WorldWideScience

Sample records for line demonstrable kill

  1. Kill ratio calculation for in-line yield prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Alfonso; Oter, David; Cruceta, Sergio; Valtuena, Juan F.; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Mata, Carlos

    1999-04-01

    The search for better yields in IC manufacturing calls for a smarter use of the vast amount of data that can be generated by a world class production line.In this scenario, in-line inspection processes produce thousands of wafer maps, number of defects, defect type and pictures every day. A step forward is to correlate these with the other big data- generator area: test. In this paper, we present how these data can be put together and correlated to obtain a very useful yield predicting tool. This correlation will first allow us to calculate the kill ratio, i.e. the probability for a defect of a certain size in a certain layer to kill the die. Then we will use that number to estimate the cosmetic yield that a wafer will have.

  2. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural killer cell lines preferentially kill clonogenic multiple myeloma cells and decrease myeloma engraftment in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Brenna E; Williams, Brent A; Kosaka, Yoko; Wang, Xing-Hua; Medin, Jeffrey A; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Keating, Armand

    2012-07-01

    Novel therapies capable of targeting drug resistant clonogenic MM cells are required for more effective treatment of multiple myeloma. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of natural killer cell lines against bulk and clonogenic multiple myeloma and evaluates the tumor burden after NK cell therapy in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cell lines was evaluated against bulk multiple myeloma cell lines using chromium release and flow cytometry cytotoxicity assays. Selected activating receptors on natural killer cells were blocked to determine their role in multiple myeloma recognition. Growth inhibition of clonogenic multiple myeloma cells was assessed in a methylcellulose clonogenic assay in combination with secondary replating to evaluate the self-renewal of residual progenitors after natural killer cell treatment. A bioluminescent mouse model was developed using the human U266 cell line transduced to express green fluorescent protein and luciferase (U266eGFPluc) to monitor disease progression in vivo and assess bone marrow engraftment after intravenous NK-92 cell therapy. Three multiple myeloma cell lines were sensitive to NK-92 and KHYG-1 cytotoxicity mediated by NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D and DNAM-1 activating receptors. NK-92 and KHYG-1 demonstrated 2- to 3-fold greater inhibition of clonogenic multiple myeloma growth, compared with killing of the bulk tumor population. In addition, the residual colonies after treatment formed significantly fewer colonies compared to the control in a secondary replating for a cumulative clonogenic inhibition of 89-99% at the 20:1 effector to target ratio. Multiple myeloma tumor burden was reduced by NK-92 in a xenograft mouse model as measured by bioluminescence imaging and reduction in bone marrow engraftment of U266eGFPluc cells by flow cytometry. This study demonstrates that NK-92 and KHYG-1 are capable of killing clonogenic and bulk multiple myeloma cells. In addition, multiple myeloma

  4. Killing tensors and conformal Killing tensors from conformal Killing vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Raffaele; Edgar, S Brian; Barnes, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Koutras has proposed some methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give the completely general result demonstrating that this severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary. In addition, we correct and extend some results concerning Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. A number of examples demonstrate that it is possible to construct a much larger class of reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors than permitted by the Koutras algorithms. In particular, by showing that all conformal Killing tensors are reducible in conformally flat spaces, we have a method of constructing all conformal Killing tensors, and hence all the Killing tensors (which will in general be irreducible) of conformally flat spaces using their conformal Killing vectors

  5. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP-7) is essential for target cell killing in a natural killer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcet-Palacios, Marcelo; Odemuyiwa, Solomon O.; Coughlin, Jason J.; Garofoli, Daniella; Ewen, Catherine; Davidson, Courtney E.; Ghaffari, Mazyar; Kane, Kevin P.; Lacy, Paige; Logan, Michael R.; Befus, A. Dean; Bleackley, R. Chris; Moqbel, Redwan

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer cells recognize and induce apoptosis in foreign, transformed or virus-infected cells through the release of perforin and granzymes from secretory lysosomes. Clinically, NK-cell mediated killing is a major limitation to successful allo- and xenotransplantation. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the fusion of granzyme B-containing secretory lysosomes to the plasma membrane in activated NK cells, prior to target cell killing, are not fully understood. Using the NK cell line YT-Indy as a model, we have investigated the expression of SNAP REceptors (SNAREs), both target (t-) and vesicular (v-) SNAREs, and their function in granzyme B-mediated target cell killing. Our data showed that YT-Indy cells express VAMP-7 and SNAP-23, but not VAMP-2. VAMP-7 was associated with granzyme B-containing lysosomal granules. Using VAMP-7 small interfering RNA (siRNA), we successfully knocked down the expression of VAMP-7 protein in YT-Indy to less than 10% of untreated cells in 24 h. VAMP7-deficient YT-Indy cells activated via co-culture with Jurkat cells released <1 ng/mL of granzyme B, compared to 1.5-2.5 μg/mL from controls. Using Jurkat cells as targets, we showed a 7-fold reduction in NK cell-mediated killing by VAMP-7 deficient YT-Indy cells. Our results show that VAMP-7 is a crucial component of granzyme B release and target cell killing in the NK cell line YT-Indy. Thus, targeting VAMP-7 expression specifically with siRNA, following transplantation, may be a viable strategy for preventing NK cell-mediated transplant rejection, in vivo

  6. Internalisation of uncross-linked rituximab is not essential for the induction of caspase-independent killing in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzanski, Julie; Daniels, Ian; Haynes, Andrew P

    2008-08-01

    Characterising the mechanisms underpinning caspase-independent programmed cell death (CI-PCD) induction by uncross-linked rituximab in B-cells may positively impact upon the treatment of disease states in which the classical apoptotic pathway is disabled. The necessity of rituximab internalisation for CI-PCD induction was investigated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in human BL cell lines with (e.g. Mutu I) and without (Mutu III) susceptibility to rituximab-induced killing. Flow cytometry demonstrated small, significant and similar amounts of rituximab internalisation by Mutu I cells after 1, 2, 4 and 24 h (p internalisation (p = 0.02, n = 5 and p = 0.0002, n = 6, respectively) in Mutu I cells, but confocal microscopy showed no correlation between internalised rituximab and phosphatidylserine exposure. We conclude that rituximab internalisation is not essential for CI-PCD induction in BL cell lines.

  7. The origins of white-chinned petrels killed by long-line fisheries off South Africa and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.S. Mareile Techow

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The white-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis is the seabird species most frequently killed by fisheries in the Southern Ocean and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources as globally vulnerable. It breeds around the sub-Antarctic, but genetic data identified two subspecies: P. a. aequinoctialis from islands in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans and P. a. steadi from the New Zealand sub-Antarctic islands. We identify the region of origin of birds killed by two long-line fisheries based on differences in the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. All 113 birds killed off South Africa had the haplotype of P. a. aequinoctialis, whereas all the 60 birds from New Zealand had P. a. steadi haplotypes. The two subspecies of white-chinned petrels thus appear to disperse to different regions irrespective of their age, which accords with the tracking data of adult birds. Our finding has significant implications for managing the bycatch of this species by regional fisheries.

  8. The Killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    This article tracks the uncanny locations of The Killing (2007–2012), relating them to place, space and atmosphere, putting bits and pieces from the topographic puzzle together with cues from the symbolic space in order to see how they fit into the overall pattern of Nordic Noir. In The Killing......, the abstract level of space and atmosphere meets the concrete level of place, both influencing the notion of location. This meeting, I suggest, has contributed towards the simultaneous domestic and international appeal of The Killing....

  9. Gefitinib-induced killing of NSCLC cell lines expressing mutant EGFR requires BIM and can be enhanced by BH3 mimetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Cragg

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR plays a critical role in the control of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Abnormalities in EGF-EGFR signaling, such as mutations that render the EGFR hyperactive or cause overexpression of the wild-type receptor, have been found in a broad range of cancers, including carcinomas of the lung, breast, and colon. EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib have proven successful in the treatment of certain cancers, particularly non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs harboring activating mutations within the EGFR gene, but the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor regression remain unknown. Therefore, we wished to delineate these mechanisms.We performed biochemical and genetic studies to investigate the mechanisms by which inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity, such as gefitinib, inhibit the growth of human NSCLCs. We found that gefitinib triggered intrinsic (also called "mitochondrial" apoptosis signaling, involving the activation of BAX and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, ultimately unleashing the caspase cascade. Gefitinib caused a rapid increase in the level of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BIM (also called BCL2-like 11 through both transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Experiments with pharmacological inhibitors indicated that blockade of MEK-ERK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 signaling, but not blockade of PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase or mitogen-activated protein kinase 8, or AKT (protein kinase B, was critical for BIM activation. Using RNA interference, we demonstrated that BIM is essential for gefitinib-induced killing of NSCLC cells. Moreover, we found that gefitinib-induced apoptosis is enhanced by addition of the BH3 mimetic ABT-737.Inhibitors of the EGFR tyrosine kinase have proven useful in the therapy of certain cancers, in particular NSCLCs possessing

  10. Enhancing communication skills for pediatric visits through on-line training using video demonstrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissow Larry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training in communication skills for health professionals is important, but there are substantial barriers to individual in-person training for practicing clinicians. We evaluated the feasibility and desirability of on-line training and sought suggestions for future courses. Methods Based on successful in-person curricula for communication skills and our previous on-line curricula, we created an on-line course consisting of 28 modules (4.75 hours CME credit about communication skills during pediatric visits that included a mental health concern; each module included a brief case, a multiple choice question, an explanation, and a 1–2 minute video demonstrating key skills. Specific communication skills included: greeting, setting an agenda, discussing diagnosis and treatment, and managing negative interactions. The course was announced by emails in spring, 2007; the course was available on-line for 60 days; we aimed to enroll 50 clinicians. Outcomes were analyzed for those who evaluated the course within 75 days of its initial availability. Results Overall, 61 clinicians registered, of whom most were nurses (N = 24, physicians (N = 22, or psychologists or social workers (N = 12. Of the 36 (59% clinicians who evaluated the course, over 85% agreed that all course objectives had been met; over 90% reported greater confidence in greetings and agenda-setting; and over 80% reported greater confidence in discussing diagnosis and treatment and managing negative interactions. Nearly all, 97% would recommend the course to other clinicians and trainees. Suggestions for improvement included a library of additional video vignettes and written materials to accompany the on-line training. Conclusion On-line training in communication skills for pediatric mental health visits is feasible, desirable and associated with increased confidence in key skills. Positive feedback from clinicians suggests that a comparison of on-line versus in

  11. Killing Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  12. Differences in heat-induced cell killing as determined in three mammalian cell lines do not correspond with the extent of heat radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampinga, H.H.; Jorritsma, J.B.M.; Burgman, P.; Konings, A.W.T.

    1986-01-01

    Three different cell lines, Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells, HeLa S 3 cells and LM mouse fibroblasts, were used to investigate whether or not the extent of heat killing (44 0 C) and heat radio-sensitization (44 0 C before 0-6 Gy X-irradiation) are related. Although HeLa cells were the most heat-resistant cell line and showed the least heat radiosensitization, we found that the most heat-sensitive EAT cells (D 0 , EAT = 8.0 min; D 0 , LM = 10.0 min; D 0 , HeLa = 12.5 min) showed less radiosensitization than the more heat-resistant LM fibroblasts (TERsub(HeLa)< TERsub(EAT)< TERsub(LM)). Therefore, it is concluded that the routes leading to heat-induced cell death are not identical to those determining heat radiosensitization. Furthermore the inactivation of DNA polymerase α and β activities by heat seemed not to correlate with heat survival alone but showed a positive relationship to heat radiosensitization. The possibility of these enzymes being a determinant in heat radiosensitization is discussed. (author)

  13. High Resolution Trichromatic Road Surface Scanning with a Line Scan Camera and Light Emitting Diode Lighting for Road-Kill Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Lopes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a road surface scanning system that operates with a trichromatic line scan camera with light emitting diode (LED lighting achieving road surface resolution under a millimeter. It was part of a project named Roadkills—Intelligent systems for surveying mortality of amphibians in Portuguese roads, sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. A trailer was developed in order to accommodate the complete system with standalone power generation, computer image capture and recording, controlled lighting to operate day or night without disturbance, incremental encoder with 5000 pulses per revolution attached to one of the trailer wheels, under a meter Global Positioning System (GPS localization, easy to utilize with any vehicle with a trailer towing system and focused on a complete low cost solution. The paper describes the system architecture of the developed prototype, its calibration procedure, the performed experimentation and some obtained results, along with a discussion and comparison with existing systems. Sustained operating trailer speeds of up to 30 km/h are achievable without loss of quality at 4096 pixels’ image width (1 m width of road surface with 250 µm/pixel resolution. Higher scanning speeds can be achieved by lowering the image resolution (120 km/h with 1 mm/pixel. Computer vision algorithms are under development to operate on the captured images in order to automatically detect road-kills of amphibians.

  14. High Resolution Trichromatic Road Surface Scanning with a Line Scan Camera and Light Emitting Diode Lighting for Road-Kill Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gil; Ribeiro, A Fernando; Sillero, Neftalí; Gonçalves-Seco, Luís; Silva, Cristiano; Franch, Marc; Trigueiros, Paulo

    2016-04-19

    This paper presents a road surface scanning system that operates with a trichromatic line scan camera with light emitting diode (LED) lighting achieving road surface resolution under a millimeter. It was part of a project named Roadkills-Intelligent systems for surveying mortality of amphibians in Portuguese roads, sponsored by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation. A trailer was developed in order to accommodate the complete system with standalone power generation, computer image capture and recording, controlled lighting to operate day or night without disturbance, incremental encoder with 5000 pulses per revolution attached to one of the trailer wheels, under a meter Global Positioning System (GPS) localization, easy to utilize with any vehicle with a trailer towing system and focused on a complete low cost solution. The paper describes the system architecture of the developed prototype, its calibration procedure, the performed experimentation and some obtained results, along with a discussion and comparison with existing systems. Sustained operating trailer speeds of up to 30 km/h are achievable without loss of quality at 4096 pixels' image width (1 m width of road surface) with 250 µm/pixel resolution. Higher scanning speeds can be achieved by lowering the image resolution (120 km/h with 1 mm/pixel). Computer vision algorithms are under development to operate on the captured images in order to automatically detect road-kills of amphibians.

  15. Demonstration of a novel HIV-1 restriction phenotype from a human T cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Han

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although retroviruses may invade host cells, a productive infection can be established only after the virus counteracts inhibition from different types of host restriction factors. Fv1, APOBEC3G/F, TRIM5alpha, ZAP, and CD317 inhibit the replication of different retroviruses by interfering with viral uncoating, reverse transcription, nuclear import, RNA stability, and release. In humans, although APOBEC3G/3F and CD317 block HIV-1 replication, their antiviral activities are neutralized by viral proteins Vif and Vpu. So far, no human gene has been found to effectively block wild type HIV-1 replication under natural condition. Thus, identification of such a gene product would be of great medical importance for the development of HIV therapies.In this study, we discovered a new type of host restriction against the wild type HIV-1 from a CD4/CXCR4 double-positive human T cell line. We identified a CEM-derived cell line (CEM.NKR that is highly resistant to productive HIV-1 infection. Viral production was reduced by at least 1000-fold when compared to the other permissive human T cell lines such as H9, A3.01, and CEM-T4. Importantly, this resistance was evident at extremely high multiplicity of infection. Further analyses demonstrated that HIV-1 could finish the first round of replication in CEM.NKR cells, but the released virions were poorly infectious. These virions could enter the target cells, but failed to initiate reverse transcription. Notably, this restriction phenotype was also present in CEM.NKR and 293T heterokaryons.These results clearly indicate that CEM.NKR cells express a HIV inhibitory gene(s. Further characterization of this novel gene product(s will reveal a new antiretroviral mechanism that directly inactivates wild type HIV-1.

  16. Demonstration of an automated on-line surveillance system at a commercial nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.M.; Sweeney, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a first step in demonstrating the practicality of performing continuous on-line surveillance of the performance of nuclear steam supply systems using noise related techniques, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is operating a computerized noise signal data acquisition and processing system at the Sequoyah Unit 1 Nuclear Plant, an 1148 MWe four-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) located near Chattanooga, Tennessee. The principal objective is to establish, with a degree of continuity and completeness not previously achieved, the long-term characteristics of signals from neutron detectors and process sensors in order to evaluate the feasibility of detecting and diagnosing anomalous reactor conditions by means of changes in these signals. The system is designed to automatically screen the gathered data, using a number of descriptors derived from the power spectra of the monitored signals, and thereby select for the noise analyst's perusal only those data which differ statistically from norms which the system has previously established

  17. First Detections of the [N II] 122 micron Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [N II] 122 micron line from a high-redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (>6(sigma)) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and H1413 + 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift (zeta) and Early Universe Spectrometer on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line to far-infrared (FIR) continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0 x 10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1 x 10(exo -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line to continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8%-17% of the molecUlar gas mass. The [O III]/[N II] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using Our previous detection of the [O III] 88 micron line, the [O III]/[N II]line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30%-50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82-like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [N II]line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This war!< demonstrates the utility of the [N II] and [O III] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  18. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  19. Complete study demonstrating the absence of rhabdovirus in a distinct Sf9 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Hashimoto

    Full Text Available A putative novel rhabdovirus (SfRV was previously identified in a Spodoptera frugiperda cell line (Sf9 cells [ATCC CRL-1711 lot 58078522] by next generation sequencing and extensive bioinformatic analysis. We performed an extensive analysis of our Sf9 cell bank (ATCC CRL-1711 lot 5814 [Sf9L5814] to determine whether this virus was already present in cells obtained from ATCC in 1987. Inverse PCR of DNA isolated from Sf9 L5814 cellular DNA revealed integration of SfRV sequences in the cellular genome. RT-PCR of total RNA showed a deletion of 320 nucleotides in the SfRV RNA that includes the transcriptional motifs for genes X and L. Concentrated cell culture supernatant was analyzed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and revealed a single band at a density of 1.14 g/ml. This fraction was further analysed by electron microscopy and showed amorphous and particulate debris that did not resemble a rhabdovirus in morphology or size. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed that the protein composition did not contain the typical five rhabdovirus structural proteins and LC-MS/MS analysis revealed primarily of exosomal marker proteins, the SfRV N protein, and truncated forms of SfRV N, P, and G proteins. The SfRV L gene fragment RNA sequence was recovered from the supernatant after ultracentrifugation of the 1.14 g/ml fraction treated with diethyl ether suggesting that the SfRV L gene fragment sequence is not associated with a diethyl ether resistant nucleocapsid. Interestingly, the 1.14 g/ml fraction was able to transfer baculovirus DNA into Sf9L5814 cells, consistent with the presence of functional exosomes. Our results demonstrate the absence of viral particles in ATCC CRL-1711 lot 5814 Sf9 cells in contrast to a previous study that suggested the presence of infectious rhabdoviral particles in Sf9 cells from a different lot. This study highlights how cell lines with different lineages may present different virosomes and therefore no general conclusions can

  20. Antiproliferative activity of Eremanthus crotonoides extracts and centratherin demonstrated in brain tumor cell lines

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    Jonathas F. R. Lobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eremanthus is recognized by the predominance of sesquiterpene lactones from the furanoheliangolide type, a class of substances extensively tested against cancer cell lines. Thus, the species E. crotonoides (DC. Sch. Bip., Asteraceae, obtained on "restinga" vegetation was evaluated against U251 and U87-MG glioma cell lines using the MTT colorimetric assay. Dichloromethane fraction was cytotoxic to both glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. We then conducted UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the dichloromethane fraction, which allowed the identification of the sesquiterpene lactones centratherin and goyazensolide. The isolation of centratherin was performed using chromatographic techniques and the identification of this substance was confirmed according to NMR data. Cytotoxic activity of centratherin alone was also evaluated against both U251 and U87-MG cells, which showed IC50 values comparable with those obtained for the commercial anticancer drug doxorubicin. All the tested samples showed cytotoxic activity against glioblastoma multiforme cells which suggests that E. crotonoides extracts may be important sources of antiproliferative substances and that the centratherin may serve as prototype for developing new antiglioblastoma drugs.

  1. Single-hit mechanism of tumour cell killing by radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J D

    2003-02-01

    To review the relative importance of the single-hit mechanism of radiation killing for tumour response to 1.8-2.0 Gy day(-1) fractions and to low dose-rate brachytherapy. Tumour cell killing by ionizing radiation is well described by the linear-quadratic equation that contains two independent components distinguished by dose kinetics. Analyses of tumour cell survival curves that contain six or more dose points usually provide good estimates of the alpha- and beta-inactivation coefficients. Superior estimates of tumour cell intrinsic radiosensitivity are obtained when synchronized populations are employed. The characteristics of single-hit inactivation of tumour cells are reviewed and compared with the characteristics of beta-inactivation. Potential molecular targets associated with single-hit inactivation are discussed along with strategies for potentiating cell killing by this mechanism. The single-hit mechanism of tumour cell killing shows no dependence on dose-rate and, consequently, no evidence of sublethal damage repair. It is uniquely potentiated by high linear-energy-transfer radiation, exhibits a smaller oxygen enhancement ratio and exhibits a larger indirect effect by hydroxyl radicals than the beta-mechanism. alpha-inactivation coefficients vary slightly throughout interphase but mitotic cells exhibit extremely high alpha-coefficients in the range of those observed for lymphocytes and some repair-deficient cells. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that chromatin in compacted form could be a radiation-hypersensitive target associated with single-hit radiation killing. Analyses of tumour cell survival curves demonstrate that it is the single-hit mechanism (alpha) that determines the majority of cell killing after doses of 2Gy and that this mechanism is highly variable between tumour cell lines. The characteristics of single-hit inactivation are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct from those of beta-inactivation. Compacted chromatin in tumour cells

  2. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  3. Road-Killed Animals as Resources for Ecological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Clark E.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes 19 literature sources identifying road-killed vertebrates and frequency of kill by numbers. Examples of how these animals can be incorporated into curricula (integrating biology, society, people, and values) are given, followed by an illustrated example of how a road-killed raccoon's skull demonstrated a human/wildlife interaction prior…

  4. Demonstration of pattern transfer into sub-100 nm polysilicon line/space features patterned with extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G. F.; Henderson, C. C.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Mangat, P. J. S.; Cobb, J.; Hector, S. D.

    1999-01-01

    In two separate experiments, we have successfully demonstrated the transfer of dense- and loose-pitch line/space (L/S) photoresist features, patterned with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, into an underlying hard mask material. In both experiments, a deep-UV photoresist (∼90 nm thick) was spin cast in bilayer format onto a hard mask (50-90 nm thick) and was subsequently exposed to EUV radiation using a 10x reduction EUV exposure system. The EUV reticle was fabricated at Motorola (Tempe, AZ) using a subtractive process with Ta-based absorbers on Mo/Si multilayer mask blanks. In the first set of experiments, following the EUV exposures, the L/S patterns were transferred first into a SiO 2 hard mask (60 nm thick) using a reactive ion etch (RIE), and then into polysilicon (350 nm thick) using a triode-coupled plasma RIE etcher at the University of California, Berkeley, microfabrication facilities. The latter etch process, which produced steep (>85 degree sign ) sidewalls, employed a HBr/Cl chemistry with a large (>10:1) etch selectivity of polysilicon to silicon dioxide. In the second set of experiments, hard mask films of SiON (50 nm thick) and SiO 2 (87 nm thick) were used. A RIE was performed at Motorola using a halogen gas chemistry that resulted in a hard mask-to-photoresist etch selectivity >3:1 and sidewall profile angles ≥85 degree sign . Line edge roughness (LER) and linewidth critical dimension (CD) measurements were performed using Sandia's GORA(c) CD digital image analysis software. Low LER values (6-9 nm, 3σ, one side) and good CD linearity (better than 10%) were demonstrated for the final pattern-transferred dense polysilicon L/S features from 80 to 175 nm. In addition, pattern transfer (into polysilicon) of loose-pitch (1:2) L/S features with CDs≥60 nm was demonstrated. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  5. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  6. Shielding computations for solution transfer lines from Analytical Lab to process cells of Demonstration Fast Reactor Plant (DFRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskar, S.; Jose, M.T.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2018-01-01

    The diluted virgin solutions (both aqueous and organic) and aqueous analytical waste generated from experimental analysis of process solutions, pertaining to Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) and Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), in glove boxes of active analytical Laboratory (AAL) are pumped back to the process cells through a pipe in pipe arrangement. There are 6 transfer lines (Length 15-32 m), 2 for each type of transfer. The transfer lines passes through the area inside the AAL and also the operating area. Hence it is required to compute the necessary radial shielding requirement around the lines to limit the dose rates in both the areas to the permissible values as per the regulatory requirement

  7. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  8. Oil is killing Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, H.

    2007-09-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa, with its mining and petroleum resources, is still the object of covetous desires from developed countries. The Gulf of Guinea is a promising area and probably the future battlefield of the 21. century. The fighters of this war are the African people and the big powers, the USA and China at the head, who call upon mercenaries to get their share of this fabulous treasure. Oil was a chance for Africa, but now oil is killing it

  9. Experimental demonstration of a Ku-band radial-line relativistic klystron oscillator based on transition radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jun; Ju, Jinchuan; Zhong, Huihuang

    2017-03-01

    We report on a radial-line relativistic klystron oscillator (RL-RKO), which is physically designed to generate gigawatt-level high power microwaves (HPMs) at Ku-band. The 3π/4 mode of a four-gap buncher is selected to highly modulate the radially propagating intense relativistic electron beam (IREB). A three-gap extractor operating at the π mode is employed to extract the radio-frequency energy efficiently. The Ku-band RL-RKO is investigated experimentally on an intense-current electron beam accelerator. The radially propagating IREB is well focused with an axial-width of 2 mm by a radial magnetic field of 0.4 T. Microwaves with a frequency of 14.86 GHz and a power of 1.5 GW are generated, corresponding to an efficiency of 24%, which indicates a significant advance for the research of radial-line HPM sources.

  10. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R., E-mail: raspberry@lanl.gov; Danly, C.; Fatherley, V. E.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Christensen, K.; Fittinghoff, D.; Grim, G. P.; Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Skulina, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF.

  11. Analysing the Wrongness of Killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the wrongness of killing by comparing different versions of three influential views: the traditional view that killing is always wrong; the liberal view that killing is wrong if and only if the victim does not want to be killed; and Don Marquis‟ future...... of value account of the wrongness of killing. In particular, I illustrate the advantages that a basic version of the liberal view and a basic version of the future of value account have over competing alternatives. Still, ultimately none of the views analysed here are satisfactory; but the different...

  12. Killing (absorption) versus survival in random motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    We address diffusion processes in a bounded domain, while focusing on somewhat unexplored affinities between the presence of absorbing and/or inaccessible boundaries. For the Brownian motion (Lévy-stable cases are briefly mentioned) model-independent features are established of the dynamical law that underlies the short-time behavior of these random paths, whose overall lifetime is predefined to be long. As a by-product, the limiting regime of a permanent trapping in a domain is obtained. We demonstrate that the adopted conditioning method, involving the so-called Bernstein transition function, works properly also in an unbounded domain, for stochastic processes with killing (Feynman-Kac kernels play the role of transition densities), provided the spectrum of the related semigroup operator is discrete. The method is shown to be useful in the case, when the spectrum of the generator goes down to zero and no isolated minimal (ground state) eigenvalue is in existence, like in the problem of the long-term survival on a half-line with a sink at origin.

  13. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  14. A demonstration of an independent-station radio interferometry system with 4-cm precision on a 16-km base line. [for geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. B.; Fanselow, J. L.; Macdoran, P. F.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Fliegel, H. F.

    1976-01-01

    Radio interferometry promises eventually to measure directly, with accuracies of a few centimeters, both whole earth motions and relative crustal motions with respect to an 'inertial' reference frame. Interferometry measurements of arbitrarily long base lines require, however, the development of new techniques for independent-station observation. In connection with the development of such techniques, a series of short base line demonstration experiments has been conducted between two antennas. The experiments were related to a program involving the design of independent-station instrumentation capable of making three-dimensional earth-fixed base line measurements with an accuracy of a few centimeters. Attention is given to the instrumentation used in the experiments, aspects of data analysis, and the experimental results.

  15. Conditionally immortalized human pancreatic stellate cell lines demonstrate enhanced proliferation and migration in response to IGF-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Ann H., E-mail: ann.rosendahl@med.lu.se [Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Surgery, Lund (Sweden); Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Oncology and Pathology, Lund (Sweden); Gundewar, Chinmay; Said Hilmersson, Katarzyna [Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Surgery, Lund (Sweden); Ni, Lan; Saleem, Moin A. [University of Bristol, School of Clinical Sciences, Children' s Renal Unit and Academic Renal Unit, Bristol (United Kingdom); Andersson, Roland [Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Division of Surgery, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-01-15

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a key role in the dense desmoplastic stroma associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Studies on human PSCs have been minimal due to difficulty in maintaining primary PSC in culture. We have generated the first conditionally immortalized human non-tumor (NPSC) and tumor-derived (TPSC) pancreatic stellate cells via transformation with the temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase (hTERT). These cells proliferate at 33°C. After transfer to 37°C, the SV40LT is switched off and the cells regain their primary PSC phenotype and growth characteristics. NPSC contained cytoplasmic vitamin A-storing lipid droplets, while both NPSC and TPSC expressed the characteristic markers αSMA, vimentin, desmin and GFAP. Proteome array analysis revealed that of the 55 evaluated proteins, 27 (49%) were upregulated ≥3-fold in TPSC compared to NPSC, including uPA, pentraxin-3, endoglin and endothelin-1. Two insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) were inversely expressed. Although discordant IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 levels, IGF-I was found to stimulate proliferation of both NPSC and TPSC. Both basal and IGF-I stimulated motility was significantly enhanced in TPSC compared to NPSC. In conclusion, these cells provide a unique resource that will facilitate further study of the active stroma compartment associated with pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Generation of human conditionally immortalized human pancreatic stellate cell lines. • Temperature-sensitive SV40LT allows switch to primary PSC phenotype characteristics. • Proteome profiling revealed distinct expression patterns between TPSC and NPSC. • Enhanced IGF-I-stimulated proliferation and motility by TPSC compared to NPSC.

  16. Grouping annotations on the subcellular layered interactome demonstrates enhanced autophagy activity in a recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis T cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Jia

    Full Text Available Human uveitis is a type of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that often shows relapse-remitting courses affecting multiple biological processes. As a cytoplasmic process, autophagy has been seen as an adaptive response to cell death and survival, yet the link between autophagy and T cell-mediated autoimmunity is not certain. In this study, based on the differentially expressed genes (GSE19652 between the recurrent versus monophasic T cell lines, whose adoptive transfer to susceptible animals may result in respective recurrent or monophasic uveitis, we proposed grouping annotations on a subcellular layered interactome framework to analyze the specific bioprocesses that are linked to the recurrence of T cell autoimmunity. That is, the subcellular layered interactome was established by the Cytoscape and Cerebral plugin based on differential expression, global interactome, and subcellular localization information. Then, the layered interactomes were grouping annotated by the ClueGO plugin based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. The analysis showed that significant bioprocesses with autophagy were orchestrated in the cytoplasmic layered interactome and that mTOR may have a regulatory role in it. Furthermore, by setting up recurrent and monophasic uveitis in Lewis rats, we confirmed by transmission electron microscopy that, in comparison to the monophasic disease, recurrent uveitis in vivo showed significantly increased autophagy activity and extended lymphocyte infiltration to the affected retina. In summary, our framework methodology is a useful tool to disclose specific bioprocesses and molecular targets that can be attributed to a certain disease. Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of autophagy pathways may perturb the recurrence of uveitis.

  17. The End of the Line, Preparing the Main Plant Process Building for Demolition at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, L.E.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hackett, M.; Gorsuch, G.; Sullivan, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act of 1980 authorized the Department of Energy to conduct a high-level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the site of the former Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant in West Valley, New York to demonstrate solidification techniques to prepare high-level liquid waste for disposal. The reprocessing facility at this site was the only commercial NRC-licensed spent fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. The spent fuel reprocessing operations ended in 1972 and DoE's cleanup operations have been underway since 1982. High-level waste solidification was safely concluded in 2002 and follow-on activities at the site have been concentrated on facility decontamination and waste management and off-site disposal. Among the features that remain at the WVDP site is the highly-contaminated Main Plant Process Building (MPPB). The five-story reinforced concrete structure, which was formerly used to reprocess irradiated nuclear fuel, contains residual levels of contamination in some areas that prohibit safe human entry. DoE's long-range plans for the site include demolition of the MPPB. Current site contractor, West Valley Environmental Services LLC (WVES), while actively working to dismantle equipment and decontaminate areas inside the MPPB, has developed a conceptual two-phase plan for demolishing the structure that provides a cost-effective, lower-dose alternative to conventional demolition techniques. This paper discusses the current condition of the MPPB and the demolition-ready preparations conducted in the facility thus far. This paper also introduces the concept of a two-part surgical demolition plan that has been proposed and is being evaluated as a safe method of demolishing the structure. The practical applications that support feasibility for the demolition approach are being demonstrated through current work applications in the MPPB. The Inside-Out Demolition proposal for the MPPB is a safe

  18. How to kill creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, T M

    1998-01-01

    In today's knowledge economy, creativity is more important than ever. But many companies unwittingly employ managerial practices that kill it. How? By crushing their employees' intrinsic motivation--the strong internal desire to do something based on interests and passions. Managers don't kill creativity on purpose. Yet in the pursuit of productivity, efficiency, and control--all worthy business imperatives--they undermine creativity. It doesn't have to be that way, says Teresa Amabile. Business imperatives can comfortably coexist with creativity. But managers will have to change their thinking first. Specifically, managers will need to understand that creativity has three parts: expertise, the ability to think flexibly and imaginatively, and motivation. Managers can influence the first two, but doing so is costly and slow. It would be far more effective to increase employees' intrinsic motivation. To that end, managers have five levers to pull: the amount of challenge they give employees, the degree of freedom they grant around process, the way they design work groups, the level of encouragement they give, and the nature of organizational support. Take challenge as an example. Intrinsic motivation is high when employees feel challenged but not overwhelmed by their work. The task for managers, therefore, becomes matching people to the right assignments. Consider also freedom. Intrinsic motivation--and thus creativity--soars when managers let people decide how to achieve goals, not what goals to achieve. Managers can make a difference when it comes to employee creativity. The result can be truly innovative companies in which creativity doesn't just survive but actually thrives.

  19. Extracellular traps are associated with human and mouse neutrophil and macrophage mediated killing of larval Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne-Année, Sandra; Kerepesi, Laura A; Hess, Jessica A; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Lok, James B; Nolan, Thomas J; Abraham, David

    2014-06-01

    Neutrophils are multifaceted cells that are often the immune system's first line of defense. Human and murine cells release extracellular DNA traps (ETs) in response to several pathogens and diseases. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is crucial to trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Aside from neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils also release ETs. We hypothesized that ETs serve as a mechanism of ensnaring the large and highly motile helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis thereby providing a static target for the immune response. We demonstrated that S. stercoralis larvae trigger the release of ETs by human neutrophils and macrophages. Analysis of NETs revealed that NETs trapped but did not kill larvae. Induction of NETs was essential for larval killing by human but not murine neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. In mice, extracellular traps were induced following infection with S. stercoralis larvae and were present in the microenvironment of worms being killed in vivo. These findings demonstrate that NETs ensnare the parasite facilitating larval killing by cells of the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of radiation-induced cell cycle blocks by caffeine does not necessarily lead to increased cell killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musk, S.R. (Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (England))

    1991-03-01

    The effect of caffeine upon the radiosensitivities of three human tumor lines was examined and correlated with its action upon the radiation-induced S-phase and G2-phase blocks. Caffeine was found to reduce at least partially the S-phase and G2-phase blocks in all the cell lines examined but potentiated cytotoxicity in only one of the three tumor lines. That reductions have been demonstrated to occur in the absence of increased cell killing provides supporting evidence for the hypothesis that reductions may not be causal in those cases when potentiation of radiation-induced cytotoxicity is observed in the presence of caffeine.

  1. Germ killing by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawrik, O.

    1975-01-01

    Short-wave UV radiation, in particular the range about 250 nm, has a high germ reducing effect. Corresponding UV burners which above all emit radiation at the line of 254 nm can therefore be used effectively in all cases where the least possible content of germs in the air is aimed at. Apart from this it is also possible to reduce by this process the germs on surfaces and liquids. Especially in the most various ranges of pharmaceutical production one is steadily striving for efficient and last not least economic procedures by which it is possible to reduce the germs present in the air of a room. Numerous scientific investigations have sufficiently proved that short-wave UV radiation is extremely well appropriate for such purposes. Absolutely germ-free air in a room can only be obtained under laboratory conditions. In practice, however, the aim is not to achieve a 100 per cent killing of the germs present in a room but to make sure that the germ rate in certain rooms is constantly reduced to the lowest possible level. If in this connection it is referred to a germ reduction of 100 or 99 per cent this is but theory. (orig.) [de

  2. Experimental demonstration of line-width modulation in plasmonic lithography using a solid immersion lens-based active nano-gap control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won-Sup; Kim, Taeseob; Choi, Guk-Jong; Lim, Geon; Joe, Hang-Eun; Gang, Myeong-Gu; Min, Byung-Kwon; Park, No-Cheol; Moon, Hyungbae; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Young-Pil

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic lithography has been used in nanofabrication because of its utility beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution of plasmonic lithography depends on the nano-gap between the nanoaperture and the photoresist surface—changing the gap distance can modulate the line-width of the pattern. In this letter, we demonstrate solid-immersion lens based active non-contact plasmonic lithography, applying a range of gap conditions to modulate the line-width of the pattern. Using a solid-immersion lens-based near-field control system, the nano-gap between the exit surface of the nanoaperture and the media can be actively modulated and maintained to within a few nanometers. The line-widths of the recorded patterns using 15- and 5-nm gaps were 47 and 19.5 nm, respectively, which matched closely the calculated full-width at half-maximum. From these results, we conclude that changing the nano-gap within a solid-immersion lens-based plasmonic head results in varying line-width patterns

  3. Archivists Killed for Political Reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    This essay, Archivists Killed for Political Reasons, offers an overview of archivists who were killed for political reasons through the ages. After determining the criteria for inclusion, sixteen such political murders of archivists are briefly discussed. These cases were distributed over six

  4. The Absence of NOD1 Enhances Killing of Aspergillus fumigatus Through Modulation of Dectin-1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Gresnigt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major life-threatening infections for which severely immunocompromised patients are at risk is invasive aspergillosis (IA. Despite the current treatment options, the increasing antifungal resistance and poor outcome highlight the need for novel therapeutic strategies to improve outcome of patients with IA. In the current study, we investigated whether and how the intracellular pattern recognition receptor NOD1 is involved in host defense against Aspergillus fumigatus. When exploring the role of NOD1 in an experimental mouse model, we found that Nod1−/− mice were protected against IA and demonstrated reduced fungal outgrowth in the lungs. We found that macrophages derived from bone marrow of Nod1−/− mice were more efficiently inducing reactive oxygen species and cytokines in response to Aspergillus. Most strikingly, these cells were highly potent in killing A. fumigatus compared with wild-type cells. In line, human macrophages in which NOD1 was silenced demonstrated augmented Aspergillus killing and NOD1 stimulation decreased fungal killing. The differentially altered killing capacity of NOD1 silencing versus NOD1 activation was associated with alterations in dectin-1 expression, with activation of NOD1 reducing dectin-1 expression. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate that Nod1−/− mice have elevated dectin-1 expression in the lung and bone marrow, and silencing of NOD1 gene expression in human macrophages increases dectin-1 expression. The enhanced dectin-1 expression may be the mechanism of enhanced fungal killing of Nod1−/− cells and human cells in which NOD1 was silenced, since blockade of dectin-1 reversed the augmented killing in these cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that NOD1 receptor plays an inhibitory role in the host defense against Aspergillus. This provides a rationale to develop novel immunotherapeutic strategies for treatment of aspergillosis that target the NOD1 receptor, to enhance the

  5. "The Killing Fields" of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Karen

    2014-01-01

    to clustering of ideas, a design strategy which seemed to kill unique ideas. The reframing of innovation as a radical endeavor killed learning from others for being not innovative. The findings of this paper supplement theories of deliberate killing of ideas by suggesting framing, design and facilitation......This paper points to seemingly contradicted processes of framing innovation, idea generation and killing ideas. It reports from a yearlong innovation project, where health care professionals explored problems and tested ideas for solutions, regarding a future downsizing of the case hospital....... Theories in various ways describe the opening and closing phases of innovation. Exploration and idea generation opens a field of interest, which is then closed by making choices of ideas to further explore in the next opening phase. These choices deliberately kill a lot of ideas. In the innovation project...

  6. Killing fields; The politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philips, Alasdair

    1990-02-01

    An overview considers the NRPB guidelines on possible health effects of low-level alternating electrical and magnetic fields and examines work by individuals on the hazards of microwave radiation, overhead power lines and childhood cancer, and the problems caused by electromagnetic fields at 50 Hz frequency. (U.K.).

  7. Notes on super Killing tensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, P.S. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lindström, University [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University,SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Theoretical Physics, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-14

    The notion of a Killing tensor is generalised to a superspace setting. Conserved quantities associated with these are defined for superparticles and Poisson brackets are used to define a supersymmetric version of the even Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. Superconformal Killing tensors in flat superspaces are studied for spacetime dimensions 3,4,5,6 and 10. These tensors are also presented in analytic superspaces and super-twistor spaces for 3,4 and 6 dimensions. Algebraic structures associated with superconformal Killing tensors are also briefly discussed.

  8. Killing Horizons as Equipotential Hypersurfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Smolić, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    In this note we present a new proof that Killing horizons are equipotential hypersurfaces for the electric and the magnetic scalar potential, that makes no use of gravitational field equations or the assumption about the existence of bifurcation surface.

  9. Phantom metrics with Killing spinors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Sabra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study metric solutions of Einstein–anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1-dimensional space–time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.

  10. Spacetimes foliated by Killing horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Tomasz; Lewandowski, Jerzy; Jezierski, Jacek

    2004-01-01

    It seems to be expected that a horizon of a quasi-local type, such as a Killing or an isolated horizon, by analogy with a globally defined event horizon, should be unique in some open neighbourhood in the spacetime, provided the vacuum Einstein or the Einstein-Maxwell equations are satisfied. The aim of our paper is to verify whether that intuition is correct. If one can extend a so-called Kundt metric, in such a way that its null, shear-free surfaces have spherical spacetime sections, the resulting spacetime is foliated by so-called non-expanding horizons. The obstacle is Kundt's constraint induced at the surfaces by the Einstein or the Einstein-Maxwell equations, and the requirement that a solution be globally defined on the sphere. We derived a transformation (reflection) that creates a solution to Kundt's constraint out of data defining an extremal isolated horizon. Using that transformation, we derived a class of exact solutions to the Einstein or Einstein-Maxwell equations of very special properties. Each spacetime we construct is foliated by a family of the Killing horizons. Moreover, it admits another, transversal Killing horizon. The intrinsic and extrinsic geometries of the transversal Killing horizon coincide with the one defined on the event horizon of the extremal Kerr-Newman solution. However, the Killing horizon in our example admits yet another Killing vector tangent to and null at it. The geometries of the leaves are given by the reflection

  11. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct', we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. Γ rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that γ-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture

  12. Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X; Vahala, K; Li, J; Diddams, S; Ycas, G; Plavchan, P; Leifer, S; Sandhu, J; Vasisht, G; Chen, P; Gao, P; Gagne, J; Furlan, E; Bottom, M; Martin, E C; Fitzgerald, M P; Doppmann, G; Beichman, C

    2016-01-27

    An important technique for discovering and characterizing planets beyond our solar system relies upon measurement of weak Doppler shifts in the spectra of host stars induced by the influence of orbiting planets. A recent advance has been the introduction of optical frequency combs as frequency references. Frequency combs produce a series of equally spaced reference frequencies and they offer extreme accuracy and spectral grasp that can potentially revolutionize exoplanet detection. Here we demonstrate a laser frequency comb using an alternate comb generation method based on electro-optical modulation, with the comb centre wavelength stabilized to a molecular or atomic reference. In contrast to mode-locked combs, the line spacing is readily resolvable using typical astronomical grating spectrographs. Built using commercial off-the-shelf components, the instrument is relatively simple and reliable. Proof of concept experiments operated at near-infrared wavelengths were carried out at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Keck-II telescope.

  13. Interleukin-15 stimulates natural killer cell-mediated killing of both human pancreatic cancer and stellate cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Audenaerde, Jonas R.M.; De Waele, Jorrit; Marcq, Elly; Van Loenhout, Jinthe; Lion, Eva; Van den Bergh, Johan M.J.; Jesenofsky, Ralf; Masamune, Atsushi; Roeyen, Geert; Pauwels, Patrick; Lardon, Filip; Peeters, Marc; Smits, Evelien L.J.

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the 4th leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries with a 5-year survival rate below 5%. One of the hallmarks of this cancer is the strong desmoplastic reaction within the tumor microenvironment (TME), orchestrated by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). This results in a functional and mechanical shield which causes resistance to conventional therapies. Aiming to overcome this resistance by tackling the stromal shield, we assessed for the first time the capacity of IL-15 stimulated natural killer (NK) cells to kill PSC and pancreatic cancer cells (PCC). The potency of IL-15 to promote NK cell-mediated killing was evaluated phenotypically and functionally. In addition, NK cell and immune checkpoint ligands on PSC were charted. We demonstrate that IL-15 activated NK cells kill both PCC and PSC lines (range 9-35% and 20-50%, respectively) in a contact-dependent manner and significantly higher as compared to resting NK cells. Improved killing of these pancreatic cell lines is, at least partly, dependent on IL-15 induced upregulation of TIM-3 and NKG2D. Furthermore, we confirm significant killing of primary PSC by IL-15 activated NK cells in an ex vivo autologous system. Screening for potential targets for immunotherapeutic strategies, we demonstrate surface expression of both inhibitory (PD-L1, PD-L2) and activating (MICA/B, ULBPs and Galectin-9) ligands on primary PSC. These data underscore the therapeutic potential of IL-15 to promote NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity as a treatment of pancreatic cancer and provide promising future targets to tackle remaining PSC. PMID:28915646

  14. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  15. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, D N

    1979-01-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible. PMID:541821

  16. "Guns do not kill, people do!"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemche, Niels Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Bible does not kill, but many people who have read the Bible (in their way) have killed, virtually or in real.......The Bible does not kill, but many people who have read the Bible (in their way) have killed, virtually or in real....

  17. political killings in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mainly occurred in KwaZulu-Natal, with a much smaller number occurring in Mpumalanga and ... Though the problem is concentrated in specific provinces it is likely to impact on political life ... killings that are the focus of the article, including.

  18. To kill a mockingbird robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.; Verbunt, M.N.C.; Mubin, O.; Al Mahmud, A.

    2007-01-01

    Robots are being introduced in our society but their social status is still unclear. A critical issue is if the robot's exhibition of intelligent life-like behavior leads to the users' perception of animacy. The ultimate test for the life-likeness of a robot is to kill it. We therefore conducted an

  19. Killing horizons as equipotential hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolić, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    In this note we present a new proof that Killing horizons are equipotential hypersurfaces for the electric and the magnetic scalar potential, which makes no use of gravitational field equations or the assumption about the existence of a bifurcation surface. (note)

  20. Mechanistic insights into selective killing of OXPHOS-dependent cancer cells by arctigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Karin; Riebel, Virginie; Couttet, Philippe; Paech, Franziska; Wolf, Armin; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Pognan, Francois; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Uteng, Marianne

    2017-04-01

    Arctigenin has previously been identified as a potential anti-tumor treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanism of how arctigenin kills cancer cells is not fully understood. In the present work we studied the mechanism of toxicity by arctigenin in the human pancreatic cell line, Panc-1, with special emphasis on the mitochondria. A comparison of Panc-1 cells cultured in glucose versus galactose medium was applied, allowing assessments of effects in glycolytic versus oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent Panc-1 cells. For control purposes, the mitochondrial toxic response to treatment with arctigenin was compared to the anti-cancer drug, sorafenib, which is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor known for mitochondrial toxic off-target effects (Will et al., 2008). In both Panc-1 OXPHOS-dependent and glycolytic cells, arctigenin dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential, which was demonstrated to be due to inhibition of the mitochondrial complexes II and IV. However, arctigenin selectively killed only the OXPHOS-dependent Panc-1 cells. This selective killing of OXPHOS-dependent Panc-1 cells was accompanied by generation of ER stress, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and caspase activation leading to apoptosis and aponecrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic modelling of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth and kill rates is predictive of clinical treatment duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljayyoussi, Ghaith; Jenkins, Victoria A; Sharma, Raman; Ardrey, Alison; Donnellan, Samantha; Ward, Stephen A; Biagini, Giancarlo A

    2017-03-29

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is long and complex, typically involving a combination of drugs taken for 6 months. Improved drug regimens to shorten and simplify treatment are urgently required, however a major challenge to TB drug development is the lack of predictive pre-clinical tools. To address this deficiency, we have adopted a new high-content imaging-based approach capable of defining the killing kinetics of first line anti-TB drugs against intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) residing inside macrophages. Through use of this pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) approach we demonstrate that the killing dynamics of the intracellular Mtb sub-population is critical to predicting clinical TB treatment duration. Integrated modelling of intracellular Mtb killing alongside conventional extracellular Mtb killing data, generates the biphasic responses typical of those described clinically. Our model supports the hypothesis that the use of higher doses of rifampicin (35 mg/kg) will significantly reduce treatment duration. Our described PK-PD approach offers a much needed decision making tool for the identification and prioritisation of new therapies which have the potential to reduce TB treatment duration.

  2. The curvature and the algebra of Killing vectors in five-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rcheulishvili, G.

    1990-12-01

    This paper presents the Killing vectors for a five-dimensional space with the line element. The algebras which are formed by these vectors are written down. The curvature two-forms are described. (author). 10 refs

  3. Purification of antilisterial peptide (SubtilosinA from novel Bacillus tequilensis FR9 and demonstrate their pathogen invasion protection ability using human carcinoma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana Parveen Rani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on isolation, screening and characterization of novel probiotics from gastrointestinal tract of free-range chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. Fifty seven colonies were isolated and three isolates (FR4, FR9 and FR12 were selected and identified as Lactobacillus gasseri FR4, Bacillus tequilensis FR9 and L. animalis FR12 by 16S rRNA sequencing. Three strains were able to survive in stimulated acidic and bile conditions and inhibit the growth of pathogens. Especially, FR9 exhibited maximum inhibition against Listeria monocytogenes and none of them exhibited hemolytic activity. Native-PAGE revealed the presence of low molecular weight (3.4-5.0 KDa antimicrobial peptide. The peptide was further purified by Sephadex G-50 column and RP-HPLC using C18 column. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of antimicrobial peptide showed 100% consensus to antilisterial peptide SubtilosinA and SboA gene was amplified from FR9 genome. FR9 showed maximum aggregation activity, EPS production (85.46 mg/L and cholesterol assimilation (63.12 ± 0.05 µg/mL. Strong adhesion property (12.6% and pathogen invasion protection ability was revealed by B. tequilensis FR9 towards HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cell line. This is the first study to demonstrate antilisterial SubtilosinA production of B. tequilensis. Our results indicate that B. tequilensis FR9 strain furnish the essential characteristics of a potential probiotics and might be incorporated into human and animal food supplements.

  4. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  5. WOMEN'S RIGHTS VIOLATION: HONOUR KILLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA OTOVESCU FRASIE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study I have presented the domestic violence concept and the situation regarding the observing of woman’s rights in Syria. We have also evidenced the juridical aspects regarding the honor killing directed against women after the modification of the article 548 from the Penal Code changed by the President al-Asad on July the 1st 2009. The data offered by NGOs have been of great help for the elaboration of the study as also the statistic data presented in Thara E-Magazine regarding the cities where had been done the honor killings and their number, the instrument of the murder, the age of the victim, and the motives for the murders. It must be noticed that, lately, the Government fought for the observing of the woman’s rights and promoted he gender equality by appointing women in leading positions, including the vice-president one.

  6. Evolution equations for Killing fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, B.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of finding necessary and sufficient conditions on the Cauchy data for Einstein equations which insure the existence of Killing fields in a neighborhood of an initial hypersurface has been considered recently by Berezdivin, Coll, and Moncrief. Nevertheless, it can be shown that the evolution equations obtained in all these cases are of nonstrictly hyperbolic type, and, thus, the Cauchy data must belong to a special class of functions. We prove here that, for the vacuum and Einstein--Maxwell space--times and in a coordinate independent way, one can always choose, as evolution equations for the Killing fields, a strictly hyperbolic system: The above theorems can be thus extended to all Cauchy data for which the Einstein evolution problem has been proved to be well set

  7. Polymyxin B in Combination with Enrofloxacin Exerts Synergistic Killing against Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Yu, Heidi H; Zhao, Jinxin; Han, Mei-Ling; Zhu, Yan; Akter, Jesmin; Wickremasinghe, Hasini; Walpola, Hasini; Wirth, Veronika; Rao, Gauri G; Forrest, Alan; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Polymyxins are increasingly used as a last-resort class of antibiotics against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria. However, resistance to polymyxins can emerge with monotherapy. As nephrotoxicity is the major dose-limiting factor for polymyxin monotherapy, dose escalation to suppress the emergence of polymyxin resistance is not a viable option. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to preserve this last-line class of antibiotics. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial synergy of polymyxin B combined with enrofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Static time-kill studies were conducted over 24 h with polymyxin B (1 to 4 mg/liter) and enrofloxacin (1 to 4 mg/liter) alone or in combination. Additionally, in vitro one-compartment model (IVM) and hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) experiments were performed against P. aeruginosa 12196. Polymyxin B and enrofloxacin in monotherapy were ineffective against all of the P. aeruginosa isolates examined, whereas polymyxin B-enrofloxacin in combination was synergistic against P. aeruginosa , with ≥2 to 4 log 10 kill at 24 h in the static time-kill studies. In both IVM and HFIM, the combination was synergistic, and the bacterial counting values were below the limit of quantification on day 5 in the HFIM. A population analysis profile indicated that the combination inhibited the emergence of polymyxin resistance in P. aeruginosa 12196. The mechanism-based modeling suggests that the synergistic killing is a result of the combination of mechanistic and subpopulation synergy. Overall, this is the first preclinical study to demonstrate that the polymyxin-enrofloxacin combination is of considerable utility for the treatment of XDR P. aeruginosa infections and warrants future clinical evaluations. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  9. Wind power and bird kills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-12-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy.

  10. Isolated Horizon, Killing Horizon and Event Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Date, G.

    2001-01-01

    We consider space-times which in addition to admitting an isolated horizon also admit Killing horizons with or without an event horizon. We show that an isolated horizon is a Killing horizon provided either (1) it admits a stationary neighbourhood or (2) it admits a neighbourhood with two independent, commuting Killing vectors. A Killing horizon is always an isolated horizon. For the case when an event horizon is definable, all conceivable relative locations of isolated horizon and event hori...

  11. Neutrophils kill the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis using trogocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Frances; Ng, Shek Hang; Brown, Taylor M.; Boatman, Grace; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2018-01-01

    T. vaginalis, a human-infective parasite, causes the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide and contributes to adverse inflammatory disorders. The immune response to T. vaginalis is poorly understood. Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs]) are the major immune cell present at the T. vaginalis–host interface and are thought to clear T. vaginalis. However, the mechanism of PMN clearance of T. vaginalis has not been characterized. We demonstrate that human PMNs rapidly kill T. vaginalis in a dose-dependent, contact-dependent, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)-independent manner. In contrast to phagocytosis, we observed that PMN killing of T. vaginalis involves taking “bites” of T. vaginalis prior to parasite death, using trogocytosis to achieve pathogen killing. Both trogocytosis and parasite killing are dependent on the presence of PMN serine proteases and human serum factors. Our analyses provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a mammalian phagocyte using trogocytosis for pathogen clearance and reveal a novel mechanism used by PMNs to kill a large, highly motile target. PMID:29408891

  12. Profound radiosensitivity in leukemic T-cell lines and T-cell-type acute lymphoblastic leukemia demonstrated by sodium [51Cr]chromate labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, S.; Minowada, J.; Tsubota, T.; Sinks, L.F.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity was determined by measuring spontaneous release from 51 Cr-labeled cells in various lymphoid cell populations. Among six leukemia T-cell lines originating from acute lymphoblastic leukemia, four such lines were found to be highly radiosensitive. In contrast, two of the leukemic T-cell lines and four normal control B-cell lines were not radiosensitive. Thymocytes from six patients and leukemia T-cell blasts from three patients with T-cell leukemia were likewise found to be highly radiosensitive, whereas leukemic blasts from six patients with null-cell (non-T, non-B-cell) acute lymphoblastic leukemia were not radiosensitive. Normal peripheral blood lymphocytes and mitogen-induced normal lymphoblasts were found not to be radiosensitive. The results indicate that measurement of the radiation sensitivity of acute leukemic blasts may have a therapeutic significance in coping with the heterogeneous nature of individual leukemia cases

  13. 33 CFR 117.801 - Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. 117.801 Section 117.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD....801 Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills and their tributaries. (a) The following requirements...

  14. Killing-Yano tensors and Nambu mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.

    1998-01-01

    Killing-Yano tensors were introduced in 1952 by Kentaro-Yano from mathematical point of view. The physical interpretation of Killing-Yano tensors of rank higher than two was unclear. We found that all Killing-Yano tensors η i 1 i 2 . .. i n with covariant derivative zero are Nambu tensors. We found that in the case of flat space case all Killing-Yano tensors are Nambu tensors. In the case of Taub-NUT and Kerr-Newmann metric Killing-Yano tensors of order two generate Nambu tensors of rank 3

  15. HYC-24L Demonstrates Greater Effectiveness With Less Pain Than CPM-22.5 for Treatment of Perioral Lines in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterwick, Kimberly; Marmur, Ellen; Narurkar, Vic; Cox, Sue Ellen; Joseph, John H; Sadick, Neil S; Tedaldi, Ruth; Wheeler, Sarah; Kolodziejczyk, Julia K; Gallagher, Conor J

    2015-12-01

    This trial compares the effectiveness and safety of HYC-24L (Juvéderm Ultra XC; Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland) (24 mg/mL of hyaluronic acid, 0.3% lidocaine) and CPM-22.5 (Belotero Balance; Merz Aesthetics, Raleigh, NC) (22.5 mg/mL of hyaluronic acid) for the treatment of perioral lines. Men and women aged 35 years or older with moderate-to-severe perioral lines were recruited for this randomized controlled, rater-blinded, 2-arm trial. The primary endpoint was a comparison of rater-assessed responder rates by the validated 4-point Perioral Lines Severity Scale at Month 6; responders were those who showed a ≥1 point improvement. A secondary endpoint was subject-assessed change in perioral lines measured by the Global Assessment of Change Scale. A total of 136 subjects received treatment and 132 completed the trial (mean age: 58 ± 8 years). Total volume injected was 1.18 mL (HYC-24L) and 1.32 mL (CPM-22.5). At Month 6, a significantly greater proportion of HYC-24L subjects responded to treatment (87%) than CPM-22.5 subjects (72%) (p CPM-22.5 subjects, with the greatest difference at Month 6. No unexpected adverse events occurred. HYC-24L subjects showed a higher response rate and a greater improvement in their perioral lines than CPM-22.5 subjects for up to 6 months.

  16. Glycan elongation beyond the mucin associated Tn antigen protects tumor cells from immune-mediated killing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline B Madsen

    Full Text Available Membrane bound mucins are up-regulated and aberrantly glycosylated during malignant transformation in many cancer cells. This results in a negatively charged glycoprotein coat which may protect cancer cells from immune surveillance. However, only limited data have so far demonstrated the critical steps in glycan elongation that make aberrantly glycosylated mucins affect the interaction between cancer cells and cytotoxic effector cells of the immune system. Tn (GalNAc-Ser/Thr, STn (NeuAcα2-6GalNAc-Ser/Thr, T (Galβ1-3GalNAc-Ser/Thr, and ST (NeuAcα2-6Galβ1-3GalNAc-Ser/Thr antigens are recognized as cancer associated truncated glycans, and are expressed in many adenocarcinomas, e.g. breast- and pancreatic cancer cells. To investigate the role of the cancer associated glycan truncations in immune-mediated killing we created glyco-engineered breast- and pancreatic cancer cells expressing only the shortest possible mucin-like glycans (Tn and STn. Glyco-engineering was performed by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN knockout (KO of the Core 1 enzyme chaperone COSMC, thereby preventing glycan elongation beyond the initial GalNAc residue in O-linked glycans. We find that COSMC KO in the breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines T47D and Capan-1 increases sensitivity to both NK cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL-mediated killing. In addition, we investigated the association between total cell surface expression of MUC1/MUC16 and NK or CTL mediated killing, and observed an inverse correlation between MUC16/MUC1 expression and the sensitivity to ADCC and CTL-mediated killing. Together, these data suggest that up-regulation of membrane bound mucins protects cells from immune mediated killing, and that particular glycosylation steps, as demonstrated for glycan elongation beyond Tn and STn, can be important for fine tuning of the immune escape mechanisms in cancer cells.

  17. Spacelike conformal Killing vectors and spacelike congruences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, D.P.; Tsamparlis, M.

    1985-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for space-time to admit a spacelike conformal motion with symmetry vector parallel to a unit spacelike vector field n/sup a/. These conditions are expressed in terms of the shear and expansion of the spacelike congruence generated by n/sup a/ and in terms of the four-velocity of the observer employed at any given point of the congruence. It is shown that either the expansion or the rotation of this spacelike congruence must vanish if Dn/sup a//dp = 0, where p denotes arc length measured along the integral curves of n/sup a/, and also that there exist no proper spacelike homothetic motions with constant expansion. Propagation equations for the projection tensor and the rotation tensor are derived and it is proved that every isometric spacelike congruence is rigid. Fluid space-times are studied in detail. A relation is established between spacelike conformal motions and material curves in the fluid: if a fluid space-time admits a spacelike conformal Killing vector parallel to n/sup a/ and n/sub a/u/sup a/ = 0, where u/sup a/ is the fluid four-velocity, then the integral curves of n/sup a/ are material curves in an irrotational fluid, while if the fluid vorticity is nonzero, then the integral curves of n/sup a/ are material curves if and only if they are vortex lines. An alternative derivation, based on the theory of spacelike congruences, of some of the results of Collins [J. Math. Phys. 25, 995 (1984)] on conformal Killing vectors parallel to the local vorticity vector in shear-free perfect fluids with zero magnetic Weyl tensor is given

  18. Early outbreak detection by linking health advice line calls to water distribution areas retrospectively demonstrated in a large waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Bjelkmar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the winter and spring of 2011 a large outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Skellefteå municipality, Sweden. This study summarizes the outbreak investigation in terms of outbreak size, duration, clinical characteristics, possible source(s and the potential for earlier detection using calls to a health advice line. Methods The investigation included two epidemiological questionnaires and microbial analysis of samples from patients, water and other environmental sources. In addition, a retrospective study based on phone calls to a health advice line was performed by comparing patterns of phone calls between different water distribution areas. Results Our analyses showed that approximately 18,500 individuals were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Skellefteå in 2011. This makes it the second largest outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Europe to date. Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts of subtype IbA10G2 were found in patient and sewage samples, but not in raw water or in drinking water, and the initial contamination source could not be determined. The outbreak went unnoticed to authorities for several months. The analysis of the calls to the health advice line provides strong indications early in the outbreak that it was linked to a particular water treatment plant. Conclusions We conclude that an earlier detection of the outbreak by linking calls to a health advice line to water distribution areas could have limited the outbreak substantially.

  19. ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TESTING PIPE SYSTEM FOR AN INHIBITOR OF MUSSEL KILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-06-04

    A comprehensive series of 16 laboratory experiments demonstrated that the presence of vinyl tubing within a recirculating pipe system was responsible for lowering zebra mussel kill following treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. All vinyl tubing was replaced in all testing units with silicone tubing, and high mussel kill (>95%) was then obtained.

  20. ONC201 kills breast cancer cells in vitro by targeting mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Yoshimi Endo; Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Nagashima, Kunio; Stuelten, Christina; Crooks, Dan; Koparde, Vishal N; Gilbert, Samuel F; Islam, Celia; Ubaldini, Ashley; Ji, Yun; Gattinoni, Luca; Soheilian, Ferri; Wang, Xiantao; Hafner, Markus; Shetty, Jyoti; Tran, Bao; Jailwala, Parthav; Cam, Maggie; Lang, Martin; Voeller, Donna; Reinhold, William C; Rajapakse, Vinodh; Pommier, Yves; Weigert, Roberto; Linehan, W Marston; Lipkowitz, Stanley

    2018-04-06

    We report a novel mechanism of action of ONC201 as a mitochondria-targeting drug in cancer cells. ONC201 was originally identified as a small molecule that induces transcription of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and subsequently kills cancer cells by activating TRAIL death receptors. In this study, we examined ONC201 toxicity on multiple human breast and endometrial cancer cell lines. ONC201 attenuated cell viability in all cancer cell lines tested. Unexpectedly, ONC201 toxicity was not dependent on either TRAIL receptors nor caspases. Time-lapse live cell imaging revealed that ONC201 induces cell membrane ballooning followed by rupture, distinct from the morphology of cells undergoing apoptosis. Further investigation found that ONC201 induces phosphorylation of AMP-dependent kinase and ATP loss. Cytotoxicity and ATP depletion were significantly enhanced in the absence of glucose, suggesting that ONC201 targets mitochondrial respiration. Further analysis indicated that ONC201 indirectly inhibits mitochondrial respiration. Confocal and electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that ONC201 triggers mitochondrial structural damage and functional impairment. Moreover, ONC201 decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). RNAseq analysis revealed that ONC201 suppresses expression of multiple mtDNA-encoded genes and nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and other mitochondrial functions. Importantly, fumarate hydratase deficient cancer cells and multiple cancer cell lines with reduced amounts of mtDNA were resistant to ONC201. These results indicate that cells not dependent on mitochondrial respiration are ONC201-resistant. Our data demonstrate that ONC201 kills cancer cells by disrupting mitochondrial function and further suggests that cancer cells that are dependent on glycolysis will be resistant to ONC201.

  1. Sequential injection on-line matrix removal and trace metal preconcentration using a PTFE beads packed column as demonstrated for the determination of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    A sequential injection (SI) on-line matrix removal and trace metal preconcentration procedure by using a novel microcolumn packed with PTFE beads is described, and demonstrated for trace cadmium analysis with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The analyte...

  2. Timelike Killing spinors in seven dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariglia, Marco; Conamhna, Oisin A.P. Mac

    2004-01-01

    We employ the G-structure formalism to study supersymmetric solutions of minimal and SU(2) gauged supergravities in seven dimensions admitting Killing spinors with an associated timelike Killing vector. The most general such Killing spinor defines a SU(3) structure. We deduce necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a timelike Killing spinor on the bosonic fields of the theories, and find that such configurations generically preserve one out of 16 supersymmetries. Using our general supersymmetric ansatz we obtain numerous new solutions, including squashed or deformed anti-de Sitter solutions of the gauged theory, and a large class of Goedel-like solutions with closed timelike curves

  3. Evaluation of Honour Killings in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Celbis, Osman; Ozdemir, Bora; Oruc, Mucahit; Dogan, Mustafa; Egri, Mucahit

    2013-01-01

    Honour killings are still pervasive in many societies.  The aim of this study is to reveal the characteristics of the victims of honour killings and honour killers in Malatya province between 2000 and 2004, and to review the concept of honour killings in Turkey.  Data are collected from the records of Malatya Higher Criminal Court.  The results are discussed in the light of the data obtained from Turkish Republic Ministry of Justice.  There were 36 honour killings in Malatya between 2000 and ...

  4. A New Calculation Method of Dynamic Kill Fluid Density Variation during Deep Water Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are plenty of uncertainties and enormous challenges in deep water drilling due to complicated shallow flow and deep strata of high temperature and pressure. This paper investigates density of dynamic kill fluid and optimum density during the kill operation process in which dynamic kill process can be divided into two stages, that is, dynamic stable stage and static stable stage. The dynamic kill fluid consists of a single liquid phase and different solid phases. In addition, liquid phase is a mixture of water and oil. Therefore, a new method in calculating the temperature and pressure field of deep water wellbore is proposed. The paper calculates the changing trend of kill fluid density under different temperature and pressure by means of superposition method, nonlinear regression, and segment processing technique. By employing the improved model of kill fluid density, deep water kill operation in a well is investigated. By comparison, the calculated density results are in line with the field data. The model proposed in this paper proves to be satisfactory in optimizing dynamic kill operations to ensure the safety in deep water.

  5. Voracious male spiders that kill adult females of their own species (genera Walckenaeria, Diplostyla, Neriene, Meta, Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, B.; Brunt, T.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to the popular belief that adult female spiders often kill and eat their adult male partners in the context of copulation, we present a few instances of adult male spiders killing and eating adult females of their own species in the laboratory. However, in line with the popular belief,

  6. Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovato James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22. Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88 after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

  7. Heat-Killed Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus johnsonii Reduce Liver Injury Induced by Alcohol In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Lin, En-Shyh; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Lin, Yun-Yu; Lan, Chuan-Ching; Huang, Chun-Chih

    2016-10-31

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) and Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) prevent alcoholic liver damage in HepG2 cells and rat models of acute alcohol exposure. In this study, heat-killed LS and LJ were screened from 50 Lactobacillus strains induced by 100 mM alcohol in HepG2 cells. The severity of alcoholic liver injury was determined by measuring the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), lipid peroxidation, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol. Our results indicated that heat-killed LS and LJ reduced AST, ALT, γ-GT and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and outperformed other bacterial strains in cell line studies. We further evaluated these findings by administering these strains to rats. Only LS was able to reduce serum AST levels, which it did by 26.2%. In addition LS significantly inhibited serum TG levels by 39.2%. However, both strains were unable to inhibit ALT levels. In summary, we demonstrated that heat-killed LS and LJ possess hepatoprotective properties induced by alcohol both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Heat-Killed Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus johnsonii Reduce Liver Injury Induced by Alcohol In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Chuang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether Lactobacillus salivarius (LS and Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ prevent alcoholic liver damage in HepG2 cells and rat models of acute alcohol exposure. In this study, heat-killed LS and LJ were screened from 50 Lactobacillus strains induced by 100 mM alcohol in HepG2 cells. The severity of alcoholic liver injury was determined by measuring the levels of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT, lipid peroxidation, triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol. Our results indicated that heat-killed LS and LJ reduced AST, ALT, γ-GT and malondialdehyde (MDA levels and outperformed other bacterial strains in cell line studies. We further evaluated these findings by administering these strains to rats. Only LS was able to reduce serum AST levels, which it did by 26.2%. In addition LS significantly inhibited serum TG levels by 39.2%. However, both strains were unable to inhibit ALT levels. In summary, we demonstrated that heat-killed LS and LJ possess hepatoprotective properties induced by alcohol both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Enhancement of tumor cell killing in vitro by pre- and post-irradiation exposure to aclacinomycin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bill, C.A.; Mendoza, A.; Vrdoljak, E.; Tofilon, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Aclacinomycin A (ACM), a potent inducer of leukemic cell differentiation, significantly enhances the radiosensitivity of a human colon tumor cell line (Clone A) when cultures are exposed to 15-nM concentrations for 3 days before irradiation. We now demonstrate that incubation with ACM after irradiation can also enhance Clone A cell killing. The maximum increase in cell killing, based on colony-forming ability, occurred when Clone A cells were exposed for 1 h to 5 μM ACM model added 1 or 2 h after irradiation. The post-irradiation ACM protocol reduced the terminal slope (as reflected by D o ) of the radiation cell survival curve with no change in the low-dose, shoulder region of the curve (D q value). In contrast, for pre-irradiation treatment with ACM (15 nM, 3 days), the shoulder region of the curve was reduced with no change in the terminal slope. For pre- and post-irradiation ACM treatment the dose enhancement factors at 0.10 survival were 1.22 and 1.28, respectively. When ACM was given both before and after irradiation both the shoulder and terminal slope values decreased to produce a dose enhancement factor at a surviving fraction of 0.10 of 1.50. These data suggest that the enhanced cell killing produced by pre- and post-irradiation treatment with ACM is achieved through different mechanisms. (author) 26 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  10. On integrability of the Killing equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Kentaro; Yasui, Yukinori

    2018-04-01

    Killing tensor fields have been thought of as describing the hidden symmetry of space(-time) since they are in one-to-one correspondence with polynomial first integrals of geodesic equations. Since many problems in classical mechanics can be formulated as geodesic problems in curved space and spacetime, solving the defining equation for Killing tensor fields (the Killing equation) is a powerful way to integrate equations of motion. Thus it has been desirable to formulate the integrability conditions of the Killing equation, which serve to determine the number of linearly independent solutions and also to restrict the possible forms of solutions tightly. In this paper, we show the prolongation for the Killing equation in a manner that uses Young symmetrizers. Using the prolonged equations, we provide the integrability conditions explicitly.

  11. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

  12. Dynamics of Human Complement–Mediated Killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nypaver, Christina M.; Thornton, Margaret M.; Yin, Suellen M.; Bracho, David O.; Nelson, Patrick W.; Jones, Alan E.; Bortz, David M.; Younger, John G.

    2010-01-01

    With an in vitro system that used a luminescent strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae to assess bacterial metabolic activity in near-real-time, we investigated the dynamics of complement-mediated attack in healthy individuals and in patients presenting to the emergency department with community-acquired severe sepsis. A novel mathematical/statistical model was developed to simplify light output trajectories over time into two fitted parameters, the rate of complement activation and the delay from activation to the onset of killing. Using Factor B–depleted serum, the alternative pathway was found to be the primary bactericidal effector: In the absence of B, C3 opsonization as measured by flow cytometry did not progress and bacteria proliferated near exponentially. Defects in bacterial killing were easily demonstrable in patients with severe sepsis compared with healthy volunteers. In most patients with sepsis, the rate of activation was higher than in normal subjects but was associated with a prolonged delay between activation and bacterial killing (P < 0.05 for both). Theoretical modeling suggested that this combination of accentuated but delayed function should allow successful bacterial killing but with significantly greater complement activation. The use of luminescent bacteria allowed for the development of a novel and powerful tool for assessing complement immunology for the purposes of mechanistic study and patient evaluation. PMID:20008281

  13. Dynamics of human complement-mediated killing of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nypaver, Christina M; Thornton, Margaret M; Yin, Suellen M; Bracho, David O; Nelson, Patrick W; Jones, Alan E; Bortz, David M; Younger, John G

    2010-11-01

    With an in vitro system that used a luminescent strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae to assess bacterial metabolic activity in near-real-time, we investigated the dynamics of complement-mediated attack in healthy individuals and in patients presenting to the emergency department with community-acquired severe sepsis. A novel mathematical/statistical model was developed to simplify light output trajectories over time into two fitted parameters, the rate of complement activation and the delay from activation to the onset of killing. Using Factor B-depleted serum, the alternative pathway was found to be the primary bactericidal effector: In the absence of B, C3 opsonization as measured by flow cytometry did not progress and bacteria proliferated near exponentially. Defects in bacterial killing were easily demonstrable in patients with severe sepsis compared with healthy volunteers. In most patients with sepsis, the rate of activation was higher than in normal subjects but was associated with a prolonged delay between activation and bacterial killing (P < 0.05 for both). Theoretical modeling suggested that this combination of accentuated but delayed function should allow successful bacterial killing but with significantly greater complement activation. The use of luminescent bacteria allowed for the development of a novel and powerful tool for assessing complement immunology for the purposes of mechanistic study and patient evaluation.

  14. Effects of Vegetation Structure on the Location of Lion Kill Sites in African Thicket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Davies

    Full Text Available Predator-prey relationships are integral to ecosystem stability and functioning. These relationships are, however, difficult to maintain in protected areas where large predators are increasingly being reintroduced and confined. Where predators make kills has a profound influence on their role in ecosystems, but the relative importance of environmental variables in determining kill sites, and how these might vary across ecosystems is poorly known. We investigated kill sites for lions in South Africa's thicket biome, testing the importance of vegetation structure for kill site locations compared to other environmental variables. Kill sites were located over four years using GPS telemetry and compared to non-kill sites that had been occupied by lions, as well as to random sites within lion ranges. Measurements of 3D vegetation structure obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR were used to calculate the visible area (viewshed around each site and, along with wind and moonlight data, used to compare kill sites between lion sexes, prey species and prey sexes. Viewshed area was the most important predictor of kill sites (sites in dense vegetation were twice as likely to be kill sites compared to open areas, followed by wind speed and, less so, moonlight. Kill sites for different prey species varied with vegetation structure, and male prey were killed when wind speeds were higher compared to female prey of the same species. Our results demonstrate that vegetation structure is an important component of predator-prey interactions, with varying effects across ecosystems. Such differences require consideration in terms of the ecological roles performed by predators, and in predator and prey conservation.

  15. Effects of Vegetation Structure on the Location of Lion Kill Sites in African Thicket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew B; Tambling, Craig J; Kerley, Graham I H; Asner, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Predator-prey relationships are integral to ecosystem stability and functioning. These relationships are, however, difficult to maintain in protected areas where large predators are increasingly being reintroduced and confined. Where predators make kills has a profound influence on their role in ecosystems, but the relative importance of environmental variables in determining kill sites, and how these might vary across ecosystems is poorly known. We investigated kill sites for lions in South Africa's thicket biome, testing the importance of vegetation structure for kill site locations compared to other environmental variables. Kill sites were located over four years using GPS telemetry and compared to non-kill sites that had been occupied by lions, as well as to random sites within lion ranges. Measurements of 3D vegetation structure obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) were used to calculate the visible area (viewshed) around each site and, along with wind and moonlight data, used to compare kill sites between lion sexes, prey species and prey sexes. Viewshed area was the most important predictor of kill sites (sites in dense vegetation were twice as likely to be kill sites compared to open areas), followed by wind speed and, less so, moonlight. Kill sites for different prey species varied with vegetation structure, and male prey were killed when wind speeds were higher compared to female prey of the same species. Our results demonstrate that vegetation structure is an important component of predator-prey interactions, with varying effects across ecosystems. Such differences require consideration in terms of the ecological roles performed by predators, and in predator and prey conservation.

  16. Development of an automated sequential injection on-line solvent extraction-back extraction procedure as demonstrated for the determination of cadmium with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    An automated sequential injection (SI) on-line solvent extraction-back extraction separation/preconcentration procedure is described. Demonstrated for the assay of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), the analyte is initially complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithioc......An automated sequential injection (SI) on-line solvent extraction-back extraction separation/preconcentration procedure is described. Demonstrated for the assay of cadmium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), the analyte is initially complexed with ammonium....../preconcentration process of the ensuing sample. An enrichment factor of 21.4, a detection limit of 2.7 ng/l, along with a sampling frequency of 13s/h were obtained at a sample flow rate of 6.0mlmin/sup -1/. The precision (R.S.D.) at the 0.4 mug/l level was 1.8% as compared to 3.2% when quantifying the organic extractant...

  17. Killing fields; The epidemiological evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Simon

    1990-02-01

    The threat posed by low frequency fields emerged initially because a researcher, looking for environmental factors in childhood leukaemia, observed a link between low voltage, high current power lines and disease occurrence. Cellular evidence now supports the findings but epidemiology still leads the argument. (43 references). (author).

  18. TU-FG-209-05: Demonstration of the Line Focus Principle Using the Generalized Measured-Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) Metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M; Shankar, A; Lau, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Demonstrate and quantify the augmented resolution due to focalspot size decrease in images acquired on the anode side of the field, for both small and medium (0.3 and 0.6mm) focal-spot sizes using the experimental task-based GM-ROD metric. Theoretical calculations have shown that a medium focal-spot can achieve the resolution of a small focal-spot if acquired with a tilted anode, effectively providing a higher-output small focal-spot. Methods: The MAF-CMOS (micro-angiographic fluoroscopic complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor) detector (75µm pixel pitch) imaged two copper wire segments of different diameter and a pipeline stent at the central axis and on the anode side of the beam, achieved by tilting the x-ray C-arm (Toshiba Infinix) to 6° and realigning the detector with the perpendicular ray to correct for x-ray obliquity. The relative gain in resolution was determined using the GM-ROD metric, which compares images on the basis of the Fourier transform of the image and the measured NNPS. To emphasize the geometric unsharpness, images were acquired at a magnification of two. Results: Images acquired on the anode side were compared to those acquired on the central axis with the same target-area focal-spot to consider the effect of an angled tube, and for all three objects the advantage of the smaller effective focal-spot was clear, showing a maximum improvement of 36% in GM-ROD. The images obtained with the small focal-spot at the central axis were compared to those of the medium focal-spot at the anode side and, for all objects, the relative performance was comparable. Conclusion: For three objects, the GM-ROD demonstrated the advantage of the anode side focal-spot. The comparable performance of the medium focal-spot on the anode side will allow for a high-output small focal-spot; a necessity in endovascular image-guided interventions. Partial support from an NIH grant R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  19. TU-FG-209-05: Demonstration of the Line Focus Principle Using the Generalized Measured-Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) Metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, M; Shankar, A; Lau, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Demonstrate and quantify the augmented resolution due to focalspot size decrease in images acquired on the anode side of the field, for both small and medium (0.3 and 0.6mm) focal-spot sizes using the experimental task-based GM-ROD metric. Theoretical calculations have shown that a medium focal-spot can achieve the resolution of a small focal-spot if acquired with a tilted anode, effectively providing a higher-output small focal-spot. Methods: The MAF-CMOS (micro-angiographic fluoroscopic complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor) detector (75µm pixel pitch) imaged two copper wire segments of different diameter and a pipeline stent at the central axis and on the anode side of the beam, achieved by tilting the x-ray C-arm (Toshiba Infinix) to 6° and realigning the detector with the perpendicular ray to correct for x-ray obliquity. The relative gain in resolution was determined using the GM-ROD metric, which compares images on the basis of the Fourier transform of the image and the measured NNPS. To emphasize the geometric unsharpness, images were acquired at a magnification of two. Results: Images acquired on the anode side were compared to those acquired on the central axis with the same target-area focal-spot to consider the effect of an angled tube, and for all three objects the advantage of the smaller effective focal-spot was clear, showing a maximum improvement of 36% in GM-ROD. The images obtained with the small focal-spot at the central axis were compared to those of the medium focal-spot at the anode side and, for all objects, the relative performance was comparable. Conclusion: For three objects, the GM-ROD demonstrated the advantage of the anode side focal-spot. The comparable performance of the medium focal-spot on the anode side will allow for a high-output small focal-spot; a necessity in endovascular image-guided interventions. Partial support from an NIH grant R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  20. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins kill bacteria by inducing oxidative, thiol, and metal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Raj Kashyap

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (PGRPs are a family of evolutionary conserved bactericidal innate immunity proteins, but the mechanism through which they kill bacteria is unclear. We previously proposed that PGRPs are bactericidal due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, a mechanism of killing that was also postulated, and later refuted, for several bactericidal antibiotics. Here, using whole genome expression arrays, qRT-PCR, and biochemical tests we show that in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis PGRPs induce a transcriptomic signature characteristic of oxidative stress, as well as correlated biochemical changes. However, induction of ROS was required, but not sufficient for PGRP killing. PGRPs also induced depletion of intracellular thiols and increased cytosolic concentrations of zinc and copper, as evidenced by transcriptome changes and supported by direct measurements. Depletion of thiols and elevated concentrations of metals were also required, but by themselves not sufficient, for bacterial killing. Chemical treatment studies demonstrated that efficient bacterial killing can be recapitulated only by the simultaneous addition of agents leading to production of ROS, depletion of thiols, and elevation of intracellular metal concentrations. These results identify a novel mechanism of bacterial killing by innate immunity proteins, which depends on synergistic effect of oxidative, thiol, and metal stress and differs from bacterial killing by antibiotics. These results offer potential targets for developing new antibacterial agents that would kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  1. Honor Killing: Where Pride Defeats Reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Tandon, Abhishek; Krishan, Kewal

    2016-12-01

    Honor killings are graceless and ferocious murders by chauvinists with an antediluvian mind. These are categorized separately because these killings are committed for the prime reason of satisfying the ego of the people whom the victim trusts and always looks up to for support and protection. It is for this sole reason that honor killings demand strict and stern punishment, not only for the person who committed the murder but also for any person who contributed or was party to the act. A positive change can occur with stricter legislation and changes in the ethos of the society we live in today.

  2. Some basic properties of Killing spinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacyan, S.; Plebanski, J.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of Killing spinor is analyzed in a general way by using the spinorial formalism. It is shown, among other things, that higher derivatives of Killing spinors can be expressed in terms of lower order derivatives. Conformal Killing vectors are studied in some detail in the light of spinorial analysis: Classical results are formulated in terms of spinors. A theorem on Lie derivatives of Debever--Penrose vectors is proved, and it is shown that conformal motion in vacuum with zero cosmological constant must be homothetic, unless the conformal tensor vanishes or is of type N. Our results are valid for either real or complex space--time manifolds

  3. Killing effect of carboranyl uridine on boron neutron capture reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, M.; Oda, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the killing effect of carboranyl uridine (CU) on thermal neutron capture reaction in cultured glioma cell line (C6). The tumoricidal effect of CU for boron neutron capture therapy in the cultured cell system is presented. To assess the uptake of CU, the number of germ cells was determined by comparing protein concentrations of C6 cells in vitro with that of intracranially transplanted C6 tumor cells in vivo. To assess tumoricidal effects of CU, human glioma cells (T98G), containing 25 ppm natural boron of CU, were irradiated with various doses of thermal neutrons at a constant fluence rate. The uptake and killing effects of mercaptoboron and boric acid were also investigated as controls. Subcellular boron concentrations confirmed the selective affinity to the nucleic acid synthesis. CU was found to have an affinity to nucleic acid synthesis and to be accumulated into nucleus of tumor cells. The irradiation dose which yielded 37% survival rate in the case of CU and control were 3.78+12E nvt and 5.80+12E nvt, respectively. The killing effect of CU was slightly higher than that of B-SH or BA. The effective way of CU injection should be further studied to obtain the uniform CU uptake in tumor cells. (N.K.)

  4. Homefucking is Killing Prostitution / Taavi Eelmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eelmaa, Taavi, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Mis jääb vaatajale teatrietendusest meelde? Ilmus Kris Moori raamat "Homefucking is Killing Prostitution". Raamat sisaldab tekste ja Erki Lauri fotosid Von Krahli Teatri samanimelisest etendusest, mida kordagi ei mängitud

  5. KILLING, VIEWED FROM A CONFLICT RESOLUTION PERSPECTIVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DODO

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... ... million people were killed as part of the industrial policy of Belgium's ..... the seeds of hate and further conspiracies against others, the entire .... International Commission On Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) 2001.

  6. Cryptococcus neoformans modulates extracellular killing by neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfia eQureshi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently established a key role for host sphingomyelin synthase (SMS in the regulation of the killing activity of neutrophils against Cryptococcus neoformans. In this work, we studied the effect of C. neoformans on the killing activity of neutrophils and whether SMS would still be a player against C. neoformans in immunocompromised mice lacking T and NK cells (Tgε26 mice. To this end, we analyzed whether C. neoformans would have any effect on neutrophil survival and killing in vitro and in vivo. We show that unlike C. albicans, neither the presence nor the capsule size of C. neoformans cells have any effect on neutrophil viability. Interestingly, melanized C. neoformans cells totally abrogated the killing activity of neutrophils. Next, we monitored how exposure of neutrophils to C. neoformans cells would interfere with any further killing activity of the medium and found that pre-incubation with live but not heat-killed fungal cells significantly inhibits further killing activity of the medium. We next studied whether activation of SMS at the site of C. neoformans infection is dependent on T and NK cells. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI tissue imaging in infected lung we found that similarly to previous observations in the isogenic wild type CBA/J mice, SM 16:0 levels are significantly elevated at the site of infection in mice lacking T and NK cells but only at early time points. This study highlights that C. neoformans may negatively regulate the killing activity of neutrophils and that SMS activation in neutrophils appears to be partially independent of T and/or NK cells.

  7. Targeted Killings in Bangladesh: Diversity at Stake

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Jawad

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, Bangladesh has repeatedly been in headline news across the world due to systematic and incessant targeted killings. In the mainstream media, both in South Asia and the West, the focus has been generally on high profile murders of secular and progressive bloggers. This includes the recent worldwide broad coverage on the tragic murder of Xulhaz Mannan, editor of Bangladesh's first LGBT rights magazine. However, not many know that these killings are only one part of the story. Secula...

  8. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent dat...

  9. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker-Bender, Julia

    2012-01-01

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  10. Technical Aspects of Cyber Kill Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Tarun; Mallari, Rao Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends in targeted cyber-attacks has increased the interest of research in the field of cyber security. Such attacks have massive disruptive effects on rganizations, enterprises and governments. Cyber kill chain is a model to describe cyber-attacks so as to develop incident response and analysis capabilities. Cyber kill chain in simple terms is an attack chain, the path that an intruder takes to penetrate information systems over time to execute an attack on the target. This paper broa...

  11. Killing-Yano tensors, rank-2 Killing tensors, and conserved quantities in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krtous, Pavel [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Kubiznak, David [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Page, Don N. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2G7, Alberta (Canada); Frolov, Valeri P. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton T6G 2G7, Alberta (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    From the metric and one Killing-Yano tensor of rank D-2 in any D-dimensional spacetime with such a principal Killing-Yano tensor, we show how to generate k = [(D+1)/2] Killing-Yano tensors, of rank D-2j for all 0 {<=} j {<=} k-1, and k rank-2 Killing tensors, giving k constants of geodesic motion that are in involution. For the example of the Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetime (hep-th/0604125) with its principal Killing-Yano tensor (gr-qc/0610144), these constants and the constants from the k Killing vectors give D independent constants in involution, making the geodesic motion completely integrable (hep-th/0611083). The constants of motion are also related to the constants recently obtained in the separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations (hep-th/0611245)

  12. Killing-Yano tensors, rank-2 Killing tensors, and conserved quantities in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtous, Pavel; Kubiznak, David; Page, Don N.; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2007-01-01

    From the metric and one Killing-Yano tensor of rank D-2 in any D-dimensional spacetime with such a principal Killing-Yano tensor, we show how to generate k = [(D+1)/2] Killing-Yano tensors, of rank D-2j for all 0 ≤ j ≤ k-1, and k rank-2 Killing tensors, giving k constants of geodesic motion that are in involution. For the example of the Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetime (hep-th/0604125) with its principal Killing-Yano tensor (gr-qc/0610144), these constants and the constants from the k Killing vectors give D independent constants in involution, making the geodesic motion completely integrable (hep-th/0611083). The constants of motion are also related to the constants recently obtained in the separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations (hep-th/0611245)

  13. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 μg/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function

  14. PESAN MORAL DALAM FILM TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD (ANALISIS SEMIOTIKA PADA FILM TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD

    OpenAIRE

    RENYOET, JAQUILINE MELISSA

    2014-01-01

    2014 JAQUILINE MELISSA RENYOET. Pesan Moral Dalam Film To Kill A Mockingbird (Analisis Semiotika Pada Film To Kill A Mockingbird). (Dibimbing oleh Muh. Nadjib dan Alem Febri Sonni). Tujuan Penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi bentuk pesan moral dan memahami makna pesan moral dalam film To Kill A Mockingbird. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama kurang lebih 2 bulan yaitu Maret ??? Mei 2014. Metode yang digunakan untuk penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian kualitatif den...

  15. The relationship between cell killing, chromosome aberrations, spindle defects, and mitotic delay in mouse lymphoma cells of differential sensitivity to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.; Zampetti-Bosseler, F.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of x radiation on an ultrasensitive subline of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. It has been shown that at survival levels above about 20 per cent, chromosome structural aberrations which lead to bridges and fragments at anaphase are about four times more frequent than spindle defects. The results demonstrated the higher frequency of structural aberrations and spindle defects, and the greater mitotic delay in the X-ray-sensitive than in the X-ray-resistant cell line. A model is proposed which causally relates these end-points to cell killing and DNA repair. (author)

  16. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) movements and behavior around a kill site and implications for GPS collar studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars are increasingly used to estimate Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates. In interpreting results from this technology, researchers make various assumptions about wolf behavior around kills, yet no detailed description of this behavior has been published. This article describes the behavior of six wolves in an area of constant daylight during 30 hours, from when the pack killed a Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) calf and yearling on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, to when they abandoned the kill remains. Although this is only a single incident, it demonstrates one possible scenario of pack behavior around a kill. Combined with the literature, this observation supports placing a radio-collar on the breeding male to maximize finding kills via GPS collars and qualifying results depending on whatever other information is available about the collared wolf's pack.

  17. Enhanced oxidative killing of azole-resistant Candida glabrata strains with ERG11 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, V L; Geber, A; Bennett, J E

    1996-01-01

    The susceptibility of genetically defined Candida glabrata strains to killing by H2O2 and neutrophils was assessed. Fluconazole-susceptible L5L and L5D strains demonstrated survival rates higher than those of two fluconazole-resistant strains lacking the ERG11 gene coding for 14 alpha-demethylase. Fluconazole resistance can occur by mechanisms which increase fungal susceptibility to oxidative killing by H2O2 and neutrophils. PMID:8807069

  18. Chemically enhanced sunlight for killing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, S.S.; Goswami, D.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) photocatalyzed oxidation of chemicals with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has received considerable attention. Much less recognized, however, is the ability of the same system to destroy bacteria. This study examined this phenomenon and the conditions that affect it. Bacteria in aqueous solution were given solar exposure with titanium dioxide and their survival with time was determined. Lamps with a predominantly solar ultraviolet spectrum were also used in the experiments. Without exposure to UV light, TiO 2 had no deleterious effect on the bacteria. However, several common bacteria on solar exposure in the presence of TiO 2 were killed in just a few minutes, whereas without TiO 2 it took over an hour to destroy them. A concentration of 0.01% TiO 2 was most effective in killing bacteria and 10-fold concentrations lower or higher were successively less effective. Inorganic and organic compounds in solution, even in small amounts, interfered with the efficiency of killing. Alkaline solution also reduced the bactericidal activity. Circulation and agitation provided by stirring to keep the TiO 2 particles suspended reduced the time necessary to kill the bacteria. Time-intensity curves for killing bacteria were the same general shape with or without TiO 2 , indicating that TiO 2 served merely as a catalyst to increase the rate of the reaction but that the mechanism of action was not changed. The shape of the curves show that the organisms are sensitized with a minimum intensity of radiation and that an increase doesn't greatly increase the rate of kill. Below this critical intensity, however, the time required for killing markedly increases as the intensity is decreased

  19. Oral Administration of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 Reduces Cedar Pollen Antigen-Induced Peritoneal Eosinophilia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Sashihara

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppresses eosinophilia via the modulation of Th1/Th2 balance. These observations suggested that heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 might potentially ameliorate the increased number of eosinophils in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  20. Commuting symmetry operators of the Dirac equation, Killing-Yano and Schouten-Nijenhuis brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariglia, Marco; Krtous, Pavel; Kubiznak, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we derive the most general first-order symmetry operator commuting with the Dirac operator in all dimensions and signatures. Such an operator splits into Clifford even and Clifford odd parts which are given in terms of odd Killing-Yano and even closed conformal Killing-Yano inhomogeneous forms, respectively. We study commutators of these symmetry operators and give necessary and sufficient conditions under which they remain of the first-order. In this specific setting we can introduce a Killing-Yano bracket, a bilinear operation acting on odd Killing-Yano and even closed conformal Killing-Yano forms, and demonstrate that it is closely related to the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket. An important nontrivial example of vanishing Killing-Yano brackets is given by Dirac symmetry operators generated from the principal conformal Killing-Yano tensor [hep-th/0612029]. We show that among these operators one can find a complete subset of mutually commuting operators. These operators underlie separability of the Dirac equation in Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes in all dimensions [arXiv:0711.0078].

  1. Killing superalgebras for Lorentzian four-manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Paul de; Figueroa-O’Farrill, José; Santi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We determine the Killing superalgebras underpinning field theories with rigid unextended supersymmetry on Lorentzian four-manifolds by re-interpreting them as filtered deformations of ℤ-graded subalgebras with maximum odd dimension of the N=1 Poincaré superalgebra in four dimensions. Part of this calculation involves computing a Spencer cohomology group which, by analogy with a similar result in eleven dimensions, prescribes a notion of Killing spinor, which we identify with the defining condition for bosonic supersymmetric backgrounds of minimal off-shell supergravity in four dimensions. We prove that such Killing spinors always generate a Lie superalgebra, and that this Lie superalgebra is a filtered deformation of a subalgebra of the N=1 Poincaré superalgebra in four dimensions. Demanding the flatness of the connection defining the Killing spinors, we obtain equations satisfied by the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We solve these equations, arriving at the classification of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds whose associated Killing superalgebras are precisely the filtered deformations we classify in this paper.

  2. Killing superalgebras for Lorentzian four-manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Paul de [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger,4036 Stavanger (Norway); Figueroa-O’Farrill, José; Santi, Andrea [Maxwell Institute and School of Mathematics, The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-20

    We determine the Killing superalgebras underpinning field theories with rigid unextended supersymmetry on Lorentzian four-manifolds by re-interpreting them as filtered deformations of ℤ-graded subalgebras with maximum odd dimension of the N=1 Poincaré superalgebra in four dimensions. Part of this calculation involves computing a Spencer cohomology group which, by analogy with a similar result in eleven dimensions, prescribes a notion of Killing spinor, which we identify with the defining condition for bosonic supersymmetric backgrounds of minimal off-shell supergravity in four dimensions. We prove that such Killing spinors always generate a Lie superalgebra, and that this Lie superalgebra is a filtered deformation of a subalgebra of the N=1 Poincaré superalgebra in four dimensions. Demanding the flatness of the connection defining the Killing spinors, we obtain equations satisfied by the maximally supersymmetric backgrounds. We solve these equations, arriving at the classification of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds whose associated Killing superalgebras are precisely the filtered deformations we classify in this paper.

  3. Female serial killing: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Andreas; Völlm, Birgit; Graf, Marc; Dittmann, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Single homicide committed by women is rare. Serial killing is very infrequent, and the perpetrators are usually white, intelligent males with sadistic tendencies. Serial killing by women has, however, also been described. To conduct a review of published literature on female serial killers and consider its usefulness in assessing a presenting case. A literature review was conducted, after searching EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. The presenting clinical case is described in detail in the context of the literature findings. Results The literature search revealed few relevant publications. Attempts to categorize the phenomenon of female serial killing according to patterns of and motives for the homicides have been made by some authors. The most common motive identified was material gain or similar extrinsic gratification while the 'hedonistic' sadistic or sexual serial killer seems to be extremely rare in women. There is no consistent theory of serial killing by women, but psychopathic personality traits and abusive childhood experiences have consistently been observed. The authors' case did not fit the description of a 'typical' female serial killer. In such unusual circumstances as serial killing by a woman, detailed individual case formulation is required to make sense of the psychopathology in each case. Publication of cases in scientific journals should be encouraged to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Binnebose

    Full Text Available Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment.

  5. 75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0907] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander...

  6. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0355] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander...

  7. 9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared...

  8. 9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213 Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed...

  9. 9 CFR 113.209 - Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.209... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.209 Rabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. Rabies Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell cultures or nerve tissues obtained from animals that have developed rabies...

  10. Conformal Killing horizons and their thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alex B.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2018-05-01

    Certain dynamical black hole solutions can be mapped to static spacetimes by conformal metric transformations. This mapping provides a physical link between the conformal Killing horizon of the dynamical black hole and the Killing horizon of the static spacetime. Using the Vaidya spacetime as an example, we show how this conformal relation can be used to derive thermodynamic properties of such dynamical black holes. Although these horizons are defined quasi-locally and can be located by local experiments, they are distinct from other popular notions of quasi-local horizons such as apparent horizons. Thus in the dynamical Vaidya spacetime describing constant accretion of null dust, the conformal Killing horizon, which is null by construction, is the natural horizon to describe the black hole.

  11. "Drone Killings in Principle and in Practice"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten

    2017-01-01

    to argue that what we see in the real world cases of drone killings is not merely an accidental or contingent use of drone technology. The real life use reflects to a large extent features that are inherent of the dominant drone systems that has been developed to date. What is being imagined "in principle......" is thus to a large extent drone killings in dreamland. I use an historic example as a point of reference and departure: the debate over the lawfulness of nuclear weapons....

  12. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  13. Cancer log-kill revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Larry

    2014-01-01

    At the root of science lie basic rules, if we can discover or deduce them. This is not an abstract project but practical; if we can understand the why then perhaps we can rationally intervene. One of the unifying unsolved problems in physics is the hypothetical "Theory of Everything." In a similar vein, we can ask whether our own field contains such hidden fundamental truths and, if so, how we can use them to develop better therapies and outcomes for our patients. Modern oncology has developed as drugs and translational science have matured over the 50 years since ASCO's founding, but almost from that beginning tumor modeling has been a key tool. Through this general approach Norton and Simon changed our understanding of cancer biology and response to therapy when they described the fit of Gompertzian curves to both clinical and animal observations of tumor growth. The practical relevance of these insights has only grown with the development of DNA sequencing promising a raft of new targets (and drugs). In that regard, Larry Norton's contribution to this year's Educational Book reminds us to always think creatively about the fundamental problems of tumor growth and metastases as well as therapeutic response. Demonstrating the creativity and thoughtfulness that have marked his remarkable career, he now incorporates a newer concept of self-seeding to further explain why Gompertzian growth occurs and, in the process, provides a novel potential therapeutic target. As you read his elegantly presented discussion, consider how this understanding, wisely applied to the modern era of targeted therapies, might speed the availability of better treatments. But even more instructive is his personal model-not only the Norton-Simon Hypothesis-of how to live and approach science, biology, patients and their families, as well as the broader community. He shows that with energy, enthusiasm, optimism, intellect, and hard work we can make the world better. Clifford A. Hudis, MD, FACP

  14. Killing Hitler: A Writer's Journey and Angst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)

  15. Integrating Poetry and "To Kill a Mockingbird."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Susan Arpajian

    2002-01-01

    Outlines a method of teaching "To Kill a Mockingbird" along with the study of poetry. Notes that this method allows students to consider the themes of courage and developing compassion. Concludes that teaching such a multigenre unit allows students to look for connections among fact and fiction, the past and present, their own lives and…

  16. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  17. Mass killings and detection of impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Digby J.

    Highly energetic bolide impacts occur and their flux is known. For larger bodies the energy release is greater than for any other short-term global phenomenon. Such impacts produce or release a large variety of shock induced changes including major atmospheric, sedimentologic, seismic and volcanic events. These events must necessarily leave a variety of records in the stratigraphic column, including mass killings resulting in major changes in population density and reduction or extinction of many taxonomic groups, followed by characteristic patterns of faunal and flora replacement. Of these effects, mass killings, marked by large-scale loss of biomass, are the most easily detected evidence in the field but must be manifest on a near-global scale. Such mass killings that appear to be approximately synchronous and involve disappearance of biomass at a bedding plane in many sedimentologically independent sections globally suggest a common cause and probable synchroneity. Mass killings identify an horizon which may be examined for evidence of cause. Geochemical markers may be ephemeral and absence may not be significant. There appears to be no reason why ongoing phenomena such as climate and sea-level changes are primary causes of anomolous episodic events.

  18. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Towers

    Full Text Available Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts.Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed. We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event.We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015. We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001. All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  19. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  2. Coupling on-line preconcentration by ion-exchange with ETAAS. A novel flow injection approach based on the use of a renewable microcolumn as demonstrated for the determination of nickel in environmental and biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2000-01-01

    microcolumn incorporated within an integrated micro FI-system, the column is loaded with a defined volume of small beads of an SP Sephadex C-25 cation-exchange resin and subsequently exposed to a metered amount of sample solution. However, instead of eluting the retained analyte from the organic ion-exchange......A novel way of exploiting flow injection/sequential injection (FIA/SIA) on-line ion-exchange preconcentration with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described and demonstrated for the determination of trace-levels of nickel. Based on the use of a renewable...... resin, the beads are along with 30 mul of carrier (buffer) solution transported via air segmentation directly into the graphite tube, where they are ashed during the pyrolysis and atomization process. The ETAAS determination is performed in parallel with the preconcentration process of the ensuing...

  3. Repair capability and the cellular age response for killing and mutation induction after UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.D.; Burki, H.J.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1982-01-01

    The cell-cycle response for killing and mutation induction by ultraviolet irradiation was measured in synchronous Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO wild-type) and in a UV-hypersensitive mutant (43-3B) derived from this line. The CHO 43-3B line shows a greatly enhanced sensitivity to killing (D 0 of 0.3 as compared to 3.2 J/m 2 for the wild-type), is hypermutable, and deficient in DNA repair. For the wild-type, a characteristic age response is seen for killing by UV, with maximum sensitivity in early-S and resistance increasing through the S-phase. There is also a life-cycle specificity for induction of diphtheria-toxin resistance in late-G 1 and early-S. Relatively little variation is seen through the cell cycle for induced 6-thioguanine and ouabain resistance. In contrast, the 43-3B cell line shows a relatively 'flat' response to UV throughout the cell cycle, for both killing and mutation induction. Therefore it appears that the characteristic age responses seen in the wild-type CHO are associated with the function of an essentially error-free repair process. (orig./AJ)

  4. An evolved ribosome-inactivating protein targets and kills human melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green David E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few treatment options exist for patients with metastatic melanoma, resulting in poor prognosis. One standard treatment, dacarbazine (DTIC, shows low response rates ranging from 15 to 25 percent with an 8-month median survival time. The development of targeted therapeutics with novel mechanisms of action may improve patient outcome. Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs such as Shiga-like Toxin 1 (SLT-1 represent powerful scaffolds for developing selective anticancer agents. Here we report the discovery and properties of a single chain ribosome-inactivating protein (scRIP derived from the cytotoxic A subunit of SLT-1 (SLT-1A, harboring the 7-amino acid peptide insertion IYSNKLM (termed SLT-1AIYSNKLM allowing the toxin variant to selectively target and kill human melanoma cells. Results SLT-1AIYSNKLM was able to kill 7 of 8 human melanoma cell lines. This scRIP binds to 518-A2 human melanoma cells with a dissociation constant of 18 nM, resulting in the blockage of protein synthesis and apoptosis in such cells. Biodistribution and imaging studies of radiolabeled SLT-1AIYSNKLM administered intravenously into SCID mice bearing a human melanoma xenograft indicate that SLT-1AIYSNKLM readily accumulates at the tumor site as opposed to non-target tissues. Furthermore, the co-administration of SLT-1AIYSNKLM with DTIC resulted in tumor regression and greatly increased survival in this mouse xenograft model in comparison to DTIC or SLT-1AIYSNKLM treatment alone (115 day median survival versus 46 and 47 days respectively; P values IYSNKLM is stable in serum and its intravenous administration resulted in modest immune responses following repeated injections in CD1 mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the evolution of a scRIP template can lead to the discovery of novel cancer cell-targeted compounds and in the case of SLT-1AIYSNKLM can specifically kill human melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Enhanced cell killing and apoptosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells with ultrasound in combination with cetuximab coated albumin microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narihira, Kyoichi; Watanabe, Akiko; Sheng, Hong; Endo, Hitomi; Feril, Loreto B; Irie, Yutaka; Ogawa, Koichi; Moosavi-Nejad, Seyedeh; Kondo, Seiji; Kikuta, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Katsuro

    2018-03-01

    Targeted microbubbles have the potential to be used for ultrasound (US) therapy and diagnosis of various cancers. In the present study, US was irradiated to oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (HSC-2) in the presence of cetuximab-coated albumin microbubbles (CCAM). Cell killing rate with US treatment at 0.9 W/cm 2 and 1.0 W/cm 2 in the presence of CCAM was greater compared to non-targeted albumin microbubbles (p < .05). On the other hand, selective cell killing was not observed in human myelomonocytic lymphoma cell line (U937) that had no affinity to cetuximab. Furthermore, US irradiation in the presence of CCAM showed a fivefold increase of cell apoptotic rate for HSC-2 cells (21.0 ± 3.8%) as compared to U937 cells (4.0 ± 0.8%). Time-signal intensity curve in a tissue phantom demonstrated clear visualisation of CCAM with conventional US imaging device. Our experiment verifies the hypothesis that CCAM was selective to HSC-2 cells and may be applied as a novel therapeutic/diagnostic microbubble for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. First evidence for slave rebellion: enslaved ant workers systematically kill the brood of their social parasite protomognathus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Alexandra; Foitzik, Susanne

    2009-04-01

    During the process of coevolution, social parasites have evolved sophisticated strategies to exploit the brood care behavior of their social hosts. Slave-making ant queens invade host colonies and kill or eject all adult host ants. Host workers, which eclose from the remaining brood, are tricked into caring for the parasite brood. Due to their high prevalence and frequent raids, following which stolen host broods are similarly enslaved, slave-making ants exert substantial selection upon their hosts, leading to the evolution of antiparasite adaptations. However, all host defenses shown to date are active before host workers are parasitized, whereas selection was thought to be unable to act on traits of already enslaved hosts. Yet, here we demonstrate the rebellion of enslaved Temnothorax workers, which kill two-thirds of the female pupae of the slave-making ant Protomognathus americanus. Thereby, slaves decrease the long-term parasite impact on surrounding related host colonies. This novel antiparasite strategy of enslaved workers constitutes a new level in the coevolutionary battle after host colony defense has failed. Our discovery is analogous to recent findings in hosts of avian brood parasites where perfect mimicry of parasite eggs leads to the evolution of chick recognition as a second line of defense.

  7. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lunxu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed with the KDR promoter and CDglyTK genes. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid AdKDR-CDglyTK was then constructed and transfected into 293 packaging cells to grow and harvest adenoviruses. KDR-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV304 and KDR-negative liver cancer cell line (HepG2 were infected with the recombinant adenoviruses at different multiplicity of infection (MOI. The infection rate was measured by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression. The infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of prodrugs ganciclovir (GCV and/or 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC. The killing effects were measured using two different methods, i.e. annexin V-FITC staining and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Recombinant adenoviruses AdKDR-CDglyTK were successfully constructed and they infected ECV304 and HepG2 cells efficiently. The infection rate was dependent on MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. ECV304 cells infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to GCV and 5-FC. The cell survival rate was dependent on both the concentration of the prodrugs and the MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, there were no killing effects in the HepG2 cells. The combination of two prodrugs was much more effective in killing ECV304 cells than GCV or 5-FC alone. The growth of transgenic ECV304 cells was suppressed in the presence of prodrugs. Conclusion AdKDR-CDglyTK/double prodrog system may be a useful

  8. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion; Dirac-Operatoren und Killing-Spinoren mit Torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Bender, Julia

    2012-12-17

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  9. Killing people: what Kant could have said about suicide and euthanasia but did not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, I

    2006-01-01

    An agent who takes his own life acts in violation of the moral law, according to Kant; suicide, and, by extension, assisted suicide are therefore wrong. By a similar argument, and with a few important exceptions, killing is wrong; implicitly, then, voluntary euthanasia is also wrong. Kant's conclusions are uncompelling and his argument in these matters is undermined on considering other areas of his thought. Kant, in forbidding suicide and euthanasia, is conflating respect for persons and respect for people, and assuming that, in killing a person (either oneself or another), we are thereby undermining personhood. But an argument along these lines is faulty according to Kant's own standards. There is no reason why Kantians have to accept that self‐killing and euthanasia are contrary to the moral law. Even if some Kantians adhere to this doctrine, others can reject it. PMID:17012496

  10. Killing people: what Kant could have said about suicide and euthanasia but did not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, I

    2006-10-01

    An agent who takes his own life acts in violation of the moral law, according to Kant; suicide, and, by extension, assisted suicide are therefore wrong. By a similar argument, and with a few important exceptions, killing is wrong; implicitly, then, voluntary euthanasia is also wrong. Kant's conclusions are uncompelling and his argument in these matters is undermined on considering other areas of his thought. Kant, in forbidding suicide and euthanasia, is conflating respect for persons and respect for people, and assuming that, in killing a person (either oneself or another), we are thereby undermining personhood. But an argument along these lines is faulty according to Kant's own standards. There is no reason why Kantians have to accept that self-killing and euthanasia are contrary to the moral law. Even if some Kantians adhere to this doctrine, others can reject it.

  11. Photoacoustically-guided photothermal killing of mosquitoes targeted by nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen R; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Totten, Daniel C; Beneš, Helen; Shmookler Reis, Robert J; Zharov, Vladimir P

    2014-07-01

    In biomedical applications, nanoparticles have demonstrated the potential to eradicate abnormal cells in small localized pathological zones associated with cancer or infections. Here, we introduce a method for nanotechnology-based photothermal (PT) killing of whole organisms considered harmful to humans or the environment. We demonstrate that laser-induced thermal, and accompanying nano- and microbubble phenomena, can injure or kill C. elegans and mosquitoes fed carbon nanotubes, gold nanospheres, gold nanoshells, or magnetic nanoparticles at laser energies that are safe for humans. In addition, a photoacoustic (PA) effect was used to control nanoparticle delivery. Through the integration of this technique with molecular targeting, nanoparticle clustering, magnetic capturing and spectral sharpening of PA and PT plasmonic resonances, our laser-based PA-PT nano-theranostic platform can be applied to detection and the physical destruction of small organisms and carriers of pathogens, such as malaria vectors, spiders, bed bugs, fleas, ants, locusts, grasshoppers, phytophagous mites, or other arthropod pests, irrespective of their resistance to conventional treatments. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazines that kill Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezairliyan, Brent; Vinayavekhin, Nawaporn; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Yuen, Grace J; Saghatelian, Alan; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes employ a variety of methods to overcome host defenses, including the production and dispersal of molecules that are toxic to their hosts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a pathogen of a diverse variety of hosts including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we identify three small molecules in the phenazine class that are produced by P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that are toxic to C. elegans. We demonstrate that 1-hydroxyphenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and pyocyanin are capable of killing nematodes in a matter of hours. 1-hydroxyphenazine is toxic over a wide pH range, whereas the toxicities of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin are pH-dependent at non-overlapping pH ranges. We found that acidification of the growth medium by PA14 activates the toxicity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is the primary toxic agent towards C. elegans in our assay. Pyocyanin is not toxic under acidic conditions and 1-hydroxyphenazine is produced at concentrations too low to kill C. elegans. These results suggest a role for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in mammalian pathogenesis because PA14 mutants deficient in phenazine production have been shown to be defective in pathogenesis in mice. More generally, these data demonstrate how diversity within a class of metabolites could affect bacterial toxicity in different environmental niches.

  13. Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazines that kill Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Cezairliyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic microbes employ a variety of methods to overcome host defenses, including the production and dispersal of molecules that are toxic to their hosts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium, is a pathogen of a diverse variety of hosts including mammals and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we identify three small molecules in the phenazine class that are produced by P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that are toxic to C. elegans. We demonstrate that 1-hydroxyphenazine, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and pyocyanin are capable of killing nematodes in a matter of hours. 1-hydroxyphenazine is toxic over a wide pH range, whereas the toxicities of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyocyanin are pH-dependent at non-overlapping pH ranges. We found that acidification of the growth medium by PA14 activates the toxicity of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, which is the primary toxic agent towards C. elegans in our assay. Pyocyanin is not toxic under acidic conditions and 1-hydroxyphenazine is produced at concentrations too low to kill C. elegans. These results suggest a role for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in mammalian pathogenesis because PA14 mutants deficient in phenazine production have been shown to be defective in pathogenesis in mice. More generally, these data demonstrate how diversity within a class of metabolites could affect bacterial toxicity in different environmental niches.

  14. In vitro cytotoxicity of alpha conjugates for human pancreatic cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, C.; Li, Y.; Rizvi, M.A.; Allen, B.; Samra, J.; Smith, R.

    2003-01-01

    Targeted Alpha therapy (TAT) can inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the cytotoxicity of different alpha conjugates in vitro to human metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines (CAPAN-1, CFPAN-1 and PANC-1). We are labeling the C595 and J591 (non-specific controls) monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) with 213 Bi were performed according to the standard methods in our laboratory. 213 Bi-C595 is specifically cytotoxic to CAPAN-1, CFPAN-1 and PANC-1cell lines in a concentration-dependent fashion. While non-specific alpha conjugates only killed very small fractions of pancreatic cancer cells. These alpha conjugates might be useful agents for the treatment of micro-metastases in pancreatic cancer patients with over-expression of the targeted receptors

  15. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    OpenAIRE

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important fir...

  16. Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Gonzales, Maria Liza Antoinette; Aldaba, Josephine G; Nair, G Balakrish

    2014-09-01

    Cholera is still a major global health problem, affecting mainly people living in unsanitary conditions and who are at risk for outbreaks of cholera. During the past decade, outbreaks are increasingly reported from more countries. From the early killed oral cholera vaccine, rapid improvements in vaccine development occurred as a result of a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, pathogenesis of cholera infection and immunity. The newer-generation oral killed cholera vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in field trials conducted in cholera endemic areas. Likewise, they have been shown to be protective when used during outbreak settings. Aside from providing direct protection to vaccinated individuals, recent studies have demonstrated that these killed oral vaccines also confer indirect protection through herd immunity. Although new-generation oral cholera vaccines should not be considered in isolation from other preventive approaches in countries where they are most needed, especially improved water quality and sanitation, these vaccines serve as immediately available public health tools for preventing further morbidity and mortality from cholera. However, despite its availability for more than two decades, use of these vaccines has not been optimized. Although there are limitations of the currently available oral cholera vaccines, recent data show that the vaccines are safe, feasible to use even in difficult circumstances and able to provide protection in various settings. Clear identification of the areas and target population groups who will benefit from the use of the cholera vaccines will be required and strategies to facilitate accessibility and usage of these vaccines in these areas and population groups will need to be developed.

  17. It's not just conflict that motivates killing of orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline T Davis

    Full Text Available We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI. These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.

  18. It's not just conflict that motivates killing of orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline T; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.

  19. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... canine distemper susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals. Blood...

  20. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Killed Virus. 113.208 Section 113.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian...

  1. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  2. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine...

  3. Killing vectors in empty space algebraically special metrics. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, A.

    1976-01-01

    Empty space algebraically special metrics possessing an expanding degenerate principal null vector and Killing vectors are investigated. Attention is centered on that class of Killing vector (called nonpreferred) which is necessarily spacelike in the asymptotic region. A detailed analysis of the relationship between the Petrov--Penrose classification and these Killing vectors is carried out

  4. Sabretoothed carnivores and the killing of large prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Andersson

    Full Text Available Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ∼10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than "megaherbivores" as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of

  5. Cars kill chimpanzees: case report of a wild chimpanzee killed on a road at Bulindi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R; Asiimwe, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    Roads have broadly adverse impacts on wildlife, including nonhuman primates. One direct effect is mortality from collisions with vehicles. While highly undesirable, roadkills provide valuable information on the health and condition of endangered species. We present a case report of a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) killed crossing a road in Bulindi, Uganda, where chimpanzees inhabit forest fragments amid farmland. Details of the collision are constructed from eyewitness accounts of pedestrians. Physical examination of the cadaver indicated good overall body condition; at 40 kg, the deceased female was heavier than usual for an adult female East African chimpanzee. No external wounds or fractures were noted. Coprological assessment demonstrated infection by several gastrointestinal parasites commonly reported in living wild chimpanzees. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic enteritis and biliary hyperplasia potentially caused by parasite infection. However, eosinophilia was not widely spread into the submucosa, while egg/cyst counts suggested low-intensity parasite infections compared to healthy female chimpanzees of similar age in nearby Budongo Forest. No behavioral indicators of ill health were noted in the deceased female in the month prior to the accident. We conclude that cause of death was acute, i.e., shock from the collision, and was probably unrelated to parasite infection or any other underlying health condition. Notably, this female had asymmetrical polythelia, and, while nursing at the time of her death, had one functioning mammary gland only. In Uganda, where primates often inhabit human-dominated landscapes, human population growth and economic development has given rise to increasing motor traffic, while road development is enabling motorists to travel at greater speeds. Thus, the danger of roads to apes and other wildlife is rising, necessitating urgent strategies to reduce risks. Installation of simple speed-bumps-common on Ugandan

  6. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterial entomopathogen producing insecticidal toxins, some of which are expressed in insect-resistant transgenic crops. Surprisingly, the killing mechanism of B. thuringiensis remains controversial. In particular, the importance of the septicemia induced by the host midgut microbiota is still debated as a result of the lack of experimental evidence obtained without drastic manipulation of the midgut and its content. Here this key issue is addressed by RNAi-mediated silencing of an immune gene in a lepidopteran host Spodoptera littoralis, leaving the midgut microbiota unaltered. The resulting cellular immunosuppression was characterized by a reduced nodulation response, which was associated with a significant enhancement of host larvae mortality triggered by B. thuringiensis and a Cry toxin. This was determined by an uncontrolled proliferation of midgut bacteria, after entering the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. Consequently, the hemolymphatic microbiota dramatically changed upon treatment with Cry1Ca toxin, showing a remarkable predominance of Serratia and Clostridium species, which switched from asymptomatic gut symbionts to hemocoelic pathogens. These experimental results demonstrate the important contribution of host enteric flora in B. thuringiensis-killing activity and provide a sound foundation for developing new insect control strategies aimed at enhancing the impact of biocontrol agents by reducing the immunocompetence of the host. PMID:27506800

  7. Rate-limiting events in hyperthermic cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, J.; Marceau, N.

    1978-01-01

    The inactivation rate of HeLa cells for temperatures ranging from 41 to 55 0 C and treatment durations varying from 2 to 300 min was analyzed in thermodynamic terms by considering the dependence of cell free energy (ΔG + ) on temperature. Within this temperature range the loss of proliferative capacity exhibits a complex temperature dependence which is characterized by entropy and enthalpy values that gradually decrease as temperature increases. This complex process of heat-induced cell killing was postulated to be the result of a series of reactions, each of them being alternatively rate limiting within a certain temperature range. From this kinetic scheme a mathematical model was derived and, in the case of HeLa cells, the use of a least-squares search parameter procedure (as applied to the derived survival regression function) demonstrated that three such sequential reactions were sufficient to explain all experimental data points obtained within the 41 to 55 0 C range. The proposed model was also shown to be adequate for explaining survival data of HeLa cells exposed to nanosecond heat pulses of infrared laser energy. Considerations of thermodynamic properties of known biochemical reactions suggest plausible rate-limiting events in hyperthermic cell killing

  8. Killing of Brain Tumor Cells by Hypoxia-Responsive Element Mediated Expression of BAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangjun Ruan

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of radioresistant hypoxic cells in human brain tumors limits the overall effectiveness of conventional fractionated radiation therapy. Tumor-specific therapies that target hypoxic cells are clearly needed. We have investigated the expression of suicide genes under hypoxia by a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE, which can be activated through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1. We transfected plasmids containing multiple copies of HIRE into U-87 MG and U-251 MG-NCI human brain tumor cells and tested their ability to induce LacZ gene expression under anoxia. Gene expression under anoxia versus oxia was increased about 12-fold for U-87 MG cells and about fourfold for U-251 MG-NCI cells. At intermediate hypoxic conditions, increased LacZ gene expression in U-87 MG cells was induced by the plasmid that contained three HREs, but not by the plasmid with two HREs. Lastly, when we placed a suicide gene BAX under the control of HREs, cells transfected with the BAX plasmids were preferentially killed through apoptosis under anoxia. Our studies demonstrate that HRE-regulated gene expression is active in brain tumor cells, and that the amount of increased gene expression obtained is dependent on the cell line, the HIRE copy number, and the degree of hypoxia.

  9. Roman Lyariev, How to Skin Your Kill

    OpenAIRE

    Gedeeva, Darina; Ubushieva, Bamba; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Roman explains how to skin a fox. First, one needs to prepare the ground by trampling it. Skinning should be done with a small sharp knife. A freshly killed fox skins easily. Then one needs to treat the skin with an anti-flea spray. At home the skin should be stretched on a triangular wooden panel called in Russian pravilka and left in a dry room for up to five days. People usually go hunting when foxes are on heat and are busy fighting with each other for females. When the wind is strong, fo...

  10. Micro-sociology of mass rampage killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Randall

    2014-01-01

    Spectacular but very rare violent events such as mass killings by habitual non-criminals cannot be explained by factors which are very widespread, such as possession of firearms, being a victim of bullying, an introvert, or a career failure. A stronger clue is clandestine preparation of attack by one or two individuals, against randomly chosen representatives of a hated collective identity. Mass killers develop a deep back-stage, obsessed with planning their attack, overcoming social inferiority and isolation by an emotion of clandestine excitement.

  11. Effects of oxygen and misonidazole on cell transformation and cell killing in C3H 10T1/2 cells by X rays in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsa, J.; Sargent, M.D.; Einspenner, M.; Azzam, E.I.; Raaphorst, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oxygen (air) and misonidazole on the transformation and killing of 10T1/2 cells by X rays were examined. The oxygen effect for the cell transformation end point was very similar to that for cell killing. Misonidazole enhanced both cell killing and cell transformation to a similar extent. The enhancement of both end points by misonidazole occurred only in the absence of oxygen during irradiation and was of lesser magnitude than that observed for oxygen. These results demonstrate that the radiation chemical processes leading to cell killing and cell transformation, respectively, are affected similarly by these two enhancers of radiation action. 22 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  12. Killing spinors for the bosonic string and Kaluza-Klein theory with scalar potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haishan; Lue, H.; Wang, Zhao-Long

    2012-01-01

    The paper consists mainly of two parts. In the first part, we obtain well-defined Killing spinor equations for the low-energy effective action of the bosonic string with the conformal anomaly term. We show that the conformal anomaly term is the only scalar potential that one can add into the action that is consistent with the Killing spinor equations. In the second part, we demonstrate that Kaluza-Klein theory can be gauged so that the Killing spinors are charged under the Kaluza-Klein vector. This gauging process generates a scalar potential with a maximum that gives rise to an AdS spacetime. We also construct solutions of these theories. (orig.)

  13. Designing Antibacterial Peptides with Enhanced Killing Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza H. Waghu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are gaining attention as substitutes for antibiotics in order to combat the risk posed by multi-drug resistant pathogens. Several research groups are engaged in design of potent anti-infective agents using natural AMPs as templates. In this study, a library of peptides with high sequence similarity to Myeloid Antimicrobial Peptide (MAP family were screened using popular online prediction algorithms. These peptide variants were designed in a manner to retain the conserved residues within the MAP family. The prediction algorithms were found to effectively classify peptides based on their antimicrobial nature. In order to improve the activity of the identified peptides, molecular dynamics (MD simulations, using bilayer and micellar systems could be used to design and predict effect of residue substitution on membranes of microbial and mammalian cells. The inference from MD simulation studies well corroborated with the wet-lab observations indicating that MD-guided rational design could lead to discovery of potent AMPs. The effect of the residue substitution on membrane activity was studied in greater detail using killing kinetic analysis. Killing kinetics studies on Gram-positive, negative and human erythrocytes indicated that a single residue change has a drastic effect on the potency of AMPs. An interesting outcome was a switch from monophasic to biphasic death rate constant of Staphylococcus aureus due to a single residue mutation in the peptide.

  14. The 1990 Arthur Kill oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astor, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    On January 1-2, 1990, Exxon discharged 567,000 gallons of No. 2 heating oil in the Arthur Kill, the strait separating Staten Island, New York from New Jersey. Lawsuits against Exxon were filed by the State of New Jersey, New York City, and the City of Elizabeth. They seek to force Exxon to reimburse the municipalities and the state for cleanup costs and to restore damaged wetlands and other natural resources. The three plaintiffs, joined by New York State and the federal government, initiated a three-tiered natural resource damage assessment study (Tier II), currently underway, includes sampling and chemical analysis of sediments and benthic invertebrates, mapping of impacted wetlands and measurement of direct impacts on water birds and their prey. The purposes of the study are to quantify the damages and determine the presence of Exxon's oil in the sediments. Since the Exxon spill, there have been two major spills and an intermediate-size spill. During the first size months of 1990, over one million gallons of petroleum products have been discharged into the Arthur Kill and nearby waters. This paper reports that a review of these incidents provides lessons for the prevention, investigation, and cleanup of spills in urban estuaries

  15. Improved Killing of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells by Combining a Novel Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Based Immunotherapy and Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapdor, Rüdiger; Wang, Shuo; Hacker, Ulrich; Büning, Hildegard; Morgan, Michael; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Schambach, Axel

    2017-10-01

    Ovarian cancer represents the most lethal gynecological cancer. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy and surgery lead to complete macroscopic tumor removal, most of the patients in advanced stages suffer from recurrent disease and subsequently die. This may be explained by the activity of cancer stem cells (CSC), which are a subpopulation of cells with an elevated chemoresistance and an increased capacity for self-renewal and metastatic spread. Specifically targeting these cells by adoptive immunotherapy represents a promising strategy to reduce the risk for recurrent disease. This study selected the widely accepted CSC marker CD133 as a target for a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based immunotherapeutic approach to treat ovarian cancer. A lentiviral vector was generated encoding a third-generation anti-CD133-CAR, and clinically used NK92 cells were transduced. These engineered natural killer (NK) cells showed specific killing against CD133-positive ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian cancer cells cultured from sequential ascites harvests. Additionally, specific activation of these engineered NK cells was demonstrated via interferon-gamma secretion assays. To improve clinical efficacy of ovarian cancer treatment, the effect of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin was evaluated together with CAR-transduced NK cell treatment. It was demonstrated that NK cells remain cytotoxic and active under cisplatin treatment and, importantly, that sequential treatment with cisplatin followed by CAR-NK cells led to the strongest killing effect. The specific eradication of ovarian CSCs by anti-CD133-CAR expressing NK92 cells represents a promising strategy and, when confirmed in vivo, shall be the basis of future clinical studies with the aim to prevent recurrent disease.

  16. Invariant Killing spinors in 11D and type II supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U; Gutowski, J; Papadopoulos, G

    2009-01-01

    We present all isotropy groups and associated Σ groups, up to discrete identifications of the component connected to the identity, of spinors of 11-dimensional and type II supergravities. The Σ groups are products of a Spin group and an R-symmetry group of a suitable lower dimensional supergravity theory. Using the case of SU(4)-invariant spinors as a paradigm, we demonstrate that the Σ groups, and so the R-symmetry groups of lower dimensional supergravity theories arising from compactifications, have disconnected components. These lead us to discrete symmetry groups reminiscent of R-parity. We examine the role of disconnected components of the Σ groups in the choice of Killing spinor representatives and in the context of compactifications.

  17. Where and How Wolves (Canis lupus Kill Beavers (Castor canadensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Gable

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis can be a significant prey item for wolves (Canis lupus in boreal ecosystems due to their abundance and vulnerability on land. How wolves hunt beavers in these systems is largely unknown, however, because observing predation is challenging. We inferred how wolves hunt beavers by identifying kill sites using clusters of locations from GPS-collared wolves in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. We identified 22 sites where wolves from 4 different packs killed beavers. We classified these kill sites into 8 categories based on the beaver-habitat type near which each kill occurred. Seasonal variation existed in types of kill sites as 7 of 12 (58% kills in the spring occurred at sites below dams and on shorelines, and 8 of 10 (80% kills in the fall occurred near feeding trails and canals. From these kill sites we deduced that the typical hunting strategy has 3 components: 1 waiting near areas of high beaver use (e.g., feeding trails until a beaver comes near shore or ashore, 2 using vegetation, the dam, or other habitat features for concealment, and 3 immediately attacking the beaver, or ambushing the beaver by cutting off access to water. By identifying kill sites and inferring hunting behavior we have provided the most complete description available of how and where wolves hunt and kill beavers.

  18. Melanoma stem cells in experimental melanoma are killed by radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, Thomas; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Jiang, Zewei; Harris, Matthew; Dorokhova, Olena; Tsukrov, Dina; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In spite of recently approved B-RAF inhibitors and immunomodulating antibodies, metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and novel treatments are needed. Melanoma stem cells (MSC) have been implicated in the resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Recently we demonstrated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 188-Rhenium( 188 Re)-6D2 antibody to melanin was a safe and effective modality. Here we investigated the interaction of MSC with RIT as a possible mechanism for RIT efficacy. Methods: Mice bearing A2058 melanoma xenografts were treated with either 1.5 mCi 188 Re-6D2 antibody, saline, unlabeled 6D2 antibody or 188 Re-labeled non-specific IgM. Results: On Day 28 post-treatment the tumor size in the RIT group was 4-times less than in controls (P < 0.001). The tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FACS for two MSC markers — chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 and H3K4 demethylase JARID1B. There were no significant differences between RIT and control groups in percentage of ABCB5 or JARID1B-positive cells in the tumor population. Our results demonstrate that unlike chemotherapy, which kills tumor cells but leaves behind MSC leading to recurrence, RIT kills MSC at the same rate as the rest of tumor cells. Conclusions: These results have two main implications for melanoma treatment and possibly other cancers. First, the susceptibility of ABCB5 + and JARID1B + cells to RIT in melanoma might be indicative of their susceptibility to antibody-targeted radiation in other cancers where they are present as well. Second, specifically targeting cancer stem cells with radiolabeled antibodies to ABCB5 or JARID1B might help to completely eradicate cancer stem cells in various cancers

  19. Heterosigma bloom and associated fish kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Postel, J.R.; Taub, F.B.

    1997-01-01

    A bloom of the harmful marine phytoplankton, Heterosigma carterae occurred in upper Case Inlet, south Puget Sound, Washington in late September, 1994, correlating with the presence of at least 35 dead salmon. This marks the first time that this alga has been closely correlated with a wild fish kill; in the past it was thought to be associated with kills of penned fish at fish farms only. We were informed of the presence of a possible harmful algal bloom and dead salinois Ilear the town of Allyn on 27 September and a team was formed to investigate. We arrived at the Allyn waterfront at 17:30 hours the same day. Prior to our arrival, state agency personnel walked approximatcly two miles of shoreline from the powerlines north of the dock, to the mouth of Sherwood Creek and conducted the only official count of dead fish present along the shore consisting of 12 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), 11 chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), 12 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), one flat fish, and one sculpin on the morning of 9/27. Since previous harmful blooms of Heterosigma have resultedin the majority of net penreared salmon sinking to the bottom of pens, and only approximately two miles of shoreline were sampled, it is suspected that many more exposed fish may have succumbed than were counted. Witnesses who explored the east side of the bay reported seeing many dead salmon there as well, but no counts were made. State agency personnel who observed the fish kill reported seeing “dying fish coming to the beach, gulping at the surface, trying to get out of the water” Scavengers were seen consuming the salmon carcasses; these included two harbor seals, a house cat, and Hymenopteran insects. None suffered any noticeable acute ill effects. Although precise cause of death has not been ascertained, visual inspection of the reproductive organs from a deceased male chum salmon found on the shore at Allyn confirmed that the fish was not yet reproductively mature and

  20. Glucocorticoids and Polyamine Inhibitors Synergize to Kill Human Leukemic CEM Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron L; Johnson, Betty H; Medh, Rheem D; Townsend, Courtney M; Thompson, E Brad

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Glucocorticoids are well-known apoptotic agents in certain classes of lymphoid cell malignancies. Reduction of intracellular polyamine levels by use of inhibitors that block polyamine synthesis slows or inhibits growth of many cells in vitro. Several such inhibitors have shown efficacy in clinical trials, though the toxicity of some compounds has limited their usefulness. We have tested the effects of combinations of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) and two polyamine inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and methyl glyoxal bis guanylhydrazone (MGBG), on the clonal line of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, CEM-C7-14. Dex alone kills these cells, though only after a delay of at least 24 hours. We also evaluated a partially glucocorticoid-resistant c-Myc-expressing CEM-C7-14 clone. We show that Dex downregulates ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis. Pretreatment with the ODC inhibitor DFMO, followed by addition of Dex, enhances steroid-evoked kill slightly. The combination of pretreatment with sublethal concentrations of both DFMO and the inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, MGBG, followed by addition of Dex, results in strong synergistic cell kill. Both the rapidity and extent of cell kill are enhanced compared to the effects of Dex alone. These results suggest that use of such combinations in vivo may result in apoptosis of malignant cells with lower overall toxicity. PMID:11922393

  1. Glucocorticoids and Polyamine Inhibitors Synergize to Kill Human Leukemic CEM Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron L. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids are well-known apoptotic agents in certain classes of lymphoid cell malignancies. Reduction of intracellular polyamine levels by use of inhibitors that block polyamine synthesis slows or inhibits growth of many cells in vitro. Several such inhibitors have shown efficacy in clinical trials, though the toxicity of some compounds has limited their usefulness. We have tested the effects of combinations of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. (20Dex and two polyamine inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine. (20DFMO and methyl glyoxal bis guanylhydrazone. (20MGBG, on the clonal line of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, CEM-C7-14. Dex alone kills these cells, though only after a delay of at least 24 hours. We also evaluated a partially glucocorticoid-resistant c-Myc-expressing CEM-C7-14 clone. We show that Dex downregulates ornithine decarboxylase. (20ODC, the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine synthesis. Pretreatment with the ODC inhibitor DFMO, followed by addition of Dex, enhances steroid-evoked kill slightly. The combination of pretreatment with sublethal concentrations of both DFMO and the inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, MGBG, followed by addition of Dex, results in strong synergistic cell kill. Both the rapidity and extent of cell kill are enhanced compared to the effects of Dex alone. These results suggest that use of such combinations in vivo may result in apoptosis of malignant cells with lower overall toxicity.

  2. Conformal Killing vectors in Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartens, R.; Maharaj, S.d.

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that Robertson-Walker spacetimes admit a conformal Killingl vector normal to the spacelike homogeneous hypersurfaces. Because these spacetimes are conformally flat, there are a further eight conformal Killing vectors, which are neither normal nor tangent to the homogeneous hypersurfaces. The authors find these further conformal Killing vectors and the Lie algebra of the full G 15 of conformal motions. Conditions on the metric scale factor are determined which reduce some of the conformal Killing vectors to homothetic Killing vectors or Killing vectors, allowing one to regain in a unified way the known special geometries. The non-normal conformal Killing vectors provide a counter-example to show that conformal motions do not, in general, map a fluid flow conformally. These non-normal vectors are also used to find the general solution of the null geodesic equation and photon Liouville equation. (author)

  3. The eyeball killer: serial killings with postmortem globe enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Julie; Ross, Karen F; Barnard, Jeffrey J; Peacock, Elizabeth; Linch, Charles A; Prahlow, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    Although serial killings are relatively rare, they can be the cause of a great deal of anxiety while the killer remains at-large. Despite the fact that the motivations for serial killings are typically quite complex, the psychological analysis of a serial killer can provide valuable insight into how and why certain individuals become serial killers. Such knowledge may be instrumental in preventing future serial killings or in solving ongoing cases. In certain serial killings, the various incidents have a variety of similar features. Identification of similarities between separate homicidal incidents is necessary to recognize that a serial killer may be actively killing. In this report, the authors present a group of serial killings involving three prostitutes who were shot to death over a 3-month period. Scene and autopsy findings, including the unusual finding of postmortem enucleation of the eyes, led investigators to recognize the serial nature of the homicides. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Monoclonal TCR-redirected tumor cell killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Nathaniel; Bossi, Giovanna; Adams, Katherine J; Lissina, Anna; Mahon, Tara M; Hassan, Namir J; Gavarret, Jessie; Bianchi, Frayne C; Pumphrey, Nicholas J; Ladell, Kristin; Gostick, Emma; Sewell, Andrew K; Lissin, Nikolai M; Harwood, Naomi E; Molloy, Peter E; Li, Yi; Cameron, Brian J; Sami, Malkit; Baston, Emma E; Todorov, Penio T; Paston, Samantha J; Dennis, Rebecca E; Harper, Jane V; Dunn, Steve M; Ashfield, Rebecca; Johnson, Andy; McGrath, Yvonne; Plesa, Gabriela; June, Carl H; Kalos, Michael; Price, David A; Vuidepot, Annelise; Williams, Daniel D; Sutton, Deborah H; Jakobsen, Bent K

    2012-06-01

    T cell immunity can potentially eradicate malignant cells and lead to clinical remission in a minority of patients with cancer. In the majority of these individuals, however, there is a failure of the specific T cell receptor (TCR)–mediated immune recognition and activation process. Here we describe the engineering and characterization of new reagents termed immune-mobilizing monoclonal TCRs against cancer (ImmTACs). Four such ImmTACs, each comprising a distinct tumor-associated epitope-specific monoclonal TCR with picomolar affinity fused to a humanized cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3)-specific single-chain antibody fragment (scFv), effectively redirected T cells to kill cancer cells expressing extremely low surface epitope densities. Furthermore, these reagents potently suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Thus, ImmTACs overcome immune tolerance to cancer and represent a new approach to tumor immunotherapy.

  5. Killing vectors in algebraically special space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres del Castillo, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    The form of the isometric, homothetic, and conformal Killing vectors for algebraically special metrics which admit a shear-free congruence of null geodesics is obtained by considering their complexification, using the existence of a congruence of null strings. The Killing equations are partially integrated and the reasons which permit this reduction are exhibited. In the case where the congruence of null strings has a vanishing expansion, the Killing equations are reduced to a single master equation

  6. Killing spinors as a characterisation of rotating black hole spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Michael J; Kroon, Juan A Valiente

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the implications of the existence of Killing spinors in a spacetime. In particular, we show that in vacuum and electrovacuum a Killing spinor, along with some assumptions on the associated Killing vector in an asymptotic region, guarantees that the spacetime is locally isometric to the Kerr or Kerr–Newman solutions. We show that the characterisation of these spacetimes in terms of Killing spinors is an alternative expression of characterisation results of Mars (Kerr) and Wong (Kerr–Newman) involving restrictions on the Weyl curvature and matter content. (paper)

  7. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  8. The kinematics of cytotoxic lymphocytes influence their ability to kill target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima Bhat

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL have been reported to show a range of motility patterns from rapid long-range tracking to complete arrest, but how and whether these kinematics affect their ability to kill target cells is not known. Many in vitro killing assays utilize cell lines and tumour-derived cells as targets, which may be of limited relevance to the kinetics of CTL-mediated killing of somatic cells. Here, live-cell microscopy is used to examine the interactions of CTL and primary murine skin cells presenting antigens. We developed a qualitative and quantitative killing assay using extended-duration fluorescence time-lapse microscopy coupled with large-volume objective software-based data analysis to obtain population data of cell-to-cell interactions, motility and apoptosis. In vivo and ex vivo activated antigen-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes were added to primary keratinocyte targets in culture with fluorometric detection of caspase-3 activation in targets as an objective determinant of apoptosis. We found that activated CTL achieved contact-dependent apoptosis of non-tumour targets after a period of prolonged attachment - on average 21 hours - which was determined by target cell type, amount of antigen, and activation status of CTL. Activation of CTL even without engagement of the T cell receptor was sufficient to mobilise cells significantly above baseline, while the addition of cognate antigen further enhanced their motility. Highly activated CTL showed markedly increased vector displacement, and velocity, and lead to increased antigen-specific target cell death. These data show that the inherent kinematics of CTL correlate directly with their ability to kill non-tumour cells presenting cognate antigen.

  9. Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

  10. 9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Calicivirus...

  11. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine...

  12. 9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline...

  13. 9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine...

  14. 9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia...

  15. Pseudomonas piscicida kills vibrios by two distinct mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudoalteromonas piscicida is a naturally-occurring marine bacterium which kills competing bacteria, including vibrios. In studies by Richards et al. (AEM00175-17), three strains of P. piscicida were isolated and characterized. Strains secreted proteolytic enzymes which likely killed competing or...

  16. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. A constant virus-varying serum... vaccinates and the controls shall be challenged with virulent canine parvovirus furnished or approved by...

  17. Killing Unwanted West Indies Mahogany Trees by Peeling and Frilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Nobles; C. B. Briscoe

    1966-01-01

    Peeling and frilling each killed approximately 70 percent of treated West Indies mahogany, but peeling killed a higher percentage of trees between 18 and 33 centimeters (7 and 13 inches) than did frilling. Essentially all mortality occurred within the first 15 months following treatment.

  18. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A. R.; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; De Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H 2O2) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly signif cant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  19. Protection against hyperthermic cell killing by alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, A.; Henle, K.J.; Moss, A.J.; Nagle, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Compounds capable of protecting cells against hyperthermia may provide new insights into potential mechanisms of thermotolerance and cellular heat death. The authors characterized heat protection by alanine and related compounds as a function of concentration, temperature and preincubation time. Alanine was added either to complete medium or to HBSS before hyperthermia. Maximal heat protection required 3 hr, 37 0 ; longer preincubation intervals resulted in lower levels of protection. Addition of alanine to medium after hyperthermia had no protective effect. Protection was concentration dependent with a 20- or 200-fold increase in cell survival after 40 min, 45 0 C at 60 mM in medium or in HBSS, respectively. Higher alanine concentrations up to 120mM did not significantly increase heat protection. A 45 0 -heat survival curve showed that 100mM alanine increased the D/sub q/ by approx. 12 min with little change in the D/sub o/. Hyperthermia of 1 hr at temperatures between 42 0 and 45 0 indicated that 100mM alanine shifted the isotoxic temperature by 0.5 Celsius degrees. Polymers of either L or D,L alanine and related compounds, like pyruvate, also protected cells against heat killing. These results indicate that heat protection by alanine shows characteristics that are not shared by polyhydroxy compounds

  20. Managing Threat, Cost, and Incentive to Kill: The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Intervention in Mass Killings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathman, Jacob D.; Wood, Reed M.

    2011-01-01

    How do third-party interventions affect the severity of mass killings? The authors theorize that episodes of mass killing are the consequence of two factors: (1) the threat perceptions of the perpetrators and (2) the cost of implementing genocidal policies relative to other alternatives. To reduce genocidal hostilities, interveners must address…

  1. Astronomy LITE Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2006-12-01

    Project LITE (Light Inquiry Through Experiments) is a materials, software, and curriculum development project. It focuses on light, optics, color and visual perception. According to two recent surveys of college astronomy faculty members, these are among the topics most often included in the large introductory astronomy courses. The project has aimed largely at the design and implementation of hands-on experiences for students. However, it has also included the development of lecture demonstrations that employ novel light sources and materials. In this presentation, we will show some of our new lecture demonstrations concerning geometrical and physical optics, fluorescence, phosphorescence and polarization. We have developed over 200 Flash and Java applets that can be used either by teachers in lecture settings or by students at home. They are all posted on the web at http://lite.bu.edu. For either purpose they can be downloaded directly to the user's computer or run off line. In lecture demonstrations, some of these applets can be used to control the light emitted by video projectors to produce physical effects in materials (e.g. fluorescence). Other applets can be used, for example, to demonstrate that the human percept of color does not have a simple relationship with the physical frequency of the stimulating source of light. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education.

  2. Psychological traits underlying different killing methods among Malaysian male murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, Mohammad Rahim; Shariff, Nadiah Syariani; Nurfarliza, Siti; Othman, Azizah; Ismail, Khaidzir H; Mat Saat, Geshina Ayu

    2014-04-01

    Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or

  3. Killing a Peacock: A Case Study of the Targeted Killing of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    assertions by-in-large fell on deaf ears in the United States, Yamamoto nevertheless took special interest in Mitchell’s claims, and returned to Japan in...deliberations on April 17.106 Upon receiving an update brief of the planning order, Viccellio immediately identified a problem . He knew that the P-38’s fuel...what, it all happened all too fast to know and he was content on calling it a “team kill.”152 Instead, he left resolution of the issue to Barber and

  4. Kill a brand, keep a customer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirmalya

    2003-12-01

    Most brands don't make much money. Year after year, businesses generate 80% to 90% of their profits from less than 20% of their brands. Yet most companies tend to ignore loss-making brands, unaware of the hidden costs they incur. That's because executives believe it's easy to erase a brand; they have only to stop investing in it, they assume, and it will die a natural death. But they're wrong. When companies drop brands clumsily, they antagonize loyal customers: Research shows that seven times out of eight, when firms merge two brands, the market share of the new brand never reaches the combined share of the two original ones. It doesn't have to be that way. Smart companies use a four-step process to kill brands methodically. First, CEOs make the case for rationalization by getting groups of senior executives to conduct joint audits of the brand portfolio. These audits make the need to prune brands apparent throughout the organization. In the next stage, executives need to decide how many brands will be retained, which they do either by setting broad parameters that all brands must meet or by identifying the brands they need in order to cater to all the customer segments in their markets. Third, executives must dispose of the brands they've decided to drop, deciding in each case whether it is appropriate to merge, sell, milk, or just eliminate the brand outright. Finally, it's critical that executives invest the resources they've freed to grow the brands they've retained. Done right, dropping brands will result in a company poised for new growth from the source where it's likely to be found--its profitable brands.

  5. Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct

  6. Generalized Killing-Yano equations in D=5 gauged supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiznak, David; Kunduri, Hari K.; Yasui, Yukinori

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the (conformal) Killing-Yano equations relevant to D=5 minimal gauged supergravity. The generalization stems from the fact that the dual of the Maxwell flux, the 3-form *F, couples naturally to particles in the background as a 'torsion'. Killing-Yano tensors in the presence of torsion preserve most of the properties of the standard Killing-Yano tensors - exploited recently for the higher-dimensional rotating black holes of vacuum gravity with cosmological constant. In particular, the generalized closed conformal Killing-Yano 2-form gives rise to the tower of generalized closed conformal Killing-Yano tensors of increasing rank which in turn generate the tower of Killing tensors. An example of a generalized Killing-Yano tensor is found for the Chong-Cvetic-Lue-Pope black hole spacetime [Z.W. Chong, M. Cvetic, H. Lu, C.N. Pope, (hep-th/0506029)]. Such a tensor stands behind the separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations in this background.

  7. [gammadelta T cells stimulated by zoledronate kill osteosarcoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Chao; Cao, Zhen-Guo; Li, Zhao-Xu; Ye, Zhao-Ming

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of human γδT cells from PBMCs stimulated by zoledronate against osteosarcoma cell line HOS in vitro and in vivo and evaluate the relavent pathways. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)of healthy donors were stimulated by single dose zoledronate and cultured in the present of IL-2 for two weeks, analysising the percentage of γδT cells on a FACSCalibur cytometer.Study the cytotoxicity of γδT cells against the osteosarcoma line HOS using LDH release assay kit. Pre-treatment of γδT cells with anti-human γδTCR antibody, anti-human NKG2D antibody and concanamycin A to bolck the relavent pathways for evaluating the mechenisms of its cytotoxicity. In vivo, BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously osteosarcoma cell HOS for developing hypodermal tumors. And they were randomized into two groups: unteated group, γδT cell therapy group. Tumor volume and weight of the two groups were compared. After two weeks of culture, γδT cells from zoledronate-stimulated PBMCs could reach (95±3)%. When the E:T as 6:1, 12:1, 25:1, 50:1, the percentage of osteosarcoma cell HOS killed by γδT cells was 26.8%, 31.5%, 37.8%, 40.9%, respectively.When anti-huma γδTCR antibody, anti-human NKG2D antibody and concanamycin A blocked the relavent pathways, the percentage was 32.3%, 4.7%, 16.7% ( E:T as 25:1), respectively. In vivo, the tumor inhibition rate of the group of γδT cell therapy was 42.78%. γδT cells derived from PBMCs stimulated by zoledronate can acquired pure γδT cells. And they show strong cytoxicity against osteosarcoma cell line HOS in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Some spacetimes with higher rank Killing-Staeckel tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Houri, T.; Kubiznak, D.; Warnick, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    By applying the lightlike Eisenhart lift to several known examples of low-dimensional integrable systems admitting integrals of motion of higher-order in momenta, we obtain four- and higher-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes with irreducible higher-rank Killing tensors. Such metrics, we believe, are first examples of spacetimes admitting higher-rank Killing tensors. Included in our examples is a four-dimensional supersymmetric pp-wave spacetime, whose geodesic flow is superintegrable. The Killing tensors satisfy a non-trivial Poisson-Schouten-Nijenhuis algebra. We discuss the extension to the quantum regime.

  9. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  10. Enhanced killing of mammalian cells by radiation combined with m-AMSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P B; Millar, B C [Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (UK). Surrey Branch

    1980-11-01

    m-AMSA is an intercalating agent at present on Phase II trial as a chemotherapeutic drug. A 30 min exposure of Chinese hamster (Line V79-753B) cells to submicromolar concentrations of m-AMSA killed 50% of the cells. The survivors had an enhanced sensitivity to radiation-induced cell killing. Depending upon the conditions, m-AMSA enhanced the radiation effect by either a decrease in the survival-curve shoulder or by an increase in slope. m-AMSA may act partly by suppressing the accumulation of sublethal damage but, if so, recovery from damage as measured in split-dose experiments with cells pretreated with the drug is not affected. m-AMSA increased radiation lethality throughout the cell cycle, but a contribution to its radiation effect from selective toxicity to cells in a radioresistant phase of the cell cycle cannot be excluded. Radiation and the drug interacted to give increased cell killing, even when the exposures to each agent were separated in time. It is concluded that m-ASMA may behave like actinomycin D and adriamycin, and enhance clinical radiation responses. In vivo testing to determine the effect of m-AMSA on the therapeutic index is recommended.

  11. Enhanced killing of mammalian cells by radiation combined with m-AMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.; Millar, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    m-AMSA is an intercalating agent at present on Phase II trial as a chemotherapeutic drug. A 30min exposure of Chinese hamster (Line V79-753B) cells to submicromolar concentrations of m-AMSA killed 50% of the cells. The survivors had an enhanced sensitivity to radiation-induced cell killing. Depending upon the conditions, m-AMSA enhanced the radiation effect by either a decrease in the survival-curve shoulder or by an increase in slope. m-AMSA may act partly by suppressing the accumulation of sublethal damage but, if so, recovery from damage as measured in split-dose experiments with cells pretreated with the drug is not affected. m-AMSA increased radiation lethality throughout the cell cycle, but a contribution to its radiation effect from selective toxicity to cells in a radioresistant phase of the cell cycle cannot be excluded. Radiation and the drug interacted to give increased cell killing, even when the exposures to each agent were separated in time. It is concluded that m-ASMA may behave like actinomycin D and adriamycin, and enhance clinical radiation responses. In vivo testing to determine the effect of m-AMSA on the therapeutic index is recommended. (author)

  12. Rapid kill-novel endodontic sealer and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    Full Text Available With growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. In the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. As quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacterial resistance. Melding these ideas, we investigated the potency of a novel endodontic sealer in limiting Enterococcus faecalis growth. We used a polyethyleneimine scaffold to synthesize nano-sized particles, optimized for incorporation into an epoxy-based endodontic sealer. The novel endodontic sealer was tested for its antimicrobial efficacy and evaluated for biocompatibility and physical eligibility. Our results show that the novel sealer foundation affixes the nanoparticles, achieving surface bactericidal properties, but at the same time impeding nanoparticle penetration into eukaryotic cells and thereby mitigating a possible toxic effect. Moreover, adequate physical properties are maintained. The nanosized quaternary amine particles interact within minutes with bacteria, triggering cell death across wide pH values. Throughout this study we demonstrate a new antibacterial perspective for endodontic sealers; a novel antibacterial, effective and safe antimicrobial means.

  13. Epirubicin-adsorbed nanodiamonds kill chemoresistant hepatic cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Low, Xinyi Casuarine; Hou, Weixin; Abdullah, Lissa Nurrul; Toh, Tan Boon; Mohd Abdul Rashid, Masturah; Ho, Dean; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2014-12-23

    Chemoresistance is a primary cause of treatment failure in cancer and a common property of tumor-initiating cancer stem cells. Overcoming mechanisms of chemoresistance, particularly in cancer stem cells, can markedly enhance cancer therapy and prevent recurrence and metastasis. This study demonstrates that the delivery of Epirubicin by nanodiamonds is a highly effective nanomedicine-based approach to overcoming chemoresistance in hepatic cancer stem cells. The potent physical adsorption of Epirubicin to nanodiamonds creates a rapidly synthesized and stable nanodiamond-drug complex that promotes endocytic uptake and enhanced tumor cell retention. These attributes mediate the effective killing of both cancer stem cells and noncancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo. Enhanced treatment of both tumor cell populations results in an improved impairment of secondary tumor formation in vivo compared with treatment by unmodified chemotherapeutics. On the basis of these results, nanodiamond-mediated drug delivery may serve as a powerful method for overcoming chemoresistance in cancer stem cells and markedly improving overall treatment against hepatic cancers.

  14. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  15. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyles, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    .... The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  16. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyles, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    .... The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  17. On Discrete Killing Vector Fields and Patterns on Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Chen, Mirela; Butscher, Adrian; Solomon, Justin; Guibas, Leonidas

    2010-01-01

    , and show how to discretize these concepts for generating such vector fields on a triangulated mesh. We discuss the properties of approximate Killing Vector Fields, and propose an application to utilize them for texture and geometry synthesis. Journal

  18. Selective Killing of Prostate Tumor Cells by Cytocidal Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyles, Douglas S

    2005-01-01

    ...). The novelty in our approach is our ability to enhance the selectivity of VSV-induced killing of tumor cells versus normal cells by manipulating the viral genes that control the antiviral interferon response...

  19. Thou Shalt Not Kill: Conscientious Objection and the Decalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    used to condone animal cruelty .66 Second, n¥1 (ratsach) is not used in the context of proper punishment for a crime.67 Alan Cole explains...used to refer to the killing animals for food and sacrifices.63 Scripture records that God allowed the killing of animals for food.64 God also allowed...the slaying of animals for sacrifices.65 Consequently, the sixth commandment cannot be used to support the practice of vegetarianism nor can it be

  20. Vertebrate road kill survey on a highway in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Liberato Costa Corrêa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Highways are a major factor acting in the decline of several wildlife populations. Impact occurs due to the continuous flow of motor vehicles over tracks and collision with animals using the same area. This study aimed to list road killed wild vertebrates found in highways in the Pampa Biome, state of Rio Grande do Sul, over an entire year. The taxa found (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals were identified to species level and their frequency of occurrence was seasonally registered. Along 2,160 km, we found 318 road killed individuals, totaling 65 species. This number represents an average of 0.147 road killed specimens by kilometer (that is, 1 individual each 7 km. Of these, seven species are under threat of extinction in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. We also found a seasonal pattern among road kills, in which the highest number of road killed animals was registered in the summer and spring months. These results contribute to increase knowledge about which species are most impacted by road kill on highways of the Pampa Biome. Such data can be used as an indicator for the implementation of measures by competent bodies to mitigate impacts of highways in the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

  1. Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Fernandes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine. Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites. This effect was inhibited (>90% by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml. Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP and sodium nitroprusside (SNP in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively. A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1, did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM. The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM. These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

  2. Mitochondrial Fragmentation in Aspergillus fumigatus as Early Marker of Granulocyte Killing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Dominik; Brantl, Victor; Wagener, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The host's defense against invasive mold infections relies on diverse antimicrobial activities of innate immune cells. However, studying these mechanisms in vitro is complicated by the filamentous nature of such pathogens that typically form long, branched, multinucleated and compartmentalized hyphae. Here we describe a novel method that allows for the visualization and quantification of the antifungal killing activity exerted by human granulocytes against hyphae of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The approach relies on the distinct impact of fungal cell death on the morphology of mitochondria that were visualized with green fluorescent protein (GFP). We show that oxidative stress induces complete fragmentation of the tubular mitochondrial network which correlates with cell death of affected hyphae. Live cell microscopy revealed a similar and non-reversible disruption of the mitochondrial morphology followed by fading of fluorescence in Aspergillus hyphae that were killed by human granulocytes. Quantitative microscopic analysis of fixed samples was subsequently used to estimate the antifungal activity. By utilizing this assay, we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharides as well as human serum significantly increase the killing efficacy of the granulocytes. Our results demonstrate that evaluation of the mitochondrial morphology can be utilized to assess the fungicidal activity of granulocytes against A. fumigatus hyphae. PMID:29868488

  3. Karr’s Kill Cult: Virtual Cults and Pseudo-Killing in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Biles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most readers will recall the 1996 tragedy in which six-year-old beauty-pageant princess JonBenét Ramsey was found bound, gagged, and strangled in the basement of her parents’ home, inciting an orgy of media coverage. What readers may not know is that John Mark Karr—the imminently creepy individual who falsely confessed to the killing, and whose sordid past includes an arrest for possession of child pornography—has continued to make news as an alleged cyberstalker and would-be cult leader. This article claims that whereas a real serial killer is compelled to murder again and again with different victims, Karr is compelled to repeat the singular murder of JonBenét Ramsey the only way he can—in a virtual reality constituted by writing.

  4. Principal Killing strings in higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Jens; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2018-04-01

    We construct special solutions of the Nambu-Goto equations for stationary strings in a general Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetime in any number of dimensions. This construction is based on the existence of explicit and hidden symmetries generated by the principal tensor which exists for these metrics. The characteristic property of these string configurations, which we call "principal Killing strings," is that they are stretched out from "infinity" to the horizon of the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole and remain regular at the latter. We also demonstrate that principal Killing strings extract angular momentum from higher-dimensional rotating black holes and interpret this as the action of an asymptotic torque.

  5. Effect of sociality and season on gray wolf (Canis lupus) foraging behavior: implications for estimating summer kill rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Matthew C; Vucetich, John A; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R; Peterson, Rolf O

    2011-03-01

    Understanding how kill rates vary among seasons is required to understand predation by vertebrate species living in temperate climates. Unfortunately, kill rates are only rarely estimated during summer. For several wolf packs in Yellowstone National Park, we used pairs of collared wolves living in the same pack and the double-count method to estimate the probability of attendance (PA) for an individual wolf at a carcass. PA quantifies an important aspect of social foraging behavior (i.e., the cohesiveness of foraging). We used PA to estimate summer kill rates for packs containing GPS-collared wolves between 2004 and 2009. Estimated rates of daily prey acquisition (edible biomass per wolf) decreased from 8.4±0.9 kg (mean ± SE) in May to 4.1±0.4 kg in July. Failure to account for PA would have resulted in underestimating kill rate by 32%. PA was 0.72±0.05 for large ungulate prey and 0.46±0.04 for small ungulate prey. To assess seasonal differences in social foraging behavior, we also evaluated PA during winter for VHF-collared wolves between 1997 and 2009. During winter, PA was 0.95±0.01. PA was not influenced by prey size but was influenced by wolf age and pack size. Our results demonstrate that seasonal patterns in the foraging behavior of social carnivores have important implications for understanding their social behavior and estimating kill rates. Synthesizing our findings with previous insights suggests that there is important seasonal variation in how and why social carnivores live in groups. Our findings are also important for applications of GPS collars to estimate kill rates. Specifically, because the factors affecting the PA of social carnivores likely differ between seasons, kill rates estimated through GPS collars should account for seasonal differences in social foraging behavior.

  6. Effect of sociality and season on gray wolf (Canis lupus foraging behavior: implications for estimating summer kill rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Metz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding how kill rates vary among seasons is required to understand predation by vertebrate species living in temperate climates. Unfortunately, kill rates are only rarely estimated during summer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For several wolf packs in Yellowstone National Park, we used pairs of collared wolves living in the same pack and the double-count method to estimate the probability of attendance (PA for an individual wolf at a carcass. PA quantifies an important aspect of social foraging behavior (i.e., the cohesiveness of foraging. We used PA to estimate summer kill rates for packs containing GPS-collared wolves between 2004 and 2009. Estimated rates of daily prey acquisition (edible biomass per wolf decreased from 8.4±0.9 kg (mean ± SE in May to 4.1±0.4 kg in July. Failure to account for PA would have resulted in underestimating kill rate by 32%. PA was 0.72±0.05 for large ungulate prey and 0.46±0.04 for small ungulate prey. To assess seasonal differences in social foraging behavior, we also evaluated PA during winter for VHF-collared wolves between 1997 and 2009. During winter, PA was 0.95±0.01. PA was not influenced by prey size but was influenced by wolf age and pack size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that seasonal patterns in the foraging behavior of social carnivores have important implications for understanding their social behavior and estimating kill rates. Synthesizing our findings with previous insights suggests that there is important seasonal variation in how and why social carnivores live in groups. Our findings are also important for applications of GPS collars to estimate kill rates. Specifically, because the factors affecting the PA of social carnivores likely differ between seasons, kill rates estimated through GPS collars should account for seasonal differences in social foraging behavior.

  7. Individual and co-operative roles of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the killing activity of enteric strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC933 and vaginal strain Lactobacillus gasseri KS120.1 against enteric, uropathogenic and vaginosis-associated pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, Fabrice; Servin, Alain L

    2010-03-01

    The mechanism underlying the killing activity of Lactobacillus strains against bacterial pathogens appears to be multifactorial. Here, we investigate the respective contributions of hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid in killing bacterial pathogens associated with the human vagina, urinary tract or intestine by two hydrogen peroxide-producing strains. In co-culture, the human intestinal strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC933 and human vaginal strain Lactobacillus gasseri KS120.1 strains killed enteric Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344, vaginal Gardnerella vaginalis DSM 4944 and urinary tract Escherichia coli CFT073 pathogens. The cell-free culture supernatants (CFCSs) produced the same reduction in SL1344, DSM 4944 and CFT073 viability, whereas isolated bacteria had no effect. The killing activity of CFCSs was heat-stable. In the presence of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's minimum essential medium inhibiting the lactic acid-dependent killing activity, CFCSs were less effective at killing of the pathogens. Catalase-treated CFCSs displayed a strong decreased activity. Tested alone, hydrogen peroxide triggered a concentration-dependent killing activity against all three pathogens. Lactic acid alone developed a killing activity only at concentrations higher than that present in CFCSs. In the presence of lactic acid at a concentration present in Lactobacillus CFCSs, hydrogen peroxide displayed enhanced killing activity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that for hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus strains, the main metabolites of Lactobacillus, lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, act co-operatively to kill enteric, vaginosis-associated and uropathogenic pathogens.

  8. Killing effect of peripheral blood mononuclear cells irradiated by γ ray on human gastric cancer MKN-28 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Daocheng; Zhang Xianqing; Mu Shijie; Liu Zhongxiang; Xia Aijun; Huang Xiaofeng; An Qunxing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the killing effect of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) irradiated by γ ray on cultured human gastric cancer cell line MKN-28. Methods: The experiment were divided into MKN-28 tumor cell control group, PBMCs groups and MKN-28 cells with irradiated or non-irradiated PBMCs co-culture groups. Radidation dosage were from 0.5 to 3 Gy, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining were used to observe the kill effect of PBMCs on tumor cells in different period. Results: After culture for 144h, the dead cells of several dosage irradiated PBMCs are much more than those of non-irradiated PBMCs group. At 240 hours of culture, the alive PBMCs deareses in number in both irradiated and non-irradiared groups, but decreases in radiated groups are more obvious. After culture for 72 h in the co-cultured groups, the difference is not evident among all radiation dosage groups. After 96-240 h of co-culture, the killing effect of 0.5-2Gy irradiated PBMCs on tumor cells is very strong, especially in 1Gy group, but the killing effect of PBMCs irradiated by 2.5-3Gy on tumor cells were weaker than that of 0.5-2Gy irradiated groups. At 240 hours co-cultured groups irradiated by 2.5-3Gy, tumor cells still survive and proliferate. Conclusion: Gamma ray irradiation have killing effect to some PBMCs. The cytocidal effect of PBMCs irradiated by 0.5-2Gy on tumor cells were increased. Chemotaxis and cytocidal effect of tumor cells to postirradiated PBMCs were also found. The killing effect of PBMCs irradiated by 2.5 and 3 Gy on tumor cells were restrained. (authors)

  9. Targeting and killing of glioblastoma with activated T cells armed with bispecific antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitron, Ian M; Thakur, Archana; Norkina, Oxana; Barger, Geoffrey R; Lum, Lawrence G; Mittal, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Since most glioblastomas express both wild-type EGFR and EGFRvIII as well as HER2/neu, they are excellent targets for activated T cells (ATC) armed with bispecific antibodies (BiAbs) that target EGFR and HER2. ATC were generated from PBMC activated for 14 days with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody in the presence of interleukin-2 and armed with chemically heteroconjugated anti-CD3×anti-HER2/neu (HER2Bi) and/or anti-CD3×anti-EGFR (EGFRBi). HER2Bi- and/or EGFRBi-armed ATC were examined for in vitro cytotoxicity using MTT and 51 Cr-release assays against malignant glioma lines (U87MG, U118MG, and U251MG) and primary glioblastoma lines. EGFRBi-armed ATC killed up to 85% of U87, U118, and U251 targets at effector:target ratios (E:T) ranging from 1:1 to 25:1. Engagement of tumor by EGFRBi-armed ATC induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion by armed ATC. HER2Bi-armed ATC exhibited comparable cytotoxicity against U118 and U251, but did not kill HER2-negative U87 cells. HER2Bi- or EGFRBi-armed ATC exhibited 50—80% cytotoxicity against four primary glioblastoma lines as well as a temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant variant of U251. Both CD133– and CD133+ subpopulations were killed by armed ATC. Targeting both HER2Bi and EGFRBi simultaneously showed enhanced efficacy than arming with a single BiAb. Armed ATC maintained effectiveness after irradiation and in the presence of TMZ at a therapeutic concentration and were capable of killing multiple targets. High-grade gliomas are suitable for specific targeting by armed ATC. These data, together with additional animal studies, may provide the preclinical support for the use of armed ATC as a valuable addition to current treatment regimens

  10. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-08

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  11. A preliminary survey of avian mortality on power lines in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collisions were more common than electrocutions, apparently killing 88% of the birds found on distribution lines. Large terrestrial birds were the most numerous victims, with large numbers of Blue Cranes Anthropoides paradiseus and Denham's Bustards Neotis denhami killed. In comparison with mortality rates from the ...

  12. CD47-CAR-T Cells Effectively Kill Target Cancer Cells and Block Pancreatic Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Berahovich, Robert; Zhou, Hua; Xu, Shirley; Harto, Hizkia; Li, Le; Chao, Cheng-Chi; Mao, Mike Ming; Wu, Lijun

    2017-10-21

    CD47 is a glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is often overexpressed in different types of hematological and solid cancer tumors and plays important role in blocking phagocytosis, increased tumor survival, metastasis and angiogenesis. In the present report, we designed CAR (chimeric antigen receptor)-T cells that bind CD47 antigen. We used ScFv (single chain variable fragment) from mouse CD47 antibody to generate CD47-CAR-T cells for targeting different cancer cell lines. CD47-CAR-T cells effectively killed ovarian, pancreatic and other cancer cells and produced high level of cytokines that correlated with expression of CD47 antigen. In addition, CD47-CAR-T cells significantly blocked BxPC3 pancreatic xenograft tumor growth after intratumoral injection into NSG mice. Moreover, we humanized mouse CD47 ScFv and showed that it effectively bound CD47 antigen. The humanized CD47-CAR-T cells also specifically killed ovarian, pancreatic, and cervical cancer cell lines and produced IL-2 that correlated with expression of CD47. Thus, CD47-CAR-T cells can be used as a novel cellular therapeutic agent for treating different types of cancer.

  13. Individual motile CD4+ T cells can participate in efficient multi-killing through conjugation to multiple tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liadi, Ivan; Singh, Harjeet; Romain, Gabrielle; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Adolacion, Jay R T.; Kebriaei, Partow; Huls, Helen; Qiu, Peng; Roysam, Badrinath; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Varadarajan, Navin

    2015-01-01

    T cells genetically modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) for the investigational treatment of B-cell malignancies comprise a heterogeneous population, and their ability to persist and participate in serial killing of tumor cells is a predictor of therapeutic success. We implemented Timelapse Imaging Microscopy In Nanowell Grids (TIMING) to provide direct evidence that CD4+CAR+ T cells (CAR4 cells) can engage in multi-killing via simultaneous conjugation to multiple tumor cells. Comparisons of the CAR4 cells and CD8+CAR+ T cells (CAR8 cells) demonstrate that while CAR4 cells can participate in killing and multi-killing, they do so at slower rates, likely due to the lower Granzyme B content. Significantly, in both sets of T cells, a minor sub-population of individual T cells identified by their high motility, demonstrated efficient killing of single tumor cells. By comparing both the multi-killer and single killer CAR+ T cells it appears that the propensity and kinetics of T-cell apoptosis was modulated by the number of functional conjugations. T cells underwent rapid apoptosis, and at higher frequencies, when conjugated to single tumor cells in isolation and this effect was more pronounced on CAR8 cells. Our results suggest that the ability of CAR+ T cells to participate in multi-killing should be evaluated in the context of their ability to resist activation induced cell death (AICD). We anticipate that TIMING may be utilized to rapidly determine the potency of T-cell populations and may facilitate the design and manufacture of next-generation CAR+ T cells with improved efficacy. PMID:25711538

  14. Effectiveness of irradiation in killing pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, J.G.; Ward, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations include gamma ray irradiation of sludge as an approved Process to Further Reduce Pathogens (PFRP) prior to land application. Research at Sandia National Laboratories on pathogen inactivation in sludge by gamma irradiation has demonstrated that the 1 Mrad PFRP dose is capable, by itself, of eliminating bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens from sludge. Gamma irradiation of sludge in conjunction with the required Processes to Significantly Reduce Pathogens (PSRP) should also eliminate the viral hazard from wastewater sludges

  15. Structural equations for Killing tensors of order two. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, I.; Malhiot, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    In a preceding paper, a new form of the structural equations for any Killing tensor of order two have been derived; these equations constitute a system analogous to the Killing vector equations Nabla/sub alpha/ K/sub beta/ = ω/sub alpha beta/ = -ω/sub beta alpha/ and Nabla/sub gamma/ ω/sub alpha beta = R/sub alpha beta gamma delta/ K/sup delta/. The first integrability condition for the Killing tensor structural equations is now derived. The structural equations and the integrability condition have forms which can readily be expressed in terms of a null tetrad to furnish a Killing tensor parallel of the Newman--Penrose equations; this is briefly described. The integrability condition implies the new result, for any given space--time, that the dimension of the set of second-order Killing tensors attains its maximum possible value of 50 only if the space--time is of constant curvature. Potential applications of the structural equations are discussed

  16. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, John L; Brown, Charles R

    2016-03-30

    Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. p13 from group II baculoviruses is a killing-associated gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Qi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available p13 gene was first described in Leucania separata multinuclearpolyhedrosis virus (Ls-p13 several years ago, but the functionof P13 protein has not been experimentally investigated todate. In this article, we indicated that the expression of p13from Heliothis armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus(Ha-p13 was regulated by both early and late promoter.Luciferase assay demonstrated that the activity of Ha-p13promoter with hr4 enhancer was more than 100 times inheterologous Sf9 cells than that in nature host Hz-AM1 cells.Both Ls-P13 and Ha-P13 are transmembrane proteins. Confocalmicroscopic analysis showed that both mainly located in thecytoplasm membrane at 48 h. Results of RNA interferenceindicated that Ha-p13 was a killing-associated gene for hostinsects H. armigera. The AcMNPV acquired the mentionedkilling activity and markedly accelerate the killing rate whenexpressing Ls-p13. In conclusion, p13 is a killing associatedgene in both homologous and heterologous nucleopolyhedrovirus.

  18. Plant community development within the F- and H-Area tree-kill zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.; Westbury, H.M. Jr.

    1994-10-01

    The F- and H-Area Seepage Basins received liquid waste from the F and H chemical separation facilities from 1955 through 1988. Tree mortality in seepline fed wetlands down-slope from the basins was observed in the late 1970`s, and investigations were conducted to determine the cause and source of the impacts. Analysis of the soil and water in the tree-kill zones demonstrated a strong chemical linkage with the F- and H-Area seepage basins. Although no single cause of the mortality was determined, it was believed to be the result of interactions of alterations in the hydrology and erosional deposition, along with lowering of pH and increased conductivity, sodium, aluminum, and nitrogen compounds. A mild drought during the growing season may also have increased the concentration of the chemical contaminants in the soils matrix. In 1988, the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins were closed and covered with a clay cap to reduce the rate of dispersion of the contaminants in the soil beneath the basins. Subsequent studies of the chemical composition of the tree-kill zone groundwater and toxicological characteristics of the seepline soil have shown a reduced contaminant flux. In 1993, an initial vegetation study was undertaken to determine the level of recovery by the plant communities in the tree-kill zones. This study repeats the initial vegetation investigation in order to further analyze and characterize the recovery of plant communities in the zones after an additional year of growth.

  19. Endocytosis of Cytotoxic Granules Is Essential for Multiple Killing of Target Cells by T Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Fang; Bzeih, Hawraa; Schirra, Claudia; Chitirala, Praneeth; Halimani, Mahantappa; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Krause, Elmar; Rettig, Jens; Pattu, Varsha

    2016-09-15

    CTLs are serial killers that kill multiple target cells via exocytosis of cytotoxic granules (CGs). CG exocytosis is tightly regulated and has been investigated in great detail; however, whether CG proteins are endocytosed following exocytosis and contribute to serial killing remains unknown. By using primary CTLs derived from a knock-in mouse of the CG membrane protein Synaptobrevin2, we show that CGs are endocytosed in a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent manner. Following acidification, endocytosed CGs are recycled through early and late, but not recycling endosomes. CGs are refilled with granzyme B at the late endosome stage and polarize to subsequent synapses formed between the CTL and new target cells. Importantly, inhibiting CG endocytosis in CTLs results in a significant reduction of their cytotoxic activity. Thus, our data demonstrate that continuous endocytosis of CG membrane proteins is a prerequisite for efficient serial killing of CTLs and identify key events in this process. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. 77 FR 10960 - Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...'' W (Port Morris Stacks), and all waters of the Bronx Kill southeast of the Bronx Kill Rail Road...-AA87 Security Zone, East River and Bronx Kill; Randalls and Wards Islands, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the East River and Bronx Kill, in the vicinity of Randalls and Wards Islands, New York. This...

  1. Pancreatic Carcinoma: the Disease that Kills

    OpenAIRE

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Ramadani, Naser; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hoxhaj, Asrtrit; Jerliu, Naim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the clinical symptoms and laboratory changes that have occurred very late and were very few in number even the imaging studies performed at that time showed an intensive local tumor growth associated with the wide infiltration of the both adjacent and distant upper abdominal structures. A 71-year-old male patient who was a chronic alcohol abuser and ex smoker (quit smoking 8 years earlier) presented with symptoms of mild pain on epigastric reg...

  2. Enzyme-driven Bacillus spore coat degradation leading to spore killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Ruchir V; Mehta, Krunal K; Wu, Xia; Paskaleva, Elena E; Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2014-04-01

    The bacillus spore coat confers chemical and biological resistance, thereby protecting the core from harsh environments. The primarily protein-based coat consists of recalcitrant protein crosslinks that endow the coat with such functional protection. Proteases are present in the spore coat, which play a putative role in coat degradation in the environment. However these enzymes are poorly characterized. Nonetheless given the potential for proteases to catalyze coat degradation, we screened 10 commercially available proteases for their ability to degrade the spore coats of B. cereus and B. anthracis. Proteinase K and subtilisin Carlsberg, for B. cereus and B. anthracis spore coats, respectively, led to a morphological change in the otherwise impregnable coat structure, increasing coat permeability towards cortex lytic enzymes such as lysozyme and SleB, thereby initiating germination. Specifically in the presence of lysozyme, proteinase K resulted in 14-fold faster enzyme induced germination and exhibited significantly shorter lag times, than spores without protease pretreatment. Furthermore, the germinated spores were shown to be vulnerable to a lytic enzyme (PlyPH) resulting in effective spore killing. The spore surface in response to proteolytic degradation was probed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which provided key insights regarding coat degradation. The extent of coat degradation and spore killing using this enzyme-based pretreatment approach is similar to traditional, yet far harsher, chemical decoating methods that employ detergents and strong denaturants. Thus the enzymatic route reduces the environmental burden of chemically mediated spore killing, and demonstrates that a mild and environmentally benign biocatalytic spore killing is achievable. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and preferentially kills cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang W.; Lee, Hyemi; Dings, Ruud P. M.; Williams, Brent; Powers, John; Santos, Troy Dos; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Park, Heon Joo

    2012-01-01

    The anti-cancer effects of metformin, the most widely used drug for type 2 diabetes, alone or in combination with ionizing radiation were studied with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and FSaII mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Clinically achievable concentrations of metformin caused significant clonogenic death in cancer cells. Importantly, metformin was preferentially cytotoxic to cancer stem cells relative to non-cancer stem cells. Metformin increased the radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, and significantly enhanced the radiation-induced growth delay of FSaII tumors (s.c.) in the legs of C3H mice. Both metformin and ionizing radiation activated AMPK leading to inactivation of mTOR and suppression of its downstream effectors such as S6K1 and 4EBP1, a crucial signaling pathway for proliferation and survival of cancer cells, in vitro as well as in the in vivo tumors. Conclusion: Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and eradicates radioresistant cancer stem cells by activating AMPK and suppressing mTOR. PMID:22500211

  4. Inflatable kill packers used in working over Kuwaiti wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. (Baker Oil Tools, Houston, TX (US)); Conover, G. (Baker Service Tools, Houston, TX (US))

    1992-03-09

    This paper reports on inflatable packers which are being used with great success in post-well capping workover operations in Kuwait oil fields. In mid-January, about one kill packer was being run per day. Use is expected to increase in March when a second post-capping crew arrives. Of several thousand unconventional ideas submitted to Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for controlling the well fires left in the aftermath of lst year's Gulf War, only about a dozen were actually used. Inflatable kill packers, designed and manufactured by Baker Service Tools and marketed by Baker Oil Tools, were one of the ideas that proved effective. The kill packers are modifications of Baker's inflatable packers that have successfully been used in capping producers on many blowouts throughout the world, including the Piper Alpha disaster in the North Sea and the Saga blowout offshore Norway.

  5. γ-rays kill grasshopper primary spermatocytes in groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taweel, A.A.; Shawkit, M.A.; Fox, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Primary spermatocyte killing by γ-rays was studied in the grasshopper Heteracris littoralis in which spermatogenic development occurs in cysts containing a maximum of 64 cells during the first meiotic division. Cell killing at this stage is not random and mainly involves the death of whole cysts. The dose-response curve for cell killing has complex kinetics with at least two components but lacks any shoulder at low doses, thus indicating no repair of the lethal damage. Cell loss is apparent from surviving cysts as early as 45 min post irradiation but loss of > 24 cells is incompatible with cyst survival. Loss of fewer than 24 cells also is not random since certain values for cell loss are frequently observed while other, interspersed values are not seen at all. (Auth.)

  6. Supersymmetric backgrounds, the Killing superalgebra, and generalised special holonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, André [Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie,35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie,35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-10

    We prove that, for M theory or type II, generic Minkowski flux backgrounds preserving N supersymmetries in dimensions D≥4 correspond precisely to integrable generalised G{sub N} structures, where G{sub N} is the generalised structure group defined by the Killing spinors. In other words, they are the analogues of special holonomy manifolds in E{sub d(d)}×ℝ{sup +} generalised geometry. In establishing this result, we introduce the Kosmann-Dorfman bracket, a generalisation of Kosmann’s Lie derivative of spinors. This allows us to write down the internal sector of the Killing superalgebra, which takes a rather simple form and whose closure is the key step in proving the main result. In addition, we find that the eleven-dimensional Killing superalgebra of these backgrounds is necessarily the supertranslational part of the N-extended super-Poincaré algebra.

  7. On Discrete Killing Vector Fields and Patterns on Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ben-Chen, Mirela

    2010-09-21

    Symmetry is one of the most important properties of a shape, unifying form and function. It encodes semantic information on one hand, and affects the shape\\'s aesthetic value on the other. Symmetry comes in many flavors, amongst the most interesting being intrinsic symmetry, which is defined only in terms of the intrinsic geometry of the shape. Continuous intrinsic symmetries can be represented using infinitesimal rigid transformations, which are given as tangent vector fields on the surface - known as Killing Vector Fields. As exact symmetries are quite rare, especially when considering noisy sampled surfaces, we propose a method for relaxing the exact symmetry constraint to allow for approximate symmetries and approximate Killing Vector Fields, and show how to discretize these concepts for generating such vector fields on a triangulated mesh. We discuss the properties of approximate Killing Vector Fields, and propose an application to utilize them for texture and geometry synthesis. Journal compilation © 2010 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Role of copper oxides in contact killing of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Michael; Erbe, Andreas; Mathews, Salima; Chen, Ying; Solioz, Marc; Mücklich, Frank

    2013-12-31

    The potential of metallic copper as an intrinsically antibacterial material is gaining increasing attention in the face of growing antibiotics resistance of bacteria. However, the mechanism of the so-called "contact killing" of bacteria by copper surfaces is poorly understood and requires further investigation. In particular, the influences of bacteria-metal interaction, media composition, and copper surface chemistry on contact killing are not fully understood. In this study, copper oxide formation on copper during standard antimicrobial testing was measured in situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry. In parallel, contact killing under these conditions was assessed with bacteria in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or Tris-Cl. For comparison, defined Cu2O and CuO layers were thermally generated and characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial properties of these copper oxides were tested under the conditions used above. Finally, copper ion release was recorded for both buffer systems by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy, and exposed copper samples were analyzed for topographical surface alterations. It was found that there was a fairly even growth of CuO under wet plating conditions, reaching 4-10 nm in 300 min, but no measurable Cu2O was formed during this time. CuO was found to significantly inhibit contact killing, compared to pure copper. In contrast, thermally generated Cu2O was essentially as effective in contact killing as pure copper. Copper ion release from the different surfaces roughly correlated with their antibacterial efficacy and was highest for pure copper, followed by Cu2O and CuO. Tris-Cl induced a 10-50-fold faster copper ion release compared to PBS. Since the Cu2O that primarily forms on copper under ambient conditions is as active in contact killing as pure copper, antimicrobial objects will retain their antimicrobial properties even after oxide formation.

  9. Killing of Serratia marcescens biofilms with chloramphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christopher; Shenoy, Anukul T; Orihuela, Carlos J; González-Juarbe, Norberto

    2017-03-29

    Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative bacterium with proven resistance to multiple antibiotics and causative of catheter-associated infections. Bacterial colonization of catheters mainly involves the formation of biofilm. The objectives of this study were to explore the susceptibility of S. marcescens biofilms to high doses of common antibiotics and non-antimicrobial agents. Biofilms formed by a clinical isolate of S. marcescens were treated with ceftriaxone, kanamycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol at doses corresponding to 10, 100 and 1000 times their planktonic minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, biofilms were also treated with chemical compounds such as polysorbate-80 and ursolic acid. S. marcescens demonstrated susceptibility to ceftriaxone, kanamycin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol in its planktonic form, however, only chloramphenicol reduced both biofilm biomass and biofilm viability. Polysorbate-80 and ursolic acid had minimal to no effect on either planktonic and biofilm grown S. marcescens. Our results suggest that supratherapeutic doses of chloramphenicol can be used effectively against established S. marcescens biofilms.

  10. It?s Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the ...

  11. Traffics and wildlife: A preliminary study on road-kill

    OpenAIRE

    Rustiati, Elly Lestari

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary finding on road kill survey by direct observations onthe high ways. The road-kills recorded of small wildlife, including medium size-mammal (2.50%, n =1), birds (5.00%, n = 2) and small mammals (92.50%, n = 37). The small mammals include the mostcommon mammals in the areas, squirrels, raccoons, skunks and woodchuck. Of mammals, squirrels(35.00%) were the highest recorded, followed by woodchucks (25.00%), mice/shrew (17.50%),raccoons (10.00%), skunk (5.00%) ...

  12. Perturbative stability of the approximate Killing field eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetle, Christopher; Wilder, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    An approximate Killing field may be defined on a compact, Riemannian geometry by solving an eigenvalue problem for a certain elliptic operator. This paper studies the effect of small perturbations in the Riemannian metric on the resulting vector field. It shows that small metric perturbations, as measured using a Sobolev-type supremum norm on the space of Riemannian geometries on a fixed manifold, yield small perturbations in the approximate Killing field, as measured using a Hilbert-type square integral norm. It also discusses applications to the problem of computing the spin of a generic black hole in general relativity. (paper)

  13. A radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistoni, F.; Baccarini, M.; Blasi, E.; Marconi, P.; Puccetti, P.

    1982-01-01

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans. (Auth.)

  14. Keberanian Dalam Novel to Kill a Mockingbird Karya Harper Lee

    OpenAIRE

    Tiolemba, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The skripsi is entitled “Keberanian dalam Novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee”. The objective of this research is to analyze the bravery as the main theme in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird. The data are collected by focusing on the character, plot and setting which describe about the main theme in the story. This research uses the theory of Stanton (1965) in analyzing the data. The writer uses descriptive method intrinsically. Intrinsic approach is to examine the elements within the no...

  15. Estimation in Discretely Observed Diffusions Killed at a Threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bibbona, Enrico; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    are modelled as discretely observed diffusions which are killed when the threshold is reached. Statistical inference is often based on a misspecified likelihood ignoring the presence of the threshold causing severe bias, e.g. the bias incurred in the drift parameters of the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck model...... for biological relevant parameters can be up to 25–100 per cent. We compute or approximate the likelihood function of the killed process. When estimating from a single trajectory, considerable bias may still be present, and the distribution of the estimates can be heavily skewed and with a huge variance...

  16. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 reduces cedar pollen antigen-induced peritoneal eosinophilia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashihara, Toshihiro; Ikegami, Shuji; Sueki, Natsuko; Yamaji, Taketo; Kino, Kohsuke; Taketomo, Naoki; Gotoh, Minoru; Okubo, Kimihiro

    2008-12-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2809 strongly stimulates the production of interleukin (IL)-12 (p70) by innate immune cells. Thus, it is expected to ameliorate allergic diseases. We investigated whether the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppressed eosinophilia in cedar pollen antigen-challenged mice. BALB/c mice sensitized with Japanese cedar pollen extract were intraperitoneally challenged with the same extract. The mice were orally given heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 at doses of 0.5, 1, or 2mg/day throughout the experimental period (21 d). After 24 hours of the challenge, the eosinophil number and cytokine levels in the peritoneal lavage fluid and the serum antigen-specific IgG levels were determined. On administering varying amounts of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809, the number of eosinophils among the total number of cells was significantly reduced in all groups. In addition, the eosinophil number significantly decreased, and the eosinophil-suppression rate significantly increased by 44% in the 2-mg group. Although the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G2a and IgG1 levels were not affected, the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio increased significantly in the 2-mg group compared with that of the control group. Furthermore, the administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 resulted in the induction of IL-2 and reduction in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels in peritoneal lavage fluid. We demonstrated that the oral administration of heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 suppresses eosinophilia via the modulation of Th1/Th2 balance. These observations suggested that heat-killed L. gasseri OLL2809 might potentially ameliorate the increased number of eosinophils in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis.

  17. Do protons and X-rays induce cell-killing in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by different mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczyk, J; Rawojć, K; Panek, A; Borkowska, A; Prasanna, P G S; Ahmed, M M; Swakoń, J; Gałaś, A

    2018-02-01

    Significant progress has been made in the technological and physical aspects of dose delivery and distribution in proton therapy. However, mode of cell killing induced by protons is less understood in comparison with X-rays. The purpose of this study is to see if there is any difference in the mode of cell-killing, induced by protons and X-rays in an ex vivo human peripheral blood lymphocyte (HPBL) model. HPBL were irradiated with 60 MeV proton beam or 250-kVp X-rays in the dose range of 0.3-4.0 Gy. Frequency of apoptotic and necrotic cells was determined by the Fluorescein (FITC)-Annexin V labelling procedure, 1 and 4 h after irradiation. Chip-based DNA Ladder Assay was used to confirm radiation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. Chip-based DNA Ladder Assay was used to confirm radiation-induced apoptosis. Ex vivo irradiation of HPBL with proton beams of 60 MeV or 250 kVp X-rays resulted in apoptotic as well as necrotic modes of cell-killing, which were evident at both 1 and 4 h after irradiation in the whole dose and time range. Generally, our results indicated that protons cause relatively higher yields of cell death that appears to be necrosis compared to X-rays. The analysis also demonstrates that radiation type and dose play a critical role in mode of cell-killing. Obtained results suggest that X-rays and protons induce cell-killing by different modes. Such differences in cell-killing modes may have implications on the potential of a given therapeutic modality to cause immune modulation via programmed cell death (X-rays) or necrotic cell death (proton therapy). These studies point towards exploring for gene expression biomarkers related necrosis or apoptosis to predict immune response after proton therapy.

  18. Large numbers of seabirds are killed each year by long- line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    member nations to produce “Plans of Action for ... Percy FitzPatrick Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa. ... Marine & Coastal Management, Private Bag X2, Rogge Bay 8012, Cape Town, ... Affairs and Tourism, were placed aboard tuna long- ... a South African port once, making it difficult to de-.

  19. Activation of macrophages for microbicidal and tumoricidal effector functions by soluble factors from EL-4, a continuous T cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Nacy, C A; James, S L; Benjamin, W R; Farrar, J J; Hockmeyer, W T; Meltzer, M S

    1983-01-01

    Macrophages treated with culture fluids from EL-4 cells, a continuous T cell line, were activated to kill mKSA-TU-5 fibrosarcoma cells, amastigotes of Leishmania tropica, and schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. Active EL-4 factors eluted from Sephadex G-100 in two distinct regions: molecular weight 45,000 (activities induced killing of unrelated intracellular and extracellular targets) and molecular weight 23,000 (activities induced killing of extracellular targets only). These results conf...

  20. A Killing tensor for higher dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes with NUT charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the recently discovered family of higher dimensional Kerr-AdS black holes with an extra NUT-like parameter. We show that the inverse metric is additively separable after multiplication by a simple function. This allows us to separate the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, showing that geodesic motion is integrable on this background. The separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is intimately linked to the existence of an irreducible Killing tensor, which provides an extra constant of motion. We also demonstrate that the Klein-Gordon equation for this background is separable

  1. IIB solutions with N>28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2007-01-01

    We show that all IIB supergravity backgrounds which admit more than 28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric. In particular, we find that for all N>28 backgrounds the supercovariant curvature vanishes, and that the quotients of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds either preserve all 32 or N<29 supersymmetries

  2. Denaturation of membrane proteins and hyperthermic cell killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgman, Paulus Wilhelmus Johannes Jozef

    1993-01-01

    Summarizing: heat induced denaturation of membrane proteins is probably related to hyperthermic cell killing. Induced resistance of heat sensitive proteins seems to be involved in the development of thermotolerance. Although many questions remain still to be answered, it appears that HSP72, when

  3. Self-dual metrics with self-dual Killing vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.; Ward, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Twistor methods are used to derive a class of solutions to Einstein's vacuum equations, with anti-self dual Weyl tensor. In particular, all metrics with a Killing vector whose derivative is anti-self-dual and which admit a real positive-definite section are exhibited and shown to coincide with the metrics of Hawking. (author)

  4. Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more upsetting than the sudden death of a child — killed by a piece of a furniture, appliance or a television falling on them. “It can happen in a ... be secured. Check with home improvement stores or child retail stores and ask experts what they ... television and computer equipment low to the ground. Do ...

  5. Kill Shakespeare – This Bard contains graphic language!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Gentile

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, adapting Shakespearean plays into comic books or graphic novels appears to be a well-established literary practice in contemporary storytelling. One of the most interesting examples is ÒKill ShakespeareÓ, a graphic novel written by Anthony Del Col and Conor McCreery and illustrated by Andy Belanger. In ÒKill ShakespeareÓ, the authors abandon the idea of adapting a single play to create a Shakespearian mashup in which Hamlet and Juliet fight such villains as Richard III and Lady Macbeth who try to kill a wizard named William Shakespeare.This is the premise for a compelling narration that intertwines various elements of the Shakespearean tradition and attempts to convey an idea of Elizabethan language to contemporary readers. While the characters are familiar, the quest is wholly new and triggers a series of transformations in the narrative, turning upside down the well-established images of Hamlet, Juliet and Othello. Beside the intriguing depictions of the female characters, especially Lady Macbeth,whose image poses questions about the representation of women in comic books, one of the most fertile narrative elements in Kill Shakespeare is the actual presence of William Shakespeare as a character. In conclusion, Del Col and McCreery prove they know their Shakespeare, surprising readers with a fresh approach which, hopefully, will enlarge the Shakespearean audience.

  6. Efficacy of Killed Adjuvanted FMD Vaccine Developed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the potency of killed Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccines serotypes SAT1 (Nig 1/98) and SAT 2 (Nig 2/97) virus isolates, formulated with montanide ISA 206 adjuvant was determined in guinea pigs and cattle by antibody assay using Complement Fixation and Serum Neutralization tests. The antibody titres ...

  7. What Is John Dewey Doing in "To Kill a Mockingbird"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" is taught in countless public schools and is beloved by many teachers and future teachers. Embedded within this novel--interestingly--is a strong criticism of an approach to education mockingly referred to as the "Dewey Decimal System." In this essay I explore Lee's criticism of…

  8. Developing a Critical Literacy Approach with "To Kill a Mockingbird."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Marian

    2000-01-01

    Ponders why the novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" has held a place in the secondary school canon for 40 years. Describes a 10-week unit for year 10 English students that takes a critical literacy approach to the novel. Outlines a set of pre-reading activities, during reading activities and post-reading activities. (SR)

  9. Suppression of mouse-killing in rats following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Boyle, M.

    1976-01-01

    Suppression of mouse-killing was produced following pairings of mouse-presentations (CS) with 96 roentgens of ionizing radiation (US) at 0 (less than 2 min.) and 30 min. US-CS interstimulus intervals. No suppression was found at CS-US intervals of 30 min., 1 hr., and 2 hr., or at US-CS intervals of 1 hr. and 2 hr

  10. Fish Kill in the Philippines—Déjà Vu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Jacinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost ten years ago today, the country woke up toscreaming headlines— “Massive Fish Kill inPangasinan” or something akin to that. The fish killphenomenon, familiar to fishers in freshwater andcoastal bodies of water where fish farming was beingpursued, was suddenly manifested at a scale that hadheretofore not been experienced.

  11. The algebra of Killing vectors in five-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rcheulishvili, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents algebras which are formed by the found earlier Killing vectors in the space with linear element ds. Under some conditions, an explicit dependence of r is given for the functions entering in linear element ds. The curvature two-forms are described. 7 refs

  12. Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

  13. Targeted killing with drones? Old arguments, new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisels Tamar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of how to contend with terrorism in keeping with our preexisting moral and legal commitments now challenges Europe as well as Israel and the United States: how do we apply Just War Theory and International Law to asymmetrical warfare, specifically to our counter terrorism measures? What can the classic moral argument in Just and Unjust Wars teach us about contemporary targeted killings with drones? I begin with a defense of targeted killing, arguing for the advantages of pin pointed attacks over any alternative measure available for combatting terrorism. Assuming the legitimacy of killing combatants in wartime, I argue, there is nothing wrong, and in fact much that is right, with targeting particular terrorists selected by name, as long as their assassinations can be reasonably expected to reduce terrorist hostilities rather than increase it. Subsequently, I offer some further thoughts and comments on the use of remotely piloted aircrafts to carry out targeted killings, and address the various sources for discomfort with this practice identified by Michael Walzer and others.

  14. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  15. Nordic Noir on Television: The Killing I-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic Noir has been applied by many countries as a slightly distorting mirror of tendencies in their own societies. On the background of its international appeal, the article analyses the prevalent genre of The Killing – the thriller – and relates it to the genres of crime fiction, political...

  16. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMichalska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells.

  17. Benzothiazinones kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis by blocking arabinan synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Vadim; Manina, Giulia; Mikusova, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    New drugs are required to counter the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-benzothiazin-4-ones (BTZs), a new class of antimycobacterial agents that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, ex vivo, and in mouse models of TB. Using genetics...

  18. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-09

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  19. In vitro time kill assessment of crude methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antibacterial activities and time kill regimes of crude methanol extract of Helichrysum pedunculatum was assessed using standard microbiological procedures. The experiment was conducted against a panel of bacterial species made up of clinical, environmental and reference strains. The extract was active ...

  20. Pancreatic Carcinoma: the Disease that Kills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Ramadani, Naser; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hoxhaj, Asrtrit; Jerliu, Naim

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the clinical symptoms and laboratory changes that have occurred very late and were very few in number even the imaging studies performed at that time showed an intensive local tumor growth associated with the wide infiltration of the both adjacent and distant upper abdominal structures. A 71-year-old male patient who was a chronic alcohol abuser and ex smoker (quit smoking 8 years earlier) presented with symptoms of mild pain on epigastric region that irradiated toward the back and significant weight loss. The initial ultrasonography (US) examination was performed, followed by the lab tests and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examination. The diagnostic studies confirmed the presence of the pancreatic's body mass. The ordered laparoscopic evaluation established definitive diagnosis. Initial US examination showed heterogeneous pseudo-cystic changes and slight edema of the pancreatic parenchyma associated with the multiple oval hyperechogenic lesions of liver - the signs highly suggestive of secondary metastatic deposits. The other imaging findings that were obtained with the use of the MDCT confirmed the presence of an expansive primary process of the body of the pancreas associated with the secondary metastatic changes in liver. In addition, the consecutive lymphadenopathy was revealed along hepatoduodenal ligament, retropancreatic region and intraperitoneal compartment. Tumor markers resulted with the high values of the AFP of 2.3, CA19-9 of 423.0 U/mL, and CEA of 219.0 ng/mL. The specimen of the tumor tissue taken during laparoscopic biopsy was sent for histologic examination and the final result was "metastatic adenocarcinoma of pancreas". Pancreatic body carcinoma has always been associated with poor prognosis because diagnosis is made at the advanced stage of the disease. Therefore, poor prognosis might be improved if early diagnosis could be made. Recent researches confirmed genetic predisposition for

  1. Pancreatic Carcinoma: the Disease that Kills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Ramadani, Naser; Mucaj, Sefedin; Hoxhaj, Asrtrit; Jerliu, Naim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the clinical symptoms and laboratory changes that have occurred very late and were very few in number even the imaging studies performed at that time showed an intensive local tumor growth associated with the wide infiltration of the both adjacent and distant upper abdominal structures. A 71-year-old male patient who was a chronic alcohol abuser and ex smoker (quit smoking 8 years earlier) presented with symptoms of mild pain on epigastric region that irradiated toward the back and significant weight loss. The initial ultrasonography (US) examination was performed, followed by the lab tests and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examination. The diagnostic studies confirmed the presence of the pancreatic’s body mass. The ordered laparoscopic evaluation established definitive diagnosis. Initial US examination showed heterogeneous pseudo-cystic changes and slight edema of the pancreatic parenchyma associated with the multiple oval hyperechogenic lesions of liver - the signs highly suggestive of secondary metastatic deposits. The other imaging findings that were obtained with the use of the MDCT confirmed the presence of an expansive primary process of the body of the pancreas associated with the secondary metastatic changes in liver. In addition, the consecutive lymphadenopathy was revealed along hepatoduodenal ligament, retropancreatic region and intraperitoneal compartment. Tumor markers resulted with the high values of the AFP of 2.3, CA19-9 of 423.0 U/mL, and CEA of 219.0 ng/mL. The specimen of the tumor tissue taken during laparoscopic biopsy was sent for histologic examination and the final result was “metastatic adenocarcinoma of pancreas”. Pancreatic body carcinoma has always been associated with poor prognosis because diagnosis is made at the advanced stage of the disease. Therefore, poor prognosis might be improved if early diagnosis could be made. Recent researches confirmed genetic

  2. Covariant electromagnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.

  3. [Killing effect of polymorphonuclear neutrophils on Trichomonas vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Ling; Gao, Xing-Zheng; Qu, Ming

    2008-10-30

    To study the killing effect of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) on Trichomonas vaginalis. The vaginal secretion from a patient with vaginitis was incubated in the liver infusion liquid medium to get T. vaginalis. One ml serum was collected from the patient and heated for 30 min at 56 degrees C to inactivate complement in serum, and was absorbed three times with the parasites at 0 degree C to make the serum free of antibodies. PMNs were separated from the patient's blood and purified with density gradient centrifugation and polymer accelerating sedimentation. NBT and safranin O were used to stain the sample. The interaction between PMNs and the parasites was observed under microscope. 300 trichomonads and 3x10(4) PMNs were incubated for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 minutes under the conditions of aerobic or anaerobic, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) or without SOD and CAT, and with complement or without complement. They were then inoculated in solid medium for another five days under the anaerobic condition, and surviving organisms were enumerated. PMNs were observed to surround and kill a single trichomonad. In the petri-dish containing PMNs, the surviving rate of the parasites in anaerobic condition was 85%, only 3% in aerobic condition (P<0.01). SOD and CAT reduced the killing effect of PMNs, with a surviving rate of 98% and 94% respectively after 60 min incubation. Without SOD and CAT, the surviving rate is only 2% (P<0.05). PMNs in the serum without antibodies killed all the parasites, while the complement-inactivated serum fail to kill them. The trichomonacidal activity of PMNs relies on the presence of oxygen and complement in the serum of patient.

  4. Use of UV-irradiated bacteriophage T6 to kill extracellular bacteria in tissue culture infectivity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.R.; Maurelli, A.T.; Goguen, J.D.; Straley, S.C.; Curtiss, R. III

    1983-01-01

    The authors have utilized 'lysis from without' mediated by UV-inactivated bacteriophage T6 to eliminate extracellular bacteria in experiments measuring the internalization, intracellular survival and replication of Yersinia pestis within mouse peritoneal macrophages and of Shigella flexneri within a human intestinal epithelial cell line. The technique described has the following characteristics: (a) bacterial killing is complete within 15 min at 37 0 C, with a >10 3 -fold reduction in colony-forming units (CFU); (b) bacteria within cultured mammalian cells are protected from killing by UV-inactivated T6; (c) the mammalian cells are not observably affected by exposure to UV-inactivated T6. This technique has several advantages over the use of antibiotics to eliminate extracellular bacteria and is potentially widely applicable in studies of the interactions between pathogenic bacteria and host phagocytic cells as well as other target tissues. (Auth.)

  5. Broadening the future of value account of the wrongness of killing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    On Don Marquis's future of value account of the wrongness of killing, 'what makes it wrong to kill those individuals we all believe it is wrong to kill, is that killing them deprives them of their future of value'. Marquis has recently argued for a narrow interpretation of his future of value...... account of the wrongness of killing and against the broad interpretation that I had put forward in response to Carson Strong. In this article I argue that the narrow view is problematic because it violates some basic principles of equality and because it allows for some of the very killing that Marquis...

  6. Nurses, medical records and the killing of sick persons before, during and after the Nazi regime in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    During the Nazi regime (1933-1945), more than 300,000 psychiatric patients were killed. The well-calculated killing of chronic mentally 'ill' patients was part of a huge biopolitical program of well-established scientific, eugenic standards of the time. Among the medical personnel implicated in these assassinations were nurses, who carried out this program through their everyday practice. However, newer research raises suspicions that psychiatric patients were being assassinated before and after the Nazi regime, which, I hypothesize, implies that the motives for these killings must be investigated within psychiatric practice itself. An investigation of the impact of the interplay between the notes left by nurses and those by psychiatrists illustrates the active role of the psychiatric medical record in the killing of these patients. Using theoretical insights from Michel Foucault and philosopher Giorgio Agamben and analyzing one part of a particularly rich patient file found in the Langenhorn Psychiatric Asylum in the city of Hamburg, I demonstrate the role of the record in both constructing and deconstructing patient subjectivities. De-subjectifying patients condemned them to specific zones in the asylum within which they were reduced to their 'bare life'--a precondition for their physical assassination. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The use of Imago Dei as a pastoral healing vision against women killings in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah M. Baloyi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation and killings of women in South Africa are a concern not only for the government, but also for pastoral caregivers as well. Although the government has introduced institutions like the Commission for Gender Equality with responsibilities to ensure that there is equality between genders, it seems that the supposed patriarchal masculine superiority continues to demonstrate its dominance through the abuse, as well as the killings of women. Assigning women to the status of secondary citizens who are tortured and exposed to gender-based violence is not only unconstitutional, but also biblically wrong, as we can see from the biblical message of the creation of human beings. The goal of this article is to use the premise of �the image of God� to argue that women also are created in the image of God and hence they are worthy to be treated as such, from sexual harassment, sexual abuse and violence to murder. This is my personal observation as women of this country are being killed by their husbands and boyfriends. This article will use case studies to argue that women (just like men deserve, as images of God, to live freely without fear of being killed by their husbands and boyfriends for whatever wrongdoing.

  8. An Fc engineering approach that modulates antibody-dependent cytokine release without altering cell-killing functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, Michelle; Greenplate, Allison R; Strohl, William R; Jordan, Robert E; Brezski, Randall J

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) often mediate target cell-killing by eliciting immune effector functions via Fc region interactions with cellular and humoral components of the immune system. Key functions include antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). However, there has been increased appreciation that along with cell-killing functions, the induction of antibody-dependent cytokine release (ADCR) can also influence disease microenvironments and therapeutic outcomes. Historically, most Fc engineering approaches have been aimed toward modulating ADCC, ADCP, or CDC. In the present study, we describe an Fc engineering approach that, while not resulting in impaired ADCC or ADCP, profoundly affects ADCR. As such, when peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as effector cells against mAb-opsonized tumor cells, the described mAb variants elicit a similar profile and quantity of cytokines as IgG1. In contrast, although the variants elicit similar levels of tumor cell-killing as IgG1 with macrophage effector cells, the variants do not elicit macrophage-mediated ADCR against mAb-opsonized tumor cells. This study demonstrates that Fc engineering approaches can be employed to uncouple macrophage-mediated phagocytic and subsequent cell-killing functions from cytokine release.

  9. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    At just over 10 meters above street level, the High Line extends three kilometers through three districts of Southwestern Manhattan in New York. It consists of simple steel construction, and previously served as an elevated rail line connection between Penn Station on 34th Street and the many....... The High Line project has been carried out as part of an open conversion strategy. The result is a remarkable urban architectural project, which works as a catalyst for the urban development of Western Manhattan. The greater project includes the restoration and reuse of many old industrial buildings...

  10. Male-killing bacteria as agents of insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berec, Ludek; Maxin, Daniel; Bernhauerová, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    1. Continual effort is needed to reduce the impact of exotic species in the context of increased globalization. Any innovation in this respect would be an asset. 2. We assess the potential of combining two pest control techniques: the well-established sterile insect technique (SIT) and a novel male-killing technique (MKT), which comprises inoculation of a pest population with bacteria that kill the infected male embryos. 3. Population models are developed to assess the efficiency of using the MKT for insect pest control, either alone or together with the SIT. We seek for conditions under which the MKT weakens requirements on the SIT. 4. Regarding the SIT, we consider both non-heritable and inherited sterility. In both cases, the MKT and SIT benefit one another. The MKT may prevent the SIT from failing when not enough sterilized males are released due to high production costs and/or uncertainty on their mating ability following a high irradiation dose. Conversely, with already established SIT, pest eradication can be achieved after introduction of male-killing bacteria with lower vertical transmission efficiency than if the MKT was applied alone. 5. For tephritid fruit flies with non-heritable sterility, maximal impact of the SIT is achieved when the released males are fully sterile. Conversely, for lepidopterans with inherited sterility, maximal impact of the SIT is achieved for intermediate irradiation doses. In both cases, increasing vertical transmission efficiency of male-killing bacteria benefits the SIT; high enough vertical transmission efficiency allows for pest eradication where the SIT is absent or induces only pest suppression when used alone. 6. Synthesis and applications. While both techniques can suppress or eliminate the pest on their own, combined application of the male-killing technique and the sterile insect technique substantially increases pest control efficiency. If male-killing bacteria are already established in the pest, any assessment of

  11. Nanodiamonds facilitate killing of intracellular uropathogenic E. coli in an in vitro model of urinary tract infection pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Janaki Kannan; Dickey, Alexia; Rouhani, Parvaneh; Kaul, Anil; Govindaraju, Nirmal; Singh, Raj Narain; Kaul, Rashmi

    2018-01-01

    About 25-44% of women will experience at least one episode of recurrent UTI and the causative agent in over 70% of UTI cases is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC cause recurrent UTI by evading the bladder's innate immune system through internalization into the bladder epithelium where antibiotics cannot reach or be effective. Thus, it is important to develop novel therapeutics to eliminate these intracellular pathogens. Nanodiamonds (NDs) are biocompatible nanomaterials that serve as promising candidates for targeted therapeutic applications. The objective of the current study was to investigate if 6 or 25 nm NDs can kill extracellular and intracellular UPEC in infected bladder cells. We utilized the human bladder epithelial cell line, T24, and an invasive strain of UPEC that causes recurrent UTI. We found that acid-purified 6 nm NDs displayed greater antibacterial properties towards UPEC than 25 nm NDs (11.5% vs 94.2% CFU/mL at 100 μg/mL of 6 and 25 nm, respectively; P<0.001). Furthermore, 6 nm NDs were better than 25 nm NDs in reducing the number of UPEC internalized in T24 bladder cells (46.1% vs 81.1% CFU/mL at 100 μg/mL of 6 and 25 nm, respectively; P<0.01). Our studies demonstrate that 6 nm NDs interacted with T24 bladder cells in a dose-dependent manner and were internalized in 2 hours through an actin-dependent mechanism. Finally, internalization of NDs was required for reducing the number of intracellular UPEC in T24 bladder cells. These findings suggest that 6 nm NDs are promising candidates to treat recurrent UTIs.

  12. Nanodiamonds facilitate killing of intracellular uropathogenic E. coli in an in vitro model of urinary tract infection pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki Kannan Iyer

    Full Text Available About 25-44% of women will experience at least one episode of recurrent UTI and the causative agent in over 70% of UTI cases is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC. UPEC cause recurrent UTI by evading the bladder's innate immune system through internalization into the bladder epithelium where antibiotics cannot reach or be effective. Thus, it is important to develop novel therapeutics to eliminate these intracellular pathogens. Nanodiamonds (NDs are biocompatible nanomaterials that serve as promising candidates for targeted therapeutic applications. The objective of the current study was to investigate if 6 or 25 nm NDs can kill extracellular and intracellular UPEC in infected bladder cells. We utilized the human bladder epithelial cell line, T24, and an invasive strain of UPEC that causes recurrent UTI. We found that acid-purified 6 nm NDs displayed greater antibacterial properties towards UPEC than 25 nm NDs (11.5% vs 94.2% CFU/mL at 100 μg/mL of 6 and 25 nm, respectively; P<0.001. Furthermore, 6 nm NDs were better than 25 nm NDs in reducing the number of UPEC internalized in T24 bladder cells (46.1% vs 81.1% CFU/mL at 100 μg/mL of 6 and 25 nm, respectively; P<0.01. Our studies demonstrate that 6 nm NDs interacted with T24 bladder cells in a dose-dependent manner and were internalized in 2 hours through an actin-dependent mechanism. Finally, internalization of NDs was required for reducing the number of intracellular UPEC in T24 bladder cells. These findings suggest that 6 nm NDs are promising candidates to treat recurrent UTIs.

  13. Host immunity in the protective response to vaccination with heat-killed Burkholderia mallei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paessler Slobodan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed initial cell, cytokine and complement depletion studies to investigate the possible role of these effectors in response to vaccination with heat-killed Burkholderia mallei in a susceptible BALB/c mouse model of infection. Results While protection with heat-killed bacilli did not result in sterilizing immunity, limited protection was afforded against an otherwise lethal infection and provided insight into potential host protective mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that mice depleted of either B cells, TNF-α or IFN-γ exhibited decreased survival rates, indicating a role for these effectors in obtaining partial protection from a lethal challenge by the intraperitoneal route. Additionally, complement depletion had no effect on immunoglobulin production when compared to non-complement depleted controls infected intranasally. Conclusion The data provide a basis for future studies of protection via vaccination using either subunit or whole-organism vaccine preparations from lethal infection in the experimental BALB/c mouse model. The results of this study demonstrate participation of B220+ cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α in protection following HK vaccination.

  14. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  15. Repair of DNA double-strand breaks and cell killing by charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Murakami, M.; Itsukaichi, H.; Fukutsu, K.; Yatagai, F.; Kanai, T.; Ohara, H.; Sato, K.

    It has been suggested that it is not simple double-strand breaks (dsb) but the non-reparable breaks which correlate well with the high biological effectiveness of high LET radiations for cell killing. We have compared the effects of charged particles on cell death in 3 pairs of cell lines which are normal or defective in the repair of DNA dsbs. For the cell lines SL3-147, M10, and SX10 which are deficient in DNA dsb repair, RBE values were close to unity for cell killing induced by charged particles with linear energy transfer (LET) up to 200 keV/mum and were even smaller than unity for the LET region greater than 300 keV/mum. The inactivation cross section (ICS) increased with LET for all 3 pairs. The ICS of dsb repair deficient mutants was always larger than that of their parents for all the LET ranges, but with increasing LET the difference in ICS between the mutant and its parent became smaller. Since a small difference in ICS remained at LET of about 300 keV/mum, dsb repair may still take place at this high LET, even if its role is apparently small. These results suggest that the DNA repair system does not play a major role in protection against the attack of high LET radiations and that a main cause of cell death is non-reparable dsb which are produced at a higher yield compared with low LET radiations. No correlation was observed between DNA content or nuclear area and ICS.

  16. Scientific projection paper for mutagenesis, transformation and cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    Our knowledge about mutagenesis, transformation, and cell killing by ionizing radiation consists of large bodies of data, which are potentially useful in terms of application to human risk assessment and to the constructive use of radiation, as in cancer treatment. The three end-points discussed above are united by at least five significant concepts in radiation research strategy: (1) The inter-relationships among the important end-points, mutation, carcinogenesis, and cell killing. Research on one is meaningful only in the context of information about the other two. (2) The interaction of radiations with other agents in producing these end-points. (3) The mechanisms of action of other environmental mutagenic, carcinogenic, and cytotoxic agents. (4) The use of repair deficient human mutant cells. (5) The study of radiation damage mechanisms. There is no better way to extrapolate laboratory data to the clinical and public worlds than to understand the underlying biological mechanisms that produced the data

  17. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes . The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  18. Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estók, Péter; Zsebők, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation. PMID:19740892

  19. A Research for Massive Fish Kills in Lake Bafa (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yabanlı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As there were massive fish kills in Lake Bafa which is a lagoon situated in Southwestern Turkey in October, 2006, water and fish samples were taken from the region. Water samples were analysed physicochemically, toxicologically and microbiologically and fish samples were subjected to toxicological analysis. The analyses of lake water revealed on oxygen value of approximately 5.0 mg/L, salinity 16.2 ‰, nitrogen from ammonia 0.1 mg/L, nitrogen nitrite 0.013 mg/L, and total organic carbon 13 mg/L. Total coliform count was 1100 MPN/100 ml and faecal coliform count was 28 MPN/100 ml. There was no detection of any pesticide residues in fish and water samples. Massive fish kills are thought to be due to the decrease in water quality.

  20. The killing of African trypanosomes by ethidium bromide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Roy Chowdhury

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduced in the 1950s, ethidium bromide (EB is still used as an anti-trypanosomal drug for African cattle although its mechanism of killing has been unclear and controversial. EB has long been known to cause loss of the mitochondrial genome, named kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, a giant network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. However, the existence of viable parasites lacking kDNA (dyskinetoplastic led many to think that kDNA loss could not be the mechanism of killing. When recent studies indicated that kDNA is indeed essential in bloodstream trypanosomes and that dyskinetoplastic cells survive only if they have a compensating mutation in the nuclear genome, we investigated the effect of EB on kDNA and its replication. We here report some remarkable effects of EB. Using EM and other techniques, we found that binding of EB to network minicircles is low, probably because of their association with proteins that prevent helix unwinding. In contrast, covalently-closed minicircles that had been released from the network for replication bind EB extensively, causing them, after isolation, to become highly supertwisted and to develop regions of left-handed Z-DNA (without EB, these circles are fully relaxed. In vivo, EB causes helix distortion of free minicircles, preventing replication initiation and resulting in kDNA loss and cell death. Unexpectedly, EB also kills dyskinetoplastic trypanosomes, lacking kDNA, by inhibiting nuclear replication. Since the effect on kDNA occurs at a >10-fold lower EB concentration than that on nuclear DNA, we conclude that minicircle replication initiation is likely EB's most vulnerable target, but the effect on nuclear replication may also contribute to cell killing.

  1. Targeted Killing: Managing American Perceptions On Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Requirements Proposal Advisor: Dr. Patricia Williams Lessane Project Advisor: Dr. Andrew Niesiobedzki Maxwell AFB, AL February 2016...epistemology of remote fighting." Ethics and Information Technology 15. no. 2. 87-98. Cullen , Peter. 2008. "The Role of Targeted Killing in the...in the Sky." New Statesman 19-25. June. 48. Patterson, Margot. 2015. "Are We Safer." America 212. no. 204. 12. Raven-Hansen, William C. Banks and

  2. Comments on conformal Killing vector fields and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.; Ottewill, A.C.; Siklos, S.T.C.

    1982-01-01

    We give a comprehensive analysis of those vacuums for flat and conformally flat space-times which can be defined by timelike, hypersurface-orthogonal, conformal Killing vector fields. We obtain formulas for the difference in stress-energy density between any two such states and display the correspondence with the renormalized stress tensors. A brief discussion is given of the relevance of these results to quantum-mechanical measurements made by noninertial observers moving through flat space

  3. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Ercolini, Danilo; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis and its toxins are widely used for insect control. Notwithstanding the remarkable importance of this insect pathogen, its killing mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we show that the microbiota resident in the host midgut triggers a lethal septicemia. The infection process is enhanced by reducing the host immune response and its control on replication of midgut bacteria invading the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. The experimental approa...

  4. Does Host Complement Kill Borrelia burgdorferi within Ticks?

    OpenAIRE

    Rathinavelu, Sivaprakash; Broadwater, Anne; de Silva, Aravinda M.

    2003-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, inhabits the gut lumen of the tick vector. At this location the spirochete is exposed to host blood when a tick feeds. We report here on studies that were done with normal and complement-deficient (C3-knockout) mice to determine if the host complement system killed spirochetes within the vector. We found that spirochete numbers within feeding nymphs were not influenced by complement, most likely because host complement was inactivated within ...

  5. Shearfree congruences of null geodesics and Killing tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, W.; Ruediger, R.

    1980-01-01

    In this communication, the mutual connections between quantities that are generalizations of the notion of a a Killing vector field are investigated. A classification of these quantities in terms of a complex vector field αsub(a) is given. A common feature of all these quantities is that they imply the existence of a pair of shearfree geodetic null congruences. There are no explicit restrictions posed on the Ricci tensor. (author)

  6. From Attitudes to Actions: Predictors of Lion Killing by Maasai Warriors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzah, Leela; Bath, Alistair; Dolrenry, Stephanie; Dickman, Amy; Frank, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    Despite legal protection, deliberate killing by local people is one of the major threats to the conservation of lions and other large carnivores in Africa. Addressing this problem poses particular challenges, mainly because it is difficult to uncover illicit behavior. This article examined two groups of Maasai warriors: individuals who have killed African lions (Panthera leo) and those who have not. We conducted interviews to explore the relationship between attitudes, intentions and known lion killing behavior. Factor analysis and logistic regression revealed that lion killing was mainly determined by: (a) general attitudes toward lions, (b) engagement in traditional customs, (c) lion killing intentions to defend property, and (d) socio-cultural killing intentions. Our results indicated that general attitudes toward lions were the strongest predictor of lion killing behavior. Influencing attitudes to encourage pro-conservation behavior may help reduce killing.

  7. Leadership Matters : The Effects of Targeted Killings on Militant Group Tactics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahms, Max; Mierau, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Targeted killings have become a central component of counter-terrorism strategy. In response to the unprecedented prevalence of this strategy around the world, numerous empirical studies have recently examined whether "decapitating" militant groups with targeted killings is strategically effective.

  8. Default risk modeling with position-dependent killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yuri A.

    2013-04-01

    Diffusion in a linear potential in the presence of position-dependent killing is used to mimic a default process. Different assumptions regarding transport coefficients, initial conditions, and elasticity of the killing measure lead to diverse models of bankruptcy. One “stylized fact” is fundamental for our consideration: empirically default is a rather rare event, especially in the investment grade categories of credit ratings. Hence, the action of killing may be considered as a small parameter. In a number of special cases we derive closed-form expressions for the entire term structure of the cumulative probability of default, its hazard rate, and intensity. Comparison with historical data on aggregate global corporate defaults confirms the validity of the perturbation method for estimations of long-term probability of default for companies with high credit quality. On a single company level, we implement the derived formulas to estimate the one-year likelihood of default of Enron on a daily basis from August 2000 to August 2001, three months before its default, and compare the obtained results with forecasts of traditional structural models.

  9. Intestinal mucus protects Giardia lamblia from killing by human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenian, A J; Gillin, F D

    1987-02-01

    We have previously shown that nonimmune human milk kills Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro. Killing requires a bile salt and the activity of the milk bile salt-stimulated lipase. We now show that human small-intestinal mucus protects trophozoites from killing by milk. Parasite survival increased with mucus concentration, but protection was overcome during longer incubation times or with greater milk concentrations. Trophozoites preincubated with mucus and then washed were not protected. Protective activity was associated with non-mucin CsCl density gradient fractions. Moreover, it was heat-stable, non-dialyzable, and non-lipid. Whereas whole mucus inhibited milk lipolytic activity, protective mucus fractions did not inhibit the enzyme. Furthermore, mucus partially protected G. lamblia trophozoites against the toxicity of oleic acid, a fatty acid which is released from milk triglycerides by lipase. These studies show that mucus protects G. lamblia both by inhibiting lipase activity and by decreasing the toxicity of products of lipolysis. The ability of mucus to protect G. lamblia from toxic lipolytic products may help to promote intestinal colonization by this parasite.

  10. Photoexcited quantum dots for killing multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Colleen M.; Goodman, Samuel M.; McDaniel, Jessica A.; Madinger, Nancy E.; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are an ever-growing threat because of the shrinking arsenal of efficacious antibiotics. Metal nanoparticles can induce cell death, yet the toxicity effect is typically nonspecific. Here, we show that photoexcited quantum dots (QDs) can kill a wide range of multidrug-resistant bacterial clinical isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium. The killing effect is independent of material and controlled by the redox potentials of the photogenerated charge carriers, which selectively alter the cellular redox state. We also show that the QDs can be tailored to kill 92% of bacterial cells in a monoculture, and in a co-culture of E. coli and HEK 293T cells, while leaving the mammalian cells intact, or to increase bacterial proliferation. Photoexcited QDs could be used in the study of the effect of redox states on living systems, and lead to clinical phototherapy for the treatment of infections.

  11. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  12. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  13. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a comparative study of demonstrative forms in three K wa languages, ... relative distance from the deictic centre, such as English this and that, here and there. ... Mostly, the referents of demonstratives are 'activated' or at least.

  14. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  15. Time-kill assay and Etest evaluation for synergy with polymyxin B and fluconazole against Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, George; Ashcraft, Deborah; Kahn, Heather; Ismail, Abdulrahim

    2014-10-01

    Fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata is an emerging pathogen that causes fungemia. Polymyxin B, a last-resort antibiotic used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, has been found to possess in vitro fungicidal activity and showed synergy with fluconazole against a single strain of C. glabrata. Since both agents may be used simultaneously in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, this study was performed to test for possible synergy of this combination against 35 C. glabrata blood isolates, using 2 methods: a time-kill assay and an experimental MIC-MIC Etest method. Thirty-five genetically unique C. glabrata bloodstream isolates were collected from 2009 to 2011, identified using an API 20C system, and genotyped by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). MICs were determined by Etest and broth microdilution methods. Synergy testing was performed using a modified bacterial Etest synergy method and time-kill assay, with final results read at 24 h. The Etest method showed synergy against 19/35 (54%) isolates; the time-kill assay showed synergy against 21/35 (60%) isolates. Isolates not showing drug synergy had an indifferent status. Concordance between methods was 60%. In vitro synergy of polymyxin B and fluconazole against the majority of C. glabrata isolates was demonstrated by both methods. The bacterial Etest synergy method adapted well when used with C. glabrata. Etest was easier to perform than time-kill assay and may be found to be an acceptable alternative to time-kill assay with antifungals. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  18. Influenza virus inactivated by artificial ribonucleases as a prospective killed virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Antonina A; Goncharova, Elena P; Kovpak, Mikhail P; Vlassov, Valentin V; Zenkova, Marina A

    2012-04-19

    The inactivation of viral particles with agents causing minimal damage to the structure of surface epitopes is a well-established approach for the production of killed virus vaccines. Here, we describe new agents for the inactivation of influenza virus, artificial ribonucleases (aRNases), which are chemical compounds capable of cleaving RNA molecules. Several aRNases were identified, exhibiting significant virucidal activity against the influenza A virus and causing a minimal effect on the affinity of monoclonal antibodies for the inactivated virus. Using a murine model of the influenza virus infection, a high protective activity of the aRNase-inactivated virus as a vaccine was demonstrated. The results of the experiments demonstrate the efficacy of novel chemical agents in the preparation of vaccines against influenza and, perhaps, against other infections caused by RNA viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. It’s Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents’ active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

  20. Preliminary study of killing the larva of plodia interpunella by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jide; Ma Xiaoping

    1994-01-01

    The results of killing the larva of plodia interpunella in the fruit by 60 Co γ-irradiation are described. The lowest effective dose for killing larva by irradiation is ca. 2000 Gy; the effective dose for immediately killing larva is 3000 Gy. The method is simple and easy and also suitable for the study of commercial irradiation of dry-fruit

  1. A novel class of chemicals that react with abasic sites in DNA and specifically kill B cell cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqiao Wei

    Full Text Available Most B cell cancers overexpress the enzyme activation-induced deaminase at high levels and this enzyme converts cytosines in DNA to uracil. The constitutive expression of this enzyme in these cells greatly increases the uracil content of their genomes. We show here that these genomes also contain high levels of abasic sites presumably created during the repair of uracils through base-excision repair. We further show that three alkoxyamines with an alkyne functional group covalently link to abasic sites in DNA and kill immortalized cell lines created from B cell lymphomas, but not other cancers. They also do not kill normal B cells. Treatment of cancer cells with one of these chemicals causes strand breaks, and the sensitivity of the cells to this chemical depends on the ability of the cells to go through the S phase. However, other alkoxyamines that also link to abasic sites- but lack the alkyne functionality- do not kill cells from B cell lymphomas. This shows that the ability of alkoxyamines to covalently link to abasic sites is insufficient for their cytotoxicity and that the alkyne functionality may play a role in it. These chemicals violate the commonly accepted bioorthogonality of alkynes and are attractive prototypes for anti-B cell cancer agents.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is...

  3. Silver linings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultas, Margaret W; Pohlman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive phenomenological study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of 11 mothers of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers were interviewed three times over a 6 week period. Interviews were analyzed using interpretive methods. This manuscript highlights one particular theme-a positive perspective mothers described as the "silver lining." This "silver lining" represents optimism despite the adversities associated with parenting a child with ASD. A deeper understanding of this side of mothering children with ASD may help health care providers improve rapport, communication, and result in more authentic family centered care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combination of anti-retroviral drugs and radioimmunotherapy specifically kills infected cells from HIV infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Tsukrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating virally infected cells is an essential component of any HIV eradication strategy. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT, a clinically established method for killing cells using radiolabeled antibodies, was recently applied to target HIV-1 gp41 antigen expressed on the surface of infect-ed cells. Since gp41 expression by infected cells is likely down-regulated in patients on an-tiretroviral therapy (ART, we evaluated the ability of RIT to kill ART-treated infected cells us-ing both in vitro models and lymphocytes isolated from HIV-infected subjects. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were infected with HIV and cultured in the presence of two clinically relevant ART combinations. Scatchard analysis of the 2556 human monoclonal anti-body to HIV gp41 binding to the infected and ART-treated cells demonstrated sufficient residual expression of gp41 on the cell surface to warrant subsequent RIT. This is the first time the quantification of gp41 post-ART is being reported. Cells were then treated with Bismuth-213-labeled 2556 antibody. conjugated to the human monoclonal antibody 2556, which binds to HIV gp41. Cell survival was quantified by Trypan blue and residual viremia by p24 ELISA. Cell surface gp41 expression was assessed by Scatchard analysis. The experiments were repeated using PBMCs isolated from blood specimens obtained from 15 HIV-infected individuals: ten on ART and five ART-naive. We found that 213Bi-2556 killed ART-treated infected PBMCs and reduced viral production to undetectable levels. ART and RIT co-treatment was more effective at reducing viral load in vitro than either therapy alone, indicating that gp41 expression under ART was sufficient to allow 213Bi-2556 to deliver cytocidal doses of radiation to infected cells. This study provides proof of concept that 213Bi-2556 may represent an innovative and effective targeting method for killing HIV-infected cells treated with ART, and supports continued development of 213Bi

  5. Photochemical internalisation of chemotherapy potentiates killing of multidrug-resistant breast and bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigbli, D K; Wilson, D G G; Farooqui, N; Sousi, E; Risley, P; Taylor, I; Macrobert, A J; Loizidou, M

    2007-08-20

    expression remained unchanged, regardless of drug exposure. Pgp efflux was blocked by the Pgp inhibitor verapamil (positive control) but not impeded by hypericin. The increased killing of MDR cancer cells demonstrated is consistent with PCI. PCI is a promising technique for enhancing treatment efficacy.

  6. Photochemical internalisation of chemotherapy potentiates killing of multidrug-resistant breast and bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigbli, D K; Wilson, D G G; Farooqui, N; Sousi, E; Risley, P; Taylor, I; MacRobert, A J; Loizidou, M

    2007-01-01

    -illumination. MTZ was always found in sensitive cell nuclei, but not in dark resistant cell nuclei. In illuminated resistant cells there was some mobilisation of MTZ into the nucleus. Pgp expression remained unchanged, regardless of drug exposure. Pgp efflux was blocked by the Pgp inhibitor verapamil (positive control) but not impeded by hypericin. The increased killing of MDR cancer cells demonstrated is consistent with PCI. PCI is a promising technique for enhancing treatment efficacy. PMID:17667930

  7. Plasma hearth process demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.M.; Gillins, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is a high temperature thermal treatment process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form, greatly improving the disposability of the waste. This paper describes the PHP system and summarizes test results to date, including volume reduction, destruction and removal efficiencies for organic wastes, and emission characteristics. Tests performed so far demonstrate that the PHP adresses DOE mixed waste final waste form requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure requirements

  8. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  9. In vivo tyrosinase mini-gene transfer enhances killing effect of BNCT on amelanotic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, H.; Mishima, Y.; Hiratsuka, J.; Iwakura, M.

    2000-01-01

    Using accentuated melanogenesis principally occurring within melanoma cells, we have successfully treated human malignant melanoma (Mm) with 10 B-BPA BNCT. Despite this success, there are still remaining issues for poorly melanogenic Mm and further non-pigment cell tumors. We found the selective accumulation of 10 B-BPA to Mm is primarily due to the complex formation of BPA and melanin-monomers activity synthesized within Mm cells. Then, we succeeded in transferring the tyrosinase gene into amelanotic to substantially produce melanin monomers. These cells has demonstrated increased boron accumulation and enhanced killing effect of BNCT. Further, transfection of TRP-2 (DOPAchrome tautomerase) gene into poorly eumelanotic and slightly phenomelanotic Mm cells in culture cell systems also led to increased BPA accumulation. Thereafter, we studied in vivo gene transfer. We transferred the tyrosinase mini-gene by intra-tumor injection into poorly melanotic Mm proliferating subcutaneously in hamster skin, and performed BNCT. Compared to control tumors, gene-transferred tumors showed increased BPA accumulation leading to enhanced killing effect. (author)

  10. In vivo tyrosinase mini-gene transfer enhances killing effect of BNCT on amelanotic melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, H.; Mishima, Y. [Mishima Institute for Dermatological Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical School, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Iwakura, M. [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    Using accentuated melanogenesis principally occurring within melanoma cells, we have successfully treated human malignant melanoma (Mm) with {sup 10}B-BPA BNCT. Despite this success, there are still remaining issues for poorly melanogenic Mm and further non-pigment cell tumors. We found the selective accumulation of {sup 10}B-BPA to Mm is primarily due to the complex formation of BPA and melanin-monomers activity synthesized within Mm cells. Then, we succeeded in transferring the tyrosinase gene into amelanotic to substantially produce melanin monomers. These cells has demonstrated increased boron accumulation and enhanced killing effect of BNCT. Further, transfection of TRP-2 (DOPAchrome tautomerase) gene into poorly eumelanotic and slightly phenomelanotic Mm cells in culture cell systems also led to increased BPA accumulation. Thereafter, we studied in vivo gene transfer. We transferred the tyrosinase mini-gene by intra-tumor injection into poorly melanotic Mm proliferating subcutaneously in hamster skin, and performed BNCT. Compared to control tumors, gene-transferred tumors showed increased BPA accumulation leading to enhanced killing effect. (author)

  11. Erlotinib-loaded albumin nanoparticles: A novel injectable form of erlotinib and its in vivo efficacy against pancreatic adenocarcinoma ASPC-1 and PANC-1 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorani, M; Azarpira, N; Karimian, K; Heli, H

    2017-10-05

    Erlotinib was loaded on albumin nanoparticles for the first time and the cytotoxic effect of the resulting nanoparticles against ASPC-1 and PANC-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines was evaluated. The carrier (albumin nanoparticles, ANPs) was synthesized by desolvation method using a mixed solvent followed by thermal crosslinking for stabilization. ANPs and the drug-loaded ANPs were characterized by field emission scanning and transmission electron microscopies, particle size analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The nanoformulation had a size of PANC-1 cell line). Values of IC 50 were obtained for both cell lines and indicated significant reduction in the erlotinib dose necessary for killing the cells, while, ANPs were completely safe. The results demonstrated that erlotinib-loaded ANPs had a remarkable potential for pancreatic cancer drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing Road-Kill Datasets from Hunters and Citizen Scientists in a Landscape Context

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Heigl; Carina R. Stretz; Wolfgang Steiner; Franz Suppan; Thomas Bauer; Gregor Laaha; Johann G. Zaller

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic has severe effects on animals, especially when road-kills are involved. In many countries, official road-kill data are provided by hunters or police; there are also road-kill observations reported by citizen scientists. The aim of the current study was to test whether road-kill reports by hunters stem from similar landscapes than those reported by citizen scientists. We analysed the surrounding landscapes of 712 road-kill reportings of European hares in the province of Lower Aust...

  13. Noether charges for self-interacting quantum field theories in curved spacetimes with a Killing-vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollands, S.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a self-interacting, perturbative Klein-Gordon quantum field in a curved spacetime admitting a Killing vector field. We show that the action of this spacetime symmetry on interacting field operators can be implemented by a Noether charge which arises, in a certain sense, as a surface integral over the time-component of some interacting Noether current-density associated with the Killing field. The proof of this involves the demonstration of a corresponding set of Ward identities. Our work is based on the perturbative construction by Brunetti and Fredenhagen (Commun. Math. Phys. 208 (2000) 623-661) of self-interacting quantum field theories in general globally hyperbolic spacetimes. (orig.)

  14. Killing in More-than-human Spaces: Pasteurisation, Fungi, and the Metabolic Lives of Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice, Jeremy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available What place might killing occupy in a more-than-human world, where human life is always-already entangled among nonhumans? In this article I attempt to unsettle the assumption that only individual organisms can be killed, and to render other sites and spaces of killing visible. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork among winemakers in South Australia I examine pasteurisation, a killing practice that acts not on organisms but on the fluids within which they live. Examining the pasteurisation of wine damaged by the fungus Botrytis cinerea, I argue that this practice shifts the locus of killing from botrytis’ body to metabolic life processes which embrace extracellular enzymes diffused throughout the wine. I suggest that pasteurisation thus displaces killing into spaces, such as wine-in-the-making, within which many metabolic lives coexist and interpenetrate. Pasteurisation therefore renders killing an intervention into the metabolic relationships that tie together numerous species of microbes living within wine. In acting on wine as a whole it kills rather indiscriminately, simultaneously terminating multiple lives that relate to humans in different ways. Pasteurisation therefore both protects and spoils wine, reconfiguring multiple human-nonhuman relationships in conflicting and sometimes economically costly ways. In so doing, it illustrates that in a more-than-human world killing becomes difficult to confine to a single unwanted organism or species. Killing instead becomes disturbingly mobile and communicable, prone to rebound upon the valued human lives of those who kill in unsettling and potentially harmful ways.

  15. Ground Zero/Fresh Kills: Cataloguing Ruins, Garbage, and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the rise and fall of the Twin Towers can be read in relation to the rise and fall of the Staten Island Fresh Kills landfill, how their destinies were entwined from the start, and how the immediate cultural response to the collapse of the former and the closing of the latter recurred to the form of catalogues of objects, words, and images. From this angle it will be possible to posit the events within a larger, if somewhat unusual, cultural frame encompassi...

  16. Mercy killing without consent. Historical comments on a controversial issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauter, H; Meyer, J E

    1982-02-01

    In recent discussions on euthanasia the question about mercy killing without consent of mentally ill persons has turned up, particularly in cases of hopeless suffering among senile or chronically insane patients. Possible analogies to the actions under the German Nazi-regimen and relations to the concept of Social Darwinism with suggestions about active eugenic control as propagated in the early part of this century are outlined in a historical review. The implications and obvious dangers of misuse of any such kind of active euthanasia in psychiatry are discussed on this background.

  17. Fractional Killing-Yano Tensors and Killing Vectors Using the Caputo Derivative in Some One- and Two-Dimensional Curved Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Malkawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical free Lagrangian admitting a constant of motion, in one- and two-dimensional space, is generalized using the Caputo derivative of fractional calculus. The corresponding metric is obtained and the fractional Christoffel symbols, Killing vectors, and Killing-Yano tensors are derived. Some exact solutions of these quantities are reported.

  18. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  19. Trypanosoma brucei Co-opts NK Cells to Kill Splenic B2 B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Frenkel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After infection with T. brucei AnTat 1.1, C57BL/6 mice lost splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed poor parasite-specific antibody responses, lost weight, became anemic and died with fulminating parasitemia within 35 days. In contrast, infected C57BL/6 mice lacking the cytotoxic granule pore-forming protein perforin (Prf1-/- retained splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed high-titer antibody responses against many trypanosome polypeptides, rapidly suppressed parasitemia and did not develop anemia or lose weight for at least 60 days. Several lines of evidence show that T. brucei infection-induced splenic B cell depletion results from natural killer (NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity: i B2 B cells were depleted from the spleens of infected intact, T cell deficient (TCR-/- and FcγRIIIa deficient (CD16-/- C57BL/6 mice excluding a requirement for T cells, NKT cell, or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; ii administration of NK1.1 specific IgG2a (mAb PK136 but not irrelevant IgG2a (myeloma M9144 prevented infection-induced B cell depletion consistent with a requirement for NK cells; iii splenic NK cells but not T cells or NKT cells degranulated in infected C57BL/6 mice co-incident with B cell depletion evidenced by increased surface expression of CD107a; iv purified NK cells from naïve C57BL/6 mice killed purified splenic B cells from T. brucei infected but not uninfected mice in vitro indicating acquisition of an NK cell activating phenotype by the post-infection B cells; v adoptively transferred C57BL/6 NK cells prevented infection-induced B cell population growth in infected Prf1-/- mice consistent with in vivo B cell killing; vi degranulated NK cells in infected mice had altered gene and differentiation antigen expression and lost cytotoxic activity consistent with functional exhaustion, but increased in number as infection progressed indicating continued generation. We conclude that NK cells in T. brucei

  20. Selective killing of tumors deficient in methylthioadenosine phosphorylase: a novel strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lubin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The gene for methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP lies on 9p21, close to the gene CDKN2A that encodes the tumor suppressor proteins p16 and p14ARF. MTAP and CDKN2A are homozygously co-deleted, with a frequency of 35 to 70%, in lung and pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, osteosarcoma, soft-tissue sarcoma, mesothelioma, and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In normal cells, but not in tumor cells lacking MTAP, MTAP cleaves the natural substrate, 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA, to adenine and 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate (MTR-1-P, which are then converted to adenine nucleotides and methionine. This distinct difference between normal MTAP-positive cells and tumor MTAP-negative cells led to several proposals for therapy. We offer a novel strategy in which both MTA and a toxic adenine analog, such as 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP, 6-methylpurine (MeP, or 2-fluoroadenine (F-Ade, are administered. In MTAP-positive cells, abundant adenine, generated from supplied MTA, competitively blocks the conversion of an analog, by adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT, to its active nucleotide form. In MTAP-negative tumor cells, the supplied MTA cannot generate adenine; hence conversion of the analog is not blocked.We show that this combination treatment--adenine analog plus MTA--kills MTAP-negative A549 lung tumor cells, while MTAP-positive human fibroblasts (HF are protected. In co-cultures of the breast tumor cell line, MCF-7, and HF cells, MCF-7 is inhibited or killed, while HF cells proliferate robustly. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU and 6-thioguanine (6-TG may also be used with our strategy. Though neither analog is activated by APRT, in MTAP-positive cells, adenine produced from supplied MTA blocks conversion of 5-FU and 6-TG to their toxic nucleotide forms by competing for 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP. The combination of MTA with 5-FU or 6-TG, in the treatment of MTAP-negative tumors, may produce a significantly improved therapeutic index

  1. Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-mediated photodynamic therapy selectively kills sarcomas by inducing apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng

    Full Text Available We investigated the antitumor effect and mechanism of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-mediated photodynamic therapy (HMME-PDT in sarcomas. Intracellular uptake of HMME by osteosarcoma cells (LM8 and K7 was time- and dose-dependent, while this was not observed for myoblast cells (C2C12 and fibroblast cells (NIH/3T3. HMME-PDT markedly inhibited the proliferation of sarcoma cell lines (LM8, MG63, Saos-2, SW1353, TC71, and RD (P<0.05, and the killing effect was improved with increased HMME concentration and energy intensity. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that LM8, MG63, and Saos-2 cells underwent apoptosis after treatment with HMME-PDT. Additionally, apoptosis was induced after HMME-PDT in a three-dimensional culture of osteosarcoma cells. Hoechst 33342 staining confirmed apoptosis. Cell death caused by PDT was rescued by an irreversible inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK of caspase. However, cell viability was not markedly decreased compared with the HMME-PDT group. Expression levels of caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-9, and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP proteins were markedly up-regulated in the treatment groups and increased with HMME concentration as determined by western blot analysis. In vivo, tumor volume markedly decreased at 7-16 days post-PDT. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed widespread necrotic and infiltrative inflammatory cells in the HMME-PDT group. Immunohistochemistry analysis also showed that caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-9, and PARP proteins were significantly increased in the HMME-PDT group. These results indicate that HMME-PDT has a potent killing effect on osteosarcoma cells in vitro and significantly inhibits tumor growth in vivo, which is associated with the caspase-dependent pathway.

  2. Getting the "Kill" into "Shock and Kill": Strategies to Eliminate Latent HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youry; Anderson, Jenny L; Lewin, Sharon R

    2018-01-10

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is currently no HIV cure and treatment is life long. HIV persists during ART due to long-lived and proliferating latently infected CD4+ T cells. One strategy to eliminate latency is to activate virus production using latency reversing agents (LRAs) with the goal of triggering cell death through virus-induced cytolysis or immune-mediated clearance. However, multiple studies have demonstrated that activation of viral transcription alone is insufficient to induce cell death and some LRAs may counteract cell death by promoting cell survival. Here, we review new approaches to induce death of latently infected cells through apoptosis and inhibition of pathways critical for cell survival, which are often hijacked by HIV proteins. Given advances in the commercial development of compounds that induce apoptosis in cancer chemotherapy, these agents could move rapidly into clinical trials, either alone or in combination with LRAs, to eliminate latent HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  4. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  5. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  6. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  7. Radiation response of mouse lymphoid and myeloid cell lines. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of 10 mouse lymphoid or myeloid cell lines to γ-ray- and DNA-associated 125 I-decay-induced clonogenic cell killing have been compared with their rate of loss of viability (membrane integrity) and with their putative cell type of origin. The increased sensitivity of haematopoietic cell lines to killing by DNA dsb may be related to their mode of death (apoptosis versus necrosis). Mode of cell death may thus be an important factor in determining the 'inherent radiosensitivity' of normal cells/tissues. Haematopoietic cell lines that undergo rapid interphase apoptotic death showed extreme sensitivity to DNA dsb. (author)

  8. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  9. Ground Zero/Fresh Kills: Cataloguing Ruins, Garbage, and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how the rise and fall of the Twin Towers can be read in relation to the rise and fall of the Staten Island Fresh Kills landfill, how their destinies were entwined from the start, and how the immediate cultural response to the collapse of the former and the closing of the latter recurred to the form of catalogues of objects, words, and images. From this angle it will be possible to posit the events within a larger, if somewhat unusual, cultural frame encompassing the history of two different yet complementary symbols of New York up to 2001 (the WTC and Fresh Kills. From Don DeLillo’s Underworld (1997 and Falling Man (2007 through Holman, Steve Zeitlin e Joe Dobkin’s Crisis (2001-2002; from Art Spiegelman’s In the Shadows of No Tower (2004 to Artists Respond’s 9-11 (2002; from the New York Times to Bearing Witness to History, the 2003-2006 retrospective of the Smithsonian Museum, relevant collective or individual responses to the 2001 attacks took the form of a catalogue, a list, a vertical or horizontal juxtaposition of data, objects, and memories, evoking a suggestive parallel to the organizing principle of past relics collected in museums and garbage stratified in sanitary landfills.

  10. Does host complement kill Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinavelu, Sivaprakash; Broadwater, Anne; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2003-02-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, inhabits the gut lumen of the tick vector. At this location the spirochete is exposed to host blood when a tick feeds. We report here on studies that were done with normal and complement-deficient (C3-knockout) mice to determine if the host complement system killed spirochetes within the vector. We found that spirochete numbers within feeding nymphs were not influenced by complement, most likely because host complement was inactivated within the vector. The Lyme disease outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine is a transmission-blocking vaccine that targets spirochetes in the vector. In experiments with mice hyperimmunized with OspA, complement was not required to kill spirochetes within nymphs and to block transmission from nymphs to the vaccinated host. However, host complement did enhance the ability of OspA antibody to block larvae from acquiring spirochetes. Thus, the effects of OspA antibody on nymphal transmission and larval acquisition appear to be based on different mechanisms.

  11. Effect of pulsed electron beam on cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Santhosh; Joseph, Praveen; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Narayana, Y.; Bhat, N.N.

    2009-01-01

    The extent of repairable and irreparable damage in a living cell produced by ionizing radiation depends on the quality of the radiation. In the case of sparsely ionizing radiation, the dose rate and the pattern of energy deposition of the radiation are the important physical factors which can affect the amount of damage in living cells. In the present study, radio-sensitive and radioresistive bacteria cells were exposed to 8 MeV pulsed electron beam and the efficiency of cell-killing was investigated to evaluate the Do, the mean lethal dose. The dose to the cell was delivered in micro-second pulses at an instantaneous dose rate of 2.6 x 10 5 Gy s -1 . Fricke dosimeter was used to measure the absorbed dose of electron beam. The results were compared with those of gamma rays. The survival curve of radio-resistive Deinococcus-radiodurans (DR) is found to be sigmoidal and the survival response for radio-sensitive Escherichia-coli (E-coli) is found to be exponential without any shoulder. Comparison of Do values indicate that irradiation with pulsed electron beam resulted in more cell-killing than was observed for gamma irradiation. (author)

  12. Power-line electrocution of birds (Electrocucion de Aves en Lineas Electricas en Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Manzano Fischer

    2006-01-01

    A result of rapid growth in human population and energy use, is proliferating power lines that electrocute birds, killing eagles and causing power outages. The United States was one of the first countries to recognize the significance of this problem. Suggested Practices for the Protection of Raptors on Power Lines, first published in the 1970s, has now been translated...

  13. A model of photon cell killing based on the spatio-temporal clustering of DNA damage in higher order chromatin structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Herr

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to model dose rate effects on cell killing after photon radiation based on the spatio-temporal clustering of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs within higher order chromatin structures of approximately 1-2 Mbp size, so called giant loops. The main concept of this approach consists of a distinction of two classes of lesions, isolated and clustered DSBs, characterized by the number of double strand breaks induced in a giant loop. We assume a low lethality and fast component of repair for isolated DSBs and a high lethality and slow component of repair for clustered DSBs. With appropriate rates, the temporal transition between the different lesion classes is expressed in terms of five differential equations. These allow formulating the dynamics involved in the competition of damage induction and repair for arbitrary dose rates and fractionation schemes. Final cell survival probabilities are computable with a cell line specific set of three parameters: The lethality for isolated DSBs, the lethality for clustered DSBs and the half-life time of isolated DSBs. By comparison with larger sets of published experimental data it is demonstrated that the model describes the cell line dependent response to treatments using either continuous irradiation at a constant dose rate or to split dose irradiation well. Furthermore, an analytic investigation of the formulation concerning single fraction treatments with constant dose rates in the limiting cases of extremely high or low dose rates is presented. The approach is consistent with the Linear-Quadratic model extended by the Lea-Catcheside factor up to the second moment in dose. Finally, it is shown that the model correctly predicts empirical findings about the dose rate dependence of incidence probabilities for deterministic radiation effects like pneumonitis and the bone marrow syndrome. These findings further support the general concepts on which the approach is based.

  14. Partner Symmetries, Group Foliation and ASD Ricci-Flat Metrics without Killing Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Malykh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate how a combination of our recently developed methods of partner symmetries, symmetry reduction in group parameters and a new version of the group foliation method can produce noninvariant solutions of complex Monge-Ampère equation (CMA and provide a lift from invariant solutions of CMA satisfying Boyer-Finley equation to non-invariant ones. Applying these methods, we obtain a new noninvariant solution of CMA and the corresponding Ricci-flat anti-self-dual Einstein-Kähler metric with Euclidean signature without Killing vectors, together with Riemannian curvature two-forms. There are no singularities of the metric and curvature in a bounded domain if we avoid very special choices of arbitrary functions of a single variable in our solution. This metric does not describe gravitational instantons because the curvature is not concentrated in a bounded domain.

  15. Mitophagy confers resistance to siderophore-mediated killing by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirienko, Natalia V; Ausubel, Frederick M; Ruvkun, Gary

    2015-02-10

    In the arms race of bacterial pathogenesis, bacteria produce an array of toxins and virulence factors that disrupt core host processes. Hosts mitigate the ensuing damage by responding with immune countermeasures. The iron-binding siderophore pyoverdin is a key virulence mediator of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but its pathogenic mechanism has not been established. Here we demonstrate that pyoverdin enters Caenorhabditis elegans and that it is sufficient to mediate host killing. Moreover, we show that iron chelation disrupts mitochondrial homeostasis and triggers mitophagy both in C. elegans and mammalian cells. Finally, we show that mitophagy provides protection both against the extracellular pathogen P. aeruginosa and to treatment with a xenobiotic chelator, phenanthroline, in C. elegans. Although autophagic machinery has been shown to target intracellular bacteria for degradation (a process known as xenophagy), our report establishes a role for authentic mitochondrial autophagy in the innate immune defense against P. aeruginosa.

  16. Animated construction of line drawings

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Hongbo; Zhou, Shizhe; Liu, Ligang; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2011-01-01

    Revealing the sketching sequence of a line drawing can be visually intriguing and used for video-based storytelling. Typically this is enabled based on tedious recording of artists' drawing process. We demonstrate that it is often possible

  17. Competition between apex predators? Brown bears decrease wolf kill rate on two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallian, Aimee; Ordiz, Andrés; Metz, Matthew C; Milleret, Cyril; Wikenros, Camilla; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R; Kindberg, Jonas; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wabakken, Petter; Swenson, Jon E; Sand, Håkan

    2017-02-08

    Trophic interactions are a fundamental topic in ecology, but we know little about how competition between apex predators affects predation, the mechanism driving top-down forcing in ecosystems. We used long-term datasets from Scandinavia (Europe) and Yellowstone National Park (North America) to evaluate how grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) kill rate was affected by a sympatric apex predator, the brown bear ( Ursus arctos ). We used kill interval (i.e. the number of days between consecutive ungulate kills) as a proxy of kill rate. Although brown bears can monopolize wolf kills, we found no support in either study system for the common assumption that they cause wolves to kill more often. On the contrary, our results showed the opposite effect. In Scandinavia, wolf packs sympatric with brown bears killed less often than allopatric packs during both spring (after bear den emergence) and summer. Similarly, the presence of bears at wolf-killed ungulates was associated with wolves killing less often during summer in Yellowstone. The consistency in results between the two systems suggests that brown bear presence actually reduces wolf kill rate. Our results suggest that the influence of predation on lower trophic levels may depend on the composition of predator communities. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  19. Delamanid Kills Dormant Mycobacteria In Vitro and in a Guinea Pig Model of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuhao; Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Tomishige, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Izuru; Matsuba, Miki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Kitamoto, Ryuki; Hanaki, Erina; Ohba, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment is long and requires multiple drugs, likely due to various phenotypes of TB bacilli with variable drug susceptibilities. Drugs with broad activity are urgently needed. This study aimed to evaluate delamanid's activity against growing or dormant bacilli in vitro as well as in vivo Cultures of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Tokyo under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were used to study the activity of delamanid against growing and dormant bacilli, respectively. Delamanid exhibited significant bactericidal activity against replicating and dormant bacilli at or above concentrations of 0.016 and 0.4 mg/liter, respectively. To evaluate delamanid's antituberculosis activity in vivo , we used a guinea pig model of chronic TB infection in which the lung lesions were similar to those in human TB disease. In the guinea pig TB model, a daily dose of 100 mg delamanid/kg of body weight for 4 or 8 weeks demonstrated strong bactericidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Importantly, histological examination revealed that delamanid killed TB bacilli within hypoxic lesions of the lung. The combination regimens containing delamanid with rifampin and pyrazinamide or delamanid with levofloxacin, ethionamide, pyrazinamide, and amikacin were more effective than the standard regimen (rifampin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide). Our data show that delamanid is effective in killing both growing and dormant bacilli in vitro and in the guinea pig TB model. Adding delamanid to current TB regimens may improve treatment outcomes, as demonstrated in recent clinical trials with pulmonary multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB patients. Delamanid may be an important drug for consideration in the construction of new regimens to shorten TB treatment duration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses......, and micro combined heat and power using hydrogen. Using sociological and business economic theories of innovation, the paper discusses how early movers of innovation tend to obtain only partial success when demonstrating their products and often feel obstructed by minor details. The empirical work...

  1. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  2. Biodenitrification demonstration test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benear, A.K.; Murray, S.J.; Lahoda, E.J.; Leslie, J.W.; Patton, J.B.; Menako, C.R.

    1987-08-01

    A two-column biodenitrification (BDN) facility was constructed at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in 1985 and 1986 to test the feasibility of biological treatment for industrial nitrate-bearing waste water generated at FMPC. This demonstration facility comprises one-half of the proposed four-column production facility. A demonstration test was conducted over a four month period in 1987. The results indicate the proposed BDN production facility can process FMPC industrial wastewater in a continuous manner while maintaining an effluent that will consistently meet the proposed NPDES limits for combined nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N) and nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N). The proposed NPDES limits are 62 kg/day average and 124 kg/day maximum. These limits were proportioned to determine that the two-column demonstration facility should meet the limits of 31 kg/day average and 62 kg/day maximum

  3. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  4. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J; Kaut, W [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the fourth PV-Contractors' Meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, held at Brussels on 21 and 22 November 1989, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the Energy Demonstration Program since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984, 1985 and 1986, describing progress with their projects. Summaries of the discussions held at the meeting, which included contractors whose projects were submitted in 1987, are also presented. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping, and warning systems. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  6. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  7. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  8. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  9. Photovoltaic demonstration projects 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow (William) and Partners, Swindon (UK); Kaut, W [eds.

    1989-01-01

    This book, the proceedings of the third Photovoltaic Contractors' Meeting organised by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported by the Energy Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1983, 1984 and 1985, describing progress with their projects. The different technologies which are being demonstrated concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of houses, villages, recreation centres, water desalination, communications, dairy farms, water pumping and warning systems. (author).

  10. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  11. A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobuchar, Emily; Deslippe, Richard

    2002-05-01

    We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

  12. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  13. PHARUS ASAR demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Bree, R.J.P. van; Calkoen, C.J.; Dekker, R.J.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2001-01-01

    PHARUS is a polarimetric phased array C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), designed and built for airborne use. Advanced SAR (ASAR) data in image and alternating polarization mode have been simulated with PHARUS to demonstrate the use of Envisat for a number of typical SAR applications that are

  14. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  15. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  16. Lactoferricin Peptides Increase Macrophages' Capacity To Kill Mycobacterium avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia; Moreira, Ana C; Nazmi, Kamran; Moniz, Tânia; Vale, Nuno; Rangel, Maria; Gomes, Paula; Bolscher, Jan G M; Rodrigues, Pedro N; Bastos, Margarida; Gomes, Maria Salomé

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterial infections cause a significant burden of disease and death worldwide. Their treatment is long, toxic, costly, and increasingly prone to failure due to bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics. New therapeutic options are thus clearly needed. Antimicrobial peptides represent an important source of new antimicrobial molecules, both for their direct activity and for their immunomodulatory potential. We have previously reported that a short version of the bovine antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin with amino acids 17 to 30 (LFcin17-30), along with its variants obtained by specific amino acid substitutions, killed Mycobacterium avium in broth culture. In the present work, those peptides were tested against M. avium living inside its natural host cell, the macrophage. We found that the peptides increased the antimicrobial action of the conventional antibiotic ethambutol inside macrophages. Moreover, the d-enantiomer of the lactoferricin peptide (d-LFcin17-30) was more stable and induced significant killing of intracellular mycobacteria by itself. Interestingly, d-LFcin17-30 did not localize to M. avium -harboring phagosomes but induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines and increased the formation of lysosomes and autophagosome-like vesicles. These results lead us to conclude that d-LFcin17-30 primes macrophages for intracellular microbial digestion through phagosomal maturation and/or autophagy, culminating in mycobacterial killing. IMPORTANCE The genus Mycobacterium comprises several pathogenic species, including M. tuberculosis , M. leprae , M. avium , etc. Infections caused by these bacteria are particularly difficult to treat due to their intrinsic impermeability, low growth rate, and intracellular localization. Antimicrobial peptides are increasingly acknowledged as potential treatment tools, as they have a high spectrum of activity, low tendency to induce bacterial resistance, and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we

  17. The yield of DNA double strand breaks determined after exclusion of those forming from heat-labile lesions predicts tumor cell radiosensitivity to killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanlei; Li, Fanghua; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2015-09-01

    The radiosensitivity to killing of tumor cells and in-field normal tissue are key determinants of radiotherapy response. In vitro radiosensitivity of tumor- and normal-tissue-derived cells often predicts radiation response, but high determination cost in time and resources compromise utility as routine response-predictor. Efforts to use induction or repair of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs) as surrogate-predictors of cell radiosensitivity to killing have met with limited success. Here, we re-visit this issue encouraged by our recent observations that ionizing radiation (IR) induces not only promptly-forming DSBs (prDSBs), but also DSBs developing after irradiation from the conversion to breaks of thermally-labile sugar-lesions (tlDSBs). We employ pulsed-field gel-electrophoresis and flow-cytometry protocols to measure total DSBs (tDSB=prDSB+tlDSBs) and prDSBs, as well as γH2AX and parameters of chromatin structure. We report a fully unexpected and in many ways unprecedented correlation between yield of prDSBs and radiosensitivity to killing in a battery of ten tumor cell lines that is not matched by yields of tDSBs or γH2AX, and cannot be explained by simple parameters of chromatin structure. We propose the introduction of prDSBs-yield as a novel and powerful surrogate-predictor of cell radiosensitivity to killing with potential for clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debdutta

    Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily

  19. Opinions of university students on honour killings: Perspective from Islamabad and Rawalpindi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Masood Ali; Kamal, Anila; Naqvi, Irum

    2015-04-01

    Honour killing incidents have been reported from every province of Pakistan. In 2014 a pregnant woman was killed in front of Lahore High Court, by her family members, in the name of honour. This study was conducted to determine the perspective of university students on honour killing with specific reference to one such killing incident in Lahore. Cumulatively, 989 students participated in the survey. Compared with female students, male students were less likely to agree and were more unequivocal that a woman has a right to marry any man she wants despite her family's disapproval, in a statistically significant manner. Similarly, male students were statistically significantly more likely to report that killing in the name of honour is always justified and were less equivocal about it compared to female students. Nonetheless, cumulatively 824 (83.3%) students believed that killing in the name of honour is not always justified.

  20. Efficient Kill-Save Ratios Ease Up the Cognitive Demands on Counterintuitive Moral Utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémolière, Bastien; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2014-07-01

    The dual-process model of moral judgment postulates that utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas (e.g., accepting to kill one to save five) are demanding of cognitive resources. Here we show that utilitarian responses can become effortless, even when they involve to kill someone, as long as the kill-save ratio is efficient (e.g., 1 is killed to save 500). In Experiment 1, participants responded to moral dilemmas featuring different kill-save ratios under high or low cognitive load. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants responded at their own pace or under time pressure. Efficient kill-save ratios promoted utilitarian responding and neutered the effect of load or time pressure. We discuss whether this effect is more easily explained by a parallel-activation model or by a default-interventionist model. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  2. DNA-repair, cell killing and normal tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahm-Daphi, J.; Dikomey, E.; Brammer, I.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Side effects of radiotherapy in normal tissue is determined by a variety of factors of which cellular and genetic contributions are described here. Material and methods: Review. Results: Normal tissue damage after irradiation is largely due to loss of cellular proliferative capacity. This can be due to mitotic cell death, apoptosis, or terminal differentiation. Dead or differentiated cells release cytokines which additionally modulate the tissue response. DNA damage, in particular non-reparable or misrepaired double-strand breaks are considered the basic lesion leading to G1-arrest and ultimately to cell inactivation. Conclusion: Evidence for genetic bases of normal tissue response, cell killing and DNA-repair capacity is presented. However, a direct link of all 3 endpoints has not yet been proved directly. (orig.) [de

  3. Medicolegal investigation of political killings in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J L; Gruschow, J; Stover, E

    1989-06-17

    An axiom of Thomas Hobbes states that "people are never more helpless than when the force meant to protect their rights turns against them." Hobbes' axiom holds true today, with Amnesty International reporting that hundreds of thousands have been murdered by their governments. This article examines the medicolegal aspects of an investigation into the deaths of two Salvadoran peasants who were reportedly tortured and executed by soldiers in February 1988. One of the authors, Thomsen, participated in the investigation as a court-ordered expert, and as a representative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of a Salvadoran legal aid organization. His necropsy findings are reported with observations and comments. The article concludes with suggestions for initiatives that might be undertaken by individual physicians and institutions to improve the quality and impartiality of medicolegal investigations into political killings.

  4. Fish Kill Incidents and Harmful Algal Blooms in Omani Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mohammed Al Gheilani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Red tide, one of the harmful algal blooms (HABs is a natural ecological phenomenon and often this event is accompanied by severe impacts on coastal resources, local economies, and public health. The occurrence of red tides has become more frequent in Omani waters in recent years. Some of them caused fish kill, damaged fishery resources and mariculture, threatened the marine environment and the osmosis membranes of desalination plants. However, a number of them have been harmless. The most common dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is associated with the red tide events in Omani waters. Toxic species like Karenia selliformis, Prorocentrum arabianum, and Trichodesmium erythraeum have also been reported recently. Although red tides in Oman have been considered a consequence of upwelling in the summer season (May to September, recent phytoplankton outbreaks in Oman are not restricted to summer. Frequent algal blooms have been reported during winter (December to March. HABs may have contributed to hypoxia and/or other negative ecological impacts.

  5. Terrorism as Genocide: Killing with “Intent”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Perry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is plausible that terrorism can manifest itself as a form of genocide. Using Raphael Lemkin’s definition of genocide and the UN Genocide Convention’s definition of genocide, non-state and state terrorism are assessed as a form of genocide. Commonalities found in the definitions of both genocide and terrorism supports the argument. The psychology of terrorism and Lemkin’s psychology of genocide describe similar motivations of perpetrators. The September 11th attacks and the U.S. invasion of Iraq are used as case studies to illustrate that terrorism can result in genocide or genocidal acts. Framing acts of terrorism as genocide allows for prosecution in international courts and brings a new perspective to the concept of killing with intent.

  6. Necessity, private defence and the killing of Mary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J

    2001-07-01

    This article examines the reasons used by the Court of Appeal in Re A (Children) to authorise and justify an operation which would inevitably kill the weaker of a pair of conjoined twins in order to offer the stronger twin a good chance of a long and happy life. The crux of the judgment was that a utilitarian theory of necessity could justify this operation. This article seeks to define the criminal law defences at issue in the case and to argue that utilitarian necessity is such a dangerous doctrine that it should never be employed if there is any other defence which can be made to serve the same purpose--as there was in the present case.

  7. Beyond Democratic Tolerance: Witch Killings in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Strating

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly democratising states experience challenges in reconciling “traditional” or “customary” dispute resolution practices with newly established state-based legal systems based on the rule of law. For Timor-Leste, these tensions are pronounced in continuing debates concerning the killing or injuring of women accused of witchcraft. Defences of extrajudicial punishments tend to conflate democracy with local support and fail to deal with the key institutions of democratic systems, including the rule of law, political equality, and civil rights. In Timor-Leste’s case, where equality and social rights were incorporated into the Constitution as fundamental governmental obligations, localised extrajudicial punishments threaten internal and external state legitimacy and highlight the difficulties of ensuring the primacy of state-based institutions. Extrajudicial punishments challenge Timor-Leste’s capacity to consolidate new liberal democratic political institutions.

  8. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  9. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  10. Photovoltaic demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaut, W [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Gillett, W B; Hacker, R J [Halcrow Gilbert Associates Ltd., Swindon (GB)

    1992-12-31

    This publication, comprising the proceedings of the fifth contractor`s meeting organized by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General for Energy, provides an overview of the photovoltaic demonstration projects which have been supported in the framework of the energy demonstration programme since 1983. It includes reports by each of the contractors who submitted proposals in 1987 and 1988, describing progress within their projects. Projects accepted from earlier calls for proposals and not yet completed were reviewed by a rapporteur and are discussed in the summary section. The results of the performance monitoring of all projects and the lessons drawn from the practical experience of the projects are also presented in the summaries and conclusions. Contractors whose projects were submitted in 1989 were also present at the meeting and contributed to the reported discussions. This proceeding is divided into four sessions (General, Housing, technical presentations, other applications) and 24 papers are offered.

  11. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  12. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  13. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R G [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  14. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  15. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Pilfold

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650 and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida lairs (n=1396 observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation.Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2% while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344 of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344. Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344 of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121, and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78. The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2 =0.30, P=0.04, but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37.Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  16. Break the Kill Chain, Not the Budget: How to Avoid U.S. Strategic Retrenchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    mass quantities. The United States maintained a Cold War offset strategy focused on technology and kill chain annihilation with an understanding of...Annihilating the kill chain with advanced instruments of war is more the norm than the exception in the post- Cold War era U.S. military. The U.S. Air...Masters Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 27-07-2015 to 10-06-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER BREAK THE KILL CHAIN

  17. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these...

  18. Multiple factors and processes involved in host cell killing by bacteriophage Mu: characterization and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, B T; Marrs, C F; Howe, M M; Pato, M L

    1984-07-15

    The regions of bacteriophage Mu involved in host cell killing were determined by infection of a lambda-immune host with 12 lambda pMu-transducing phages carrying different amounts of Mu DNA beginning at the left end. Infecting lambda pMu phages containing 5.0 (+/- 0.2) kb or less of the left end of Mu DNA did not kill the lambda-immune host, whereas lambda pMu containing 5.1 kb did kill, thus locating the right end of the kil gene between approximately 5.0 and 5.1 kb. For the Kil+ phages the extent of killing increased as the multiplicity of infection (m.o.i.) increased. In addition, killing was also affected by the presence of at least two other regions of Mu DNA: one, located between 5.1 and 5.8 kb, decreased the extent of killing; the other, located between 6.3 and 7.9 kb, greatly increased host cell killing. Killing was also assayed after lambda pMu infection of a lambda-immune host carrying a mini-Mu deleted for most of the B gene and the middle region of Mu DNA. Complementation of mini-Mu replication by infecting B+ lambda pMu phages resulted in killing of the lambda-immune, mini-Mu-containing host, regardless of the presence or absence of the Mu kil gene. The extent of host cell killing increased as the m.o.i. of the infecting lambda pMu increased, and was further enhanced by both the presence of the kil gene and the region located between 6.3 and 7.9 kb. These distinct processes of kil-mediated killing in the absence of replication and non-kil-mediated killing in the presence of replication were also observed after induction of replication-deficient and kil mutant prophages, respectively.

  19. An Analysis Of Intrinsic Elements In Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird

    OpenAIRE

    Simbolon, Hendra Halomoan

    2011-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul “An Analysis of Intrinsic Elements in Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird”. Skripsi ini mengenai unsur-unsur intrinsik yakni karakter, plot, setting, tema, sudut pandang dan gaya penulisan yang terdapat pada karya Charles Dickens yang berjudul To Kill A Mockingbird. Di dalam skripsi ini, penulis ingin membuktikan keterkaitan unsur-unsur intrinsik yang terdapat dalam novel To Kill A Mockingbird karya Harper Lee. Adapun metode yang digunakan penul...

  20. Experiment for dose measurement during beam killing at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, M.K.; Dev, Vipin; Haridas, G.; Thakkar, K.K.; Sarkar, P.K.; Sharma, D.N.

    2006-01-01

    Experimental measurement of radiation dose likely to be received by an occupational worker in the experimental hall of Indus-1 during accidental beam killing was carried out. Various accidental beam-killing scenarios were experimentally simulated for the measurement. The measurement was carried out using direct reading dosimeters. Result shows that in the event of accidental beam killing, dose likely to be received by an occupational worker outside the shield is negligible. (author)

  1. The number of killings in southern rural Norway, 1300–1569

    OpenAIRE

    Kadane, Joseph B.; Næshagen, Ferdinand L.

    2013-01-01

    Three dual systems estimates are employed to study the number of killings in southern rural Norway in a period of slightly over 250 years. The first system is a set of five letters sent to each killer as part of the legal process. The second system is the mention of killings from all other contemporary sources. The posterior distributions derived suggest fewer such killings than rough demographic estimates.

  2. Age and sex composition of seals killed by polar bears in the eastern Beaufort Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Derocher, Andrew E; Stirling, Ian; Richardson, Evan; Andriashek, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the Beaufort Sea enter hyperphagia in spring and gain fat reserves to survive periods of low prey availability. We collected information on seals killed by polar bears (n=650) and hunting attempts on ringed seal (Pusa hispida) lairs (n=1396) observed from a helicopter during polar bear mark-recapture studies in the eastern Beaufort Sea in spring in 1985-2011. We investigated how temporal shifts in ringed seal reproduction affect kill composition and the intraspecific vulnerabilities of ringed seals to polar bear predation. Polar bears primarily preyed on ringed seals (90.2%) while bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) only comprised 9.8% of the kills, but 33% of the biomass. Adults comprised 43.6% (150/344) of the ringed seals killed, while their pups comprised 38.4% (132/344). Juvenile ringed seals were killed at the lowest proportion, comprising 18.0% (62/344) of the ringed seal kills. The proportion of ringed seal pups was highest between 2007-2011, in association with high ringed seal productivity. Half of the adult ringed seal kills were ≥ 21 years (60/121), and kill rates of adults increased following the peak of parturition. Determination of sex from DNA revealed that polar bears killed adult male and adult female ringed seals equally (0.50, n=78). The number of hunting attempts at ringed seal subnivean lair sites was positively correlated with the number of pup kills (r(2) =0.30, P=0.04), but was not correlated with the number of adult kills (P=0.37). Results are consistent with decadal trends in ringed seal productivity, with low numbers of pups killed by polar bears in spring in years of low pup productivity, and conversely when pup productivity was high. Vulnerability of adult ringed seals to predation increased in relation to reproductive activities and age, but not gender.

  3. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  4. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  5. Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE binds to claudin receptors, e.g., claudin-4, and then forms a pore that triggers cell death. Pure cultures of host cells that do not express claudin receptors, e.g., fibroblasts, are unaffected by pathophysiologically relevant CPE concentrations in vitro. However, both CPE-insensitive and CPE-sensitive host cells are present in vivo. Therefore, this study tested whether CPE treatment might affect fibroblasts when cocultured with CPE-sensitive claudin-4 fibroblast transfectants or Caco-2 cells. Under these conditions, immunofluorescence microscopy detected increased death of fibroblasts. This cytotoxic effect involved release of a toxic factor from the dying CPE-sensitive cells, since it could be reproduced using culture supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells, particularly Caco-2 cells, were found to contain high levels of membrane vesicles, often containing a CPE species. However, most cytotoxic activity remained in those supernatants even after membrane vesicle depletion, and CPE was not detected in fibroblasts treated with supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Instead, characterization studies suggest that a major cytotoxic factor present in supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells may be a 10- to 30-kDa host serine protease or require the action of that host serine protease. Induction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis was found to be important for triggering release of the cytotoxic factor(s from CPE-treated sensitive host cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxic factor(s in these supernatants was shown to induce a caspase-3-mediated killing of fibroblasts. This bystander killing effect due to release of cytotoxic factors from CPE-treated sensitive cells could contribute to CPE-mediated disease.

  6. Potentiation of radiation-induced cell kill by synthetic metalloporphyrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.A.; Douple, E.B.; Abrams, M.J.; Picker, D.J.; Giandomenico, C.M.; Vollano, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the combination of several meso-substituted, water soluble metalloporphyrins with ionizing radiation on hypoxic and oxic monolayers of Chinese hamster fibroblast (V79N) cells were studied. The metalloporphyrins tested included a series of cationic metalloporphyrins complexed with Co(III), Zn(II), Fe(III), Cu(II), Pd(II) or Mn(III) and a series of anionic porphyrins chelated with Co(III), Fe(III), Cu(II), Rh(III), Mn(III) or Sn(IV). Both cationic and anionic free porphyrins were also tested. Cationic ligands were tetrakis(4N-methylpyridyl)porphine [TMPyP], tetrakis(4N-trimethylamino phenyl)porphine [TMAP], tetrakis(4N-butylpyridyl)porphine [TBPyP] and tetrakis(3N-methylpyridyl)porphine [3TMPyP]. Anionic ligands tested were tetrakis(4-sulfonato phenyl)porphine [TPPS], tetrakis(biphenyl)porphine sulfonate [TBPS] and tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine [TCPP]. SER calculated from survival curves and SFR from one radiation dose were used to assess the relative effectiveness of this class as non-cytotoxic hypoxic and oxic cell-kill potentiators. Comparisons were made at 100 microM, which was essentially non-toxic (greater than 70% survival) for all porphyrins tested except for Co[TMPyP] (approximately 50% survival after 1 hour at 37 degrees C under oxic conditions). The greatest effects on radiation-induced cell kill were achieved with Co[TPPS] and Co[TMPyP] with SER values of 2.3 and 2.4 respectively. Porphyrin analogs with no coordinated metal were found to be less active than the same compound with metal. The overall charge on the molecule did not systematically relate to the biological activity of the compounds tested

  7. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  8. Postirradiation examination of ORR demonstration elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Copeland, G.L.; Hofman, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Postirradiation examinations of selected U 3 Si 2 fuel elements fabricated by B and W, CERCA, and NUKEM and irradiated during the whole core demonstration in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor are nearing completion. The results of all tests have shown the demonstration fuel elements, produced under production-line conditions, to have performed in the excellent manner expected from earlier tests of miniature fuel plates and full-sized elements. (orig.)

  9. The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis LL5 embryonic cell line has active Toll and Imd pathways and shows immune responses to bacteria, yeast and Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Nunes, Bruno; Telleria, Erich Loza; da Silva-Neves, Monique; Marques, Christiane; Azevedo-Brito, Daisy Aline; Pitaluga, André Nóbrega; Traub-Csekö, Yara Maria

    2016-04-20

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America. Sandfly immune responses are poorly understood. In previous work we showed that these vector insects respond to bacterial infections by modulating a defensin gene expression and activate the Imd pathway in response to Leishmania infection. Aspects of innate immune pathways in insects (including mosquito vectors of human diseases) have been revealed by studying insect cell lines, and we have previously demonstrated antiviral responses in the L. longipalpis embryonic cell line LL5. The expression patterns of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and transcription factors were evaluated after silencing the repressors of the Toll pathway (cactus) and Imd pathway (caspar). AMPs and transcription factor expression patterns were also evaluated after challenge with heat-killed bacteria, heat-killed yeast, or live Leishmania. These studies showed that LL5 cells have active Toll and Imd pathways, since they displayed an increased expression of AMP genes following silencing of the repressors cactus and caspar, respectively. These pathways were also activated by challenges with bacteria, yeast and Leishmania infantum chagasi. We demonstrated that L. longipalpis LL5 embryonic cells respond to immune stimuli and are therefore a good model to study the immunological pathways of this important vector of leishmaniasis.

  10. Enhanced tumor cell killing following BNCT with hyperosmotic mannitol-induced blood-brain barrier disruption and intracarotid injection of boronophenylalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, C.H.; Hwang, J.J.; Chen, F.D.; Liu, R.S.; Liu, H.M.; Hsueh, Y.W.; Kai, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The delivery of boronophenylalanine (BPA) by means of intracarotid injection combined with opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been shown significantly enhanced the tumor boron concentration and the survival time of glioma-bearing rats. However, no direct evidence demonstrates whether this treatment protocol can enhance the cell killing of tumor cells or infiltrating tumor cells and the magnitude of enhanced cell killing. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the tumor cell killing of boron neutron capture therapy could be enhanced by hyperosmotic mannitol-induced BBB disruption using BPA-Fr as the capture agent. F98 glioma-bearing rats were injected intravenously or intracarotidly with BPA at doses of 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) and with or without mannitol-induced hyperosmotic BBB disruption. The rats were irradiated with an epithermal neutron beam at the reactor of National Tsing-Hua University (THOR). After neutron beam irradiation, the rats were euthanized and the ipsilateral brains containing intracerebral F98 glioma were removed to perform in vivo/in vitro soft agar clonogenic assay. The results demonstrate BNCT with optimizing the delivery of BPA by means of intracarotid injection combined with opening the BBB by infusing a hyperosmotic solution of mannitol significantly enhanced the cell killing of tumor cells and infiltrating tumor cells, the tumor boron concentration and the boron ratio of tumor to normal brain tissues. (author)

  11. Antibacterial Surface Design of Titanium-Based Biomaterials for Enhanced Bacteria-Killing and Cell-Assisting Functions Against Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Jinhua; Qian, Shi; Guo, Geyong; Wang, Qiaojie; Tang, Jin; Shen, Hao; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhang, Xianlong; Chu, Paul K

    2016-05-04

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the formidable and recalcitrant complications after orthopedic surgery, and inhibiting biofilm formation on the implant surface is considered crucial to prophylaxis of PJI. However, it has recently been demonstrated that free-floating biofilm-like aggregates in the local body fluid and bacterial colonization on the implant and peri-implant tissues can coexist and are involved in the pathogenesis of PJI. An effective surface with both contact-killing and release-killing antimicrobial capabilities can potentially abate these concerns and minimize PJI caused by adherent/planktonic bacteria. Herein, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are embedded in titania (TiO2) nanotubes by anodic oxidation and plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) to form a contact-killing surface. Vancomycin is then incorporated into the nanotubes by vacuum extraction and lyophilization to produce the release-killing effect. A novel clinical PJI model system involving both in vitro and in vivo use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST239 is established to systematically evaluate the antibacterial properties of the hybrid surface against planktonic and sessile bacteria. The vancomycin-loaded and Ag-implanted TiO2 nanotubular surface exhibits excellent antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects against planktonic/adherent bacteria without appreciable silver ion release. The fibroblasts/bacteria cocultures reveal that the surface can help fibroblasts to combat bacteria. We first utilize the nanoarchitecture of implant surface as a bridge between the inorganic bactericide (Ag NPs) and organic antibacterial agent (vancomycin) to achieve total victory in the battle of PJI. The combination of contact-killing and release-killing together with cell-assisting function also provides a novel and effective strategy to mitigate bacterial infection and biofilm formation on biomaterials and has large potential in orthopedic applications.

  12. Demonstration of HITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  13. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  14. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  15. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  16. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System

  17. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: components, activity and pathway analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Nashi; Takagi, Yasuomi; Shrestha, Bhupal G; Ishii, Tetsuro; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu

    2008-04-08

    Ashwagandha, also called as "Queen of Ayurveda" and "Indian ginseng", is a commonly used plant in Indian traditional medicine, Ayurveda. Its roots have been used as herb remedy to treat a variety of ailments and to promote general wellness. However, scientific evidence to its effects is limited to only a small number of studies. We had previously identified anti-cancer activity in the leaf extract (i-Extract) of Ashwagandha and demonstrated withanone as a cancer inhibitory factor (i-Factor). In the present study, we fractionated the i-Extract to its components by silica gel column chromatography and subjected them to cell based activity analyses. We found that the cancer inhibitory leaf extract (i-Extract) has, at least, seven components that could cause cancer cell killing; i-Factor showed the highest selectivity for cancer cells and i-Factor rich Ashwagandha leaf powder was non-toxic and anti-tumorigenic in mice assays. We undertook a gene silencing and pathway analysis approach and found that i-Extract and its components kill cancer cells by at least five different pathways, viz. p53 signaling, GM-CFS signaling, death receptor signaling, apoptosis signaling and G2-M DNA damage regulation pathway. p53 signaling was most common. Visual analysis of p53 and mortalin staining pattern further revealed that i-Extract, fraction F1, fraction F4 and i-Factor caused an abrogation of mortalin-p53 interactions and reactivation of p53 function while the fractions F2, F3, F5 work through other mechanisms.

  18. Antibody Fc engineering improves frequency and promotes kinetic boosting of serial killing mediated by NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Gabrielle; Senyukov, Vladimir; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Kelton, William; Liadi, Ivan; Mahendra, Ankit; Charab, Wissam; Georgiou, George; Roysam, Badrinath; Lee, Dean A.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor antigens results primarily from their ability to elicit potent cytotoxicity through effector-mediated functions. We have engineered the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) mAb, HuM195, targeting the leukemic antigen CD33, by introducing the triple mutation Ser293Asp/Ala330Leu/Ile332Glu (DLE), and developed Time-lapse Imaging Microscopy in Nanowell Grids to analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity kinetics of thousands of individual natural killer (NK) cells and mAb-coated target cells. We demonstrate that the DLE-HuM195 antibody increases both the quality and the quantity of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by endowing more NK cells to participate in cytotoxicity via accrued CD16-mediated signaling and by increasing serial killing of target cells. NK cells encountering targets coated with DLE-HuM195 induce rapid target cell apoptosis by promoting simultaneous conjugates to multiple target cells and induce apoptosis in twice the number of target cells within the same period as the wild-type mAb. Enhanced target killing was also associated with increased frequency of NK cells undergoing apoptosis, but this effect was donor-dependent. Antibody-based therapies targeting tumor antigens will benefit from a better understanding of cell-mediated tumor elimination, and our work opens further opportunities for the therapeutic targeting of CD33 in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:25232058

  19. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  20. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  1. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  2. To Kill, Stay or Flee: The Effects of Lions and Landscape Factors on Habitat and Kill Site Selection of Cheetahs in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rostro-Garc?a, Susana; Kamler, Jan F.; Hunter, Luke T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges) and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used) of a reintroduced populatio...

  3. Mitochondrial targeting of human O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase protects against cell killing by chemotherapeutic alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shanbao; Xu, Yi; Cooper, Ryan J; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Hartwell, Jennifer R; Pollok, Karen E; Kelley, Mark R

    2005-04-15

    DNA repair capacity of eukaryotic cells has been studied extensively in recent years. Mammalian cells have been engineered to overexpress recombinant nuclear DNA repair proteins from ectopic genes to assess the impact of increased DNA repair capacity on genome stability. This approach has been used in this study to specifically target O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) to the mitochondria and examine its impact on cell survival after exposure to DNA alkylating agents. Survival of human hematopoietic cell lines and primary hematopoietic CD34(+) committed progenitor cells was monitored because the baseline repair capacity for alkylation-induced DNA damage is typically low due to insufficient expression of MGMT. Increased DNA repair capacity was observed when K562 cells were transfected with nuclear-targeted MGMT (nucl-MGMT) or mitochondrial-targeted MGMT (mito-MGMT). Furthermore, overexpression of mito-MGMT provided greater resistance to cell killing by 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) than overexpression of nucl-MGMT. Simultaneous overexpression of mito-MGMT and nucl-MGMT did not enhance the resistance provided by mito-MGMT alone. Overexpression of either mito-MGMT or nucl-MGMT also conferred a similar level of resistance to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and temozolomide (TMZ) but simultaneous overexpression in both cellular compartments was neither additive nor synergistic. When human CD34(+) cells were infected with oncoretroviral vectors that targeted O(6)-benzylguanine (6BG)-resistant MGMT (MGMT(P140K)) to the nucleus or the mitochondria, committed progenitors derived from infected cells were resistant to 6BG/BCNU or 6BG/TMZ. These studies indicate that mitochondrial or nuclear targeting of MGMT protects hematopoietic cells against cell killing by BCNU, TMZ, and MMS, which is consistent with the possibility that mitochondrial DNA damage and nuclear DNA damage contribute equally to alkylating agent-induced cell killing during chemotherapy.

  4. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  5. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A; Meddens, Arjan J H; Kolden, Crystal A; Allen, Craig D

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984–2010, fires killed trees that contained 5–11 Tg C year −1 and during 1997–2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2–24 Tg C year −1 , with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5–10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States. (letter)

  6. Patterns and Composition of Road-Killed Wildlife in Northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyckens, Griet An Erica; Mochi, Lucía Sol; Vallejos, María; Perovic, Pablo Gastón; Biganzoli, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Roads have important effects on wildlife, such as natural habitat fragmentation and degradation and direct killing of fauna, which leads to reductions in wildlife population size. We focused on a principal road in Northwest Argentina to test for the effect of seasonality and landscape features on the composition of road-killed wildlife. We conducted regularly scheduled road trips during the dry and wet seasons. We recorded the presence or absence of a vegetation curtain or hedge along the road. We measured land use by remote sensing in a 500 m buffer along the road. We compared the abundance of animals killed between seasons (dry and wet) for different taxonomic groups (mammals, birds and reptiles) and for different origins (domestic and native). We built linear mixed models to test the effect of landscape features on the abundance of killed animals. Two hundred and ninety-three individuals were killed, belonging to 35 species; 75.8 % were native and 24.2 % domestic species. The majority of animals killed were mid-sized mammals. More animals were killed during the dry season. The most important factors to explain the wildlife road-killing were the season and the proportion of agricultural landscape. The composition of the killed animals changed with the season. The proportion of agricultural landscape incremented the number of killed birds and mammals during both seasons, without affecting reptiles. The ratio of wild to domestic animals killed was dependent on the season. This study sets a precedent as the first in road ecology in Northwest Argentina and should be taken into account for road planning and regulation.

  7. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  8. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  9. Industrial demonstration trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelee, M.; Fabre, C.; Villepoix, R. de; Fra, J.; Le Foulgoc, L.; Morel, Y.; Querite, P.; Roques, R.

    1975-01-01

    Prototypes of the plant components, meeting the specifications set by the process and built by industrial firms in collaboration with the supervisor and the C.E.A., are subjected to trial runs on the UF 6 test bench of the Pierrelatte testing zone. These items of equipment (diffuser, compressor, exchanger) are placed in an industrial operation context very similar to that of an enrichment plant. Their performance is measured within a broad region around the working point and their reliability observed over periods up to several tens of thousands of hours. Between 1969 and 1973 six industrial demonstration test benches have been built, marking the stages in the technical preparation of the 1973 file on the basis of which the decision of building was taken by Eurodif [fr

  10. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  11. TPA device for demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The TPA (torus plasma for amature) is a small race-trac type device made by the technical service division to demonstrate basic properties of plasma such as electron temperature, conductivity, effect of helical field for toroidal drift, and shape of plasma in mirror and cusp magnetic field in linear section. The plasmas are produced by RF discharge (-500W) and/or DC discharge (-30 mA) within glass discharge tube. Where major radius is 50 cm, length of linear section is 50 cm, toroidal magnetic field is 200 gauss. The device has been designed to be compact with only 100 V power source (-3.2 KW for the case without helical field) and to be full automatic sequence of operation. (author)

  12. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  13. Dynamic wall demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsui, L.; Mayhew, W.

    1990-12-01

    The dynamic wall concept is a ventilation strategy that can be applied to a single family dwelling. With suitable construction, outside air can be admitted through the exterior walls of the house to the interior space to function as ventilation air. The construction and performance monitoring of a demonstration house built to test the dynamic wall concept in Sherwood Park, Alberta, is described. The project had the objectives of demonstrating and assessing the construction methods; determining the cost-effectiveness of the concept in Alberta; analyzing the operation of the dynamic wall system; and determining how other components and systems in the house interact with the dynamic wall. The exterior wall construction consisted of vinyl siding, spun-bonded polyolefin-backed (SBPO) rigid fiberglass sheathing, 38 mm by 89 mm framing, fiberglass batt insulation and 12.7 mm drywall. The mechanical system was designed to operate in the dynamic (negative pressure) mode, however flexibility was provided to allow operation in the static (balanced pressure) mode to permit monitoring of the walls as if they were in a conventional house. The house was monitored by an extensive computerized monitoring system. Dynamic wall operation was dependent on pressure and temperature differentials between indoor and outdoor as well as wind speed and direction. The degree of heat gain was found to be ca 74% of the indoor-outdoor temperature differential. Temperature of incoming dynamic air was significantly affected by solar radiation and measurement of indoor air pollutants found no significant levels. 4 refs., 34 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); He, Huabin [Department of Orthopedics, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Wang, Jinghe, E-mail: Xiaofeili2000@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  15. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang; He, Huabin; Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin; Wang, Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis

  16. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  17. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  18. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  19. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, M. [American Electric Power, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  20. Quantification of dichlorvos released from kill strips used in boll weevil eradication programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two types of kill strips, Hercon Vaportape II and Plato Insecticide Strip, are used by boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), eradication programs in the U.S. Both types utilize dichlorvos as the killing agent and are marketed to last up to a month in traps. Consequently, programs typically re...

  1. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  2. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. 113.207 Section 113.207 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis...

  3. Habitat or matrix: which is more relevant to predict road-kill of vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C; Sousa, C O M; Freitas, S R

    2015-11-01

    We believe that in tropics we need a community approach to evaluate road impacts on wildlife, and thus, suggest mitigation measures for groups of species instead a focal-species approach. Understanding which landscape characteristics indicate road-kill events may also provide models that can be applied in other regions. We intend to evaluate if habitat or matrix is more relevant to predict road-kill events for a group of species. Our hypothesis is: more permeable matrix is the most relevant factor to explain road-kill events. To test this hypothesis, we chose vertebrates as the studied assemblage and a highway crossing in an Atlantic Forest region in southeastern Brazil as the study site. Logistic regression models were designed using presence/absence of road-kill events as dependent variables and landscape characteristics as independent variables, which were selected by Akaike's Information Criterion. We considered a set of candidate models containing four types of simple regression models: Habitat effect model; Matrix types effect models; Highway effect model; and, Reference models (intercept and buffer distance). Almost three hundred road-kills and 70 species were recorded. River proximity and herbaceous vegetation cover, both matrix effect models, were associated to most road-killed vertebrate groups. Matrix was more relevant than habitat to predict road-kill of vertebrates. The association between river proximity and road-kill indicates that rivers may be a preferential route for most species. We discuss multi-species mitigation measures and implications to movement ecology and conservation strategies.

  4. How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, Jeff; Ree, van der Rodney; Grift, van der Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners,

  5. Comparing Road-Kill Datasets from Hunters and Citizen Scientists in a Landscape Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heigl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic has severe effects on animals, especially when road-kills are involved. In many countries, official road-kill data are provided by hunters or police; there are also road-kill observations reported by citizen scientists. The aim of the current study was to test whether road-kill reports by hunters stem from similar landscapes than those reported by citizen scientists. We analysed the surrounding landscapes of 712 road-kill reportings of European hares in the province of Lower Austria. Our data showed that road-killed hares reported both by hunters and citizens are predominantly surrounded by arable land. No difference of hedges and solitary trees could be found between the two datasets. However, significant differences in landcover classes and surrounding road networks indicate that hunters’ and citizen scientists’ data are different. Hunters reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of arable land, and greater lengths of secondary roads. In contrast, citizens reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of urban or industrial areas and greater lengths of motorways, primary roads, and residential roads. From this we argue that hunters tend to report data mainly from their hunting areas, whereas citizens report data during their daily routine on the way to/from work. We conclude that a citizen science approach is an important source for road-kill data when used in addition to official data with the aim of obtaining an overview of road-kill events on a landscape scale.

  6. Using DNA to describe and quantify interspecific killing of fishers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greta M. Wengert; Mourad W. Gabriel; Sean M. Matthews; J. Mark Higley; Rick A. Sweitzer; Craig. M. Thompson; Kathryn L. Purcell; Reginald H. Barrett; Leslie W. Woods; Rebecca E. Green; Stefan M. Keller; Patricia M. Gaffney; Megan Jones; Benjamin N. Sacks

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific killing is common among carnivores and can have population-level effects on imperiled species. The fisher (Pekania [Martes] pennant) is a rare forest carnivore in western North America and a candidate for listing under the United States Endangered Species Act. Interspecific killing and...

  7. Mothers Who Kill Their Offspring: Testing Evolutionary Hypothesis in a 110-Case Italian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S.; Fontanesi, Lilybeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This research aimed to identify incidents of mothers in Italy killing their own children and to test an adaptive evolutionary hypothesis to explain their occurrence. Methods: 110 cases of mothers killing 123 of their own offspring from 1976 to 2010 were analyzed. Each case was classified using 13 dichotomic variables. Descriptive…

  8. Optimization of line configuration and balancing for flexible machining lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Aiping; Chen, Zurui

    2016-05-01

    Line configuration and balancing is to select the type of line and allot a given set of operations as well as machines to a sequence of workstations to realize high-efficiency production. Most of the current researches for machining line configuration and balancing problems are related to dedicated transfer lines with dedicated machine workstations. With growing trends towards great product variety and fluctuations in market demand, dedicated transfer lines are being replaced with flexible machining line composed of identical CNC machines. This paper deals with the line configuration and balancing problem for flexible machining lines. The objective is to assign operations to workstations and find the sequence of execution, specify the number of machines in each workstation while minimizing the line cycle time and total number of machines. This problem is subject to precedence, clustering, accessibility and capacity constraints among the features, operations, setups and workstations. The mathematical model and heuristic algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are presented to find an optimal solution. The feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory are used to establish constraint model. A heuristic operations sequencing and assignment algorithm is given. An industrial case study is carried out, and multiple optimal solutions in different line configurations are obtained. The case studying results show that the solutions with shorter cycle time and higher line balancing rate demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. This research proposes a heuristic line configuration and balancing algorithm based on feature group strategy and polychromatic sets theory which is able to provide better solutions while achieving an improvement in computing time.

  9. Killing defect of natural killer cells with the absence of natural killer cytotoxic factors in a child with Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, A.; Kawai, H.; Yamada, S.; Kato, M.; Yanagisawa, M.; Miyagawa, Y.; Akabane, T.

    1987-01-01

    A killing defect of natural killer (NK) cells in the absence of NK cytotoxic factors (NKCF) was first demonstrated in a child with Hodgkin's disease. The patient lacked detectable NK cell activity in every phase of the disease as measured by a four-hour 51 Cr-release assay using K562 cells as a target. The percent lysis at a 40:1 effector:target ratio by the patient's lymphocytes was persistently below 0.3% as compared with the normal lymphocyte value of 46.2% +/- 5.8% (mean +/- SD). NK cell activity was not detectable at effector:target ratios of 10:1 to 80:1 and by prolongation of the incubation time, and the NK cell defect was not restored or improved by lymphocyte stimulation with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid, interferon (IFN)-alpha, or interleukin 2 (IL 2). The numbers of Leu-7+ cells and Leu-11+ cells were normal as counted by flow cytometry. A single cell-in-agarose assay demonstrated normal numbers of target binding cells (TBCs), and they showed the morphology of large granular lymphocytes. However, there were no TBCs with dead targets. These results indicated that the patient's lymphocytes contained normal numbers of NK cells that were capable of recognizing and binding to a target but were incapable of killing the bound target cell. The patient's lymphocytes were then studied for their release of NKCF upon interaction with K562 cells. The patient's cells did not release NKCF, and the NK cell defect was not restored or improved by stimulation of the cells with IFN or IL 2. It is suggested that the deficient release of NKCF may have been related to the killing defect of the NK cells in this patient

  10. SLIA beam line design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petillo, J.; Chernin, D.; Kostas, C.; Mondelli, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Spiral Line Induction Accelerator (SLIA) is a multi-kiloampere compact electron accelerator. It uses linear induction accelerator modules on the straight sections of a racetrack spiral, with strong-focusing bends to recirculate the electrons. The strong focusing is provided by stellarator windings on the bends. Stellarator coils are used to provide the strong focusing on the bends. The matching of the electron beam from a diode through a series of accelerator modules and stellarator bends is a major issue in the design of this accelerator. The beam line design for a proof-of-concept SLIA experiment (10 kA, 7 MeV) to be carried out at Pulse Sciences, Inc. will be presented. The design will demonstrate beam matching from element to element in the focusing system, the design of an achromatic bend, and the requirements for avoiding collective instabilities

  11. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  12. The U-line line balancing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, G.J.; Wijngaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The traditional line balancing (LB) problem considers a production line in which stations are arranged consecutively in a line. A balance is determined by grouping tasks into stations while moving forward (or backward) through a precedence network. Recently many production lines are being arranged

  13. Comparison of two mathematical models for describing heat-induced cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roti Roti, J.L.; Henle, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A computer-based minimization algorithm is utilized to obtain the optimum fits of two models to hyperthermic cell killing data. The models chosen are the multitarget, single-hit equation, which is in general use, and the linear-quadratic equation, which has been applied to cell killing by ionizing irradiation but not to heat-induced cell killing. The linear-quadratic equation fits hyperthermic cell killing data as well as the multitarget, single-hit equation. Both parameters of the linear-quadratic equation obey the Arrhenius law, whereas only one of the two parameters of the multitarget, single-hit equation obeys the Arrhenius law. Thus the linear-quadratic function can completely define cell killing as a function of both time and temperature. In addition, the linear-quadratic model will provide a simplified approach to the study of the synergism between heat and X irradiation

  14. NH125 kills methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus persisters by lipid bilayer disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooseong; Fricke, Nico; Conery, Annie L; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Vlahovska, Petia M; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-01-01

    NH125, a known WalK inhibitor kills MRSA persisters. However, its precise mode of action is still unknown. The mode of action of NH125 was investigated by comparing its spectrum of antimicrobial activity and its effects on membrane permeability and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) with walrycin B, a WalR inhibitor and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (16-BAC), a cationic surfactant. NH125 killed persister cells of a variety of Staphylococcus aureus strains. Similar to 16-BAC, NH125 killed MRSA persisters by inducing rapid membrane permeabilization and caused the rupture of GUVs, whereas walrycin B did not kill MRSA persisters or induce membrane permeabilization and did not affect GUVs. NH125 kills MRSA persisters by interacting with and disrupting membranes in a detergent-like manner.

  15. Targeted Anticancer Immunotoxins and Cytotoxic Agents with Direct Killing Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kawakami

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of the bioinformatics approach to characterize cell-surface antigens and receptors on tumor cells, it remains difficult to generate novel cancer vaccines or neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapeutics. Among targeted cancer therapeutics, biologicals with targetable antibodies or ligands conjugated or fused to toxins or chemicals for direct cell-killing ability have been developed over the last 2 decades. These conjugated or fused chimeric proteins are termed immunotoxins or cytotoxic agents. Two agents, DAB389IL-2 (ONTAKTM targeting the interleukin-2 receptor and CD33-calicheamicin (Mylotarg®, have been approved by the FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL and relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML, respectively. Such targetable agents, including RFB4(dsFv-PE38 (BL22, IL13-PE38QQR, and Tf-CRM107, are being tested in clinical trials. Several agents using unique technology such as a cleavable adapter or immunoliposomes with antibodies are also in the preclinical stage. This review summarizes the generation, mechanism, and development of these agents. In addition, possible future directions of this therapeutic approach are discussed.

  16. Killing mediated spatial structure in V. Cholerae biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, David

    Most bacteria live in biofilms, which are implicated in 60 - 80 % of microbial infections in the body. The spatial structure of a biofilm confers advantages to its member-cells, such as antibiotic resistance, and is strongly affected by competition between strains and taxa. However, A complete picture of how competition affects the self-organized structure of these complex, far-from-equilibrium systems, is yet to emerge. To that end, we investigate phase separation dynamics driven by T6SS-facilitated bacterial warfare in a system composed of two strains of mutually antagonistic V. cholerae. T6SS is a contact mediated killing mechanism present in 25 % of all gram negative bacteria, and has been shown by recent work to play a major role in the spatial assortment of biofilms. T6SS events induce lysis, causing variations in local mechanical pressure, and acting as thermalizing events. We study cells immobilized in biofilms at the air-solid interface, so our experimental system represents a different type active matter, wherein activity is due to cell death and reproduction, not mobility. Here, we show how that activity imposes a constraint of minimal curvature on strain-strain interfaces; an effective Laplace pressure is characterized which governs interfacial dynamics.

  17. Resistance to and killing by the sporicidal microbicide peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Mark J; Schwarz, J Spencer; Burke, Peter A; Mcdonnell, Gerald; Denyer, Stephen P; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2015-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of spore resistance to and killing by the oxidizing microbicide peracetic acid (PAA). Mutants of Bacillus subtilis lacking specific spore structures were used to identify resistance properties in spores and to understand the mechanism of action of PAA. We also assessed the effect of PAA treatment on a number of spore properties including heat tolerance, membrane integrity and germination. The spore coat is essential for spore PAA resistance as spores with defective coats were greatly sensitized to PAA treatment. Small acid-soluble spore proteins apparently provide no protection against PAA. Defects in spore germination, specifically in germination via the GerB and GerK but not the GerA germination receptors, as well as leakage of internal components suggest that PAA is active at the spore inner membrane. It is therefore likely that the inner membrane is the major site of PAA's sporicidal activity. PAA treatment targets the spore membrane, with some of its activity directed specifically against the GerB and GerK germination receptors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Filicide: mental illness in those who kill their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Sandra M; Shaw, Jenny J; Abel, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997-2006) were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66%) perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27%) and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%), most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research.

  19. Filicide: mental illness in those who kill their children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Flynn

    Full Text Available Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past.All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997-2006 were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports.6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66% perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27% and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%, most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence.In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research.

  20. Book review: Mosquito eradication: The story of killing Campto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In 1826, the paradise that was the Hawaiian Islands was changed forever when the first mosquito species was accidentally introduced to the island of Maui. Though it has not lived up to its potential as a vector of human disease in the islands, Culex quinquefasciatus and the avian pathogens it transmits laid waste to perhaps the world's most remarkable insular avifauna. Today the lowland native forests, once deafening with birdsong, are largely devoid of native birds and Cx. quinquefasciatus has become an inextricable part of our natural areas. In the Hawaiian Islands, the conservation community struggles to keep invasive species out and to control a number of species that have become naturalized. Despite the millions of dollars spent, these efforts never seem enough to slow the erosion of our native biota. The restoration and long-term preservation of Hawaiian forest birds depend on the nearly complete control of mosquito-borne avian disease, an obstacle that to many land managers appears insurmountable. To rally hope in Hawai`i, the conservation community needs to see a success. As a Pacific island, Hawai`i shares similar conservation problems with New Zealand and has often looked to that nation for innovation and inspiration. Mosquito Eradication: The Story of Killing Campto may be our latest inspiration.

  1. Homicide in the Canadian Prairies: elderly and nonelderly killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A G; Menzies, Robin P D

    2002-11-01

    To examine the psychosocial and clinical characteristics of male perpetrators of elderly and nonelderly homicides in the Canadian Prairies. We examined data drawn from a study of 901 adult homicide offenders who were incarcerated or on parole between 1988 and 1992 in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Of those studied, 67 men were convicted of homicide involving 79 elderly victims, and 671 were convicted of homicide involving 675 nonelderly victims. Most perpetrators were single and engaged in irregular patterns of employment at the time of their index offence. Fourteen (20.8%) offenders with elderly victims had a history of psychiatric treatment, compared with 98 (14.6%) offenders with nonelderly victims; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Approximately 30% of both groups were diagnosed with personality disorders. A comparison of the index- offence characteristics showed no significant differences between the 2 groups. Our findings suggest that elderly individuals are more likely to be killed in their own homes by strangers. Social isolation appears to be a significant risk factor in cases of elderly homicide.

  2. Infective endocarditis and phlebotomies may have killed mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Simon Jong-Koo

    2010-12-01

    Thirty-five year-old Amadeus Mozart died in Vienna after an acute illness that lasted only 15 days but no consensus has been reached on the cause of his death. From many letters written by his farther it is almost certain that he experienced at least three episodes of acute rheumatic fever attack in his childhood, and a relapse of rheumatic fever was suggested to have killed Mozart, although death from acute rheumatic fever is very rare in adults. His last illness was characterized by high fever, massive edema, vomiting and skin rash. His last illness can be explained by infectious endocarditis and heart failure. During his last hours, he was given phlebotomy, possibly for the third time in two weeks, and soon after he became unconscious and died. As such, phlebotomy performed on a man dehydrated by high fever and vomiting may have caused systemic shock. In summary, Mozart probably died from chronic rheumatic heart disease complicated by infective endocarditis and heart failure, and repeated phlebotomy-induced hypovolemic shock.

  3. Axisymmetric Electrovacuum Spacetimes with AN Additional Killing Vector and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdová, A.; Bičák, J.

    2002-12-01

    In the present note we briefly summarize our recent work [1, 2] on possible additional symmetries of axially symmetric electrovacuum spacetimes which admit radiation. The main result states that only boost and rotation (axially) symmetric electrovacuum spacetimes can be radiative and asymptotically flat at null infinity {J} which admits global sections. If an additional symmetry is a translational spacelike or null Killing field the spacetime represents cylindrical or plane-type waves, local {J} may still exist but some of its generators are missing. Boost-rotation symmetric spacetimes are the only known exact explicit radiative solutions of Einstein's equations describing moving objects - singularities or black holes uniformly accelerated along the axis of symmetry. They are radiative and admit a smooth {J} although at least four points of {J} are missing. They represent the only known examples in which arbitrarily strong initial data with the given symmetry can be chosen on a hyperboloidal hypersurface which evolve into a complete, smooth null infinity and regular timelike infinity. For the latest reviews, containing a number of relevant references, see [3, 4]...

  4. A Novel Inhibitor Of Topoisomerase I is Selectively Toxic For A Subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SW044248, identified through a screen for chemicals that are selectively toxic for NSCLC cell lines, was found to rapidly inhibit macromolecular synthesis in sensitive, but not in insensitive cells. SW044248 killed approximately 15% of a panel of 74 NSCLC cell lines and was non-toxic to immortalized human bronchial cell lines.

  5. Iceberg killing fields limit huge potential for benthic blue carbon in Antarctic shallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A

    2017-07-01

    Climate-forced ice losses are increasing potential for iceberg-seabed collisions, termed ice scour. At Ryder Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) sea ice, oceanography, phytoplankton and encrusting zoobenthos have been monitored since 1998. In 2003, grids of seabed markers, covering 225 m 2 , were established, surveyed and replaced annually to measure ice scour frequency. Disturbance history has been recorded for each m 2 of seabed monitored at 5-25 m for ~13 years. Encrusting fauna, collected from impacted and nonimpacted metres each year, show coincident benthos responses in growth, mortality and mass of benthic immobilized carbon. Encrusting benthic growth was mainly determined by microalgal bloom duration; each day, nanophytoplankton exceeded 200 μg L -1 produced ~0.05 mm radial growth of bryozoans, and sea temperature >0 °C added 0.002 mm day -1 . Mortality and persistence of growth, as benthic carbon immobilization, were mainly influenced by ice scour. Nearly 30% of monitored seabed was hit each year, and just 7% of shallows were not hit. Hits in deeper water were more deadly, but less frequent, so mortality decreased with depth. Five-year recovery time doubled benthic carbon stocks. Scour-driven mortality varied annually, with two-thirds of all monitored fauna killed in a single year (2009). Reduced fast ice after 2006 ramped iceberg scouring, killing half the encrusting benthos each year in following years. Ice scour coupled with low phytoplankton biomass drove a phase shift to high mortality and depressed zoobenthic immobilized carbon stocks, which has persevered for 10 years since. Stocks of immobilized benthic carbon averaged nearly 15 g m -2 . WAP ice scouring may be recycling 80 000 tonnes of carbon yr -1 . Without scouring, such carbon would remain immobilized and the 2.3% of shelf which are shallows could be as productive as all the remaining continental shelf. The region's future, when glaciers reach grounding lines and iceberg

  6. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  7. Comparisons of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pheromone traps with and without kill strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, C P C; Armstrong, J S; Spurgeon, D W; Duke, S

    2009-02-01

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), eradication programs typically equip pheromone traps with an insecticide-impregnated kill strip. These strips are intended to kill captured insects, thereby simplifying trap servicing and reducing the loss of weevils from predation and escape. However, the effectiveness of kill strips has not been extensively evaluated. We examined the influences of kill strips on weevil captures, trap servicing, and the incidences of weevil predation and trap obstruction (e.g., by spider webs). Evaluations were conducted weekly during three different production periods (pre- to early-, late-, and postseason) of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to represent different environmental conditions and weevil population levels. Within each period, mean weekly captures of weevils in traps with and without kill strips were statistically similar. On average, traps with kill strips took 9 s longer to service than traps without kill strips, but statistical differences were only detected during the late-season period. Overall, the mean weekly proportion of traps with evidence of weevil predation or trap obstruction was significantly lower for traps with kill strips (0.25) than for traps without kill strips (0.37). However, this reduction in the frequency of weevil predation or trap obstruction was too small to produce a corresponding increase in the numbers of weevils captured. In light of these findings, the use of kill strips is likely unnecessary in eradication programs, but may be a consideration in situations when the numbers of deployed traps are reduced and chronic problems with weevil predation or trap obstruction exist.

  8. Welfare Risks of Repeated Application of On-Farm Killing Methods for Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Martin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Council Regulation (EC no. 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing restricts the use of manual cervical dislocation in poultry on farms in the European Union (EU to birds weighing up to 3 kg and 70 birds per person per day. However, few studies have examined whether repeated application of manual cervical dislocation has welfare implications and whether these are dependent on individual operator skill or susceptibility to fatigue. We investigated the effects of repeated application (100 birds at a fixed killing rate of 1 bird per 2 min and multiple operators on two methods of killing of broilers, laying hens, and turkeys in commercial settings. We compared the efficacy and welfare impact of repeated application of cervical dislocation and a percussive killer (Cash Poultry Killer, CPK, using 12 male stockworkers on three farms (one farm per bird type. Both methods achieved over 96% kill success at the first attempt. The killing methods were equally effective for each bird type and there was no evidence of reduced performance with time and/or bird number. Both methods of killing caused a rapid loss of reflexes, indicating loss of brain function. There was more variation in reflex durations and post-mortem damage in birds killed by cervical dislocation than that found using CPK. High neck dislocation was associated with improved kill success and more rapid loss of reflexes. The CPK caused damage to multiple brain areas with little variation. Overall, the CPK was associated with faster abolition of reflexes, with fewer birds exhibiting them at all, suggestive of better welfare outcomes. However, technical difficulties with the CPK highlighted the advantages of cervical dislocation, which can be performed immediately with no equipment. At the killing rates tested, we did not find evidence to justify the current EU limit on the number of birds that one operator can kill on–farm by manual cervical dislocation.

  9. Reptile road-kills in Southern Brazil: Composition, hot moments and hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Larissa Oliveira; Alvares, Diego Janisch; Teixeira, Fernanda Zimmermann; Schuck, Gabriela; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Esperandio, Isadora Beraldi; Anza, Juan; Beduschi, Júlia; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Kindel, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    Understanding road-kill patterns is the first step to assess the potential effects of road mortality on wildlife populations, as well as to define the need for mitigation and support its planning. Reptiles are one of the vertebrate groups most affected by roads through vehicle collisions, both because they are intentionally killed by drivers, and due to their biological needs, such as thermoregulation, which make them more prone to collisions. We conducted monthly road surveys (33months), searching for carcasses of freshwater turtles, lizards, and snakes on a 277-km stretch of BR-101 road in Southernmost Brazil to estimate road-kill composition and magnitude and to describe the main periods and locations of road-kills. We modeled the distribution of road-kills in space according to land cover classes and local traffic volume. Considering the detection capacity of our method and carcass persistence probability, we estimated that 15,377 reptiles are road-killed per year (55reptiles/km/year). Road-kills, especially lizards and snakes, were concentrated during summer, probably due to their higher activity in this period. Road-kill hotspots were coincident among freshwater turtles, lizards, and snakes. Road-kill distribution was negatively related to pine plantations, and positively related to rice plantations and traffic volume. A cost-benefit analysis highlighted that if mitigation measures were installed at road-kill hotspots, which correspond to 21% of the road, they could have avoided up to 45% of recorded reptile fatalities, assuming a 100% mitigation effectiveness. Given the congruent patterns found for all three taxa, the same mitigation measures could be used to minimize the impacts of collision on local herpetofauna. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro killing of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by enrofloxacin in combination with its active metabolite ciprofloxacin using clinically relevant drug concentrations in the dog and cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, J M; Borsos, S; Blondeau, L D; Blondeau, B J

    2012-03-23

    Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent used to treat infections in companion animals. Enrofloxacin's antimicrobial spectrum includes Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria and demonstrates concentration-dependent bacteriocidal activity. In dogs and cats, enrofloxacin is partially metabolized to ciprofloxacin and both active agents circulate simultaneously in treated animals at ratios of approximately 60-70% enrofloxacin to 30-40% ciprofloxacin. We were interested in determining the killing of companion animal isolates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin combined using clinically relevant drug concentrations and ratios. For E. coli isolates exposed to 2.1 and 4.1μg/ml of enrofloxacin/ciprofloxacin at 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 ratios, a 1.7-2.5log(10) reduction (94-99% kill) was seen following 20min of drug exposure; 0.89-1.7log(10) (92-99% kill) of S. pseudintermedius following 180min of drug exposure; 0.85-3.4log(10) (98-99% kill) of P. aeruginosa following 15min of drug exposure. Killing of S. pseudintermedius was enhanced in the presence of enrofloxacin whereas killing of P. aeruginosa was enhanced in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Antagonism was not seen when enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were used in kill assays. The unique feature of partial metabolism of enrofloxacin to ciprofloxacin expands the spectrum of enhanced killing of common companion animal pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. When CO2 kills: effects of magmatic CO2 flux on belowground biota at Mammoth Mountain, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, J.; Waldrop, M. P.; Mangan, M.

    2011-12-01

    concomitant with a relative increase in bacterial and archaeal contributions to microbial community structure. Root tip analyses among lodgepole seedlings recolonizing the kill zone area demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall diversity of fungal symbionts, as well as a distinct shift in fungal assemblages. In particular, within elevated CO2 areas, we observed a high infection level for the ascomycetous fungi, Wilcoxina spp., which appear particularly well-adapted for colonization in disturbed environments. It remains unclear whether dominance by ascomycetes among seedlings in elevated CO2 areas represents a coordinated shift orchestrated by the plant in response to physiological stress, or whether these fungi are simply more opportunistic than their basdiomycetous counterparts. Our results demonstrate the impact of large-scale disturbances on plant-microbial interactions and belowground processes in previously forested ecosystems.

  12. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH) 2 for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH) 2 at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL -1 . Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP

  13. Investigation of hot ductility in Al-killed boron steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chown, L.H.; Cornish, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of boron to nitrogen ratio, strain rate and cooling rate on hot ductility of aluminium-killed, low carbon, boron microalloyed steel was investigated. Hot tensile testing was performed on steel samples reheated in argon to 1300 deg. C, cooled at rates of 0.3, 1.2 and 3.0 deg. C s -1 to temperatures in the range 750-1050 deg. C, and then strained to failure at initial strain rates of 1 x 10 -4 or 1 x 10 -3 s -1 . It was found that the steel with a B:N ratio of 0.19 showed deep hot ductility troughs for all tested conditions; the steel with a B:N ratio of 0.47 showed a deep ductility trough for a high cooling rate of 3.0 deg. C s -1 and the steel with a near-stoichiometric B:N ratio of 0.75 showed no ductility troughs for the tested conditions. The ductility troughs extended from ∼900 deg. C (near the Ae 3 temperature) to ∼1000 or 1050 deg. C in the single-phase austenite region. The proposed mechanism of hot ductility improvement with increase in B:N ratio in these steels is that the B removes N from solution, thus reducing the strain-induced precipitation of AlN. Additionally, BN co-precipitates with sulphides, preventing precipitation of fine MnS, CuS and FeS, and forming large, complex precipitates that have no effect on hot ductility

  14. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy to Kill Gram-negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new promising strategy to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The search for new approaches that can kill bacteria but do not induce the appearance of undesired drug-resistant strains suggests that PDT may have advantages over traditional antibiotic therapy. PDT is a non-thermal photochemical reaction that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a dye or photosensitizer (PS). Several PS have been studied for their ability to bind to bacteria and efficiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photostimulation. ROS are formed through type I or II mechanisms and may inactivate several classes of microbial cells including Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are typically characterized by an impermeable outer cell membrane that contains endotoxins and blocks antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, protecting the sensitive inner membrane and cell wall. This review covers significant peer-reviewed articles together with US and World patents that were filed within the past few years and that relate to the eradication of Gram-negative bacteria via PDI or PDT. It is organized mainly according to the nature of the PS involved and includes natural or synthetic food dyes; cationic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue; tetrapyrrole derivatives such as phthalocyanines, chlorins, porphyrins, chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll derivatives; functionalized fullerenes; nanoparticles combined with different PS; other formulations designed to target PS to bacteria; photoactive materials and surfaces; conjugates between PS and polycationic polymers or antibodies; and permeabilizing agents such as EDTA, PMNP and CaCl2. The present review also covers the different laboratory animal models normally used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections with antimicrobial PDT. PMID

  15. Staphylococcus epidermidis strategies to avoid killing by human neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Y C Cheung

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus epidermidis is a leading nosocomial pathogen. In contrast to its more aggressive relative S. aureus, it causes chronic rather than acute infections. In highly virulent S. aureus, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs contribute significantly to immune evasion and aggressive virulence by their strong ability to lyse human neutrophils. Members of the PSM family are also produced by S. epidermidis, but their role in immune evasion is not known. Notably, strong cytolytic capacity of S. epidermidis PSMs would be at odds with the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus, prompting us to examine the biological activities of S. epidermidis PSMs. Surprisingly, we found that S. epidermidis has the capacity to produce PSMδ, a potent leukocyte toxin, representing the first potent cytolysin to be identified in that pathogen. However, production of strongly cytolytic PSMs was low in S. epidermidis, explaining its low cytolytic potency. Interestingly, the different approaches of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to causing human disease are thus reflected by the adaptation of biological activities within one family of virulence determinants, the PSMs. Nevertheless, S. epidermidis has the capacity to evade neutrophil killing, a phenomenon we found is partly mediated by resistance mechanisms to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, including the protease SepA, which degrades AMPs, and the AMP sensor/resistance regulator, Aps (GraRS. These findings establish a significant function of SepA and Aps in S. epidermidis immune evasion and explain in part why S. epidermidis may evade elimination by innate host defense despite the lack of cytolytic toxin expression. Our study shows that the strategy of S. epidermidis to evade elimination by human neutrophils is characterized by a passive defense approach and provides molecular evidence to support the notion that S. epidermidis is a less aggressive pathogen than S. aureus.

  16. Inhibition of Hsp90 acts synergistically with topoisomerase II poisons to increase the apoptotic killing of cells due to an increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Catherine R.; McNamara, Anne V.; Rackstraw, Stephen A.; Nelson, David E.; White, Mike R.; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Jenkins, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Topoisomerase II plays a crucial role during chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis and meiosis and is a highly attractive target for chemotherapeutic agents. We have identified previously topoisomerase II and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as part of a complex. In this paper we demonstrate that drug combinations targeting these two enzymes cause a synergistic increase in apoptosis. The objective of our study was to identify the mode of cell killing and the mechanism behind the inc...

  17. Can patriotism justify killing in defense of one’s country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavković Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmopolitan liberals would be ready to fight - and to kill and be killed for the sake of restoring international justice or for the abolition of profoundly unjust political institutions. Patriots are ready to do the same for their own country. Sometimes the cosmopolitan liberals and patriots would fight on the same side and sometimes on the opposite sides of the conflict. Thus the former would join the latter in the defense of Serbia against Austria-Hungary (in 1914 but would oppose the white Southerner patriots in the American Civil War (in 1861. In this paper I argue that fighting and killing for one’s country is, in both of those cases, different from the defense of one’s own life and the lives of those who cannot defend themselves. Killing for one’s country is killing in order to fulfill a particular political preference. The same is the case with fighting for the abolition of a profoundly unjust political institution. It is not amoral or immoral to refuse to kill for any one of these two political preferences because there is no reason to believe that either political preference trumps our moral constraints against killing.

  18. Kill rate of mastitis pathogens by a combination of cefalexin and kanamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneke, E; Pridmore, A; Goby, L; Lang, I

    2011-01-01

    To assess the bacterial killing rate produced by a combination of cefalexin and kanamycin at two different concentration ratios. Time-kill kinetics of cefalexin and kanamycin, individually and in combination, were determined against one strain each of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis. The combination was tested using two fixed ratios (cefalexin : kanamycin ratios of 1·25 : 1 and 1 : 2·3) and two concentrations of each ratio. Time-kill curves produced with either ratio were quite similar. Against most bacterial species, higher concentrations produced faster kill. In all cases, the combination of cefalexin and kanamycin showed faster and greater kill at lower antibiotic concentrations than those observed with either drug alone. The combination of cefalexin and kanamycin results in a fast initial killing of major mastitis pathogens at both concentration ratios. The combination of cefalexin and kanamycin achieved rapid bacterial kill at concentrations and ratios that can be achieved in vivo following intramammary infusion of a mastitis treatment. © 2010 Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Mechanisms of Bacterial (Serratia marcescens) Attachment to, Migration along, and Killing of Fungal Hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Tal; Maya, Tal; Ron, Sapir; Sandovsky, Hani; Shadkchan, Yana; Kijner, Nitzan; Mitiagin, Yulia; Fichtman, Boris; Harel, Amnon; Shanks, Robert M Q; Bruna, Roberto E; García-Véscovi, Eleonora; Osherov, Nir

    2016-05-01

    We have found a remarkable capacity for the ubiquitous Gram-negative rod bacterium Serratia marcescens to migrate along and kill the mycelia of zygomycete molds. This migration was restricted to zygomycete molds and several basidiomycete species. No migration was seen on any molds of the phylum Ascomycota. S. marcescens migration did not require fungal viability or surrounding growth medium, as bacteria migrated along aerial hyphae as well.S. marcescens did not exhibit growth tropism toward zygomycete mycelium. Bacterial migration along hyphae proceeded only when the hyphae grew into the bacterial colony. S. marcescens cells initially migrated along the hyphae, forming attached microcolonies that grew and coalesced to generate a biofilm that covered and killed the mycelium. Flagellum-defective strains of S. marcescens were able to migrate along zygomycete hyphae, although they were significantly slower than the wild-type strain and were delayed in fungal killing. Bacterial attachment to the mycelium does not necessitate type 1 fimbrial adhesion, since mutants defective in this adhesin migrated equally well as or faster than the wild-type strain. Killing does not depend on the secretion of S. marcescens chitinases, as mutants in which all three chitinase genes were deleted retained wild-type killing abilities. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which S. marcescens binds to, spreads on, and kills fungal hyphae might serve as an excellent model system for such interactions in general; fungal killing could be employed in agricultural fungal biocontrol. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Chicken Cathelicidin-2 Is Immunogenically Silent, Preventing Lung Inflammation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorens, Maarten; Banaschewski, Brandon J. H.; Baer, Brandon J.; Yamashita, Cory; van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Ruud A. W.; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The development of antibiotic resistance by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major concern in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia. In the search for novel anti-infective therapies, the chicken-derived peptide cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) has emerged as a potential candidate, with strong broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and the ability to limit inflammation by inhibiting Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 activation. However, as it is unknown how CATH-2 affects inflammation in vivo, we investigated how CATH-2-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa affects lung inflammation in a murine model. First, murine macrophages were used to determine whether CATH-2-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa reduced proinflammatory cytokine production in vitro. Next, a murine lung model was used to analyze how CATH-2-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa affects neutrophil and macrophage recruitment as well as cytokine/chemokine production in the lung. Our results show that CATH-2 kills P. aeruginosa in an immunogenically silent manner both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with CATH-2-killed P. aeruginosa showed reduced neutrophil recruitment to the lung as well as inhibition of cytokine and chemokine production, compared to treatment with heat- or gentamicin-killed bacteria. Together, these results show the potential for CATH-2 as a dual-activity antibiotic in bacterial pneumonia, which can both kill P. aeruginosa and prevent excessive inflammation. PMID:28947647

  1. Two avirulent, lentogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus are cytotoxic for some human pancreatic tumor lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Robert J; Attar, Bashar M; Rafiq, Asad; Delimata, Megan; Tejaswi, Sooraj

    2012-09-10

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Highly infectious Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains are known to be very cytotoxic for an array of human tumor cell types in vitro and in vivo but the effects of these and avirulent NDV strains on pancreatic neoplasms are little known. Here, the direct cytolytic effects of the avirulent Hitchner-B1 (B1) and Ulster (U) NDV strains on 7 human pancreatic tumor cell lines and 4 normal human cell lines were studied. Cytotoxicity assays used serially diluted NDV to determine minimum cytotoxic plaque forming unit (PFU) doses. For NDV-B1, normal human cells were killed only by relatively high doses (range: 471-3,724 PFU) whereas NDV-U killed these cells at low PFU (range: 0.32-1.60 PFU). Most pancreatic cancer cell types were killed by much lower NDV-B1 doses (range: 0.40-2.60 PFU) while NDV-U killed Capan-1 and SU.86.86 cultures at very low doses (0.00041 PFU and 0.0034 PFU, respectively). On average, 1,555 times more NDV-B1 was needed to kill normal cells than most pancreatic tumor cells and 558 times more NDV-U to kill the two most sensitive pancreatic cancer lines. These innately-targeted lentogenic viruses may have meaningful potential in treating pancreatic cancer.

  2. Mitigation options for fish kills in L Lake and Pond C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.H.

    1989-11-01

    This report concerns mitigation options for reducing or eliminating the fish kills that occur in L Lake and Pond C as a result of reactor operations. These kills occur when fish that have entered the discharge areas during outages are killed by the rapid rises in temperature that follow reactor re-starts. Factors that have been observed to influence the severity of the kills include the length of the outage, season during which the outage occurs, reactor power level, and size of the fish in the discharge area. Without mitigation, fish kills can be expected to occur in Pond C with approximately the same frequency and severity as in the past. Even in the absence of mitigation, however, it is unlikely that future fish kills in L Lake will be as severe as the large kill that occurred in December 1986. Fish abundance in Region 2 of L Lake (where severe kills occurred in the past) has declined over 90% since 1986, largely due to a reduction in the abundance of juvenile sunfish (which constituted approximately 99% of past kills). There are basically three categories of mitigation options: changes in reactor operations, methods to exclude fish from time discharge areas, and methods to promote the escapement of fish from the discharge area. These options vary in approach, scope, and anticipated expense. Most would need to be researched in greater depth before it would be possible to predict their effectiveness more definitively. While the options have the potential to greatly reduce mortalities, none can totally eliminate mortalities. The only way of ensuring the elimination of all mortalities is to reduce effluent temperatures to sublethal levels with properly designed and operated cooling technology. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate efficiently kills breast tumour-initiating cells in a complex II-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bing; Stantic, Marina; Zobalova, Renata; Bezawork-Geleta, Ayenachew; Stapelberg, Michael; Stursa, Jan; Prokopova, Katerina; Dong, Lanfeng; Neuzil, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that breast cancer involves tumour-initiating cells (TICs), which play a role in initiation, metastasis, therapeutic resistance and relapse of the disease. Emerging drugs that target TICs are becoming a focus of contemporary research. Mitocans, a group of compounds that induce apoptosis of cancer cells by destabilising their mitochondria, are showing their potential in killing TICs. In this project, we investigated mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate (MitoVES), a recently developed mitocan, for its in vitro and in vivo efficacy against TICs. The mammosphere model of breast TICs was established by culturing murine NeuTL and human MCF7 cells as spheres. This model was verified by stem cell marker expression, tumour initiation capacity and chemotherapeutic resistance. Cell susceptibility to MitoVES was assessed and the cell death pathway investigated. In vivo efficacy was studied by grafting NeuTL TICs to form syngeneic tumours. Mammospheres derived from NeuTL and MCF7 breast cancer cells were enriched in the level of stemness, and the sphere cells featured altered mitochondrial function. Sphere cultures were resistant to several established anti-cancer agents while they were susceptible to MitoVES. Killing of mammospheres was suppressed when the mitochondrial complex II, the molecular target of MitoVES, was knocked down. Importantly, MitoVES inhibited progression of syngeneic HER2 high tumours derived from breast TICs by inducing apoptosis in tumour cells. These results demonstrate that using mammospheres, a plausible model for studying TICs, drugs that target mitochondria efficiently kill breast tumour-initiating cells. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1394-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  4. The irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib interacts with the PARP1 inhibitor niraparib to kill ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Samuel, Peter; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler, Richard E; Lalani, Alshad S; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2018-06-03

    The irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib has been shown to rapidly down-regulate the expression of ERBB1/2/4 as well as the levels of c-MET, PDGFRα and mutant RAS proteins via autophagic degradation. Neratinib interacted in an additive to synergistic fashion with the approved PARP1 inhibitor niraparib to kill ovarian cancer cells. Neratinib and niraparib caused the ATM-dependent activation of AMPK which in turn was required to cause mTOR inactivation, ULK-1 activation and ATG13 phosphorylation. The drug combination initially increased autophagosome levels followed later by autolysosome levels. Preventing autophagosome formation by expressing activated mTOR or knocking down of Beclin1, or knock down of the autolysosome protein cathepsin B, reduced drug combination lethality. The drug combination caused an endoplasmic reticulum stress response as judged by enhanced eIF2α phosphorylation that was responsible for reducing MCL-1 and BCL-XL levels and increasing ATG5 and Beclin1 expression. Knock down of BIM, but not of BAX or BAK, reduced cell killing. Expression of activated MEK1 prevented the drug combination increasing BIM expression and reduced cell killing. Downstream of the mitochondrion, drug lethality was partially reduced by knock down of AIF, but expression of dominant negative caspase 9 was not protective. Our data demonstrate that neratinib and niraparib interact to kill ovarian cancer cells through convergent DNA damage and endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Cell killing required the induction of autophagy and was cathepsin B and AIF -dependent, and effector caspase independent.

  5. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in injured and killed drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isalberti, Cristina; Linden, Trudy Van der; Legrand, Sara-Ann

    2011-01-01

    regarding the prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers who have been injured/killed in traffic accidents. Part 1 of this report presents the general results of the hospital & killed driver studies. After a short introduction, the representativeness of the populations in the EU...... countries as well as the representativeness of hospitalised and killed driver samples are addressed. An overview of the non-response issues in the various countries is also included. Based on the toxicological findings, a general summary of the prevalence of drug use is given for the 9 participating...

  6. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  7. 43 CFR 30.251 - What happens if an heir or devisee participates in the killing of the decedent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participates in the killing of the decedent? 30.251 Section 30.251 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... if an heir or devisee participates in the killing of the decedent? Any person who knowingly participates, either as a principal or as an accessory before the fact, in the willful and unlawful killing of...

  8. Improving the selective cancer killing ability of ZnO nanoparticles using Fe doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Aaron; Wingett, Denise G; Rasmussen, John W; Layne, Janet; Johnson, Lydia; Tenne, Dmitri A; Zhang, Jianhui; Hanna, Charles B; Punnoose, Alex

    2012-06-01

    This work reports a new method to improve our recent demonstration of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) selectively killing certain human cancer cells, achieved by incorporating Fe ions into the NPs. Thoroughly characterized cationic ZnO NPs (∼6 nm) doped with Fe ions (Zn(1-x )Fe (x) O, x = 0-0.15) were used in this work, applied at a concentration of 24 μg/ml. Cytotoxicity studies using flow cytometry on Jurkat leukemic cancer cells show cell viability drops from about 43% for undoped ZnO NPs to 15% for ZnO NPs doped with 7.5% Fe. However, the trend reverses and cell viability increases with higher Fe concentrations. The non-immortalized human T cells are markedly more resistant to Fe-doped ZnO NPs than cancerous T cells, confirming that Fe-doped samples still maintain selective toxicity to cancer cells. Pure iron oxide samples displayed no appreciable toxicity. Reactive oxygen species generated with NP introduction to cells increased with increasing Fe up to 7.5% and decreased for >7.5% doping.

  9. The novel nematicide wact-86 interacts with aldicarb to kill nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Burns

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes negatively impact human and animal health worldwide. The market withdrawal of nematicidal agents due to unfavourable toxicities has limited the available treatment options. In principle, co-administering nematicides at lower doses along with molecules that potentiate their activity could mitigate adverse toxicities without compromising efficacy. Here, we screened for new small molecules that interact with aldicarb, which is a highly effective treatment for plant-parasitic nematodes whose toxicity hampers its utility. From our collection of 638 worm-bioactive compounds, we identified 20 molecules that interact positively with aldicarb to either kill or arrest the growth of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We investigated the mechanism of interaction between aldicarb and one of these novel nematicides called wact-86. We found that the carboxylesterase enzyme GES-1 hydrolyzes wact-86, and that the interaction is manifested by aldicarb's inhibition of wact-86's metabolism by GES-1. This work demonstrates the utility of C. elegans as a platform to search for new molecules that can positively interact with industrial nematicides, and provides proof-of-concept for prospective discovery efforts.

  10. A CHALLENGE OF TRUST: CAN DISTRUST KILL THE EURO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Kostiuchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to determine the dynamics of trust in the ECB in the most recent period, to compare the findings with a previous study of Farvaque et al. (2010 and to explore the question of importance of citizen’s trust in public institution for the economic performance of the country. This paper is dedicated to the study of the determinants of trust in the European Central Bank. The study attempts to give an answer to a question posed in introduction: can distrust kill the euro? After the world economic crisis the trust in the ECB began to deteriorate. Citizen’s trust in public institutions plays an important role for the economic performance of the country. Methology. We rely on the micro data from the European Commission’s Eurobarometer survey. This paper contributes empirically to the existing literature dedicated to the issue of trust in public institutions. The responses in 15 EU-member countries were taken into account. The present work uses the model of Farvaque et al. (2010 extending the time frame considered previously, giving a broader picture on this issue using the most recent data. Results. In accordance with our findings, the population that support the ECB is approximately equal to the population that does not trust in the community bank, with a mean value of 0,51. Even if there are still more supporters of the ECB, this data should provide an alarm for the European institutional framework, in consideration that in 1999 (in accordance with Farvaque et al. (2010 the mean value was 0,67. Practical implications. According to our findings, still people with higher level of education, people with a higher social status, people with center or right-wing political orientation, people with optimistic expectations on the economic situation have more trust in the ECB. However, we have found that women have become more supportive about the ECB than men in contrast with the findings of Farvaque et al. (2010. Value

  11. The 1965 Indonesian Killing Discourse by Generation 2000 Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ariani Arimbi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The fall of Soeharto’s authority in 1998 has indeed impacted numerous sides of Indonesian life: political, social and cultural. The shifting of authoritative government to the state of “reformation” and “democratization” has forced the nation to redefine its authority to its members. This paper aims to look at these public responses which are narrated in contemporary Indonesian fiction. Although fiction may be seen as imaginative production, discursive ideologies can be examined clearly. By examining thematic significant of the narratives about G30S/PKI and the killings aftermath in the literary writings published in post 1998 by contemporary Indonesia writers, who are known as the Generation 2000 writers (who were mostly born in 1970s at least five years after the 1965 incident: also known as the millennials, this paper will attempt to answer whether or not this generation presents shift and creates its own notions of the incident. Abstrak: Jatuhnya kekuasaan Soeharto pada tahun 1998 berdampak pada berbagai sisi kehidupan di Indonesia: politik, sosial, dan budaya. Pergeseran dari pemerintahan yang dulunya otoritatif menjadi pemerintahan yang sarat dengan "reformasi" dan "demokratisasi" telah memaksa negara untuk mendefinisikan kembali wewenangnya kepada para anggotanya. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk melihat respons publik yang diceritakan dalam fiksi Indonesia kontemporer. Walaupun fiksi dapat dipandang sebagai produk imajinatif, ideologi diskursif dapat dilihat dengan je-las. Dengan memeriksa tema-tema yang secara signifikan dimunculkan dari narasi tentang G30S/PKI dan tragedi pembunuhan sesudahnya dalam tulisan-tulisan sastra yang diterbitkan pasca tahun 1998 oleh penulis Indonesia kontemporer, yang dikenal sebagai penulis Generasi 2000 (penulis yang kebanyakan lahir di tahun 1970-an setidaknya 5 tahun setelah 1965 kejadian: juga dikenal sebagai millenials, makalah ini berusaha menjawab apakah generasi baru mengalami pergeseran dalam

  12. Hot tensile behaviour in silicon-killed boron microalloyed steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Lesley H.; Cornish, Lesley A.

    2017-10-01

    Low carbon steel for drawing and cold heading applications should have low strength, high ductility and low strain ageing rates. To achieve this, nitrogen must be removed from solid solution, which can be done by low additions of boron. A wire producer had been experiencing occasional problems with severe cracking on silicon-killed, boron steel billets during continuous casting, but the solution was not obvious. Samples from four billets, each from different casts, were removed for analysis and testing. The tested steel compositions were within the specification limits, with boron to nitrogen ratios of 0.40-1.19. Hot ductility testing was performed on a Gleeble 1500 using parameters approximating the capabilities of this particular billet caster. The steel specimens were subjected to in situ melting, then cooled at a rate of 2 C.s-1 to temperatures in the range 750-1250°C, where they were then pulled to failure at a strain rate of 8x10-4 s-1. In this work, it was found that both the boron to nitrogen ratio and the manganese to sulphur ratio influenced the hot ductility and hence the crack susceptibility. Excellent hot ductility was found for B:N ratios above 1.0, which confirmed that the B:N ratio should be above a stoichiometric value of 0.8 to remove all nitrogen from solid solution. TEM analysis showed that coarse BN precipitates nucleated on other precipitates, such as (Fe,Mn)S, which have relatively low melting points, and are detrimental to hot ductility. Low Mn:S ratios of 10 - 12 were shown to promote precipitation of FeS, so a Mn:S > 14 was recommended. A narrower billet surface temperature range for straightening was recommended to prevent transverse surface cracking. Additionally, analysis of industrial casting data showed that the scrap percentage due to transverse cracking increased significantly for Mn:S < 14. An exponential decay relationship between the manganese to sulphur ratio and the average scrap percentage due to transverse cracking was

  13. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  14. Acadesine kills chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML cells through PKC-dependent induction of autophagic cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Robert

    Full Text Available CML is an hematopoietic stem cell disease characterized by the t(9;22 (q34;q11 translocation encoding the oncoprotein p210BCR-ABL. The effect of acadesine (AICAR, 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside a compound with known antileukemic effect on B cell chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (B-CLL was investigated in different CML cell lines. Acadesine triggered loss of cell metabolism in K562, LAMA-84 and JURL-MK1 and was also effective in killing imatinib-resistant K562 cells and Ba/F3 cells carrying the T315I-BCR-ABL mutation. The anti-leukemic effect of acadesine did not involve apoptosis but required rather induction of autophagic cell death. AMPK knock-down by Sh-RNA failed to prevent the effect of acadesine, indicating an AMPK-independent mechanism. The effect of acadesine was abrogated by GF109203X and Ro-32-0432, both inhibitor of classical and new PKCs and accordingly, acadesine triggered relocation and activation of several PKC isoforms in K562 cells. In addition, this compound exhibited a potent anti-leukemic effect in clonogenic assays of CML cells in methyl cellulose and in a xenograft model of K562 cells in nude mice. In conclusion, our work identifies an original and unexpected mechanism by which acadesine triggers autophagic cell death through PKC activation. Therefore, in addition to its promising effects in B-CLL, acadesine might also be beneficial for Imatinib-resistant CML patients.

  15. Pathogen analysis of NYSDOT road-killed deer carcass compost facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Composting of deer carcasses was effective in reducing pathogen levels, decomposing the : carcasses and producing a useable end product after 12 months. The composting process used in this project : involved enveloping the carcasses of road-killed de...

  16. Optimal Fixed-Interval Integrated Guidance-Control Laws for Hit-to-Kill Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menon, P. K; Sweriduk, G. D; Ohlmeyer, E. J

    2003-01-01

    Due to their potential for reducing the weapon size and efficiency, design methods for realizing hit-to- kill capabilities in missile systems are of significant research interest in the missile flight control community...

  17. IN VITRO KILLING OF PERKINSUS MARINUS BY HEMOCYTES OF OYSTERS CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A colorimetric microbicidal assay was adapted, optimized and applied in experiments to characterize the in vitro capacity of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes to kill cultured isolates of Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite causing a highly destructive disease...

  18. Novel contaminants identified in fish kills in the Red River watershed, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provisional molecular weights and chemical formulas were assigned to four significant previously unidentified contaminants present during active fish kills in the Red River region of Oklahoma. The provisional identifications of these contaminants were determined using high-resolu...

  19. Time-kill profiles and cell-surface morphological effects of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Time-kill assays were conducted by incubating test bacteria with the extract and sampling at selected time points within ... activity against both bacteria and fungi [14]. Also, a protein ..... be developed as novel drugs for the treatment of.

  20. Research on killing Escherichia Coli by reactive oxygen species based on strong ionization discharging plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y J; Tian, Y P; Zhang, Z T; Li, R H; Cai, L J; Gao, J Y

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species solution produced by strong ionization discharging plasma was used to kill Escherichia coli by spraying. Several effect factors such as pH value, solution temperature, spraying time and exposure time were observed in this study, and their effects on killing rate of Escherichia coli were discussed and analysed. Results show that the treating efficiency of ROS solution for Escherichia coli is higher in alkaline solution than that in acid solution. The killing rate of Escherichia coli increases while the spraying time and exposure time are longer and the temperature is lower. The effects of different factors on killing rate of Escherichia coli are as follows: spraying time > pH value > exposure time > solution temperature.