensive diagrams and thorough explanations to show you how Ruby is implemented (no C skills required). Author Pat Shaughnessy takes a scientific approach, laying out a series of experiments with Ruby code to take you behind the scenes of how programming languages work. You'll even find information on JRuby and Rubinius (two alternative implementations of Ruby),

  10. BioRuby: bioinformatics software for the Ruby programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Naohisa; Prins, Pjotr; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Bonnal, Raoul; Aerts, Jan; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2010-10-15

    The BioRuby software toolkit contains a comprehensive set of free development tools and libraries for bioinformatics and molecular biology, written in the Ruby programming language. BioRuby has components for sequence analysis, pathway analysis, protein modelling and phylogenetic analysis; it supports many widely used data formats and provides easy access to databases, external programs and public web services, including BLAST, KEGG, GenBank, MEDLINE and GO. BioRuby comes with a tutorial, documentation and an interactive environment, which can be used in the shell, and in the web browser. BioRuby is free and open source software, made available under the Ruby license. BioRuby runs on all platforms that support Ruby, including Linux, Mac OS X and Windows. And, with JRuby, BioRuby runs on the Java Virtual Machine. The source code is available from http://www.bioruby.org/. katayama@bioruby.org

  11. Remembering Ruby Special monograph edition: Remembering Ruby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Johnson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Remembering Ruby’ is a tribute to Doctor Ruby Langford Ginibi, a remarkable woman and an important Australian writer. Winner of numerous awards for her contribution to literature, as well as to Australian culture, Ruby was an Aboriginal Elder of the Bundjalung nation and a tireless campaigner for the rights of her people. Ruby’s writing is passionate, sincere and heart-felt, as well as extraordinarily funny and articulate. She knew that getting people to listen to her story would be fundamental to naming the hidden history of Indigenous Australia and to changing cultural perceptions in a broader context. As an elder she took on the complex and demanding role of ‘edumacation’, as she called it, and her representations of life and culture continue to provide important reflections, from an Indigenous perspective, on the effects of ignorance, racism and colonisation in an Australian context. As Aboriginal mother, aunty, teacher and scholar her writing represents a particular Australian experience for a readership of people interested in human rights and equality the world over. This monograph, in honouring Ruby Langford Ginibi, is the written expression of an ongoing dialogue between the two authors about their experiences living in Australia and the way that Ruby has interconnected with us and influenced our experiences of growing up in an Australian cultural context. It also brings into focus the many ways that Ruby Langford Ginibi’s writing has been central to challenging and changing prevailing perspectives on the lives of Indigenous people over the last twenty-five years. An excellent communicator with a wicked sense of humour, Ruby’s tireless telling of the truth about the impacts of invasion on Indigenous people makes her an important cultural ambassador for all Australians. Ruby’s totem, the Willy Wagtail, is connected to being a messenger for her people and in writing ‘Remembering Ruby’ we aim to contribute to keeping

  12. Comb-Line Filter with Coupling Capacitor in Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kitamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comb-line filter with a coupling capacitor in the ground plane is proposed. The filter consists of two quarter-wavelength microstrip resonators. A coupling capacitor is inserted into the ground plane in order to build strong coupling locally along the resonators. The filtering characteristics are investigated through numerical simulations as well as experiments. Filtering characteristics that have attenuation poles at both sides of the passband are obtained. The input susceptances of even and odd modes and coupling coefficients are discussed. The filters using stepped impedance resonators (SIRs are also discussed, and the effects of the coupling capacitor for an SIR structure are shown.

  13. Rubis on the move; Progression de Rubis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    Purchase in June of IPEM'S remnant parts (50%) in Italy, acquisition today of an Italian marketer (30,000 t per year), a distribution bought in Madagascar, the upcoming installation of 3 large mounted tanks at Jorf Lasfar (Morocco), an impressive growth of its GAZ'L automotive LP Gas network in commercial centers in France, a good growth in mini-bulk and creation of a 'Customer Care Center' by Vitogaz's headquarters. Such are the achievements announced by the Rubis group, along with the presentation of its good results for the first half of the year. (authors)

  14. Kalman filter estimation of RLC parameters for UMP transmission line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Amin Siti Nur Aishah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the development of Kalman filter that allows evaluation in the estimation of resistance (R, inductance (L, and capacitance (C values for Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP short transmission line. To overcome the weaknesses of existing system such as power losses in the transmission line, Kalman Filter can be a better solution to estimate the parameters. The aim of this paper is to estimate RLC values by using Kalman filter that in the end can increase the system efficiency in UMP. In this research, matlab simulink model is developed to analyse the UMP short transmission line by considering different noise conditions to reprint certain unknown parameters which are difficult to predict. The data is then used for comparison purposes between calculated and estimated values. The results have illustrated that the Kalman Filter estimate accurately the RLC parameters with less error. The comparison of accuracy between Kalman Filter and Least Square method is also presented to evaluate their performances.

  15. Instant RubyMine assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Get the job done and learn as you go. A practical guide comprising of easy-to-follow recipes which provide concise and clear steps to help you enter the world of RubyMine.Instant RubyMine is ideal for you, if you are new to RubyMine or well acquainted with the technology. All you need is basic knowledge of writing in Ruby or Ruby on Rails.

  16. Detecting Weak Spectral Lines in Interferometric Data through Matched Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean M.; Walsh, Catherine; Czekala, Ian; Huang, Jane; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.

    2018-04-01

    Modern radio interferometers enable observations of spectral lines with unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. In spite of these technical advances, many lines of interest are still at best weakly detected and therefore necessitate detection and analysis techniques specialized for the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) regime. Matched filters can leverage knowledge of the source structure and kinematics to increase sensitivity of spectral line observations. Application of the filter in the native Fourier domain improves S/N while simultaneously avoiding the computational cost and ambiguities associated with imaging, making matched filtering a fast and robust method for weak spectral line detection. We demonstrate how an approximate matched filter can be constructed from a previously observed line or from a model of the source, and we show how this filter can be used to robustly infer a detection significance for weak spectral lines. When applied to ALMA Cycle 2 observations of CH3OH in the protoplanetary disk around TW Hya, the technique yields a ≈53% S/N boost over aperture-based spectral extraction methods, and we show that an even higher boost will be achieved for observations at higher spatial resolution. A Python-based open-source implementation of this technique is available under the MIT license at http://github.com/AstroChem/VISIBLE.

  17. Solids loading evaluation for HB-line scrap recovery filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The HB-Line Scrap Recovery facility uses wire screen filters to remove solids from plutonium-containing solutions transferred from the slab tank dissolvers. At times, the accumulation of solids is large enough to cause blinding (i.e., pluggage) of the filters. If the solids contain undissolved plutonium, significant accumulation of fissile material could impact operations. To address this potential issue, experiments were performed to define the minimum solids required to completely blind a filter. The solids loading experiments were performed by arranging 25- and 10-microm HB-Line filters in series to simulate the equipment in the scrap recovery process. Separate tests were performed using coarse and fine glass frit and cerium oxide powder suspended in 35 wt% sodium nitrate solution using a small turbine mixer. The solution and solids were transferred from a reservoir through the filter housings by vacuum. In each case, the 25-microm filter blinded first and was full of wet cake. After drying and accounting for the sodium nitrate in the filter cake, the following results were obtained. The results of the solids loading tests demonstrated that at least 800 g of solids accumulated in the filter housing before flow stopped. The actual amount of collected material was dependent upon the physical properties of the solids such as density and particle size. The mass of solids collected by the blinded 25-microm filter increased when successively finer solids were used in the experiments. Based on these results, one should anticipate that filters in the HB-Line Scrap Recovery Facility have the potential to collect similar quantities of material before transfer of solution from the dissolvers is severely impacted

  18. MacRuby Ruby and Cocoa on OS X

    CERN Document Server

    Aimonetti, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Want to build native Mac OS X applications with a sleek, developer-friendly alternative to Objective-C? MacRuby is an ideal choice. This in-depth guide shows you how Apple's implementation of Ruby gives you access to all the features available to Objective-C programmers. You'll get clear, detailed explanations of MacRuby, including quick programming techniques such as prototyping. Perfect for programmers at any level, this book is packed with code samples and complete project examples. If you use Ruby, you can tap your skills to take advantage of Interface Builder, Cocoa libraries, the Objec

  19. Ruby in a nutshell a desktop quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Yukihiro

    2002-01-01

    Ruby is an absolutely pure object-oriented scripting language written in C and designed with Perl and Python capabilities in mind. While its roots are in Japan, Ruby is slowly but surely gaining ground in the US. The goal of Yukihiro Matsumoto, creator of Ruby and author of this book, is to incorporate the strengths of languages like Perl, Python, Lisp and Smalltalk. Ruby is a genuine attempt to combine the best of everything in the scripting world. Since 1993, Ruby mailing lists have been established, Web pages have formed, and a community has grown around it. The language itself is very good at text processing and is notable for its broad object orientation. Ruby is portable and runs under GNU/Linux (and other Unices) as well as DOS, MS Windows and Mac. With Ruby in a Nutshell, Matsumoto offers a practical reference to the features of this new language including the command-line options, syntax, built-in variables, functions, and many commonly used classes and modules. This guide covers the current stable ...

  20. Ruby on Rails for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd

    2007-01-01

    Quickly create Web sites with this poweful tool Use this free and easy programming language for e-commerce sites and blogs If you need to build Web and database applications quickly but you don''t dream in computer code, take heart! Ruby on Rails was created for you, and this book will have you up and running in no time. The Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework let you create full-featured Web applications fast. It''s even fun! Discover how toInstall and run Ruby and RailsUse the RadRails IDECreate a blog with RubyConnect your Web site to a databaseBuild a shopping cartExplore Ruby'

  1. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter nonbiologic...

  2. Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan; Bourderionnet, Jerome; Lloret, Juan; Combrié, Sylvain; Gasulla, Ivana; Xavier, Stephane; Sales, Salvador; Colman, Pierre; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Dolfi, Daniel; Capmany, José; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    The availability of a tunable delay line with a chip-size footprint is a crucial step towards the full implementation of integrated microwave photonic signal processors. Achieving a large and tunable group delay on a millimetre-sized chip is not trivial. Slow light concepts are an appropriate solution, if propagation losses are kept acceptable. Here we use a low-loss 1.5 mm-long photonic crystal waveguide to demonstrate both notch and band-pass microwave filters that can be tuned over the 0-50-GHz spectral band. The waveguide is capable of generating a controllable delay with limited signal attenuation (total insertion loss below 10 dB when the delay is below 70 ps) and degradation. Owing to the very small footprint of the delay line, a fully integrated device is feasible, also featuring more complex and elaborate filter functions.

  3. Edge and line enhancement by adaptive lattice filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Digitized images have been two-dimensionally transformed to the Haar sequency domain. High-sequency boosting was performed and the inverse Haar two-dimensional transform applied. The resulting image was then raster-scanned with a continuously adaptive lattice filter. This procedure was applied to a simple image of a photographic step tablet and a complex scene. All of the lines of the step tablet were well defined over the whole dynamic range. Useful definition of lines in the complex scene was obtained

  4. Hello Ruby adventures in coding

    CERN Document Server

    Liukas, Linda

    2015-01-01

    "Code is the 21st century literacy and the need for people to speak the ABCs of Programming is imminent." --Linda Liukas Meet Ruby--a small girl with a huge imagination. In Ruby's world anything is possible if you put your mind to it. When her dad asks her to find five hidden gems Ruby is determined to solve the puzzle with the help of her new friends, including the Wise Snow Leopard, the Friendly Foxes, and the Messy Robots. As Ruby stomps around her world kids will be introduced to the basic concepts behind coding and programming through storytelling. Learn how to break big problems into small problems, repeat tasks, look for patterns, create step-by-step plans, and think outside the box. With hands-on activities included in every chapter, future coders will be thrilled to put their own imaginations to work.

  5. Graphene valley pseudospin filter using an extended line defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunlycke, Daniel; White, Carter

    2011-03-01

    Although graphene exhibits excellent electron and thermal transport properties, it does not have an intrinsic band gap, required to use graphene as a replacement material for silicon and other semiconductors in conventional electronics. The band structure of graphene with its two cones near the Fermi level, however, offers opportunities to develop non-traditional applications. One such avenue is to exploit the valley degeneracy in graphene to develop valleytronics. A central component in valleytronics is the valley filter, just as the spin filter is central in spintronics. Herein, we present a two-dimensional valley filter based on scattering of electrons and holes off a recently observed extended line defect [Nat. Nanotech.5, 326 (2010)] within graphene. The transmission probability depends strongly on the valley pseudospin and the angle of incidence of the incident quasiparticles. Quasiparticles arriving at the line defect at a high angle of incidence lead to a valley polarization of the transmitted beam that is near 100 percent. This work was supported by ONR, directly and through NRL.

  6. Ion beam analysis of rubies and their simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juncomma, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Bootkul, D. [Department of General Science (Gems and Jewelry), Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Tippawan, U., E-mail: beary1001@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-07-15

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a set of well known powerful analytical techniques which use energetic particle beam as a probe. Among them, two techniques are suitable for gemological analysis, i.e., Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) and Ionoluminescence (IL). We combine these two techniques for the investigations of rubies and their simulants. The main objective is to find a reference fingerprint of these gemstones. The data are collected from several natural rubies, synthetic rubies, red spinels, almandine garnets and rubellite which very much resemble and are difficult to distinguish with the gemologist loupe. From our measurements, due to their different crystal structures and compositions, can be clearly distinguished by the IL and PIXE techniques. The results show that the PIXE spectra consist of a few dominant lines of the host matrix elements of each gemstone and some weaker lines due to trace elements of transition metals. PIXE can easily differentiate rubies from other stones by evaluating their chemical compositions. It is noticed that synthetic rubies generally contain fewer impurities, lower iron and higher chromium than the natural ones. Moreover, the IL spectrum of ruby is unique and different from those of others stones. The typical spectrum of ruby is centered at 694 nm, with small sidebands that can be ascribed to a Cr{sup 3+} emission spectrum which is dominated by an R-line at the extreme red end of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although the spectrum of synthetic ruby is centered at the same wavelength, the peak is stronger due to higher concentration of Cr and lower concentration of Fe than for natural rubies. For spinel, the IL spectrum shows strong deformation where the R-line is split due to the presence of MgO. For rubellite, the peak center is shifted to 692 nm which might be caused by the replacement of Mn{sup 3+} at the Al{sup 3+} site of the host structure. It is noticed that almandine garnet is not luminescent due

  7. Rubis: an international strategy; Rubis: une strategie internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In less than 4 years, the Rubis group moved from a role of a regional LPG distributor in North-Eastern France to a multinational company working in Europe, in the Maghreb and along the African East Coast. After a first acquisition in Morocco in 1997 with the setup of Lasfargaz (see article on its mounded storage in this issue), and following the take-over in 1998 and 1999 of IPEM in Italy, the group reinforces its positions in the Peninsula by acquiring Autogaz Meridionale (a marketer representing some 61,000 t/yr). Thus, Italy becomes the first development pole for Rubis. Meanwhile, the group is launching its activities in Madagascar, while stepping ahead in France. Overall, the Rubis group will sell some 500 000 t in 2000. (authors)

  8. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator...

  9. WE-DE-201-10: Pitfalls When Using Ruby as An Inorganic Scintillator Detector for Ir-192 Brachytherapy Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertzscher, G; Beddar, S [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study the promising potential of inorganic scintillator detectors (ISDs) and investigate various unwanted luminescence properties which may compromise their accuracy. Methods: The ISDs were comprised of a ruby crystal coupled to a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) fiber-optic cable and a charged coupled device camera. A new type of ISD was manufactured and included a long-pass filter that was sandwiched between the crystal and the fiber-optic cable. The purpose of the filter was to suppress the Cerenkov and fluorescence background light induced in the PMMA (the stem signal) from striking the ruby crystal, generating unwanted ruby excitation. A variety of experiments were performed to characterize the ruby based ISDs. The relative contribution of the induced ruby signal and the stem signal were quantified while exposing the detector and a bare fiber-optic cable to a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT) source, respectively. The unwanted ruby excitation was quantified while irradiating the fiber-optic cable with the detector volume shielded. Other experiments addressed time-dependent luminescence properties and a comparison to other commonly used organic scintillator detectors (BCF-12, BCF-60). Results: When the BT source dwelled 0.5 cm away from the fiber-optic cable, the unwanted ruby excitation amounted to >5% of the total signal if the source-distance from the scintillator was >7 cm. However, the unwanted excitation was suppressed to <1% if the ISD incorporated an optic filter. The stem signal was suppressed with a 20 nm band-pass filter and was <3% as long as the source-distance was <7 cm. The ruby based ISDs generated signal up to 20(40) times that of BCF-12(BCF-60). Conclusion: The study presents solutions to unwanted luminescence properties of ruby based ISDs for HDR BT. An optic filter should be sandwiched between the scintillator volume and the fiber-optic cable to prevent the stem signal to excite the ruby crystal.

  10. Power Line Interference Removal from Electrocardiogram Using a Simplified Lattice Based Adaptive IIR Notch Filter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhillon, Santpal

    2001-01-01

    ...) notch filter with a simplified adaptation algorithm for removal of power line frequency from ECG signals, The performance of this filter is better as compared to a second order infinite impulse response (IIR...

  11. Scientific legacy of Stanley Ruby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Stanley L. Ruby (1924-2004) made major contributions to Moessbauer spectroscopy and was the first to suggest the feasibility of observing the Moessbauer effect using synchrotron radiation. In this article we recall his scientific legacy that have inspired his scientific colleagues.

  12. On-Line QRS Complex Detection Using Wavelet Filtering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szilagyi, L

    2001-01-01

    ...: first a wavelet transform filtering is applied to the signal, then QRS complex localization is performed using a maximum detection and peak classification algorithm The algorithm has been tested...

  13. Maria Rubies I Garrofe (1932-1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Carme Amoros

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles educator Maria Rubies I Garrofe. Rubies was a woman committed to education and the reconstruction of her country, Spain, equipped solely with the force of her convictions and her faith in dialogue. It is difficult to separate her personal commitment from her educational, social and political commitment. From the very outset…

  14. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenkun Wu; Liyi Li; Ziyin Lin; Bo Song; Zhuo Li; Kyoung-Sik Moon; Ching-Ping Wong; Shu-Lin Bai

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The...

  15. Line filter design of parallel interleaved VSCs for high power wind energy conversion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    The Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel in a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) to match the high power rating of the modern wind turbines. The effect of the interleaved carriers on the harmonic performance of the parallel connected VSCs is analyzed in this paper...... limit. In order to achieve the desired filter performance with optimal values of the filter parameters, the use of a LC trap branch with the conventional LCL filter is proposed. The expressions for the resonant frequencies of the proposed line filter are derived and used in the design to selectively...

  16. Frequency tracking and variable bandwidth for line noise filtering without a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John W; Collinger, Jennifer L; Degenhart, Alan D; Siewiorek, Daniel P; Smailagic, Asim; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for filtering line noise using an adaptive noise canceling (ANC) technique. This method effectively eliminates the sinusoidal contamination while achieving a narrower bandwidth than typical notch filters and without relying on the availability of a noise reference signal as ANC methods normally do. A sinusoidal reference is instead digitally generated and the filter efficiently tracks the power line frequency, which drifts around a known value. The filter's learning rate is also automatically adjusted to achieve faster and more accurate convergence and to control the filter's bandwidth. In this paper the focus of the discussion and the data will be electrocorticographic (ECoG) neural signals, but the presented technique is applicable to other recordings.

  17. In-line Kevlar filters for microfiltration of transuranic-containing liquid streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, G J; Beddingfield, D H; Lieberman, J L; Curtis, J M; Ficklin, A C

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant has numerous ongoing efforts to minimize the generation of residue and waste and to improve safety and health. Spent polypropylene liquid filters held for plutonium recovery, known as "residue," or as transuranic mixed waste contribute to storage capacity problems and create radiation safety and health considerations. An in-line process-liquid filter made of Kevlar polymer fiber has been evaluated for its potential to: (1) minimize filter residue, (2) recover economically viable quantities of plutonium, (3) minimize liquid storage tank and process-stream radioactivity, and (4) reduce potential personnel radiation exposure associated with these sources. Kevlar filters were rated to less than or equal to 1 mu nominal filtration and are capable of reducing undissolved plutonium particles to more than 10 times below the economic discard limit, however produced high back-pressures and are not yet acid resistant. Kevlar filters performed independent of loaded particles serving as a sieve. Polypropylene filters removed molybdenum particles at efficiencies equal to Kevlar filters only after loading molybdenum during recirculation events. Kevlars' high-efficiency microfiltration of process-liquid streams for the removal of actinides has the potential to reduce personnel radiation exposure by a factor of 6 or greater, while simultaneously achieving a reduction in the generation of filter residue and waste by a factor of 7. Insoluble plutonium may be recoverable from Kevlar filters by incineration.

  18. Defect of focus in two-line resolution with Hanning amplitude filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasagar, D.; Bhikshamaiah, G.; Keshavulu Goud, M.; Lacha Goud, S.

    In the presence of defocusing the modified Sparrow limits of resolution for two-line objects have been investigated for a diffraction-limited coherent optical system apodized by generalized Hanning amplitude filters. These limits have been studied as a function of different parameters such as intensity ratio, the order of the filter for various amounts of apodization parameter. Results reveal that in some situations the defocusing is effective in enhancing the resolution of an optical system.

  19. Protein Adsorption to In-Line Filters of Intravenous Administration Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besheer, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Ensuring compatibility of administered therapeutic proteins with intravenous administration sets is an important regulatory requirement. A low-dose recovery during administration of low protein concentrations is among the commonly observed incompatibilities, and it is mainly due to adsorption to in-line filters. To better understand this phenomenon, we studied the adsorption of 4 different therapeutic proteins (2 IgG1s, 1 IgG4, and 1 Fc fusion protein) diluted to 0.01 mg/mL in 5% glucose (B. Braun EcoFlac; B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany) or 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl; Freeflex; Fresenius Kabi, Friedberg, Germany) solutions to 8 in-line filters (5 positively charged and 3 neutral filters made of different polymers and by different suppliers). The results show certain patterns of protein adsorption, which depend to a large extent on the dilution solution and filter material, and to a much lower extent on the proteins' biophysical properties. Investigation of the filter membranes' zeta potential showed a correlation between the observed adsorption pattern in 5% glucose solution and the filter's surface charge, with higher protein adsorption for the strongly negatively charged membranes. In 0.9% NaCl solution, the surface charges are masked, leading to different adsorption patterns. These results contribute to the general understanding of the protein adsorption to IV infusion filters and allow the design of more efficient compatibility studies. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternating current line-filter based on electrochemical capacitor utilizing template-patterned graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Liyi; Lin, Ziyin; Song, Bo; Li, Zhuo; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Wong, Ching-Ping; Bai, Shu-Lin

    2015-06-17

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely used for alternating current (ac) line-filtering. However, their bulky size is becoming more and more incompatible with the rapid development of portable electronics. Here we report a scalable process to fabricate miniaturized graphene-based ac line-filters on flexible substrates at room temperature. In this work, graphene oxide (GO) is reduced by patterned metal interdigits at room temperature and used directly as the electrode material. The as-fabricated device shows a phase angle of -75.4° at 120 Hz with a specific capacitance of 316 µF/cm(2) and a RC time constant of 0.35 ms. In addition, it retains 97.2% of the initial capacitance after 10000 charge/discharge cycles. These outstanding performance characteristics of our device demonstrate its promising to replace the conventional AECs for ac line filtering.

  1. On-line filtering at the CERN-ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frehse, H.

    1981-01-01

    During the last years it has become quite evident that one should aim at trigger systems with high selectivity in order to improve the purity of data and simultaneously remove load from the off-line processing. At the CERN ISR typical pp interaction rates are in the order of 1-3 MHz. Therefore experiments studying low cross section processes need trigger systems which provide reduction factors in the order of 10 5 to avoid dead time losses. The use of programmable devices, allowing for flexible and sophisticated decision schemes, enables experiments to gain a decisive factor in rejection after pre-triggering with more conventional devices. An overview of the different methods employed and their performance is given. (orig.)

  2. A Fixed-Lag Kalman Smoother to Filter Power Line Interference in Electrocardiogram Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, G J J; Vullings, R; Schmitt, L; Van Laar, J O E H; Bergmans, J W M

    2017-08-01

    Filtering power line interference (PLI) from electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings can lead to significant distortions of the ECG and mask clinically relevant features in ECG waveform morphology. The objective of this study is to filter PLI from ECG recordings with minimal distortion of the ECG waveform. In this paper, we propose a fixed-lag Kalman smoother with adaptive noise estimation. The performance of this Kalman smoother in filtering PLI is compared to that of a fixed-bandwidth notch filter and several adaptive PLI filters that have been proposed in the literature. To evaluate the performance, we corrupted clean neonatal ECG recordings with various simulated PLI. Furthermore, examples are shown of filtering real PLI from an adult and a fetal ECG recording. The fixed-lag Kalman smoother outperforms other PLI filters in terms of step response settling time (improvements that range from 0.1 to 1 s) and signal-to-noise ratio (improvements that range from 17 to 23 dB). Our fixed-lag Kalman smoother can be used for semi real-time applications with a limited delay of 0.4 s. The fixed-lag Kalman smoother presented in this study outperforms other methods for filtering PLI and leads to minimal distortion of the ECG waveform.

  3. Aesthetic value improvement of the ruby stone using heat treatment and its synergetic surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, Barada K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural ruby is heated at high temperature with metal oxide additives (PbO and ZnO) to enhance its aesthetic value. • Changes in surface characteristics of these natural rubies before and after heat treatment are compared. • The R-line peak splitting in the PL spectra and the contrary shift of the Al 2p peaks in the XPS spectra are explicated. - Abstract: The surface behavior of the natural ruby stones before and after heat treatment with metal oxide additives like: zinc oxide (ZnO) and lead oxide (PbO) have been studied. The surface appearance of the ruby stones processed with the metal oxides changed whereas the bulk densities of the stones remained within the range of 3.9–4.0 g/cm 3 . The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxides on the surface of the ruby have been examined using scanning electron microscopy. The chemical compositions based on the XPS survey scans are in good agreement with the expected composition. The phase and crystallinity of the ruby stones original and heat-treated were obtained from their X-ray diffraction patterns. The change in peak separation between R 1 and R 2 – peaks in photoluminescence spectra and the contrary binding energy shift of the Al 2p peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectra have been explicated. Moreover, in this work we describe the change in surface chemical and physical characteristics of the ruby stone before and after heat treatment

  4. Control of motion stability of the line tracer robot using fuzzy logic and kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelan, M. S.; Tulus; Zamzami, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    Setting of motion and balance line tracer robot two wheels is actually a combination of a two-wheeled robot balance concept and the concept of line follower robot. The main objective of this research is to maintain the robot in an upright and can move to follow the line of the Wizard while maintaining balance. In this study the motion balance system on line tracer robot by considering the presence of a noise, so that it takes the estimator is used to mengestimasi the line tracer robot motion. The estimation is done by the method of Kalman Filter and the combination of Fuzzy logic-Fuzzy Kalman Filter called Kalman Filter, as well as optimal smooting. Based on the results of the study, the value of the output of the fuzzy results obtained from the sensor input value has been filtered before entering the calculation of the fuzzy. The results of the output of the fuzzy logic hasn’t been able to control dc motors are well balanced at the moment to be able to run. The results of the fuzzy logic by using membership function of triangular membership function or yet can control with good dc motor movement in order to be balanced

  5. RubyMotion iOS develoment essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nalwaya, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step book that builds on your knowledge by adding to an example app over the course of each chapter. Each topic uses example code that can be compiled and tested to show how things work practically instead of just telling you the theory. Complicated tasks are broken down into easy to follow steps with clear explanations of what each line of code is doing.Whether you are a novice to iOS development or looking for a simpler alternative to Objective-C; with RubyMotion iOS Development Essentials, you will become a pro at writing great iOS apps

  6. Design of Chebychev’s Low Pass Filters Using Nonuniform Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Attamimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transmission lines are utilized in many applications to convey energy as well as information. Nonuniform transmission lines (NTLs are obtained through variation of the characteristic quantities along the axial direction. Such NTLs can be used to design network elements, like matching circuits, delay equalizers, filters, VLSI interconnections, etc. In this work, NTLs were analyzed with a numerical method based on the implementation of method of moment. In order to approximate the voltage and current distribution along the transmission line, a sum of basis functions with unknown amplitudes was introduced. As basis function, a constant function was used. In this work, we observed several cases such as lossless and lossy uniform transmission lines with matching and arbitrary load. These cases verified the algorithm developed in this work. The second example consists of nonuniform transmission lines in the form of abruptly changing transmission lines. This structure was used to design a Chebychev’s low pass filter. The calculated reflection and transmission factors of the filters showed some coincidences with the measurements.

  7. Instant RubyMotion app development

    CERN Document Server

    Laborde, Gant

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a practical, task-based, step-by-step tutorial that will get you started with using RubyMotion to quickly and efficiently write iOS apps.To make the most of this book, you should understand the basics of programming concepts and have a basic understanding of a language similar to Ruby. If you are an Objective-C programmer, you'll learn the advantages of RubyMotion which can access the benefits of Cocoapods, but takes everything a st

  8. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Hiroyuki; Aerts, Jan; Katayama, Toshiaki; Bonnal, Raoul J P; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro

    2012-09-21

    The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser) and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API) in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast.The API uses the bin index-if available-when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby). Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/.

  9. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser) and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API) in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. Results The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast. The API uses the bin index—if available—when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby). Conclusions Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/. PMID:22994508

  10. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. Results The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast. The API uses the bin index—if available—when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby. Conclusions Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/.

  11. Practical reporting with Ruby and Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Berube, David

    2008-01-01

    Business intelligence and real time reporting mechanisms play a major role in any of today s forward looking business plans. With many of these solutions being moved to the Web, the popular Rails framework and its underlying Ruby language are playing a major role alongside web services in building the reporting solutions of tomorrow. Practical Reporting with Ruby and Rails is the first book to comprehensively introduce this popular framework, guiding readers through a wide ranging array of features. Note this isn t a staid guide to generating traditional reports, but rather it shows you how th

  12. Application of Micropore Filter Technology: Exploring the Blood Flow Path in Arterial-Line Filters and Its Effect on Bubble Trapping Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Daniel P

    2017-03-01

    Conventional arterial-line filters commonly use a large volume circular shaped housing, a wetted micropore screen, and a purge port to trap, separate, and remove gas bubbles from extracorporeal blood flow. Focusing on the bubble trapping function, this work attempts to explore how the filter housing shape and its resulting blood flow path affect the clinical application of arterial-line filters in terms of gross air handling. A video camera was used in a wet-lab setting to record observations made during gross air-bolus injections in three different radially designed filters using a 30-70% glycerol-saline mixture flowing at 4.5 L/min. Two of the filters both had inlet ports attached near the filter-housing top with bottom oriented outlet ports at the bottom, whereas the third filter had its inlet and outlet ports both located at the bottom of the filter housing. The two filters with top-in bottom-out fluid paths were shown to direct the incoming flow downward as it passed through the filter, placing the forces of buoyancy and viscous drag in opposition to each other. This contrasted with the third filter's bottom-in bottom-out fluid path, which was shown to direct the incoming flow upward so that the forces of buoyancy and viscous drag work together. The direction of the blood flow path through a filter may be important to the application of arterial-line filter technology as it helps determine how the forces of buoyancy and flow are aligned with one another.

  13. A Nonmonotone Line Search Filter Algorithm for the System of Nonlinear Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method based on the line search filter method with the nonmonotone strategy to solve the system of nonlinear equations. The equations are divided into two groups; some equations are treated as constraints and the others act as the objective function, and the two groups are just updated at the iterations where it is needed indeed. We employ the nonmonotone idea to the sufficient reduction conditions and filter technique which leads to a flexibility and acceptance behavior comparable to monotone methods. The new algorithm is shown to be globally convergent and numerical experiments demonstrate its effectiveness.

  14. Teaching Financial Literacy with Max and Ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Natalya; Ferguson, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Teaching financial literacy is important at all stages of life, but is often neglected with elementary students. In this article, the authors describe a strategy for teaching financial literacy using the books about Max and Ruby by Rosemary Wells. These books can help introduce the five key concepts of financial literacy: scarcity, exchange,…

  15. X-ray differential phase-contrast tomographic reconstruction with a phase line integral retrieval filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jian; Hu, Xinhua; Li, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We report an alternative reconstruction technique for x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT). This approach is based on a new phase line integral projection retrieval filter, which is rooted in the derivative property of the Fourier transform and counteracts the differential nature of the DPC-CT projections. It first retrieves the phase line integral from the DPC-CT projections. Then the standard filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithms popular in x-ray absorption-contrast CT are directly applied to the retrieved phase line integrals to reconstruct the DPC-CT images. Compared with the conventional DPC-CT reconstruction algorithms, the proposed method removes the Hilbert imaginary filter and allows for the direct use of absorption-contrast FBP algorithms. Consequently, FBP-oriented image processing techniques and reconstruction acceleration softwares that have already been successfully used in absorption-contrast CT can be directly adopted to improve the DPC-CT image quality and speed up the reconstruction

  16. Modelling and simulation of lamp-pumped thallium atomic line filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molisch, A.F.

    1994-06-01

    Atomic Line Filters (ALFs) are ultra-narrow-band, wide-field-of-view optical filters for the detection of weak optical signals embedded in broadband background noise. The central component is a quartz cell filled with atomic vapor where signal photons are absorbed and subsequently re-emitted at a different wavelength. At the 'Institut fuer Nachrichtentechnik und Hochfrequenztechnik', an ALF based on Thallium (Tl) vapor, which is pumped by a Tl spectral lamp, has been under development. The aim of this thesis is to model the physical processes in this filter (especially in the vapor cell) and to make simulations in order to find the optimum design. For this purpose, a theoretical 'toolbox' is to be created, which should be capable of describing quantitatively the various physical effects. The accuracy of the simulation should be about ±10 %, i.e. about the accuracy of the available atomic data. In part I, the physics that form the basis of ALFs are briefly explained. In chapter 1, the principle of an ALF is explained, and the parameters that describe such filters are defined. In the next two chapters, atomic energy levels and atomic line shapes are described. We then summarize the data of the UV and green resonance lines of Thallium. After giving an overview over the methods of description for trapping problems, (Holstein equation, equation-of-radiative-transfer plus rate-equation, Monte Carlo simulation), we describe the (generalized) Milne theory, an approximate method which allows a description of trapping by a differential equation. In part II, we then make use of these formalisms to describe the Tl ALF mathematically. After giving a description of the whole filter system, we show the various influences on the lifetime of the metastable Tl atoms. Then the pump phase of the filter is described. In that phase, we have non-linear trapping in a 3-level system. This problem is solved by a combination of finite-difference solution of the equation of radiative

  17. An improved ultra-wideband bandpass filter design using split ring resonator with coupled microstrip line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeshkumar, Dubey Suhmita; Kumar, Manish

    2018-04-01

    This paper incorporates an improved design of Ultra Wideband Bandpass filter by using split ring resonators (SRR) along with the coupled microstrip lines. The use of split ring resonators and shunt step impedance open circuit stub enhances the stability due to transmission zeroes at the ends. The designing of filter and simulation of parameters is carried out using Ansoft's HFSS 13.0 software on RT/Duroid 6002 as a substrate with dielectric constant of 2.94. The design utilizes a frequency band from 22GHz to 29GHz. This band is reserved for Automotive Radar system and sensors as per FCC specifications. The proposed design demonstrates insertion loss less than 0.6dB and return loss better than 12dB at mid frequency i.e. 24.4GHz. The reflection coefficient shows high stability of about 12.47dB at mid frequency. The fractional bandwidth of the proposed filter is about 28.7% and size of filter design is small due to thickness of 0.127mm.

  18. Software Sub-system in Loading Automatic Test System for the Measurement of Power Line Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The loading automatic test system for measurement of power line filters are in urgent demand. So the software sub-system of the whole test system was proposed. Methods: structured the test system based on the virtual instrument framework, which consisted of lower and up computer and adopted the top down approach of design to perform the system and its modules, according to the measurement principle of the test system. Results: The software sub-system including human machine interface, data analysis and process software, expert system, communication software, control software in lower computer, etc. had been designed. Furthermore, it had been integrated into the entire test system. Conclusion: This sub-system provided a fiendly software platform for the whole test system, and had many advantages such as strong functions, high performances, low prices. It not only raises the test efficiency of EMI filters, but also renders some creativities.

  19. Design of a Balun Bandpass Filter with Asymmetrical Coupled Microstrip Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuedao; Wang, Jianpeng; Zhang, Gang; Huang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    A new microstrip coupled-line balun topology and its application to the balun bandpass filter (BPF) with a triple mode response are proposed in this paper. The involved balun structure is composed of two back-to-back quarter-wavelength (λ/4) asymmetrical coupled-line sections. Detailed design formulas based on the asymmetrical coupled-line theory are given to validate the feasibility of the balun. Besides, to obtain filtering performance simultaneously, the balun is then effectively integrated with a pair of triple mode resonators. To demonstrate the design concept of the balun BPF, a prototype operating at 2.4 GHz with the fractional bandwidth (FBW) of about 19.2 % is designed, fabricated, and measured. Results indicate that between the two balanced outputs, the amplitude imbalance is less than 0.3 dB and the phase difference is within 180°±5° inside the whole passband. Both simulated and experimental results are in good agreement.

  20. Stress determination in thermally grown alumina scales using ruby luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renusch, D.; Veal, B.W.; Koshelev, I.; Natesan, K.; Grimsditch [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hou, P.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    By exploiting the strain dependence of the ruby luminescence line, we have measured the strain in alumina scales thermally grown on Fe-Cr- Al alloys. Results are compared and found to be reasonably consistent with strains determined using x rays. Oxidation studies were carried out on alloys Fe - 5Cr - 28Al and Fe - 18Cr - 10Al (at.%). Significantly different levels of strain buildup were observed in scales on these alloys. Results on similar alloys containing a ``reactive element`` (Zr or Hf) in dilute quantity are also presented. Scales on alloys containing a reactive element (RE) can support significantly higher strains than scales on RE-free alloys. With the luminescence technique, strain relief associated with spallation thresholds is readily observed.

  1. The Atlas Experiment On-Line Monitoring And Filtering As An Example Of Real-Time Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Korcyl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ATLAS detector, recording LHC particles’ interactions, produces events with rate of40 MHz and size of 1.6 MB. The processes with new and interesting physics phenomena arevery rare, thus an efficient on-line filtering system (trigger is necessary. The asynchronouspart of that system relays on few thousands of computing nodes running the filtering software.Applying refined filtering criteria results in increase of processing times what may lead tolack of processing resources installed on CERN site. We propose extension to this part ofthe system based on submission of the real-time filtering tasks into the Grid.

  2. Narrow line-width Tm3+ doped double-clad silica fiber laser based on in-line cascade biconical tapers filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y; Zhao, J Q; Wang, W; Wang, Y Z; Gao, W

    2010-01-01

    Narrow line-width 793 nm laser diode cladding pumped Tm 3+ doped double cladding silica fiber laser with in-line four concatenated tapers filter was reported for the first time to our knowledge. These cascade tapers located 3.6 cm from the output end of the fiber laser was fabricated by heating and stretching method. The taper's transmitted power response as a function of wavelength was described by using local mode coupling theory and successive tapers filter model. The wavelength filter function of the in-line cascade tapers in a linear cavity fiber laser was demonstrated, and the experimental result agreed with these theories. The maximum output laser power was 736 mW, corresponding to single peak of laser spectrum with narrow line-width of ∼ 60 pm

  3. Ultrahigh-rate supercapacitors based on eletrochemically reduced graphene oxide for ac line-filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Kaixuan; Sun, Yiqing; Li, Chun; Yuan, Wenjing; Shi, Gaoquan

    2012-02-01

    The recent boom in multifunction portable electronic equipments requires the development of compact and miniaturized electronic circuits with high efficiencies, low costs and long lasting time. For the operation of most line-powered electronics, alternating current (ac) line-filters are used to attenuate the leftover ac ripples on direct current (dc) voltage busses. Today, aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely applied for this purpose. However, they are usually the largest components in electronic circuits. Replacing AECs by more compact capacitors will have an immense impact on future electronic devices. Here, we report a double-layer capacitor based on three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating graphene electrodes fabricated by electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (ErGO-DLC). At 120-hertz, the ErGO-DLC exhibited a phase angle of -84 degrees, a specific capacitance of 283 microfaradays per centimeter square and a resistor-capacitor (RC) time constant of 1.35 milliseconds, making it capable of replacing AECs for the application of 120-hertz filtering.

  4. Research on a Lamb Wave and Particle Filter-Based On-Line Crack Propagation Prognosis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Cai, Jian; Yang, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Prognostics and health management techniques have drawn widespread attention due to their ability to facilitate maintenance activities based on need. On-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation can offer information for optimizing operation and maintenance strategies in real-time. This paper proposes a Lamb wave-particle filter (LW-PF)-based method for on-line prognosis of fatigue crack propagation which takes advantages of the possibility of on-line monitoring to evaluate the actual crack...

  5. An inertia-free filter line-search algorithm for large-scale nonlinear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Nai-Yuan; Zavala, Victor M.

    2016-02-15

    We present a filter line-search algorithm that does not require inertia information of the linear system. This feature enables the use of a wide range of linear algebra strategies and libraries, which is essential to tackle large-scale problems on modern computing architectures. The proposed approach performs curvature tests along the search step to detect negative curvature and to trigger convexification. We prove that the approach is globally convergent and we implement the approach within a parallel interior-point framework to solve large-scale and highly nonlinear problems. Our numerical tests demonstrate that the inertia-free approach is as efficient as inertia detection via symmetric indefinite factorizations. We also demonstrate that the inertia-free approach can lead to reductions in solution time because it reduces the amount of convexification needed.

  6. From Java to Ruby things every manager should know

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    As a development team, you want to be productive. You want to write flexible, maintainable web applications. You want to use Ruby and Rails. But can you justify the move away from established platforms such as J2EE? Bruce Tate's From Java to Ruby has the answers, and it expresses them in a language that'll help persuade managers and executives who've seen it all. See when and where the switch makes sense, and see how to make it. If you're trying to adopt Ruby in your organization and need some help, this is the book for you. Based on a decision tree (a concept familiar to managers and executives,) Java to Ruby stays above the low-level technical debate to examine the real benefits and risks to adoption. Java to Ruby is packed with interviews of Ruby customers and developers, so you can see what types of projects are likely to succeed, and which ones are likely to fail. Ruby and Rails may be the answer, but first you need to be sure you're asking the right question. By addressing risk and fitness of purpose, J...

  7. Crystalline Chromium Doped Aluminum Oxide (RUBY) Use as a Luminescent Screen for Proton Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K. A.; Gassner, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    In the search for a better luminescent screen material, the authors tested pieces of mono-crystalline chromium doped aluminum oxide (more commonly known as a ruby) using a 24 GeV proton beam. Due to the large variations in beam intensity and species which are run at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), they hope to find a material which can sufficiently luminesce, is compatible in vacuum, and maintain its performance level over extended use. Results from frame grabbed video camera images using a variety of neutral density filters are presented

  8. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G.

    1999-01-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations

  9. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. E-mail: calli@culture.nl; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G

    1999-04-02

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations.

  10. Contrast of HOLZ lines in energy-filtered convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns from silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmpfuhl, G.; Krahl, D.; Uchida, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Higher-order Laue-zone (HOLZ) lines were investigated in convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns from silicon near the low-indexed zone axes [100], [110] and [111]. The visibility of these lines depends on the effective structure potentials of the reflections from the first Laue zone depending on their Debye-Waller factor. The contrast of the HOLZ lines is strongly reduced by inelastically scattered electrons. They can be excluded by an imaging Ω filter for energy losses above 2 eV. The diffraction patterns were compared with many-beam calculations. Without absorption, an excellent agreement could be achieved for the [111] and [100] zone axes, while the simulation of the [110] zone-axis pattern needed a calculation with absorption. The reason for this observation is explained in the Bloch-wave picture. Calculations with absorption, however, lead to artefacts in the intensity distribution of the [100] HOLZ pattern. In order to obtain agreement with the experiment, the Debye-Waller factor had to be modified in different ways for the different zone axes. This corresponds to a strong anisotropy of the Debye-Waller factor. To confirm this observation, the temperature dependence of the itensity distributions of the HOLZ patterns was investigated between 50 and 680 K. At room temperature, the parameter D in the Debye-Waller factor exp(-Ds 2 ) was determined as 0.13, 0.26 and 0.55 A 2 for the zone axes [100], [111] and [110], respectively. The reliability of the conclusions is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Sensitive and predictable separation of microfluidic droplets by size using in-line passive filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ruihua; Ung, W Lloyd; Heyman, John A; Weitz, David A

    2017-01-01

    Active manipulation of droplets is crucial in droplet microfluidics. However, droplet polydispersity decreases the accuracy of active manipulation. We develop a microfluidic "droplet filter" that accurately separates droplets by size. The droplet filter has a sharp size cutoff and is capable of distinguishing droplets differing in volume by 20%. A simple model explains the behavior of the droplets as they pass through the filter. We show application of the filter in improving dielectric sorting efficiency.

  12. LCL filter design for three-phase two-level power factor correction using line impedance stabilization network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents LCL filter design method for three-phase two-level power factor correction (PFC) using line impedance stabilization network (LISN). A straightforward LCL filter design along with variation in grid impedance is not simply achievable and inevitably lead to an iterative solution...... for filter. By introducing of fast power switches for PFC applications such as silicon-carbide, major current harmonics around the switching frequency drops in the region that LISN can actively provide well-defined impedance for measuring the harmonics (i.e. 9 kHz- 30MHz). Therefore, LISN can be replaced...... is derived using the current ripple behavior of converter-side inductor. The grid-side inductor is achieved as a function of LISN impedance to fulfill the grid regulation. To verify the analyses, an LCL filter is designed for a 5 kW SiC-based PFC. The simulation and experimental results support the validity...

  13. On the Origin of the Flare Emission in IRIS ’ SJI 2832 Filter:Balmer Continuum or Spectral Lines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleint, Lucia; Krucker, Säm [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Heinzel, Petr [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-10

    Continuum (“white-light,” WL) emission dominates the energetics of flares. Filter-based observations, such as the IRIS SJI 2832 filter, show WL-like brightenings during flares, but it is unclear whether the emission arises from real continuum emission or enhanced spectral lines, possibly turning into emission. The difficulty in filter-based observations, contrary to spectral observations, is to determine which processes contribute to the observed brightening during flares. Here we determine the contribution of the Balmer continuum and the spectral line emission to IRIS ’ SJI 2832 emission by analyzing the appropriate passband in simultaneous IRIS NUV spectra. We find that spectral line emission can contribute up to 100% to the observed slitjaw images (SJI) emission, that the relative contributions usually temporally vary, and that the highest SJI enhancements that are observed are most likely because of the Balmer continuum. We conclude that care should be taken when calling SJI 2832 a continuum filter during flares, because the influence of the lines on the emission can be significant.

  14. On the Origin of the Flare Emission in IRIS ’ SJI 2832 Filter:Balmer Continuum or Spectral Lines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleint, Lucia; Krucker, Säm; Heinzel, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Continuum (“white-light,” WL) emission dominates the energetics of flares. Filter-based observations, such as the IRIS SJI 2832 filter, show WL-like brightenings during flares, but it is unclear whether the emission arises from real continuum emission or enhanced spectral lines, possibly turning into emission. The difficulty in filter-based observations, contrary to spectral observations, is to determine which processes contribute to the observed brightening during flares. Here we determine the contribution of the Balmer continuum and the spectral line emission to IRIS ’ SJI 2832 emission by analyzing the appropriate passband in simultaneous IRIS NUV spectra. We find that spectral line emission can contribute up to 100% to the observed slitjaw images (SJI) emission, that the relative contributions usually temporally vary, and that the highest SJI enhancements that are observed are most likely because of the Balmer continuum. We conclude that care should be taken when calling SJI 2832 a continuum filter during flares, because the influence of the lines on the emission can be significant.

  15. Extended Kalman Filter Channel Estimation for Line-of-Sight Detection in WCDMA Mobile Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmonaem Lakhzouri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile positioning, it is very important to estimate correctly the delay between the transmitter and the receiver. When the receiver is in line-of-sight (LOS condition with the transmitter, the computation of the mobile position in two dimensions becomes straightforward. In this paper, the problem of LOS detection in WCDMA for mobile positioning is considered, together with joint estimation of the delays and channel coefficients. These are very challenging topics in multipath fading channels because LOS component is not always present, and when it is present, it might be severely affected by interfering paths spaced at less than one chip distance (closely spaced paths. The extended Kalman filter (EKF is used to estimate jointly the delays and complex channel coefficients. The decision whether the LOS component is present or not is based on statistical tests to determine the distribution of the channel coefficient corresponding to the first path. The statistical test-based techniques are practical, simple, and of low computation complexity, which is suitable for WCDMA receivers. These techniques can provide an accurate decision whether LOS component is present or not.

  16. A Narrow-Linewidth Atomic Line Filter for Free Space Quantum Key Distribution under Daytime Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin; Woolf, David; Hensley, Joel

    2016-05-01

    Quantum key distribution can provide secure optical data links using the established BB84 protocol, though solar backgrounds severely limit the performance through free space. Several approaches to reduce the solar background include time-gating the photon signal, limiting the field of view through geometrical design of the optical system, and spectral rejection using interference filters. Despite optimization of these parameters, the solar background continues to dominate under daytime atmospheric conditions. We demonstrate an improved spectral filter by replacing the interference filter (Δν ~ 50 GHz) with an atomic line filter (Δν ~ 1 GHz) based on optical rotation of linearly polarized light through a warm Rb vapor. By controlling the magnetic field and the optical depth of the vapor, a spectrally narrow region can be transmitted between crossed polarizers. We find that the transmission is more complex than a single peak and evaluate peak transmission as well as a ratio of peak transmission to average transmission of the local spectrum. We compare filters containing a natural abundance of Rb with those containing isotopically pure 87 Rb and 85 Rb. A filter providing > 95 % transmission and Δν ~ 1.1 GHz is achieved.

  17. Spectral Filtering Criteria for U-Band Test Light for In-Service Line Monitoring in Optical Fiber Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Nazuki; Izumita, Hisashi; Nakamura, Minoru

    2006-06-01

    In the fiber-to-the-home era, thousands of optical fibers will have to be accommodated in the central offices of optical access networks. To reduce maintenance costs and improve the service reliability of optical fiber networks, the authors must develop an optical fiber line testing system with a function for in-service line monitoring that uses a test light with a wavelength different from the communication light wavelength. To monitor an in-service line in an optical network, the effective rejection ratio of the test light must be taken into account. This ratio depends on the spectrum of the test light from the optical time-domain reflectometer and the rejection band of the filter in front of the optical network unit. The dependence of the effective rejection ratio as a function of the sideband suppression ratio (SBSR) and of the ratio of the rejection band to the bandwidth of the sideband noise d/D is clarified. When d/D =0.1 and the target effective rejection ratio of the filter is -40 dB, the SBSR and the filter loss of the termination cable must be -70 and -43 dB, respectively, or the SBSR must be -80 dB. When d/D service line monitoring for a 10-Gb/s transmission using a 1650-nm test light with an SBSR of -80 dB is also demonstrated.

  18. Coherent optical transients observed in rubidium atomic line filtered Doppler velocimetry experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, Mario E., E-mail: mario.fajardo@eglin.af.mil; Molek, Christopher D.; Vesely, Annamaria L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Ordnance Division, Energetic Materials Branch, AFRL/RWME, 2306 Perimeter Road, Eglin AFB, Florida 32542-5910 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    We report the first successful results from our novel Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry apparatus, along with unanticipated oscillatory signals due to coherent optical transients generated within pure Rb vapor cells. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration extension of the well-known Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) technique for constructing multi-dimensional flow velocity vector maps in aerodynamics experiments [H. Komine, U.S. Patent No. 4,919,536 (24 April 1990)]. RALF exploits the frequency dependence of pressure-broadened Rb atom optical absorptions in a heated Rb/N{sub 2} gas cell to encode the Doppler shift of reflected near-resonant (λ{sub 0} ≈ 780.24 nm) laser light onto the intensity transmitted by the cell. The present RALF apparatus combines fiber optic and free-space components and was built to determine suitable operating conditions and performance parameters for the Rb/N{sub 2} gas cells. It yields single-spot velocities of thin laser-driven-flyer test surfaces and incorporates a simultaneous Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) channel [Strand et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083108 (2006)] for validation of the RALF results, which we demonstrate here over the v = 0 to 1 km/s range. Both RALF and DGV presume the vapor cells to be simple Beer's Law optical absorbers, so we were quite surprised to observe oscillatory signals in experiments employing low pressure pure Rb vapor cells. We interpret these oscillations as interference between the Doppler shifted reflected light and the Free Induction Decay (FID) coherent optical transient produced within the pure Rb cells at the original laser frequency; this is confirmed by direct comparison of the PDV and FID signals. We attribute the different behaviors of the Rb/N{sub 2} vs. Rb gas cells to efficient dephasing of the atomic/optical coherences by Rb-N{sub 2} collisions. The minimum necessary N{sub 2} buffer gas density ≈0.3 amagat translates into a

  19. Analysis of a Kalman filter based method for on-line estimation of atmospheric dispersion parameters using radiation monitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin; Lauritzen, Bent; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A Kalman filter method is discussed for on-line estimation of radioactive release and atmospheric dispersion from a time series of off-site radiation monitoring data. The method is based on a state space approach, where a stochastic system equation describes the dynamics of the plume model...... parameters, and the observables are linked to the state variables through a static measurement equation. The method is analysed for three simple state space models using experimental data obtained at a nuclear research reactor. Compared to direct measurements of the atmospheric dispersion, the Kalman filter...... estimates are found to agree well with the measured parameters, provided that the radiation measurements are spread out in the cross-wind direction. For less optimal detector placement it proves difficult to distinguish variations in the source term and plume height; yet the Kalman filter yields consistent...

  20. STUDIES OF NGC 6720 WITH CALIBRATED HST/WFC3 EMISSION-LINE FILTER IMAGES. I. STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Henney, W. J.; Peimbert, M.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed a detailed analysis of the Ring Nebula (NGC 6720) using Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 images and derived a new three-dimensional model. Existing high spectral resolution spectra played an important supplementary role in our modeling. It is shown that the Main Ring of the nebula is an ionization-bounded irregular non-symmetric disk with a central cavity and perpendicular extended lobes pointed almost toward the observer. The faint outer halos are determined to be fossil radiation, i.e., radiation from gas ionized in an earlier stage of the nebula when it was not ionization bounded. The narrowband WFC3 filters that isolate some of the emission lines are affected by broadening on their short wavelength side and all the filters were calibrated using ground-based spectra. The filter calibration results are presented in an appendix.

  1. Fabrication of Compact Microstrip Line-Based Balun-Bandpass Filter with High Common-Mode Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Mao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of balun-bandpass filter was proposed based on the traditional coupled-line theory and folded open-loop ring resonators (OLRRs configuration. For that, a new device with both filter-type and balun-type characteristics was investigated and fabricated. Both magnetic and electric coupling structures were implemented to provide high performance balun-bandpass responses. The fabricated balun-bandpass filters had a wide bandwidth more than 200 MHz and a low insertion loss less than 2.51 dB at a center frequency of 2.6 GHz. The differences between the two outputs were below 0.4 dB in magnitude and within 180 ± 7° in phase. Also, the balun-bandpass filter presented an excellent common-mode rejection ratio over 25 dB in the passband. An advanced design methodology had been adopted based on EM simulation for making these designed parameters of OLRRs, microstrip lines, and open stubs. The measured frequency responses agreed well with simulated ones.

  2. Vanadium-rich ruby and sapphire within Mogok Gemfield, Myanmar: implications for gem color and genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Khin; Sutherland, Lin; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Meffre, Sebastien; Thu, Kyaw

    2015-01-01

    Rubies and sapphires are of both scientific and commercial interest. These gemstones are corundum colored by transition elements within the alumina crystal lattice: Cr3+ yields red in ruby and Fe2+, Fe3+, and Ti4+ ionic interactions color sapphires. A minor ion, V3+ induces slate to purple colors and color change in some sapphires, but its role in coloring rubies remains enigmatic. Trace element and oxygen isotope composition provide genetic signatures for natural corundum and assist geographic typing. Here, we show that V can dominate chromophore contents in Mogok ruby suites. This raises implications for their color quality, enhancement treatments, geographic origin, exploration and exploitation and their comparison with rubies elsewhere. Precise LA-ICP-MS analysis of ruby and sapphire from Mogok placer and in situ deposits reveal that V can exceed 5,000 ppm, giving V/Cr, V/Fe and V/Ti ratios up to 26, 78, and 97 respectively. Such values significantly exceed those found elsewhere suggesting a localized geological control on V-rich ruby distribution. Our results demonstrate that detailed geochemical studies of ruby suites reveal that V is a potential ruby tracer, encourage comparisons of V/Cr-variation between ruby suites and widen the scope for geographic typing and genesis of ruby. This will allow more precise comparison of Asian and other ruby fields and assist confirmation of Mogok sources for rubies in historical and contemporary gems and jewelry.

  3. Marble-hosted ruby deposits of the Morogoro Region, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Walter A.; Hauzenberger, Christoph A.; Fritz, Harald; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan

    2017-10-01

    The ruby deposits of the Uluguru and Mahenge Mts, Morogoro Region, are related to marbles which represent the cover sequence of the Eastern Granulites in Tanzania. In both localities the cover sequences define a tectonic unit which is present as a nappe structure thrusted onto the gneissic basement in a north-western direction. Based on structural geological observations the ruby deposits are bound to mica-rich boudins in fold hinges where fluids interacted with the marble-host rock in zones of higher permeability. Petrographic observations revealed that the Uluguru Mts deposits occur within calcite-dominated marbles whereas deposits in the Mahenge Mts are found in dolomite-dominated marbles. The mineral assemblage describing the marble-hosted ruby deposit in the Uluguru Mts is characterised by corundum-dolomite-phlogopite ± spinel, calcite, pargasite, scapolite, plagioclase, margarite, chlorite, tourmaline whereas the assemblage corundum-calcite-plagioclase-phlogopite ± dolomite, pargasite, sapphirine, titanite, tourmaline is present in samples from the Mahenge Mts. Although slightly different in mineral assemblage it was possible to draw a similar ruby formation history for both localities. Two ruby forming events were distinguished by textural differences, which could also be modeled by thermodynamic T-XCO2 calculations using non-ideal mixing models of essential minerals. A first formation of ruby appears to have taken place during the prograde path (M1) either by the breakdown of diaspore which was present in the original sedimentary precursor rock or by the breakdown of margarite to corundum and plagioclase. The conditions for M1 metamorphism was estimated at ∼750 °C at 10 kbar, which represents granulite facies conditions. A change in fluid composition towards a CO2 dominated fluid triggered a second ruby generation to form. Subsequently, the examined units underwent a late greenschist facies overprint. In the framework of the East African Orogen we

  4. Study of the photo and cathodoluminescent properties of the rubi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez S, E.; Garcia H, M.; Ramos B, F.; Alvarez F, O.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.; Falcony G, C.

    1999-01-01

    In this work are presented the results of the study of the photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of the rubi analysing its use in radiation dosimetry. The rubi presented a centered emission spectra in 697 nm when this was excited with UV at a wavelength 364 nm. X-ray analysis show a rhombohedric structure. While the analysis performed by EDS was obtained the composition (O= 63.13, Al= 36.75 and Cr= 0.12) weight percent, the cathodoluminescent spectra presented three peaks at 555, 600 and 630 nm, being the peak or maximum emission the 600 nm. The results showed the rubi is a promissory material for the radiations dosimetry. (Author)

  5. Impact of flattening-filter-free radiation on the clonogenic survival of astrocytic cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenken, Caroline; Fleckenstein, Jens; Kegel, Stefan; Jahnke, Lennart; Simeonova, Anna; Hartmann, Linda; Kuebler, Jens; Veldwijk, Marlon R.; Wenz, Frederik; Herskind, Carsten; Giordano, Frank Anton [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (UMM), Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams are increasingly used in radiotherapy as delivery times can be substantially reduced. However, the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of FFF may be increased relative to conventional flattened (FLAT) beams due to differences in energy spectra. Therefore, we investigated the effects of FFF and FLAT beams on the clonogenic survival of astrocytoma cells. Three cell lines (U251, U251-MGMT, and U87) were irradiated with 6-MV and 10-MV X-rays from a linear accelerator in FFF- or FLAT-beam modes at dose rates in the range of 0.5-24 Gy/min. The surviving fraction (SF) as function of dose (2-12 Gy) was determined by the colony formation assay and fitted by the linear-quadratic model. For both beams (FFF or FLAT), the cells were pelleted in conical 15-ml centrifuge tubes and irradiated at 2-cm depth in a 1 x 1-cm{sup 2} area on the central axis of a 30 x 30-cm{sup 2} field. Dosimetry was performed with a 0.3-cm{sup 3} rigid ionization chamber. RBE was determined for FFF versus FLAT irradiation. The RBE of FFF at 7.3-11.3 Gy was 1.027 ± 0.013 and 1.063 ± 0.018 relative to FLAT beams for 6- and 10-MV beams, respectively, and was only significantly higher than 1 for 10 MV. Significantly increased survival rates were seen for lower dose rates (0.5 Gy/min FLAT vs. 5 Gy/min FLAT) at higher doses (11.9 Gy), while no differences were seen at dose rates ≥ 1.4 Gy/min (1.4 Gy/min FFF vs. 14 Gy/min FFF and 2.4 Gy/min FFF vs. 24 Gy/min FFF). FFF beams showed only a slightly increased RBE relative to FLAT beams in this experimental set-up, which is unlikely to result in clinically relevant differences in outcome. (orig.) [German] Die Flattening-Filter-freie (FFF) Bestrahlungstechnik findet zunehmend Verwendung, da sich die Applikationsdauer der einzelnen Fraktionen deutlich verkuerzen laesst. Aufgrund der Unterschiede im Spektrum koennte die relative biologische Wirksamkeit (RBW) von FFF jedoch hoeher sein als bei konventioneller Technik (d.h. bei

  6. Improvements of the ruby laser oscillator system for laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kumagai, Katsuaki; Kawakami, Tomohide; Matoba, Tohru; Funahashi, Akimasa

    1978-10-01

    A ruby laser oscillator system is used to measure electron temperatures of the Tokamak plasmas(JFT-2 and JFT-2a). Improvements have been made of the laser oscillator to obtain the correct values. Described are the improvements and the damages of a ruby rod and a KD*P crystal for Q-switching by laser beam. Improvement are the linear Xe lamp replaced by a helical Xe lamp and in the electrical circuit for Q-switching. The damage of an optical component by a laser beam should be clarified from the damage data; the cause is not found yet. (author)

  7. On-Line Multi-Damage Scanning Spatial-Wavenumber Filter Based Imaging Method for Aircraft Composite Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqiang Ren

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM of aircraft composite structure is helpful to increase reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Due to the great effectiveness in distinguishing particular guided wave modes and identifying the propagation direction, the spatial-wavenumber filter technique has emerged as an interesting SHM topic. In this paper, a new scanning spatial-wavenumber filter (SSWF based imaging method for multiple damages is proposed to conduct on-line monitoring of aircraft composite structures. Firstly, an on-line multi-damage SSWF is established, including the fundamental principle of SSWF for multiple damages based on a linear piezoelectric (PZT sensor array, and a corresponding wavenumber-time imaging mechanism by using the multi-damage scattering signal. Secondly, through combining the on-line multi-damage SSWF and a PZT 2D cross-shaped array, an image-mapping method is proposed to conduct wavenumber synthesis and convert the two wavenumber-time images obtained by the PZT 2D cross-shaped array to an angle-distance image, from which the multiple damages can be directly recognized and located. In the experimental validation, both simulated multi-damage and real multi-damage introduced by repeated impacts are performed on a composite plate structure. The maximum localization error is less than 2 cm, which shows good performance of the multi-damage imaging method. Compared with the existing spatial-wavenumber filter based damage evaluation methods, the proposed method requires no more than the multi-damage scattering signal and can be performed without depending on any wavenumber modeling or measuring. Besides, this method locates multiple damages by imaging instead of the geometric method, which helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, it can be easily applied to on-line multi-damage monitoring of aircraft composite structures.

  8. A compact very wideband amplifying filter based on RTD loaded composite right/left-handed transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Marasa, Mahmoud O Mahmoud; El-Khozondar, Hala Jarallah

    2015-01-01

    The composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) is presented as a general TL possessing both left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) natures. RH materials have both positive permittivity and positive permeability, and LH materials have both negative permittivity and negative permeability. This paper aims to design and analyze nonlinear CRLH-TL transmission line loaded with resonant tunneling diode (RTD). The main application of this design is a very wideband and compact filter that amplifies the travelling signal. We used OrCAD and ADS software to analyze the proposed circuit. CRLH-TL consists of a microstrip line which is loaded with complementary split-rings resonators (CSRRs), series gaps, and shunt inductor connected parallel to the RTD. The designed structure possess a wide band that ranges from 5 to 10.5 GHz and amplifies signal up to 50 %. The proposed design is of interest to microwave compact component designers.

  9. Removal of power line interference of space bearing vibration signal based on the morphological filter and blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shaojiang; Sun, Dihua; Xu, Xiangyang; Tang, Baoping

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the problem that it is difficult to extract the feature information from the space bearing vibration signal because of different noise, for example the running trend information, high-frequency noise and especially the existence of lot of power line interference (50Hz) and its octave ingredients of the running space simulated equipment in the ground. This article proposed a combination method to eliminate them. Firstly, the EMD is used to remove the running trend item information of the signal, the running trend that affect the signal processing accuracy is eliminated. Then the morphological filter is used to eliminate high-frequency noise. Finally, the components and characteristics of the power line interference are researched, based on the characteristics of the interference, the revised blind source separation model is used to remove the power line interferences. Through analysis of simulation and practical application, results suggest that the proposed method can effectively eliminate those noise.

  10. Influence of chromium concentration on the optical-electronic properties of ruby microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossolino, L C; Zanatta, A R

    2010-01-01

    Films of amorphous aluminium nitride (AlN) were prepared by conventional radio frequency sputtering of an Al + Cr target in a plasma of pure nitrogen. The Cr-to-Al relative area determines the Cr content, which remained in the ∼0-3.5 at% concentration range in this study. Film deposition was followed by thermal annealing of the samples up to 1050 0 C in an atmosphere of oxygen and by spectroscopic characterization through energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, photoluminescence and optical transmission measurements. According to the experimental results, the optical-electronic properties of the Cr-containing AlN films are highly influenced by both the Cr concentration and the temperature of the thermal treatments. In fact, thermal annealing at 1050 0 C induces the development of structures that, because of their typical size and distinctive spectral characteristics, were designated by ruby microstructures (RbMSs). These RbMSs are surrounded by a N-rich environment in which Cr 3+ ions exhibit luminescent features not present in other Cr 3+ -containing systems such as ruby, emerald or alexandrite. The light emissions shown by the RbMSs and surroundings were investigated according to the Cr concentration and temperature of measurement, allowing the identification of several Cr 3+ -related luminescent lines. The main characteristics of these luminescent lines and corresponding excitation-recombination processes are presented and discussed in view of a detailed spectroscopic analysis.

  11. Bistable polarization switching in a continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawandy, N. M.; Afzal, R. Sohrab

    1988-01-01

    Bistability in the output power, polarization state, and mode volume of an argon-ion laser pumped single mode ruby laser at 6943 A has been observed. The laser operates in a radially confined mode which exhibits hysteresis and bistability only when the pump polarization is parallel to the c-axis.

  12. Ruby coloured lead glasses by generation of silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, C. [Fundacion Centro Nacional del Vidrio, Pocillo, 1, 40100 La Granja de San Ildefonso (Segovia) (Spain); Villegas, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mavillegas@cenim.csic.es

    2004-11-15

    Both yellow and red superficial ruby lead crystal glasses have been obtained by Ag{sup +} ion-exchange. For red ruby colouring lead glass substrates were previously doped with reducing oxides (arsenic, antimony, cerium and tin). The best experimental conditions for silver ion-exchange were determined. The optical absorption behaviour of the samples was studied to point out the influence of the parameters involved in the ion-exchange process. Moreover, other parameters affecting the final colouring of the glasses (kind of dopant, dopant concentration, etc.) were also analysed. The dopant percentage added to the lead crystal glass is the most important factor for developing superficial red ruby colouring. Antimony oxide doped lead glass ion-exchanged with silver showed the most intense red ruby colouring, even for a doping concentration lower than those of arsenic oxide doped samples able to enhance similar colour. Spectral saturation appeared for the highest doping concentration and for the most severe ion-exchange conditions. Chromatic coordinates were calculated from the corresponding transmission visible spectra. The colour purity showed by the samples obtained satisfies the ornamental requirements that motivated this research.

  13. Graphene double-layer capacitor with ac line-filtering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John R; Outlaw, R A; Holloway, B C

    2010-09-24

    Electric double-layer capacitors (DLCs) can have high storage capacity, but their porous electrodes cause them to perform like resistors in filter circuits that remove ripple from rectified direct current. We have demonstrated efficient filtering of 120-hertz current with DLCs with electrodes made from vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown directly on metal current collectors. This design minimized electronic and ionic resistances and produced capacitors with RC time constants of less than 200 microseconds, in contrast with ~1 second for typical DLCs. Graphene nanosheets have a preponderance of exposed edge planes that greatly increases charge storage as compared with that of designs that rely on basal plane surfaces. Capacitors constructed with these electrodes could be smaller than the low-voltage aluminum electrolyte capacitors that are typically used in electronic devices.

  14. Graphene Double-Layer Capacitor with ac Line-Filtering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John R.; Outlaw, R. A.; Holloway, B. C.

    2010-09-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (DLCs) can have high storage capacity, but their porous electrodes cause them to perform like resistors in filter circuits that remove ripple from rectified direct current. We have demonstrated efficient filtering of 120-hertz current with DLCs with electrodes made from vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown directly on metal current collectors. This design minimized electronic and ionic resistances and produced capacitors with RC time constants of less than 200 microseconds, in contrast with ~1 second for typical DLCs. Graphene nanosheets have a preponderance of exposed edge planes that greatly increases charge storage as compared with that of designs that rely on basal plane surfaces. Capacitors constructed with these electrodes could be smaller than the low-voltage aluminum electrolyte capacitors that are typically used in electronic devices.

  15. Miniaturized bandpass filter using a meandered stepped-impedance resonator with a meandered-line stub-load on a GaAs substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuluunbaatar, Z; Wang, C; Kim, N Y

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a compact bandpass filter with improved skirt selectivity using integrated passive device fabrication technology on a GaAs substrate. The structure of the filter consists of electromagnetically coupled meandered-line symmetric stepped-impedance resonators. The strength of the coupling between the resonators is enhanced by using a meandered-line stub-load inside the resonators to improve the selectivity and miniaturize the size of the filter. In addition, the center frequency of the filter can be flexibly controlled by varying degrees of the capacitive coupling between resonator and stub-load. To verify the proposed concept, a protocol bandpass filter with center frequency of 6.53 GHz was designed, fabricated, and measured, with a return loss and insertion loss of 39.1 dB and 1.63 dB.

  16. Miniaturized Bandpass Filter Using a Meandered Stepped-Impedance Resonator with a Meandered-Line Stub-Load on a GaAs Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chuluunbaatar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a compact bandpass filter with improved skirt selectivity using integrated passive device fabrication technology on a GaAs substrate. The structure of the filter consists of electromagnetically coupled meandered-line symmetric stepped-impedance resonators. The strength of the coupling between the resonators is enhanced by using a meandered-line stub-load inside the resonators to improve the selectivity and miniaturize the size of the filter. In addition, the center frequency of the filter can be flexibly controlled by varying degrees of the capacitive coupling between resonator and stub-load. To verify the proposed concept, a protocol bandpass filter with center frequency of 6.53 GHz was designed, fabricated, and measured, with a return loss and insertion loss of 39.1 dB and 1.63 dB.

  17. A function-based screen for seeking RubisCO active clones from metagenomes: novel enzymes influencing RubisCO activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhnke, Stefanie; Perner, Mirjam

    2015-03-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is a key enzyme of the Calvin cycle, which is responsible for most of Earth's primary production. Although research on RubisCO genes and enzymes in plants, cyanobacteria and bacteria has been ongoing for years, still little is understood about its regulation and activation in bacteria. Even more so, hardly any information exists about the function of metagenomic RubisCOs and the role of the enzymes encoded on the flanking DNA owing to the lack of available function-based screens for seeking active RubisCOs from the environment. Here we present the first solely activity-based approach for identifying RubisCO active fosmid clones from a metagenomic library. We constructed a metagenomic library from hydrothermal vent fluids and screened 1056 fosmid clones. Twelve clones exhibited RubisCO activity and the metagenomic fragments resembled genes from Thiomicrospira crunogena. One of these clones was further analyzed. It contained a 35.2 kb metagenomic insert carrying the RubisCO gene cluster and flanking DNA regions. Knockouts of twelve genes and two intergenic regions on this metagenomic fragment demonstrated that the RubisCO activity was significantly impaired and was attributed to deletions in genes encoding putative transcriptional regulators and those believed to be vital for RubisCO activation. Our new technique revealed a novel link between a poorly characterized gene and RubisCO activity. This screen opens the door to directly investigating RubisCO genes and respective enzymes from environmental samples.

  18. Development of 2.8 V Ketjen black supercapacitors with high rate capabilities for AC line filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongju; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Min-Seop; Kim, Woong

    2017-08-01

    Supercapacitors are generally more compact than conventional bulky aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs). Replacement of AECs with supercapacitors can lead to miniaturization of electronic devices. However, even state-of-the-art supercapacitors developed in laboratories are superior to or competitive with AECs only in low voltage applications (<∼40 V). In order to improve the voltage limits of current supercapacitors, we have incorporated Ketjen black (KB) as an electrode material. Utilizing the open pore structure and the graphitic nature of KB, we demonstrate that the voltage limit can be extended to 53 V. The KB supercapacitor exhibits excellent areal capacitance, cell voltage, and phase angle values of ∼574 μF cm-2, 2.8 V, and ∼-80°, respectively. In addition, we demonstrate that an AC line filtering circuit with three supercapacitors connected in series can extend the application voltage without significant sacrifice in rate capability (ϕ ∼ -77° at 120 Hz). On the other hand, KBs are much less expensive than carbon materials previously demonstrated for AC line filtering and hence are very attractive for practical applications. We believe that this demonstration of high-performance supercapacitors made from low-cost carbon materials is both scientifically interesting and important for practical applications.

  19. Study of an on-line filtering system for the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fede, E.

    2001-01-01

    The first chapter presents today's knowledge about particle physics and a description of the main decay channels and physical signatures associated to the Higgs boson is given. The second chapter is dedicated to the LHC accelerator with a focus on the ATLAS detector and its sub-detectors. The third chapter presents ATLAS triggering system and its data acquisition system. In the fourth chapter the functionalities required for an adequate event filtering system concerning physics issues and data managing are described. The design of a prototype based on a fleet of PC computers linked through an Ethernet network is presented in the fifth chapter

  20. On line filtering of events in an experiment dedicated to the production of massive muon pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froberger, J.P.

    1980-07-01

    The NA10 experiment is dedicated to the inclusive production of pairs of massive muons in hadronic collisions, particularly in pion-nucleon collisions. This experiment allows the testing of the Drell-Yan model that describes the production process. The detector is composed of 8 proportional multiwire chambers. This work presents the development of an algorithm able to filter and select adequate events from the data flowing from the detector. Simulations show that the program running on GESPRO system is able to compute the mass of the muon pairs and to take the decision to ban or not the event in less than 20 μs. In the first chapter the author describes the Drell-Yan model. The methodology to analyse data and select adequate events is given in the second chapter. The algorithm is developed in the third chapter and tested with simulations in the fourth chapter. (A.C.)

  1. [Agrobacterium rubi strains from blueberry plants are highly diverse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamovich, Eliana; López, Ana C; Alippi, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of a collection of Agrobacterium rubi strains isolated from blueberries from different regions of Argentina was studied by conventional microbiological tests and molecular techniques. Results from biochemical and physiological reactions, as well as from rep-PCR and RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 23S rDNA showed high phenotypic and genotypic intraspecific variation. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro evaluation of gaseous microemboli handling of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits with and without integrated arterial line filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saifei; Newland, Richard F; Tully, Phillip J; Tuble, Sigrid C; Baker, Robert A

    2011-09-01

    The delivery of gaseous microemboli (GME) by the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit should be minimized whenever possible. Innovations in components, such as the integration of arterial line filter (ALF) and ALFs with reduced priming volumes, have provided clinicians with circuit design options. However, before adopting these components clinically, their GME handling ability should be assessed. This study aims to compare the GME handling ability of different oxygenator/ALF combinations with our currently utilized combination. Five commercially available oxygenator/ALF combinations were evaluated in vitro: Terumo Capiox SX25RX and Dideco D734 (SX/D734),Terumo Capiox RX25R and AF125 (RX/AF125), Terumo FX25R (FX), Sorin Synthesis with 102 microm reservoir filter (SYN102), and Sorin Synthesis with 40 microm reservoir filter (SYN40). GME handling was studied by introducing air into the venous return at 100 mL/min for 60 seconds under two flow/ pressure combinations: 3.5 L/min, 150 mmHg and 5 L/min, 200 mmHg. Emboli were measured at three positions in the circuit using the Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) Quantifier and analyzed with the General Linear Model. All circuits significantly reduced GME. The SX/D734 and SYN40 circuits were most efficient in GME removal whilst the SYN102 handled embolic load (count and volume) least efficiently (p circuits (p circuits (p circuits to handle GME. Venous reservoir design influenced the overall GME handling ability. GME removal was less efficient at higher flow and pressure, and for smaller sized emboli. The clinical significance of reducing GME requires further investigation.

  3. Fractional CO2 laser is as effective as Q-switched ruby laser for the initial treatment of a traumatic tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Grunewald, Sonja; Wagner, Justinus A; Simon, Jan C; Paasch, Uwe

    2014-12-01

    Q-switched laser treatments are considered the standard method for removing both regular and traumatic tattoos. Recently, the removal of tattoo ink using ablative fractional lasers has been reported. Ablative fractional CO2 laser and q-switched ruby laser treatments were used in a split-face mode to compare the safety and efficacy of the two types of laser in removing a traumatic tattoo caused by the explosion of a firework. A male patient suffering from a traumatic tattoo due to explosive deposits in his entire face was subjected to therapy. A series of eleven treatments were performed. The right side of the face was always treated using an ablative fractional CO2 laser, whereas the left side was treated only using a q-switched ruby laser. After a series of eleven treatments, the patient demonstrated a significant lightening on both sides of his traumatic tattoo, with no clinical difference. After the first six treatments, the patient displayed greater lightening on the right side of his face, whereas after another five treatments, the left side of the patient's face appeared lighter. No side effects were reported. In the initial stage of removing the traumatic tattoo, the ablative fractional laser treatment appeared to be as effective as the standard ruby laser therapy. However, from the 6th treatment onward, the ruby laser therapy was more effective. Although ablative fractional CO2 lasers have the potential to remove traumatic tattoos, they remain a second-line treatment option.

  4. PRESENCE OF ARCOBACTER SPP. IN IN-LINE MILK FILTERS: AN EMERGING AND SIGNIFICANT MICROBIOLOGICAL HAZARD IN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giacometti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While a study on the presence of foodborne pathogens in in-line milk filters of Italian dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk was in progress, we fortuitously detected and isolated some Arcobacter spp. during routine analysis for thermotolerant Campylobacter. This observation suggested that extraordinary and non-standardized growth conditions for detection and identification were needed to provide more information and data on this poorly known emergent zoonotic pathogen. The presence of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacacter cryaerophilus in milk filters of dairy farms authorized for production and sale of raw milk poses a risk for public health and rather suggests that raw milk samples should also be examined for Arcobacter contamination. While the role of Arcobacter spp. in human disease awaits further evaluation, a precautionary approach is advisable and control measures to prevent or to eliminate the hazard of Arcobacter spp. in food and from the human food chain should be encouraged as well as more epidemiological studies. With this article, we review the literature of this organism in order to focus the relevant information to food safety.

  5. Adaptive Spatial Filter Based on Similarity Indices to Preserve the Neural Information on EEG Signals during On-Line Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Delisle-Rodriguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new on-line adaptive filter, which is based on a similarity analysis between standard electrode locations, in order to reduce artifacts and common interferences throughout electroencephalography (EEG signals, but preserving the useful information. Standard deviation and Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC between target electrodes and its correspondent neighbor electrodes are analyzed on sliding windows to select those neighbors that are highly correlated. Afterwards, a model based on CCC is applied to provide higher values of weight to those correlated electrodes with lower similarity to the target electrode. The approach was applied to brain computer-interfaces (BCIs based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA to recognize 40 targets of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP, providing an accuracy (ACC of 86.44 ± 2.81%. In addition, also using this approach, features of low frequency were selected in the pre-processing stage of another BCI to recognize gait planning. In this case, the recognition was significantly ( p < 0.01 improved for most of the subjects ( A C C ≥ 74.79 % , when compared with other BCIs based on Common Spatial Pattern, Filter Bank-Common Spatial Pattern, and Riemannian Geometry.

  6. [Off-line control of runoff pollution by filtering ditch-pond system in urban tourist areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Feng; Shan, Bao-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing; Hu, Cheng-Xiao

    2007-10-01

    An off-line filtering ditch-pond system for controlling storm runoff pollution in urban tourist areas was developed, which could retain the first flush effectively, resulting in the decrease of pollutant concentration and suspended solid average grain size, and the improvement of pollutant retention in runoff. This system could be an effective treatment system for storm runoff pollution, particularly for the scarcity of available land use in urban areas. In 2005, the yearly retention rates of TSS, COD, TN and TP were 86.4%, 85.5%, 83.9% and 82.9%, and during a storm event on June 26, the retention rates of runoff volume, TSS, COD, TN and TP were 67.9%, 97.0%, 89.2%, 94.9% and 96.2%, respectively. This system could also retain most of the suspended solids in runoff.

  7. [Consequences for labile blood products of leukocyte depletion by whole blood filtration using the Leucoflex LST1 in-line filter. Evaluation of the Leucoflex LST1 filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, G; Samson, T; Faudon, R; Renaudeau, C; Joussemet, M; Fabre, G

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of whole blood filtration after a storage time of 20-24 hours at laboratory temperature using the in line filter Leucoflex LST1. The study concerns 49 blood donations in which we studied leukocyte depletion, proteins (IgG, IgA, IgM, haptoglobin, C3, C4), coagulation factors (fibrinogen, factors XII, XI, IX, VIII, V, proteins S and C, plasminogen, tPA, D-Dimers, PDF) at day 1, the parameters of conservation (ATP, 2-3 DPG, extra cellular potassium, haemolysis, pH) of red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) and bacteriological sterility at day 1 and 42. Despite a correct leukocyte depletion (mean depletion of 3.96 log), a 10 fold higher mean level of residual leukocytes/unit than with buffy coat poor RCC filtration (0.514.10(6) vs 0.051.10(6)) is observed. Moreover a lot of concentrates are not in accordance with French regulations (7/42 with more than 1.10(6) leukocytes/unit). The variation of the rates of IgG, IgA, IgM, haptoglobin, C4 and protein C is not significant. For the others there is a slight decrease with a mean level remaining in a physiological range. No sign of activation is noted. The sterility assays remain negative and the RCC conservation is not altered. In conclusion, even if the quality of the leukocyte depletion is not satisfactory in our study and has to be stated more precisely by multicenter studies, the whole blood filtration does not alter the quality of the derived components and allows us obtain RCC in a bigger volume and containing more haemoglobin than with the classical procedure after removing the buffy-coat [10].

  8. Using photoshop filters to create anatomic line-art medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Jacobo; Geller, Brian S

    2006-08-01

    There are multiple ways to obtain anatomic drawings suitable for publication or presentations. This article demonstrates how to use Photoshop to alter digital radiologic images to create line-art illustrations in a quick and easy way. We present two simple to use methods; however, not every image can adequately be transformed and personal preferences and specific changes need to be applied to each image to obtain the desired result. There are multiple ways to obtain anatomic drawings suitable for publication or to prepare presentations. Medical illustrators have always played a major role in the radiology and medical education process. Whether used to teach a complex surgical or radiologic procedure, to define typical or atypical patterns of the spread of disease, or to illustrate normal or aberrant anatomy, medical illustration significantly affects learning (). However, if you are not an accomplished illustrator, the alternatives can be expensive (contacting a professional medical illustrator or buying an already existing stock of digital images) or simply not necessarily applicable to what you are trying to communicate. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how using Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) to alter digital radiologic images we can create line-art illustrations in a quick, inexpensive, and easy way in preparation for electronic presentations and publication.

  9. Removal of Gross Air Embolization from Cardiopulmonary Bypass Circuits with Integrated Arterial Line Filters: A Comparison of Circuit Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagor, James A; Holt, David W

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology, the desire to minimize blood product transfusions, and concerns relating to inflammatory mediators have lead many practitioners and manufacturers to minimize cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) circuit designs. The oxygenator and arterial line filter (ALF) have been integrated into one device as a method of attaining a reduction in prime volume and surface area. The instructions for use of a currently available oxygenator with integrated ALF recommends incorporating a recirculation line distal to the oxygenator. However, according to an unscientific survey, 70% of respondents utilize CPB circuits incorporating integrated ALFs without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator outlet. Considering this circuit design, the ability to quickly remove a gross air bolus in the blood path distal to the oxygenator may be compromised. This in vitro study was designed to determine if the time required to remove a gross air bolus from a CPB circuit without a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator will be significantly longer than that of a circuit with a path of recirculation distal to the oxygenator. A significant difference was found in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between the circuit designs (p = .0003). Additionally, There was found to be a statistically significant difference in the mean time required to remove a gross air bolus between Trial 1 and Trials 4 (p = .015) and 5 (p =.014) irrespective of the circuit design. Under the parameters of this study, a recirculation line distal to an oxygenator with an integrated ALF significantly decreases the time it takes to remove an air bolus from the CPB circuit and may be safer for clinical use than the same circuit without a recirculation line.

  10. A Compact Symmetric Microstrip Filter Based on a Rectangular Meandered-Line Stepped Impedance Resonator with a Triple-Band Bandstop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dhakal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a symmetric-type microstrip triple-band bandstop filter incorporating a tri-section meandered-line stepped impedance resonator (SIR. The length of each section of the meandered line is 0.16, 0.15, and 0.83 times the guided wavelength (λg, so that the filter features three stop bands at 2.59 GHz, 6.88 GHz, and 10.67 GHz, respectively. Two symmetric SIRs are employed with a microstrip transmission line to obtain wide bandwidths of 1.12, 1.34, and 0.89 GHz at the corresponding stop bands. Furthermore, an equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter is developed, and the model matches the electromagnetic simulations well. The return losses of the fabricated filter are measured to be −29.90 dB, −28.29 dB, and −26.66 dB while the insertion losses are 0.40 dB, 0.90 dB, and 1.10 dB at the respective stop bands. A drastic reduction in the size of the filter was achieved by using a simplified architecture based on a meandered-line SIR.

  11. Fiber optic adaptation of the interference filter photometer SPECTRAN for in-line measurements in PUREX process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerck, J.; Kraemer, K.; Koenig, W.

    1990-02-01

    The multicomponent version of the interference filter photometer SPECTRAN was adapted by radiation resistant quartz glass optical fibers to in-line flow cells in the aqueous and organic bypass stream of an uranium laboratory extraction column. A combined photometric/electrolytical conductivity measurement allows this modified process instrument to be used as uranium/plutonium in-line monitor in radioactive process streams. By applying a high performance 100 W quartz halogen lamp and suitable light focussing optics the light intensity, attenuated by coupling losses, could be increased to the desired level even when 1000 μm-single strand fibers (2x18 m) were used to transmit the light. In a series of calibration experiments the U(VI)- and U(IV)-extinction coefficients were determined as a function of nitric acid molarity (for U(VI) also in TBP/kerosene). Furthermore the validity of Lambert-Beer's law was examined for both oxidation states at different optical path lengths and nitric acid/electrolytical conductivity calibration functions between 0-100 g/l U(VI) and 0-4 mol/l HNO 3 were set up. (orig./EF) [de

  12. On-line measurement of oil contaminants in water by filter-based infrared analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemelae, P.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of a dedicated infrared analyzer for on-line measurement of the oil content of water, the Oili analyzer, are evaluated theoretically and with laboratory measurements. The analyzer was originally developed for controlling the discharge of ballast and bilge water from oil tankers and more than 200 such instruments have now been supplied for that purpose, representing about 10 % of the total market. Some technical improvements are suggested, and the improved instrument is shown to be capable of measuring oil in water to an accuracy of +- 20 % down to a detection limit of +5-10 ppm in the presence of high concentrations of interfering components and under varying environmental conditions. This opens up new potential applications for the instrument, e.g. the monitoring of water discharges from oil and gas production platforms. The infrared analyzer responds only to the dispersed oil fraction, and if the dissolved fraction is of interest as well, the instrument must be equipped with a UV option, as suggested here

  13. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  14. Ruby laser for treatment of tattoos: technical considerations affecting clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert E.

    1990-06-01

    Recent clinical research on the use of ruby lasers for the treatment of tattoos and FIlk approval of a commercial system have renewed interest in this device. In this paper the principles of Q-switched ruby laser operation are reviewed, and potential sources of error in the estimation of delivered fluence are discussed.

  15. Should in-line filters be used in peripheral intravenous catheters to prevent infusion-related phlebitis? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niël-Weise, Barbara S; Stijnen, Theo; van den Broek, Peterhans J

    2010-06-01

    In this systematic review, we assessed the effect of in-line filters on infusion-related phlebitis associated with peripheral IV catheters. The study was designed as a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. We used MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register up to August 10, 2009. Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data on phlebitis were combined when appropriate, using a random-effects model. The impact of the risk of phlebitis in the control group (baseline risk) on the effect of in-line filters was studied by using meta-regression based on the bivariate meta-analysis model. The quality of the evidence was determined by using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) method. Eleven trials (1633 peripheral catheters) were included in this review to compare the effect of in-line filters on the incidence of phlebitis in hospitalized patients. Baseline risks across trials ranged from 23% to 96%. Meta-analysis of all trials showed that in-line filters reduced the risk of infusion-related phlebitis (relative risk, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-1.00). This benefit, however, is very uncertain, because the trials had serious methodological shortcomings and meta-analysis revealed marked unexplained statistical heterogeneity (P < 0.0000, I(2) = 90.4%). The estimated benefit did not depend on baseline risk. In-line filters in peripheral IV catheters cannot be recommended routinely, because evidence of their benefit is uncertain.

  16. The effect of UV-filters on the viability of neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniowska, Żaneta; Pomierny, Bartosz; Smaga, Irena; Filip, Małgorzata; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-05-01

    Topical application of cosmetic products, containing ultraviolet filters (UV filters) are recommended as a protection against sunburns and in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer. However, some UV filters can be absorbed through skin and by consuming contaminated food. Among the chemical UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) and 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are absorbed through the skin to the greatest extent. So far, these lipophilic compounds were demonstrated to influence the gonadal and thyroid hormone function, but their effect on central nervous system cells has not been investigated, yet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of some UV filters on cell viability and caspase-3 activity in SH-SY5Y cells. It has been found that benzophenone-2 (BP-2), BP-3, 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP) and OMC present in the culture medium for 72h in high concentration (10(-5) and 10(-4)M) and 4-MBC only 10(-4)M produced a significant cytotoxic effect, as determined both by the MTT reduction test and LDH release assay. In contrast to necrotic changes, all tested UV filters increased caspase-3 activity in much lower concentrations (from 10(-8) to 10(-7)M). Proapoptotic properties of the test compounds were positively verified by Hoechst staining. The obtained results indicated that UV filters adversely affected the viability of nerve cells, most likely by enhancing the process of apoptosis. The most potent effect was exerted by BP-3 and 4-MBC and at concentrations that may be reached in vivo. Since human exposure to UV filters is significant these compound should be taken into consideration as one of the possible factors involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Visuaalantropoloogia - inimlik mõõde asjade maailmas / Jay Ruby ; interv. Peeter Linnap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruby, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika visuaalkultuuri teoreetik Jay Ruby on paari viimase aastakümne jooksul keskendunud pildilise kommunikatsiooni etnograafilisele käsitlemisele Ameerika maaühiskonnas. Peeter Linnapi intervjuu Jay Rubyga Tartu Kõrgemas Kunstikoolis 23. V

  18. 75 FR 66779 - Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Elko and White Pine Counties, NV; Comprehensive Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... emanating from the base of the Ruby Mountains provide life-sustaining water to the 39,926-acre refuge. The marsh is surrounded by 22,926 acres of meadows, grasslands, alkali playa, and shrub-steppe uplands...

  19. Simply rails 2 the ultimate beginner's guide to Ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Want to learn all about Ruby on Rails 2.0, the web application framework that is inspiring developers around the world? The second edition of this practical, hands on book will: show you how to install Ruby on Rails on Windows, Mac, or Linux walk you, step by step, through the development of a Web 2.0 social news application, just like digg.com show you how to test, debug, benchmark, and deploy your Rails application Unlike other Rails books, this book doesn't assume that you are an experienced web developer, or that you've used Ruby before. An entire chapter is devoted to learning Ruby in a fun way, using the interactive Ruby console, so you can follow along at home. You'll be an accomplished Ruby programmer in no time! The example application that the book builds - a user-generated news web site - is built upon with each following chapter, and concepts such as sessions, cookies and basic AJAX usage are gradually introduced. Different aspects of Rails, such as user authentication, session cookies, and automa...

  20. A short history of RubisCO: the rise and fall (?) of Nature's predominant CO2 fixing enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Tobias J; Zarzycki, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is arguably one of the most abundant proteins in the biosphere and a key enzyme in the global carbon cycle. Although RubisCO has been intensively studied, its evolutionary origins and rise as Nature's most dominant carbon dioxide (CO 2 )-fixing enzyme still remain in the dark. In this review we will bring together biochemical, structural, physiological, microbiological, as well as phylogenetic data to speculate on the evolutionary roots of the CO 2 -fixation reaction of RubisCO, the emergence of RubisCO-based autotrophic CO 2 -fixation in the context of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, and the further evolution of RubisCO into the 'RubisCOsome', a complex of various proteins assembling and interacting with the enzyme to improve its operational capacity (functionality) under different biological and environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of fusion mixture treatment on the surface of low grade natural ruby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthivel, R., E-mail: velsak_r@yahoo.com; Pradhan, K.C.; Nayak, B.B.; Dash, Tapan; Sahu, R.K.; Mishra, B.K.

    2017-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The colour of low grade natural ruby is enhanced with fusion mixture treatment. Comparative optical absorption and photoluminesence properties of both untreated and treated ruby samples are studied. - Highlights: • Colour of the low grade natural ruby is improved with fusion mixture treatment. • Surface impurities are removed with fusion mixture. • Photoluminescence spectrum of ruby influenced by its Cr{sup 3+} concentration. • X-ray diffraction study confirms the presence of corundum phases in ruby samples. • Treated ruby looks brighter than untreated ruby due to variation in Cr{sup 3+} concentration. - Abstract: Improvement in aesthetic look of low grade natural ruby (gemstone) surface was clearly evident after fusion mixture treatment. Surface impurities of the gemstone were significantly reduced to give it a face lift. The processing consists of heat treatment (1000 °C) of the raw gemstone with fusion mixture (sodium and potassium carbonates), followed by hydrochloric acid digestion (90 °C) and ultrasonic cleaning.Both the untreated and the treated gemstone were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance),photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The paper consolidates the results of these studies and presents the effect of the typical chemical treatment (stated above) on the low grade natural ruby. While X-ray diffraction study identifies the occurrence of alumina phase in both the treated and the untreated gemstones, the UV–vis spectra exhibit strong characteristic absorption of Cr{sup 3+}at 400 and 550 nm wavelength for the treated gemstone in contrast to weak absorption observed for the untreated gemstone at such wavelengths, thus showing the beneficial effect of fusion mixture treatment. Peaks observed for the gemstone (for both treated and untreated samples) in the excitation spectra of photoluminescence show a good correlation with observed UV–vis (diffuse reflectance

  2. An on-line estimation of battery pack parameters and state-of-charge using dual filters based on pack model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of battery pack state-of-charge plays a very important role for electric vehicles, which directly reflects the behavior of battery pack usage. However, the inconsistency of battery makes the estimation of battery pack state-of-charge different from single cell. In this paper, to estimate the battery pack state-of-charge on-line, the definition of battery pack is proposed, and the relationship between the total available capacity of battery pack and single cell is put forward to analyze the energy efficiency influenced by battery inconsistency, then a lumped parameter battery model is built up to describe the dynamic behavior of battery pack. Furthermore, the extend Kalman filter-unscented Kalman filter algorithm is developed to identify the parameters of battery pack and forecast state-of-charge concurrently. The extend Kalman filter is applied to update the battery pack parameters by real-time measured data, while the unscented Kalman filter is employed to estimate the battery pack state-of-charge. Finally, the proposed approach is verified by experiments operated on the lithium-ion battery under constant current condition and the dynamic stress test profiles. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can estimate the battery pack state-of-charge with high accuracy. - Highlights: • A novel space state equation is built to describe the pack dynamic behavior. • The dual filters method is used to estimate the pack state-of-charge. • Battery inconsistency is considered to analyze the pack usage efficiency. • The accuracy of the proposed method is verified under different conditions.

  3. Performance enhancement of the single-phase series active filter by employing the load voltage waveform reconstruction and line current sampling delay reduction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, O.S.; Hava, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the waveform reconstruction method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase series active filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method, a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous-reference-frame-based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2.5 k...

  4. Rapid middle Miocene extension and unroofing of the southern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Howard, Keith A.; Fleck, Robert J.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Paleozoic rocks in the northern Ruby Mountains were metamorphosed during Mesozoic crustal shortening and Cenozoic magmatism, but equivalent strata in the southern Ruby Mountains were never buried deeper than stratigraphic depths prior to exhumation in the footwall of a west dipping brittle normal fault. In the southern Ruby Mountains, Miocene sedimentary rocks in the hanging wall of this fault date from 15.2 to 11.6 Ma and contain abundant detritus from the Paleozoic section. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He samples of the Eocene Harrison Pass pluton record rapid cooling that peaked ca. 17–15 Ma, while apatite fission track data from Jurassic plutons east and west of the southern Ruby Mountains indicate near-surface temperatures (pluton to be partially reset rather than to directly record fault slip. Our new data, together with published data on the distribution and composition of Miocene basin fill, suggest that rapid middle Miocene slip took place on the west dipping brittle detachment that bounds the Ruby Mountains and East Humboldt Range for 150 km along strike. This fault was thus active during a period of rapid extension (ca. 17–15 to 12–10 Ma) documented widely across the northern Basin and Range Province.

  5. Bistable direction switching in an off-axis pumped continuous wave ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, R. Sohrab; Lawandy, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A report is presented of the observation of hysteretic bistable direction switching in a single-mode CW ruby laser system. This effect is only observed when the pump beam which is focused into the ruby rod is misaligned with respect to the rod end faces. At low pump powers, the ruby lases in a mode nearly collinear with the pump axis. At a higher pump power the ruby switches to a mode that is collinear with the rod end faces and preserves the original polarization. The effect is large enough to switch the beam by an angle equal to twice the diffraction angle. The observations show that under steady-state pumping, a CW ruby laser can exhibit bistable operation in its output direction and power. A calculation using the heat equation with two concentric cylinders with one as a heat source (pump laser) and the outer wall of the other held at 77 K, gives an increase in core temperature of about 0.01 K. Therefore, the increase in temperature is not large enough to change the index of refraction to account for such large macroscopic effects.

  6. Integrated QSAR study for inhibitors of Hedgehog Signal Pathway against multiple cell lines:a collaborative filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Che, Dongsheng; Zheng, Vincent W; Zhu, Ruixin; Liu, Qi

    2012-07-31

    The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway is one of signaling pathways that are very important to embryonic development. The participation of inhibitors in the Hedgehog Signal Pathway can control cell growth and death, and searching novel inhibitors to the functioning of the pathway are in a great demand. As the matter of fact, effective inhibitors could provide efficient therapies for a wide range of malignancies, and targeting such pathway in cells represents a promising new paradigm for cell growth and death control. Current research mainly focuses on the syntheses of the inhibitors of cyclopamine derivatives, which bind specifically to the Smo protein, and can be used for cancer therapy. While quantitatively structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies have been performed for these compounds among different cell lines, none of them have achieved acceptable results in the prediction of activity values of new compounds. In this study, we proposed a novel collaborative QSAR model for inhibitors of the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway by integration the information from multiple cell lines. Such a model is expected to substantially improve the QSAR ability from single cell lines, and provide useful clues in developing clinically effective inhibitors and modifications of parent lead compounds for target on the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway. In this study, we have presented: (1) a collaborative QSAR model, which is used to integrate information among multiple cell lines to boost the QSAR results, rather than only a single cell line QSAR modeling. Our experiments have shown that the performance of our model is significantly better than single cell line QSAR methods; and (2) an efficient feature selection strategy under such collaborative environment, which can derive the commonly important features related to the entire given cell lines, while simultaneously showing their specific contributions to a specific cell-line. Based on feature selection results, we have proposed several

  7. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  8. Mr.CAS-A minimalistic (pure) Ruby CAS for fast prototyping and code generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Matteo

    There are Computer Algebra System (CAS) systems on the market with complete solutions for manipulation of analytical models. But exporting a model that implements specific algorithms on specific platforms, for target languages or for particular numerical library, is often a rigid procedure that requires manual post-processing. This work presents a Ruby library that exposes core CAS capabilities, i.e. simplification, substitution, evaluation, etc. The library aims at programmers that need to rapidly prototype and generate numerical code for different target languages, while keeping separated mathematical expression from the code generation rules, where best practices for numerical conditioning are implemented. The library is written in pure Ruby language and is compatible with most Ruby interpreters.

  9. Mr.CAS—A minimalistic (pure Ruby CAS for fast prototyping and code generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ragni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are Computer Algebra System (CAS systems on the market with complete solutions for manipulation of analytical models. But exporting a model that implements specific algorithms on specific platforms, for target languages or for particular numerical library, is often a rigid procedure that requires manual post-processing. This work presents a Ruby library that exposes core CAS capabilities, i.e. simplification, substitution, evaluation, etc. The library aims at programmers that need to rapidly prototype and generate numerical code for different target languages, while keeping separated mathematical expression from the code generation rules, where best practices for numerical conditioning are implemented. The library is written in pure Ruby language and is compatible with most Ruby interpreters.

  10. A Ruby API to query the Ensembl database for genomic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Francesco; Aerts, Jan

    2011-04-01

    The Ensembl database makes genomic features available via its Genome Browser. It is also possible to access the underlying data through a Perl API for advanced querying. We have developed a full-featured Ruby API to the Ensembl databases, providing the same functionality as the Perl interface with additional features. A single Ruby API is used to access different releases of the Ensembl databases and is also able to query multi-species databases. Most functionality of the API is provided using the ActiveRecord pattern. The library depends on introspection to make it release independent. The API is available through the Rubygem system and can be installed with the command gem install ruby-ensembl-api.

  11. Sand dune of Ruby, Arizona, an anthropogenically created biodiversity hotspot for wasps and their velvet ant parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin O. Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    A large artificial sand dune composed of finely crushed mine tailings was produced by deep mining operations at Ruby, Arizona. Today, the ghost town of Ruby is an important historical location and biodiversity refuge, with the newly formed dune forming the core of the refuge. The dune provides ideal nesting habitat for at least 13 species of sand-loving wasps,...

  12. Conceptual model of a logical system processor of selection to electrical filters for correction of harmonics in low voltage lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastre, Arlys; Torriente, Ives; Méndez, Erik F.; Cordovés, Alexis

    2017-06-01

    In the present investigation, the authors propose a conceptual model for the analysis and the decision making of the corrective models to use in the mitigation of the harmonic distortion. The authors considered the setting of conventional models, and such adaptive models like the filters incorporation to networks neuronal artificial (RNA's) for the mitigating effect. In addition to the present work is a showing of the experimental model that learns by means of a flowchart denoting the need to use artificial intelligence skills for the exposition of the proposed model. The other aspect considered and analyzed are the adaptability and usage of the same, considering a local reference of the laws and lineaments of energy quality that demands the Department of Electricity and Energy Renewable (MEER) of Equator.

  13. Matched filtering Generalized Phase Contrast using binary phase for dynamic spot- and line patterns in biophotonics and structured lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2013-01-01

    as a combination of Generalized Phase Contrast and phase-only correlation. Such an analysis makes it convenient to optimize an mGPC system for different setup conditions. Results showing binary-only phase generation of dynamic spot arrays and line patterns are presented. © 201 Optical Society of America...

  14. Growth of ruby crystals by the heat exchanger method, phase 1: NSF small business innovation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C. P.

    1980-03-01

    Conditions for the growth of large, uniformly doped laser crystals by the heat exchanger method are explored. Determination of the melt point, selection of crucible material and establishment of furnace operating parameters are discussed. The melt point of ruby was found to be 2040 plus or minus 10 C. Molybdenum crucibles can be used to contain ruby in vacuum as well as under argon atmospheres at desired superheat temperatures over extended periods required for crystal growth. Thermodynamic analysis was conducted and vapor pressures of volatile species calculated. Experimentally, volatilization of chromium oxides was suppressed by using welded covers on crucibles and operating under an argon pressure in the furnace.

  15. Hemangioma rubi no couro cabeludo Cherry hemangioma in the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Pereira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma rubi (HR é dermatose de origem vascular extremamente freqüente, acometendo mais de 75% da população acima de 70 anos de idade. Em geral compõe-se de lesões múltiplas,localizadas predominantemente no alto do tronco e braços. Clinicamente é caracterizado por lesões que variam desde máculas puntiformes até lesões papulosas com cinco milímetros de diâmetro. As mais novas são vermelhas, em tons vivos, e as mais antigas podem ser azuladas. O HR é de etiologia desconhecida. Histologicamente chama atenção uma neoformação de vasos capilares, que se tornam dilatados e com fenestrações em suas paredes. A membrana basal está muito espessada e existe abundante estroma de colágeno entre os vasos. O presente trabalho demonstra a alta incidência do HR no couro cabeludo Em amostra de 171 pacientes, sendo 85 homens e 86 mulheres, o autor observou que 123 deles (72% tinham HR no couro cabeludo, localização em que o HR nunca foi descrito na literatura.Cherry hemangioma (CH is an extremely frequent dermatosis with vascular origin involving more than 75% of the population over 70 years of age. Normally they are multiplex spots and focus predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. Clinically they are characterized by pinpoint maculae and papules with up to 5 millimeters in diameter. The most recent lesions can be a strong red color while the older ones are bluish. The etiology of CH is still unknown. From the histologic standpoint, the neoformation of the capillary tube draws attention: they are very dilated and with fenestration along the wall. The basement membranes are thickened and there is abundant collagen stroma between the veins. This work demonstrates the high frequency of CH in the scalp. In a sample of 171 patients (85 men and 86 women the author noted that 123 (72% had CH in the scalp. However, according to the literature, CH in the scalp has never been described.

  16. Programmed temperature vaporizing injector to filter off disturbing high boiling and involatile material for on-line high performance liquid chromatography gas chromatography with on-column transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni

    2013-03-15

    Insertion of a programmed temperature vaporizing (PTV) injector under conditions of concurrent solvent recondensation (CSR) into the on-line HPLC-GC interface for on-column transfer (such as the retention gap technique with partially concurrent eluent evaporation) enables filtering off high boiling or involatile sample constituents by a desorption temperature adjusted to the required cut-off. Details of this technique were investigated and optimized. Memory effects, observed when transferred liquid was sucked backwards between the transfer line and the wall of the injector liner, can be kept low by a small purge flow rate through the transfer line at the end of the transfer and the release of the liquid through a narrow bore capillary kept away from the liner wall. The column entrance should be within the well heated zone of the injector to prevent losses of solute material retained on the liner wall during the splitless period. The desorption temperature must be maintained until an elevated oven temperature is reached to prevent peak broadening resulting of a cool inlet section in the bottom part of the injector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Balanced microwave filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jiasheng; Medina, Francisco; Martiacuten, Ferran

    2018-01-01

    This book presents and discusses strategies for the design and implementation of common-mode suppressed balanced microwave filters, including, narrowband, wideband, and ultra-wideband filters This book examines differential-mode, or balanced, microwave filters by discussing several implementations of practical realizations of these passive components. Topics covered include selective mode suppression, designs based on distributed and semi-lumped approaches, multilayer technologies, defect ground structures, coupled resonators, metamaterials, interference techniques, and substrate integrated waveguides, among others. Divided into five parts, Balanced Microwave Filters begins with an introduction that presents the fundamentals of balanced lines, circuits, and networks. Part 2 covers balanced transmission lines with common-mode noise suppression, including several types of common-mode filters and the application of such filters to enhance common-mode suppression in balanced bandpass filters. Next, Part 3 exa...

  18. Combine TV-L1 model with guided image filtering for wide and faint ring artifacts correction of in-line x-ray phase contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dongjiang; Qu, Gangrong; Hu, Chunhong; Zhao, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    In practice, mis-calibrated detector pixels give rise to wide and faint ring artifacts in the reconstruction image of the In-line phase-contrast computed tomography (IL-PC-CT). Ring artifacts correction is essential in IL-PC-CT. In this study, a novel method of wide and faint ring artifacts correction was presented based on combining TV-L1 model with guided image filtering (GIF) in the reconstruction image domain. The new correction method includes two main steps namely, the GIF step and the TV-L1 step. To validate the performance of this method, simulation data and real experimental synchrotron data are provided. The results demonstrate that TV-L1 model with GIF step can effectively correct the wide and faint ring artifacts for IL-PC-CT.

  19. On-Line Fault Detection in Wind Turbine Transmission System using Adaptive Filter and Robust Statistical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Frogley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the maintenance cost, avoid catastrophic failure, and improve the wind transmission system reliability, online condition monitoring system is critical important. In the real applications, many rotating mechanical faults, such as bearing surface defect, gear tooth crack, chipped gear tooth and so on generate impulsive signals. When there are these types of faults developing inside rotating machinery, each time the rotating components pass over the damage point, an impact force could be generated. The impact force will cause a ringing of the support structure at the structural natural frequency. By effectively detecting those periodic impulse signals, one group of rotating machine faults could be detected and diagnosed. However, in real wind turbine operations, impulsive fault signals are usually relatively weak to the background noise and vibration signals generated from other healthy components, such as shaft, blades, gears and so on. Moreover, wind turbine transmission systems work under dynamic operating conditions. This will further increase the difficulties in fault detection and diagnostics. Therefore, developing advanced signal processing methods to enhance the impulsive signals is in great needs.In this paper, an adaptive filtering technique will be applied for enhancing the fault impulse signals-to-noise ratio in wind turbine gear transmission systems. Multiple statistical features designed to quantify the impulsive signals of the processed signal are extracted for bearing fault detection. The multiple dimensional features are then transformed into one dimensional feature. A minimum error rate classifier will be designed based on the compressed feature to identify the gear transmission system with defect. Real wind turbine vibration signals will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented methodology.

  20. On-Line Temperature Estimation for Noisy Thermal Sensors Using a Smoothing Filter-Based Kalman Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic thermal management (DTM mechanisms utilize embedded thermal sensors to collect fine-grained temperature information for monitoring the real-time thermal behavior of multi-core processors. However, embedded thermal sensors are very susceptible to a variety of sources of noise, including environmental uncertainty and process variation. This causes the discrepancies between actual temperatures and those observed by on-chip thermal sensors, which seriously affect the efficiency of DTM. In this paper, a smoothing filter-based Kalman prediction technique is proposed to accurately estimate the temperatures from noisy sensor readings. For the multi-sensor estimation scenario, the spatial correlations among different sensor locations are exploited. On this basis, a multi-sensor synergistic calibration algorithm (known as MSSCA is proposed to improve the simultaneous prediction accuracy of multiple sensors. Moreover, an infrared imaging-based temperature measurement technique is also proposed to capture the thermal traces of an advanced micro devices (AMD quad-core processor in real time. The acquired real temperature data are used to evaluate our prediction performance. Simulation shows that the proposed synergistic calibration scheme can reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE by 1.2 ∘ C and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR by 15.8 dB (with a very small average runtime overhead compared with assuming the thermal sensor readings to be ideal. Additionally, the average false alarm rate (FAR of the corrected sensor temperature readings can be reduced by 28.6%. These results clearly demonstrate that if our approach is used to perform temperature estimation, the response mechanisms of DTM can be triggered to adjust the voltages, frequencies, and cooling fan speeds at more appropriate times.

  1. On-Line Temperature Estimation for Noisy Thermal Sensors Using a Smoothing Filter-Based Kalman Predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ou, Xingtao; Li, Zhi; Wei, Henglu; Zhou, Wei; Duan, Zhemin

    2018-02-02

    Dynamic thermal management (DTM) mechanisms utilize embedded thermal sensors to collect fine-grained temperature information for monitoring the real-time thermal behavior of multi-core processors. However, embedded thermal sensors are very susceptible to a variety of sources of noise, including environmental uncertainty and process variation. This causes the discrepancies between actual temperatures and those observed by on-chip thermal sensors, which seriously affect the efficiency of DTM. In this paper, a smoothing filter-based Kalman prediction technique is proposed to accurately estimate the temperatures from noisy sensor readings. For the multi-sensor estimation scenario, the spatial correlations among different sensor locations are exploited. On this basis, a multi-sensor synergistic calibration algorithm (known as MSSCA) is proposed to improve the simultaneous prediction accuracy of multiple sensors. Moreover, an infrared imaging-based temperature measurement technique is also proposed to capture the thermal traces of an advanced micro devices (AMD) quad-core processor in real time. The acquired real temperature data are used to evaluate our prediction performance. Simulation shows that the proposed synergistic calibration scheme can reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE) by 1.2 ∘ C and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by 15.8 dB (with a very small average runtime overhead) compared with assuming the thermal sensor readings to be ideal. Additionally, the average false alarm rate (FAR) of the corrected sensor temperature readings can be reduced by 28.6%. These results clearly demonstrate that if our approach is used to perform temperature estimation, the response mechanisms of DTM can be triggered to adjust the voltages, frequencies, and cooling fan speeds at more appropriate times.

  2. Photodissociation of H2+ by a ruby laser with ion energy analysis of ejected H+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozenne, J.B.; Pham, D.; Tadjeddine, M.; Durup, J.

    1974-01-01

    The kinetic energy released in the photodissociation of H 2 + by a ruby laser beam has been measured. The spectrum of the dissociation kinetic energy of H + +H shows several vibrational levels, and after deconvolution due to the energetic and angular resolution of the apparatus, gives a population of those vibrational levels, close to theoretical population [fr

  3. Whole genome sequences of the raspberry and strawberry pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of t...

  4. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Ruby Quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Field and laboratory data are presented for 693 water samples from the Ruby Quadrangle, Alaska. The samples were collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory; laboratory analysis and data reporting were performed by the Uranium Resource Evaluation Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  5. Ruby-Helix: an implementation of helical image processing based on object-oriented scripting language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlagel, Zoltan; Kikkawa, Yayoi S; Kikkawa, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    Helical image analysis in combination with electron microscopy has been used to study three-dimensional structures of various biological filaments or tubes, such as microtubules, actin filaments, and bacterial flagella. A number of packages have been developed to carry out helical image analysis. Some biological specimens, however, have a symmetry break (seam) in their three-dimensional structure, even though their subunits are mostly arranged in a helical manner. We refer to these objects as "asymmetric helices". All the existing packages are designed for helically symmetric specimens, and do not allow analysis of asymmetric helical objects, such as microtubules with seams. Here, we describe Ruby-Helix, a new set of programs for the analysis of "helical" objects with or without a seam. Ruby-Helix is built on top of the Ruby programming language and is the first implementation of asymmetric helical reconstruction for practical image analysis. It also allows easier and semi-automated analysis, performing iterative unbending and accurate determination of the repeat length. As a result, Ruby-Helix enables us to analyze motor-microtubule complexes with higher throughput to higher resolution.

  6. Populations of Phytophthora rubi Show Little Differentiation and High Rates of Migration Among States in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabima, Javier F; Coffey, Michael D; Zazada, Inga A; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2018-04-11

    Population genetics is a powerful tool to understand patterns and evolutionary processes that are involved in plant-pathogen emergence and adaptation to agricultural ecosystems. We are interested in studying the population dynamics of Phytophthora rubi, the causal agent of Phytophthora root rot in raspberry. P. rubi is found in the western United States, where most of the fresh and processed raspberries are produced. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to characterize genetic diversity in populations of P. rubi sampled in the United States and other countries. Our results confirm that P. rubi is a monophyletic species with complete lineage sorting from its sister taxon P. fragariae. Overall, populations of P. rubi show low genetic diversity across the western United States. Demographic analyses suggest that populations of P. rubi from the western United States are the source of pathogen migration to Europe. We found no evidence for population differentiation at a global or regional (western United States) level. Finally, our results provide evidence of migration from California and Oregon into Washington. This report provides new insights into the evolution and structure of global and western United States populations of the raspberry pathogen P. rubi, indicating that human activity might be involved in moving the pathogen among regions and fields.

  7. Energetic improvement with micro turbines of biogas generated in Rubis WWTP; Aprovechamiento energetico con microturbinas del biogas generado en la EDAR de Rubi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moragas, L.; Robuste, J.; Vicente, M.; Pozo, A.; Blasco, M.

    2009-07-01

    The WWTP of Rubi (Barcelona, Spain) treats 22.950 m{sup 3}/day by activated sludge system, with mesophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludges with a capacity of 3.500 m{sup 3}. Generated biogas is applied by means of indirect heating to digesters at 37 degree centigrade. To improve the energetic performance 2 micro turbines of 65 kW each were installed, with a 29% of unitary electric performance. After 5 months a third turbine was installed to generate more energy in peak hours. this solutions has shown to be very flexible, with reasonable technology and costs. (Author)

  8. Sensor Fusion Based on an Integrated Neural Network and Probability Density Function (PDF) Dual Kalman Filter for On-Line Estimation of Vehicle Parameters and States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Melendez, Leandro; Boada, Beatriz L; Boada, Maria Jesus L; Gauchia, Antonio; Diaz, Vicente

    2017-04-29

    Vehicles with a high center of gravity (COG), such as light trucks and heavy vehicles, are prone to rollover. This kind of accident causes nearly 33 % of all deaths from passenger vehicle crashes. Nowadays, these vehicles are incorporating roll stability control (RSC) systems to improve their safety. Most of the RSC systems require the vehicle roll angle as a known input variable to predict the lateral load transfer. The vehicle roll angle can be directly measured by a dual antenna global positioning system (GPS), but it is expensive. For this reason, it is important to estimate the vehicle roll angle from sensors installed onboard in current vehicles. On the other hand, the knowledge of the vehicle's parameters values is essential to obtain an accurate vehicle response. Some of vehicle parameters cannot be easily obtained and they can vary over time. In this paper, an algorithm for the simultaneous on-line estimation of vehicle's roll angle and parameters is proposed. This algorithm uses a probability density function (PDF)-based truncation method in combination with a dual Kalman filter (DKF), to guarantee that both vehicle's states and parameters are within bounds that have a physical meaning, using the information obtained from sensors mounted on vehicles. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Development of real-time radiation exposure dosimetry system using synthetic ruby for interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Win, Thet Pe; Muroi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kenki; Takahashi, Kaito; Usui, Akihito; Saito, Haruo; Kozakai, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IVR) tends to involve long procedures, consequently delivering high radiation doses to the patient. Radiation-induced injuries that occur because of the effect of the high radiation doses are a considerable problem for those performing IVR. For example, skin injuries can include skin erythema if the skin is exposed to radiation doses beyond the threshold level of 2 Gy. One of the reasons for this type of injury is that the local skin dose cannot be monitored in real time. Although there are systems employed to measure the exposure dose, some do not work in real time (such as thermoluminescence dosimeters and fluorescent glass dosimeters), while certain real-time measurement systems that enter the field of view (such as patient skin dosimeters and dosimeters using a nontoxic phosphor) interfere with IVR. However, synthetic ruby has been shown to emit light in response to radiation. The luminous wavelength is 693 nm. It is possible to monitor the radiation dose by detecting the emitted light. However, small synthetic rubies emit a tiny amount of light that is difficult to detect using common systems such as photodiodes. A large enough synthetic ruby to increase the quantity of emitted light would however enter the field of view and interfere with the IVR procedure. Additionally, although a photodiode system could reduce the system size, the data is susceptible to effects from the X-rays and outside temperature. Therefore, use of a sensitive photon counting system as used in nuclear medicine could potentially have a beneficial effect in detecting the weak light signal. A real-time radiation exposure dosimetry system for use in IVR should be sufficiently sensitive, not interfere with the IVR procedure, and ideally have the possibility of development into a system that can provide simultaneous multipoint measurements. This article discusses the development of a realtime radiation exposure dosimetry system for use in IVR that employs a small

  10. Coexistence of both gyroid chiralities in individual butterfly wing scales of Callophrys rubi

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Benjamin; Butz, Benjamin; Dieker, Christel; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.; Mecke, Klaus; Spiecker, Erdmann

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod biophotonic nanostructures provide a plethora of complex geometries. Although the variety of geometric forms observed reflects those found in amphiphilic self-assembly, the biological formation principles are more complex. This paper addresses the chiral single gyroid in the Green Hairstreak butterfly Callophrys rubi, robustly showing that the formation process produces both the left- and right-handed enantiomers but with distinctly different likelihood. An interpretation excludes t...

  11. Under the Radar: The First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Goss, W.

    2012-05-01

    Under the Radar, the First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott W. Miller Goss, NRAO Socorro NM Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981) was an eminent Australian scientist who made major contributions to the WWII radar effort (CSIR) from 1941 to 1945. In late 1945, she pioneered radio astronomy efforts at Dover Heights in Sydney, Australia at a beautiful cliff top overlooking the Tasman Sea. Again at Dover Heights, Payne-Scott carried out the first interferometry in radio astronomy using an Australian Army radar antenna as a radio telescope at sun-rise, 26 January 1946. She continued these ground breaking activities until 1951. Ruby Payne-Scott played a major role in discovering and elucidating the properties of Type III bursts from the sun, the most common of the five classes of transient phenomena from the solar corona. These bursts are one of the most intensively studied forms of radio emission in all of astronomy. She is also one of the inventors of aperture synthesis in radio astronomy. I examine her career at the University of Sydney and her conflicts with the CSIR hierarchy concerning the rights of women in the work place, specifically equal wages and the lack of permanent status for married women. I also explore her membership in the Communist Party of Australia as well as her partially released Australian Scientific Intelligence Organization file. Payne-Scott’s role as a major participant in the flourishing radio astronomy research of the post war era remains a remarkable story. She had a number of strong collaborations with the pioneers of early radio astronomy in Australia: Pawsey, Mills, Christiansen, Bolton and Little. I am currently working on a popular version of the Payne-Scott story; “Making Waves, The Story of Ruby Payne-Scott: Australian Pioneer Radio Astronomer” will be published in 2013 by Springer in the Astronomers’ Universe Series.

  12. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lin Sutherland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination. The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and magnesium contents. Oxygen isotope values (δ18O for the ruby and high Si-Ca-Ga corundum (20‰–25‰ and for sapphire (10‰–20‰ indicate typical crustal values, with values >20‰ being typical of carbonate genesis. The high Si-Ca-Ga ruby has high chromium (up to 3.2 wt % Cr and gallium (up to 0. 08 wt % Ga compared to most Mogok ruby (<2 wt % Cr; <0.02 wt % Ga. In trace element ratio plots the Si-Ca-Ga-rich corundum falls into separate fields from the typical Mogok metamorphic fields. The high Ga/Mg ratios (46–521 lie well within the magmatic range (>6, and with other features suggest a potential skarn-like, carbonate-related genesis with a high degree of magmatic fluid input The overall trace element results widen the range of different signatures identified within Mogok gem corundum suites and indicate complex genesis. The expanded geochemical platform, related to a variety of metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic sources, now provides a wider base for geographic typing of Mogok gem corundum suites. It allows more detailed comparisons with suites from other deposits and will assist identification of Mogok gem corundum sources used in jewelry.

  13. Electron beam physical vapor deposition of thin ruby films for remote temperature sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Coppens, Zachary J.; Greg Walker, D.; Valentine, Jason G.

    2013-01-01

    Thermographic phosphors (TGPs) possessing temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties have a wide range of uses in thermometry due to their remote access and large temperature sensitivity range. However, in most cases, phosphors are synthesized in powder form, which prevents their use in high resolution micro and nanoscale thermal microscopy. In the present study, we investigate the use of electron beam physical vapor deposition to fabricate thin films of chromium-doped aluminum oxide (Cr-Al 2 O 3 , ruby) thermographic phosphors. Although as-deposited films were amorphous and exhibited weak photoluminescence, the films regained the stoichiometry and α-Al 2 O 3 crystal structure of the combustion synthesized source powder after thermal annealing. As a consequence, the annealed films exhibit both strong photoluminescence and a temperature-dependent lifetime that decreases from 2.9 ms at 298 K to 2.1 ms at 370 K. Ruby films were also deposited on multiple substrates. To ensure a continuous film with smooth surface morphology and strong photoluminescence, we use a sapphire substrate, which is thermal expansion coefficient and lattice matched to the film. These thin ruby films can potentially be used as remote temperature sensors for probing the local temperatures of micro and nanoscale structures.

  14. Aplicação de ethephon e qualidade da uva 'Rubi' em Porto Feliz-SP Ethephon on 'Rubi' grapevine quality in Porto Feliz, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de uvas de mesa é uma importante atividade econômica no Estado de São Paulo. A região de Porto Feliz, em clima Cwa, apresenta grande número de agricultores familiares dedicados a esta atividade. Condições climáticas e manejo da cultura durante a fase de amadurecimento determinam a qualidade dos bagos, sendo o uso de fitorreguladores uma ferramenta útil para o ajustamento de atributos da qualidade. Avaliaram-se sete concentrações de ethephon, aplicadas por imersão dos cachos no início da mudança de coloração dos bagos, sobre a qualidade de uva 'Rubi', durante os ciclos de 2007 e de 2008, em propriedade comercial localizada em Porto Feliz-SP. Os atributos de qualidade avaliados foram a coloração de bagos, teor de sólidos solúveis totais e desbagoamento pós-colheita, sendo determinado também o índice de velocidade de desbagoamento. Os dados coletados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. Em 2007, observaram-se maiores coloração e teor de sólidos solúveis totais, associados às maiores temperaturas registradas no período entre o início de maturação e a colheita. O uso de ethephon, independentemente da concentração utilizada, promoveu coloração mais avermelhada dos bagos de 'Rubi' nas duas safras. Não houve efeito do uso do ethephon sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Não foi possível inferir sobre o efeito do etephon no desbagoamento em função do elevado coeficiente de variação. Estudos básicos para avaliar o efeito de fatores climáticos, nutricionais e de manejo do vinhedo são necessários no desenvolvimento de coloração dos bagos da cultivar 'Rubi' em clima tropical.Grapevine production for fresh market is an important economic activity in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The region of Porto Feliz is located in Cwa climate and concentrates several small producers. Climatic conditions and cultural practices during fruit maturation determine berry quality, and

  15. Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nischkauer, Winfried [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vanhaecke, Frank [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Bernacchi, Sébastien; Herwig, Christoph [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Limbeck, Andreas, E-mail: Andreas.Limbeck@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-11-01

    Nebulising liquid samples and using the aerosol thus obtained for further analysis is the standard method in many current analytical techniques, also with inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based devices. With such a set-up, quantification via external calibration is usually straightforward for samples with aqueous or close-to-aqueous matrix composition. However, there is a variety of more complex samples. Such samples can be found in medical, biological, technological and industrial contexts and can range from body fluids, like blood or urine, to fuel additives or fermentation broths. Specialized nebulizer systems or careful digestion and dilution are required to tackle such demanding sample matrices. One alternative approach is to convert the liquid into a dried solid and to use laser ablation for sample introduction. Up to now, this approach required the application of internal standards or matrix-adjusted calibration due to matrix effects. In this contribution, we show a way to circumvent these matrix effects while using simple external calibration for quantification. The principle of representative sampling that we propose uses radial line-scans across the dried residue. This compensates for centro-symmetric inhomogeneities typically observed in dried spots. The effectiveness of the proposed sampling strategy is exemplified via the determination of phosphorus in biochemical fermentation media. However, the universal viability of the presented measurement protocol is postulated. Detection limits using laser ablation-ICP-optical emission spectrometry were in the order of 40 μg mL{sup −1} with a reproducibility of 10 % relative standard deviation (n = 4, concentration = 10 times the quantification limit). The reported sensitivity is fit-for-purpose in the biochemical context described here, but could be improved using ICP-mass spectrometry, if future analytical tasks would require it. Trueness of the proposed method was investigated by cross-validation with

  16. Unusual ruby-sapphire transition in alluvial megacrysts, Cenozoic basaltic gem field, New England, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Frederick L.; Graham, Ian T.; Harris, Stephen J.; Coldham, Terry; Powell, William; Belousova, Elena A.; Martin, Laure

    2017-05-01

    Rare ruby crystals appear among prevailing sapphire crystals mined from placers within basaltic areas in the New England gem-field, New South Wales, Australia. New England ruby (NER) has distinctive trace element features compared to those from ruby elsewhere in Australia and indeed most ruby from across the world. The NER suite includes ruby (up to 3370 ppm Cr), pink sapphire (up to 1520 ppm Cr), white sapphire (up to 910 ppm) and violet, mauve, purple, or bluish sapphire (up to 1410 ppm Cr). Some crystals show outward growth banding in this respective colour sequence. All four colour zones are notably high in Ga (up to 310 ppm) and Si (up to 1820 ppm). High Ga and Ga/Mg values are unusual in ruby and its trace element plots (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and suggests that magmatic-metasomatic inputs were involved in the NER suite genesis. In situ oxygen isotope analyses (secondary ion mass spectrometry) across the NER suite colour range showed little variation (n = 22; δ18O = 4.4 ± 0.4, 2σ error), and are values typical for corundum associated with ultramafic/mafic rocks. The isolated NER xenocryst suite, corroded by basalt transport and with few internal inclusions, presents a challenge in deciphering its exact origin. Detailed consideration of its high Ga chemistry in relation to the known geology of the surrounding region was used to narrow down potential sources. These include Late Palaeozoic-Triassic fractionated I-type granitoid magmas or Mesozoic-Cenozoic felsic fractionates from basaltic magmas that interacted with early Palaeozoic Cr-bearing ophiolite bodies in the New England Orogen. Other potential sources may lie deeper within lower crust-mantle metamorphic assemblages, but need to match the anomalous high-Ga geochemistry of the New England ruby suite.

  17. Batch statistical process control of a fluid bed granulation process using in-line spatial filter velocimetry and product temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraeve, A; Van den Kerkhof, T; Hellings, M; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2011-04-18

    Fluid bed granulation is a batch process, which is characterized by the processing of raw materials for a predefined period of time, consisting of a fixed spraying phase and a subsequent drying period. The present study shows the multivariate statistical modeling and control of a fluid bed granulation process based on in-line particle size distribution (PSD) measurements (using spatial filter velocimetry) combined with continuous product temperature registration using a partial least squares (PLS) approach. Via the continuous in-line monitoring of the PSD and product temperature during granulation of various reference batches, a statistical batch model was developed allowing the real-time evaluation and acceptance or rejection of future batches. Continuously monitored PSD and product temperature process data of 10 reference batches (X-data) were used to develop a reference batch PLS model, regressing the X-data versus the batch process time (Y-data). Two PLS components captured 98.8% of the variation in the X-data block. Score control charts in which the average batch trajectory and upper and lower control limits are displayed were developed. Next, these control charts were used to monitor 4 new test batches in real-time and to immediately detect any deviations from the expected batch trajectory. By real-time evaluation of new batches using the developed control charts and by computation of contribution plots of deviating process behavior at a certain time point, batch losses or reprocessing can be prevented. Immediately after batch completion, all PSD and product temperature information (i.e., a batch progress fingerprint) was used to estimate some granule properties (density and flowability) at an early stage, which can improve batch release time. Individual PLS models relating the computed scores (X) of the reference PLS model (based on the 10 reference batches) and the density, respectively, flowabililty as Y-matrix, were developed. The scores of the 4 test

  18. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  19. RUBI -a Reference mUltiscale Boiling Investigation for the Fluid Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Nils; Stelzer, Marco; Schoele-Schulz, Olaf; Picker, Gerold; Ranebo, Hans; Dettmann, Jan; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Winter, Josef; Tadrist, Lounes; Stephan, Peter; Grassi, Walter; di Marco, Paolo; Colin, Catherine; Piero Celata, Gian; Thome, John; Kabov, Oleg

    Boiling is a two-phase heat transfer process where large heat fluxes can be transferred with small driving temperature differences. The high performance of boiling makes the process very interesting for heat transfer applications and it is widely used in industry for example in power plants, refrigeration systems, and electronics cooling. Nevertheless, due to the large number of involved phenomena and their often highly dynamic nature a fundamental understanding and closed theoretical description is not yet accomplished. The design of systems incorporating the process is generally based on empirical correlations, which are commonly accompanied by large uncertainties and, thus, has to be verified by expensive test campaigns. Hence, strong efforts are currently made to develop applicable numerical tools for a reliable prediction of the boiling heat transfer performance and limits. In order to support and validate this development and, in particular as a precondition, to enhance the basic knowledge about boiling the comprehensive multi-scale experiment RUBI (Reference mUlti-scale Boiling Investigation) for the Fluid Science Laboratory on board the ISS is currently in preparation. The scientific objectives and requirements of RUBI have been defined by the members of the ESA topical team "Boiling and Multiphase Flow" and addresses fundamental aspects of boiling phenomena. The main objectives are the measurement of wall temperature and heat flux distribution underneath vapour bubbles with high spatial and tem-poral resolution by means of IR thermography accompanied by the synchronized high-speed observation of the bubble shapes. Furthermore, the fluid temperature in the vicinity and inside of the bubbles will be measured by a micro sensor array. Additional stimuli are the generation of an electric field above the heating surface and a shear flow created by a forced convection loop. The objective of these stimuli is to impose forces on the bubbles and investigate the

  20. Backflushable filter insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, R.C.; Vandenberg, T.; Randolph, M.C.; Lewis, T.B.; Gillis, P.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Filter elements are mounted on a tube plate beneath an accumulator chamber whose wall is extended by skirt and flange to form a closure for the top of pressure vessel. The accumulator chamber is annular around a central pipe which serves as the outlet for filtered water passing from the filter elements. The chamber contains filtered compressed air from supply. Periodically the filtration of water is stopped and vessel is drained. Then a valve is opened, allowing the accumulated air to flow from chamber up a pipe and down pipe, pushing the filtered water from pipe back through the filter elements to clean them. The accumulator chamber is so proportioned, relative to the volume of the system communicating therewith during backflushing, that the equilibrium pressure during backflushing cannot exceed the pressure rating of the vessel. However a line monitors the pressure at the top of the vessel, and if it rises too far a bleed valve is automatically opened to depressurise the system. The chamber is intended to replace the lid of an existing vessel to convert a filter using filter aid to one using permanent filter elements. (author)

  1. Pigmented guinea pig skin irradiated with Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Morphologic and histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dover, J.S.; Margolis, R.J.; Polla, L.L.; Watanabe, S.; Hruza, G.J.; Parrish, J.A.; Anderson, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Q-switched ruby laser pulses cause selective damage to cutaneous pigmented cells. Repair of this selective damage has not been well described. Therefore, using epilated pigmented and albino guinea pig skin, we studied the acute injury and tissue repair caused by 40-ns, Q-switched ruby laser pulses. Gross observation and light and electron microscopy were performed. No specific changes were evident in the albino guinea pigs. In pigmented animals, with radiant exposures of 0.4 J/cm2 or greater, white spots confined to the 2.5-mm exposure sites developed immediately and faded over 20 minutes. Delayed depigmentation occurred at seven to ten days, followed by full repigmentation by four to eight weeks. Regrowing hairs in sites irradiated at and above 0.4 J/cm2 remained white for at least four months. Histologically, vacuolation of pigment-laden cells was seen immediately in the epidermis and the follicular epithelium at exposures of 0.3 J/cm2 and greater. Melanosomal disruption was seen immediately by electron microscopy at and above 0.3 J/cm2. Over the next seven days, epidermal necrosis was followed by regeneration of a depigmented epidermis. By four months, melanosomes and melanin pigmentation had returned; however, hair follicles remained depigmented and devoid of melanocytes. This study demonstrates that selective melanosomal disruption caused by Q-switched ruby laser pulses leads to transient cutaneous depigmentation and persistent follicular depigmentation. Potential exists for selective treatment of pigmented epidermal and dermal lesions with this modality.

  2. Ethephon use and application timing of abscisic acid for improving color of 'Rubi' table grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of ethephon and of abscisic acid (ABA application timing on the color of 'Rubi' Table grape. Eight treatments were evaluated: control, without application; ethephon 500 mg L‑1 applied seven days after veraison (7 DAV; and two concentrations of ABA (200 and 400 mg L‑1 arranged with three application timings at 7 DAV, at 15 days before harvest (DBH, and at 7 DAV + 15 DBH. ABA does not modify physical‑chemical characteristics of the cluster and improves the color of grapes, especially when applied twice (7 DAV + 15 DBH at the concentration of 400 mg L‑1.

  3. Measurements of the parametric decay of CO2 laser radiation into plasma waves at quarter critical density using ruby laser Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuss, J.J.; Chu, T.K.; Johnson, L.C.

    1977-11-01

    We report the results of small-angle ruby laser Thomson scattering measurements of the parametric excitation of plasma waves by CO 2 laser radiation at quarter-critical density in a laser-heated gas target plasma. From supplementary data obtained from interferometry and large-angle ruby laser scattering we infer that the threshold conditions for a convective decay are satisfied

  4. 77 FR 21805 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Land in Mesa County, CO (Ruby-Horsethief Stretch of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... public: The Ruby-Horsethief Business Plan (posted in November 2011) and the Ruby-Horsethief Environmental... Plan outlines operational goals of the area and the purpose of the fee program. The EA, Decision Record... related to the fee and permit. Both the Business Plan and the EA provide management direction for public...

  5. Mutation of Rubie, a novel long non-coding RNA located upstream of Bmp4, causes vestibular malformation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A Roberts

    Full Text Available The vestibular apparatus of the vertebrate inner ear uses three fluid-filled semicircular canals to sense angular acceleration of the head. Malformation of these canals disrupts the sense of balance and frequently causes circling behavior in mice. The Epistatic circler (Ecl is a complex mutant derived from wildtype SWR/J and C57L/J mice. Ecl circling has been shown to result from the epistatic interaction of an SWR-derived locus on chromosome 14 and a C57L-derived locus on chromosome 4, but the causative genes have not been previously identified.We developed a mouse chromosome substitution strain (CSS-14 that carries an SWR/J chromosome 14 on a C57BL/10J genetic background and, like Ecl, exhibits circling behavior due to lateral semicircular canal malformation. We utilized CSS-14 to identify the chromosome 14 Ecl gene by positional cloning. Our candidate interval is located upstream of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4 and contains an inner ear-specific, long non-coding RNA that we have designated Rubie (RNA upstream of Bmp4 expressed in inner ear. Rubie is spliced and polyadenylated, and is expressed in developing semicircular canals. However, we discovered that the SWR/J allele of Rubie is disrupted by an intronic endogenous retrovirus that causes aberrant splicing and premature polyadenylation of the transcript. Rubie lies in the conserved gene desert upstream of Bmp4, within a region previously shown to be important for inner ear expression of Bmp4. We found that the expression patterns of Bmp4 and Rubie are nearly identical in developing inner ears.Based on these results and previous studies showing that Bmp4 is essential for proper vestibular development, we propose that Rubie is the gene mutated in Ecl mice, that it is involved in regulating inner ear expression of Bmp4, and that aberrant Bmp4 expression contributes to the Ecl phenotype.

  6. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Nayak, B.B.; Mishra, B.K. [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Cr and N ion implantation on natural rubies of low aesthetic quality. • Cr-ion implantation improves colour tone from red to deep red (pigeon eye red). • N-ion implantation at fluence of 3 × 10{sup 17} causes blue coloration on surface. • Certain extent of amorphization is observed in the case of N-ion implantation. - Abstract: Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV–Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 10{sup 17} N-ions/cm{sup 2} fluence, formation of colour centres (F{sup +}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 2}{sup +} and F{sub 2}{sup 2+}) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  7. Infinite projected entangled-pair state algorithm for ruby and triangle-honeycomb lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Saeed S.; Orús, Román; Kargarian, Mehdi; Langari, Abdollah

    2018-03-01

    The infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) algorithm is one of the most efficient techniques for studying the ground-state properties of two-dimensional quantum lattice Hamiltonians in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we show how the algorithm can be adapted to explore nearest-neighbor local Hamiltonians on the ruby and triangle-honeycomb lattices, using the corner transfer matrix (CTM) renormalization group for 2D tensor network contraction. Additionally, we show how the CTM method can be used to calculate the ground-state fidelity per lattice site and the boundary density operator and entanglement entropy (EE) on an infinite cylinder. As a benchmark, we apply the iPEPS method to the ruby model with anisotropic interactions and explore the ground-state properties of the system. We further extract the phase diagram of the model in different regimes of the couplings by measuring two-point correlators, ground-state fidelity, and EE on an infinite cylinder. Our phase diagram is in agreement with previous studies of the model by exact diagonalization.

  8. Q-switched ruby laser irradiation of normal human skin. Histologic and ultrastructural findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruza, G J; Dover, J S; Flotte, T J; Goetschkes, M; Watanabe, S; Anderson, R R

    1991-12-01

    The Q-switched ruby laser is used for treatment of tatoos. The effects of Q-switched ruby laser pulses on sun-exposed and sun-protected human skin, as well as senile lentigines, were investigated with clinical observation, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A pinpricklike sensation occurred at radiant exposures as low as 0.2 J/cm2. Immediate erythema, delayed edema, and immediate whitening occurred with increasing radiant exposure. The threshold for immediate whitening varied inversely with skin pigmentation, ranging from a mean of 1.4 J/cm2 in lentigines to 3.1 J/cm2 in sun-protected skin. Transmission electron microscopy showed immediate alteration of mature melanosomes and nuclei within keratinocytes and melanocytes, but stage I and II melanosomes were unaffected. Histologically, immediate injury was confined to the epidermis. There was minimal inflammatory response 1 day after exposure. After 1 week, subthreshold exposures induced hyperpigmentation, with epidermal hyperplasia and increased melanin staining noted histologically. At higher radiant exposures, hypopigmentation occurred with desquamation of a pigmented scale/crust. All sites returned to normal skin color and texture without scarring within 3 to 6 months. These observations suggest that the human skin response to selective photothermolysis of pigmented cells is similar to that reported in animal models, including low radiant exposure stimulation of melanogenesis and high radiant exposure lethal injury to pigmented epidermal cells.

  9. Melanosomes are a primary target of Q-switched ruby laser irradiation in guinea pig skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polla, L.L.; Margolis, R.J.; Dover, J.S.; Whitaker, D.; Murphy, G.F.; Jacques, S.L.; Anderson, R.R.

    1987-09-01

    The specific targeting of melanosomes may allow for laser therapy of pigmented cutaneous lesions. The mechanism of selective destruction of pigmented cells by various lasers, however, has not been fully clarified. Black, brown, and albino guinea pigs were exposed to optical pulses at various radiant exposure doses from a Q-switched, 40 nsec, 694 nm ruby laser. Biopsies were analyzed by light and electron microscopy (EM). Albino animals failed to develop clinical or microscopic evidence of cutaneous injury after irradiation. In both black and brown animals, the clinical threshold for gross change was 0.4 J/cm2, which produced an ash-white spot. By light microscopy, alterations appeared at 0.3 J/cm2 and included separation at the dermoepidermal junction, and the formation of vacuolated epidermal cells with a peripheral cytoplasmic condensation of pigment. By EM, enlarged melanosomes with a central lucent zone were observed within affected epidermal cells at 0.3 J/cm2. At 0.8 and 1.2 J/cm2, individual melanosomes were more intensely damaged and disruption of melanosomes deep in the hair papillae was observed. Dermal-epidermal blisters were formed precisely at the lamina lucida, leaving basal cell membranes and hemidesmosomes intact. Possible mechanisms for melanosomal injury are discussed. These observations show that the effects of the Q-switched ruby laser are melanin-specific and melanin-dependent, and may be useful in the selective destruction of pigmented as well as superficial cutaneous lesions.

  10. Production of gold and ruby-red lustres in Gubbio (Umbria, Italy) during the Renaissance period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

    The aim of this work is to gain a further insight into the knowledge of the production process of lustre-decorated ancient majolicas. Lustre is a sophisticated technique employed in the decoration of majolicas as used in central Italy during the Renaissance period. It consists of a beautiful iridescent gold or ruby-red thin metallic film, containing silver, copper and other substances and obtained in a reducing atmosphere on a previously glazed ceramic. Nowadays, it is not possible to replicate the outstanding results obtained by the ancient ceramicists, since the original recipes were lost. It is quite interesting to study lustre-production technology by means of analytical techniques now employed for advanced research on materials (XRD, ETAAS, ICP-OES, TEM-EDX-SAED and UV-Vis). In this work, we have focussed our attention on ceramic fragments decorated with both gold and ruby-red lustres, which were difficult to obtain due to complex reduction conditions required and which were a prerogative of Gubbio production. The two lustre colours differ in their chemical composition as well in their nanostructure. The presence of bismuth was disclosed and it was ascertained to be a distinctive feature of the Italian production.

  11. Making waves the story of Ruby Payne-Scott : Australian pioneer radio astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, M

    2013-01-01

    This book is an abbreviated, partly re-written version of "Under the Radar - The First Woman in Radio Astronomy: Ruby Payne-Scott." It addresses a general readership interested in historical and sociological aspects of astronomy and presents the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott (1912 – 1981). As the first female radio astronomer (and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy), she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. She also played a major role in the design of the Australian government's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research radars, which were in turn of vital importance in the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II. These radars were used by military personnel from Australia, the United States and New Zealand. From a sociological perspective, her career offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs, this book offers fascinating...

  12. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Laux, Peter; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace—gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS—GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC—ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm2 skin.

  13. Neutron Beam Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of filters is to transmit neutrons with selected energy, while remove unwanted ones from the incident neutron beam. This reduces the background, and the number of spurious. The types of commonly used now-a-day neutron filters and their properties are discussed in the present work. There are three major types of neutron filters. The first type is filter of selective thermal neutron. It transmits the main reflected neutrons from a crystal monochromate, while reject the higher order contaminations accompanying the main one. Beams coming from the moderator always contain unwanted radiation like fast neutrons and gamma-rays which contribute to experimental background and to the biological hazard potential. Such filter type is called filter of whole thermal neutron spectrum. The third filter type is it transmits neutrons with energies in the resonance energy range (En . 1 KeV). The main idea of such neutron filter technique is the use of large quantities of a certain material which have the deep interference minima in its total neutron cross-section. By transmitting reactor neutrons through bulk layer of such material, one can obtain the quasimonochromatic neutron lines instead of white reactor spectrum.

  14. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  15. Computerized tomographic scanner with shaped radiation filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Walters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention comprises a shaped filter and a filter correction circuitry for computerized tomographic scanners. The shaped filter is a generally u-shaped block of filter material which is adapted to be mounted between the source of radiation and the scan circle. The u-shaped block has a parabolic recess. The filter material may be beryllium, aluminum, sulphur, calcium, titanium, erbium, copper, and compounds including oxides and alloys thereof. The filter correction circuit comprises a first filter correction profile adding circuit for adding a first scaler valve to each intensity valve in a data line. The data line is operated on by a beam hardness correction polynomial. After the beam hardness polynomial correction operation, a second filter correction circuit adds a second filter correction profile consisting of a table of scalor values, one corresponding to each intensity reading in the data line

  16. Exogenous gibberellins inhibit coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination and cause cell death in the embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Nijsse, J.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination by exogenous gibberellins (GAs) and the requirement of germination for endogenous GA were studied. Exogenous GA4+7 inhibited coffee seed germination. The response to GA4+7 showed two sensitivity thresholds: a lower one

  17. Ruby lidar observations and trajectory analysis of stratospheric aerosols injected by the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, O.; Tabata, T.; Akita, I.; Okada, Y.; Naito, K.

    1985-01-01

    Large amounts of aerosol particles and gases were injected into the lower stratosphere by the violet volcanic eruptions of El Chichon on March 28, and April 3 and 4, 1982. Observational results obtained by a ruby lidar at Tsukuba (36.1 deg N, 140.1 deg E) are shown, and some points of latitude dispersion processes of aerosols are discussed.

  18. Calcium rubies: a family of red-emitting functionalizable indicators suitable for two-photon Ca2+ imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, Mayeul; Loukou, Christina; Yakovlev, Aleksey V; Wilms, Christian D; Li, Dongdong; Evrard, Alexis; Zamaleeva, Alsu; Bourdieu, Laurent; Léger, Jean-François; Ropert, Nicole; Eilers, Jens; Oheim, Martin; Feltz, Anne; Mallet, Jean-Maurice

    2012-09-12

    We designed Calcium Rubies, a family of functionalizable BAPTA-based red-fluorescent calcium (Ca(2+)) indicators as new tools for biological Ca(2+) imaging. The specificity of this Ca(2+)-indicator family is its side arm, attached on the ethylene glycol bridge that allows coupling the indicator to various groups while leaving open the possibility of aromatic substitutions on the BAPTA core for tuning the Ca(2+)-binding affinity. Using this possibility we now synthesize and characterize three different CaRubies with affinities between 3 and 22 μM. Their long excitation and emission wavelengths (peaks at 586/604 nm) allow their use in otherwise challenging multicolor experiments, e.g., when combining Ca(2+) uncaging or optogenetic stimulation with Ca(2+) imaging in cells expressing fluorescent proteins. We illustrate this capacity by the detection of Ca(2+) transients evoked by blue light in cultured astrocytes expressing CatCh, a light-sensitive Ca(2+)-translocating channelrhodopsin linked to yellow fluorescent protein. Using time-correlated single-photon counting, we measured fluorescence lifetimes for all CaRubies and demonstrate a 10-fold increase in the average lifetime upon Ca(2+) chelation. Since only the fluorescence quantum yield but not the absorbance of the CaRubies is Ca(2+)-dependent, calibrated two-photon fluorescence excitation measurements of absolute Ca(2+) concentrations are feasible.

  19. Reflectivity of the gyroid biophotonic crystals in the ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comparison of the computer simulation data of gyroid nanostructures with optical measurements (reflectivity spectra and scattering diagrams) of ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi. We demonstrate that the omnidirectional green colour arises from the

  20. From Microwave Filter to Digital Filter and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Arne Brejning

    1989-01-01

    A new very simple state variable flow graph representation for interdigital transmission line bandpass filters is presented, which has led to two important results: 1) A new type of digital filter with properties, that surpass the properties of most other (all pole) digital filtertypes. 2) The st...

  1. Pulsed Q-switched ruby laser annealing of Bi implanted Si crystals investigated by channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutch, B.I.; Shih-Chang, T.; Shang-Hwai, L.; Zu-Yao, Z.; Jia-Zeng, H.; Ren-Zhi, D.; Te-Chang, C.; De-Xin, C.

    1979-01-01

    Channeling was used to investigate pulsed, Q switched ruby-laser annealed and thermally annealed Si single crystals implanted with 40-keV Bi ions to a dose of 10 15 atoms/cm 2 . After thermal annealing, residual damage decreased with increasing annealing temperature to a minimum value of 30% at 900 0 C. The Bi atoms in substitutional sites reached a maximum value (50%) after annealing at 750 0 C but decreased with increasing annealing temperature. Out diffusion of Bi atoms occurred at temperatures higher than 625 0 C. For comparison, the residual damage disappeared almost completely after pulsed-laser annealing (30 ns pulse width, Energy, E = 3J/cm 2 ). The concentration of Bi in Si exceeded its solid solubility by an order of magnitude; 95% of Bi atoms were annealed to substitutional sites. Laser pulses of different energies were used to investigate the efficiency of annealing. (author)

  2. Gamma radiation induced cytological abnormalities in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. pusa ruby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-03-01

    Healthy dry seeds of pusa ruby variety of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR dose levels. Meiotic studies were made in treated plants as well as in control plants. At metaphase I, meiotic abnormalities like clumping and stickiness of chromosomes, univalents, multivalents, fragments and irregular grouping of chromosomes were observed. At anaphase I, there were laggards and unequal grouping of chromosomes at poles. Germination percentage and pollen fertility were also studied. Pollen sterility seems to be the cumulative result of various abnormal meiotic stages as well as of physiological and genetic damages induced probably by breakage of chromosomes. The frequency of meiotic abnormalities with reference to the effect of radiation doses is discussed.

  3. A transgressão do fantastico em Murilo Rubião

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Dobashi Furuzato

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho é dividido em três partes. Na primeira, investigamos o percurso da obra do contista mineiro Murilo Eugênio Rubião (1916-1991), juntamente com a sua recepção crítica. Na segunda, partindo da afirmação de que Murilo seja o precursor do fantástico moderno em nossa prosa de ficção, realizamos um estudo teórico sobre este gênero literário. Na terceira parte, buscamos descrever todos os contos do autor, em função de um determinado conceito de fantástico. Por fim, levantamos um...

  4. Gamma radiation induced cytological abnormalities in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. pusa ruby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, N.; Rao, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Healthy dry seeds of pusa ruby variety of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR and 50 KR dose levels. Meiotic studies were made in treated plants as well as in control plants. At metaphase I, meiotic abnormalities like clumping and stickiness of chromosomes, univalents, multivalents, fragments and irregular grouping of chromosomes were observed. At anaphase I, there were laggards and unequal grouping of chromosomes at poles. Germination percentage and pollen fertility were also studied. Pollen sterility seems to be the cumulative result of various abnormal meiotic stages as well as of physiological and genetic damages induced probably by breakage of chromosomes. The frequency of meiotic abnormalities with reference to the effect of radiation doses is discussed. (author)

  5. Replacement of fluid-filter elements without interruption of flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, R. A.; Ward, J. B.

    1969-01-01

    Gatling-type filter assembly, preloaded with several filter elements enables filter replacement without breaking into the operative fluid system. When the filter element becomes contaminated, a unit inner subassembly is rotated 60 degrees to position a clean filter in the line.

  6. Filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)

  7. Laboratory model for the study and treatment of traumatic tattoos with the Q-switched ruby laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Richard T.; Lach, Elliot

    1994-09-01

    The outcome of laser tattoo removal is dependent on the type of laser and characteristics of the tattoo. A rabbit model was developed to study the Q-switched ruby laser in the treatment of traumatic tattooing. On the backs of white New Zealand rabbits, three 3 cm patches were dermabraded and dressed with carbon black and antibiotic ointment. After a healing period of eight weeks, pre-treatment biopsies were obtained, and the rabbits were treated with the Q- switched ruby laser at various fluence settings with a pulse width of 34 nsec. At set intervals, further biopsies were obtained and studied with light and electron microscopic analysis, and photodocumentation was performed. Grossly, clearance of the tattooed areas was noted in the laser treated specimens. More effective clearance was observed with higher fluence treatment. No infections occurred, and hair regrowth was noted in all cases, though the rate seemed to be altered by laser treatment.

  8. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  9. Reflectivity of the gyroid biophotonic crystals in the ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi

    OpenAIRE

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comparison of the computer simulation data of gyroid nanostructures with optical measurements (reflectivity spectra and scattering diagrams) of ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi. We demonstrate that the omnidirectional green colour arises from the gyroid cuticular structure grown in the domains of different orientation. We also show that this three-dimensional structure, operating as a biophotonic crystal, gives rise to various polarization ef...

  10. Development of technology and equipment for trapping emissions from a vitrification line, including the manufacture of selected nodes (flow separator, NOx absorber, aerosol filters)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.; Kanka, J.; Koutova, S.; Petioky, K.; Seidlova, B.

    1993-03-01

    The technology was designed of a processing line for trapping nitrogen oxides emerging during the treatment of liquid wastes from nuclear power plants. In this design, absorption with a chemical reaction is combined with subsequent trapping of the then formed aerosols of the acids on a sprayed fibrous insert flown through by the gas treated. The degree of absorption is 94% and more for NO 2 , and 43% on average for NO. (J.B). 10 tabs., 3 figs., 11 refs

  11. A quick on-line state of health estimation method for Li-ion battery with incremental capacity curves processed by Gaussian filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Abdel-Monem, Mohamed; Gopalakrishnan, Rahul; Berecibar, Maitane; Nanini-Maury, Elise; Omar, Noshin; van den Bossche, Peter; Van Mierlo, Joeri

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes an advanced state of health (SoH) estimation method for high energy NMC lithium-ion batteries based on the incremental capacity (IC) analysis. IC curves are used due to their ability of detect and quantify battery degradation mechanism. A simple and robust smoothing method is proposed based on Gaussian filter to reduce the noise on IC curves, the signatures associated with battery ageing can therefore be accurately identified. A linear regression relationship is found between the battery capacity with the positions of features of interest (FOIs) on IC curves. Results show that the developed SoH estimation function from one single battery cell is able to evaluate the SoH of other batteries cycled under different cycling depth with less than 2.5% maximum errors, which proves the robustness of the proposed method on SoH estimation. With this technique, partial charging voltage curves can be used for SoH estimation and the testing time can be therefore largely reduced. This method shows great potential to be applied in reality, as it only requires static charging curves and can be easily implemented in battery management system (BMS).

  12. 16 CFR 23.23 - Misuse of the words “ruby,” “sapphire,” “emerald,” “topaz,” “stone,” “birthstone,” “gemstone,” etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the words âruby,â âsapphire,â... PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.23 Misuse of the words “ruby,” “sapphire,” “emerald,” “topaz,” “stone,” “birthstone,” “gemstone,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive to use the unqualified words “ruby,” “sapphire...

  13. Light and electron microscopic analysis of tattoos treated by Q-switched ruby laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.R.; Anderson, R.R.; Gange, R.W.; Michaud, N.A.; Flotte, T.J. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (USA))

    1991-07-01

    Short-pulse laser exposures can be used to alter pigmented structures in tissue by selective photothermolysis. Potential mechanisms of human tattoo pigment lightening with Q-switched ruby laser were explored by light and electron microscopy. Significant variation existed between and within tattoos. Electron microscopy of untreated tattoos revealed membrane-bound pigment granules, predominantly within fibroblasts and macrophages, and occasionally in mast cells. These granules contained pigment particles ranging from 2-in diameter. Immediately after exposure, dose-related injury was observed in cells containing pigment. Some pigment particles were smaller and lamellated. At fluences greater than or equal to 3 J/cm2, dermal vacuoles and homogenization of collagen bundles immediately adjacent to extracellular pigment were occasionally observed. A brisk neutrophilic infiltrate was apparent by 24 h. Eleven days later, the pigment was again intracellular. Half of the biopsies at 150 d revealed a mild persistent lymphocytic infiltrate. There was no fibrosis except for one case of clinical scarring. These findings confirm that short-pulse radiation can be used to selectively disrupt cells containing tattoo pigments. The physial alteration of pigment granules, redistribution, and elimination appear to account for clinical lightening of the tattoos.

  14. A tunable narrow-line-width multi-wavelength Er-doped fiber laser based on a high birefringence fiber ring mirror and an auto-tracking filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiu-jie; Liu, Yan-ge; Si, Li-bin; Guo, Zhan-cheng; Fu, Sheng-gui; Kai, Gui-yun; Dong, Xiao-yi

    2008-01-01

    A novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser operating in C-band is proposed and successfully demonstrated. The wavelength interval between the wavelengths is about 0.22 nm. The 3 dB bandwidth of the laser is about 0.012 nm, and the output power reaches 4.8 mW. By using a high birefringence fiber ring mirror (HiBi-FLM) and a tunable FBG, the laser realizes switchable and tunable characteristic. The mode hopping can be effectively prevented. Moreover, this laser can improve wavelength stability significantly by taking advantage of an un-pumped Er3+-doped fiber at the standing-wave section. The laser can operate in stable narrow-line-width with single-, dual-wavelength, and unstable triple-wavelength output at room temperature.

  15. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  16. Filter This

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Barbakoff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...

  17. Surface and bulk 3D analysis of natural and processed ruby using electron probe micro analyzer and X-ray micro CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Rakesh K., E-mail: rakesh.materialscience@gmail.com; Singh, Saroj K.; Mishra, B.K.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Firm linking between two advance techniques: Micro-CT and EPMA for mineral analysis. • Attempt to identify and differentiate the treated gem stone from natural counterpart. • 3D structural and surface elemental analysis of the natural gem stone. - Abstract: The change in surface compositional and bulk structural characteristics of the natural ruby stone, before and after heat treatment with lead oxide has been analyzed using two advance characterization techniques like: X-ray micro CT scan (μ-CT) and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). The analytical correlation between these two techniques in identification as well as in depth study of the ores and minerals before and after processing has been presented. Also, we describe the aesthetic enhancement of a low quality defective ruby stone by lead oxide filling and the sequential analysis of this ruby stone before and after treatment using these two advanced techniques to identify and to confirm the change in its aesthetic value. The cracks healing and pores filling by the metal oxide on the surface of the ruby have been analyzed using μ-CT and EPMA. Moreover, in this work we describe the advance characterization of the repaired gem stones especially ruby stones. This work will light up the path for in-depth understanding of diffusion mechanism and abstract information of impurity particles inside the minerals. Based on these observations, EPMA and micro CT are shown to be powerful tools for the identification as well as research in gem stones.

  18. Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nischkauer, Winfried; Vanhaecke, Frank; Bernacchi, Sébastien; Herwig, Christoph; Limbeck, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Nebulising liquid samples and using the aerosol thus obtained for further analysis is the standard method in many current analytical techniques, also with inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based devices. With such a set-up, quantification via external calibration is usually straightforward for samples with aqueous or close-to-aqueous matrix composition. However, there is a variety of more complex samples. Such samples can be found in medical, biological, technological and industrial contexts and can range from body fluids, like blood or urine, to fuel additives or fermentation broths. Specialized nebulizer systems or careful digestion and dilution are required to tackle such demanding sample matrices. One alternative approach is to convert the liquid into a dried solid and to use laser ablation for sample introduction. Up to now, this approach required the application of internal standards or matrix-adjusted calibration due to matrix effects. In this contribution, we show a way to circumvent these matrix effects while using simple external calibration for quantification. The principle of representative sampling that we propose uses radial line-scans across the dried residue. This compensates for centro-symmetric inhomogeneities typically observed in dried spots. The effectiveness of the proposed sampling strategy is exemplified via the determination of phosphorus in biochemical fermentation media. However, the universal viability of the presented measurement protocol is postulated. Detection limits using laser ablation-ICP-optical emission spectrometry were in the order of 40 μg mL- 1 with a reproducibility of 10 % relative standard deviation (n = 4, concentration = 10 times the quantification limit). The reported sensitivity is fit-for-purpose in the biochemical context described here, but could be improved using ICP-mass spectrometry, if future analytical tasks would require it. Trueness of the proposed method was investigated by cross-validation with

  19. Glucose transporter expression in an avian nectarivore: the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Welch

    Full Text Available Glucose transporter (GLUT proteins play a key role in the transport of monosaccharides across cellular membranes, and thus, blood sugar regulation and tissue metabolism. Patterns of GLUT expression, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4, have been well characterized in mammals. However, relatively little is known about patterns of GLUT expression in birds with existing data limited to the granivorous or herbivorous chicken, duck and sparrow. The smallest avian taxa, hummingbirds, exhibit some of the highest fasted and fed blood glucose levels and display an unusual ability to switch rapidly and completely between endogenous fat and exogenous sugar to fuel energetically expensive hovering flight. Despite this, nothing is known about the GLUT transporters that enable observed rapid rates of carbohydrate flux. We examined GLUT (GLUT1, 2, 3, & 4 expression in pectoralis, leg muscle, heart, liver, kidney, intestine and brain from both zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata and ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris. mRNA expression of all four transporters was probed using reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR. In addition, GLUT1 and 4 protein expression were assayed by western blot and immunostaining. Patterns of RNA and protein expression of GLUT1-3 in both species agree closely with published reports from other birds and mammals. As in other birds, and unlike in mammals, we did not detect GLUT4. A lack of GLUT4 correlates with hyperglycemia and an uncoupling of exercise intensity and relative oxidation of carbohydrates in hummingbirds. The function of GLUTs present in hummingbird muscle tissue (e.g. GLUT1 and 3 remain undescribed. Thus, further work is necessary to determine if high capillary density, and thus surface area across which cellular-mediated transport of sugars into active tissues (e.g. muscle occurs, rather than taxon-specific differences in GLUT density or kinetics, can account for observed rapid rates of sugar flux into these

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance of the Ruby NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.C.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Ruby NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. These machine-readable data, as well as quarterly or semiannual program progress reports containing further information on the HSSR program in general, or on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) portion of the program in particular, are available from DOE's Technical Library at its Grand Junction Area Office. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment and lake-sediment samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses. Information on the field and analytical procedures used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the Laboratory and will not be included in this report

  1. Weight of Production of Emeralds, Rubies, Sapphires, and Tanzanite from 1995 Through 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas R.; Menzie, W. David; Olson, Donald W.

    2008-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) historically has not attempted to report comprehensive world production of gemstones on a country basis. This was because estimation of gemstone production is inherently difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the industry, the lack of governmental oversight or reporting in many countries where colored gemstones are mined, and the wide variation in quality between individual gemstones. Unlike diamonds, which, with the exception of the alluvial stones of West Africa, are mainly produced by large international mining companies and evaluated, cut, and marketed through a highly developed pricing structure and complex commercial arrangements, colored gemstones are mainly mined by individuals or small companies and have less developed evaluation and marketing arrangements. The trading centers for colored gems are smaller and less well known than the diamond centers. Colored gemstones, like alluvial diamonds, have the potential to be used to fund civil conflicts and other illegal activities, and because trade in colored gemstones is less organized than that of diamonds, they offer less opportunity for effective regulation of their trade. And, like diamond, until the recent advent of the Kimberley Process no generally accepted estimates of colored gemstone production globally or by producing country have existed. The present paper is a first attempt to develop production statistics for the three precious gems -emeralds, rubies, and sapphires - and tanzanite tanzanite, a semi-precious gem. The data consist of the weight of production of each of the gemstones from 1995 through 2005. Preliminary data on the weights of gemstone production were presented as a poster session at the Gemological Institute of America's Gemological Research Conference in San Diego, CA, in 2006, and as a published abstract (Yager, 2006) in an attempt to gather response to the estimates. The USGS continues to welcome information and suggestions that would improve the

  2. Analysis of ethylene biosynthesis and perception during postharvest cold storage of Marsh and Star Ruby grapefruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    Grapefruits are among the citrus species more sensitive to cold and develop chilling injury symptoms during prolonged postharvest storage at temperatures lower than 8 ℃-10 ℃. The plant hormone ethylene has been described either to protect or potentiate chilling injury development in citrus whereas little is known about transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and response during cold storage and how the hormone is regulating its own perception and signaling cascade. Then, the objective of the present study was to explore the transcriptional changes in the expression of ethylene biosynthesis, receptors and response genes during cold storage of the white Marsh and the red Star Ruby grapefruits. The effect of the ethylene action inhibitor, 1-MCP, was evaluated to investigate the involvement of ethylene in the regulation of the genes of its own biosynthesis and perception pathway. Ethylene production was very low at the harvest time in fruits of both varieties and experienced only minor changes during storage. By contrast, inhibition of ethylene perception by 1-MCP markedly induced ethylene production, and this increase was highly stimulated during shelf-life at 20 ℃, as well as transcription of ACS and ACO. These results support the auto-inhibitory regulation of ethylene in grapefruits, which acts mainly at the transcriptional level of ACS and ACO genes. Moreover, ethylene receptor1 and ethylene receptor3 were induced by cold while no clear role of ethylene was observed in the induction of ethylene receptors. However, ethylene appears to be implicated in the transcriptional regulation of ERFs both under cold storage and shelf-life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Coexistence of both gyroid chiralities in individual butterfly wing scales of Callophrys rubi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Benjamin; Butz, Benjamin; Dieker, Christel; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E; Mecke, Klaus; Spiecker, Erdmann

    2015-10-20

    The wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly Callophrys rubi consist of crystalline domains with sizes of a few micrometers, which exhibit a congenitally handed porous chitin microstructure identified as the chiral triply periodic single-gyroid structure. Here, the chirality and crystallographic texture of these domains are investigated by means of electron tomography. The tomograms unambiguously reveal the coexistence of the two enantiomeric forms of opposite handedness: the left- and right-handed gyroids. These two enantiomers appear with nonequal probabilities, implying that molecularly chiral constituents of the biological formation process presumably invoke a chiral symmetry break, resulting in a preferred enantiomeric form of the gyroid structure. Assuming validity of the formation model proposed by Ghiradella H (1989) J Morphol 202(1):69-88 and Saranathan V, et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(26):11676-11681, where the two enantiomeric labyrinthine domains of the gyroid are connected to the extracellular and intra-SER spaces, our findings imply that the structural chirality of the single gyroid is, however, not caused by the molecular chirality of chitin. Furthermore, the wing scales are found to be highly textured, with a substantial fraction of domains exhibiting the directions of the gyroid crystal aligned parallel to the scale surface normal. Both findings are needed to completely understand the photonic purpose of the single gyroid in gyroid-forming butterflies. More importantly, they show the level of control that morphogenesis exerts over secondary features of biological nanostructures, such as chirality or crystallographic texture, providing inspiration for biomimetic replication strategies for synthetic self-assembly mechanisms.

  4. The chiral structure of porous chitin within the wing-scales of Callophrys rubi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder-Turk, G E; Wickham, S; Averdunk, H; Brink, F; Fitz Gerald, J D; Poladian, L; Large, M C J; Hyde, S T

    2011-05-01

    The structure of the porous three-dimensional reticulated pattern in the wing scales of the butterfly Callophrys rubi (the Green Hairstreak) is explored in detail, via scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A full 3D tomographic reconstruction of a section of this material reveals that the predominantly chitin material is assembled in the wing scale to form a structure whose geometry bears a remarkable correspondence to the srs net, well-known in solid state chemistry and soft materials science. The porous solid is bounded to an excellent approximation by a parallel surface to the Gyroid, a three-periodic minimal surface with cubic crystallographic symmetry I4₁32, as foreshadowed by Stavenga and Michielson. The scale of the structure is commensurate with the wavelength of visible light, with an edge of the conventional cubic unit cell of the parallel-Gyroid of approximately 310 nm. The genesis of this structure is discussed, and we suggest it affords a remarkable example of templating of a chiral material via soft matter, analogous to the formation of mesoporous silica via surfactant assemblies in solution. In the butterfly, the templating is achieved by the lipid-protein membranes within the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (while it remains in the chrysalis), that likely form cubic membranes, folded according to the form of the Gyroid. The subsequent formation of the chiral hard chitin framework is suggested to be driven by the gradual polymerisation of the chitin precursors, whose inherent chiral assembly in solution (during growth) promotes the formation of a single enantiomer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resource defense and monopolization in a marked population of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseu, François; Charette, Yanick; Bélisle, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Resource defense behavior is often explained by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources. However, factors such as competition, habitat complexity, and individual space use may also affect the capacity of individuals to defend and monopolize resources. Yet, studies frequently focus on one or two factors, overlooking the complexity found in natural settings. Here, we addressed defense and monopolization of nectar feeders in a population of free-ranging ruby-throated hummingbirds marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags). Our study system consisted of a 44 ha systematic grid of 45 feeders equipped with PIT tag detectors recording every visit made at feeders. We modeled the number of visits by competitors (NVC) at feeders in response to space use by a focal individual potentially defending a feeder, number of competitors, nectar sucrose concentration, and habitat visibility. Individuals who were more concentrated at certain feeders on a given day and who were more stable in their use of the grid throughout the season gained higher exclusivity in the use of those feeders on that day, especially for males competing against males. The level of spatial concentration at feeders and its negative effect on NVC was, however, highly variable among individuals, suggesting a continuum in resource defense strategies. Although the apparent capacity to defend feeders was not affected by competition or nectar sucrose concentration, the level of monopolization decreased with increasing number of competitors and higher nectar quality. Defense was enhanced by visibility near feeders, but only in forested habitats. The reverse effect of visibility in open habitats was more difficult to interpret as it was probably confounded by perch availability, from which a bird can defend its feeder. Our study is among the first to quantify the joint use of food resource by overlapping individuals unconstrained in their use of space. Our results show the importance of

  6. Efficient development of web applications for remote participation using Ruby on Rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, M.; Yoshida, M.; Iwata, C.; Inagaki, S.; Nagayama, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale experiments such as ITER require international collaboration, and remote participation plays an important role in carrying out such experiments. Web-based applications are useful tools for scientists participating in experiments remotely using personal computers. Since the participants typically download web-based applications to their computer each time they access the web servers, they do not need to install extra software in order to use these applications. In addition, the application developers do not need to distribute the latest program files each time they are modified, thus reducing maintenance costs for remote participation systems. For these reasons, we have been developing web-based applications for the LHD experiments at NIFS. In a previous study, we showed the benefits of using Ruby on Rails (RoR) to develop web-based applications for analysis code. We thought this approach would also be useful for developing applications for remote participation. Therefore, we have developed several web-based applications using RoR for participating in the LHD experiments. These applications include a data viewer and a scheduler of experiments. The main reason to adopt RoR for this purpose is its efficiency for developing web-based applications. For example, to develop a data viewer, we used an existing program running on an X-Windows System. Using RoR, we could minimize the modifications of the existing programs to add web interfaces. In this paper, we will report a web-based application developed using RoR for the LHD experiment. We will also discuss the benefits of using RoR in developing remote participation tools.

  7. Radial line-scans as representative sampling strategy in dried-droplet laser ablation of liquid samples deposited on pre-cut filter paper disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nischkauer, Winfried; Vanhaecke, Frank; Bernacchi, Sébastien; Herwig, Christoph; Limbeck, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Nebulising liquid samples and using the aerosol thus obtained for further analysis is the standard method in many current analytical techniques, also with inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-based devices. With such a set-up, quantification via external calibration is usually straightforward for samples with aqueous or close-to-aqueous matrix composition. However, there is a variety of more complex samples. Such samples can be found in medical, biological, technological and industrial contexts and can range from body fluids, like blood or urine, to fuel additives or fermentation broths. Specialized nebulizer systems or careful digestion and dilution are required to tackle such demanding sample matrices. One alternative approach is to convert the liquid into a dried solid and to use laser ablation for sample introduction. Up to now, this approach required the application of internal standards or matrix-adjusted calibration due to matrix effects. In this contribution, we show a way to circumvent these matrix effects while using simple external calibration for quantification. The principle of representative sampling that we propose uses radial line-scans across the dried residue. This compensates for centro-symmetric inhomogeneities typically observed in dried spots. The effectiveness of the proposed sampling strategy is exemplified via the determination of phosphorus in biochemical fermentation media. However, the universal viability of the presented measurement protocol is postulated. Detection limits using laser ablation-ICP-optical emission spectrometry were in the order of 40 μg mL - 1 with a reproducibility of 10 % relative standard deviation (n = 4, concentration = 10 times the quantification limit). The reported sensitivity is fit-for-purpose in the biochemical context described here, but could be improved using ICP-mass spectrometry, if future analytical tasks would require it. Trueness of the proposed method was investigated by cross-validation with

  8. Temporal migration patterns between natal locations of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) and their Gulf Coast stopover site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenzal, Theodore J; Contina, Andrea J; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Moore, Frank R

    2018-01-01

    Autumn latitudinal migrations generally exhibit one of two different temporal migration patterns: type 1 where southern populations migrate south before northern populations, or type 2 where northern populations overtake southern populations en route . The ruby-throated hummingbird ( Archilochus colubris ) is a species with an expansive breeding range, which allows opportunities to examine variation in the timing of migration. Our objective was to determine a relationship between natal origin of ruby-throated hummingbirds and arrival at a Gulf coast stopover site; and if so, what factors, such as differences in body size across the range as well as the cost of migration, might drive such a pattern. To carry out our objectives, we captured hummingbirds at a coastal stopover site during autumn migration, at which time we collected feathers from juveniles for analysis of hydrogen stable isotopes. Using the hydrogen stable isotope gradient of precipitation across North America and published hydrogen isotope values of feathers from populations of breeding ruby-throated hummingbirds, we assigned migrants to probable natal latitudes. Our results confirm that individuals from across the range (30-50° N) stopover along the Gulf of Mexico and there is a positive relationship between arrival day and latitude, suggesting a type 1 migration pattern. We also found no relationship between fuel load (proxy for migration cost) or fat-free body mass (proxy for body size) and natal latitude. Our results, coupled with previous work on the spatial migration patterns of hummingbirds, show a type 1 chain migration pattern. While the mechanisms we tested do not seem to influence the evolution of migratory patterns, other factors such as resource availability may play a prominent role in the evolution of this migration system.

  9. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misel Batmend

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  10. Comparison in electron density distribution of tokamak plasma between ruby-laser scattering and milli-meter wave interferometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoba, Tohru; Funahashi, Akimasa; Itagaki, Tokiyoshi; Takahashi, Koki; Kumagai, Katsuaki

    1976-08-01

    The electron density in JFT-2 tokamak has been measured by two methods, i.e. Thomson scattering of ruby-laser light and interferometry of millimeter wave. Two-dimensional distribution of the scattered light intensities were obtained by scattering measurement; absolute calibration was made by normalizing the scattered intensities with the averaged density determined from interferometric measurement. The horizontal density distributions in laser scattering were compared with those in from the averaged densities measured with a 4-mm interferometer through inverse-transformation. Agreement is good between the two measurements, except where they give erroneous data because of irreproducibility of the discharge. (auth.)

  11. Reflectivity of the gyroid biophotonic crystals in the ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, H; Stavenga, D G

    2010-05-06

    We present a comparison of the computer simulation data of gyroid nanostructures with optical measurements (reflectivity spectra and scattering diagrams) of ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi. We demonstrate that the omnidirectional green colour arises from the gyroid cuticular structure grown in the domains of different orientation. We also show that this three-dimensional structure, operating as a biophotonic crystal, gives rise to various polarization effects. We briefly discuss the possible biological utility of the green coloration and polarization effects.

  12. Filtered cathodic arc source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, S.; Sanders, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous, cathodic arc ion source coupled to a macro-particle filter capable of separation or elimination of macro-particles from the ion flux produced by cathodic arc discharge is described. The ion source employs an axial magnetic field on a cathode (target) having tapered sides to confine the arc, thereby providing high target material utilization. A bent magnetic field is used to guide the metal ions from the target to the part to be coated. The macro-particle filter consists of two straight solenoids, end to end, but placed at 45 degree to one another, which prevents line-of-sight from the arc spot on the target to the parts to be coated, yet provides a path for ions and electrons to flow, and includes a series of baffles for trapping the macro-particles. 3 figures

  13. Combining 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, the major flower volatile of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, with the aggregation pheromone of the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi improves attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibe, Atle; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin; Cross, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil [Anthonomus rubi Herbst (Col.: Curculionidae)], a 1:4:1 blend of Grandlure I, II and racemic lavadulol, has been available for pest monitoring for several years but shows low attractancy. Attempts to control A.rubi using the pheromone alone...... were also unsuccessful. This paper reports the finding that addition of the major flower volatile from wild strawberry flowers [Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae)], 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (comprising 98% of the volatiles emitted from wild strawberry flowers), to the aggregation pheromone increased trap catches...... pest of strawberry....

  14. Review and research analysis of computational target methods using BioRuby and in silico screening of herbal lead compounds against pancreatic cancer using R programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadeepa, R M; Ray, Ankita; Naik, Dhaval; Sanyal, Debendra Nath; Shah, Disha

    2014-01-01

    Plants and their natural components sophisticated with the cornerstone of traditional conventional medicinal system throughout the globe for many years and extend to furnish mankind with latest remedies. Natural Products act as lead molecules for the synthesis of various potent drugs. In the current research a study is conducted on herbal small molecule and their potential binding chemical affinity to the effect or molecules of major diseases such as pancreatic cancer. Clinical studies demonstrate correlation between Cyclin- Dependent Kinase 4 (CDK4) and malignant progression of Pancreatic Cancer. Using Bioruby Gem's we were able to analyze better characteristics of the target protein. VegaZZ and NAMD were used to minimize the energy of the target protein. Therefore identification of effective, well- tolerated targets was analyzed. Further the target protein was subjected to docking with the anti cancer inhibitors which represents a rational chemo preventive strategy using AutoDock Vina. Later using the dock score top ranked phytochemicals were analyzed for Toxicity Analysis. Using the BioRuby gem we were able to measure the distance between the amino acid. Various R scripting libraries were used to hunt the best leads, as in this case the phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as Wedelolactones and Catechin were analyzed computationally. This study has presented the various effects of naturally occurring anti pancreatic cancer compounds Catechin, Wedelolactones that inhibits Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4. The study results reveal that compounds use less binding energy to CDK4 and inhibit its activity. Future investigation of other various wet lab studies such as cell line studies will confirm results of these two herbal chemical formulations potential ones for treating Pancreatic Cancer.

  15. Noise Reduction of Measurement Data using Linear Digital Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitzmann B.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Butterworth, Chebyshev (Type I and II and Elliptic digital filters are designed for signal noise reduction. On-line data measurements of substrate concentration from E. coli fed-batch cultivation process are used. Application of the designed filters leads to a successful noise reduction of on-line glucose measurements. The digital filters presented here are simple, easy to implement and effective - the used filters allow for a smart compromise between signal information and noise corruption.

  16. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  17. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  18. Components of male aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi herbst. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, P J; Hall, D R; Cross, J V

    2001-06-01

    The strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi, is a major pest of strawberries in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. As part of a project to develop noninsecticidal control methods, the pheromone system of this species was investigated. Comparison of volatiles produced by field-collected, overwintering individuals of each sex led to identification of three male-specific compounds--(Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (cis)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)cyclobutaneethanol, and 2-(1-methylethenyl)-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol (lavandulol)--in amounts of 6.1, 1.2, and 0.82 microg/day/ male. The first two compounds are components of the aggregation pheromone of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandlure II and grandlure I, respectively. Grandlure I was the (1R,2S)-(+) enantiomer and lavandulol was a single enantiomer, although the absolute configuration was not determined. Trace amounts of the other two grandlure components (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure III) and (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure IV) were also detected. (E,E)-1-(1-Methylethyl)-4-methylene-8-methyl-2,7-cyclo-decadiene (germacrene-D), a known volatile from strawberry plants, Fragaria ananassa, was collected in increased amounts in the presence of pheromone-producing weevils. Male weevils only produced pheromone on F. ananassa and not on scented mayweed, Matracaria recutita, or cow parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris, although these are known food sources. In field trials using various combinations of synthetic grandlures I, II, III, and IV and lavandulol, significantly more weevils were caught in traps baited with blends containing grandlure I and II and lavandulol than in those baited with blends without lavandulol or unbaited controls. Addition of grandlure III and IV had no significant effect on attractiveness. Horizontal sticky traps were found to be more effective than vertical sticky traps or standard boll weevil traps. In mid-season females

  19. Manipulation of Zeeman coherence in solids at room temperature: Ramsey interference in the coherent-population-trapping spectrum of ruby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesov, Roman; Scully, Marlan O.; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) in a three-level atomic medium pumped by two subsequent short optical pulses is considered under the condition of negligible population decay from the excited optical state. It is shown that the amount of atomic population transferred to the excited state by the combined action of the pulses strongly depends on the phase of the ground-state coherence excited by the first pulse at the arrival time of the second pulse. Oscillatory behavior of optical excitation efficiency on the time delay between the pulses is predicted. It is also shown that saturating optical pulses can produce population inversion in a resonantly pumped quasi-two-level system. A class of solid materials in which the predicted phenomena can be observed at room temperature is found. It includes some rare-earth and transition-metal doped dielectric crystals where Orbach relaxation between ground-state Zeeman states is suppressed: ruby, alexandrite, and several others. On the basis of the theoretical predictions, experimental observation of Ramsey fringes in CPT spectrum of ruby is reported

  20. O tema do amor em “Bruma (A Estrela Vermelha”, de Murilo Rubião

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Socorro Gonçalves Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma análise da manifestação do amor no conto “Bruma (a estrela vermelha”, de Murilo Rubião, como sugestão de um processo individual marcado pelo anseio inconsciente de alcançar a plenitude humana. O entendimento é de que o tema do amor se apresenta associado ao do ciúme e que as inquietações vividas e narradas pelo protagonista sugerem um paradoxal sentimento que se oculta, ao mesmo tempo em que se revela, no discurso e nas imagens presentes na narrativa. A base da análise consiste na hermenêutica simbólica, conforme as pesquisas de Gilbert Durand acerca das estruturas antropológicas do imaginário, juntamente com estudos na perspectiva da semiótica das paixões, desenvolvidos por Greimas e Fontanille, além dos trabalhos de Jorge Schwartz – voltado à investigação dos traços distintivos da poética muriliana –, de Suzana Cánovas – a respeito do universo fantástico de Rubião – e de Salma Silva – sobre as formas sob as quais o tema do amor pode se apresentar no texto literário.

  1. The Influence of Different Interstock Lengths of Minneola Tanjelo on Photosynthetic Parameters and Fruit Yield of Star Ruby Grapefruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Yılmaz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Minneola Tangelo hybrid, a cross of grapefruit and mandarin (Duncan grapefruit x Dancy mandarin, used as interstock to Star Ruby grapefruit with different lengths. Effects of different interstock lengths on fruit yield and quality, plant development and photosynthetic parameters were investigated. According to the results, different interstock lengths significantly affected fruit yield and size. The highest fruit yield was determined in T-M20-S whereas the lowest was on T-M5-S. The highest fruit size were determined in Star Ruby fruits on T-M5-S and T-M40-S whereas the lowest on T-M20-S and T-S (control. T-M40-S and T-M20-S treatments markedly reduced stem diameter and tree canopy in comparison to other treatments and control. Usage of different interstock lengths did not significantly affected some of fruit quality traits, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rate, leaf water usage efficiency and leaf chlorophyll concentration. In regards to seasonal changes, net photosynthetic rate were higher in spring and summer seasons then winter and fall seasons.

  2. Interdigital filter design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, WP

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available to the general inverter-coupled resonator bandpass filter structure in Figure 2 [6] by using the inverter shown in Figure 3. The admittance of the inverter in Figure 3 is 4 J= Y mn sin(βl) (1) where β is the propagation factor and l is the length... of the resonators (a quarter wavelength in this case). While the series quarter-wave line alone can approximate an inverter, the structure shown in Figure 3 is more accurate over wide bandwidths. At this point the circuits in Figures 1 and 2 still differ because...

  3. Analog Electronic Filters Theory, Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Hercules G

    2012-01-01

    Filters are essential subsystems in a huge variety of electronic systems. Filter applications are innumerable; they are used for noise reduction, demodulation, signal detection, multiplexing, sampling, sound and speech processing, transmission line equalization and image processing, to name just a few. In practice, no electronic system can exist without filters. They can be found in everything from power supplies to mobile phones and hard disk drives and from loudspeakers and MP3 players to home cinema systems and broadband Internet connections. This textbook introduces basic concepts and methods and the associated mathematical and computational tools employed in electronic filter theory, synthesis and design.  This book can be used as an integral part of undergraduate courses on analog electronic filters. Includes numerous, solved examples, applied examples and exercises for each chapter. Includes detailed coverage of active and passive filters in an independent but correlated manner. Emphasizes real filter...

  4. 33 CFR 183.570 - Fuel filters and strainers: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements... the engine or boat structure independent from its fuel line connections, unless the fuel filter or...

  5. What's a Nice Hummingbird Like You Doing at an AGU Meeting Like This? (or, Operation RubyThroat Meets The GLOBE Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, B.

    2003-12-01

    "Operation RubyThroat: The Hummingbird Project" is an international cross-disciplinary initiative that uses Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris) as a hook to excite K-12 students (and adults) about science learning. In 2002, Operation RubyThroat affiliated with The GLOBE Program as the first GLOBE protocol that involves animal behavior. Through Operation RubyThroat, students make observations about hummingbird phenology, behavior, and ecology and correlate their data against traditional GLOBE observations of atmosphere, climate, land cover, soils, hydrology, and phenology. Although Ruby-throated Hummingbirds (RTHUs) breed throughout the eastern half of the United States and southern Canada and may be the most common and most widely distributed of all 338 hummingbird species, little is known about how abiotic environmental factors affect their migration, nesting activities, and everyday behavior. Operation RubyThroat participants in the U.S. and Canada log early arrival dates of RTHUs during spring migration, note their presence throughout the breeding season, and report the last date RTHUs are seen in autumn. Conversely, participants in Mexico and all seven Central American countries (the region in which RTHUs spend their non-breeding months) watch for early arrivals in fall and late departures in spring. Participants also attempt to estimate numbers of RTHUs in local populations by counting the number of visits hummingbirds make to feeders and/or flowers in a 45-minute time block. Optional activities include observations of RTHU nesting behaviors and determining RTHU preferences for various species of native and exotic nectar sources. Participating schools are encouraged to establish Schoolyard Hummingbird Habitats in which to make their observations, but data may be collected in backyards or at local parks, nature centers, botanical gardens, and other sites where RTHUs occur. Adults not affiliated with K-12 schools are invited to become certified in

  6. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  7. Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shrish C

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine promotes rooting in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby). Nicotine at 10(-9) to 10(-3) M concentrations was added to the MS basal medium. The optimum response (three-fold increase in rooting) was obtained at 10(-7) M nicotine-enriched MS medium. At the same level i.e. 10(-7) M Nicotine induced dramatic increase (11-fold) in the number of secondary roots per root. We have shown earlier that exogenous acetylcholine induces a similar response in tomato leaves. Since nicotine is an agonist of one of the two acetylcholine receptors in animals, its ability to simulate ACh action in a plant system suggests the presence of the same molecular mechanism operative in both, animal and plant cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of pulsed electron beam-annealed and pulsed ruby laser-annealed ion-implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, S.R.; Appleton, B.R.; White, C.W.; Narayan, J.; Greenwald, A.C.

    1978-11-01

    Recently two new techniques, pulsed electron beam annealing and pulsed laser annealing, have been developed for processing ion-implanted silicon. These two types of anneals have been compared using ion-channeling, ion back-scattering, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Single crystal samples were implanted with 100 keV As + ions to a dose of approx. 1 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 and subsequently annealed by either a pulsed Ruby laser or a pulsed electron beam. Our results show in both cases that the near-surface region has melted and regrown epitaxially with nearly all of the implanted As (97 to 99%) incroporated onto lattice sites. The analysis indicates that the samples are essentially defect free and have complete electrical recovery

  9. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  10. Kalman Filter for Generalized 2-D Roesser Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Mei; ZOU Yun

    2007-01-01

    The design problem of the state filter for the generalized stochastic 2-D Roesser models, which appears when both the state and measurement are simultaneously subjected to the interference from white noise, is discussed. The wellknown Kalman filter design is extended to the generalized 2-D Roesser models. Based on the method of "scanning line by line", the filtering problem of generalized 2-D Roesser models with mode-energy reconstruction is solved. The formula of the optimal filtering, which minimizes the variance of the estimation error of the state vectors, is derived. The validity of the designed filter is verified by the calculation steps and the examples are introduced.

  11. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity. PMID:26521693

  12. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  13. Orchard navigation using derivative free Kalman filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of derivative free filters for mobile robot localization and navigation in an orchard. The localization algorithm fuses odometry and gyro measurements with line features representing the surrounding fruit trees of the orchard. The line features are created on basis of 2...

  14. A spectrometer filter for semiconductor and scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronov, O.I.; Brovchenko, V.G.; Evdokimov, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an integrating low-pass filter which takes signals from a delay line. The filter changes triangular pulses into rectangular ones. The energy resolution of a semiconductor detector whose signal is processed by the filter is 15-20% better than using a common RC-filter. The integrator stores a charge due to the scintillation pulse during the integration time without loss. The energy and time resolution of the device with the spectrometer filter is better than with an RC-filter. The energy resolution of a bismuth-germanate detector in recording radiation from 137 Cs is 9.75%

  15. Bovine manure doses for agronomic and fiber characteristics of the BRS Rubi upland cotton = Doses de esterco bovino nas características agronômicas e de fibras do algodoeiro herbáceo BRS Rubi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Pereira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Paraíba, Brazil, a local market for family farming is the production of naturally colored cotton grown in agroecological regime. For solution of physicochemical and biological soil degradation of brazilian semiarid, where Caatinga biome predominates, one valuable agroecological practice is the organic adubation. Accordingly, it was aimed with the present work to study the influence of bovine manure doses (D0 - 0.0; D1 - 2.5; D2 - 5.0; D3 - 10.0; D4 - D5 and 20.0 - 40.0 Mg ha-1 on agronomic and fiber characteristics of the agroecological herbaceous cotton BRS Rubi crop in the arid region of that State, in the years 2008/2009 and 2009, and to define the best dose of this organic fertilizer for this system and this growing region. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, with four replications. It was performed combined analysisof variance of the experiments, being evaluated agronomic (stem diameter, plant height, yeild and boll weight and fiber(percentage, length, strength, micronaire index, fiber short index, elongation and maturity of fibers variables in the two yearsof cultivation. It was concluded that: there was influence of the bovine manure doses tested for the agronomic characteristicsbut not for the characteristics of the fibers of the herbaceous cotton colored BRS Rubi; the best dose was 18 Mg ha-1of bovinemanure (Maximum Economic Dose. = Na Paraíba, um nicho de mercado para a agricultura familiar é a produção de algodão naturalmente colorido ecultivado agroecologicamente. Para solução da degradação físico-química e biológica dos solos do semiárido brasileiro, onde o bioma caatinga predomina, uma prática agroecológica valiosa é a adubação orgânica. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estudar a influência de doses de esterco bovino (D0 - 0; D1 - 2,5; D2 - 5; D3 - 10; D4 - 20 e D5 - 40 Mg ha-1 sobre características agronômicas e da fibra do algodoeiro herbáceo colorido BRS Rubi

  16. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  17. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  18. Efeitos do paclobutrazol na fertilidade de gemas e no crescimento dos ramos de videiras cv Rubi Effects of paclobutrazol on bud fertility and shoot growth of grapevine cv Rubi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A baixa fertilidade de gemas tem sido um dos fatores limitantes da produção em vinhedos do Estado de São Paulo, estando este problema relacionado, em muitos casos, ao excesso de vigor das plantas. Neste contexto, um experimento foi conduzido em vinhedo comercial da cultivar de uva de mesa Rubi, localizado no município de Palmeira D'Oeste (SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os ramos foram pulverizados com soluções de paclobutrazol nas doses de 0; 500; 1.000; 1.500; 2.000 e 2.500 mg L-1, no estádio de 5ª folha. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de gemas férteis, porcentagem de gemas mortas, diâmetro de internódios e massa fresca e comprimento dos ramos. Aplicações de paclobutrazol reduziram o diâmetro dos internódios e a massa e o comprimento dos ramos. A porcentagem de gemas férteis também foi diminuída, possivelmente pela redução dos níveis endógenos de giberelina necessários para o processo de formação do primórdio indiferenciado.The low bud fertility has been one of the most limiting factors in vineyards at São Paulo State, and this problem has been correlated, in many cases, to the excess of plant vigor. In this context, a trial was carried out in a commercial vineyard of 'Rubi' table grape, located at Palmeira D'Oeste (SP, Brazil. The experimental design was in complete randomized blocks with six treatments and four replications. The vine shoots were sprayed with paclobutrazol at 0; 500; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000 and 2,500 mgL-1, at the fifth leaf phenological stage. The variables evaluated were: percentage of fertile buds; percentage of bud necrosis; fresh weight and length of shoots and diameter of internodes. Applications of paclobutrazol reduced the weight and the length of shoots and the internodes diameter. The percentage of fertile buds was also reduced, probably due to the decreasing in endogenous gibberellin levels necessary for

  19. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  20. Optimization of filter loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, J.H.; Gardiner, D.E.; Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of 10 CFR Part 61 has created potential difficulties in the disposal of spent cartridge filters. When this report was prepared, Rancho Seco had no method of packaging and disposing of class B or C filters. This work examined methods to minimize the total operating cost of cartridge filters while maintaining them below the class A limit. It was found that by encapsulating filters in cement the filter operating costs could be minimized

  1. Scientific communications: Re-Os sulfide (bornite, chalcopyrite, and pyrite) systematics of the carbonate-hosted copper deposits at ruby creek, southern brooks range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, D.; Kelley, K.D.; Hitzman, M.W.; Zieg, J.

    2009-01-01

    New Re-Os data for chalcopyrite, bornite, and pyrite from the carbonate-hosted Cu deposit at Ruby Creek (Bornite), Alaska, show extremely high Re abundances (hundreds of ppb, low ppm) and contain essentially no common Os. The Re-Os data provide the first absolute ages of ore formation for the carbonate-hosted Ruby Creek Cu-(Co) deposit and demonstrate that the Re-Os systematics of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite are unaffected by greenschist metamorphism. The Re-Os data show that the main phase of Cu mineralization pre dominantly occurred at 384 ?? 4.2 Ma, with an earlier phase possibly at ???400 Ma. The Re-Os data are consistent with the observed paragenetic sequence and coincide with zircon U-Pb ages from igneous rocks within the Ambler metallogenic belt, some of which are spatially and genetically associated with regional volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. The latter may suggest a temporal link between regional magmatism and hydrothermal mineralization in the Ambler district. The utility of bornite and chalcopyrite, in addition to pyrite, contributes to a new understanding of Re-Os geochronology and permits a refinement of the genetic model for the Ruby Creek deposit. ?? 2009 Society of Economices Geologists, Inc.

  2. Compact microstrip bandpass filter with tunable notch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Silas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    Two different designs combining a bandpass and a notch filter are developed to operate in the receiving band from 350–470 MHz. The bandpass filter is designed from a simple structure, by use of only four short circuited stubs and a half wavelength transmission line connecting the stubs. The tunable...... notch filter ensures an attenuation level of 19.3 dB to 27.3 dB in the frequency range from 360–480 MHz. The measured passband ripple of the combined filter is less than 0.5 dB, while the insertion loss for the simplest design is less than 1.7 dB only 10 MHz from the notch frequency. Even though...... the wavelength on the selected substrate (εr = 3.55) is approximately 45 cm, the outer dimensions of the final filter only measure 10×10 cm2....

  3. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  4. Sensory Pollution from Bag Filters, Carbon Filters and Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Weschler, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    by an upstream pre-filter (changed monthly), an EU7 filter protected by an upstream activated carbon (AC) filter, and EU7 filters with an AC filter either downstream or both upstream and downstream. In addition, two types of stand-alone combination filters were evaluated: a bag-type fiberglass filter...... that contained AC and a synthetic fiber cartridge filter that contained AC. Air that had passed through used filters was most acceptable for those sets in which an AC filter was used downstream of the particle filter. Comparable air quality was achieved with the stand-alone bag filter that contained AC...

  5. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  6. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Simon-nitinol filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Kim, D.; Porter, D.H.; Kleshinski, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses a filter that exploits the thermal shape-memory properties of the nitinol alloy to achieve an optimized filter shape and a fine-bore introducer. Experimental methods and materials are given and results are analyzed

  8. Treatment of Stormwater using Fibre Filter Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johir, M. A. H.; Lee, J. J.; Vigneswaran, S.; Kandasamy, J.; Shaw, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a high-rate fibre filter was used as a pre-treatment to stormwater in conjunction with in-line flocculation. The effect of operating the fibre filter with different packing densities (105, 115 and 125 kg/m 3 ) and filtration velocities (20, 40, 60 m/h) with and without in-line flocculation was investigated. In-line flocculation was provided using 5, 10 and 15 mg/L of ferric chloride (FeCl 3 .6H 2 O). The filter performance was studied in terms of pressure drop (ΔP), solids removal efficiency, heavy metals (total) removal efficiency and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. It is found that the use of in-line flocculation at a dose of 15 mg/L improved the performance of fibre filter as measured by turbidity removal (95%), total suspended solids reduction (98%), colour removal efficiency (99%), TOC removal (reduced by 30-40 %) and total coliform removal (93%). The modified fouling index reduced from 750-950 to 12 s/L 2 proving that fibre filter can be an excellent pre-treatment to membrane filtration that may be consider as post-treatment. The removal efficiency of heavy metal was variable as their concentration in raw water was small. Even though the concentration of some of these metals such as iron, aluminium, copper and zinc were reduced, others like nickel, chromium and cadmium showed lower removal rates.

  9. Treatment of Stormwater using Fibre Filter Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johir, M. A. H.; Lee, J. J.; Vigneswaran, S., E-mail: s.vigneswaran@uts.edu.au; Kandasamy, J. [University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and IT (Australia); Shaw, K. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies Australia (Australia)

    2009-12-15

    In this study, a high-rate fibre filter was used as a pre-treatment to stormwater in conjunction with in-line flocculation. The effect of operating the fibre filter with different packing densities (105, 115 and 125 kg/m{sup 3}) and filtration velocities (20, 40, 60 m/h) with and without in-line flocculation was investigated. In-line flocculation was provided using 5, 10 and 15 mg/L of ferric chloride (FeCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O). The filter performance was studied in terms of pressure drop ({Delta}P), solids removal efficiency, heavy metals (total) removal efficiency and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. It is found that the use of in-line flocculation at a dose of 15 mg/L improved the performance of fibre filter as measured by turbidity removal (95%), total suspended solids reduction (98%), colour removal efficiency (99%), TOC removal (reduced by 30-40 %) and total coliform removal (93%). The modified fouling index reduced from 750-950 to 12 s/L{sup 2} proving that fibre filter can be an excellent pre-treatment to membrane filtration that may be consider as post-treatment. The removal efficiency of heavy metal was variable as their concentration in raw water was small. Even though the concentration of some of these metals such as iron, aluminium, copper and zinc were reduced, others like nickel, chromium and cadmium showed lower removal rates.

  10. MST Filterability Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-12

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The low filter flux through the ARP has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Recent filter flux has averaged approximately 5 gallons per minute (gpm). Salt Batch 6 has had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. In addition, at the time the testing started, SRR was assessing the impact of replacing the 0.1 micron filter with a 0.5 micron filter. This report describes testing of MST filterability to investigate the impact of filter pore size and MST particle size on filter flux and testing of filter enhancers to attempt to increase filter flux. The authors constructed a laboratory-scale crossflow filter apparatus with two crossflow filters operating in parallel. One filter was a 0.1 micron Mott sintered SS filter and the other was a 0.5 micron Mott sintered SS filter. The authors also constructed a dead-end filtration apparatus to conduct screening tests with potential filter aids and body feeds, referred to as filter enhancers. The original baseline for ARP was 5.6 M sodium salt solution with a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 1.7 M.3 ARP has been operating with a sodium concentration of approximately 6.4 M and a free hydroxide concentration of approximately 2.5 M. SRNL conducted tests varying the concentration of sodium and free hydroxide to determine whether those changes had a significant effect on filter flux. The feed slurries for the MST filterability tests were composed of simple salts (NaOH, NaNO2, and NaNO3) and MST (0.2 – 4.8 g/L). The feed slurry for the filter enhancer tests contained simulated salt batch 6 supernate, MST, and filter enhancers.

  11. BESSEL FILTER AND CHAOS: THREE-IN-ONE ACTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševicius, Arunas; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumeliene, Skaidra

    2006-01-01

    Low-pass active Bessel filters are proposed to be used in a chaotic oscillator. The Bessel unit plays the role of three-in-one: the delay line, the amplifier, and the filter. Results of Spice simulations and hardware experiments are presented.......Low-pass active Bessel filters are proposed to be used in a chaotic oscillator. The Bessel unit plays the role of three-in-one: the delay line, the amplifier, and the filter. Results of Spice simulations and hardware experiments are presented....

  12. The Astro-E/XRS Blocking Filter Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Michael D.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Gendreau, Keith C.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Fleetwood, Charles M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Porter, F. Scott; Stahle, Caroline K.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the transmission calibration of the Astro-E XRS blocking filters. The XRS instrument has five aluminized polyimide blocking filters. These filters are located at thermal stages ranging from 200 K to 60 mK. They are each about 1000 A thick. XRS will have high energy resolution which will enable it to see some of the extended fine structure around the oxygen and aluminum K edges of these filters. Thus, we are conducting a high spectral resolution calibration of the filters near these energies to resolve out extended flue structure and absorption lines.

  13. Implementation of non-linear filters for iterative penalized maximum likelihood image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Gilland, D.; Jaszczak, R.; Coleman, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report on the implementation of six edge-preserving, noise-smoothing, non-linear filters applied in image space for iterative penalized maximum-likelihood (ML) SPECT image reconstruction. The non-linear smoothing filters implemented were the median filter, the E 6 filter, the sigma filter, the edge-line filter, the gradient-inverse filter, and the 3-point edge filter with gradient-inverse filter, and the 3-point edge filter with gradient-inverse weight. A 3 x 3 window was used for all these filters. The best image obtained, by viewing the profiles through the image in terms of noise-smoothing, edge-sharpening, and contrast, was the one smoothed with the 3-point edge filter. The computation time for the smoothing was less than 1% of one iteration, and the memory space for the smoothing was negligible. These images were compared with the results obtained using Bayesian analysis

  14. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  15. Percutaneous Retrieval of Permanent Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrazi, Anobel; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Holly, Brian; Bhagat, Nikhil; Marx, Jonathan K.; Streiff, Michael; Lessne, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility, risks, and techniques of percutaneous removal of permanent TrapEase and Simon Nitinol IVC filters.Materials and MethodsBetween August 2011 and August 2015, 12 patients (5 women, 7 men; age range, 26–75 years) underwent an attempt at percutaneous removal of permanent TrapEase (10) and Simon Nitinol (2) IVC filters due to a history of IVC filter complications or need for lifelong anticoagulation due to the filter. Medical records were reviewed for filter dwell time, presence of iliocaval deep venous thrombosis, procedural technique, and complications.ResultsFilter dwell times ranged from 7 days to 15 years (mean 5.1 years). Successful removal of permanent IVC filters was possible in 11 of 12 patients (91.6 %). In 1 patient, a chronically thrombosed IVC filter could not be removed despite laser sheath assistance, but was successfully recanalized with the PowerWire RF guidewire. In the failed retrieval attempt, a stent was placed through the chronically thrombosed IVC filter with restoration of in-line flow. One major complication of large venous groin hematoma was encountered.ConclusionsIn carefully selected patients, percutaneous removal of permanent IVC filters can be performed safely despite prolonged filter dwell times. Extraction of chronically embedded permanent IVC filters may be facilitated by jugular and femoral approaches, often with laser sheath assistance. Chronic filter thrombosis and caval scarring may increase the risk of retrieval failure.

  16. Percutaneous Retrieval of Permanent Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamrazi, Anobel, E-mail: atamraz1@jhmi.edu; Wadhwa, Vibhor, E-mail: vwadhwa1@jhmi.edu; Holly, Brian, E-mail: bholly3@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology (United States); Bhagat, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhibhagat@gmail.com [Kaiser Permanente, Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology (United States); Marx, Jonathan K., E-mail: jmarx9@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology (United States); Streiff, Michael, E-mail: mstreif@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Hematology (United States); Lessne, Mark L., E-mail: mlessne@gmail.com [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2016-04-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility, risks, and techniques of percutaneous removal of permanent TrapEase and Simon Nitinol IVC filters.Materials and MethodsBetween August 2011 and August 2015, 12 patients (5 women, 7 men; age range, 26–75 years) underwent an attempt at percutaneous removal of permanent TrapEase (10) and Simon Nitinol (2) IVC filters due to a history of IVC filter complications or need for lifelong anticoagulation due to the filter. Medical records were reviewed for filter dwell time, presence of iliocaval deep venous thrombosis, procedural technique, and complications.ResultsFilter dwell times ranged from 7 days to 15 years (mean 5.1 years). Successful removal of permanent IVC filters was possible in 11 of 12 patients (91.6 %). In 1 patient, a chronically thrombosed IVC filter could not be removed despite laser sheath assistance, but was successfully recanalized with the PowerWire RF guidewire. In the failed retrieval attempt, a stent was placed through the chronically thrombosed IVC filter with restoration of in-line flow. One major complication of large venous groin hematoma was encountered.ConclusionsIn carefully selected patients, percutaneous removal of permanent IVC filters can be performed safely despite prolonged filter dwell times. Extraction of chronically embedded permanent IVC filters may be facilitated by jugular and femoral approaches, often with laser sheath assistance. Chronic filter thrombosis and caval scarring may increase the risk of retrieval failure.

  17. Retina-Inspired Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2018-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter, which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model "virtual retina." This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatio-temporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina-inspired filter, studied in this paper. This filter is connected to the dynamic behavior of the retina, which enables the retina to increase the sharpness of the visual stimulus during filtering before its transmission to the brain. We establish that this retina-inspired transform forms a group of spatio-temporal Weighted Difference of Gaussian (WDoG) filters when it is applied to a still image visible for a given time. We analyze the spatial frequency bandwidth of the retina-inspired filter with respect to time. It is shown that the WDoG spectrum varies from a lowpass filter to a bandpass filter. Therefore, while time increases, the retina-inspired filter enables to extract different kinds of information from the input image. Finally, we discuss the benefits of using the retina-inspired filter in image processing applications such as edge detection and compression.

  18. Study of different filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.

    1959-01-01

    This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators

  19. Changing ventilation filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1980-01-01

    A filter changing unit has a door which interlocks with the door of a filter chamber so as to prevent contamination of the outer surfaces of the doors by radioactive material collected on the filter element and a movable support which enables a filter chamber thereonto to be stored within the unit in such a way that the doors of the unit and the filter chamber can be replaced. The door pivots and interlocks with another door by means of a bolt, a seal around the periphery lip of the first door engages the periphery of the second door to seal the gap. A support pivots into a lower filter element storage position. Inspection windows and glove ports are provided. The unit is releasably connected to the filter chamber by bolts engaging in a flange provided around an opening. (author)

  20. One-step synthesis and properties of monolithic photoluminescent ruby colored cuprous oxide antimony oxide glass nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, Tirtha [Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, India), 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in [Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, India), 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2011-04-14

    Research highlights: > Single-step synthesis of Cu{sub 2}O, Cu{sub y}Sb{sub 2-x}(O,OH){sub 6-7} (y {<=} 2, x {<=} 1) and Cu nanocrystals co-doped novel antimony oxide glass hybrid nanocomposites. > Yellow and orange colored nanocomposites shows size-controlled band gap shift of Cu{sub 2}O. > Red nanocomposite exhibits surface plasmon resonance band due to metallic Cu. > They exhibit broad deep-red photoluminescence emission under various UV excitation wavelengths. - Abstract: Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) antimony glass (K{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) monolithic nanocomposites having brilliant yellow to ruby red color have been synthesized by a single-step melt-quench technique involving in situ thermochemical reduction of Cu{sup 2+} (CuO) by the reducing glass matrix without using any external reducing agent. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared transmission and reflection spectra, and selected area electron diffraction analysis support the reduction of Cu{sup 2+} to Cu{sup +} with the formation of Cu{sub 2}O nanoclusters along with Cu{sub y}Sb{sub 2-x}(O,OH){sub 6-7} (y {<=} 2, x {<=} 1) nanocrystalline phases while Cu{sup 0} nanoclusters are formed at very high Cu concentration. The UV-vis spectra of the yellow and orange colored nanocomposites show size-controlled band gap shift of the semiconductor (Cu{sub 2}O) nanocrystallites embedded in the glasses while the red nanocomposite exhibits surface plasmon resonance band at 529 nm due to metallic Cu. Transmission electron microscopic image advocates the formation of nanocystallites (5-42 nm). Photoluminescence emission studies show broad red emission band around 626 nm under various excitation wavelengths from 210 to 270 nm.

  1. Direct Observation of Cr3+ 3d States in Ruby: Toward Experimental Mechanistic Evidence of Metal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunault, Myrtille O J Y; Harada, Yoshihisa; Miyawaki, Jun; Wang, Jian; Meijerink, Andries; de Groot, Frank M F; van Schooneveld, Matti M

    2018-04-26

    The role of transition metals in chemical reactions is often derived from probing the metal 3d states. However, the relation between metal site geometry and 3d electronic states, arising from multielectronic effects, makes the spectral data interpretation and modeling of these optical excited states a challenge. Here we show, using the well-known case of red ruby, that unique insights into the density of transition metal 3d excited states can be gained with 2p3d resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). We compare the experimental determination of the 3d excited states of Cr 3+ impurities in Al 2 O 3 with 190 meV resolution 2p3d RIXS to optical absorption spectroscopy and to simulations. Using the crystal field multiplet theory, we calculate jointly for the first time the Cr 3+ multielectronic states, RIXS, and optical spectra based on a unique set of parameters. We demonstrate that (i) anisotropic 3d multielectronic interactions causes different scaling of Slater integrals, and (ii) a previously not observed doublet excited state exists around 3.35 eV. These results allow to discuss the influence of interferences in the RIXS intermediate state, of core-hole lifetime broadenings, and of selection rules on the RIXS intensities. Finally, our results demonstrate that using an intermediate excitation energy between L 3 and L 2 edges allows measurement of the density of 3d excited states as a fingerprint of the metal local structure. This opens up a new direction to pump-before-destroy investigations of transition metal complex structures and reaction mechanisms.

  2. Filter material charging apparatus for filter assembly for radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.M.; O'Nan, A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A filter charging apparatus for a filter assembly is described. The filter assembly includes a housing with at least one filter bed therein and the filter charging apparatus for adding filter material to the filter assembly includes a tank with an opening therein, the tank opening being disposed in flow communication with opposed first and second conduit means, the first conduit means being in flow communication with the filter assembly housing and the second conduit means being in flow communication with a blower means. Upon activation of the blower means, the blower means pneumatically conveys the filter material from the tank to the filter housing

  3. Cleaning metal filters by pulse-jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.; Perry, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cleanable metal filters have an established use in the Nuclear Industry. The filters that have been installed in the past have not proved to be sufficiently cleanable. A series of tests were undertaken to study the application of pulse-jet cleaning to metal fibre filter elements. The efficiency of dust removal was examined under various operating conditions. A very high degree of particulate removal was achieved, with a return to almost clean pressure drop. The effectiveness of cleaning was found to vary inversely with blowback pressure. The position of the blowback nozzle with respect to the filter element throat was also found to be important to cleaning efficiency. Under the test conditions the effect of re-entrainment when cleaning on line was found to be minimal. (author)

  4. Design and deployment of semiochemical traps for capturing Anthonomus rubi Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Lygus rugulipennis Poppius (Hetereoptera: Miridae) in soft fruit crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountain, Michelle T.; Baroffio, Catherine; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2017-01-01

    Strawberry blossom weevil (SBW), Anthonomus rubi Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and European tarnished plant bug (ETB), Lygus rugulipennis Poppius (Hetereoptera: Miridae), cause significant damage to strawberry and raspberry crops. Using the SBW aggregation pheromone and ETB sex pheromone we...... if deployed at ground level and although a cross vane was not important for catches of ETB it was needed for significant captures of SBW. The potential for mass trapping SBW and ETB simultaneously in soft fruit crops is discussed including potential improvements to make this more effective and economic...

  5. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  6. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  7. Higher-order chaotic oscillator using active bessel filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumelien, Skaidra

    2010-01-01

    A higher-order oscillator, including a nonlinear unit and an 8th-order low-pass active Bessel filter is described. The Bessel unit plays the role of "three-in-one": a delay line, an amplifier and a filter. Results of hardware experiments and numerical simulation are presented. Depending...

  8. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs......, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition...

  9. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  10. Filters in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, K.H.; Wilhelm, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The topics of the nine papers given include the behavior of HEPA filters during exposure to air flows of high humidity as well as of high differential pressure, the development of steel-fiber filters suitable for extreme operating conditions, and the occurrence of various radioactive iodine species in the exhaust air from boiling water reactors. In an introductory presentation the German view of the performance requirements to be met by filters in nuclear facilities as well as the present status of filter quality assurance are discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Washing method of filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumidani, Masakiyo; Tanno, Kazuo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic filter operation and facilitate back-washing operation by back-washing filters used in a bwr nuclear power plant utilizing an exhaust gas from a ventilator or air conditioner. Method: Exhaust gas from an exhaust pipe of an ventilator or air conditioner is pressurized in a compressor and then introduced in a back-washing gas tank. Then, the exhaust gas pressurized to a predetermined pressure is blown from the inside to the outside of a filter to thereby separate impurities collected on the filter elements and introduce them to a waste tank. (Furukawa, Y.)

  12. Testing Of The Dual Rotary Filter System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-01

    an issue in deployment where the desired flow rate will be within the normal operating range of the meter. Testing demonstrated that the use of a flexible line for the filtrate discharge is highly desired at the outlet of the rotary union to transition to the system piping. Isolating the vibration from the rotary union will significantly improve the lifetime of the seals. Methods to monitor and isolate individual filters should be considered during deployment. The ability to diagnose issues and isolate individual filters would allow isolation prior to failure. Thus, filters may be cleaned or repaired instead of requiring complete replacement if the condition were to continue unnoticed. Isolating the filtrate line of each filter during startup will minimize the premature buildup of solids on the filter disks. Several tests have shown that the method of filter startup can improve performance lifetime of the filters. The installation must factor in an air inlet for the draining of a filter that does not involve a reverse flow through the filter disks. The reverse flow may cause deformation of the disks or may damage other components of the filters themselves.

  13. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    an issue in deployment where the desired flow rate will be within the normal operating range of the meter. Testing demonstrated that the use of a flexible line for the filtrate discharge is highly desired at the outlet of the rotary union to transition to the system piping. Isolating the vibration from the rotary union will significantly improve the lifetime of the seals. Methods to monitor and isolate individual filters should be considered during deployment. The ability to diagnose issues and isolate individual filters would allow isolation prior to failure. Thus, filters may be cleaned or repaired instead of requiring complete replacement if the condition were to continue unnoticed. Isolating the filtrate line of each filter during startup will minimize the premature buildup of solids on the filter disks. Several tests have shown that the method of filter startup can improve performance lifetime of the filters. The installation must factor in an air inlet for the draining of a filter that does not involve a reverse flow through the filter disks. The reverse flow may cause deformation of the disks or may damage other components of the filters themselves.

  14. Percutaneous retrieval of a vena cava filter from the right atrium: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasuli, P.; Mehran, R.; French, G.; Turek, M.; Lalonde, K.A.; Cardinal, P.

    2000-01-01

    Migration of vena cava filters can occur spontaneously, but it can also occur as a result of entanglement of the filter with a guidewire, particularly during 'blind' (unguided) insertion of a central venous line. When a filter migrates to the heart, traditional practice has been either to leave the filter in place or to remove it surgically by means of open heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. We found only 6 reports of successful percutaneous retrieval or repositioning of a vena cava filter (Table 1). We describe a new interventional technique for retrieving a filter from the right atrium and a novel endosurgical method for removing a filter from the innominate vein. (author)

  15. Filtering algorithm for dotted interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K., E-mail: kurt.osterloh@bam.de [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Division VIII.3, Radiological Methods, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Bock, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-09-21

    An algorithm has been developed to remove reliably dotted interferences impairing the perceptibility of objects within a radiographic image. This particularly is a major challenge encountered with neutron radiographs collected at the NECTAR facility, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II): the resulting images are dominated by features resembling a snow flurry. These artefacts are caused by scattered neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic radiation, etc. all hitting the detector CCD directly in spite of a sophisticated shielding. This makes such images rather useless for further direct evaluations. One approach to resolve this problem of these random effects would be to collect a vast number of single images, to combine them appropriately and to process them with common image filtering procedures. However, it has been shown that, e.g. median filtering, depending on the kernel size in the plane and/or the number of single shots to be combined, is either insufficient or tends to blur sharp lined structures. This inevitably makes a visually controlled processing image by image unavoidable. Particularly in tomographic studies, it would be by far too tedious to treat each single projection by this way. Alternatively, it would be not only more comfortable but also in many cases the only reasonable approach to filter a stack of images in a batch procedure to get rid of the disturbing interferences. The algorithm presented here meets all these requirements. It reliably frees the images from the snowy pattern described above without the loss of fine structures and without a general blurring of the image. It consists of an iterative, within a batch procedure parameter free filtering algorithm aiming to eliminate the often complex interfering artefacts while leaving the original information untouched as far as possible.

  16. Filtering algorithm for dotted interferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Buecherl, T.; Lierse von Gostomski, Ch.; Zscherpel, U.; Ewert, U.; Bock, S.

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to remove reliably dotted interferences impairing the perceptibility of objects within a radiographic image. This particularly is a major challenge encountered with neutron radiographs collected at the NECTAR facility, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II): the resulting images are dominated by features resembling a snow flurry. These artefacts are caused by scattered neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic radiation, etc. all hitting the detector CCD directly in spite of a sophisticated shielding. This makes such images rather useless for further direct evaluations. One approach to resolve this problem of these random effects would be to collect a vast number of single images, to combine them appropriately and to process them with common image filtering procedures. However, it has been shown that, e.g. median filtering, depending on the kernel size in the plane and/or the number of single shots to be combined, is either insufficient or tends to blur sharp lined structures. This inevitably makes a visually controlled processing image by image unavoidable. Particularly in tomographic studies, it would be by far too tedious to treat each single projection by this way. Alternatively, it would be not only more comfortable but also in many cases the only reasonable approach to filter a stack of images in a batch procedure to get rid of the disturbing interferences. The algorithm presented here meets all these requirements. It reliably frees the images from the snowy pattern described above without the loss of fine structures and without a general blurring of the image. It consists of an iterative, within a batch procedure parameter free filtering algorithm aiming to eliminate the often complex interfering artefacts while leaving the original information untouched as far as possible.

  17. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey; Hoel, Haakon; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  18. Side loading filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A side loading filter chamber for use with radioactive gases is described. The equipment incorporates an inexpensive, manually operated, mechanism for aligning filter units with a number of laterally spaced wall openings and for removing the units from the chamber. (U.K.)

  19. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Chernov, Alexey

    2016-01-06

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). In terms of computational cost vs. approximation error the asymptotic performance of the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) is superior to the EnKF s.

  20. Filtering and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Fristedt, B; Krylov, N

    2007-01-01

    Filtering and prediction is about observing moving objects when the observations are corrupted by random errors. The main focus is then on filtering out the errors and extracting from the observations the most precise information about the object, which itself may or may not be moving in a somewhat random fashion. Next comes the prediction step where, using information about the past behavior of the object, one tries to predict its future path. The first three chapters of the book deal with discrete probability spaces, random variables, conditioning, Markov chains, and filtering of discrete Markov chains. The next three chapters deal with the more sophisticated notions of conditioning in nondiscrete situations, filtering of continuous-space Markov chains, and of Wiener process. Filtering and prediction of stationary sequences is discussed in the last two chapters. The authors believe that they have succeeded in presenting necessary ideas in an elementary manner without sacrificing the rigor too much. Such rig...

  1. Filter cake breaker systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo H.F. [Poland Quimica Ltda., Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Drilling fluids filter cakes are based on a combination of properly graded dispersed particles and polysaccharide polymers. High efficiency filter cakes are formed by these combination , and their formation on wellbore walls during the drilling process has, among other roles, the task of protecting the formation from instantaneous or accumulative invasion of drilling fluid filtrate, granting stability to well and production zones. Filter cake minimizes contact between drilling fluid filtrate and water, hydrocarbons and clay existent in formations. The uniform removal of the filter cake from the entire interval is a critical factor of the completion process. The main methods used to breaking filter cake are classified into two groups, external or internal, according to their removal mechanism. The aim of this work is the presentation of these mechanisms as well their efficiency. (author)

  2. Sub-micron filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Frederick [Sanford, FL; Kaledin, Leonid [Port Orange, FL

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  3. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  4. Methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumper, Andreas; Boix-Aragones, Oriol; Villafafila-Robles, Roberto; Bergas-Jane, Joan; Ramirez-Pisco, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas. This methodology is based on the numeric evaluation of several impacts which are combined with weight factors. The novelty is that it opens up the possibility of citizen participation, basically in the way in which impacts and weighting factors are determined. The proposed methodology has been applied first in the municipality of Rubi, a mid-sized town near Barcelona, and later on in several municipalities in the Catalonia region in Spain. The results were used to prioritise mitigation action in the Catalonia Energy Plan.

  5. Methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumper, Andreas [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EU d' Enginyeria Tecnica Industrial de Barcelona, Comte d' Urgell, 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC) (Spain); Boix-Aragones, Oriol; Bergas-Jane, Joan [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ETS d' Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2. 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Villafafila-Robles, Roberto; Ramirez-Pisco, Rodrigo [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Departament d' Enginyeria Electrica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, EU d' Enginyeria Tecnica Industrial de Barcelona, Comte d' Urgell, 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of the impact of existing high voltage lines in urban areas. This methodology is based on the numeric evaluation of several impacts which are combined with weight factors. The novelty is that it opens up the possibility of citizen participation, basically in the way in which impacts and weighting factors are determined. The proposed methodology has been applied first in the municipality of Rubi, a mid-sized town near Barcelona, and later on in several municipalities in the Catalonia region in Spain. The results were used to prioritise mitigation action in the Catalonia Energy Plan. (author)

  6. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  7. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  8. EMI filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Ozenbaugh, Richard Lee

    2011-01-01

    With today's electrical and electronics systems requiring increased levels of performance and reliability, the design of robust EMI filters plays a critical role in EMC compliance. Using a mix of practical methods and theoretical analysis, EMI Filter Design, Third Edition presents both a hands-on and academic approach to the design of EMI filters and the selection of components values. The design approaches covered include matrix methods using table data and the use of Fourier analysis, Laplace transforms, and transfer function realization of LC structures. This edition has been fully revised

  9. Randomized Filtering Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katriel, Irit; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    of AllDifferent and is generalization, the Global Cardinality Constraint. The first delayed filtering scheme is a Monte Carlo algorithm: its running time is superior, in the worst case, to that of enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while its filtering effectiveness is analyzed...... in the expected sense. The second scheme is a Las Vegas algorithm using filtering triggers: Its effectiveness is the same as enforcing are consistency after every domain event, while in the expected case it is faster by a factor of m/n, where n and m are, respectively, the number of nodes and edges...

  10. Late summer disease symptoms in western Washington red raspberry fields associated with co-occurrence of Phytophthora rubi, Verticillium dahliae, and Pratylenchus penetrans, but not Raspberry bushy dwarf virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    60% of the $109 million processed by the U.S. red raspberry industry is in northern Washington. In 2012, late summer disease symptoms were observed in many raspberry fields. These symptoms were initially attributed to Verticillium dahliae, but other soilborne pathogens (Phytophthora rubi, Pratylench...

  11. Computerized techniques for digital filtering and spectral decomposition with applications to nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.D.; Gerstein, B.C.

    1979-02-01

    A report is presented which describes a digital filtering technique using both a bandpass filter and an exponential filter. The properties of Lorentzian and Gaussian lineshapes are discussed. A procedure for decomposing NMR absorption spectra with overlapping lines into Lorentzian and Gaussian components is also described. Finally, two FORTRAN computer programs which implement concepts developed in this report are presented

  12. On-line monitoring of methanol and methyl formate in the exhaust gas of an industrial formaldehyde production plant by a mid-IR gas sensor based on tunable Fabry-Pérot filter technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genner, Andreas; Gasser, Christoph; Moser, Harald; Ofner, Johannes; Schreiber, Josef; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    On-line monitoring of key chemicals in an industrial production plant ensures economic operation, guarantees the desired product quality, and provides additional in-depth information on the involved chemical processes. For that purpose, rapid, rugged, and flexible measurement systems at reasonable cost are required. Here, we present the application of a flexible mid-IR filtometer for industrial gas sensing. The developed prototype consists of a modulated thermal infrared source, a temperature-controlled gas cell for absorption measurement and an integrated device consisting of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer and a pyroelectric mid-IR detector. The prototype was calibrated in the research laboratory at TU Wien for measuring methanol and methyl formate in the concentration ranges from 660 to 4390 and 747 to 4610 ppmV. Subsequently, the prototype was transferred and installed at the project partner Metadynea Austria GmbH and linked to their Process Control System via a dedicated micro-controller and used for on-line monitoring of the process off-gas. Up to five process streams were sequentially monitored in a fully automated manner. The obtained readings for methanol and methyl formate concentrations provided useful information on the efficiency and correct functioning of the process plant. Of special interest for industry is the now added capability to monitor the start-up phase and process irregularities with high time resolution (5 s).

  13. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamanashi University, Nakagawa-Sekiya Laboratory, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan)], E-mail: nsekiya@yamanashi.ac.jp; Nakagawa, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamanashi University, Nakagawa-Sekiya Laboratory, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Saito, A.; Ohshima, S. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning.

  14. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning

  15. Avoiding the Use of Exhausted Drinking Water Filters: A Filter-Clock Based on Rusting Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Igor Ndé-Tchoupé

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient but affordable water treatment technologies are currently sought to solve the prevalent shortage of safe drinking water. Adsorption-based technologies are in the front-line of these efforts. Upon proper design, universally applied materials (e.g., activated carbons, bone chars, metal oxides are able to quantitatively remove inorganic and organic pollutants as well as pathogens from water. Each water filter has a defined removal capacity and must be replaced when this capacity is exhausted. Operational experience has shown that it may be difficult to convince some low-skilled users to buy new filters after a predicted service life. This communication describes the quest to develop a filter-clock to encourage all users to change their filters after the designed service life. A brief discussion on such a filter-clock based on rusting of metallic iron (Fe0 is presented. Integrating such filter-clocks in the design of water filters is regarded as essential for safeguarding public health.

  16. Hybrid Active Filter with Variable Conductance for Harmonic Resonance Suppression in Industrial Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Tzung-Lin; Wang, Yen-Ching; Li, Jian-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional series and/or parallel resonances, due to the tuned passive filter and the line inductance, may result in severe harmonic distortion in the industrial power system. This paper presents a hybrid active filter to suppress harmonic resonance and reduce harmonic distortion as well...... expensive. A reasonable trade-off between filtering performances and cost is to use the hybrid active filter. Design consideration are presented and experimental results are provided to validate effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, this paper discusses filtering performances on line impedance...

  17. Metalcasting: Filtering Molten Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauren Poole; Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    A more efficient method has been created to filter cast molten metal for impurities. Read about the resulting energy and money savings that can accrue to many different industries from the use of this exciting new technology

  18. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-01

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  19. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  20. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter requires that criteria be met to demonstrate that the outcome instrument meets...... the criteria for content, face, and construct validity. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed a variety of ways in which case studies of current OMERACT Working Groups complied with the Truth component of the Filter and what issues remained to be resolved. RESULTS: The case studies showed...... that there is broad agreement on criteria for meeting the Truth criteria through demonstration of content, face, and construct validity; however, several issues were identified that the Filter Working Group will need to address. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on how Truth...

  1. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John R; Boers, Maarten; Hewlett, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides guidelines for the development and validation of outcome measures for use in clinical research. The "Truth" section of the OMERACT Filter presupposes an explicit framework for identifying the relevant core outcomes...... for defining core areas of measurement ("Filter 2.0 Core Areas of Measurement") was presented at OMERACT 11 to explore areas of consensus and to consider whether already endorsed core outcome sets fit into this newly proposed framework. METHODS: Discussion groups critically reviewed the extent to which case......, presentation, and clarity of the framework were questioned. The discussion groups and subsequent feedback highlighted 20 such issues. CONCLUSION: These issues will require resolution to reach consensus on accepting the proposed Filter 2.0 framework of Core Areas as the basis for the selection of Core Outcome...

  2. Paul Rodgersi filter Kohilas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    28. I Kohila keskkoolis kohaspetsiifiline skulptuur ja performance "Filter". Kooli 130. aastapäeva tähistava ettevõtmise eesotsas oli skulptor Paul Rodgers ja kaks viimase klassi noormeest ئ Marko Heinmäe, Hendrik Karm.

  3. Perspectives on Nonlinear Filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2015-01-07

    The solution to the problem of nonlinear filtering may be given either as an estimate of the signal (and ideally some measure of concentration), or as a full posterior distribution. Similarly, one may evaluate the fidelity of the filter either by its ability to track the signal or its proximity to the posterior filtering distribution. Hence, the field enjoys a lively symbiosis between probability and control theory, and there are plenty of applications which benefit from algorithmic advances, from signal processing, to econometrics, to large-scale ocean, atmosphere, and climate modeling. This talk will survey some recent theoretical results involving accurate signal tracking with noise-free (degenerate) dynamics in high-dimensions (infinite, in principle, but say d between 103 and 108 , depending on the size of your application and your computer), and high-fidelity approximations of the filtering distribution in low dimensions (say d between 1 and several 10s).

  4. The genetics of green thorax, a new larval colour mutant, non-linked with ruby - eye locus in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanil, D; Shetty, N J

    2009-06-01

    Anopheles stephensi, an important vector of malaria continues to be distributed widely in the Indian subcontinent. The natural vigour of the species combined with its new tolerance, indeed resistance to insecticides has made it obligatory that we look for control methods involving genetic manipulation. Hence, there is an immediate need for greater understanding of the genetics of this vector species. One of the requirements for such genetic studies is the establishment of naturally occurring mutants, establishment of the genetic basis for the same and use of such mutants in the genetic transformation studies and other genetic control programme(s). This paper describes the isolation and genetic studies of a larval colour mutant, green thorax (gt), and linkage studies involving another autosomal recessive mutant ruby- eye (ru) in An. stephensi. After the initial discovery, the mutant green thorax was crossed inter se and pure homozygous stock of the mutant was established. The stock of the mutant ruby- eye, which has been maintained as a pure stock in the laboratory. Crosses were made between the wild type and mutant, green thorax to determine the mode of inheritance of green thorax. For linkage studies, crosses were made between the mutant green thorax and another autosomal recessive mutant ruby-eye. The percentage cross-over was calculated for the genes linkage relationship for gt and gt ru. Results of crosses between mutant and wild type showed that the inheritance of green thorax (gt) in An. stephensi is monofactorial in nature. The gt allele is recessive to wild type and is autosomal. The linkage studies showed no linkage between ru and gt. The mutant gt represents an excellent marker for An. stephensi as it is expressed in late III instar stage of larvae and is prominent in IV instar and pupal stages with complete penetrance and high viability. The said mutant could be easily identified without the aid of a microscope. This mutant can be used extensively to

  5. Spatial filter issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.E.; Estabrook, K.G.; Milam, D.; Sell, W.D.; Van Wonterghem, R.M.; Feil, M.D.; Rubenchick, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments and calculations indicate that the threshold pressure in spatial filters for distortion of a transmitted pulse scales approximately as I O.2 and (F number-sign) 2 over the intensity range from 10 14 to 2xlO 15 W/CM 2 . We also demonstrated an interferometric diagnostic that will be used to measure the scaling relationships governing pinhole closure in spatial filters

  6. Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    1 Microwave Resonators and Filters Daniel E. Oates MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood St. Lexington, MA 02478 USA Email: oates@ll.mit.edu...explained in other chapters, the surface resistance of superconductors at microwave frequencies can be as much as three orders of magnitude lower than the...resonators and filters in the first edition of this handbook (Z.-Y. Shen 2003) discussed the then state of the art of microwave frequency applications

  7. Staging with spatial filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.

    1974-01-01

    It is known that small scale beam instabilities limit the focusable energy that can be achieved from a terawatt laser chain. Spatial filters are currently being used on CYCLOPS to ameliorate this problem. Realizing the full advantage of such a filter, however, may require certain staging modifications. A staging methodology is discussed that should be applicable to the CYCLOPS, 381, and SHIVA systems. Experiments are in progress on CYCLOPS that will address directly the utility of the proposed approach

  8. Particle filtering for passive fathometer tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Yardim, Caglar; Gerstoft, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Seabed interface depths and fathometer amplitudes are tracked for an unknown and changing number of sub-bottom reflectors. This is achieved by incorporating conventional and adaptive fathometer processors into sequential Monte Carlo methods for a moving vertical line array. Sediment layering information and time-varying fathometer response amplitudes are tracked by using a multiple model particle filter with an uncertain number of reflectors. Results are compared to a classical particle filter where the number of reflectors is considered to be known. Reflector tracking is demonstrated for both conventional and adaptive processing applied to the drifting array data from the Boundary 2003 experiment. The layering information is successfully tracked by the multiple model particle filter even for noisy fathometer outputs. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  9. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  10. Comparison of various filtering methods for digital X-ray image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfluger, T.; Reinfelder, H.E.; Dorschky, K.; Oppelt, A.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen

    1987-01-01

    Three filtering methods are explained and compared that are used for border edge enhancement of digitally processed X-ray images. The filters are compared by two examples, a radiograph of the chest, and one of the knee joint. The unsharpness mask is found to yield the best compromise between edge enhancement and image noise intensifying effect, whereas the results obtained by the high-pass filter or the Wallis filter are less good for diagnostic evaluation. The filtered images better display narrow lines, structural borders and edges, and finely spotted areas, than the original radiograph, so that diagnostic evaluation is easier after image filtering. (orig.) [de

  11. Towards optical spectroscopy of the element nobelium (Z = 102) in a buffer gas cell. First on-line experiments on {sup 155}Yb at the velocity filter SHIP with a novel ion collection and atom re-evaporation method of high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backe, H.; Kunz, P.; Lauth, W.; Dretzke, A.; Horn, R.; Kolb, T. [Mainz Univ., Institut fur Kernphysik (Germany); Laatiaoui, M.; Sewtz, M. [Munchen Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Dept. fur Physik, Garching (Germany); Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Hebberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Mann, R. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    For the investigation of the atomic level structure of heavy elements which can only be produced at on-line facilities such as GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), a novel experimental procedure has been developed. It is based on Radiation Detected Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RADRIS) and can be applied to elements like nobelium produced at rates of a few ions per second. Fusion reaction products are separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, stopped in a buffer gas cell, collected on a tantalum filament and then re-evaporated as atoms. The ions produced by resonance ionization with tunable laser beams are detected via their characteristic alpha decay. First on-line experiments on alpha-active {sup 155}Yb, which is supposed to have an atomic level structure similar to nobelium, were performed. These test experiments focused on the optimization of the collection and re-evaporation process of the radioactive ions, the laser ionization efficiency and the detection via alpha decay. An overall efficiency for RADRIS of 0.8% with respect to the target production rate was measured. While further improvements of this efficiency are in progress it should already be sufficient for the search for atomic levels in nobelium. (authors)

  12. Towards optical spectroscopy of the element nobelium (Z = 102) in a buffer gas cell. First on-line experiments on 155Yb at the velocity filter SHIP with a novel ion collection and atom re-evaporation method of high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, H.; Kunz, P.; Lauth, W.; Dretzke, A.; Horn, R.; Kolb, T.; Laatiaoui, M.; Sewtz, M.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Hebberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Mann, R.

    2007-01-01

    For the investigation of the atomic level structure of heavy elements which can only be produced at on-line facilities such as GSI (Darmstadt, Germany), a novel experimental procedure has been developed. It is based on Radiation Detected Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RADRIS) and can be applied to elements like nobelium produced at rates of a few ions per second. Fusion reaction products are separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, stopped in a buffer gas cell, collected on a tantalum filament and then re-evaporated as atoms. The ions produced by resonance ionization with tunable laser beams are detected via their characteristic alpha decay. First on-line experiments on alpha-active 155 Yb, which is supposed to have an atomic level structure similar to nobelium, were performed. These test experiments focused on the optimization of the collection and re-evaporation process of the radioactive ions, the laser ionization efficiency and the detection via alpha decay. An overall efficiency for RADRIS of 0.8% with respect to the target production rate was measured. While further improvements of this efficiency are in progress it should already be sufficient for the search for atomic levels in nobelium. (authors)

  13. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C

    2016-06-02

    We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10(-4) M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10(-5) M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants.

  14. XPS and ToF-SIMS analysis of natural rubies and sapphires heat-treated in a reducing (5 mol% H 2/Ar) atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiwawanich, S.; James, B. D.; Liesegang, J.

    2008-12-01

    Surface effects on Mong Hsu rubies and Kanchanaburi sapphires after heat treatment in a controlled reducing atmosphere (5 mol% H 2/Ar) have been investigated using advanced surface science techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Visual appearance of the gemstones is clearly affected by the heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. Kanchanaburi sapphires, in particular, exhibit Fe-containing precipitates after the heat treatment which have not been observed in previous studies under an inert atmosphere. Significant correlation between changes in visual appearance of the gemstones and variations in surface concentration of trace elements, especially Ti and Fe are observed. The XPS and ToF-SIMS results suggest that; (1) a reducing atmosphere affects the oxidation state of Fe; (2) dissociation of Fe-Ti interaction may occur during heat treatment.

  15. XPS and ToF-SIMS analysis of natural rubies and sapphires heat-treated in a reducing (5 mol% H{sub 2}/Ar) atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achiwawanich, S. [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); James, B.D. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Department of Chemistry, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Liesegang, J. [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia); Centre for Materials and Surface Science, La Trobe University, VIC 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: J.Liesegang@latrobe.edu.au

    2008-12-30

    Surface effects on Mong Hsu rubies and Kanchanaburi sapphires after heat treatment in a controlled reducing atmosphere (5 mol% H{sub 2}/Ar) have been investigated using advanced surface science techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Visual appearance of the gemstones is clearly affected by the heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. Kanchanaburi sapphires, in particular, exhibit Fe-containing precipitates after the heat treatment which have not been observed in previous studies under an inert atmosphere. Significant correlation between changes in visual appearance of the gemstones and variations in surface concentration of trace elements, especially Ti and Fe are observed. The XPS and ToF-SIMS results suggest that; (1) a reducing atmosphere affects the oxidation state of Fe; (2) dissociation of Fe-Ti interaction may occur during heat treatment.

  16. Acetylcholine suppresses shoot formation and callusing in leaf explants of in vitro raised seedlings of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var. Pusa Ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamel, Kiran; Gupta, Rajendra; Gupta, Shirish C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present experimental evidence to show that acetylcholine (ACh) causes decrease in shoot formation in leaf explants of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller var Pusa Ruby) when cultured on shoot regeneration medium. The optimum response was obtained at 10−4 M ACh-enriched medium. ACh also causes decrease in percentage of cultures forming callus and reduces the callus mass. Inhibitors of enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh, neostigmine and physostigmine, also suppresses callogenesis and caulogenesis. On the other hand, the breakdown products of Ach, choline and acetate, do not alter the morphogenic response induced on the shoot regeneration medium. Neostigmine showed optimal reduction in shoot formation at 10−5 M. The explants cultured on neostigmine augmented medium showed decline in the activity of ACh hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase. ACh and neostigmine added together showed marked reduction in callus mass. These results strongly support the role of ACh as a natural regulator of morphogenesis in tomato plants. PMID:27348536

  17. Anticipatory synchronization via low-dimensional filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyragiene, T.; Pyragas, K.

    2017-01-01

    An anticipatory chaotic synchronization scheme based on a low-order all-pass filter is proposed. The filter is designed as a Padé approximation to the transfer function of an ideal delay line, which is used in a standard Voss scheme. We show that despite its simplicity, the filter works in an anticipatory scheme as well as an ideal delay line. It provides extremely small synchronization error in the whole interval of anticipation time where the anticipatory manifold is stable. The efficacy of our scheme is explained by an analytically solvable model of unidirectionally coupled unstable spirals and confirmed numerically by an example of unidirectionally coupled chaotic Rössler systems. - Highlights: • A new coupling scheme for anticipating chaotic synchronization is proposed. • The scheme consists of a drive system coupled to a low-dimensional filter. • Long-term anticipation is achieved without using time-delay terms. • An analytical treatment estimates the maximum anticipation time. • The method is verified for the Rössler system.

  18. Anticipatory synchronization via low-dimensional filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyragiene, T., E-mail: tatjana.pyragiene@ftmc.lt; Pyragas, K.

    2017-06-15

    An anticipatory chaotic synchronization scheme based on a low-order all-pass filter is proposed. The filter is designed as a Padé approximation to the transfer function of an ideal delay line, which is used in a standard Voss scheme. We show that despite its simplicity, the filter works in an anticipatory scheme as well as an ideal delay line. It provides extremely small synchronization error in the whole interval of anticipation time where the anticipatory manifold is stable. The efficacy of our scheme is explained by an analytically solvable model of unidirectionally coupled unstable spirals and confirmed numerically by an example of unidirectionally coupled chaotic Rössler systems. - Highlights: • A new coupling scheme for anticipating chaotic synchronization is proposed. • The scheme consists of a drive system coupled to a low-dimensional filter. • Long-term anticipation is achieved without using time-delay terms. • An analytical treatment estimates the maximum anticipation time. • The method is verified for the Rössler system.

  19. Combined therapy using Q-switched ruby laser and bleaching treatment with tretinoin and hydroquinone for periorbital skin hyperpigmentation in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momosawa, Akira; Kurita, Masakazu; Ozaki, Mine; Miyamoto, Shinpei; Kobayashi, Yo; Ban, Izumi; Harii, Kiyonori

    2008-01-01

    Periorbital skin hyperpigmentation, so-called dark circles, is of major concern for many people. However, only a few reports refer to the morbidity and treatment, and as far as the authors know, there are no reports of the condition in Asians. A total of 18 Japanese patients underwent combined therapy using Q-switched ruby laser to eliminate dermal pigmentation following topical bleaching treatment with tretinoin aqueous gel and hydroquinone ointment performed initially (6 weeks) to reduce epidermal melanin. Both steps were repeated two to four times until physical clearance of the pigmentation was confirmed and patient satisfaction was achieved. Skin biopsy was performed at baseline in each patient and at the end of treatment in three patients, all with informed consent. Clinical and histologic appearances of periorbital hyperpigmentation were evaluated and rated as excellent, good, fair, poor, or default. Seven of 18 patients (38.9 percent) showed excellent clearing after treatment and eight (44.4 percent) were rated good. Only one (5.6 percent) was rated fair and none was rated poor. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was observed in only two patients (11.1 percent). Histologic examination showed obvious epidermal hyperpigmentation in 10 specimens. Dermal pigmentation was observed in all specimens but was not considered to be melanocytosis. Remarkable reduction of dermal pigmentation was observed in the biopsy specimens of three patients after treatment. The new treatment protocol combining Q-switched ruby laser and topical bleaching treatment using tretinoin and hydroquinone is considered effective for improvement of periorbital skin hyperpigmentation, with a low incidence of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.

  20. Backflushable filter experience at the N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, B.; Best, W.T.; Keith, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The N Reactor is an 4000 MWt, light-water cooled, graphite-moderated reactor located on the Hanford Site in Washington State. A radwaste pilot plant to process plant effluent was constructed in order to maximize future efficiency when a full size radioactive processing facility is built. The pilot plant's purpose is to vary operational parameters such as filtration and ion exchange on a smaller scale to gather as much data as possible. The input to the pilot plant is radioactive drain lines from the N Reactor. The effluent passes through a backflushable filter and a series of ion exchange columns all scaled down from the future proposed facility. A backflushable filter was selected for this application because of the specific characteristics of the plant effluent and the potential reduced operating costs. The filter performance has been excellent in terms of filtration of the effluent. Typical total suspended solids in the plant effluent range from 1 to 6.1 ppm; the filter reduces this value to less than 0.1 ppm. In addition to outstanding filtration efficiency, the use of a precoat material on the filter has resulted in impressive decontamination factors. The filter has been successful in removing up to 50% of the influent activity. An improved performance of several nuclides over other filtration systems has also been achieved. By varying the composition and amount of precoat material on the filter, substantial reductions in waste volumes (and associated operating and disposal costs) have been demonstrated while maintaining a high degree of removal of both activity and total suspended solids

  1. Choosing and using astronomical filters

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2014-01-01

    As a casual read through any of the major amateur astronomical magazines will demonstrate, there are filters available for all aspects of optical astronomy. This book provides a ready resource on the use of the following filters, among others, for observational astronomy or for imaging: Light pollution filters Planetary filters Solar filters Neutral density filters for Moon observation Deep-sky filters, for such objects as galaxies, nebulae and more Deep-sky objects can be imaged in much greater detail than was possible many years ago. Amateur astronomers can take

  2. Anti-clogging filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Erik P.

    2015-05-19

    An anti-clogging filter system for filtering a fluid containing large particles and small particles includes an enclosure with at least one individual elongated tubular filter element in the enclosure. The individual elongated tubular filter element has an internal passage, a closed end, an open end, and a filtering material in or on the individual elongated tubular filter element. The fluid travels through the open end of the elongated tubular element and through the internal passage and through the filtering material. An anti-clogging element is positioned on or adjacent the individual elongated tubular filter element and provides a fluid curtain that preferentially directs the larger particulates to one area of the filter material allowing the remainder of the filter material to remain more efficient.

  3. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon

    2016-01-08

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  4. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Haakon; Chernov, Alexey; Law, Kody; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a sequential filtering method that uses an ensemble of particle paths to estimate the means and covariances required by the Kalman filter by the use of sample moments, i.e., the Monte Carlo method. EnKF is often both robust and efficient, but its performance may suffer in settings where the computational cost of accurate simulations of particles is high. The multilevel Monte Carlo method (MLMC) is an extension of classical Monte Carlo methods which by sampling stochastic realizations on a hierarchy of resolutions may reduce the computational cost of moment approximations by orders of magnitude. In this work we have combined the ideas of MLMC and EnKF to construct the multilevel ensemble Kalman filter (MLEnKF) for the setting of finite dimensional state and observation spaces. The main ideas of this method is to compute particle paths on a hierarchy of resolutions and to apply multilevel estimators on the ensemble hierarchy of particles to compute Kalman filter means and covariances. Theoretical results and a numerical study of the performance gains of MLEnKF over EnKF will be presented. Some ideas on the extension of MLEnKF to settings with infinite dimensional state spaces will also be presented.

  5. Adaptive digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan

    2013-01-01

    “Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms.   The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...

  6. Updating the OMERACT filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter provides a framework for the validation of outcome measures for use in rheumatology clinical research. However, imaging and biochemical measures may face additional validation challenges because of their technical nature. The Imaging...... using the original OMERACT Filter and the newly proposed structure. Breakout groups critically reviewed the extent to which the candidate biomarkers complied with the proposed stepwise approach, as a way of examining the utility of the proposed 3-dimensional structure. RESULTS: Although...... was obtained for a proposed tri-axis structure to assess validation of imaging and soluble biomarkers; nevertheless, additional work is required to better evaluate its place within the OMERACT Filter 2.0....

  7. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  8. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  9. Quantum reality filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-01-01

    An anhomomorphic logic A* is the set of all possible realities for a quantum system. Our main goal is to find the 'actual reality' Φ a element of A* for the system. Reality filters are employed to eliminate unwanted potential realities until only φ a remains. In this paper, we consider three reality filters that are constructed by means of quantum integrals. A quantum measure μ can generate or actualize a Φ element of A* if μ(A) is a quantum integral with respect to φ for a density function f over events A. In this sense, μ is an 'average' of the truth values of φ with weights given by f. We mainly discuss relations between these filters and their existence and uniqueness properties. For example, we show that a quadratic reality generated by a quantum measure is unique. In this case we obtain the unique actual quadratic reality.

  10. Filters in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdin, Blaise

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a modified (``filtered'') version of the minimum compliance topology optimization problem is studied. The direct dependence of the material properties on its pointwise density is replaced by a regularization of the density field using a convolution operator. In this setting...... it is possible to establish the existence of solutions. Moreover, convergence of an approximation by means of finite elements can be obtained. This is illustrated through some numerical experiments. The ``filtering'' technique is also shown to cope with two important numerical problems in topology optimization...

  11. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  12. Decontamination factors of ceramic filter in radioactive waste incineration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Ono, Tetsuo; Yoshiki, Shinya; Kouyama, Hiroaki; Nagae, Madoka; Sekiguchi, Ryosaku; Takaoku, Yoshinobu; Hozumi, Masahiro.

    1987-01-01

    A suspension-firing type radioactive waste incineration system is developed and cold demonstration testing of ceramic filters for the system are carried out. The incineration system, which is useful for a wide variety of waste materials, can serve to simplify the facilities and to reduce the costs for waste disposal. The incineration system can be used for drying-processing of concentrated waste liquids and disposal of flame resistant materials including ion exchange resins and rubber, as well as for ordinary combustible solid materials. An on-line backwash system is adopted to allow the ceramic filters to operate stably for a long period of time. For one-step filtering using the ceramic filter, the decontamination factor is greater than 10 5 for the processing of various wastes. In a practical situation, there exist vapor produced by the spray drier and the cladding in used ion exchange resin, which act to increase the decontamination performance of the ceramic filters to ensure safe operation. For the waste incineration system equipped with a waste gas processing apparatus consisting of a ceramic filter and HEPA filter, the overall decontamination factor is expected to be greater than 10 6 at portions down to the outlet of the ceramic filter and greater than 10 8 at portions down to the outlet of the HEPA filter. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  14. Potential-controlled filtering in quantum star graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, Ondřej; Cheon, Taksu

    2013-01-01

    We study the scattering in a quantum star graph with a Fülöp–Tsutsui coupling in its vertex and with external potentials on the lines. We find certain special couplings for which the probability of the transmission between two given lines of the graph is strongly influenced by the potential applied on another line. On the basis of this phenomenon we design a tunable quantum band-pass spectral filter. The transmission from the input to the output line is governed by a potential added on the controlling line. The strength of the potential directly determines the passband position, which allows to control the filter in a macroscopic manner. Generalization of this concept to quantum devices with multiple controlling lines proves possible. It enables the construction of spectral filters with more controllable parameters or with more operation modes. In particular, we design a band-pass filter with independently adjustable multiple passbands. We also address the problem of the physical realization of Fülöp–Tsutsui couplings and demonstrate that the couplings needed for the construction of the proposed quantum devices can be approximated by simple graphs carrying only δ potentials. - Highlights: ► Spectral filtering devices based on quantum graphs are designed theoretically. ► The passband is controlled by the application of macroscopic potentials on lines. ► The filters are built upon special Fulop–Tsutsui type couplings at graph vertices. ► A method of construction of Fulop–Tsutsui vertices from delta potentials is devised.

  15. Statistically-Efficient Filtering in Impulsive Environments: Weighted Myriad Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Gonzalez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear filtering theory has been largely motivated by the characteristics of Gaussian signals. In the same manner, the proposed Myriad Filtering methods are motivated by the need for a flexible filter class with high statistical efficiency in non-Gaussian impulsive environments that can appear in practice. Myriad filters have a solid theoretical basis, are inherently more powerful than median filters, and are very general, subsuming traditional linear FIR filters. The foundation of the proposed filtering algorithms lies in the definition of the myriad as a tunable estimator of location derived from the theory of robust statistics. We prove several fundamental properties of this estimator and show its optimality in practical impulsive models such as the α-stable and generalized-t. We then extend the myriad estimation framework to allow the use of weights. In the same way as linear FIR filters become a powerful generalization of the mean filter, filters based on running myriads reach all of their potential when a weighting scheme is utilized. We derive the “normal” equations for the optimal myriad filter, and introduce a suboptimal methodology for filter tuning and design. The strong potential of myriad filtering and estimation in impulsive environments is illustrated with several examples.

  16. High-Q Bandpass Comb Filter for Mains Interference Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neycheva T.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple digital high-Q bandpass comb filter for power-line (PL or other periodical interference extraction. The filter concept relies on a correlated signal average resulting in alternating constructive and destructive spectrum interference i.e. the so-called comb frequency response. The presented filter is evaluated by Matlab simulations with real ECG signal contaminated with low amplitude PL interference. The made simulations show that this filter accurately extract the PL interference. It has high-Q notches only at PL odd harmonics and is appropriate for extraction of any kind of odd harmonic interference including rectangular shape. The filter is suitable for real-time operation with popular low-cost microcontrollers.

  17. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  18. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  19. Diagnostic analysis of vibration signals using adaptive digital filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, R. E.; Jones, J. H.; Paul, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Signal enhancement techniques are described using recently developed digital adaptive filtering equipment. Adaptive filtering concepts are not new; however, as a result of recent advances in microprocessor-based electronics, hardware has been developed that has stable characteristics and of a size exceeding 1000th order. Selected data processing examples are presented illustrating spectral line enhancement, adaptive noise cancellation, and transfer function estimation in the presence of corrupting noise.

  20. RF and microwave coupled-line circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Mongia, R K; Bhartia, P; Hong, J; Gupta, K C

    2007-01-01

    This extensively revised edition of the 1999 Artech House classic, RF and Microwave Coupled-Line Circuits, offers you a thoroughly up-to-date understanding of coupled line fundamentals, explaining their applications in designing microwave and millimeter-wave components used in today's communications, microwave, and radar systems. The Second Edition includes a wealth of new material, particularly relating to applications. You find brand new discussions on a novel simple design technique for multilayer coupled circuits, high pass filters using coupled lines, software packages used for filter des

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  2. Filter assembly for metallic and intermetallic tube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Lippert, Thomas E.; Bruck, Gerald J.; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    2001-01-01

    A filter assembly (60) for holding a filter element (28) within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel is provided, containing: a filter housing (62), said filter housing having a certain axial length and having a peripheral sidewall, said sidewall defining an interior chamber (66); a one piece, all metal, fail-safe/regenerator device (68) within the interior chamber (66) of the filter housing (62) and/or extending beyond the axial length of the filter housing, said device containing an outward extending radial flange (71) within the filter housing for seating an essential seal (70), the device also having heat transfer media (72) disposed inside and screens (80) for particulate removal; one compliant gasket (70) positioned next to and above the outward extending radial flange of the fail-safe/regenerator device; and a porous metallic corrosion resistant superalloy type filter element body welded at the bottom of the metal fail-safe/regenerator device.

  3. Digital Simulation of a Hybrid Active Filter - An Active Filter in Series with a Shunt Passive Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Sitaram, Mahesh I; Padiyar, KR; Ramanarayanan, V

    1998-01-01

    Active filters have long been in use for the filtering of power system load harmonics. In this paper, the digital simulation results of a hybrid active power filter system for a rectifier load are presented. The active filter is used for filtering higher order harmonics as the dominant harmonics are filtered by the passive filter. This reduces the rating of the active filter significantly. The DC capacitor voltage of the active filter is controlled using a PI controller.

  4. Artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filters in cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés Correa, A.; Laciar, E.; Patiño, H. D.; Valentinuzzi, M. E.

    2007-11-01

    Artifacts in EEG (electroencephalogram) records are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). These noise sources increase the difficulty in analyzing the EEG and to obtaining clinical information. For this reason, it is necessary to design specific filters to decrease such artifacts in EEG records. In this paper, a cascade of three adaptive filters based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The first one eliminates line interference, the second adaptive filter removes the ECG artifacts and the last one cancels EOG spikes. Each stage uses a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which adjusts its coefficients to produce an output similar to the artifacts present in the EEG. The proposed cascade adaptive filter was tested in five real EEG records acquired in polysomnographic studies. In all cases, line-frequency, ECG and EOG artifacts were attenuated. It is concluded that the proposed filter reduces the common artifacts present in EEG signals without removing significant information embedded in these records.

  5. Artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filters in cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces Correa, A; Laciar, E; Patino, H D; Valentinuzzi, M E

    2007-01-01

    Artifacts in EEG (electroencephalogram) records are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). These noise sources increase the difficulty in analyzing the EEG and to obtaining clinical information. For this reason, it is necessary to design specific filters to decrease such artifacts in EEG records. In this paper, a cascade of three adaptive filters based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The first one eliminates line interference, the second adaptive filter removes the ECG artifacts and the last one cancels EOG spikes. Each stage uses a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which adjusts its coefficients to produce an output similar to the artifacts present in the EEG. The proposed cascade adaptive filter was tested in five real EEG records acquired in polysomnographic studies. In all cases, line-frequency, ECG and EOG artifacts were attenuated. It is concluded that the proposed filter reduces the common artifacts present in EEG signals without removing significant information embedded in these records

  6. Artifact removal from EEG signals using adaptive filters in cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces Correa, A [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Laciar, E [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Patino, H D [Instituto de Automatica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Valentinuzzi, M E [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biologicas (INSIBIO), UNT-CONICET, Tucuman (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Artifacts in EEG (electroencephalogram) records are caused by various factors, like line interference, EOG (electro-oculogram) and ECG (electrocardiogram). These noise sources increase the difficulty in analyzing the EEG and to obtaining clinical information. For this reason, it is necessary to design specific filters to decrease such artifacts in EEG records. In this paper, a cascade of three adaptive filters based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is proposed. The first one eliminates line interference, the second adaptive filter removes the ECG artifacts and the last one cancels EOG spikes. Each stage uses a finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which adjusts its coefficients to produce an output similar to the artifacts present in the EEG. The proposed cascade adaptive filter was tested in five real EEG records acquired in polysomnographic studies. In all cases, line-frequency, ECG and EOG artifacts were attenuated. It is concluded that the proposed filter reduces the common artifacts present in EEG signals without removing significant information embedded in these records.

  7. Experimental study of filter cake formation on different filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of particulate matter from gases generated in the process industry is important for product recovery as well as emission control. Dynamics of filtration plant depend on operating conditions. The models, that predict filter plant behaviour, involve empirical resistance parameters which are usually derived from limited experimental data and are characteristics of the filter media and filter cake (dust deposited on filter medium). Filter cake characteristics are affected by the nature of filter media, process parameters and mode of filter regeneration. Removal of dust particles from air is studied in a pilot scale jet pulsed bag filter facility resembling closely to the industrial filters. Limestone dust and ambient air are used in this study with two widely different filter media. All important parameters like pressure drop, gas flow rate, dust settling, are recorded continuously at 1s interval. The data is processed for estimation of the resistance parameters. The pressure drop rise on test filter media is compared. Results reveal that the surface of filter media has an influence on pressure drop rise (concave pressure drop rise). Similar effect is produced by partially jet pulsed filter surface. Filter behaviour is also simulated using estimated parameters and a simplified model and compared with the experimental results. Distribution of cake area load is therefore an important aspect of jet pulse cleaned bag filter modeling. Mean specific cake resistance remains nearly constant on thoroughly jet pulse cleaned membrane coated filter bags. However, the trend can not be confirmed without independent cake height and density measurements. Thus the results reveal the importance of independent measurements of cake resistance. (author)

  8. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  9. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  10. A Differential Geometric Approach to Nonlinear Filtering: The Projection Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, D.; Hanzon, B.; LeGland, F.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new and systematic method of approximating exact nonlinear filters with finite dimensional filters, using the differential geometric approach to statistics. The projection filter is defined rigorously in the case of exponential families. A convenient exponential family is

  11. DC-pass filter design with notch filters superposition for CPW rectenna at low power level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, J.; Douyère, A.; Alicalapa, F.; Luk, J.-D. Lan Sun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the challenging coplanar waveguide direct current (DC) pass filter is designed, analysed, fabricated and measured. As the ground plane and the conductive line are etched on the same plane, this technology allows the connection of series and shunt elements to the active devices without via holes through the substrate. Indeed, this study presents the first step in the optimization of a complete rectenna in coplanar waveguide (CPW) technology: key element of a radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting system. The measurement of the proposed filter shows good performance in the rejection of F0=2.45 GHz and F1=4.9 GHz. Additionally, a harmonic balance (HB) simulation of the complete rectenna is performed and shows a maximum RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of 37% with the studied DC-pass filter for an input power of 10 µW at 2.45 GHz.

  12. Assessment and evaluation of ceramic filter cleaning techniques: Task Order 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Zaharchuk, R.; Harbaugh, L.B.; Klett, M.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and evaluate the effectiveness, appropriateness and economics of ceramic barrier filter cleaning techniques used for high-temperature and high-pressure particulate filtration. Three potential filter cleaning techniques were evaluated. These techniques include, conventional on-line pulse driven reverse gas filter cleaning, off-line reverse gas filter cleaning and a novel rapid pulse driven filter cleaning. These three ceramic filter cleaning techniques are either presently employed, or being considered for use, in the filtration of coal derived gas streams (combustion or gasification) under high-temperature high-pressure conditions. This study was divided into six subtasks: first principle analysis of ceramic barrier filter cleaning mechanisms; operational values for parameters identified with the filter cleaning mechanisms; evaluation and identification of potential ceramic filter cleaning techniques; development of conceptual designs for ceramic barrier filter systems and ceramic barrier filter cleaning systems for two DOE specified power plants; evaluation of ceramic barrier filter system cleaning techniques; and final report and presentation. Within individual sections of this report critical design and operational issues were evaluated and key findings were identified.

  13. Analog filters in nanometer CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Uhrmann, Heimo; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the basics of analog filters and the poor transistor characteristics in nanometer CMOS 10 high-performance analog filters developed by the authors in 120 nm and 65 nm CMOS are described extensively. Among them are gm-C filters, current-mode filters, and active filters for system-on-chip realization for Bluetooth, WCDMA, UWB, DVB-H, and LTE applications. For the active filters several operational amplifier designs are described. The book, furthermore, contains a review of the newest state of research on low-voltage low-power analog filters. To cover the topic of the book comprehensively, linearization issues and measurement methods for the characterization of advanced analog filters are introduced in addition. Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension. This book will be of value to engineers and researchers in industry as well as scientists and Ph.D students at universities. The book is also recommendable to graduate students specializing on nanoelectronics, microelectronics ...

  14. Design of UWB Filter with WLAN Notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available UWB technology- (operating in broad frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz based filter with WLAN notch has shown great achievement for high-speed wireless communications. To satisfy the UWB system requirements, a band pass filter with a broad pass band width, low insertion loss, and high stop-band suppression are needed. UWB filter with wireless local area network (WLAN notch at 5.6 GHz and 3 dB fractional bandwidth of 109.5% using a microstrip structure is presented. Initially a two-transmission-pole UWB band pass filter in the frequency range 3.1–10.6 GHz is achieved by designing a parallel-coupled microstrip line with defective ground plane structure using GML 1000 substrate with specifications: dielectric constant 3.2 and thickness 0.762 mm at centre frequency 6.85 GHz. In this structure a λ/4 open-circuited stub is introduced to achieve the notch at 5.6 GHz to avoid the interference with WLAN frequency which lies in the desired UWB band. The design structure was simulated on electromagnetic circuit simulation software and fabricated by microwave integrated circuit technique. The measured VNA results show the close agreement with simulated results.

  15. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  16. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  17. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  18. Behavior of Filters and Smoothers for Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqui; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    The Kalman filter is the optimal filter in the presence of known gaussian error statistics and linear dynamics. Filter extension to nonlinear dynamics is non trivial in the sense of appropriately representing high order moments of the statistics. Monte Carlo, ensemble-based, methods have been advocated as the methodology for representing high order moments without any questionable closure assumptions. Investigation along these lines has been conducted for highly idealized dynamics such as the strongly nonlinear Lorenz model as well as more realistic models of the means and atmosphere. A few relevant issues in this context are related to the necessary number of ensemble members to properly represent the error statistics and, the necessary modifications in the usual filter situations to allow for correct update of the ensemble members. The ensemble technique has also been applied to the problem of smoothing for which similar questions apply. Ensemble smoother examples, however, seem to be quite puzzling in that results state estimates are worse than for their filter analogue. In this study, we use concepts in probability theory to revisit the ensemble methodology for filtering and smoothing in data assimilation. We use the Lorenz model to test and compare the behavior of a variety of implementations of ensemble filters. We also implement ensemble smoothers that are able to perform better than their filter counterparts. A discussion of feasibility of these techniques to large data assimilation problems will be given at the time of the conference.

  19. Computer processing of the scintigraphic image using digital filtering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Michimasa

    1976-01-01

    The theory of digital filtering was studied as a method for the computer processing of scintigraphic images. The characteristics and design techniques of finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters with linear phases were examined using the z-transform. The conventional data processing method, smoothing, could be recognized as one kind of linear phase FIR low-pass digital filtering. Ten representatives of FIR low-pass digital filters with various cut-off frequencies were scrutinized from the frequency domain in one-dimension and two-dimensions. These filters were applied to phantom studies with cold targets, using a Scinticamera-Minicomputer on-line System. These studies revealed that the resultant images had a direct connection with the magnitude response of the filter, that is, they could be estimated fairly well from the frequency response of the digital filter used. The filter, which was estimated from phantom studies as optimal for liver scintigrams using 198 Au-colloid, was successfully applied in clinical use for detecting true cold lesions and, at the same time, for eliminating spurious images. (J.P.N.)

  20. Stochastic stacking without filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

    1982-12-01

    The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10 8 per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth

  1. Multilevel particle filter

    KAUST Repository

    Law, Kody

    2016-01-06

    This talk will pertain to the filtering of partially observed diffusions, with discrete-time observations. It is assumed that only biased approximations of the diffusion can be obtained, for choice of an accuracy parameter indexed by l. A multilevel estimator is proposed, consisting of a telescopic sum of increment estimators associated to the successive levels. The work associated to O( 2) mean-square error between the multilevel estimator and average with respect to the filtering distribution is shown to scale optimally, for example as O( 2) for optimal rates of convergence of the underlying diffusion approximation. The method is illustrated on some toy examples as well as estimation of interest rate based on real S&P 500 stock price data.

  2. The Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter: A Filter Bank Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Rickard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For computational efficiency, it is important to utilize model structure in particle filtering. One of the most important cases occurs when there exists a linear Gaussian substructure, which can be efficiently handled by Kalman filters. This is the standard formulation of the Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF. This contribution suggests an alternative formulation of this well-known result that facilitates reuse of standard filtering components and which is also suitable for object-oriented programming. Our RBPF formulation can be seen as a Kalman filter bank with stochastic branching and pruning.

  3. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  4. Quick-change filter cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Ortiz, Carlos A.

    1995-01-01

    A quick-change filter cartridge. In sampling systems for measurement of airborne materials, a filter element is introduced into the sampled airstream such that the aerosol constituents are removed and deposited on the filter. Fragile sampling media often require support in order to prevent rupture during sampling, and careful mounting and sealing to prevent misalignment, tearing, or creasing which would allow the sampled air to bypass the filter. Additionally, handling of filter elements may introduce cross-contamination or exposure of operators to toxic materials. Moreover, it is desirable to enable the preloading of filter media into quick-change cartridges in clean laboratory environments, thereby simplifying and expediting the filter-changing process in the field. The quick-change filter cartridge of the present invention permits the application of a variety of filter media in many types of instruments and may also be used in automated systems. The cartridge includes a base through which a vacuum can be applied to draw air through the filter medium which is located on a porous filter support and held there by means of a cap which forms an airtight seal with the base. The base is also adapted for receiving absorbing media so that both particulates and gas-phase samples may be trapped for investigation, the latter downstream of the aerosol filter.

  5. Filter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK), as well as Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) treated with mono-olein to simulate the effects of biodiesel . Results...fuel. Sufficient analysis and qualification of filter products is becoming increasingly crucial in ground transportation vehicles to promote the...well as a simulated biodiesel composed of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and mono-olein. As written in the scope of work, the alternative aviation

  6. Forecasting with the Standardized Self-Perturbed Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Nonejad, Nima; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    We propose and study the finite-sample properties of a modified version of the self-perturbed Kalman filter of Park and Jun (1992) for the on-line estimation of models subject to parameter instability. The perturbation term in the updating equation of the state covariance matrix is now weighted...... compared to other on-line, classical and Bayesian methods. The standardized self-perturbed Kalman filter is adopted to forecast the equity premium on the S&P500 index under several model specifications, and to investigate to what extent and how realized variance can be exploited to predict excess returns....

  7. A phase-equalized digital multirate filter for 50 Hz signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainio, O. [Tampere University of Technology, Signal Processing Laboratory, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    A new multistage digital filter is proposed for 50 Hz line frequency signal processing in zero-crossing detectors and synchronous power systems. The purpose of the filter is to extract the fundamental sinusoidal signal from noise and impulsive disturbances so that the output is accurately in phase with the primary input signal. This is accomplished with a cascade of a median filter, a linear-phase FIR filter, and a phase corrector. A 10 kHz output timing resolution is achieved by up-sampling with a customized interpolation filter. (orig.) 15 refs.

  8. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  9. Carbon nanotube filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  10. Controlling flow conditions of test filters in iodine filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.; Laine, J.

    1979-03-01

    Several different iodine filter and test filter designs and experience gained from their operation are presented. For the flow experiments, an iodine filter system equipped with flow regulating and measuring devices was built. In the experiments the influence of the packing method of the iodine sorption material and the influence of the flow regulating and measuring divices upon the flow conditions in the test filters was studied. On the basis of the experiments it has been shown that the flows through the test filters always can be adjusted to a correct value if there only is a high enough pressure difference available across the test filter ducting. As a result of the research, several different methods are presented with which the flows through the test filters in both operating and future iodine sorption system can easily be measured and adjusted to their correct values. (author)

  11. Filtering Performance Comparison of Kernel and Wavelet Filters for Reactivity Signal Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Ghu; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Yong Kwan; You, Skin

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear reactor power deviation from the critical state is a parameter of specific interest defined by the reactivity measuring neutron population. Reactivity is an extremely important quantity used to define many of the reactor startup physics parameters. The time dependent reactivity is normally determined by solving the using inverse neutron kinetics equation. The reactivity computer is a device to provide an on-line solution of the inverse kinetics equation. The measurement signal of the neutron density is normally noise corrupted and the control rods movement typically gives reactivity variation with edge signals like saw teeth. Those edge regions should be precisely preserved since the measured signal is used to estimate the reactivity wroth which is a crucial parameter to assure the safety of the nuclear reactors. In this paper, three kind of edge preserving noise filters are proposed and their performance is demonstrated using stepwise signals. The tested filters are based on the unilateral, bilateral kernel and wavelet filters which are known to be effective in edge preservation. The bilateral filter shows a remarkable improvement compared with unilateral kernel and wavelet filters

  12. The history of ceramic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, S

    2000-01-01

    The history of ceramic filters is surveyed. Included is the history of piezoelectric ceramics. Ceramic filters were developed using technology similar to that of quartz crystal and electro-mechanical filters. However, the key to this development involved the theoretical analysis of vibration modes and material improvements of piezoelectric ceramics. The primary application of ceramic filters has been for consumer-market use. Accordingly, a major emphasis has involved mass production technology, leading to low-priced devices. A typical ceramic filter includes monolithic resonators and capacitors packaged in unique configurations.

  13. Kaon Filtering For CLAS Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, J.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of data from CLAS is a multi-step process. After the detectors for a given running period have been calibrated, the data is processed in the so called pass-1 cooking. During the pass-1 cooking each event is reconstructed by the program a1c which finds particle tracks and computes momenta from the raw data. The results are then passed on to several data monitoring and filtering utilities. In CLAS software, a filter is a parameterless function which returns an integer indicating whether an event should be kept by that filter or not. There is a main filter program called g1-filter which controls several specific filters and outputs several files, one for each filter. These files may then be analyzed separately, allowing individuals interested in one reaction channel to work from smaller files than using the whole data set would require. There are several constraints on what the filter functions should do. Obviously, the filtered files should be as small as possible, however the filter should also not reject any events that might be used in the later analysis for which the filter was intended

  14. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF ADVANCED FILTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Newby; G.J. Bruck; M.A. Alvin; T.E. Lippert

    1998-04-30

    Reliable, maintainable and cost effective hot gas particulate filter technology is critical to the successful commercialization of advanced, coal-fired power generation technologies, such as IGCC and PFBC. In pilot plant testing, the operating reliability of hot gas particulate filters have been periodically compromised by process issues, such as process upsets and difficult ash cake behavior (ash bridging and sintering), and by design issues, such as cantilevered filter elements damaged by ash bridging, or excessively close packing of filtering surfaces resulting in unacceptable pressure drop or filtering surface plugging. This test experience has focused the issues and has helped to define advanced hot gas filter design concepts that offer higher reliability. Westinghouse has identified two advanced ceramic barrier filter concepts that are configured to minimize the possibility of ash bridge formation and to be robust against ash bridges should they occur. The ''inverted candle filter system'' uses arrays of thin-walled, ceramic candle-type filter elements with inside-surface filtering, and contains the filter elements in metal enclosures for complete separation from ash bridges. The ''sheet filter system'' uses ceramic, flat plate filter elements supported from vertical pipe-header arrays that provide geometry that avoids the buildup of ash bridges and allows free fall of the back-pulse released filter cake. The Optimization of Advanced Filter Systems program is being conducted to evaluate these two advanced designs and to ultimately demonstrate one of the concepts in pilot scale. In the Base Contract program, the subject of this report, Westinghouse has developed conceptual designs of the two advanced ceramic barrier filter systems to assess their performance, availability and cost potential, and to identify technical issues that may hinder the commercialization of the technologies. A plan for the Option I, bench

  16. Tests of Event Filter Configuration Software

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F.J.

    TDAQ - Tests of Event Filter configuration software Within Trigger/DAQ a major consideration is how well the performance of the system components scale in going from the small set-ups used for development work to the final system with many hundreds of processors and links. In the case of the Event Filter, which makes the final stage of on-line event selection, plus on-line calibrations and monitoring, more than a thousand processors are envisaged. These processors will be divided into sub-farms, most will be remote from the detector and some could even be at institutes far from CERN. As part of the on-line system it is important that the software in the sub-farms can be reconfigured rapidly as runs start and stop, and that the system be fault tolerant. The flow of data inside a sub-farm involves many processes, for distribution and collection of results in addition to those for event processing itself. Supervision code written in Java has been developed to manage the processes within a cluster, with XML f...

  17. Advances in Collaborative Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yehuda; Bell, Robert

    The collaborative filtering (CF) approach to recommenders has recently enjoyed much interest and progress. The fact that it played a central role within the recently completed Netflix competition has contributed to its popularity. This chapter surveys the recent progress in the field. Matrix factorization techniques, which became a first choice for implementing CF, are described together with recent innovations. We also describe several extensions that bring competitive accuracy into neighborhood methods, which used to dominate the field. The chapter demonstrates how to utilize temporal models and implicit feedback to extend models accuracy. In passing, we include detailed descriptions of some the central methods developed for tackling the challenge of the Netflix Prize competition.

  18. Adaptive projective filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikusar, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    The new approach to solving of the finding problem is proposed. The method is based on Discrete Projective Transformations (DPT), the List Square Fitting (LSF) and uses the information feedback in tracing for linear or quadratic track segments (TS). The fast and stable with respect to measurement errors and background points recurrent algorithm is suggested. The algorithm realizes the family of digital adaptive projective filters (APF) with known nonlinear weight functions-projective invariants. APF can be used in adequate control systems for collection, processing and compression of data, including tracking problems for the wide class of detectors. 10 refs.; 9 figs

  19. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2016-06-14

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  20. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    This work embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. The resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  1. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  2. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  3. Digital Filters for Low Frequency Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyril, Marni; Abildgaard, J.; Rubak, Per

    2001-01-01

    Digital filters with high resolution in the low-frequency range are studied. Specifically, for a given computational power, traditional IIR filters are compared with warped FIR filters, warped IIR filters, and modified warped FIR filters termed warped individual z FIR filters (WizFIR). The results...

  4. IIR digital filter design for powerline noise cancellation of ECG signal using arduino platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatillah, Akif; Ataulkarim

    2017-05-01

    Powerline noise has been one of significant noises of Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal measurement. This noise is characterized by a sinusoidal signal which has 50 Hz of noise and 0.3 mV of maximum amplitude. This paper describes the design of IIR Notch filter design to reject a 50 Hz power line noise. IIR filter coefficients were calculated using pole placement method with three variations of band stop cut off frequencies of (49-51)Hz, (48 - 52)Hz, and (47 - 53)Hz. The algorithm and coefficients of filter were embedded to Arduino DUE (ARM 32 bit microcontroller). IIR notch filter designed has been able to reject power line noise with average square of error value of 0.225 on (49-51) Hz filter design and 0.2831 on (48 - 52)Hz filter design.

  5. Efficient Hardware Implementation For Fingerprint Image Enhancement Using Anisotropic Gaussian Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tariq Mahmood; Bailey, Donald G; Khan, Mohammad A U; Kong, Yinan

    2017-05-01

    A real-time image filtering technique is proposed which could result in faster implementation for fingerprint image enhancement. One major hurdle associated with fingerprint filtering techniques is the expensive nature of their hardware implementations. To circumvent this, a modified anisotropic Gaussian filter is efficiently adopted in hardware by decomposing the filter into two orthogonal Gaussians and an oriented line Gaussian. An architecture is developed for dynamically controlling the orientation of the line Gaussian filter. To further improve the performance of the filter, the input image is homogenized by a local image normalization. In the proposed structure, for a middle-range reconfigurable FPGA, both parallel compute-intensive and real-time demands were achieved. We manage to efficiently speed up the image-processing time and improve the resource utilization of the FPGA. Test results show an improved speed for its hardware architecture while maintaining reasonable enhancement benchmarks.

  6. High flow ceramic pot filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halem, D; van der Laan, H; Soppe, A I A; Heijman, S G J

    2017-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6-19 L h -1 ), but initial LRVs for E. coli of high flow filters was slightly lower than for regular ceramic pot filters. This disadvantage was, however, only temporarily as the clogging in high flow filters had a positive effect on the LRV for E. coli (from below 1 to 2-3 after clogging). Therefore, it can be carefully concluded that regular ceramic pot filters perform better initially, but after clogging, the high flow filters have a higher flow rate as well as a higher LRV for E. coli. To improve the initial performance of new high flow filters, it is recommended to further utilize residence time of the water in the receptacle, since additional E. coli inactivation was observed during overnight storage. Although a relationship was observed between flow rate and LRV of MS2 bacteriophages, both regular and high flow filters were unable to reach over 2 LRV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A parallel algorithm for filtering gravitational waves from coalescing binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyaprakash, B.S.; Dhurandhar, S.V.

    1992-10-01

    Coalescing binary stars are perhaps the most promising sources for the observation of gravitational waves with laser interferometric gravity wave detectors. The waveform from these sources can be predicted with sufficient accuracy for matched filtering techniques to be applied. In this paper we present a parallel algorithm for detecting signals from coalescing compact binaries by the method of matched filtering. We also report the details of its implementation on a 256-node connection machine consisting of a network of transputers. The results of our analysis indicate that parallel processing is a promising approach to on-line analysis of data from gravitational wave detectors to filter out coalescing binary signals. The algorithm described is quite general in that the kernel of the algorithm is applicable to any set of matched filters. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  8. Ceramic filters analysis for aluminium melting through microtomography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Henrique de Souza; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira de; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Duhm, Rainer; Feiste, Karsten L.; Reichert, Christian; Reimche, Wilfried; Stegemann, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    In this work a ceramic filters analysis is done through the microtomography for improvement of the aluminium melting process through the filter porosity control. Microtomography were obtained of ceramic filters with pore dimensions of 10, 20 and 30 ppi. The data were calculated by using an reconstruction algorithm for divergent beam implemented in the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory of COPPE/UFRJ and analysed through cells and windows separation according to the defined by Ray. For the analyses the Image Pro program were used where the cells have been detached by sphere inserted, adjusting by nine points, in the filter cavities. So, the size of the answer sphere were considered as the cell size. The windows were measured by straight lines secant to the window intersections

  9. Digital implementation of the preloaded filter pulse processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Cadek, G.R.; Keroe, N.; Sauter, TH.; Thorwartl, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Adapting it's processing time to the respective pulse intervals, the Preloaded Filter (PLF) pulse processor offers optimum resolution together with highest possible throughput rates. The PLF algorithm could be formulated in a recursive manner which made possible it's implementation by means of a large field-programmable gate array, as a fast, pipe-lined digital processor with 10 MHz maximum throughput rate. While pre-filter digitization by an ADC with 12 bit resolution and 10M Hz sampling rate resulted in a poorer resolution than that of an analog filter, a digital PLF based on an ADC with 14 bit resolution and 10 MHz sampling rate, surpassed high-quality analog filters in resolution, throughput rate and long-term stability. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs

  10. Adaptive Subband Filtering Method for MEMS Accelerometer Noise Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr PIETRZAK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microaccelerometers can be considered as an alternative to high-priced piezoelectric sensors. Unfortunately, relatively high noise floor of commercially available MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems sensors limits the possibility of their usage in condition monitoring systems of rotating machines. The solution of this problem is the method of signal filtering described in the paper. It is based on adaptive subband filtering employing Adaptive Line Enhancer. For filter weights adaptation, two novel algorithms have been developed. They are based on the NLMS algorithm. Both of them significantly simplify its software and hardware implementation and accelerate the adaptation process. The paper also presents the software (Matlab and hardware (FPGA implementation of the proposed noise filter. In addition, the results of the performed tests are reported. They confirm high efficiency of the solution.

  11. Filter and Filter Bank Design for Image Texture Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The relevance of this thesis to energy and environment lies in its application to remote sensing such as for instance sea floor mapping and seismic pattern recognition. The focus is on the design of two-dimensional filters for feature extraction, segmentation, and classification of digital images with textural content. The features are extracted by filtering with a linear filter and estimating the local energy in the filter response. The thesis gives a review covering broadly most previous approaches to texture feature extraction and continues with proposals of some new techniques. 143 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Optimized digital filtering techniques for radiation detection with HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salathe, Marco, E-mail: marco.salathe@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Kihm, Thomas, E-mail: mizzi@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes state-of-the-art digital filtering techniques that are part of GEANA, an automatic data analysis software used for the GERDA experiment. The discussed filters include a novel, nonlinear correction method for ballistic deficits, which is combined with one of three shaping filters: a pseudo-Gaussian, a modified trapezoidal, or a modified cusp filter. The performance of the filters is demonstrated with a 762 g Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector, produced by Canberra, that measures γ-ray lines from radioactive sources in an energy range between 59.5 and 2614.5 keV. At 1332.5 keV, together with the ballistic deficit correction method, all filters produce a comparable energy resolution of ~1.61 keV FWHM. This value is superior to those measured by the manufacturer and those found in publications with detectors of a similar design and mass. At 59.5 keV, the modified cusp filter without a ballistic deficit correction produced the best result, with an energy resolution of 0.46 keV. It is observed that the loss in resolution by using a constant shaping time over the entire energy range is small when using the ballistic deficit correction method.

  13. Preprocessing of PHERMEX flash radiographic images with Haar and adaptive filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.

    1978-11-01

    Work on image preparation has continued with the application of high-sequency boosting via Haar filtering. This is useful in developing line or edge structures. Widrow LMS adaptive filtering has also been shown to be useful in developing edge structure in special problems. Shadow effects can be obtained with the latter which may be useful for some problems. Combined Haar and adaptive filtering is illustrated for a PHERMEX image

  14. Off-gas filtration and releases: bag filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, D.M.J.G.

    1985-01-01

    During high-temperature incineration of radioactive waste, some metal oxides are volatilized and carried out with the off-gases. During cooling those oxides react with acidic components generated by the combustion of the fuel oil or of the waste itself. This results in a submicronic crystalline dust in which cesium isotopes are concentrated. Bag filters have been selected at S.C.K./C.E.N. to carry out the first step of dust separation. Two baghouses equipped with Teflon bags with a total filtering area of 100 m 2 have been installed. The bags are cleaned on line by compressed air backflow. The residual dust content is below 3 mg/m 3 , which is sufficiently low to be removed by HEPA filters. The baghouses were put into operation in October 1981 and since then have been on line for about 3000 hours. Some bags had to be replaced after a fire in mid-1983. (orig.)

  15. Interference suppression using a SAW-based adaptive filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Gary J.; Grant, Calvin J.; Das, Pankaj K.

    The structure and performance of a transversal filter interference suppressor that has been constructed using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) delay line are described. The delay line operates at a center frequency of 300 MHz and has eight equally spaced taps with an intertap delay of 150 ns. In the programmable mode, the tap weights are externally controllable, and in the adaptive mode, the tap weights are adjusted using the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-squared algorithm. Experimental results are provided that illustrate the performance of the filter in both the adaptive and programmable modes. Filter responses obtained in the adaptive mode are shown, along with spectra demonstrating the corresponding interference suppression. Bit-error-rate performance results for a single-tone jammer interfering with a direct sequence spread spectrum signal are presented.

  16. Derivative free Kalman filtering used for orchard navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Bayramoglu, Enis; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2010-01-01

    representing the surrounding fruit trees. The line features are created on basis of 2D laser scanner data by a least square algorithm. The Matlab (R) toolbox Kalmtool is used for easy switching between different filter implementations without the need for changing the base structure of the system....

  17. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  18. Performance of drippers in two filtering systems using sewage treatment effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre B. Dalri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of three models of drippers using treated sewage effluent, pure and diluted, and two types of filters, screen and disc. The treated sewage effluent used in the experiment was collected from the city’s treatment plant. The experiment included 12 lateral lines with three types of emitters to apply pure (100% and diluted (50% effluent filtered by screen and disc filters. The combination of those factors set the treatments: T1 (50% effluent diluted in fresh water filtered by a screen filter; T2 (50% effluent diluted in fresh water filtered by a disc filter; T3 (pure effluent filtered by a screen filter; T4 (pure effluent filtered by a disc filter. The results showed that the flat type emitter is less sensitive to clogging, the disc filter is the most suitable to prevent clogging and the use of pure or diluted sewage effluent increases the drippers’ flow rate coefficient of variation.

  19. Kalman and particle filtering methods for full vehicle and tyre identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanski, Karol; Best, Matthew C.

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers identification of all significant vehicle handling dynamics of a test vehicle, including identification of a combined-slip tyre model, using only those sensors currently available on most vehicle controller area network buses. Using an appropriately simple but efficient model structure, all of the independent parameters are found from test vehicle data, with the resulting model accuracy demonstrated on independent validation data. The paper extends previous work on augmented Kalman Filter state estimators to concentrate wholly on parameter identification. It also serves as a review of three alternative filtering methods; identifying forms of the unscented Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter and particle filter are proposed and compared for effectiveness, complexity and computational efficiency. All three filters are suited to applications of system identification and the Kalman Filters can also operate in real-time in on-line model predictive controllers or estimators.

  20. Plasmonic band-stop filter with asymmetric rectangular ring for WDM networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezhad, Vahid Foroughi; Abrishamian, Mohammad Sadegh; Abaslou, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    We proposed a simple asymmetric rectangular band-stop filter based on metal–insulator–metal plasmonic waveguides. It is shown that the performance of the structure as a filter strongly depends on the asymmetry of the rectangular structure. An analytical model based on the analogy between MDM waveguides and the microwave transmission line is used to calculate the resonance wavelengths and explain the behavior of the filter. The bandwidth of spectra can be easily manipulated by adjusting the topological parameters of the filter. It is also demonstrated that by adjusting the bandwidth, the filter can be used for CWDM standard channels. The filter behavior is verified using the numerical finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The filter is compact and has a footprint of 1 μm × 0.5 μm, which is suitable for integrated optical circuits. (paper)

  1. Hybrid Active-Passive Microwave Photonic Filter with High Quality Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Ming, Xu; Xin-Liang, Zhang; Li-Na, Zhou; Yu, Zhang; De-Xiu, Huang

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid high quality factor (Q-factor) microwave photonic filter with a cascaded active filter and a passive filter is presented and experimentally demonstrated. The active infinite impulse response filter is realized by a recirculating delay line loop with a semiconductor optical amplifier, and a much narrower 3 dB bandwidth of response peaks can be achieved. A passive finite impulse response filter is realized by an unbalance Mach–Zehnder interferometer, and it is cascaded to select the desired filter frequencies and to suppress the intermediate peaks. Compared with the purely active filter scheme, the free spectrum range and the Q-factor of the hybrid structure can be doubled. Stable operation and a high Q-factor of 362 are experimentally demonstrated

  2. Percutaneous retrieval of a vena cava filter from the right atrium: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasuli, P. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mehran, R. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Thoracic Surgery, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); French, G. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Turek, M. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Lalonde, K.A. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Thoracic Surgery, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cardinal, P. [The Ottawa Hospital and University of Ottawa, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Migration of vena cava filters can occur spontaneously, but it can also occur as a result of entanglement of the filter with a guidewire, particularly during 'blind' (unguided) insertion of a central venous line. When a filter migrates to the heart, traditional practice has been either to leave the filter in place or to remove it surgically by means of open heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. We found only 6 reports of successful percutaneous retrieval or repositioning of a vena cava filter (Table 1). We describe a new interventional technique for retrieving a filter from the right atrium and a novel endosurgical method for removing a filter from the innominate vein. (author)

  3. Multi-filter spectrophotometry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Kim A. S.; Gibson, Brad K.; Hickson, Paul

    1993-01-01

    To complement both the multi-filter observations of quasar environments described in these proceedings, as well as the proposed UBC 2.7 m Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) redshift survey, we have initiated a program of simulated multi-filter spectrophotometry. The goal of this work, still very much in progress, is a better quantitative assessment of the multiband technique as a viable mechanism for obtaining useful redshift and morphological class information from large scale multi-filter surveys.

  4. Digital filtering in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.R.; Sampathkumaran, S.

    1982-01-01

    Digital filtering is a powerful mathematical technique in computer analysis of nuclear medicine studies. The basic concepts of object-domain and frequency-domain filtering are presented in simple, largely nonmathemaical terms. Computational methods are described using both the Fourier transform and convolution techniques. The frequency response is described and used to represent the behavior of several classes of filters. These concepts are illustrated with examples drawn from a variety of important applications in nuclear medicine

  5. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  6. Box-particle intensity filter

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Marek; Gning, Amadou; Mihaylova, Lyudmila; Cremers, Daniel; Koch, Wofgang; Streit, Roy

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a novel approach for multi-target tracking, called box-particle intensity filter (box-iFilter). The approach is able to cope with unknown clutter, false alarms and estimates the unknown number of targets. Furthermore, it is capable of dealing with three sources of uncertainty: stochastic, set-theoretic and data association uncertainty. The box-iFilter reduces the number of particles significantly, which improves the runtime considerably. The low particle number enables thi...

  7. Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

    2016-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...

  8. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  9. Observations of vector magnetic fields with a magneto-optic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciani, Alessandro; Varsik, John; Zirin, Harold

    1990-01-01

    The use of the magnetooptic filter to observe solar magnetic fields in the potassium line at 7699 A is described. The filter has been used in the Big Bear videomagnetograph since October 23. It gives a high sensitivity and dynamic range for longitudnal magnetic fields and enables measurement of transverse magnetic fields using the sigma component. Examples of the observations are presented.

  10. Intelligent medical information filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent information filtering system to assist users to be notified of updates to new and relevant medical information. Among the major problems users face is the large volume of medical information that is generated each day, and the need to filter and retrieve relevant information. The Internet has dramatically increased the amount of electronically accessible medical information and reduced the cost and time needed to publish. The opportunity of the Internet for the medical profession and consumers is to have more information to make decisions and this could potentially lead to better medical decisions and outcomes. However, without the assistance from professional medical librarians, retrieving new and relevant information from databases and the Internet remains a challenge. Many physicians do not have access to the services of a medical librarian. Most physicians indicate on surveys that they do not prefer to retrieve the literature themselves, or visit libraries because of the lack of recent materials, poor organisation and indexing of materials, lack of appropriate and available material, and lack of time. The information filtering system described in this paper records the online web browsing behaviour of each user and creates a user profile of the index terms found on the web pages visited by the user. A relevance-ranking algorithm then matches the user profiles to the index terms of new health care web pages that are added each day. The system creates customised summaries of new information for each user. A user can then connect to the web site to read the new information. Relevance feedback buttons on each page ask the user to rate the usefulness of the page to their immediate information needs. Errors in relevance ranking are reduced in this system by having both the user profile and medical information represented in the same representation language using a controlled vocabulary. This system also updates the user profiles

  11. Device for filtering gaseous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The air filter system for gaseous radioactive substances consists of a vertical chamber with filter material (charcoal, e.g. impregnated). On one side of the chamber there is an inlet compartment and an outlet compartment. On the other side a guiding compartment turns the gas flow coming from the natural-air side through the lower part of filter chamber to the upper part of the filter. The gas flow leaves the upper part through the outlet conpartment as cleaned-air flow. The filter material may be filled into the chamber from above and drawn off below. For better utilization of the filter material the filter chamber is separated by means of a wall between the inlet and outlet compartment. This partition wall consist of two sheets arranged one above the other provided with slots which may be superposed in alignment. In this case filter material is tickling from the upper part of the chamber into the lower part avoiding to form a crater in the filter bed. (DG) [de

  12. Spatial filtering with photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.

  13. Immobilized Filters for Air Filtration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, John J; Zaiee, Saeed

    2002-01-01

    ... (settling performance) and attrition resistance. The fabricated filter samples will be analyzed in order to determine the physical and chemical factors affecting mechanical strength and chemical filtration...

  14. Adaptive filtering and change detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is a classical branch of digital signal processing (DSP). Industrial interest in adaptive filtering grows continuously with the increase in computer performance that allows ever more conplex algorithms to be run in real-time. Change detection is a type of adaptive filtering for non-stationary signals and is also the basic tool in fault detection and diagnosis. Often considered as separate subjects Adaptive Filtering and Change Detection bridges a gap in the literature with a unified treatment of these areas, emphasizing that change detection is a natural extensi

  15. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  16. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Proposing Wavelet-Based Low-Pass Filter and Input Filter to Improve Transient Response of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Available photovoltaic (PV systems show a prolonged transient response, when integrated into the power grid via active filters. On one hand, the conventional low-pass filter, employed within the integrated PV system, works with a large delay, particularly in the presence of system’s low-order harmonics. On the other hand, the switching of the DC (direct current–DC converters within PV units also prolongs the transient response of an integrated system, injecting harmonics and distortion through the PV-end current. This paper initially develops a wavelet-based low-pass filter to improve the transient response of the interconnected PV systems to grid lines. Further, a damped input filter is proposed within the PV system to address the raised converter’s switching issue. Finally, Matlab/Simulink simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet-based low-pass filter and damped input filter within an integrated PV system.

  18. AER image filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  19. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer Visibility Through Selfies: Comparing Platform Mediators Across Ruby Rose’s Instagram and Vine Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Duguay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between social media platforms and the production and dissemination of selfies in light of its implications for the visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ people. Applying an Actor Network Theory lens, two popular visual media apps, Instagram and Vine, are examined through a comparative walkthrough method. This reveals platform elements, or mediators, that can influence the conversational capacity of selfies in terms of the following: range, the variety of discourses addressed within a selfie; reach, circulation within and across publics; and salience, the strength and clarity of discourses communicated through a selfie. These mediators are illustrated through LGBTQ celebrity Ruby Rose’s Instagram selfies and Vine videos. Instagram’s use expectations encourage selfies focused on mainstream discourses of normative beauty and conspicuous consumption with an emphasis on appearance, extending through features constraining selfies’ reach and salience. In contrast, Vine’s broader use expectations enable a variety of discourses to be communicated across publics with an emphasis on creative, first-person sharing. These findings are reflected in Rose’s Instagram selfies, which mute alternative discourses of gender and sexuality through desexualized and aesthetically appealing self-representations, while Vines display her personal side, enabling both LGBTQ and heterosexual, cisgender people to identify with her without minimizing non-normative aspects of her gender and sexuality. These findings demonstrate the relevance of platforms in shaping selfies’ conversational capacity, as mediators can influence whether selfies feature in conversations reinforcing dominant discourses or in counterpublic conversations, contributing to everyday activism that challenges normative gender and sexual discourses.

  20. Particle Kalman Filtering: A Nonlinear Framework for Ensemble Kalman Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2010-09-19

    Optimal nonlinear filtering consists of sequentially determining the conditional probability distribution functions (pdf) of the system state, given the information of the dynamical and measurement processes and the previous measurements. Once the pdfs are obtained, one can determine different estimates, for instance, the minimum variance estimate, or the maximum a posteriori estimate, of the system state. It can be shown that, many filters, including the Kalman filter (KF) and the particle filter (PF), can be derived based on this sequential Bayesian estimation framework. In this contribution, we present a Gaussian mixture‐based framework, called the particle Kalman filter (PKF), and discuss how the different EnKF methods can be derived as simplified variants of the PKF. We also discuss approaches to reducing the computational burden of the PKF in order to make it suitable for complex geosciences applications. We use the strongly nonlinear Lorenz‐96 model to illustrate the performance of the PKF.

  1. Application of DFT Filter Banks and Cosine Modulated Filter Banks in Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pei; Vaidyanathan, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    None given. This is a proposal for a paper to be presented at APCCAS '94 in Taipei, Taiwan. (From outline): This work is organized as follows: Sec. II is devoted to the construction of the new 2m channel under-decimated DFT filter bank. Implementation and complexity of this DFT filter bank are discussed therein. IN a similar manner, the new 2m channel cosine modulated filter bank is discussed in Sec. III. Design examples are given in Sec. IV.

  2. 160 Gb/s Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM wavelength conversion and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2007-01-01

    In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown.......In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown....

  3. Correction of Bowtie-Filter Normalization and Crescent Artifacts for a Clinical CBCT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Kong, Vic; Huang, Ke; Jin, Jian-Yue

    2017-02-01

    To present our experiences in understanding and minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a clinical cone beam computed tomography system. Bowtie-filter position and profile variations during gantry rotation were studied. Two previously proposed strategies (A and B) were applied to the clinical cone beam computed tomography system to correct bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. Physical calibration and analytical approaches were used to minimize the norm phantom misalignment and to correct for bowtie-filter normalization artifacts. A combined procedure to reduce bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts was proposed and tested on a norm phantom, CatPhan, and a patient and evaluated using standard deviation of Hounsfield unit along a sampling line. The bowtie-filter exhibited not only a translational shift but also an amplitude variation in its projection profile during gantry rotation. Strategy B was better than strategy A slightly in minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, possibly because it corrected the amplitude variation, suggesting that the amplitude variation plays a role in bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. The physical calibration largely reduced the misalignment-induced bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, and the analytical approach further reduced bowtie-filter normalization artifacts. The combined procedure minimized both bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, with Hounsfield unit standard deviation being 63.2, 45.0, 35.0, and 18.8 Hounsfield unit for the best correction approaches of none, bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts + bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, respectively. The combined procedure also demonstrated reduction of bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a CatPhan and a patient. We have developed a step

  4. Filters in Fuzzy Class Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 14 (2008), s. 1773-1787 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : filter * prime filter * fuzzy class theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2008

  5. Derivative free filtering using Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Hansen, Søren; Ravn, Ole

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of different filtering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool 4 and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as well as for DD1 fi...

  6. Chopped filter for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, J.

    1980-12-01

    Some of the theoretical and practical factors affecting the energy resolution of a spectrometry system are considered, specially those related to t he signal-to-noise ratio, and a time-variant filter with the transfer function of the theoretical optimum filter, during its active time, is proposed. A prototype has been tested and experimental results are presented. (Author) [pt

  7. Cluster Based Vector Attribute Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiwanuka, Fred N.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological attribute filters operate on images based on properties or attributes of connected components. Until recently, attribute filtering was based on a single global threshold on a scalar property to remove or retain objects. A single threshold struggles in case no single property or

  8. Some arithmetically symmetrical bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranasi, P.; Roy, S. C. D.

    1981-01-01

    A combination of the conventional and Matthaei lowpass-bandpass transformations is shown to result in some bandpass filters having very good arithmetic symmetry. The technique presented is applicable to the Butterworth and inverse Chebyshev types of magnitude approximations and the Bessel type of delay approximations. It is not valid, however, for the Chebyshev and elliptic varieties of filters.

  9. Properties of auxiliary filtering materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have studied the physicochemical and filtering properties of the perlites FP-1 and FP-2, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, wood pulp, and the diatomite powders Spidplace and Saperaid. They propose a classification for filtering materials according to their properties when mechanical impurities are being removed from the additives.

  10. High flow ceramic pot filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more

  11. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon; Ryu, Duchwan; Mallick, Bani K.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class

  12. Mobile filters in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuter, R.

    1979-01-01

    The need for filters with high efficiencies which may be used at any place originated in nuclear power plants. Filters of this type, called Filtermobil, have been developed by Sulzer. They have been used successfully in nuclear plants for several years. (orig.) [de

  13. Implicit LES using adaptive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangrui; Domaradzki, Julian A.

    2018-04-01

    In implicit large eddy simulations (ILES) numerical dissipation prevents buildup of small scale energy in a manner similar to the explicit subgrid scale (SGS) models. If spectral methods are used the numerical dissipation is negligible but it can be introduced by applying a low-pass filter in the physical space, resulting in an effective ILES. In the present work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the numerical dissipation produced by different filtering operations in a turbulent channel flow simulated using a non-dissipative, pseudo-spectral Navier-Stokes solver. The amount of numerical dissipation imparted by filtering can be easily adjusted by changing how often a filter is applied. We show that when the additional numerical dissipation is close to the subgrid-scale (SGS) dissipation of an explicit LES the overall accuracy of ILES is also comparable, indicating that periodic filtering can replace explicit SGS models. A new method is proposed, which does not require any prior knowledge of a flow, to determine the filtering period adaptively. Once an optimal filtering period is found, the accuracy of ILES is significantly improved at low implementation complexity and computational cost. The method is general, performing well for different Reynolds numbers, grid resolutions, and filter shapes.

  14. Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mable P. Fok

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.

  15. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  16. Apparatus for filtering radioactive fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gischel, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for filtering radioactive particles from the cooling and/or auxiliary process water of a nuclear reactor, or nuclear fuel processing plant, or other installations wherein radioactive fluid systems are known to exist. The apparatus affords disposal of the captured particles in a manner which minimizes the exposure of operating personnel to radioactivity. The apparatus comprises a housing adapted to contain a removable filter cartridge assembly, a valve normally closing the lower end of the housing, an upwardly-open shipping cask located below the valve, and an elongated operating rod assembly projecting upwardly from the filter cartridge assembly and through the upper end of the housing to enable a workman to dismount the filter cartridge assembly from its housing and to lower the filter cartridge assembly through the valve and into the cask from a remote location above the housing. (U.S.)

  17. Vectorization of linear discrete filtering algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiess, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Linear filters, including the conventional Kalman filter and versions of square root filters devised by Potter and Carlson, are studied for potential application on streaming computers. The square root filters are known to maintain a positive definite covariance matrix in cases in which the Kalman filter diverges due to ill-conditioning of the matrix. Vectorization of the filters is discussed, and comparisons are made of the number of operations and storage locations required by each filter. The Carlson filter is shown to be the most efficient of the filters on the Control Data STAR-100 computer.

  18. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  19. Development of the code for filter calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzay, O.O.; Vakulenko, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a calculation method, which commonly used in the Neutron Physics Department to develop a new neutron filter or to improve the existing neutron filter. This calculation is the first step of the traditional filter development procedure. It allows easy selection of the qualitative and quantitative contents of a composite filter in order to receive the filtered neutron beam with given parameters

  20. [Restoration filtering based on projection power spectrum for single-photon emission computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, N

    1995-04-01

    To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical "least squares filter" theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the "Butterworth" filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and "Wiener" filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99mTc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the "Butterworth" filter, "Wiener" filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images.

  1. Restoration filtering based on projection power spectrum for single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Naoki

    1995-01-01

    To improve the quality of single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images, a restoration filter has been developed. This filter was designed according to practical 'least squares filter' theory. It is necessary to know the object power spectrum and the noise power spectrum. The power spectrum is estimated from the power spectrum of a projection, when the high-frequency power spectrum of a projection is adequately approximated as a polynomial exponential expression. A study of the restoration with the filter based on a projection power spectrum was conducted, and compared with that of the 'Butterworth' filtering method (cut-off frequency of 0.15 cycles/pixel), and 'Wiener' filtering (signal-to-noise power spectrum ratio was a constant). Normalized mean-squared errors (NMSE) of the phantom, two line sources located in a 99m Tc filled cylinder, were used. NMSE of the 'Butterworth' filter, 'Wiener' filter, and filtering based on a power spectrum were 0.77, 0.83, and 0.76 respectively. Clinically, brain SPECT images utilizing this new restoration filter improved the contrast. Thus, this filter may be useful in diagnosis of SPECT images. (author)

  2. Evaluation Of Spatial Filters For Background Suppression In Infrared Mosaic Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, T. L.; Mazaika, P. K.

    1982-12-01

    Spaceborne infrared mosaic sensors have been proposed for future surveillance systems. Because these systems will generate a large volume of data, background suppression will require algorithms which use innovative architectures and minimal storage. This paper analyzes the implementation and performance of candidate temporal and spatial filters. Spatial filters are attractive because they require far less memory, can effectively exploit a parallel, pipelined architecture, and are relatively insensitive to target speed. However, the performance of spatial filtering is substantially worse than that of temporal filtering when the sensor has good line-of-sight stability.

  3. Filtered epithermal quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams at research reactor facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, M S; Bashter, I I; El-Mesiry, M S; Habib, N; Adib, M

    2015-03-01

    Filtered neutron techniques were applied to produce quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams in the energy range of 1.5-133keV at research reactors. A simulation study was performed to characterize the filter components and transmitted beam lines. The filtered beams were characterized in terms of the optimal thickness of the main and additive components. The filtered neutron beams had high purity and intensity, with low contamination from the accompanying thermal emission, fast neutrons and γ-rays. A computer code named "QMNB" was developed in the "MATLAB" programming language to perform the required calculations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential BPFs with Multiple Transmission Zeros Based on Terminated Coupled Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yiming; Yang, Guo; Wu, Wen

    2018-04-01

    Differential bandpass filters (BPFs) named Filter A and Filter B based on Terminated Coupled Lines (TCLs) are proposed in this letter. The TCLs contributes to not only three poles in differential-mode (DM) for wideband filtering response but also multiple zeros in both DM and common-mode (CM) offering wide DM out-of-band rejection and good CM suppression. Fabricated filters centred at 3.5 GHz with wide DM passband and wideband CM suppression have been designed and measured. The filters improved the noise suppression capability of the communication and radiometer systems. The simulated and measured results are in good agreement.

  5. Track filter on the basis of a cellular automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, A.A.; Kisel', I.V.; Konotopskaya, E.V.; Ososkov, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    The filtering method for tracks in discrete detectors based on the cellular automation is described. Results of the application of this method to experimental data (the spectrometer ARES) are quite successful: threefold reduction of input information with data grouping according to their belonging to separate tracks. They lift up percentage of useful events, which simplifies and accelerates considerably their next recognition. The described cellular automation for track filtering can be successfully applied in parallel computers and also in on-line mode if hardware implementation is used. 21 refs.; 11 figs

  6. Regenerative-filter-incinerator device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosebrock, T.L.

    1977-10-18

    A regenerative-filter-incinerator device, for use in the exhaust system of a diesel engine, includes a drum-like regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly rotatably mounted within a housing that is adapted to be installed directly in the exhaust gas stream discharged from a diesel engine as close to the engine as possible. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly provides an inner chamber which serves as a reaction chamber for the secondary combustion of exhaust gases including particulates discharged from the engine. The regenerative-heat exchanger-filter assembly includes separately rotatable heat exchange-filter elements pervious to radial flow of fluid therethrough and adapted to filter out particulates from the exhaust gases and to carry them into the reaction chamber. During engine operation, the reaction chamber is provided with a quantity of heat, as necessary, to effect secondary combustion of the exhaust gases and particulates by means of an auxiliary heat source and the heat generated within the reaction chamber is stored in the individual heat exchange-filter elements during the discharge of exhaust gases therethrough from the reaction chamber and this heat is then transferred to the inflowing volume of the exhaust gases so that, in effect, exhaust gas is discharged from the device at substantially the same temperature as it was during its inlet into the device from the engine.

  7. Factors Influencing HEPA Filter Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.S.; Waggoner, Ch.A.

    2009-01-01

    Properly functioning HEPA air filtration systems depend on a variety of factors that start with the use of fully characterized challenge conditions for system design and then process control during operation. This paper addresses factors that should be considered during the design phase as well as operating parameters that can be monitored to ensure filter function and lifetime. HEPA filters used in nuclear applications are expected to meet design, fabrication, and performance requirements set forth in the ASME AG-1 standard. The DOE publication Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook (NACH) is an additional guidance document for design and operation HEPA filter systems in DOE facilities. These two guidelines establish basic maximum operating parameters for temperature, maximum aerosol particle size, maximum particulate matter mass concentration, acceptable differential pressure range, and filter media velocity. Each of these parameters is discussed along with data linking variability of each parameter with filter function and lifetime. Temporal uncertainty associated with gas composition, temperature, and absolute pressure of the air flow can have a direct impact on the volumetric flow rate of the system with a corresponding impact on filter media velocity. Correlations between standard units of flow rate (standard meters per minute or cubic feet per minute) versus actual units of volumetric flow rate are shown for variations in relative humidity for a 70 deg. C to 200 deg. C temperature range as an example of gas composition that, uncorrected, will influence media velocity. The AG-1 standard establishes a 2.5 cm/s (5 feet per minute) ceiling for media velocities of nuclear grade HEPA filters. Data are presented that show the impact of media velocities from 2.0 to 4.0 cm/s media velocities (4 to 8 fpm) on differential pressure, filter efficiency, and filter lifetime. Data will also be presented correlating media velocity effects with two different particle size

  8. Filters for radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiba, Yukihiko; Kawashima, Akio

    1980-01-01

    In the crud generated in the reactor cooling water for nuclear power plants, iron oxides (hematite and magnetite) are contained as the main components, and also Co, Mn, Fe, Cr exist as radioactive nuclides. A new filter to separate these cruds, nuclepore membrane filter (NPMF), was investigated for its adaptability, and has been adopted as a practical filter for radioactive liquid wastes. The NPMF has such features as the possibility of complete automation of operation, no generation of secondary wastes, and easy maintenance, because the NPMF has uniform circular holes in poly-carbonate thin films, and shows the properties of stable filtering of particulates, capability of back washing, and others. The elements mounted in a practical system have such construction that the membrane is cut in the form of doughnut, and sandwiched with 100 mesh polyester nets (spacer); the obtained unit filter (cassette) is mounted on the stackable plate of the same size; and 80 pieces of this cassette are formed in a filter of 4 m 2 filtering area. The performance varies with the properties of suspended matters and the turbidity of wastes. For example, the filtered liquid of 0.1 ppm or less can be obtained when the 1 μm filter material is used to treat the liquid waste containing 1 to 100 ppm suspended matters. Usually back washed water is produced by about 1/100 of treated liquid wastes. The lifetime of the membrane is expected to be 1 or 2 years if crud is the main component. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap Water Many but not all available home water filters remove Cryptosporidium . Some filter designs are more suitable for removal of Cryptosporidium than others. Filters that have the words "reverse osmosis" on the label protect against Cryptosporidium . Some other ...

  10. The Behavior of Filters and Smoothers for Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqiu; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    The Kalman filter is the optimal filter in the presence of known Gaussian error statistics and linear dynamics. Filter extension to nonlinear dynamics is non trivial in the sense of appropriately representing high order moments of the statistics. Monte Carlo, ensemble-based, methods have been advocated as the methodology for representing high order moments without any questionable closure assumptions (e.g., Miller 1994). Investigation along these lines has been conducted for highly idealized dynamics such as the strongly nonlinear Lorenz (1963) model as well as more realistic models of the oceans (Evensen and van Leeuwen 1996) and atmosphere (Houtekamer and Mitchell 1998). A few relevant issues in this context are related to the necessary number of ensemble members to properly represent the error statistics and, the necessary modifications in the usual filter equations to allow for correct update of the ensemble members (Burgers 1998). The ensemble technique has also been applied to the problem of smoothing for which similar questions apply. Ensemble smoother examples, however, seem to quite puzzling in that results of state estimate are worse than for their filter analogue (Evensen 1997). In this study, we use concepts in probability theory to revisit the ensemble methodology for filtering and smoothing in data assimilation. We use Lorenz (1963) model to test and compare the behavior of a variety implementations of ensemble filters. We also implement ensemble smoothers that are able to perform better than their filter counterparts. A discussion of feasibility of these techniques to large data assimilation problems will be given at the time of the conference.

  11. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  12. High flow ceramic pot filters

    OpenAIRE

    van Halem, D.; van der Laan, H.; Soppe, A. I.A.; Heijman, S.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic pot filters are considered safe, robust and appropriate technologies, but there is a general consensus that water revenues are limited due to clogging of the ceramic element. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high flow ceramic pot filters to produce more water without sacrificing their microbial removal efficacy. High flow pot filters, produced by increasing the rice husk content, had a higher initial flow rate (6–19 L h−1), but initial LRVs for E. coli o...

  13. Face Recognition using Gabor Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad MOHSIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.

  14. A study of the effect of the position of an edge filter within a ratiometric wavelength measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiang; Wang, Pengfei; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the position of an edge filter within a ratiometric wavelength measurement system was investigated based on three cases: (1) the reflected fibre Bragg grating (FBG) signal passes through both the reference arm and the edge filter arm, (2) the reflected FBG signal is connected directly to the edge filter arm and does not pass through the reference arm, (3) the edge filter sits in line with the FBG and thus the source power is filtered prior to reaching the FBG. Both numerical simulations and experimental results show that cases 1 and 2 have similar system performance whilst case 3 is the best arrangement which offers the highest wavelength resolution

  15. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  16. Remotely operated top loading filter housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.J.; Carter, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter system was developed for the Fuel Processing Facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The system utilizes commercially available HEPA filters and allows in-cell filters to be maintained using operator-controlled remote handling equipment. The remote handling tasks include transport of filters before and after replacement, removal and replacement of the filter from the housing, and filter containment

  17. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  18. Stratification of nitrification activity in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Musovic, Sanin

    2013-01-01

    Rapid sand filters used in groundwater treatment remove ammonium, iron and manganese from the water. Ammonium is removed biologically by nitrifying microorganisms attached on the sand surface. Nitrification kinetics and activity is strongly affected by filter design and operation, which are the key...... and maximum nitrification capacity are derived and used to quantify nitrification activity. Nitrification activity was concentrated at the top 10 cm of filter depth, and maximum nitrification capacity was 7 g NH4+-N/ m3 sand/h compared with 0.8-0.4 g NH4+-N/ m3 sand/h in the middle and bottom layers. A water...... of this study is to investigate nitrification activity in a rapid sand filter, with focus on its homogeneity and how it relates to filter performance. Two groundwater treatment plants in Denmark were selected for the experimental investigations. Plant 1 operates a single line of pre and after filters and has...

  19. The Application of Paired Parallel Filters for Ultra-Wideband Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Chernyshev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a unit in which the parallel filters on regular lines are pair-attached. This connection allows to reduce a side line impedance at the point of connection. At the same time these lines become narrow, and the possibility to excite higher modes in the joint reduces.Consider the scattering matrix of four identical lines connection. Then find the scattering matrix of connection in which two side lines are connected with filters. Particular cases of the reflection coefficients of different filters are considered. It is shown that only in the case of identical filters there remained a linear relationship between the input filter coefficients of reflection and transmission coefficient of the unit. It facilitates the solution of the problem of synthesis. Restrictions on the transfer coefficient are found. In transition to the time domain impulse response of connection under consideration and the expression for the synthesis were defined. The paper considers an example of implementation of the matched filtering in this connection. In this case, the output signal is a half-sum of the input signal and their autocorrelation function.

  20. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  1. Comments on the paper 'A novel 3D wavelet-based filter forvisualizing features in noisy biological data', by Moss et al.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Knowles, David W.

    2006-02-04

    Moss et al.(2005) describe, in a recent paper, a filter thatthey use to detect lines. We noticed that the wavelet on which thisfilter is based is a difference of uniform filters. This filter is anapproximation to the second derivative operator, which is commonlyimplemented as the Laplace of Gaussian (or Marr-Hildreth) operator (Marr&Hildreth, 1980; Jahne, 2002), Figure 1. We have compared Moss'filter with 1) the Laplace of Gaussian operator, 2) an approximation ofthe Laplace of Gaussian using uniform filters, and 3) a few common noisereduction filters. The Laplace-like operators detect lines by suppressingimage features both larger and smaller than the filter size. The noisereduction filters only suppress image features smaller than the filtersize. By estimating the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and mean squaredifference (MSD) of the filtered results, we found that the filterproposed by Moss et al. does not outperform the Laplace of Gaussianoperator. We also found that for images with extreme noise content, linedetection filters perform better than the noise reduction filters whentrying to enhance line structures. In less extreme cases of noise, thestandard noise reduction filters perform significantly better than boththe Laplace of Gaussian and Moss' filter.

  2. Red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits and their influence on plasma lipid levels and plasma antioxidant activity in rats fed with cholesterol-containing and cholesterol-free diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, Shela; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Drzewiecki, Jerzy; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Tapia, María S; Katrich, Elena; Trakhtenberg, Simon

    2005-09-23

    Bioactive compounds of peels and peeled red Star Ruby (Sunrise) and blond qualities of Jaffa grapefruits were analyzed and their antioxidant potential was assessed. The dietary fibers were determined according to Prosky et al., the total polyphenol content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and measured at 765 nm, minerals and trace elements by atomic absorption spectrometer, phenolic and ascorbic acids by HPLC and the antioxidant potential by two different antioxidant assays (DPPH and beta-carotene linoleate model system). It was found that the contents of most studied bioactive compounds in both qualities are comparable. Only the contents of total polyphenols and flavonoids were higher in red grapefruits, but not significant. The antioxidant potentials of red peeled grapefruits and their peels were significantly higher than of blond peeled grapefruits and their peels (Pcholesterol added diet. In conclusion, both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits contain high quantities of bioactive compounds, but the antioxidant potential of red grapefruits is significantly higher. Diets supplemented with both qualities of Jaffa grapefruits improve the plasma lipid levels and increase the plasma antioxidant activity, especially in rats fed with cholesterol added diets. Jaffa grapefruits, especially their red Star Ruby quality, could be a valuable supplementation for diseases-preventing diets.

  3. Regenerable Carbon Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Regenerable Carbon Filter (RCF) is proposed for the removal of carbonaceous particulate matter produced in Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) processes....

  4. Fremont Tree-Well Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Fremont Tree-Well Filter Spine project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  5. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  6. Ion trajectories quadrupole mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, D.; Lupsa, N.; Muntean, F.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper aims at bringing some contributions to the understanding of ion motion in quadrupole mass filters. The theoretical treatment of quadrupole mass filter is intended to be a concise derivation of the important physical relationships using Mathieu functions. A simple iterative method of numerical computation has been used to simulate ion trajectories in an ideal quadrupole field. Finally, some examples of calculation are presented with the aid of computer graphics. (Author) 14 Figs., 1 Tab., 20 Refs

  7. Filter indexing for spectrophotometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamran, M.M.; Scott, L.B.; Williams, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    A spectrophotometer system has an optical system for transmitting a beam from a source at select wavelengths onto a detector. A plurality of filters are positioned in a tray. A stepper mechanism indexes the tray along a path. A microcomputer controls the stepper mechanism and the optical system. The wavelength is successively changed over a range, the tray is indexed to move a select filter into the beam at a predetermined wavelength and the changing is discontinued during indexing

  8. New iodine filter pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackbee, B.A.

    1977-10-01

    To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)

  9. Stochastic processes and filtering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jazwinski, Andrew H

    1970-01-01

    This unified treatment of linear and nonlinear filtering theory presents material previously available only in journals, and in terms accessible to engineering students. Its sole prerequisites are advanced calculus, the theory of ordinary differential equations, and matrix analysis. Although theory is emphasized, the text discusses numerous practical applications as well.Taking the state-space approach to filtering, this text models dynamical systems by finite-dimensional Markov processes, outputs of stochastic difference, and differential equations. Starting with background material on probab

  10. Comparison of several Kalman filter models for establishing MUF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, D.H.; Morrison, G.W.; Holland, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Detection of MUF in a material balance area is a problem in nuclear material control. It has been shown that the Kalman filter can detect a MUF in situations which could not be detected by the traditional control chart approach using LEMUF. The Kalman filter is extended in this paper to cover two additional scenarios: (1) the case where a random quantity with a mean of M(t) is removed per period, and (2) the case where MUF is a fraction of the on-hand inventory each period. The Kalman filter is robust, sensitive, produces estimates of the error covariance matrix, and is an iterative technique which is suited for on-line-direct-input information systems

  11. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)

  12. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emzir, Muhammad F.; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-06-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements.

  13. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  14. Experience with three percutaneous vena cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCowan, T.C.; Ferris, E.J.; Harshfield, D.L.; Hassell, D.R.; Baker, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one Kimray-Greenfield, 33 bird's nest, and 19 Amplatz vena cava filters were placed percutaneously. The Kimray-Greenfield filter was the most difficult to insert. The major problem was the insertion site, which required venipuncture with a 24-F catheter. Minor hemorrhage was frequent, and femoral vein thrombosis occurred in four patients. No migration, caval thrombosis, or pulmonary emboli were seen after Kimray-Greenfield filter placement. The bird's nest filter was relatively easy to insert, although in two cases the filter prongs could not be adequately seated in the wall of the inferior vena cava. Three patients with bird's nest filters had thrombosis below the filter, and three filters migrated to the heart. One migrated filter could not be removed. One patient had multiple small pulmonary emboli at autopsy. No other pulmonary emboli after filter placement were noted. The Amplatz filter was the easiest of the three filters to insert. Only one patient with an Amplatz filter had thrombosis of the vena cava below the filter. No filter migrations were documented, and no recurrent pulmonary emboli were found on clinical or radiologic follow-up. The Amplatz vena cava filter is easier to place than percutaneous Kimray-Greenfield or bird's nest filters, has a low complication rate, and has proven to be clinically effective in preventing pulmonary emboli

  15. Sensory pollution from bag-type fiberglass ventilation filters: Conventional filter compared with filters containing various amounts of activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Fadeyi, M.O.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    filter and three modifications of a bag-type fiberglass combination filter: the "Heavy" corresponded to a commercially available filter containing 400 g of carbon per square meter of filter area, the "Medium" contained half as much carbon (200 g/m(2)), and the "Light" contained a quarter as much carbon...

  16. Analysis of the quadrupolar coupling effect on the line intensities using single-crystal nutation NMR in α-Al2O3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Ae Ja; Cho, So Hyun; Han, Duk Young

    2000-01-01

    With 1D-nutation NMR for a spin I = 5/2 system, the relative line intensities of central and the inner- and outer-satellite transitions are calculated as functions of quadrupolar coupling ω Q and rf pulse strength ω rf . Experimentally measured line intensities including both central and satellites are used to extract the values of ω Q and ω rf from nonlinear least-squares fits. The method is illustrated in α-Al 2 O 3 crystals (ruby and corundum) with the single-crystal 27 Al nutation NMR spectra. As a result, the new feature that the rf pulse strength shows reduced effect on the satellite transition lines according to the quadrupolar coupling is discussed by using fictitious spin-1/2 operator

  17. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  18. Swept Line Electron Beam Annealing of Ion Implanted Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    a pre- liminary study using silicon solar cells. This work was undertaken in cooperation with Dr. J. Eguren of the Instituto De Energia Solar , Madrid...device fabrication has been attempted. To date, resistors, capacitors, diodes, bipolar transistors, MOSFEs, and solar cells have been fabricated with...34 " 48 *Si Solar Cells Ruby PL P+ Ion-Implanted 49 Ruby PL Pulsed Diffused 50 :C

  19. Evaluation of multichannel Wiener filters applied to fine resolution passive microwave images of first-year sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, William E.; Eppler, Duane T.

    1993-01-01

    The effectivity of multichannel Wiener filters to improve images obtained with passive microwave systems was investigated by applying Wiener filters to passive microwave images of first-year sea ice. Four major parameters which define the filter were varied: the lag or pixel offset between the original and the desired scenes, filter length, the number of lines in the filter, and the weight applied to the empirical correlation functions. The effect of each variable on the image quality was assessed by visually comparing the results. It was found that the application of multichannel Wiener theory to passive microwave images of first-year sea ice resulted in visually sharper images with enhanced textural features and less high-frequency noise. However, Wiener filters induced a slight blocky grain to the image and could produce a type of ringing along scan lines traversing sharp intensity contrasts.

  20. Filter-adsorber aging assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winegardner, W.K. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    An aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) air filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (USNRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This evaluation of the general process in which characteristics of these two components gradually change with time or use included the compilation of information concerning failure experience, stressors, aging mechanisms and effects, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM). Stressors, the agents or stimuli that can produce aging degradation, include heat, radiation, volatile contaminants, and even normal concentrations of aerosol particles and gasses. In an experimental evaluation of degradation in terms of the tensile breaking strength of aged filter media specimens, over forty percent of the samples did not meet specifications for new material. Chemical and physical reactions can gradually embrittle sealants and gaskets as well as filter media. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance are associated with the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the exposure of the carbon to airborne moisture or volatile organic compounds. Inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods have been established to observe filter pressure drop buildup, check HEPA filters and adsorbers for bypass, and determine the retention effectiveness of aged carbon. These evaluations of installed filters do not reveal degradation in terms of reduced media strength but that under normal conditions aged media can continue to effectively retain particles. However, this degradation may be important when considering the likelihood of moisture, steam, and higher particle loadings during severe accidents and the fact it is probable that the filters have been in use for an extended period.

  1. Efficient topology optimization in MATLAB using 88 lines of code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Clausen, Anders; Schevenels, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an efficient 88 line MATLAB code for topology optimization. It has been developed using the 99 line code presented by Sigmund (Struct Multidisc Optim 21(2):120–127, 2001) as a starting point. The original code has been extended by a density filter, and a considerable improvemen...... of the basic code to include recent PDE-based and black-and-white projection filtering methods. The complete 88 line code is included as an appendix and can be downloaded from the web site www.topopt.dtu.dk....

  2. Moessbauerspectroscopy on Gold Ruby Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslbeck, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the chemical states of gold and the physical mechanisms of the growing process of the particles under the influence of additional ingredients like tin, lead, antimony and selenium before, during and after the colouring process are investigated by using the Moessbauer spectroscopy on 197 Au, 119 Sn and 121 Sb, optical spectroscopy and X-ray-diffraction. Gold in an unnealed, colourless state of the glasses consists of monovalent forming linear bonds to two neighbouring oxygen atoms. The Lamb-Moessbauer factor of these gold oxide bondings is observed as 0.095 at 4.2 K. The gold in it's oxide state transforms to gold particles with a diameter of 3 nm to 60 nm. The size of the gold particles is quite definable within the optical spectra and certain sizes are also discernable within the Moessbauer spectra. One component of the Moessbauer spectra is assigned to the surface layer of the gold particles. By comparing this surface component with the amount of the bulk metallic core, one can calculate the size of the gold particles. In the Moessbauer spectra of the colourless glass one also can find parts of bulk metallic gold. Investigations with X-ray diffraction show that these are gold particles with a diameter of 100 nm to 300 nm and therefore have no additional colouring effect within the visible spectrum. The Moessbauer spectra on gold of the remelt glasses are similar to those which have been measured on the initial colourless glasses

  3. Optical supervised filtering technique based on Hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Abdullah

    2004-11-01

    Hopfield neural network is commonly preferred for optimization problems. In image segmentation, conventional Hopfield neural networks (HNN) are formulated as a cost-function-minimization problem to perform gray level thresholding on the image histogram or the pixels' gray levels arranged in a one-dimensional array [R. Sammouda, N. Niki, H. Nishitani, Pattern Rec. 30 (1997) 921-927; K.S. Cheng, J.S. Lin, C.W. Mao, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 15 (1996) 560-567; C. Chang, P. Chung, Image and Vision comp. 19 (2001) 669-678]. In this paper, a new high speed supervised filtering technique is proposed for image feature extraction and enhancement problems by modifying the conventional HNN. The essential improvement in this technique is to use 2D convolution operation instead of weight-matrix multiplication. Thereby, neural network based a new filtering technique has been obtained that is required just 3 × 3 sized filter mask matrix instead of large size weight coefficient matrix. Optical implementation of the proposed filtering technique is executed easily using the joint transform correlator. The requirement of non-negative data for optical implementation is provided by bias technique to convert the bipolar data to non-negative data. Simulation results of the proposed optical supervised filtering technique are reported for various feature extraction problems such as edge detection, corner detection, horizontal and vertical line extraction, and fingerprint enhancement.

  4. Improved pulsed photoacoustic detection by means of an adapted filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; Santiago, G.; Peuriot, A.; Slezak, V.; Mosquera, C.

    2005-06-01

    We present a numerical and experimental study of two adapted filters devised to the quantitative analysis of weak photoacoustic signals. The first one is a simple convolution-type one and the other is based on neural networks of the multilayer perceptron type. The theoretical signal used as one of the inputs in both filters is derived from the solution of the transient response of the acoustic cell modeled with a simple transmission-line analogue. The filters were tested numerically by using the theoretical signal corrupted with white noise. After 500 iterations it was possible to define an average error for the returned value of each filter. Since the neural network outperformed the convolution-type, we assessed its performance by measuring SF6 traces diluted in N2 and excited by tuned TEA CO2 laser. The results show the use of the neural network filter allows recovering a signal with poor signal-to-noise ratio without resorting to extensive averaging, thus reducing the acquisition time while improving the precision of the measurement.

  5. Optimal digital filtering in gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messai, A.; Nour, A.; Abdellani, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the subject of the digital nuclear spectroscopy as seen as a counterpart of the classic analogue approach. Consequently, we will present the design as well as the implementation on a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) board, of the various necessary digital pulse processing techniques via digital filtering in order to provide the principal tasks which often take place in a generic 'Gamma' digital spectroscopic setup. The first part will be devoted to the design of the digital IIR filter used for the charge preamplifier's slow-pole compensation. This will be followed by the practical estimation of the power spectral density relating to the electrical noise components present at the spectrometer's input. Thereafter, a very detailed attention will be given to the design of the digital optimal filter to be used for the charge measurements. We follow by another FIR filter that deals with the digital estimation of the reference line of measurements. Finally, we give a hardware implementation of the designed filters on the board: 'TMS320C6713-DSK', a DSP KIT developed by 'DIGITAL Spectrum'. (authors)

  6. Gaussian particle filter based pose and motion estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Determination of relative three-dimensional (3D) position, orientation, and relative motion between two reference frames is an important problem in robotic guidance, manipulation, and assembly as well as in other fields such as photogrammetry.A solution to pose and motion estimation problem that uses two-dimensional (2D) intensity images from a single camera is desirable for real-time applications. The difficulty in performing this measurement is that the process of projecting 3D object features to 2D images is a nonlinear transformation. In this paper, the 3D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimation providing six degrees-of-freedom motion and position values, using line features in image plane as measuring inputs and dual quaternion to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. A filtering method called the Gaussian particle filter (GPF) based on the particle filtering concept is presented for 3D pose and motion estimation of a moving target from monocular image sequences. The method has been implemented with simulated data, and simulation results are provided along with comparisons to the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) to show the relative advantages of the GPF. Simulation results showed that GPF is a superior alternative to EKF and UKF.

  7. HOVE-Wedge-Filtering of Geomorphologic Terrestrial Laser Scan Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Panholzer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning has become an important surveying technique in many fields such as natural hazard assessment. To analyse earth surface processes, it is useful to generate a digital terrain model originated from laser scan point cloud data. To determine the terrain surface as precisely as possible, it is often necessary to filter out points that do not represent the terrain surface. Examples are vegetation, vehicles, and animals. In mountainous terrain with a small-structured topography, filtering is very difficult. Here, automatic filtering solutions usually designed for airborne laser scan data often lead to unsatisfactory results. In this work, we further develop an existing approach for automated filtering of terrestrial laser scan data, which is based on the assumption that no other surface point can be located in the area above a direct line of sight between scanner and another measured point. By taking into account several environmental variables and a repetitive calculation method, the modified method leads to significantly better results. The root-mean-square-error (RSME for the same test measurement area could be reduced from 5.284 to 1.610. In addition, a new approach for filtering and interpolation of terrestrial laser scanning data is presented using a grid with horizontal and vertical angular data and the measurement length.

  8. 21 CFR 211.72 - Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filters. 211.72 Section 211.72 Food and Drugs FOOD... shall not release fibers into such products. Fiber-releasing filters may be used when it is not possible to manufacture such products without the use of these filters. If use of a fiber-releasing filter is...

  9. Decentralized Social Filtering based on Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a decentralised approach to social filtering based on trust between agents in a multiagent system. The social filtering in the proposed approach is built on the interactions between collaborative software agents performing content-based filtering. This means that it uses a mixture of content-based and social filtering and thereby, it takes advantage of both methods.

  10. A class of orthogonal nonrecursive binomial filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The time- and frequency-domain properties of the orthogonal binomial sequences are presented. It is shown that these sequences, or digital filters based on them, can be generated using adders and delay elements only. The frequency-domain behavior of these nonrecursive binomial filters suggests a number of applications as low-pass Gaussian filters or as inexpensive bandpass filters.

  11. Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast, the active damping does not require any dissipation elements, and thus has become of increasing interest. As a result, a vast of active damping solutions have been reported, among which multi-loop control systems and additional sensors are necessary, leading to increased cost and complexity....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated...... in the z-domain. Simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed active damping method. Both results have confirmed that the notch filter based active damping can ensure the entire system stability in the case of resonances with a good system performance....

  12. Comparison of filters for detecting gravitational wave bursts in interferometric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Porter, Edward K.; Pradier, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    Filters developed in order to detect short bursts of gravitational waves in interferometric detector outputs are compared according to three main points. Conventional receiver operating characteristics (ROC) are first built for all the considered filters and for three typical burst signals. Optimized ROC are shown for a simple pulse signal in order to estimate the best detection efficiency of the filters in the ideal case, while realistic ones obtained with filters working with several 'templates' show how detection efficiencies can be degraded in a practical implementation. Second, estimations of biases and statistical errors on the reconstruction of the time of arrival of pulse-like signals are then given for each filter. Such results are crucial for future coincidence studies between gravitational wave detectors but also with neutrino or optical detectors. As most of the filters require a pre-whitening of the detector noise, the sensitivity to a nonperfect noise whitening procedure is finally analyzed. For this purpose lines of various frequencies and amplitudes are added to a Gaussian white noise and the outputs of the filters are studied in order to monitor the excess of false alarms induced by the lines. The comparison of the performances of the different filters finally show that they are complementary rather than competitive

  13. A simple procedure to estimate reactivity with good noise filtering characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new and simple on-line reactivity estimation method is proposed. • The estimator has robust noise filtering characteristics. • The noise filtering is equivalent to those of conventional reactivity meters. • The new estimator eliminates the burden of selecting optimum filter constants. • The new estimation performance is assessed without and with measurement noise. - Abstract: A new and simple on-line reactivity estimation method is proposed. The estimator has robust noise filtering characteristics without the use of complex filters. The noise filtering capability is equivalent to or better than that of a conventional estimator based on Inverse Point Kinetics (IPK). The new estimator can also eliminate the burden of selecting optimum filter time constants, such as would be required for the IPK-based estimator, or noise covariance matrices, which are needed if the extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique is used. In this paper, the new estimation method is introduced and its performance assessed without and with measurement noise

  14. Progress towards the use of disposable filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macphail, I.

    1979-08-01

    Thermally degradable materials have been evaluated for service in HEPA filter units used to filter gases from active plants. The motivation was to reduce the bulk storage problems of contaminated filters by thermal decomposition to gaseous products and a solid residue substantially comprised of the filtered particulates. It is shown that while there are no commercially available alternatives to the glass fibre used in the filter medium, it would be feasible to manufacture the filter case and spacers from materials which could be incinerated. Operating temperatures, costs and the type of residues for disposal are discussed for filter case materials. (U.K.)

  15. Risk Sensitive Filtering with Poisson Process Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, W. P.; James, M. R.; Elliott, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we consider risk sensitive filtering for Poisson process observations. Risk sensitive filtering is a type of robust filtering which offers performance benefits in the presence of uncertainties. We derive a risk sensitive filter for a stochastic system where the signal variable has dynamics described by a diffusion equation and determines the rate function for an observation process. The filtering equations are stochastic integral equations. Computer simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance gain for the risk sensitive filter compared with the risk neutral filter

  16. Novel Simplex Unscented Transform and Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Chun Li; Ping Wei; Xian-Ci Xiao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a new simplex unscented transform (UT) based Schmidt orthogonal algorithm and a new filter method based on this transform are proposed. This filter has less computation consumption than UKF (unscented Kalman filter), SUKF (simplex unscented Kalman filter) and EKF (extended Kalman filter). Computer simulation shows that this filter has the same performance as UKF and SUKF, and according to the analysis of the computational requirements of EKF, UKF and SUKF, this filter has preferable practicality value. Finally, the appendix shows the efficiency for this UT.

  17. Filtered atmospheric venting of light water reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgran, A.; Ahlstroem, P.E.; Nilsson, L.; Persson, Aa.

    1982-11-01

    The aim of filtered venting is to improve the function of the reactor containment in connection with very severe accidents. By equipping the containment with a safety valve for pressure relief and allowing the released gases to pass through an effective filter, it should be possible to achieve a considerable protective effect. The work has involved detailed studies of the core meltdown sequence, how the molten core material runs out of the reactor vessel, what effect it has on concrete and other structures and how final cooling of the molten core material takes place. On the basis of previous Swedish studies, the project has chosen to study a filter concept that consists of a gravel bed of large volume. This filter plant shall not only retain the radioactive particles that escape from the containment through the vent line, but shall also condense the accompanying steam. After the government decided in 1981 that Barsebaeck was to be equipped with filtered venting and issued specifications regarding its performance, the project aimed at obtaining results that could be used to design and verify a plant for filtered venting at the Barsebaeck nuclear power station. As far as the other Swedish nuclear power plants at Oskarshamn, Ringhals and Forsmark are concerned, the results are only applicable to a limited extent. Additional studies are required for these nuclear power plants before the value of filtered venting can be assessed. Based on the results of experiments and analyses, the project has made a safety analysis with Barsebaeck as a reference plant in order to study how the introduction of filtered venting affects the safety level at a station. In summary, the venting function appears to entail a not insignificant reduction of risks for boiling water reactors of the Barsebaeck type. For a number of types of such very severe core accident cases, the filter design studied ensures a substantial reduction of the releases. However it has not been possible within the

  18. GA103: A microprogrammable processor for online filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzas, A.; Danon, G.; Bouquet, B.

    1981-01-01

    GA 103 is a 16 bit microprogrammable processor which emulates the PDP 11 instruction set. It is based on the Am 2900 slices. It allows user-implemented microinstructions and addition of hardwired processors. It will perform on-line filtering tasks in the NA 14 experiment at CERN, based on the reconstruction of transverse momentum of photons detected in a lead glass calorimeter. (orig.)

  19. Crescimento inicial do cafeeiro Rubi em resposta a doses de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio e a regimes hídricos Initial growth of Rubi coffee plant in response to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and water regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Nazareno

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento da parte aérea do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cultivar Rubi MG 1192 submetido a três doses de N, P e K e dois regimes hídricos durante o primeiro ano após o transplante, em 20 de novembro de 2000. O crescimento da planta foi avaliado aos 134, 196, 236, 284, 334 e 383 dias após o transplante (dat. Houve resposta ao N e ao K no crescimento em número de ramos plagiotrópicos por planta, ao passo que no número de nós com gemas por planta, observou-se resposta apenas ao nitrogênio. Não houve resposta ao N, P e K no aumento da massa seca da parte aérea e no índice de área foliar. Além de mostrar efeito significativo no crescimento do cafeeiro, a irrigação antecipou o rápido crescimento para julho (236 dat proporcionando plantas mais vigorosas. Nas plantas não-irrigadas, o rápido crescimento ocorreu em meados de outubro (334 dat. Entretanto, a irrigação não impediu a queda na taxa de crescimento durante o inverno. O desenvolvimento das gemas em frutos ou ramos secundários nas plantas não-irrigadas alterou a distribuição de matéria seca e reduziu o crescimento do caule, ramos e folhas.The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. cultivar Rubi MG 1192 under three N, P and K doses and two water regimes during the first year after transplanting, starting on the 20th November 2000. The growth was evaluated at 134, 196, 236, 284, 334 and 383 days after transplanting (DAT. Nitrogen and K affected the number of plagiotropic branches per plant. Nevertheless, only N affected the number of nodes with axillary buds. There was no growth response to N, P, and K in terms of the total shoot dry mass and leaf area index during the experimental period. Irrigated treatments presented the best plant growth results, provided more vigorous plants and anticipated the fast growth phase to July (236 DAT, but could not avoid growth rate decrease during

  20. Iodine filters in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The present report discusses the significance for environmental exposure of the iodine released with the gaseous effluents of nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants in relation to releases of other airborne radionuclides. Iodine filtration processes are described. The release pathways and the composition of airborne fission product iodine mixtures and their bearing on environmental exposure are discussed on the basis of measured fission product iodine emissions. The sorbents which can be used for iodine filtration, their removal efficiencies and range of applications are dealt with in detail. The particular conditions governing iodine removal, which are determined by the various gaseous iodine species, are illustrated on the basis of experimentally determined retention profiles. Particular attention is given to the limitations imposed by temperature, humidity, radiation and filter poisoning. The types of filter normally used are described, their advantages and drawbacks discussed, the principles underlying their design are outlined and the sources of error indicated. The methods normally applied to test the efficiency of various iodine sorbents are described and assessed. Operating experience with iodine filters, gathered from surveillance periods of many years, is supplemented by a large number of test results and the findings of extensive experiments. Possible ways of prolonging the permissible service lives of iodine filters are discussed and information is given on protective measures. The various iodine removal processes applied in reprocessing plants are described and compared with reference to efficiency and cost. The latest developments in filter technology in reprocessing plants are briefly outlined