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Sample records for lightly doped band

  1. Visible-light activity of N-LiInO2: Band structure modifications through interstitial nitrogen doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaiqiang; Xu, Difa; Zhang, Xiangchao; Luo, Zhuo; Wang, Yutang; Zhang, Shiying

    2017-01-01

    Element doping is a promising strategy to improve the photo-response and photocatalytic activity of semiconductor photocatalyst with a wide band gap. To reduce the band gap of LiInO2 that is considered as a novel photocatalyst, nitrogen-doped LiInO2 (N-LiInO2) is successfully fabricated by treating LiInO2 and urea at 200 °C. It is found that interstitial instead of substitutional configurations are formed in the crystal structure of N-LiInO2 due to the low-treating temperature and rich-oxygen conditions. The interstitial N-doping forms a doping state with 0.6 eV above the valence band maximum and a defect state with 0.1 eV below the conduction band minimum, reducing the band gap of LiInO2 from 3.5 to 2.8 eV. N-LiInO2 exhibits higher photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue (MB) degradation under 380 nm light irradiation, which is 1.4 times that of pure LiInO2. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of N-LiInO2 is attributed to the extended light absorption and the improved charge carrier separation, which result in more reactive species participating in the photcatalytic process. This work provides a further understanding on tuning the band structure of semiconductor photocatalyst by N-doping strategies.

  2. A study on the band gap and the doping level of V-doped TiO2 with respect to the visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ah Young; Han, Chul-Hee

    2014-10-01

    The visible-light response is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for semiconductor photocatalyst to function as a visible-light active photocatalyst. To shed more light on the issue of visible-light response of semiconductor photocatalysts, the band-gaps and the doping levels of multivalency vanadium-doped TiO2 were investigated from sonochemically prepared samples. Sonochemical doping, which relies on acoustic cavitation phenomena, is a one step process excluding chemical synthesis, and three types of vanadium doped TiO2 nanopowder were prepared using such vanadium oxides as V2O3, V2O4, and V2O5. The band-gaps of as-prepared samples were obtained from the diffuse reflectance measurement, and the doping levels of vanadium in these samples were measured using electron probe micro analyzer. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer was introduced to complement electron probe micro analyzer. Furthermore, quantum-chemical calculations on simple cluster models for TiO2 and V-doped TiO2 were performed, and the resulting computational results in conjunction with experimental findings provided valuable information on oxygen vacancy and doping mechanism.

  3. Highly luminescent S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots with broad visible absorption bands for visible light photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dan; Zheng, Min; Du, Peng; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Ligong; Li, Di; Tan, Huaqiao; Zhao, Zhao; Xie, Zhigang; Sun, Zaicheng

    2013-11-01

    A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively.A facile hydrothermal synthesis route to N and S, N co-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) was developed by using citric acid as the C source and urea or thiourea as N and S sources. Both N and S, N doped GQDs showed high quantum yield (78% and 71%), excitation independent under excitation of 340-400 nm and single exponential decay under UV excitation. A broad absorption band in the visible region appeared in S, N co-doped GQDs due to doping with sulfur, which alters the surface state of GQDs. However, S, N co-doped GQDs show different color emission under excitation of 420-520 nm due to their absorption in the visible region. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the S, N co-doped GQD/TiO2 composites was demonstrated by degradation of rhodamine B under visible light. The apparent rate of S, N:GQD/TiO2 is 3 and 10 times higher than that of N:GQD/TiO2 and P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More XPS and UV-Vis spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04402e

  4. Wavelength-tuned light emission via modifying the band edge symmetry: Doped SnO2 as an example

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Hang

    2014-03-27

    We report the observation of ultraviolet photoluminescence and electroluminescence in indium-doped SnO2 thin films with modified "forbidden" bandgap. With increasing indium concentration in SnO 2, dominant visible light emission evolves into the ultraviolet regime in photoluminescence. Hybrid functional first-principles calculations demonstrate that the complex of indium dopant and oxygen vacancy breaks "forbidden" band gap to form allowed transition states. Furthermore, undoped and 10% indium-doped SnO2 layers are synthesized on p-type GaN substrates to obtain SnO2-based heterojunction light-emitting diodes. A dominant visible emission band is observed in the undoped SnO 2-based heterojunction, whereas strong near-ultraviolet emission peak at 398 nm is observed in the indium-doped SnO2-based heterojunction. Our results demonstrate an unprecedented doping-based approach toward tailoring the symmetry of band edge states and recovering ultraviolet light emission in wide-bandgap oxides. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  5. Narrow band gap and visible light-driven photocatalysis of V-doped Bi6Mo2O15 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Qin, Chuanxiang; Huang, Yanlin; Wang, Yaorong; Qin, Lin; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2017-02-01

    Pure and V5+-doped Bi6Mo2O15 (3Bi2O3·2MoO3) photocatalysts were synthesized through electrospinning, followed by low-temperature heat treatment. The samples developed into nanoparticles with an average size of approximately 50 nm. The crystalline phases were verified via X-ray powder diffraction measurements (XRD). The surface properties of the photocatalysts were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The UV-vis spectra showed that V doping in Bi6Mo2O15 shifted the optical absorption from the UV region to the visible-light wavelength region. The energy of the band gap of Bi6Mo2O15 was reduced by V doping in the lattices. The photocatalytic activities of the pure and V-doped Bi6Mo2O15 were tested through photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye solutions under visible light irradiation. Results showed that 20 mol% V-doped Bi6Mo2O15 achieved efficient photocatalytic ability. RhB could be degraded by V-doped Bi6Mo2O15 in 2 h. The photocatalytic activities and mechanisms were discussed according to the characteristics of the crystal structure and the results of EIS and XPS measurements.

  6. Strong Energy-momentum Dispersion of Phonon Dressed Carriers in the Lightly Doped Band Insulator SrTiO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meevasana, Warawat

    2010-05-26

    Much progress has been made recently in the study of the effects of electron-phonon (el-ph) coupling in doped insulators using angle resolved photoemission (ARPES), yielding evidence for the dominant role of el-ph interactions in underdoped cuprates. As these studies have been limited to doped Mott insulators, the important question arises how this compares with doped band insulators where similar el-ph couplings should be at work. The archetypical case is the perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), well known for its giant dielectric constant of 10000 at low temperature, exceeding that of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} by a factor of 500. Based on this fact, it has been suggested that doped STO should be the archetypical bipolaron superconductor. Here we report an ARPES study from high-quality surfaces of lightly doped SrTiO{sub 3}. Comparing to lightly doped Mott insulators, we find the signatures of only moderate electron-phonon coupling: a dispersion anomaly associated with the low frequency optical phonon with a {lambda}{prime} {approx} 0.3 and an overall bandwidth renormalization suggesting an overall {lambda}{prime} {approx} 0.7 coming from the higher frequency phonons. Further, we find no clear signatures of the large pseudogap or small polaron phenomena. These findings demonstrate that a large dielectric constant itself is not a good indicator of el-ph coupling and highlight the unusually strong effects of the el-ph coupling in doped Mott insulators.

  7. Observation of intermediate bands in Eu3+ doped YPO4 host: Li+ ion effect and blue to pink light emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kareem Parchur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the tuning of blue to pink colour generation from Li+ ion co-doped YPO4:5Eu nanoparticles prepared by polyol method at ∼100-120 °C with ethylene glycol (EG as a capping agent. Interaction of EG molecules capped on the surface of the nanoparticles and/or created oxygen vacancies induces formation of intermediate/mid gap bands in the host structure, which is supported by UV-Visible absorption data. Strong blue and pink colors can be observed in the cases of as-prepared and 500 °C annealed samples, respectively. Co-doping of Li+ enhances the emission intensities of intermediate band as well as Eu3+. On annealing as-prepared sample to 500 °C, the intermediate band emission intensity decreases, whereas Eu3+ emission intensity increases suggesting increase of extent of energy transfer from the intermediate band to Eu3+ on annealing. Emission intensity ratio of electric to magnetic dipole transitions of Eu3+ can be varied by changing excitation wavelength. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS study of as-prepared samples confirms the presence of oxygen vacancies and Eu3+ but absence of Eu2+. Dispersed particles in ethanol and polymer film show the strong blue color, suggesting that these materials will be useful as probes in life science and also in light emitting device applications.

  8. Band gap engineering of double-cation-impurity-doped anatase-titania for visible-light photocatalysts: a hybrid density functional theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Run; English, Niall J

    2011-08-14

    In this study, we have used cation-passivated codoping of Nb with Ga/In and also of W with Zn/Cd to modulate the band structure of anatase-TiO(2) to extend absorption to longer visible-light wavelengths. We adopted generalized Kohn-Sham theory with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional for exchange and correlation. It has been found that (W, Cd)-doped TiO(2) should be a strong candidate for visible-light photocatalyst materials owing to the largest extent of band gap narrowing and the formation of continuum band, without movement of the valence band. It is argued that this design principle for band-edge modification can also be applied to other wide-band-gap semiconductors.

  9. Band Gap Narrowing in Heavily Doped Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tapan Kumar

    Two analytic models for transport and band gap narrowing in heavily doped (N_{rm D} > 10^{20} cm^ {-3}) silicon have been set up and verified through measurements on n^{+} -p junction devices. The first model is based on calculation of the ratio of the charge present in the emitter of the n^{+} region of the junction to that of the charge present in the absence of band gap shrinkage. Fermi-Dirac statistics are employed and are found to have a significant effect at this doping level. The second model is based on current transport of minority carriers in the n^{+} region. In this model only two parameters need to be known, the diffusion coefficient and the diffusion length for minority carriers, to calculate the band gap narrowing. An empirical relation between band gap narrowing and donor concentration has also been established based on experimental values of diffusion coefficient and mobility. These models have been verified by several different experimental techniques including surface photovoltage, open circuit voltage decay, photoconductivity decay and modulation reflection spectroscopy. The results indicate that, in the impurity range above about 10^{20} cm^{-3}, Fermi-Dirac statistics must be invoked in order to achieve a satisfactory fit with experimental data.

  10. Effect of band gap engineering in anionic-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee

    2017-01-01

    A simple yet promising strategy to modify TiO2 band gap was achieved via dopants incorporation which influences the photo-responsiveness of the photocatalyst. The mesoporous TiO2 was successfully mono-doped and co-doped with nitrogen and fluorine dopants. The results indicate that band gap engineering does not necessarily requires oxygen substitution with nitrogen or/and fluorine, but from the formation of additional mid band and Ti3+ impurities states. The formation of oxygen vacancies as a result of modified color centres and Ti3+ ions facilitates solar light absorption and influences the transfer, migration and trapping of the photo-excited charge carriers. The synergy of dopants in co-doped TiO2 shows better optical properties relative to single N and F doped TiO2 with c.a 0.95 eV band gap reduction. Evidenced from XPS, the synergy between N and F in the co-doped TiO2 uplifts the valence band towards the conduction band. However, the photoluminescence data reveals poorer electrons and holes separation as compared to F-doped TiO2. This observation suggests that efficient solar light harvesting was achievable via N and F co-doping, but excessive defects could act as charge carriers trapping sites.

  11. Cr-doping effects on unoccupied d-band electronic structure of TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaszek, K.; Tyrala, K.; Czapla-Masztafiak, J.; Sa, J.; Szlachetko, J.

    2016-11-01

    Resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) was applied to probe the electronic states above Fermi level for Cr-doped anatase TiO2. The results reveal doping-induced electronic band on low energy side of unoccupied electronic states. The experimental RXES data in combination with theoretical simulations allowed distinguishing electronic state changes on both, d-localized and d-delocalized orbitals of Cr-doped anatase TiO2. The detailed information on unoccupied electronic states is crucial in order to correlate enhanced light absorption properties with catalytic activity of the material.

  12. Band structures of TiO2 doped with N, C and B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This study on the band structures and charge densities of nitrogen (N)-, carbon (C)- and boron (B)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) by first-principles simulation with the CASTEP code (Segall et al., 2002) showed that the three 2p bands of impurity atom are located above the valence-band maximum and below the Ti 3d bands, and that along with the decreasing of impurity atomic number, the fluctuations become more intensive. We cannot observe obvious band-gap narrowing in our result.Therefore, the cause of absorption in visible light might be the isolated impurity atom 2p states in band-gap rather than the band-gap narrowing.

  13. Band gap narrowing in nitrogen-doped La2Ti2O7 predicted by density-functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Dang, Wenqiang; Ao, Zhimin; Cushing, Scott K; Wu, Nianqiang

    2015-04-14

    In order to reveal the origin of enhanced photocatalytic activity of N-doped La2Ti2O7 in both the visible light and ultraviolet light regions, its electronic structure has been studied using spin-polarized conventional density functional theory (DFT) and the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid approach. The results show that the deep localized states are formed in the forbidden band when nitrogen solely substitutes for oxygen. Introducing the interstitial Ti atom into the N-doped La2Ti2O7 photocatalyst still causes the formation of a localized energy state. Two nitrogen substitutions co-exist stably with one oxygen vacancy, creating a continuum energy band just above the valence band maximum. The formation of a continuum band instead of mid-gap states can extend the light absorption to the visible light region without increasing the charge recombination, explaining the enhanced visible light performance without deteriorating the ultraviolet light photocatalytic activity.

  14. First-Principles Band Calculations on Electronic Structures of Ag-Doped Rutile and Anatase TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xing-Gang; LIU An-Dong; HUANG Mei-Dong; LIAO Bin; WU Xiao-Ling

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structures of Ag-doped rutile and anatase TiO2 are studied by first-principles band calculations based on density funetionai theory with the full-potentiai linearized-augraented-plane-wave method.New occupied bands ore found between the band gaps of both Ag-doped rutile and anatase TiO2.The formation of these new bands Capri be explained mainly by their orbitals of Ag 4d states mixed with Ti 3d states and are supposed to contribute to their visible light absorption.

  15. Doping-dependent quasiparticle band structure in cuprate superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eder, R; Ohta, Y.; Sawatzky, G.A

    1997-01-01

    We present an exact diagonalization study of the single-particle spectral function in the so-called t-t'-t ''-J model in two dimensions. As a key result, we find that hole doping leads to a major reconstruction of the quasiparticle band structure near (pi,0): whereas for the undoped system the quasi

  16. Enlarged broad band photodetection using Indium doped TiO{sub 2} alloy thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Mitra Barun [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Mondal, Aniruddha, E-mail: aniruddhamo@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Choudhuri, Bijit; Mahajan, Bikram Kishore; Chakrabartty, Shubhro [National Institute of Technology Agartala, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Ngangbam, Chitralekha [National Institute of Technology Manipur, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Takyelpat, Imphal, Manipur 795001 (India)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • An easy technique has been used to dope Indium (instantaneous source) into TiO{sub 2} TF. • An inhomogeneous layer of In{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub 2} alloy was formed due to doping. • The lattice constant and optical band gap of TiO{sub 2} has increased after In doping. • Enhanced visible light absorption and detection were recorded for In doped TiO{sub 2} TF. • Almost no delay in photo response for In doped photodetector was observed. - Abstract: An instantaneous source of Indium (In) was used to dope the TiO{sub 2} thin film (TF) on the Si substrate. The X-ray diffraction depicted the presence of rutile phases of TiO{sub 2}, which shifted to the lower value 61.7 from 61.9 (2θ). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) reveals that the diffusion of Indium ion yield decreases sharply from the surface, as approached toward the TiO{sub 2} TF–Si substrate interface. The bulk diffusion of In into TiO{sub 2} was observed at a depth of 125–200 nm, up to the edge of TiO{sub 2} TF. An inhomogeneous layer of In{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub 2} alloy was formed during annealing process. An average of two fold enhanced photo absorption was recorded for the In doped TiO{sub 2} TF in the 300–350 nm and 450–800 nm regions respectively. The main band gap of In doped TiO{sub 2} was increased to 3.4 eV, whereas the large absorption edge was observed at 3.1 eV. The leakage current (34 nA at −0.5 V) of In doped TiO{sub 2} TF detector was significantly reduced. A maximum 2.5 times (−3.5 V) enlarged photodetection has been observed for In doped TiO{sub 2} TF device under white light illumination. The In doped TiO{sub 2} TF detector shows the broad band photodetection, with an infinitesimal delay in its photo response time as compared to undoped TiO{sub 2} TF.

  17. Sensitization of Perovskite Strontium Stannate SrSnO3 towards Visible-Light Absorption by Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungru Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite strontium stannate SrSnO3 is a promising photocatalyst. However, its band gap is too large for efficient solar energy conversion. In order to sensitize SrSnO3 toward visible-light activities, the effects of doping with various selected cations and anions are investigated by using hybrid density functional calculations. Results show that doping can result in dopant level to conduction band transitions which lie lower in energy compared to the original band gap transition. Therefore, it is expected that doping SrSnO3 can induce visible-light absorption.

  18. Investigation of band gap narrowing in nitrogen-doped La2Ti2O7 with transient absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Brandon T; Cushing, Scott K; Meng, Fanke; Bright, Joeseph; Bas, Derek A; Wu, Nianqiang; Bristow, Alan D

    2015-12-14

    Doping a semiconductor can extend the light absorption range, however, it usually introduces mid-gap states, reducing the charge carrier lifetime. This report shows that doping lanthanum dititinate (La2Ti2O7) with nitrogen extends the valence band edge by creating a continuum of dopant states, increasing the light absorption edge from 380 nm to 550 nm without adding mid-gap states. The dopant states are experimentally resolved in the excited state by correlating transient absorption spectroscopy with a supercontinuum probe and DFT prediction. The lack of mid-gap states is further confirmed by measuring the excited state lifetimes, which reveal the shifted band edge only increased carrier thermalization rates to the band edge and not interband charge recombination under both ultraviolet and visible excitation. Terahertz (time-domain) spectroscopy also reveals that the conduction mechanism remains unchanged after doping, suggesting the states are delocalized.

  19. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-doped p-type layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenxiao; Qin, Ping; Song, Weidong; Zhang, Chongzhen; Wang, Rupeng; Zhao, Liangliang; Xia, Chao; Yuan, Songyang; Yin, Yian; Li, Shuti

    2016-09-01

    We report ultraviolet light emitting diode (LEDs) with polarization doped p-type layer. Fabricated LEDs with polarization doped p-type layer exhibited reduced forward voltage and enhanced light output power, compared to those with traditional p-type AlGaN layer. The improvement is attributed to improved hole concentration and the smooth valence band by the polarization enhanced p-type doping. Our simulated results reveal that this p-type layer can further enhance the performance of ultraviolet LEDs by removing the electron blocking layer (EBL).

  20. Linear scaling calculation of band edge states and doped semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, H J; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J G; Zhu, Qingshi

    2007-06-28

    Linear scaling methods provide total energy, but no energy levels and canonical wave functions. From the density matrix computed through the density matrix purification methods, we propose an order-N [O(N)] method for calculating both the energies and wave functions of band edge states, which are important for optical properties and chemical reactions. In addition, we also develop an O(N) algorithm to deal with doped semiconductors based on the O(N) method for band edge states calculation. We illustrate the O(N) behavior of the new method by applying it to boron nitride (BN) nanotubes and BN nanotubes with an adsorbed hydrogen atom. The band gap of various BN nanotubes are investigated systematically and the acceptor levels of BN nanotubes with an isolated adsorbed H atom are computed. Our methods are simple, robust, and especially suited for the application in self-consistent field electronic structure theory.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Boron-Doped Iron Oxides for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Atrazine under Visible Light

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    Shan Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of atrazine by boron-doped iron oxides under visible light irradiation was investigated. In this work, boron-doped goethite and hematite were successfully prepared by sol-gel method with trimethylborate as boron precursor. The powders were characterized by XRD, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, and porosimetry analysis. The results showed that boron doping could influence the crystal structure, enlarge the BET surface area, improve light absorption ability, and narrow their band-gap energy. The photocatalytic activity of B-doped iron oxides was evaluated in the degradation of atrazine under the visible light irradiation, and B-doped iron oxides showed higher atrazine degradation rate than that of pristine iron oxides. Particularly, B-doped goethite exhibited better photocatalytic activity than B-doped hematite.

  2. Band gap engineering via doping: A predictive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriotis, Antonis N., E-mail: andriot@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, FORTH, P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklio, Crete (Greece); Menon, Madhu, E-mail: super250@uky.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Computational Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2015-03-28

    We employ an extension of Harrison's theory at the tight binding level of approximation to develop a predictive approach for band gap engineering involving isovalent doping of wide band gap semiconductors. Our results indicate that reasonably accurate predictions can be achieved at qualitative as well as quantitative levels. The predictive results were checked against ab initio ones obtained at the level of DFT/SGGA + U approximation. The minor disagreements between predicted and ab initio results can be attributed to the electronic processes not incorporated in Harrison's theory. These include processes such as the conduction band anticrossing [Shan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1221 (1999); Walukiewicz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1552 (2000)] and valence band anticrossing [Alberi et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 073202 (2008); Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 162105 (2008); Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051909 (2007); Phys. Rev. B 75, 045203 (2007)], as well as the multiorbital rehybridization. Another cause of disagreement between the results of our predictive approach and the ab initio ones is shown to be the result of the shift of Fermi energy within the impurity band formed at the edge of the valence band maximum due to rehybridization. The validity of our approach is demonstrated with example applications for the systems GaN{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}, GaP{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}, AlSb{sub 1−x}P{sub x}, AlP{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}, and InP{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}.

  3. Tunable Band Gap Energy of Mn-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Using the Coprecipitation Technique

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    Tong Ling Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple coprecipitation technique was introduced to form manganese (Mn doped on zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles effectively. Based on our morphological studies, it was revealed that mean particle size was increased while bigger agglomeration of nanoparticles could be observed as the amount of concentration of Mn was increased. Interestingly, it was found that the position of the absorption spectra was shifted towards the lower wavelength (UV region as correlated with the increasing of Mn dopants concentration into ZnO nanoparticles. This result inferred that optimum content of Mn doped into the ZnO nanoparticles was crucial in controlling the visible/UV-responsive of samples. In the present study, 3 mol% of Mn dopants into the ZnO nanoparticles exhibited the better UV as well as visible light-responsive as compared to the other samples. The main reason might be attributed to the modification of electronic structure of ZnO nanoparticles via lattice doping of Mn ions into the lattice, whereas excessive Mn dopants doped on ZnO nanoparticles caused the strong UV-responsive due to the more 3d orbitals in the valence band.

  4. Visible-Light Photodegradation of Dye on Co-Doped Titania Nanotubes Prepared by Hydrothermal Synthesis

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    Jung-Pin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous Co-doped TiO2 nanotubes synthesized from a hydrothermal treatment were used to photodecompose methylene blue (MB in liquid phase under visible light irradiation. The anatase-type titania nanotubes were found to have high specific surface areas of about 289–379 m2/g. These tubes were shown to be hollow scrolls with outer diameter of about 10–15 nm and length of several micrometers. UV absorption confirmed that Co doping makes the light absorption of nanotubes shift to visible light region. With increasing the dopant concentration, the optical band gap of nanotubes became narrower, ranging from 2.4 eV to 1.8 eV, determined by Kubelka-Munk plot. The Co-doped nanotubes exhibit not only liquid-phase adsorption ability, but also visible-light-derived photodegradation of MB in aqueous solution. The synergetic effect involves two key factors in affecting the photocatalytic activity of Co-doped titania nanotubes under fluorescent lamp, that is, high porosity and optical band gap. The merit of the present work is to provide an efficient route for preparing Co-doped TiO2 nanotubes and to clarifying their adsorption and photocatalytic activity under fluorescent lamp.

  5. Enhanced dopant solubility and visible-light absorption in Cr-N co-doped TiO2 nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodi, Dr Mirco [University of Brescia (UNIBS); Cheney, Christine [ORNL; Vilmercati, Paolo [ORNL; Cavaliere, Emanuele [University of Brescia (UNIBS); Mannella, Norman [ORNL; Gavioli, Luca [University of Brescia (UNIBS); Weitering, Harm H [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    A major obstacle toward employing TiO2 as an efficient photoactive material is related to its large optical band gap, strongly limiting visible light absorption. Substitutional doping with both donors and acceptors (co-doping) potentially leads to a significant band gap reduction, but the effectiveness of the co-doping approach remains limited by the low solubility of dopants inside TiO2. Here we show that nanostructured Cr and N co-doped TiO2 thin films can be obtained by Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition (SCBD) with a high concentration of dopants and a strongly reduced band gap. Complementary spectroscopic investigations show that doping effectively occurs into substitutional lattice sites, inducing dopant levels in the gap that are remarkably delocalized. The high surface-to-volume ratio, typical of SCBD nanostructured films, likely facilitates the dopant incorporation. The present results indicate that SCBD films are highly promising photoactive nanophase materials.

  6. Double-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as an efficient visible-light-active photocatalyst and antibacterial agent under solar simulated light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar, E-mail: ashkarran@umz.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamidinezhad, Habib [Nano and Biotechnology Research Group, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haddadi, Hedayat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahrekord University, P.O. Box 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudi, Morteza [Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: Double doping introduces two different electronic states in the band gap of TiO{sub 2}, which increase the lifetime of the charge carriers and leads to narrower band gap and enhancement of the visible-light absorption. - Highlights: • Preparation of single and double doped TiO{sub 2} NPs using a simple sol–gel route. • Extension of light absorption spectrum toward the visible region. • Enhanced visible-light photo-induced activity and antibacterial property in double doped TiO{sub 2} NPs. - Abstract: Silver and nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via sol–gel method. The physicochemical properties of the achieved NPs were characterized by various methods including X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultra violet–visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis). Both visible-light photocatalytic activity and antimicrobial properties were successfully demonstrated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh. B.), as a model dye, and inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli), as a representative of microorganisms. The concentration of the employed dopant was optimized and the results revealed that the silver and nitrogen doped TiO{sub 2} NPs extended the light absorption spectrum toward the visible region and significantly enhanced the photodegradation of model dye and inactivation of bacteria under visible-light irradiation while double-doped TiO{sub 2} NPs exhibited highest photocatalytic and antibacterial activity compared with single doping. The significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity and antibacterial properties of the double doped TiO{sub 2} NPs, under visible-light irradiation, can be attributed to the generation of two different electronic states acting as electron traps in TiO{sub 2} and responsible for narrowing the band gap of TiO{sub 2} and shifting its optical response from UV to the

  7. Band gap narrowing and photocatalytic studies of Nd3+ ion-doped SnO2 nanoparticles using solar energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhanya Chandran; Lakshmi S Nair; S Balachandran; K Rajendra Babu; M Deepa

    2016-02-01

    Pure and Nd3+-doped tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles have been prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, energydispersive spectroscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of all the samples are identified as tetragonal rutile-type SnO2 phase which is further confirmed by TEM analysis. Neodymium doping introduces band gap narrowing in the prepared samples and enhances their absorption towards the visible-light region. The photocatalytic activity of all the samples was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methylene blue solution under day light illumination and it was found that the photocatalytic activity significantly increases for the samples calcined at 600 than 400°C, which is due to the effective charge separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. The efficiency of photocatalysts was found to be related to neodymium doping percentage and calcination temperature.

  8. Synthesis and enhancement of visible light activities of nitrogen-doped BaTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jiafeng, E-mail: cjf786@163.com [School of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Ji, Yuexia [School of Mathematics and Physics, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Tian, Chongbin; Yi, Zhiguo [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • N-doped BaTiO{sub 3} photocatalyst was synthesized by urea addition solid state synthesis. • N-doped BaTiO{sub 3} shows improved photocatalytic activity irradiated by visible light. • Nitrogen dopant and oxygen vacancy are the main factors that enhance the activities. - Abstract: Regular nitrogen-doped BaTiO{sub 3} particles were synthesized by urea addition solid state sintering method. Compared with the undoped samples, the N-doped photocatalyst shows improved activities of photodegradation to Rhodamine-B under visible light irradiation (420 nm < λ < 780 nm). The obviously increased performance of N-doped BaTiO{sub 3} is mainly ascribed to the broadening of valence band (VB) width. Based on the analysis of absorption spectra and the illustration of photocatalytic role for N-doped BaTiO{sub 3}, nitrogen dopants and oxygen vacancies are both responsible for the improved photocatalytic activities.

  9. Visible light photocatalytic antibacterial activity of Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Boonto, Yuphada; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2016-03-01

    The Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Their morphological features and characteristics such as particle size, surface area, and visible light absorbing capacity were compared and discussed. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-visible spectrophotometry were used to characterize both materials. The inactivation of E. coli (as an example of Gram-negative bacteria) and S. aureus (as an example of Gram-positive bacteria) with Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 was investigated in the absence and presence of visible light. Antibacterial activity tests were conducted using undoped, Ni-doped, and N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles show higher antibacterial activity than Ni-doped TiO2. The band gap narrowing of N-doped TiO2 can induce more visible light absorption and leads to the superb antibacterial properties of this material. The complete inactivation time for E. coli at an initial cell concentration of 2.7 × 10(4) CFU/mL was 420 min which is longer than the 360 min required for S. aureus inactivation. The rate of inactivation of S. aureus using the doped TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of visible light is greater than that of E. coli. The median lethal dose (LD50) values of S. aureus and E. coli by antibacterial activity under an 18-W visible light intensity were 80 and 350 mg/ml for N-doped TiO2, respectively.

  10. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation enhanced by band gap narrowing and improved charge carrier mobility in AgTaO3 by compensated co-doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Junying; Dang, Wenqiang; Cushing, Scott K; Guo, Dong; Wu, Nianqiang; Yin, Penggang

    2013-10-14

    The correlation of the electronic band structure with the photocatalytic activity of AgTaO3 has been studied by simulation and experiments. Doping wide band gap oxide semiconductors usually introduces discrete mid-gap states, which extends the light absorption but has limited benefit for photocatalytic activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that compensated co-doping in AgTaO3 can overcome this problem by increasing the light absorption and simultaneously improving the charge carrier mobility. N/H and N/F co-doping can delocalize the discrete mid-gap states created by sole N doping in AgTaO3, which increases the band curvature and the electron-to-hole effective mass ratio. In particular, N/F co-doping creates a continuum of states that extend the valence band of AgTaO3. N/F co-doping thus improves the light absorption without creating the mid-gap states, maintaining the necessary redox potentials for water splitting and preventing from charge carrier trapping. The experimental results have confirmed that the N/F-codoped AgTaO3 exhibits a red-shift of the absorption edge in comparison with the undoped AgTaO3, leading to remarkable enhancement of photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen generation from water.

  11. DFT Study of Effects of Potassium Doping on Band Structure of Crystalline Cuprous Azide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU,Wei-Hua; ZHANG,Xiao-Wen; WEI,Tao; XIAO,He-Ming

    2008-01-01

    The structure and defect formation energies of the K-doped CuN3 were studied using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The results show that the K-doping breaks the azide symmetry and causes asymmetric atomic displacement. As the K-doping level increases, the band gap of the doped system gradually increases. The K impurity is easily incorporated into the crystal thermodynamically. The Cu vacancy is easily created thermodynamically and the K impurity can serve as nucleation centers for vacancy clustering. Finally the effects of K-doping concentrations on the sensitivity of CuN3 were understood based on electronic structures.

  12. Ultra-low values of the absorption coefficient for band-band transitions in moderately doped Si obtained from luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daub, E.; Würfel, P.

    1996-11-01

    The absolute value of the absorption coefficient αbb(ℏω) for band-band transitions near the band edge was determined in moderately doped silicon by photoluminescence spectra analysis. The major advantage of this method in determining αbb(ℏω) is the lack of interference with free carrier absorption, in contrast to conventional methods like transmission or photothermal deflection measurements. We deduce values for αbb(ℏω), which are nearly five orders of magnitude smaller than the absorption coefficient αfc(ℏω) for free carrier absorption. With this method it is possible to examine in detail the influence of doping on the absorption coefficient for band-band transitions near the absorption edge. The appearance of band tails and band-gap narrowing are very well reflected. With conventional methods, which can only detect the overall absorption of the incident radiation, the determination of αbb(ℏω) in the vicinity of the band edge is impossible for moderately and heavily doped silicon, because it is completely masked by the free carrier absorption.

  13. Study on anti-fungal activity of nitrogen-doped TiO_2 nanophotocatalyst under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO_2 nanophotocatalysts were prepared,and characterized by XRD patterns and UV-vis spectroscopy.The results indicated that nitrogen was doped effectively and the shift of the absorption edge to a lower energy and a stronger absorption in the visible light region were observed.The calcinations temperature is a key factor to narrow the band gap of titania,and consequently affects the response to visible light of nitrogen-doped TiO_2 nanocrystals.This photocatalyst can effectively inhibit th...

  14. Band filling and interband scattering effects in MgB2: carbon versus aluminum doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortus, Jens; Dolgov, Oleg V; Kremer, Reinhard K; Golubov, Alexander A

    2005-01-21

    We argue, based on band structure calculations and the Eliashberg theory, that the observed decrease of T(c) of Al and C doped MgB2 samples can be understood mainly in terms of a band filling effect due to the electron doping by Al and C. A simple scaling of the electron-phonon coupling constant lambda by the variation of the density of states as a function of electron doping is sufficient to capture the experimentally observed behavior. Further, we also explain the long standing open question of the experimental observation of a nearly constant pi gap as a function of doping by a compensation of the effect of band filling and interband scattering. Both effects together generate a nearly constant pi gap and shift the merging point of both gaps to higher doping concentrations, resolving the discrepancy between experiment and theoretical predictions based on interband scattering only.

  15. Band gap tunning in BN-doped graphene systems with high carrier mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.

    2014-02-17

    Using density functional theory, we present a comparative study of the electronic properties of BN-doped graphene monolayer, bilayer, trilayer, and multilayer systems. In addition, we address a superlattice of pristine and BN-doped graphene. Five doping levels between 12.5% and 75% are considered, for which we obtain band gaps from 0.02 eV to 2.43 eV. We demonstrate a low effective mass of the charge carriers.

  16. Calculation of effective band gap narrowing in heavily-doped and compensated silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, B. S.; Rimshans, J. S.

    1991-06-01

    The effective band gap narrowing in heavily-doped and compensated silicon for different values of impurity concentration is calculated within the semiclassical approximation. The calculated and known measured data are compared.

  17. Band structure, band offsets, substitutional doping, and Schottky barriers of bulk and monolayer InSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2017-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the electronic structure of the layered semiconductor InSe. We calculate the band structure of the monolayer and bulk material using density functional theory, hybrid functionals, and G W . The band gap of the monolayer InSe is calculated to be 2.4 eV in screened exchange hybrid functional, close to the experimental photoluminescence gap. The electron affinities and band offsets are calculated for vertical stacked-layer heterostructures, and are found to be suitable for tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) in combination with WS e2 or similar. The valence-band edge of InSe is calculated to lie 5.2 eV below the vacuum level, similar to that for the closed shell systems HfS e2 or SnS e2 . Hence InSe would be suitable to act as a p -type drain in the TFET. The intrinsic defects are calculated. For Se-rich layers, the Se adatom (interstitial) is found to be the most stable defect, whereas for In-rich layers, the Se vacancy is the most stable for the neutral state. Antisites tend to have energies just above those of vacancies. The Se antisite distorts towards a bond-breaking distortion as in the EL2 center of GaAs. Both substitutional donors and acceptors are calculated to be shallow, and effective dopants. They do not reconstruct to form nondoping configurations as occurs in black phosphorus. Finally, the Schottky barriers of metals on InSe are found to be strongly pinned by metal induced gap states (MIGS) at ˜0.5 eV above the valence-band edge. Any interfacial defects would lead to a stronger pinning at a similar energy. Overall, InSe is an effective semiconductor combining the good features of 2D (lack of dangling bonds, etc.) with the good features of 3D (effective doping), which few others achieve.

  18. Electronic- and band-structure evolution in low-doped (Ga,Mn)As

    OpenAIRE

    Yastrubchak, O.; J. Sadowski; Krzyzanowska, H.; Gluba, L.; Zuk, J.; Domagala, J. Z.; Andrearczyk, T.; Wosinski, T.

    2013-01-01

    Modulation photoreflectance spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been applied to study the electronic- and band-structure evolution in (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers with increasing Mn doping in the range of low Mn content, up to 1.2%. Structural and magnetic properties of the layers were characterized with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and SQUID magnetometery, respectively. The revealed results of decrease in the band-gap transition energy with increasing Mn content in very low-doped ...

  19. Band Gap Narrowing and Widening of ZnO Nanostructures and Doped Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Norlida; Kasim, Muhd Firdaus; Rusdi, Roshidah

    2015-12-01

    Band gap change in doped ZnO is an observed phenomenon that is very interesting from the fundamental point of view. This work is focused on the preparation of pure and single phase nanostructured ZnO and Cu as well as Mn-doped ZnO for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of band gap narrowing in the materials. ZnO, Zn0.99Cu0.01O and Zn0.99Mn0.01O materials were prepared using a wet chemistry method, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all samples were pure and single phase. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that materials in the nanostructured state exhibit band gap widening with respect to their micron state while for the doped compounds exhibited band gap narrowing both in the nano and micron states with respect to the pure ZnO materials. The degree of band gap change was dependent on the doped elements and crystallite size. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that there were shifts in the valence bands. From both UV-visible and XPS spectroscopy, it was found that the mechanism for band gap narrowing was due to the shifting of the valance band maximum and conduction band minimum of the materials. The mechanisms were different for different samples depending on the type of dopant and dimensional length scales of the crystallites.

  20. Band gap and conductivity variations of ZnO thin films by doping with Aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattappalam, Sunil C.; Thomas, Deepu; T, Raju Mathew; Augustine, Simon; Mathew, Sunny

    2015-02-01

    Zinc Oxide thin films were prepared by Successive Ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique(SILAR). Aluminium was doped for different doping concentrations from 3 at.% to 12 at.% in steps of 3 at.%. Conductivity of the samples were taken at different temperatures. UV Spectrograph of the samples were taken and the band gap of each sample was found from the data. It was observed that as the doping concentration of Aluminium increases, the band gap of the samples decreases and concequently conductivity of the samples increases.

  1. The shift of optical band gap in W-doped ZnO with oxygen pressure and doping level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, J. [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (Puerto Rico); Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chongqing 400714 (China); Peng, X.Y.; Dasari, K.; Palai, R. [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (Puerto Rico); Feng, P., E-mail: p.feng@upr.edu [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936-8377 (Puerto Rico)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • CVD–PLD co-deposition technique was used. • Better crystalline of the ZnO samples causes the redshift of the optical band gap. • Higher W concentration induces blueshift of the optical band gap. - Abstract: Tungsten-doped (W-doped) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were synthesized on quartz substrates by pulsed laser and hot filament chemical vapor co-deposition technique under different oxygen pressures and doping levels. We studied in detail the morphological, structural and optical properties of W-doped ZnO by SEM, XPS, Raman scattering, and optical transmission spectra. A close correlation among the oxygen pressure, morphology, W concentrations and the variation of band gaps were investigated. XPS and Raman measurements show that the sample grown under the oxygen pressure of 2.7 Pa has the maximum tungsten concentration and best crystalline structure, which induces the redshift of the optical band gap. The effect of W concentration on the change of morphology and shift of optical band gap was also studied for the samples grown under the fixed oxygen pressure of 2.7 Pa.

  2. Band-to-band and free-carrier absorption coefficients in heavily doped silicon at 4 K and at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S. C.; Nathan, A.; Briglio, D. R.; Roulston, D. J.; Selvakumar, C. R.; Yang, T.

    1991-03-01

    Using the raw experimental data of Schmid and the known values of band-gap narrowing and Fermi energies for different doping concentrations, the band-to-band and free-carrier absorption coefficients in heavily doped Si are calculated. The behavior of boron-doped Si is different from that of arsenic doped Si. Near threshold, our values of the absorption coefficients are significantly different from those derived by Schmid from the same data. The enhancement of band-to-band transitions due to impurity or free-carrier scattering is not as important in heavily doped Si as in heavily doped Ge. Numerically fitted empirical expressions for the absorption coefficients, suitable for computer simulation studies of opto-electronic devices are given.

  3. Sequential tunneling in doped superlattices: Fingerprints of impurity bands and photon-assisted tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Zeuner, S.

    1997-01-01

    We report a combined theoretical and experimental study of electrical transport in weakly coupled doped superlattices. Our calculations exhibit negative differential conductivity at sufficiently high electric fields for all dopings. In low-doped samples the presence of impurity bands modifies......-doped samples. From our microscopic transport model we obtain quantitative agreement with the experimental current-voltage characteristics without using any fitting parameters. Both our experimental data and our theory show that absolute negative conductance persists over a wide range of frequencies of the free...

  4. Atomic-Layer-Confined Doping for Atomic-Level Insights into Visible-Light Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fengcai; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Yongfu; Liang, Liang; Liu, Katong; Xu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Qun; Pan, Bicai; Luo, Yi; Xie, Yi

    2015-08-03

    A model of doping confined in atomic layers is proposed for atomic-level insights into the effect of doping on photocatalysis. Co doping confined in three atomic layers of In2S3 was implemented with a lamellar hybrid intermediate strategy. Density functional calculations reveal that the introduction of Co ions brings about several new energy levels and increased density of states at the conduction band minimum, leading to sharply increased visible-light absorption and three times higher carrier concentration. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the electron transfer time of about 1.6 ps from the valence band to newly formed localized states is due to Co doping. The 25-fold increase in average recovery lifetime is believed to be responsible for the increased of electron-hole separation. The synthesized Co-doped In2S3 (three atomic layers) yield a photocurrent of 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.5 V vs. RHE, nearly 10 and 17 times higher than that of the perfect In2S3 (three atomic layers) and the bulk counterpart, respectively.

  5. Visible light induced electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals prepared by oxidation of titanium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongbiao; Dong, Fan; Zhao, Weirong; Guo, Sen

    2008-08-30

    Nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals with anatase and rutile mixed phases were prepared by incomplete oxidation of titanium nitride at different temperatures. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), core level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CL XPS), valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VB XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), and visible light excited photoluminescence (PL). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase under visible light irradiation. The visible light absorption and photoactivities of these nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals can be clearly attributed to the change of the additional electronic (N(-)) states above the valence band of TiO(2) modified by N dopant as revealed by the VB XPS and visible light induced PL. A band gap structure model was established to explain the electron transfer process over nitrogen doped TiO(2) nanocrystals under visible light irradiation, which was consistent with the previous theoretical and experimental results. This model can also be applied to understand visible light induced photocatalysis over other nonmetal doped TiO(2).

  6. Band tailing in heavily doped semiconductors. Scattering and impurity-concentration-fluctuation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, J.; Ghazali, A.; Hugon, P. Leroux

    1981-02-01

    Using a self-consistent multiple-scattering method, we estimate the relative importance of both effects of scattering and of impurity-concentration fluctuations on band states in heavily doped semiconductors and thus we account for band tailing. We apply this formalism to the estimate of the interband absorption spectrum in a typical case, in satisfactory agreement with experiment.

  7. Band gap opening of monolayer and bilayer graphene doped with aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Pablo A.

    2010-06-01

    The chemical doping of monolayer and bilayer graphene with aluminium, silicon, phosphorus and sulfur was investigated. Si-doped graphene has the lowest formation energy although it is semimetallic. P-doped graphene has a magnetic moment of 1 μ B and for 3 at.% of doping the band gap is 0.67 eV. Al-doped graphene is very unstable but it is an attractive material because it is metallic. To reduce the formation energies of the substitutional defects we investigated the formation of interlayer bonds in bilayer graphene. Phosphorus forms the strongest bonds between layers giving particular stability to this material. P-doped bilayer graphene has a gap of 0.43 eV but it is has no magnetic moment.

  8. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including high electron mobility, ferroelectricity—which may be valuable in photovoltaic applications—and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications, however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to between 2.4 and 2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance measurements confirm that optically generated carriers have a recombination lifetime comparable to that of STO and are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry. Finally, through photoelectrochemical yield measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  9. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B., E-mail: ryan.comes@pnnl.gov; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Smolin, Sergey Y.; Baxter, Jason B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Gao, Ran [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Apgar, Brent A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Martin, Lane W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr{sup 3+} dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4–2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  10. Effect of Sr doping on the electronic band structure and optical properties of ZnO: A first principle calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Asad; Tezcan, Fatih; Kardaş, Gülfeza; Karadaǧ, Faruk

    2017-09-01

    Incorporating impurities in ZnO provide opportunities to manipulate its electronic and optical properties, which can be exploited for optoelectronic device applications. Among various elements doped in ZnO crystal structure, limited attempts have been accounted for the Sr-doped ZnO system. Further, no theoretical evidence has been reported so far to explore the Sr-doped ZnO frameworks. Here, we report first principle study for the pure and Sr-doped ZnO (Zn1-xSrxO) structure. We employed the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation function parameters in generalized gradient approximations. In light of these estimations, we calculated the electronic band gap, density of states, and optical parameters, for example, absorption, dielectric functions, reflectivity, refractive index, and energy-loss. The studies suggested that Sr incorporation expanded the optical band gap of ZnO. In addition, the energy-loss significantly increased with Sr content which might be associated with an increase in the degree of disorder in the crystal lattice with Sr incorporation. Also, significant changes were seen in the optical properties of ZnO with Sr content in the low energy region. The theoretical results were likewise compared with the previously reported experimental data.

  11. Band gap narrowing models tested on low recombination phosphorus laser doped silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlinger, Morris; Carstens, Kai

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript discusses bandgap narrowing models for highly phosphorus doped silicon. We simulate the recombination current pre-factor J0,phos in PC1Dmod 6.2 of measured doping profiles and apply the theoretical band gap narrowing model of Schenk [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3684 (1998)] and an empirical band gap narrowing model of Yan and Cuevas [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 044508 (2013)]. The recombination current pre-factor of unpassivated and passivated samples measured by the photo conductance measurement and simulated J0,phos agrees well, when the band gap narrowing model of Yan and Cuevas is applied. With the band gap narrowing model of Schenk, the simulation cannot reproduce the measured J0,phos. Furthermore, the recombination current pre-factor of our phosphorus laser doped silicon samples are comparable with furnace diffused samples. There is no indication of recombination active defects, thus no laser induced defects in the diffused volume.

  12. Effect of synergy on the visible light activity of B, N and Fe co-doped TiO2 for the degradation of MO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingyang; Wu, Yongmei; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Feng

    2010-07-01

    Single doped, co-doped and tri-doped TiO(2) with B, N and Fe are successfully synthesized by using the hydrothermal method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities of the samples are evaluated for degradation of methyl-orange (MO, 20 mg L(-1)) in aqueous solutions under visible light (lambda > 420 nm). The results of XRD suggest that all the catalysts present anatase crystal. All the doping catalysts show higher photoactivities than pure TiO(2) under visible light irradiation. In the single nonmetal doped TiO(2), the localized dopant levels near the valence band (VB) are responsible for the enhancement of photoactivies. Fe(3+) impurity level formed under the conduction band (CB) induces the high photocatalytic activities of iron doped TiO(2). In the co-doped and tri-doped catalysts, the B 2p and N 2p acceptor states contribute to the band gap narrowing by mixing with O 2p states combined with the overlapping of the conduction band by the iron "d" orbital, resulting in improvement of the photo-performance under visible light irradiation. Iron co-doped with boron catalyst shows low photoactivity under visible light due to the absence of Fe(3+) impurity levels at the bottom of the conduction band. In addition, the XPS results indicate the presence of synergistic effects in co-doped and tri-doped catalysts, which contribute to the enhancement of photocatalytic activities.

  13. Resonantly pumped high power flat L-band erbium-doped superfluorescent fiber source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Ping; Liu, Ze-Jin; Li, Yi-Gang; Lu, Ke-Cheng; Zhou, Shou-Huan

    2008-01-07

    An all-single-mode-fiber L-band superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) with 1 W output power, 34.3 nm bandwidth (FWHM) and 54% optical conversion efficiency is constructed by seeding a high power erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a low power L-band ASE seed source to avoid parasitic lasing. The source is resonantly pumped by a high power C-band SFS peaked at 1545 nm.

  14. Band structures of TiO2 doped with N, C and B*

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This study on the band structures and charge densities of nitrogen (N)-, carbon (C)- and boron (B)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) by first-principles simulation with the CASTEP code (Segall et al., 2002) showed that the three 2p bands of impurity atom are located above the valence-band maximum and below the Ti 3d bands, and that along with the decreasing of impurity atomic number, the fluctuations become more intensive. We cannot observe obvious band-gap narrowing in our result. Therefore, the...

  15. Preparation of N-doped ZnO-loaded halloysite nanotubes catalysts with high solar-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    N-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully assembled into hollow halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) by using the impregnation method. The catalysts based on N-doped ZnO-loaded HNTs nanocomposites (N-doped ZnO/HNTs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (TEM-EDX), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The XRD pattern showed ZnO nanoparticles with hexagonal structure loaded on HNTs. The TEM-EDX analysis indicated ZnO particles with the crystal size of ca.10 nm scattered in hollow structure of HNTs, and furthermore the concentration of N atom in nanocomposites was up to 2.31%. The SEM-EDX verified most of N-ZnO nanoparticles existing in hollow nanotubes of HNTs. Besides containing an obvious ultraviolet absorbance band, the UV-vis spectra of the N-doped ZnO/HNTs catalysts showed an available visible absorbance band by comparing to HNTs and non-doped ZnO/HNTs. The photocatalytic activity of the N-doped ZnO/HNTs catalysts was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) solution with the concentration of 20 mg/L under the simulated solar-light irradiation. The result showed that the N-doped ZnO/HNTs catalyst exhibited a desirable solar-light photocatalytic activity.

  16. Ultraviolet-light-induced processes in germanium-doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin

    2001-01-01

    A model is presented for the interaction of ultraviolet (UV) light with germanium-doped silica glass. It is assumed that germanium sites work as gates for transferring the excitation energy into the silica. In the material the excitation induces forbidden transitions to two different defect states...

  17. Novel band gap-tunable K–Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride prepared by molten salt method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiannan [Institute of Eco-environmental Sciences, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Ma, Lin [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Wang, Haoying; Zhao, Yanfeng [School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Zhang, Jian [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Hu, Shaozheng, E-mail: hushaozhenglnpu@163.com [Institute of Eco-environmental Sciences, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: K and Na ions co-doped into g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} crystal lattice can tune the position of CB and VB potentials, influence the structural and optical properties, and thus improve the photocatalytic degradation and mineralization ability. - Highlights: • K, Na co-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared in KCl/NaCl molten salt system. • The structural and optical properties of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} were greatly influenced by co-doping. • The position of VB and CB can be tuned by controlling the weight ratio of eutectic salts to melamine. • Co-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed outstanding photodegradation ability, mineralization ability, and catalytic stability. - Abstract: Novel band gap-tunable K–Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride was prepared by molten salt method using melamine, KCl, and NaCl as precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV–vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The CB and VB potentials of graphitic carbon nitride could be tuned from −1.09 and +1.55 eV to −0.29 and +2.25 eV by controlling the weight ratio of eutectic salts to melamine. Besides, ions doping inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride, enhanced the surface area, and increased the separation rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. The visible-light-driven Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation and mineralization performances were significantly improved after K–Na co-doping.

  18. Robust room temperature ferromagnetism and band gap tuning in nonmagnetic Mg doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Zhiyong; Liu, Xia; Qi, Yan; Song, Zhilin; Qi, Shifei; Zhou, Guowei; Xu, Xiaohong

    2017-03-01

    Mg doped ZnO films with hexagonal wurtzite structure were deposited on c-cut sapphire Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Both room temperature ferromagnetism and band gap of the films simultaneously tuned by the concentration of oxygen vacancies were performed. Our results further reveal that the singly occupied oxygen vacancies should be responsible for the room temperature ferromagnetism and band gap narrowing. Singly occupied oxygen vacancies having the localized magnetic moments form bound magnetic polarons, which results in a long-range ferromagnetic ordering due to Mg doping. Moreover, band gap narrowing of the films is probably due to the formation of impurity band in the vicinity of valence band, originating from singly occupied oxygen vacancies. These results may build a bridge to understand the relationship between the magnetic and optical properties in oxide semiconductor, and are promising to integrate multiple functions in one system.

  19. Electronic Band Structures of TiO2 with Heavy Nitrogen Doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Jinbo; LI Qi; LIANG Wei; SHANG Jianku

    2008-01-01

    The first-principles density-functional calculation was conducted to investigate the electronic band structures of titanium dioxide with heavy nitrogen doping (TiO2-xNx).The calculation results indicate that when x≤0.25,isolated N 2p states appear above the valence-band maximum of TiO2 without a band-gap narrowing between O 2p and Ti 3d states.When x≥0.50,an obvious band gap narrowing between O 2p and Ti 3d states was observed along with the existence of isolated N 2p states above the valence-band of TiO2,indicating that the mechanism proposed by Asahi et al operates under heavy nitrogen doping condition.

  20. Band gap engineering and enhanced photoluminescence of Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshad, Mohd; Meenhaz Ansari, Mohd [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Ahmed, Arham S. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Tripathi, Pushpendra [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Ashraf, S.S.Z. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Naqvi, A.H. [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Azam, Ameer, E-mail: azam222@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India)

    2015-05-15

    In the present investigations Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using sol–gel method. Mg doping in nanoparticles was found to be a good method for tuning of band gap and photoluminescence of ZnO nanoparticles. Simultaneously, Mg doping also inhibited the growth of particle size and it decreased from 36.1 to 13.5 nm with the increase in doping concentration from 0% to 12%. Optical band gap was found to increase from 3.23 to 3.47 eV and photoluminescence studies revealed that visible PL emission was enhanced with doping concentration. - Highlights: • Significant decrease in particle size with Mg doping. • Increase in band gap with Mg doping. • Enhanced luminescence as a result of Mg doping.

  1. Influence of process parameters on band gap of AI-doped ZnO film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diqiu HUANG; Xiangbin ZENG; Yajuan ZHENG; Xiaojin WANG; Yanyan YANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of process parameters, such as argon (Ar) flow rate, sputtering power and substrate temperature on the band gap of Al-doped ZnO film, Al-doped ZnO thin films were fabricated by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technology and deposited on polyimide and glass substrates. Under different Ar flow rates varied from 30 to 70 sccm, the band gap of thin films were changed from 3.56 to 3.67 eV. As sputtering power ranged from 125 to 200 W, the band gap was varied from 3.28 to 3.82 eV; the band gap was between 3.41 and 3.88 eV as substrate temperature increases from 150℃ to 300℃. Furthermore, the correlation between carrier concentration and band gap was investigated by HALL. These results demonstrate that the band gap of the Al-doped ZnO thin film can be adjusted by changing the Ar flow rate, sputtering power and substrate temperature, which can improve the performance of semiconductor devices related to Al-doped ZnO thin film.

  2. P-doped TiO2 with superior visible-light activity prepared by rapid microwave hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jinfen; Lu, Pan; Kang, Mei; Deng, Kunfa; Yao, Binghua; Yu, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Phosphorous-doped anatase TiO2 powders (P-TiO2) were prepared by rapid microwave hydrothermal method. The resulting materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS, DRS and N2 adsorption. P-doping decreased the band gap and enlarged the surface area of P-doped samples than that of undoped TiO2 samples. Therefore, the photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) and tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) experiments showed that the P-TiO2 catalysts, especially the two-steps-controlling products P-TiO2-2, exhibited higher degradation efficiency than the undoped TiO2 and commercial P25 under visible-light irradiation. Hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) have been confirmed to be the active species during the photocatalytic oxidation reaction. The microwave hydrothermal method confirms to be very suitable for the synthesis of superior visible-light activity P-doped samples.

  3. Photocatalytic Degradation of Dicofol and Pyrethrum with Boric and Cerous Co-doped TiO2 under Light Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Lifen; ZOU Jing; ZENG Jinbin; CHEN Wenfeng; CHEN Xi; WANG Xiaoru

    2009-01-01

    Boric and cerous co-doped nano titanium dioxide (B/Ce co-doped TiO2) was synthesized using a sol-gel tech-nique, which involved the hydrolyzation of tetrabutyl titanate with the addition of boric acid and cerous nitrate. The B/Ce co-doped TiO2 was employed for the photocatalytic degradation of dicofol, cyfluthrin and fenvalerate under light irradiation. XRD, TEM, Fr-IR and UV-Vis DRS methods were used to characterize the crystalline structure. Experimental results showed that only the anatase signal phase was found for B/Ce co-doped TiO2, but multiplicate phases, including anatase, rutile and less brookite phases, were identified both in the pure TiO2 nanoparticles and Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The band gap value of B/Ce co-doped nano TiO2 was narrower than that of undoped nano TiO2. Compared to undoped TiO2, a stronger absorption in the range of 420 to 850 nm was found for B/Ce co-doped nano TiO2, which presented a higher photocatalytic activity in the degradation of dicofol, cyfluthrin and fenvalerate than both Ce doped nano TiO2 and pure nano TiO2 under the same light irradiation.

  4. Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of N-Doped ZnO/g-C3N4 Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Xi-Rui; Li, Min; Li, Hui; Li, Ai-Dong; Wu, Di

    2017-09-01

    N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 composites have been successfully prepared via a facile and cost-effective sol-gel method. The nanocomposites were systematically characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, XPS, and UV-vis DRS. The results indicated that compared with the pure N-doped ZnO, the absorption edge of binary N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 shifted to a lower energy with increasing the visible-light absorption and improving the charge separation efficiency, which would enhance its photocatalytic activity. Compared with the pure g-C3N4, ZnO, N-doped ZnO and the composite ZnO/g-C3N4, the as-prepared N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 exhibits a greatly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible-light irradiation. Meanwhile, N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 possesses a high stability. Finally, a proposed mechanism for N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 is also discussed. The improved photocatalysis can be attributed to the synergistic effect between N-doped ZnO and g-C3N4, including the energy band structure and enhanced charge separation efficiency.

  5. Visible Light-Driven Photocatalytic Performance of N-Doped ZnO/g-C3N4 Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Xi-Rui; Li, Min; Li, Hui; Li, Ai-Dong; Wu, Di

    2017-09-06

    N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 composites have been successfully prepared via a facile and cost-effective sol-gel method. The nanocomposites were systematically characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, XPS, and UV-vis DRS. The results indicated that compared with the pure N-doped ZnO, the absorption edge of binary N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 shifted to a lower energy with increasing the visible-light absorption and improving the charge separation efficiency, which would enhance its photocatalytic activity. Compared with the pure g-C3N4, ZnO, N-doped ZnO and the composite ZnO/g-C3N4, the as-prepared N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 exhibits a greatly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible-light irradiation. Meanwhile, N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 possesses a high stability. Finally, a proposed mechanism for N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 is also discussed. The improved photocatalysis can be attributed to the synergistic effect between N-doped ZnO and g-C3N4, including the energy band structure and enhanced charge separation efficiency.

  6. Band Gap Narrowing and Widening of ZnO Nanostructures and Doped Materials

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Band gap change in doped ZnO is an observed phenomenon that is very interesting from the fundamental point of view. This work is focused on the preparation of pure and single phase nanostructured ZnO and Cu as well as Mn-doped ZnO for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of band gap narrowing in the materials. ZnO, Zn0.99Cu0.01O and Zn0.99Mn0.01O materials were prepared using a wet chemistry method, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that all samples were pure and single phase....

  7. Recent Advances in New Band Rare-earth Doped Fiber Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Jun; WANG Qing-pu; LIAN Jie; ZHANG Xing-yu; LI Ping; ZHANG Sha-sha

    2004-01-01

    Broadband,high bit rate,long hauls and system intelligence are current trends in developing fiber optic communication systems.The ever-increasing traffic demands have made it urgent to develop new band optical fiber amplifier.Laser characteristics of various rare-earth ion including Er3+,Tm3+,Pr3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,and Nd3+ doped fiber are reviewed.Recent advances of rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers with wide-band and flat gain are also introduced.

  8. Molecular doping and band-gap opening of bilayer graphene.

    OpenAIRE

    Samuels, AJ; Carey, JD

    2013-01-01

    The ability to induce an energy band gap in bilayer graphene is an important development in graphene science and opens up potential applications in electronics and photonics. Here we report the emergence of permanent electronic and optical band gaps in bilayer graphene upon adsorption of π electron containing molecules. Adsorption of n- or p-type dopant molecules on one layer results in an asymmetric charge distribution between the top and bottom layers and in the formation of an energy gap. ...

  9. Electrical band-gap narrowing in n- and p-type heavily doped silicon at 300 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cong, H.; Brunet, S.

    1986-09-01

    Based on previous results band-gap narrowing in heavily doped silicon at 300 K is investigated and expressed in terms of impurity size-and-doping effects. The results obtained for n- and p-type heavily doped silicon are compared with other theories and experiments.

  10. Double-doped TiO2 nanoparticles as an efficient visible-light-active photocatalyst and antibacterial agent under solar simulated light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Hamidinezhad, Habib; Haddadi, Hedayat; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2014-05-01

    Silver and nitrogen doped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the achieved NPs were characterized by various methods including X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultra violet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). Both visible-light photocatalytic activity and antimicrobial properties were successfully demonstrated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh. B.), as a model dye, and inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli), as a representative of microorganisms. The concentration of the employed dopant was optimized and the results revealed that the silver and nitrogen doped TiO2 NPs extended the light absorption spectrum toward the visible region and significantly enhanced the photodegradation of model dye and inactivation of bacteria under visible-light irradiation while double-doped TiO2 NPs exhibited highest photocatalytic and antibacterial activity compared with single doping. The significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity and antibacterial properties of the double doped TiO2 NPs, under visible-light irradiation, can be attributed to the generation of two different electronic states acting as electron traps in TiO2 and responsible for narrowing the band gap of TiO2 and shifting its optical response from UV to the visible-light region.

  11. Visible Discrimination of Broadband Infrared Light by Dye-Enhanced Upconversion in Lanthanide-Doped Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles G. Dupuy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical upconversion of near infrared light to visible light is an attractive way to capture the optical energy or optical information contained in low-energy photons that is otherwise lost to the human eye or to certain photodetectors and solar cells. Until the recent application of broadband absorbing optical antennas, upconversion efficiency in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals was limited by the weak, narrow atomic absorption of a handful of sensitizer elements. In this work, we extend the role of the optical antenna to provide false-color, visible discrimination between bands of infrared radiation. By pairing different optical antenna dyes to specific nanoparticle compositions, unique visible emission is associated with different bands of infrared excitation. In one material set, the peak emission was increased 10-fold, and the width of the spectral response was increased more than 10-fold.

  12. Slow light and band gaps in metallodielectric cylinder arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shainline, Jeffrey M; Xu, Jimmy

    2009-05-25

    We consider two-dimensional three-component photonic crystals wherein one component is modeled as a drude-dispersive metal. It is found that the dispersion relation of light in this environment depends critically on the configuration of the metallic and dielectric components. In particular, for the case of an incident electromagnetic wave with electric field vector parallel to the axis of the cylinders it is shown that the presence of dielectric shells covering the metallic cylinders leads to a closing of the structural band gap with increased filling factor, as would be expected for a purely dielectric photonic crystal. For the same polarization, the photonic band structure of an array of metallic shell cylinders with dielectric cores do not show the closing of the structural band gap with increased filling factor of the metallic component. In this geometry, the photonic band structure contains bands with very small values of group velocity with some bands having a maximum of group velocity as small as .05c.

  13. Molecular doping and band-gap opening of bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Alexander J; Carey, J David

    2013-03-26

    The ability to induce an energy band gap in bilayer graphene is an important development in graphene science and opens up potential applications in electronics and photonics. Here we report the emergence of permanent electronic and optical band gaps in bilayer graphene upon adsorption of π electron containing molecules. Adsorption of n- or p-type dopant molecules on one layer results in an asymmetric charge distribution between the top and bottom layers and in the formation of an energy gap. The resultant band gap scales linearly with induced carrier density though a slight asymmetry is found between n-type dopants, where the band gap varies as 47 meV/10(13) cm(-2), and p-type dopants where it varies as 40 meV/10(13) cm(-2). Decamethylcobaltocene (DMC, n-type) and 3,6-difluoro-2,5,7,7,8,8-hexacyano-quinodimethane (F2-HCNQ, p-type) are found to be the best molecules at inducing the largest electronic band gaps up to 0.15 eV. Optical adsorption transitions in the 2.8-4 μm region of the spectrum can result between states that are not Pauli blocked. Comparison is made between the band gaps calculated from adsorbate-induced electric fields and from average displacement fields found in dual gate bilayer graphene devices. A key advantage of using molecular adsorption with π electron containing molecules is that the high binding energy can induce a permanent band gap and open up possible uses of bilayer graphene in mid-infrared photonic or electronic device applications.

  14. Band-gap narrowing in heavily doped silicon: A comparison of optical and electrical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Joachim; del Alamo, Jesús A.

    1988-01-01

    The band-gap narrowing in heavily doped silicon has been studied by optical techniques—namely, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy—and by electrical measurements on bipolar transistors. The optical experiments give a consistent set of data for the band-gap narrowing in n- and p-type material at low temperatures as well as at room temperature. A good agreement is found between the optical and electrical data removing the discrepancies existing so far in the literature.

  15. Band gap calculation and photo catalytic activity of rare earths doped rutile TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Liang; SONG Mianxin; ZHOU Tianliang; ZHAO Xiaoyong; DAI Qingqing

    2009-01-01

    The density of states (DOS) of 17 kinds of rare earths (RE) doped futile TiO2 was by using fast-principles density functional the-ory (DFF) calculation. The band gap widths of RE doped rutile TiO2 were important factors for altering their absorbing wavelengths. The results show that RE ions could obviously reduce the band gap widths and form of energy of rutile TiO2 except Lu, Y, Yb and Sc, and the order of absorbing wavelengths of RE doped rutile TiO2 were the same as that of the results of calculation. The ratio of RE dopant was an-other important factor for the photo catalytic activity of RE doped rutile TiO2, and there was an optimal ratio of dopant. There was a constant for predigesting the calculation difficulty, respectively, which were 0.5mol.% and 100 mol-1 under supposition. The band gap widths of RE doped rutile TiO2 by DFT calculation were much larger than that by experiment. Finally, by transferring the calculation values to experiment values, it could be found and predicted that RE enlarged obviously the absorbing wavelengh of futile TiO2. In addition, the degree of RE ions edging out the Ti atom using the parameters of RE elements was computed.

  16. From band tailing to impurity-band formation and discussion of localization in doped semiconductors: A multiple-scattering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, J.; Ghazali, A.

    1983-10-01

    Klauder's best multiple-scattering approximation which allows the use of a realistic interaction potential and in which electron-electron interactions may be incorporated is shown to constitute a sound basis for the study of the electronic structure of doped semiconductors. The implementation of this formalism requires the solution of a self-consistent set of nonlinear integral equations. This has been done numerically over a large impurity-concentration range. We have thus shown that as the concentration decreases, the band tail gradually splits off from the main band, giving an impurity band. Spectral-density analysis allows one to distinguish between localized and extended states. Compensation effects have also been analyzed. Finally, our results are discussed and compared with various experiments.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium Doped Titanium Catalyst for the Degradation of Nitrobenzene Using Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmini Ellappan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium doped catalyst was synthesized using Titanium isopropoxide as the Titanium source. The metal doped nanoparticles semiconductor catalyst was prepared by sol-sol method with the sol of Cerium. The synthesized catalyst samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance measurements (DRS and compared with undoped TiO2 catalyst. The photocatalytic activity of the sample was investigated for the decomposition of nitrobenzene (NB using visible light as the artificial light source. Cerium doped catalyst was found to have better degradation of nitrobenzene owing to its shift in the band gap from UV to visible region as compared to undoped TiO2 catalyst. The operational parameters were optimized with catalyst dosage of 0.1 g L−1, pH of 9, and light intensity of 500 W. The degradation mechanism followed the Langmuir Hinshelwood kinetic model with the rate constant depending nonlinearly on the operational parameters as given by the relationship Kapp (theoretical = 2.29 * 10−4 * Intensity0.584 * Concentration−0.230 * Dosage0.425 * pH0.336.

  18. Band gap engineering of ZnO by doping with Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, N.; Chand, Subhash; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2015-08-01

    Mg-doped zinc oxide (MgxZn1-xO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.20)) samples were synthesized by polymeric precursor method. The structural and optical properties were investigated by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD patterns reveal that synthesized samples have a wurtzite structure. Lattice parameters, the degree of distortion of the samples were calculated from the XRD. SEM images show that the synthesized samples contain the elongated spherical shaped grains. The Raman scattering investigation and FTIR spectra authenticate the presence of Mg in the system and also show phase segregation at the higher Mg doping concentration. Optical band gap energy is determined from the Tauc relation. It is interesting to know that optical band energy exhibits blue shift with the increase of Mg doping concentration up to 16 mole %.

  19. The enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of yttrium-doped BiOBr synthesized via a reactable ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Minqiang; Li, Weibing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xia, Jiexiang, E-mail: xjx@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xu, Li; Di, Jun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xu, Hui [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yin, Sheng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Huaming, E-mail: lhm@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Mengna [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Yttrium (Y)-doped BiOBr with different Y doping concentrations has been synthesized via solvothermal method in the presence of reactable ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C16mim]Br). The photocatalytic activities of the yttrium doped BiOBr samples were evaluated by the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. The yttrium doped BiOBr exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the two types of pollutants, and the 5wt%Y-doped BiOBr showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the reduced band gap and improved separation of electron–hole pairs. - Highlights: • Yttrium (Y)-doped BiOBr composites have been synthesized via solvothermal method in the presence of reactable ionic liquid [C16mim]Br. • The yttrium doped BiOBr exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and rhodamine B (RhB). • The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the reduced band gap and improved separation of electron–hole pairs. - Abstract: Yttrium (Y)-doped BiOBr with different Y doping concentrations has been synthesized via solvothermal method in the presence of reactable ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C{sub 16}mim]Br). Their structures, morphologies and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activities of the yttrium doped BiOBr samples were evaluated by the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. The yttrium doped BiOBr exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the two types of pollutants, and the 5wt%Y-doped BiOBr showed the highest

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of selected herbicides in aqueous suspensions of doped titania under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojić, Daniela V; Despotović, Vesna N; Abazović, Nadica D; Comor, Mirjana I; Abramović, Biljana F

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of Fe- and N-doped titania suspensions in the photocatalytic degradation of the herbicides RS-2-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy)propionic acid (mecoprop, MCPP), (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), and 3,6-dichloropyridine-2-carboxylic acid (clopyralid, CP) under the visible light (lambda > or = 400 nm) irradiation. The obtained results were compared with those of the corresponding undoped TiO(2) (rutile/anatase) and of the most frequently used TiO(2) Degussa P25. Computational modeling procedures were used to optimize geometry and molecular electrostatic potentials of MCPP, MCPA and CP and discuss the obtained results. The results indicate that the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation is greatly influenced by the molecular structure of the compound. Lowering of the band gap of titanium dioxide by doping is not always favorable for increasing photocatalytic efficiency of degradation.

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of selected herbicides in aqueous suspensions of doped titania under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojic, Daniela V., E-mail: daniela.sojic@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Despotovic, Vesna N., E-mail: vesna.despotovic@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Abazovic, Nadica D., E-mail: kiki@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 11001 Beograd, PO Box 522 (Serbia); Comor, Mirjana I., E-mail: mirjanac@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 11001 Beograd, PO Box 522 (Serbia); Abramovic, Biljana F., E-mail: biljana.abramovic@dh.uns.ac.rs [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of Fe- and N-doped titania suspensions in the photocatalytic degradation of the herbicides RS-2-(4-chloro-o-tolyloxy)propionic acid (mecoprop, MCPP), (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), and 3,6-dichloropyridine-2-carboxylic acid (clopyralid, CP) under the visible light ({lambda} {>=} 400 nm) irradiation. The obtained results were compared with those of the corresponding undoped TiO{sub 2} (rutile/anatase) and of the most frequently used TiO{sub 2} Degussa P25. Computational modeling procedures were used to optimize geometry and molecular electrostatic potentials of MCPP, MCPA and CP and discuss the obtained results. The results indicate that the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation is greatly influenced by the molecular structure of the compound. Lowering of the band gap of titanium dioxide by doping is not always favorable for increasing photocatalytic efficiency of degradation.

  2. Half-filled energy bands induced negative differential resistance in nitrogen-doped graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Lian, Ke-Yan; Qiu, Qi; Luo, Yi

    2015-03-07

    Nitrogen-doping brings novel properties and promising applications into graphene, but the underlying mechanism is still in debate. To determine the key factor in motivating the negative differential resistance (NDR) behaviour of nitrogen-doped graphene, the electronic structure and transport properties of an 11-dimer wide nitrogen-doped armchair graphene nanoribbon (N-AGNR) were systematically studied by first principles calculations. Both the effect of interaction between N-dopants and the effect of doping-sublattice on the NDR were examined for the first time. Taking into account the two effects, N-AGNR becomes metallic or semiconducting depending on the doping configuration, and its Fermi level varies in a large range. NDR was firmly verified not to be intrinsic for N-AGNRs. However, it is totally determined by whether nitrogen-doping induces half-filled energy bands (HFEBs) because it is HFEBs that cross the Fermi level and determine the transport properties of N-AGNR under low biases. With the bias increasing, the transmission spectrum near the Fermi level showed a flag shape, and therefore, the corresponding transport channel is totally suppressed at a certain bias, resulting in the NDR behaviour with a configuration-dependent peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) up to 10(4). Our findings give new insights into the microscopic mechanism of chemical doping induced NDR behaviour and will be useful in building NDR-based nanodevices in the future.

  3. Tuning the band gap of mesoporous Zr-doped TiO2 for effective degradation of pesticide quinalphos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Pallabi; Ganguli, Jatindra Nath

    2013-10-28

    This paper has focused on the synthesis and modification of TiO2 nanomaterial via an acid modified sol-gel process. ZrOCl2 was used as a source of Zr for doping titania. The nanomaterials were characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, etc. Changes in the band gap of the synthesized nanomaterials were studied with respect to the dopant amount, and the performance of the synthesized nanomaterials was evaluated as a photocatalyst to degrade pesticide quinalphos in aqueous solution under UV light. Anatase TiO2 nanocrystallites with an average size of ca. 8-11 nm were obtained depending on the amount of dopant. The results showed that the amount of dopant significantly altered the band gap as well as the surface properties of the hybrid nanomaterials which resulted in high photocatalytic activity.

  4. Band-gap narrowing in the space-charge region of heavily doped silicon diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowney, Jeremiah R.

    1985-02-01

    The densities of states of the valence and conduction bands have been calculated in the space-charge region of a heavily doped linearly graded p- n junction silicon diode. Both the donor and acceptor densities were chosen to be equal to 6.2 × 10 18 cm -3. The results showed the emergence of band tails which penetrated deeply into the energy gap and accounted for the band-gap narrowing observed in such a diode by analysis of capacitance vs voltage measurements of the built-in voltage.

  5. Band-gap narrowing in heavily doped silicon at 20 and 300 K studied by photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Joachim

    1985-07-01

    The band-gap shrinkage in heavily doped n- and p-type silicon is studied by photoluminescence both at low temperatures (20 K) and at room temperature (300 K). A line-shape analysis was performed to determine the indirect band-gap energy from the emission spectra. Within the experimental accuracy the same band-gap shift is observed at room temperature as at low temperature. The present results are compared with experimental data from other optical studies and with theoretical calculations.

  6. Facile synthesis of cobalt-doped zinc oxide thin films for highly efficient visible light photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas Yildirim, Ozlem; Arslan, Hanife; Sönmezoǧlu, Savaş

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt-doped zinc oxide (Co:ZnO) thin films with dopant contents ranging from 0 to 5 at.% were prepared using the sol-gel method, and their structural, morphological, optical, and photocatalytic properties were characterized. The effect of the dopant content on the photocatalytic properties of the films was investigated by examining the degradation behavior of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation, and a detailed investigation of their photocatalytic activities was performed by determining the apparent quantum yields (AQYs). Co2+ ions were observed to be substitutionally incorporated into Zn2+ sites in the ZnO crystal, leading to lattice parameter constriction and band gap narrowing due to the photoinduced carriers produced under the visible light irradiation. Thus, the light absorption range of the Co:ZnO films was improved compared with that of the undoped ZnO film, and the Co:ZnO films exhibited highly efficient photocatalytic activity (∼92% decomposition of MB after 60-min visible light irradiation for the 3 at.% Co:ZnO film). The AQYs of the Co:ZnO films were greatly enhanced under visible light irradiation compared with that of the undoped ZnO thin film, demonstrating the effect of the Co doping level on the photocatalytic activity of the films.

  7. Emission Channeling Studies on the Behaviour of Light Alkali Atoms in Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Recknagel, E; Quintel, H

    2002-01-01

    % IS342 \\\\ \\\\ A major problem in the development of electronic devices based on diamond and wide-band-gap II-VI compound semiconductors, like ZnSe, is the extreme difficulty of either n- or p-type doping. The only reports of successful n-type doping of diamond involves ion implanted Li, which was found to be an intersititial donor. Recent theoretical calculations suggest that Na, P and N dopant atoms are also good candidates for n-type doping of diamond. No experimental evidence has been obtained up to now, mainly because of the complex and partly unresolved defect situation created during ion implantation, which is necessary to incorporate potential donor atoms into diamond. \\\\ \\\\In the case of ZnSe, considerable effort has been invested in trying to fabricate pn-junctions in order to make efficient, blue-light emitting diodes. However, it has proved to be very difficult to obtain p-type ZnSe, mainly because of electrical compensation related to background donor impurities. Li and Na are believed to be ampho...

  8. Doping and strain dependence of the electronic band structure in Ge and GeSn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chi; Gallagher, James; Senaratne, Charutha; Brown, Christopher; Fernando, Nalin; Zollner, Stefan; Kouvetakis, John; Menendez, Jose

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study of the effect of dopants and strain on the electronic structure of Ge and GeSn alloys is presented. Samples were grown by UHV-CVD on Ge-buffered Si using Ge3H8 and SnD4 as the sources of Ge and Sn, and B2H6/P(GeH3)3 as dopants. High-energy critical points in the joint-density of electronic states were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry, which yields detailed information on the strain and doping dependence of the so-called E1, E1 +Δ1 , E0' and E2 transitions. The corresponding dependencies of the lowest direct band gap E0 and the fundamental indirect band gap Eindwere studied via room-T photoluminescence spectroscopy. Of particular interest for this work were the determination of deformation potentials, band gap renormalization effects, Burstein-Moss shifts due to the presence of carriers at band minima, and the dependence of other critical point parameters, such as amplitudes and phase angles, on the doping concentration. The selective blocking of transitions due to high doping makes it possible to investigate the precise k-space location of critical points. These studies are complemented with detailed band-structure calculations within a full-zone k-dot- p approach. Supported by AFOSR under DOD AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0208 and DOD AFOSR FA9550-13-1-0022.

  9. Increased visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 via band gap manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Ashley Marie

    Hydrogen gas is a clean burning fuel that has potential applications in stationary and mobile power generation and energy storage, but is commercially produced from non-renewable fossil natural gas. Using renewable biomass as the hydrocarbon feed instead could provide sustainable and carbon-neutral hydrogen. We focus on photocatalytic oxidation and reforming of methanol over modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to produce hydrogen gas. Methanol is used as a model for biomass sugars. By using a photocatalyst, we aim to circumvent the high energy cost of carrying out endothermic reactions at commercial scale. TiO2 is a semiconductor metal oxide of particular interest in photocatalysis due to its photoactivity under ultraviolet illumination and its stability under catalytic reaction conditions. However, TiO2 primarily absorbs ultraviolet light, with little absorption of visible light. While an effective band gap for absorbance of photons from visible light is 1.7 eV, TiO2 polymorphs rutile and anatase, have band gaps of 3.03 eV and 3.20 eV respectively, which indicate ultraviolet light. As most of incident solar radiation is visible light, we hypothesize that decreasing the band gap of TiO2 will increase the efficiency of TiO2 as a visible-light active photocatalyst. We propose to modify the band gap of TiO2 by manipulating the catalyst structure and composition via metal nanoparticle deposition and heteroatom doping in order to more efficiently utilize solar radiation. Of the metal-modified Degussa P25 TiO2 samples (P25), the copper and nickel modified samples, 1%Cu/P25 and 1%Ni/P25 yielded the lowest band gap of 3.05 eV each. A difference of 0.22 eV from the unmodified P25. Under visible light illumination 1%Ni/P25 and 1%Pt/P25 had the highest conversion of methanol of 9.9% and 9.6%, respectively.

  10. Tunable Light Filtering in a Bragg Mirror/Heavily-Doped Semiconducting Nanocrystal Composite

    CERN Document Server

    Kriegel, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    Tunable light filters are critical components for many optical applications in which light in-coupling, out-coupling or rejection is crucial, such as lasing, sensing, photovoltaics and information and communication technology. For this purpose, Bragg mirrors, band-pass filters with high reflectivity represent good candidates. However, their optical characteristics are determined at the stage of fabrication. Heavily doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) on the other hand deliver a high degree of optical tunability through the active modulation of their carrier density ultimately influencing their plasmonic absorption properties. Here, we propose the design of a tunable light filter composed of a Bragg mirror and a layer of plasmonic semiconductor NCs. We demonstrate that the filtering properties of the coupled device can be tuned to cover a wide range of frequencies from the visible to the near infrared (vis-NIR) spectral region when employing varying carrier densities. As tunable component we implemented a d...

  11. Role of Fe doping in tuning the band gap of TiO2 for the photo-oxidation-induced cytotoxicity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Saji; Pokhrel, Suman; Ji, Zhaoxia; Henderson, Bryana L; Xia, Tian; Li, LinJiang; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, André E; Mädler, Lutz

    2011-07-27

    UV-light-induced electron-hole (e(-)/h(+)) pair generation with free radical production in TiO(2)-based nanoparticles is a major conceptual paradigm for biological injury. However, to date, this hypothesis has been difficult to experimentally verify due to the high energy of UV light that is intrinsically highly toxic to biological systems. Here, a versatile flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthetic process has been exploited to synthesize a library of iron-doped (0-10 wt%) TiO(2) nanoparticles. These particles have been tested for photoactivation-mediated cytotoxicity using near-visible light exposure. The reduction in TiO(2) band gap energy with incremental levels of Fe loading maintained the nanoparticle crystalline structure in spite of homogeneous Fe distribution (demonstrated by XRD, HRTEM, SAED, EFTEM, and EELS). Photochemical studies showed that band gap energy was reciprocally tuned proportional to the Fe content. The photo-oxidation capability of Fe-doped TiO(2) was found to increase during near-visible light exposure. Use of a macrophage cell line to evaluate cytotoxic and ROS production showed increased oxidant injury and cell death in parallel with a decrease in band gap energy. These findings demonstrate the importance of band gap energy in the phototoxic response of the cell to TiO(2) nanoparticles and reflect the potential of this material to generate adverse effects in humans and the environment during high-intensity light exposure.

  12. Photocatalytic performance of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T.; Tripathi, P.; Azam, Ameer; Raza, Waseem; Ahmed, Arham S.; Ahmed, Ateeq; Muneer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present work focuses on the synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of a nanosized Fe-doped TiO2 photocatalyst. The samples were synthesized by the sol–gel method and characterized by using techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). The powder XRD spectra revealed that the synthesized samples are pure and crystalline in nature and show a tetragonal anatase phase of TiO2. The Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the formation of an anatase phase structure in both pure and Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The UV–visible and PL spectra illustrated the red shift in Fe-doped TiO2 NPs. The FTIR spectra indicated the vibrational band of the Ti–O lattice. The photocatalytic experimental results demonstrate that Fe-doped TiO2 NPs effectively degrade MB under visible-light illumination. Interestingly, the prepared TiO2 NPs with a dopant concentration of 3.0 mole% showed the maximum photocatalytic activity under investigation.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and study of band gap variations of vanadium doped indium oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhoodeh, Saeed; Kowsari, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    In this study, effects of vanadium doping in crystal lattice structure of indium oxide (In2O3) were investigated. Indium oxide nanoparticles with different amounts of dopant concentrations were fabricated by a facile and cost effective method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the formation of cubic phase for doped and undoped samples. It was observed that the lattice parameters of doped samples were decreased respect to the pure indium oxide, but the crystallite sizes and the particles' sizes of doped samples were increased in result of substitution of vanadium in crystal lattice of In2O3. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of samples showed that all samples have spherical shapes, and their distribution sizes are between 10 and 70 nm. It was found that the average sizes of nanoparticles were increased linearly with the amounts of dopant concentration. A red shift was founded in the band gap of vanadium doped samples respect to pure In2O3. The maximum of the band gap shift was observed for samples with 0.025 M concentration of dopant. Based on impedance spectroscopy data, it was found that impedances of samples are increased by increasing of dopant concentration for all frequencies which were tested in this study.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and study of band gap variations of vanadium doped indium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parhoodeh, Saeed, E-mail: saeed.parhoodeh@gmail.com [Physics Department, Shiraz branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kowsari, Mohammad [Department of Electronics, Sepidan branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, effects of vanadium doping in crystal lattice structure of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were investigated. Indium oxide nanoparticles with different amounts of dopant concentrations were fabricated by a facile and cost effective method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the formation of cubic phase for doped and undoped samples. It was observed that the lattice parameters of doped samples were decreased respect to the pure indium oxide, but the crystallite sizes and the particles’ sizes of doped samples were increased in result of substitution of vanadium in crystal lattice of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of samples showed that all samples have spherical shapes, and their distribution sizes are between 10 and 70 nm. It was found that the average sizes of nanoparticles were increased linearly with the amounts of dopant concentration. A red shift was founded in the band gap of vanadium doped samples respect to pure In{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The maximum of the band gap shift was observed for samples with 0.025 M concentration of dopant. Based on impedance spectroscopy data, it was found that impedances of samples are increased by increasing of dopant concentration for all frequencies which were tested in this study.

  15. Efficiency enhancement in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by adjusting Mg doped staggered barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Sun, Huiqing; Yi, Xinyan; Yang, Xian; Liu, Tianyi; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiu; Fan, Xuancong; Zhang, Zhuding; Guo, Zhiyou

    2017-07-01

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) with staggered barriers have been studied. The energy band diagrams, internal quantum efficiency, total output power and radiative recombination rate are investigated by APSYS software. The simulation results show that the UVLED with staggered barriers get a little enhancement comparing to the conventional one, on the contrary the structure with p-doped staggered barriers has higher efficiency and power due to enhancement of the holes' injection and the electrons' confinement. Then structures with different Al content in the Mg-doped barriers have been studied numerically and that confirmed the best.

  16. A facile one-step electrochemical strategy of doping iron, nitrogen, and fluorine into titania nanotube arrays with enhanced visible light photoactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Zulin; Dai, Zhangyan [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lake of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Bai, Xue, E-mail: baixue10@tsinghua.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lake of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Ye, Zhengfang [Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gu, Haixin; Huang, Xin [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lake of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Fe, N, F tri-doped TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a facile one-step electrochemical method. • Fe, N, F tri-doping resulted in a synergetic effect for the enhanced photoactivity. • The formation of N 2p near the valence band contributed to visible light absorption. • Doping fluorine and Fe{sup 3+} ions reduced the recombination of photogenerated e{sup −}–h{sup +}. • The synergistic effect in Fe, N, F tri-doping was confirmed by XPS and FTIR. - Abstract: Highly ordered iron, nitrogen, and fluorine tri-doped TiO{sub 2} (Fe, (N, F)-TiO{sub 2}) nanotube arrays were successfully synthesized by a facile one-step electrochemical method in an NH{sub 4}F electrolyte containing Fe ions. The morphology, structure, composition, and photoelectrochemical property of the as-prepared nanotube arrays were characterized by various methods. The photoactivities of the samples were evaluated by the degradation of phenol in an aqueous solution under visible light. Tri-doped TiO{sub 2} showed higher photoactivities than undoped TiO{sub 2} under visible light. The optimum Fe{sup 3+} doping amount at 0.005 M exhibited the highest photoactivity and exceeded that of undoped TiO{sub 2} by a factor of 20 times under visible light. The formation of N 2p level near the valence band (VB) contributed to visible light absorption. Doping fluorine and appropriate Fe{sup 3+} ions reduced the photogenerated electrons–holes recombination rate and enhanced visible light photoactivity. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results indicated the presence of synergistic effects in Fe, N, and F tri-doped TiO{sub 2}, which enhanced visible light photoactivity. The Fe, (N, F)-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst exhibited high stability.

  17. Wavelength-sensitive photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous suspension over iron(III)-doped TiO2 nanopowders under UV and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X H; Li, J-G; Kamiyama, H; Moriyoshi, Y; Ishigaki, T

    2006-04-06

    Well-crystallized iron(III)-doped TiO2 nanopowders with controlled Fe3+ doping concentration and uniform dopant distribution, have been synthesized with plasma oxidative pyrolysis. The photocatalytic reactivity of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders with a mean particle size of 50-70 nm was quantified in terms of the degradation rates of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous TiO2 suspension under UV (mainly 365 and 316 nm) and visible light irradiation (mainly 405 and 436 nm). The photodecomposition of MO over TiO2 nanopowders followed a distinct two-stage pseudo first order kinetics. Interestingly, the photocatalytic reactivity depends not only on the iron doping concentration but also on the wavelength of the irradiating light. Under UV irradiation, nominally undoped TiO2 had much higher reactivity than Fe3+ -doped TiO2, suggesting that Fe3+ doping (> 0.05 at. %) in TiO2 with a mean particle size of approximately 60 nm was detrimental to the photocatalytic decomposition of methyl orange. Whereas, under visible light irradiation, the Fe3+ -doped TiO2 with an intermediate iron doping concentration of approximately 1 at. % had the highest photocatalytic reactivity due to the narrowing of band gap so that it could effectively absorb the light with longer wavelength. A strategy for improving the photocatalytic reactivity of Fe3+ -doped TiO2 used in the visible light region is also proposed.

  18. Band gap tuning and room temperature ferromagnetism in Co doped Zinc stannate nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumithra, S., E-mail: ssmithra@gmail.com; Victor Jaya, N.

    2016-07-15

    The effect of Co doping on structural, optical and magnetic behavior of pure and Co doped Zinc stannate (ZTO) nanostructures was investigated. Pure and Co (1%, 3% & 5%) doped Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} compounds were prepared through simple precipitation route. Formation of cubic inverse spinel structure and metal oxide vibrations of the samples were investigated using XRD and FTIR. Co doping influences the crystallite size producing micro strain in ZTO lattice. Poly dispersed rod like shape of the particles was examined by FESEM. Elemental composition of prepared samples was identified by EDAX analysis. Optical Absorption spectra shows significant red shift on increasing the dopant concentration which indicates the reduction in optical band gap. Visible luminescence observed from photoluminescence studies confirms the presence of oxygen vacancies and trap sites in the lattice. Magnetization analysis reveals the enhanced ferromagnetic behavior in all Co doped ZTO samples. The amplified ferromagnetic ordering in Co doped ZTO compounds has been explained in terms of defects serving as free spin polarized prophetic carriers.

  19. Eu{sup 2+}-doped OH{sup −} free calcium aluminosilicate glass: A phosphor for smart lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, S.M., E-mail: smlima@uems.br [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, C. P. 351, CEP 79804-970 Dourados, MS (Brazil); Andrade, L.H.C.; Rocha, A.C.P. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, C. P. 351, CEP 79804-970 Dourados, MS (Brazil); Silva, J.R.; Farias, A.M.; Medina, A.N.; Baesso, M.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Nunes, L.A.O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Guyot, Y.; Boulon, G. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Luminescents, Université de Lyon 1, UMR 5620 CNRS, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper, a broad emission band from Eu{sup 2+}-doped OH{sup −} free calcium aluminosilicate glass is reported. By changing the excitation wavelengths, the results showed it is possible to tune the emission from green to orange, what combined with the scattered light from the same blue LED used for excitation, provided a color rendering index of 71 and a correlated color temperature of 6550 K. Our preliminary tests indicate this material as a promising phosphor towards the development of smart lighting devices. -- Highlights: • We report a broad emission band from Eu{sup 2+}-doped OH{sup −} free calcium aluminosilicate glass. • The maximum emission peak can be tune from green to orange region. • The test with a LED provided a color rendering index of 71 and a correlated color temperature of 6550 K.

  20. Band Gap Engineering and Layer-by-Layer Band Gap Mapping of Selenium-doped Molybdenum Disulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yongji [Rice University; Liu, Zheng [Rice University; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Lin, Junhao [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Zhou, Wu [ORNL; Ajayan, Pullikel M [Rice University

    2014-01-01

    Ternary two-dimensional dichalcogenide alloys exhibit compositionally modulated electronic structure and hence, control of dopant concentration within each layer of these layered compounds provides a powerful way to modify their properties. The challenge then becomes quantifying and locating the dopant atoms within each layer in order to better understand and fine-tune the desired properties. Here we report the synthesis of selenium substitutionally doped molybdenum disulfide atomic layers, with a broad range of selenium concentrations, resulting in band gap modulations of over 0.2 eV. Atomic scale chemical analysis using Z-contrast imaging provides direct maps of the dopant atom distribution in individual MoS2 layers and hence a measure of the local band gaps. Furthermore, in a bilayer structure, the dopant distribution of each layer is imaged independently. We demonstrate that each layer in the bilayer contains similar doping levels, randomly distributed, providing new insights into the growth mechanism and alloying behavior in two-dimensional dichalcogenide atomic layers. The results show that growth of uniform, ternary, two-dimensional dichalcogenide alloy films with tunable electronic properties is feasible.

  1. High visible light photocatalytic property of Co2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with mixed phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cong; Shu, Xin; Zhu, Da-chuan; Wei, Shang-hai; Wang, Yu-xin; Tu, Ming-jing; Gao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Mixed phases Co2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by a novel method combined with sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The section of sol-gel method, sol, provides an unstable colloidal reaction system for the next reaction process. The hydrothermal method is to treat the above reaction system to prepare undoped and doped samples. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the as-prepared samples contain three titania polymorphs: brookite, rutile and anatase phases. These titania polymorphs probably form polymorph-junctions that can extend the lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B in air under visible-light irradiation. The degradation results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples is higher than that of Degussa P25, especially the doped sample. This is ascribed to the fact that the phases with smaller band gap can enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity, the polymorph-junctions effectively extend the photoelectron lifetime and the nano size effect and Co-doping induce the shift of the absorption edge into the visible-light region. Furthermore, the XRD, SEM, and TEM data indicate that Co2+-doping results in the decrease of particle size.

  2. Low Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of Visible-Light-Activated I-Doped TiO2 for Improved Dye Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongting; Li, Jianwen; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Wenxu; Zhang, Xianxi; Pan, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Iodine doped TiO2 with different iodine/Ti molar ratios has been firstly synthesized with a low temperature hydrothermal route and has been studied systematically in photocatalysis under visible light condition. The resulting iodine doped TiO2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic performance investigations were conducted by means of the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the visible light irradiation in aqueous solution. Under an optimized I/Ti doping ratio of 10 mol%, the photocatalytic performance is greatly better, with degradation efficiency of 95%, which is almost double that of pure TiO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of iodine-doped TiO2 could be mainly attributed to extended visible light absorption originated from the formation of continuous states existed in the band gap of the doped TiO2 introduced by iodine. Active oxygen species, that is, *OH and O2-, were evidenced to be involved in the degradation process and a possible mechanism was also proposed.

  3. Mechanisms of Visible Light Photocatalysis in N-Doped Anatase TiO2 with Oxygen Vacancies from GGA+U Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Chung Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have systematically studied the photocatalytic mechanisms of nitrogen doping in anatase TiO2 using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, employing Hubbard U (8.47 eV on-site correction. The impurity formation energy, charge density, and electronic structure properties of TiO2 supercells containing substitutional nitrogen, interstitial nitrogen, or oxygen vacancies were evaluated to clarify the mechanisms under visible light. According to the formation energy, a substitutional N atom is better formed than an interstitial N atom, and the formation of an oxygen vacancy in N-doped TiO2 is easier than that in pure TiO2. The calculated results have shown that a significant band gap narrowing may only occur in heavy nitrogen doping. With light nitrogen doping, the photocatalysis under visible light relies on N-isolated impurity states. Oxygen vacancies existence in N-doped TiO2 can improve the photocatalysis in visible light because of a band gap narrowing and n-type donor states. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of the mechanisms of visible light photocatalysis in N-doped TiO2.

  4. Effect of Electronegativity and Charge Balance on the Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalytic Activity of Nonmetal Doped Anatase TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibao Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of visible light absorption and photocatalytic activity of nonmetal doped anatase TiO2 were investigated in details in this work based on density functional theory calculations. Our results indicate that the electronegativity is of great significance in the band structures, which determines the relative positions of impurity states induced by the doping species, and further influences the optical absorption and photocatalytic activities of doped TiO2. The effect of charge balance on the electronic structure was also discussed, and it was found that the charge-balance structures may be more efficient for visible light photocatalytic activities. In addition, the edge positions of conduction band and valence band, which determine the ability of a semiconductor to transfer photoexcited electrons to species adsorbed on its surface, were predicted as well. The results may provide a reference to further experimental studies.

  5. Efficiency droop enhancement in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by making whole barriers but the bottom Mg doped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Sun, Huiqing; Yi, Xinyan; Yang, Xian; Fan, Xuancong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhuding; Guo, Zhiyou

    2016-09-01

    Ultra violet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) with different types of Mg-doped barriers have been studied. The energy band diagrams, internal quantum efficiency, total output power and radiative recombination rate are investigated by APSYS software. The simulation results show that the UVLED with only a p-doped top barrier get little enhancement comparing to the conventional one, on the contrary the structure with p-doping in all but the bottom barriers has a much better optical and electrical properties due to enhancement of the holes' injection and the electrons' confinement. The efficiency droop is significantly alleviated and the light output power is greatly enhanced. To avoid forming a PN junction by the bottom barrier and the n-AlGaN in the proposed structure, therefore, the bottom barrier isn't p-doped. Then structures with different hole densities in the Mg-doped barriers have been studied numerically and that confirmed the best.

  6. Sn-doped CdTe as promising intermediate-band photovoltaic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Mauricio A.; Menéndez-Proupin, Eduardo; Orellana, Walter; Peña, Juan L.

    2017-01-01

    The formation energies, charge transition levels and quasiparticle defect states of several tin-related impurities are investigated within the DFT  +  GW formalism. The optical spectrum obtained from the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation shows that the absorption strongly increases in the sub-bandgap region after doping, suggesting a two-step photoexcitation process that facilitates transitions from photons with insufficient energy to cause direct transitions from the valence to the conduction band via an intermediate-band. We propose Sn-doped CdTe as a promising candidate for the development of high-efficiency solar cells, which could potentially overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  7. Electrostatic tuning of Kondo effect in a rare-earth-doped wide-band-gap oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongfeng

    2013-04-29

    As a long-lived theme in solid-state physics, the Kondo effect reflects the many-body physics involving the short-range Coulomb interactions between itinerant electrons and localized spins in metallic materials. Here we show that the Kondo effect is present in ZnO, a prototypical wide-band-gap oxide, doped with a rare-earth element (Gd). The localized 4f electrons of Gd ions do not produce remanent magnetism, but interact strongly with the host electrons, giving rise to a saturating resistance upturn and negative magnetoresistance at low temperatures. Furthermore, the Kondo temperature and resistance can be electrostatically modulated using electric-double-layer gating with liquid ionic electrolyte. Our experiments provide the experimental evidence of tunable Kondo effect in ZnO, underscoring the magnetic interactions between localized and itinerant electrons and the emergent transport behaviors in such doped wide-band-gap oxides.

  8. Conduction band edge effective mass of La-doped BaSnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Allen, S.; Raghavan, Santosh; Schumann, Timo; Law, Ka-Ming; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-06-01

    BaSnO3 has attracted attention as a promising material for applications requiring wide band gap, high electron mobility semiconductors, and moreover possesses the same perovskite crystal structure as many functional oxides. A key parameter for these applications and for the interpretation of its properties is the conduction band effective mass. We measure the plasma frequency of La-doped BaSnO3 thin films by glancing incidence, parallel-polarized resonant reflectivity. Using the known optical dielectric constant and measured electron density, the resonant frequency determines the band edge electron mass to be 0.19 ± 0.01. The results allow for testing band structure calculations and transport models.

  9. A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstov, Sergei V.; Alyshev, Sergey V.; Riumkin, Konstantin E.; Khopin, Vladimir F.; Guryanov, Alexey N.; Melkumov, Mikhail A.; Dianov, Evgeny M.

    2016-06-01

    It is now almost twenty-five years since the first Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) was demonstrated. Currently, the EDFA is one of the most important elements widely used in different kinds of fiber-optic communication systems. However, driven by a constantly increasing demand, the network traffic, growing exponentially over decades, will lead to the overload of these systems (“capacity crunch”) because the operation of the EDFA is limited to a spectral region of 1530–1610 nm. It will require a search for new technologies and, in this respect, the development of optical amplifiers for new spectral regions can be a promising approach. Most of fiber-optic amplifiers are created using rare-earth-doped materials. As a result, wide bands in shorter (1150–1530 nm) and longer wavelength (1600–1750 nm) regions with respect to the gain band of Er-doped fibers are still uncovered. Here we report on the development of a novel fiber amplifier operating in a spectral region of 1640–1770 nm pumped by commercially available laser diodes at 1550 nm. This amplifier was realized using bismuth-doped high-germania silicate fibers fabricated by MCVD technique.

  10. Corrugated flat band as an origin of large thermopower in hole doped PtSb2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouta Mori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the recently discovered large thermopower in hole-doped PtSb2 is theoretically analyzed based on a model constructed from first principles band calculation. It is found that the valence band dispersion has an overall flatness combined with some local ups and downs, which gives small Fermi surfaces scattered over the entire Brillouin zone. The Seebeck coefficient is calculated using this model, which gives good agreement with the experiment. We conclude that the good thermoelectric property originates from this “corrugated flat band”, where the coexistence of large Seebeck coefficient and large electric conductivity is generally expected.

  11. Empirical determination of the energy band gap narrowing in highly doped n+ silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Di; Cuevas, Andres

    2013-07-01

    Highly doped regions in silicon devices should be analyzed using Fermi-Dirac statistics, taking into account energy band gap narrowing (BGN). An empirical expression for the BGN as a function of dopant concentration is derived here by matching the modeled and measured thermal recombination current densities J0 of a broad range of n+ dopant concentration profiles prepared by phosphorus diffusion. The analysis is repeated with Boltzmann statistics in order to determine a second empirical expression for the apparent energy band gap narrowing, which is found to be in good agreement with previous work.

  12. Defect-band mediated ferromagnetism in Gd-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Venkatesh, S.

    2015-01-07

    Gd-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition with Gd concentrations varying from 0.02–0.45 atomic percent (at. %) showed deposition oxygen pressure controlled ferromagnetism. Thin films prepared with Gd dopant levels (band formed due to oxygen deficiency related defect complexes. Mott\\'s theory of variable range of hopping conduction confirms the formation of the impurity/defect band near the Fermi level.

  13. Effects of defects and doping on wide band gap ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Thaler, G.T.; Frazier, R.; Ren, F.; Hebard, A.F.; Park, Y.D.; Norton, D.P.; Tang, W.; Stavola, M.; Zavada, J.M.; Wilson, R.G

    2003-12-31

    Both ion implantation and epitaxial crystal growth provide convenient methods of introducing transition metals such as Mn,Cr,Fe,Ni and Co into GaN, GaP, SiC and ZnO for creating dilute magnetic semiconductors exhibiting room temperature ferromagnetism. In this paper we review progress in wide band gap ferromagnetic semiconductors and the role of defects and doping on the resulting magnetic properties.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of Orange G on nitrogen-doped TiO2 catalysts under visible light and sunlight irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianhui; Qiao, Liping; Sun, Shengpeng; Wang, Guoliang

    2008-06-30

    In this paper, the degradation of an azo dye Orange G (OG) on nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts has been investigated under visible light and sunlight irradiation. Under visible light irradiation, the doped TiO2 nanocatalysts demonstrated higher activity than the commercial Dugussa P25 TiO2, allowing more efficient utilization of solar light, while under sunlight, P25 showed higher photocatalytic activity. According to the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectra analyses, it was found that both the nanosized anatase structure and the appearance of new absorption band in the visible region caused by nitrogen doping were responsible for the significant enhancement of OG degradation under visible light. In addition, the photosensitized oxidation mechanism originated from OG itself was also considered contributing to the higher visible-light-induced degradation efficiency. The effect of the initial pH of the solution and the dosage of hydrogen peroxide under different light sources was also investigated. Under visible light and sunlight, the optimal solution pH was both 2.0, while the optimal dosage of H2O2 was 5.0 and 15.0 mmol/l, respectively.

  15. Large magnetic field effects in electrochemically doped organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Reenen, S.; Kersten, S. P.; Wouters, S. H. W.; Cox, M.; Janssen, P.; Koopmans, B.; Bobbert, P. A.; Kemerink, M.

    2013-09-01

    Large negative magnetoconductance (MC) of ˜12% is observed in electrochemically doped polymer light-emitting diodes at sub-band-gap bias voltages (Vbias). Simultaneously, a positive magnetoefficiency (Mη) of 9% is observed at Vbias = 2 V. At higher bias voltages, both the MC and Mη diminish while a negative magnetoelectroluminescence (MEL) appears. The negative MEL effect is rationalized by triplet-triplet annihilation that leads to delayed fluorescence, whereas the positive Mη effect is related to competition between spin mixing and exciton formation leading to an enhanced singlet:triplet ratio at nonzero magnetic field. The resultant reduction in triplet exciton density is argued to reduce detrapping of polarons in the recombination zone at low-bias voltages, explaining the observed negative MC. Regarding organic magnetoresistance, this study provides experimental data to verify existing models describing magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors, which contribute to better understanding hereof. Furthermore, we present indications of strong magnetic field effects related to interactions between trapped carriers and excitons, which specifically can be studied in electrochemically doped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Regarding light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs), this work shows that delayed fluorescence from triplet-triplet annihilation substantially contributes to the electroluminescence and the device efficiency.

  16. Vascular contrast in narrow-band and white light imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Le, V N; Wang, Quanzeng; Gould, Taylor; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Pfefer, T Joshua

    2014-06-20

    Narrow-band imaging (NBI) is a spectrally selective reflectance imaging technique that is used clinically for enhancing visualization of superficial vasculature and has shown promise for applications such as early endoscopic detection of gastrointestinal neoplasia. We have studied the effect of vessel geometry and illumination wavelength on vascular contrast using idealized geometries in order to more quantitatively understand NBI and broadband or white light imaging of mucosal tissue. Simulations were performed using a three-dimensional, voxel-based Monte Carlo model incorporating discrete vessels. In all cases, either 415 or 540 nm illumination produced higher contrast than white light, yet white light did not always produce the lowest contrast. White light produced the lowest contrast for small vessels and intermediate contrast for large vessels (diameter≥100  μm) at deep regions (vessel depth≥200  μm). The results show that 415 nm illuminations provided superior contrast for smaller vessels at shallow depths while 540 nm provided superior contrast for larger vessels in deep regions. Besides 540 nm, our studies also indicate the potential of other wavelengths to achieve high contrast of large vessels at deep regions. Simulation results indicate the importance of three key mechanisms in determining spectral variations in contrast: intravascular hemoglobin (Hb) absorption in the vessel of interest, diffuse Hb absorption from collateral vasculature, and bulk tissue scattering. Measurements of NBI contrast in turbid phantoms incorporating 0.1-mm-diameter hemoglobin-filled capillary tubes indicated good agreement with modeling results. These results provide quantitative insights into light-tissue interactions and the effect of device and tissue properties on NBI performance.

  17. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  18. The Simplest Way to Iodine-Doped Anatase for Photocatalysts Activated by Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Štengl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine-doped TiO2 was prepared by thermal hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of the titanium peroxo-complex, which includes no organic solvents or organometallic compounds. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy (RS, infrared spectroscopy (IR, specific surface area (BET, and porosity determination (BJH. The morphology and particle size was determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED. All prepared samples have a red-shifted band-gap transition, well crystalline anatase structure, and porous particles with a 100–200 m2 g−1 specific surface area. The photocatalytic activity of iodine-doped titania samples was determined by decomposition of Orange II dye during irradiation at 365 nm and 400 nm. Iodine doping promotes the titania photocatalytic activity very efficiently under visible light irradiation. The titania sample with 0.32 wt.% I has the highest catalytic activity during the photocatalyzed degradation of Orange II dye in an aqueous suspension in the UV and visible regions.

  19. Statistics of narrow-band partially polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    A complete single-point statistical description of a narrow-band partially polarized optical field is developed in terms of the 2D period-averaged probability density function (PA-PDF) of the electrical field vector. This statistic can be measured using the coherent (heterodyne) detection. PA-PDF carries more information about the partially polarized light than the traditional Stokes vector. For a simple Gaussian partially polarized field the PA-PDF depends on 13 real parameters in contrast to the four parameters of the Stokes vector or coherence tensor. We show on several examples that the polarization state of the wave, as described by PA-PDF can vary significantly even while Stokes vector remains fixed.

  20. Investigation of light induced effect on density of states of Pb doped CdSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Singh, Baljinder; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of Pb doped CdSe are deposited on the glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique using inert gas condensation method. The prepared thin films are light soaked under vacuum of 2×10-3 mbar for two hour. The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region has been studied using Constant Photocurrent Method (CPM). The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region follows an exponential Urbach tail. The value of Urbach energy and number density of defect states have been calculated from the absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region and found to increase after light soaking treatment. The energy distribution of the occupied density of states below Fermi level has been evaluated using derivative procedure of the absorption coefficient.

  1. Y/Eu co-doped TiO2:synthesis and photocatalytic activities under UV-light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞芬; 王福明; 安胜利; 宋金玲; 张胤

    2015-01-01

    Y and Eu co-doped nano-TiO2 photocatalysts were successfully prepared via a sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra. Experimental results indicated that Y and Eu doping inhibited the growth of crystal-line size and the transformation from anatase to rutile phase and had the function of reducing particle reunion. At the same time, co-doping could also enhance the absorption in visible region and then narrowed the band gap. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, which showed much en-hanced photocatalytic activities over un-doped TiO2. The degradation rate of 1.5%Y/Eu-TiO2 of methylene blue was 86%, which was about 5 times of that of un-doped TiO2, and the possible reasons for the improvement of photocatalytic activities were analyzed. In this experiment, the dopant amount of rare earth was 1.5%and the ratio of Y:Eu was 2:3 for the maximum photocatalytic degrada-tion, and the sample calcined at 500 ºC showed the best reactivity. For the best samples above, the removal rate of phenol under visble light was 53%whthin 2 h.

  2. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt M.

    2016-08-01

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage.

  3. Band structure and Fermi surface of electron-doped C60 monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W L; Brouet, V; Zhou, X J; Choi, Hyoung J; Louie, Steven G; Cohen, Marvin L; Kellar, S A; Bogdanov, P V; Lanzara, A; Goldoni, A; Parmigiani, F; Hussain, Z; Shen, Z-X

    2003-04-11

    C60 fullerides are challenging systems because both the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions are large on the energy scale of the expected narrow band width. We report angle-resolved photoemission data on the band dispersion for an alkali-doped C60 monolayer and a detailed comparison with theory. Compared to the maximum bare theoretical band width of 170 meV, the observed 100-meV dispersion is within the range of renormalization by electron-phonon coupling. This dispersion is only a fraction of the integrated peak width, revealing the importance of many-body effects. Additionally, measurements on the Fermi surface indicate the robustness of the Luttinger theorem even for materials with strong interactions.

  4. Improving the visible light photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} by combining sulfur doping and rectorite carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Xianzhong, E-mail: buxianzhongsx@163.com [College of Materials and Mineral Resources, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Wang, Yang [College of Materials and Mineral Resources, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Li, Ji [Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Mining Industry Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Zhang, Chonghui [College of Materials and Mineral Resources, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as the sources of S to prepare sulfur-doped TiO{sub 2}. • Combination of S-doping and clay carrier enhanced the photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2}. • Sulfur-doped TiO{sub 2}/rectorite catalysts showed high performance for photocatalytic degradation of metronidazolein under visible light irradiation. • The photocatalytic activity improvement was ascribed to the increased specific surface area, the narrowed band gap and the reduced electron–hole recombination. - Abstract: Sulfur-doped TiO{sub 2}/rectorite (STC) was prepared by an intercalation method using tetra-n-butyl titanate and dimethyl sulfoxide as the sources of Ti and S, respectively. A number of characterization methods including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) were used to understand the properties of STC. It was found that the layer structure of rectorite was partly destroyed by intercalation, and the STC showed a looser porous lamellar structure with a large specific surface area (187.5 m{sup 2}/g). By doping S into TiO{sub 2} lattice as Ti–O–S bond, the band gap of TiO{sub 2} was reduced from 3.2 to 2.8 eV. The removal of metronidazole by the STC under visible light irradiation for 240 min reached 93.8%, which was 71.8% higher than that of P25 TiO{sub 2}. The improved photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the increased specific surface area, the narrowed band gap and the reduced electron–hole recombination.

  5. Single layer graphene band hybridization with silver nanoplates: Interplay between doping and plasmonic enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Salmaan R.; Lim, Guh-Hwan; Flanders, Stuart J.; Taylor, Adam B.; Lim, Byungkwon; Chon, James W. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report single layer graphene (SLG) hybridized with silver nanoplates, in which nanoplates act as either a charge doping or a field enhancement source for the SLG Raman spectrum. Surprisingly, the stiffening of both G and 2D peaks of more than 10 cm-1 was observed with no plasmonic enhancement of peaks, indicating that p-doping from nanoplates on SLG is occurring. Such observation is explained in terms of the contact separation distance between the graphene and the silver nanoplates being enough (˜4 Å) to cause a Fermi level shift in graphene to allow p-doping. When nanoplates were modified in shape with laser irradiation by either photothermal plasmon printing or laser induced ablation, the charge doping was lifted and the strong plasmonic enhancement of Raman signals was observed, indicating that the separation distance is increased. Further, when the nanoplates are oxidized, the two effects on the Raman bands of SLG are turned off, returning the Raman signals back to the original SLG state.

  6. Color tuning of Eu-Tb co-doped borophosphate glasses for white light through valence state adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Suo-cheng; ZHENG Xi; TIAN Hua; LV Tian-shuai; WANG Peng; WANG Da-jian

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of color points of white light on the composition of borophosphate glasses co-doped with europium (Eu) and terbium (Tb) has been investigated in terms of valence change of rare earth ions.Under ultraviolet (UV) excitation,the white light is observed to be from a combination of 4f65d → 4f7band transition emission at 425 nm for Eu2+,5D0 → 7FJ (J=-l,2) lineemissions at 593 nm and 611 nm for Eu3+,and 5D4 → 7F5 band transition emission at 545 nm for Tb3+.By varying the glass composition,the resultant emission color can be tuned efficiently.Eventually,the optimized white light with commission intemational de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinate of (0.3382,0.2763) and the correlate color temperature (CCT) at 5010 K are achieved.

  7. C-band wavelength-swept single-longitudinalmode erbium-doped fiber ring laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U

    2008-09-01

    A wavelength-swept single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber ring laser capable of operating at sweeping frequency in the order of a few kHz is designed and demonstrated by using a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter and a Sagnac loop incorporated with a 3.5-meter unpumped erbium-doped fiber. The laser operates in continuous-wave (CW) mode and can sweep approximately 45 nm over the entire C-band (1520nm-1570nm) window with linewidth less than 0.7 kHz. The optimum wavelength sweeping frequency in order to achieve the best output power stability was found to be approximately20Hz with sweeping-induced power fluctuation of only 0.1%.

  8. Evaluation of the 800 nm pump band for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo; Miniscalco, William J.; Zemon, Stanley A.

    1992-01-01

    Performs a comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigation of methods for overcoming the excited-state absorption (ESA), which is the main obstacle to efficient pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) at 800 nm. The effects of ESA on gain can be reduced at the cost of an additio......Performs a comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigation of methods for overcoming the excited-state absorption (ESA), which is the main obstacle to efficient pumping of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) at 800 nm. The effects of ESA on gain can be reduced at the cost...... based on a quantitative numerical model. It is predicted that 2-3 dB less pump power is required for the fluorophosphate EDFA. For Al/P-silica EDFAs, it is found that ~7-dB-higher power is required when pumping in the 800 nm band than for pumping at 980 and 1480 nm...

  9. A Partial Double-Pass S-Band Erbium-Doped Fibre Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sulaiman Wadi Harun; Nor Kamilah Saat; Harith Ahmad

    2005-01-01

    @@ An efficient and low noise short wavelength band erbium-doped fibre amplifier (S-band EDFA) is proposed and demonstrated using double-pass configuration. This amplifier provides a gain of 1500 nm signal as high as 26.9 dB,which is 9.6 dB higher than the two-stage single-pass amplifier. The corresponding noise figure obtained is 7.5 dB,which is of the same level as in the single-pass amplifier and more than 2dB lower than the previously reported double-pass amplifier [IEICE Electron. Express 2 (2005) 182]. The gain enhancement is due to the double pass-propagation of the test signal in the second stage, which increases the effective erbium-doped fibre (EDF)length. The low noise is attributed to the optical circulator between EDFs, which prevents the backward amplified spontaneous emission from propagating into the input part of the amplifier. The proposed amplifier is expected to play an important role in the development of a practical S-band EDFA.

  10. Dual Band Electrochromic Devices Based on Nb-Doped TiO2 Nanocrystalline Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barawi, Mariam; De Trizio, Luca; Giannuzzi, Roberto; Veramonti, Giulia; Manna, Liberato; Manca, Michele

    2017-04-25

    The reliable exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance in transparent conductive oxides is being pursued to push the developement of an emerging class of advanced dynamic windows, which offer the opportunity to selectively and dynamically control the intensity of the incoming thermal radiation without affecting visible transparency. In this view, Nb-doped TiO2 colloidal nanocrystals are particularly promising, as they have a wide band gap and their plasmonic features can be finely tailored across the near-infrared region by varying the concentration of dopants. Four batches of Nb-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with different doping levels (from 0% to 15% of niobium content) have been used here to prepare highly transparent mesoporous electrodes for near-infrared selective electrochromic devices, capable of dynamically modulating the intensity of the transmitted radiation upon the application of a relatively small bias voltage. An engineered dual band electrochromic device (made of 10%-Nb-doped TiO2 nanocrystals) has been eventually fabricated. It was shown to provide two complementary spectroelectrochemical responses, which can be independently controlled through the intensity of the applied potential: a large variation of the optical transmittance in the near-infrared region (by the intensification of the localized surface plasmon scattering) was achievable in the 0-3 V voltage window, reaching values greater than 64% in the spectral range from 800 to 2000 nm, whereas the visible absorption could also be intensively varied at higher potentials (from 3 to 4 V), driven by Li intercalation into the TiO2 anatase lattice.

  11. New insight into the enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of B-, C- and B/C-doped anatase TiO2 by first-principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Zhou, Peng; Li, Qin

    2013-08-07

    The geometry structures, formation energies and electronic properties of the B-, C- and B/C-doped anatase TiO2 were investigated by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations of first-principles. The results indicated that the visible-light absorption and photocatalytic activities of the B-, C- and B/C-doped anatase TiO2 were not only influenced by the energy gaps (Eg) and the distributions of impurity states, but also affected by the locations of Fermi levels (EF) and the energies of the edges of band gaps (Ev for the top of valence bands and Ec for the bottom of conduction bands). However, the above four factors changed with the doped models of TiO2. The impurity states in the band gaps reduced the maximum energy gaps in the band gaps, which is responsible for the absorption of visible light. The Fermi levels at the bottom of conduction bands indicated the existence of Ti(3+) ions, which enhanced the separation rates of photogenerated electrons and holes. Further, the energies of the edges of band gaps, determining the dominant types of oxidants (O2(-), hole, ˙OH) in the photocatalytic degradation, were discussed. Moreover, the stability of the doped TiO2 depended on its growth conditions (O-rich or Ti-rich environment). The O-rich growth condition is beneficial to the substitutional B and C atoms to Ti atoms, while the Ti-rich growth condition is favorable to the other doped TiO2 including the most stable co-doped TiO2 with the interstitial B atom and the substitutional C atom to O atom. In addition, our results also showed that the B/C-doped TiO2 inherited the partial electronic properties of single-doped TiO2, but also exhibited many new electronic properties, implying that the electronic properties of co-doped systems are not a mechanical mixture of those of both single-doped systems.

  12. Effect of Vanadium(IV)-Doping on the Visible Light-Induced Catalytic Activity of Titanium Dioxide Catalysts for Methylene Blue Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Yo-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vanadium(IV)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst powders were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller–specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. V-doping in the TiO2 increases the crystal grain size, which decreases the specific surface areas of powders. This V-doping changes the band gap of TiO2, leading to extend the absorption to visible light regions (400–800 nm). Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was investigated as a function of the vanadium content in TiO2 and was found to follow pseudo first-order rate kinetics. Appropriate content of V-doping is an effective means to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for MB degradation under visible light irradiation. PMID:22693413

  13. Effect of Vanadium(IV)-Doping on the Visible Light-Induced Catalytic Activity of Titanium Dioxide Catalysts for Methylene Blue Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Yo-Jane

    2012-06-01

    Vanadium(IV)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) photocatalyst powders were prepared by the sol-gel method and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller-specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. V-doping in the TiO(2) increases the crystal grain size, which decreases the specific surface areas of powders. This V-doping changes the band gap of TiO(2), leading to extend the absorption to visible light regions (400-800 nm). Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was investigated as a function of the vanadium content in TiO(2) and was found to follow pseudo first-order rate kinetics. Appropriate content of V-doping is an effective means to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO(2) for MB degradation under visible light irradiation.

  14. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-06-30

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti(3+) self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200 nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti(3+) self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene.

  15. Effective nitrogen doping into TiO2 (N-TiO2) for visible light response photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Niimi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Muneaki; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Yagi, Shinya

    2015-06-01

    The thickness-controlled TiO2 thin films are fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. These samples function as photocatalysts under UV light irradiation and the reaction rate depends on the TiO2 thickness, i.e., with an increase of thickness, it increases to the maximum, followed by decreasing to be constant. Such variation of the reaction rate is fundamentally explained by the competitive production and annihilation processes of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO2 films, and the optimum TiO2 thickness is estimated to be ca. 10nm. We also tried to dope nitrogen into the effective depth region (ca. 10nm) of TiO2 by an ion implantation technique. The nitrogen doped TiO2 enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. XANES and XPS analyses indicated two types of chemical state of nitrogen, one photo-catalytically active N substituting the O sites and the other inactive NOx (1⩽x⩽2) species. In the valence band XPS spectrum of the high active sample, the additional electronic states were observed just above the valence band edge of a TiO2. The electronic state would be originated from the substituting nitrogen and be responsible for the band gap narrowing, i.e., visible light response of TiO2 photocatalysts.

  16. Band-Structure Trend in Hole-Doped Cuprates and Correlation with {Tc}{sub MAX}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavarini, E.; Dasgupta, I.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.; Jepsen, O.; Andersen, O. K.

    2001-07-23

    By calculation and analysis of the bare conduction bands in a large number of hole-doped high-temperature superconductors, we have identified the range of the intralayer hopping as the essential, material-dependent parameter. It is controlled by the energy of the axial orbital, a hybrid between Cu4s , apical-oxygen 2p{sub z} , and farther orbitals. Materials with higher {Tc}{sub max} have larger hopping ranges and axial orbitals more localized in the CuO{sub 2} layers.

  17. Engineering Diffusivity, Band gap and Operating Voltage in Lithium Iron Phosphate through transition metal doping

    OpenAIRE

    Jena, Ajit; Nanda, B. R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Density functional calculations are carried out to understand and tailor the electrochemical profile diffusivity, band gap and open circuit voltage of transition metal doped olivine phosphate LiFe_{1-x}M_{x}PO_{4} (M = V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni). Diffusion and hence the ionic conductivity is studied by calculating the activation barrier, V_{act}, experienced by the diffusing Li^{+} ion. We show that the effect of dopants on diffusion is both site dependent and short ranged and thereby it paves way...

  18. Visible Light Photoelectrochemical Properties of N-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Arrays from TiN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available N-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs were prepared by annealing the TiN nanorod arrays (NRAs which were deposited by using oblique angle deposition (OAD technique. The TiN NRAs were annealed at 330°C for different times (5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. The band gaps of annealed TiN NRAs (i.e., N-doped TiO2 NRAs show a significant variance with annealing time, and can be controlled readily by varying annealing time. All of the N-doped TiO2 NRAs exhibit an enhancement in photocurrent intensity in visible light compared with that of pure TiO2 and TiN, and the one annealed for 15 min shows the maximum photocurrent intensity owning to the optimal N dopant concentration. The results show that the N-doped TiO2 NRAs, of which the band gap can be tuned easily, are a very promising material for application in photocatalysis.

  19. White light emitting Ho{sup 3+}-doped CdS nanocrystal ingrained glass nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Chirantan; Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in [Glass Science and Technology Section, Glass Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Goswami, Madhumita [Glass and Advanced Materials Division, Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-02-23

    We report the generation of white light from Ho{sup 3+} ion doped CdS nanocrystal ingrained borosilicate glass nanocomposites prepared by the conventional melt-quench method. Near visible 405 nm diode laser excited white light emission is produced by tuning the blue emission from the Ho{sup 3+} ions, green band edge, and orange-red surface-state emissions of the nanocrystalline CdS, which are further controlled by the size of the nanocrystals. The absorption and emission spectra evidenced the excitation of Ho{sup 3+} ions by absorption of photons emitted by the CdS nanocrystals. The high color rendering index (CRI = 84–89) and befitting chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.308–0.309, y = 0.326–0.338) of white light emission, near visible harmless excitation wavelength (405 nm), and high absorbance values at excitation wavelength point out that these glass nanocomposites may serve as a prominent candidate for resin free high power white light emitting diodes.

  20. Is the band gap of pristine TiO(2) narrowed by anion- and cation-doping of titanium dioxide in second-generation photocatalysts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpone, Nick

    2006-12-07

    Second-generation TiO(2)-(x)D(x) photocatalysts doped with either anions (N, C, and S mostly) or cations have recently been shown to have their absorption edge red-shifted to lower energies (longer wavelengths), thus enhancing photonic efficiencies of photoassisted surface redox reactions. Some of the studies have proposed that this red-shift is caused by a narrowing of the band gap of pristine TiO(2) (e.g., anatase, E(bg) = 3.2 eV; absorption edge ca. 387 nm), while others have suggested the appearance of intragap localized states of the dopants. By contrast, a recent study by Kuznetsov and Serpone (J. Phys. Chem. B, in press) has proposed that the commonality in all these doped titanias rests with formation of oxygen vacancies and the advent of color centers (e.g., F, F(+), F(++), and Ti(3+)) that absorb the visible light radiation. This article reexamines the various claims and argues that the red-shift of the absorption edge is in fact due to formation of the color centers, and that while band gap narrowing is not an unknown occurrence in semiconductor physics it does necessitate heavy doping of the metal oxide semiconductor, thereby producing materials that may have completely different chemical compositions from that of TiO(2) with totally different band gap electronic structures.

  1. Self-doped Ti(3+)-TiO2 as a photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2 into a hydrocarbon fuel under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasan, Koroush; Zuo, Fan; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-08-28

    Self-doped TiO2 shows visible light photocatalytic activity, while commercial TiO2 (P25) is only UV responsive. The incorporation of Ti(3+) into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap (2.90 eV), leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into a renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH4) in the presence of water vapour under visible light irradiation.

  2. Tm3+-doped ion-exchanged aluminum germanate glass waveguide for S-band amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D. L.; Pun, E. Y. B.; Lin, H.

    2009-10-01

    K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguide amplifiers have been fabricated in Tm3+-doped acid-resistant aluminum germanate glasses. The optical and relative gains of a 3.15-cm-long waveguide channel were achieved to be 4.05 and 2.29 dB at 1.482 μm wavelength under 110 mW 793 nm laser excitation, respectively. After compensating the propagation loss, an internal gain of 1.50 dB and a remarkable gain coefficient of 0.48 dB/cm were obtained, which reveals a definite S-band signal amplification in the low phonon energy glass waveguide. As an expectation, UV-radiation-sensitive glass waveguide should promote the developments of gain-flatten S-band waveguide amplifiers, infrared UV-writing grating waveguide lasers, and compact multifunctional integrated optical devices.

  3. Erbium and nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} with highly visible light photocatalytic activity and stability by solvothermal synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jing [Engineering Research Center of Environment-Friendly Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Wei, Yuelin, E-mail: ylwei@hqu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Environment-Friendly Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Huang, Yunfang; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Xuanqing [Engineering Research Center of Environment-Friendly Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Sun, Zhixian [Engineering Research Center of Environment-Friendly Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Wu, Ying [Engineering Research Center of Environment-Friendly Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Tao, Xinling [College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China); Fan, Leqing; Wu, Jihuai [Engineering Research Center of Environment-Friendly Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Er/N co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} was prepared by a solvothermal process at low temperature. • The co-doping induces the band gap narrowing and prominent absorbance in visible light region. • The samples show excellent catalytic activity and stability under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Erbium–nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} photocatalysts have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. The resulting samples were analyzed by FE-SEM, XRD, BET-surface area and UV–vis. The UV–vis absorption spectra of these powders indicated that erbium–nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} possessed stronger absorption bands in the visible light region in comparison with that of pure SrTiO{sub 3}. The occurrence of the erbium–nitrogen co-doped cubic SrTiO{sub 3} induced the higher photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under irradiation by ultraviolet light and visible light, respectively, being superior to that of pure SrTiO{sub 3} and commercial TiO{sub 2} (P-25) powders. In addition, the Er–N co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (initial molar ratios of Sr/Er/N = 1:0.015:0.1, designated as S5) sample showed the best photocatalytic activity with the degradation rate as high as 98% after 30 min under the visible light irradiation. After five cycles, the photocatalytic activity of the S5 catalyst showed no significant decrease, which indicated that the photocatalysts were stable under visible light irradiation.

  4. Rhodium-doped barium titanate perovskite as a stable p-type semiconductor photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2014-02-12

    Rhodium-doped barium titanate (BaTiO3:Rh) powder was prepared by the polymerized complex (PC) method, and the photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution from water was examined. BaTiO3 is a wide-gap n-type semiconductor having a band gap of 3.0 eV. Doping Rh species into the lattice of BaTiO3 resulted in the formation of new absorption bands in visible light region. Upon visible light (λ > 420 nm), BaTiO3:Rh modified with nanoparticulate Pt as a water reduction promoter was capable of producing H2 from water containing an electron donor such as methanol and iodide. The best material prepared by the PC method exhibited higher activity than that made by a conventional solid-state reaction method. Visible-light-driven Z-scheme water splitting was also accomplished using Pt/BaTiO3:Rh as a building block for H2 evolution in combination with PtOx-loaded WO3 as an O2 evolution photocatalyst in the presence of an IO3(-)/I(-) shuttle redox mediator. Photoelectrochemical analysis indicated that a porous BaTiO3:Rh electrode exhibited cathodic photoresponse due to water reduction in a neutral aqueous Na2SO4 solution upon visible light.

  5. Local probe microscopic studies on Al-doped ZnO: Pseudoferroelectricity and band bending at grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mohit; Basu, Tanmoy; Som, Tapobrata, E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [SUNAG Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

    2016-01-07

    In this paper, based on piezoforce measurements, we show the presence of opposite polarization at grains and grain boundaries of Al-doped ZnO (AZO). The polarization can be flipped by 180° in phase by switching the polarity of the applied electric field, revealing the existence of nanoscale pseudoferroelectricity in AZO grown on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. We also demonstrate an experimental evidence on local band bending at grain boundaries of AZO films using conductive atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. The presence of an opposite polarization at grains and grain boundaries gives rise to a polarization-driven barrier formation at grain boundaries. With the help of conductive atomic force microscopy, we show that the polarization-driven barrier along with the defect-induced electrostatic potential barrier account for the measured local band bending at grain boundaries. The present study opens a new avenue to understand the charge transport in light of both polarization and electrostatic effects.

  6. Local probe microscopic studies on Al-doped ZnO: Pseudoferroelectricity and band bending at grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohit; Basu, Tanmoy; Som, Tapobrata

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, based on piezoforce measurements, we show the presence of opposite polarization at grains and grain boundaries of Al-doped ZnO (AZO). The polarization can be flipped by 180° in phase by switching the polarity of the applied electric field, revealing the existence of nanoscale pseudoferroelectricity in AZO grown on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate. We also demonstrate an experimental evidence on local band bending at grain boundaries of AZO films using conductive atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. The presence of an opposite polarization at grains and grain boundaries gives rise to a polarization-driven barrier formation at grain boundaries. With the help of conductive atomic force microscopy, we show that the polarization-driven barrier along with the defect-induced electrostatic potential barrier account for the measured local band bending at grain boundaries. The present study opens a new avenue to understand the charge transport in light of both polarization and electrostatic effects.

  7. Holon Wigner Crystal in a Lightly Doped Kagome Quantum Spin Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-Chen; Devereaux, T.; Kivelson, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    We address the problem of a lightly doped spin liquid through a large-scale density-matrix renormalization group study of the t -J model on a kagome lattice with a small but nonzero concentration δ of doped holes. It is now widely accepted that the undoped (δ =0 ) spin-1 /2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet has a spin-liquid ground state. Theoretical arguments have been presented that light doping of such a spin liquid could give rise to a high temperature superconductor or an exotic topological Fermi liquid metal. Instead, we infer that the doped holes form an insulating charge-density wave state with one doped hole per unit cell, i.e., a Wigner crystal. Spin correlations remain short ranged, as in the spin-liquid parent state, from which we infer that the state is a crystal of spinless holons, rather than of holes. Our results may be relevant to kagome lattice herbertsmithite upon doping.

  8. A spatial interpretation of emerging superconductivity in lightly doped cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Guy; de Gennes, Pierre-Gilles

    The formation of domains comprising alternating 'hole rich' and 'hole poor' ladders recently observed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy by Kohsaka et al., on lightly hole doped cuprates, is interpreted in terms of an attractive mechanism which favors the presence of doped holes on Cu sites located each on one side of an oxygen atom. This mechanism leads to a geometrical pattern of alternating hole-rich and hole-poor ladders with a periodicity equal to 4 times the lattice spacing in the CuO plane, as observed experimentally. Cuprates supraconducteurs peu dopés : une interprétation des structures spatiales. Des arrangements électroniques réguliers ont été détectés récemment par Kohsaka et al. dans des cuprates sous dopés (via une sonde tunnel locale). Certaines paires Cu-O-Cu sont « actives », et forment une échelle. Les autres sites sont peu actifs. Pour expliquer ces structures, nous postulons que, lorsqu'une liaison Cu-O-Cu est occupée par deux trous, la distance (Cu-Cu) rétrécit et l'intégrale de transfert (t) est fortement augmentée. Ceci peut engendrer des paires localisées (réelles ou virtuelles). Aux taux de dopage étudiés, la période de répétition vaudrait 4 mailles élémentaires.

  9. Band gap engineering in penta-graphene by substitutional doping: first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Dixit, G.; Madjet, M. E.

    2016-11-01

    Using density functional theory, we study the structure, electronic properties and partial charges of a new carbon allotrope—penta-graphene (PG)—substitutionally doped by Si, B and N. We found that the electronic bandgap of PG can be tuned down to 0.2 eV due to carbon substitutions. However, the value of the band gap depends on the type and location of the dopants. For example, the strongest reduction of the band gap is obtained for Si substitutions on the top (bottom) plane of PG, whereas the substitution in the middle plane of PG has a smaller effect on the band gap of the material. Surface termination with fluorine and hydroxyl groups results in an increase of the band gap together with considerable changes in electronic and atomic partial charge distribution in the system. Our findings, which are robust against the use of different exchange-correlation functionals, indicate the possibility of tuning the bandgap of the material to make it suitable for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications.

  10. Ferromagnetic instability in a doped band gap semiconductor FeGa3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeo, K.; Hadano, Y.; Narazu, S.; Onimaru, T.; Avila, M. A.; Takabatake, T.

    2012-10-01

    We report the effects of electron doping on the ground state of a diamagnetic semiconductor FeGa3 with a band gap of 0.5 eV. By means of electrical resistivity, magnetization, and specific heat measurements we have found that gradual substitution of Ge for Ga in FeGa3-yGey yields metallic conduction at a very small level of y=0.006, then induces weak ferromagnetic (FM) order at y=0.13 with a spontaneous moment of 0.1 μB/Fe and a Curie temperature TC=3.3 K, which continues increasing to TC=75 K as doping reaches y=0.41. The emergence of the FM state is accompanied by quantum critical behavior as observed in the specific heat, C/T∝-ln T, and in the magnetic susceptibility, M/B∝T-4/3. At y=0.09, the specific heat divided by temperature C/T reaches a large value of 70 mJ K-2 (mol Fe)-1, twice as large as that reported for FeSi1-xGex with xc=0.37 and Fe1-xCoxSb2 with xc=0.3 at their respective FM quantum critical points. The critical concentration yc=0.13 in FeGa3-yGey is quite small, despite the fact that its band gap is one order of magnitude larger than those in FeSi and FeSb2. In contrast, no FM state emerges by substituting Co for Fe in Fe1-xCoxGa3 in the whole range 0≤x≤1, although both types of substitution should dope electrons into FeGa3. The FM instability found in FeGa3-yGey indicates that strong electron correlations are induced by the disturbance of the Fe-3d-Ga-4p hybridization.

  11. Looking for Auger signatures in III-nitride light emitters: A full-band Monte Carlo perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertazzi, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.bertazzi@polito.it; Goano, Michele [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); IEIIT-CNR, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Zhou, Xiangyu; Calciati, Marco; Ghione, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Matsubara, Masahiko; Bellotti, Enrico [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    Recent experiments of electron emission spectroscopy (EES) on III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have shown a correlation between droop onset and hot electron emission at the cesiated surface of the LED p-cap. The observed hot electrons have been interpreted as a direct signature of Auger recombination in the LED active region, as highly energetic Auger-excited electrons would be collected in long-lived satellite valleys of the conduction band so that they would not decay on their journey to the surface across the highly doped p-contact layer. We discuss this interpretation by using a full-band Monte Carlo model based on first-principles electronic structure and lattice dynamics calculations. The results of our analysis suggest that Auger-excited electrons cannot be unambiguously detected in the LED structures used in the EES experiments. Additional experimental and simulative work are necessary to unravel the complex physics of GaN cesiated surfaces.

  12. Manipulation and control of the interfacial polarization in organic light-emitting diodes by dipolar doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Lars; Schmidt, Tobias D.; Brütting, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Most of the commonly used electron transporting materials in organic light-emitting diodes exhibit interfacial polarization resulting from partially aligned permanent dipole moments of the molecules. This property modifies the internal electric field distribution of the device and therefore enables an earlier flat band condition for the hole transporting side, leading to improved charge carrier injection. Recently, this phenomenon was studied with regard to different materials and degradation effects, however, so far the influence of dilution has not been investigated. In this paper we focus on dipolar doping of the hole transporting material 4,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]-biphenyl (NPB) with the polar electron transporting material tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate) aluminum (Alq3). Impedance spectroscopy reveals that changes of the hole injection voltage do not scale in a simple linear fashion with the effective thickness of the doped layer. In fact, the measured interfacial polarization reaches a maximum value for a 1:1 blend. Taking the permanent dipole moment of Alq3 into account, an increasing degree of dipole alignment is found for decreasing Alq3 concentration. This observation can be explained by the competition between dipole-dipole interactions leading to dimerization and the driving force for vertical orientation of Alq3 dipoles at the surface of the NPB layer.

  13. Harnessing Topological Band Effects in Bismuth Telluride Selenide for Large Enhancements in Thermoelectric Properties through Isovalent Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devender; Gehring, Pascal; Gaul, Andrew; Hoyer, Alexander; Vaklinova, Kristina; Mehta, Rutvik J; Burghard, Marko; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Singh, David J; Kern, Klaus; Ramanath, Ganpati

    2016-08-01

    Dilute isovalent sulfur doping simultaneously increases electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in Bi2 Te2 Se nanoplates, and bulk pellets made from them. This unusual trend at high electron concentrations is underpinned by multifold increases in electron effective mass attributable to sulfur-induced band topology effects, providing a new way for accessing a high thermoelectric figure-of-merit in topological-insulator-based nanomaterials through doping.

  14. Tunable light filtering by a Bragg mirror/heavily doped semiconducting nanocrystal composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Kriegel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunable light filters are critical components for many optical applications in which light in-coupling, out-coupling or rejection is crucial, such as lasing, sensing, photovoltaics and information and communication technology. For this purpose, Bragg mirrors (band-pass filters with high reflectivity represent good candidates. However, their optical characteristics are determined during the fabrication stage. Heavily doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs, on the other hand, deliver a high degree of optical tunability through the active modulation of their carrier density, ultimately influencing their plasmonic absorption properties. Here, we propose the design of an actively tunable light filter composed of a Bragg mirror and a layer of plasmonic semiconductor NCs. We demonstrate that the filtering properties of the coupled device can be tuned to cover a wide range of frequencies from the visible to the near infrared (vis–NIR spectral region when employing varying carrier densities. As the tunable component, we implemented a dispersion of copper selenide (Cu2−xSe NCs and a film of indium tin oxide (ITO NCs, which are known to show optical tunablility with chemical or electrochemical treatments. We utilized the Mie theory to describe the carrier-dependent plasmonic properties of the Cu2−x Se NC dispersion and the effective medium theory to describe the optical characteristics of the ITO film. The transmission properties of the Bragg mirror have been modelled with the transfer matrix method. We foresee ease of experimental realization of the coupled device, where filtering modulation is achieved upon chemical and electrochemical post-fabrication treatment of the heavily doped semiconductor NC component, eventually resulting in tunable transmission properties of the coupled device.

  15. Tunable light filtering by a Bragg mirror/heavily doped semiconducting nanocrystal composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Tunable light filters are critical components for many optical applications in which light in-coupling, out-coupling or rejection is crucial, such as lasing, sensing, photovoltaics and information and communication technology. For this purpose, Bragg mirrors (band-pass filters with high reflectivity) represent good candidates. However, their optical characteristics are determined during the fabrication stage. Heavily doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), on the other hand, deliver a high degree of optical tunability through the active modulation of their carrier density, ultimately influencing their plasmonic absorption properties. Here, we propose the design of an actively tunable light filter composed of a Bragg mirror and a layer of plasmonic semiconductor NCs. We demonstrate that the filtering properties of the coupled device can be tuned to cover a wide range of frequencies from the visible to the near infrared (vis-NIR) spectral region when employing varying carrier densities. As the tunable component, we implemented a dispersion of copper selenide (Cu2-xSe) NCs and a film of indium tin oxide (ITO) NCs, which are known to show optical tunablility with chemical or electrochemical treatments. We utilized the Mie theory to describe the carrier-dependent plasmonic properties of the Cu2-x Se NC dispersion and the effective medium theory to describe the optical characteristics of the ITO film. The transmission properties of the Bragg mirror have been modelled with the transfer matrix method. We foresee ease of experimental realization of the coupled device, where filtering modulation is achieved upon chemical and electrochemical post-fabrication treatment of the heavily doped semiconductor NC component, eventually resulting in tunable transmission properties of the coupled device.

  16. Resonance-Light-Scattering Study and Line-Shape Simulation of the J Band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidder, Henk; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1991-01-01

    Line-shape simulations and resonance-light-scattering experiments of the J band in aggregates of pseudoisocyanine are reported. It is concluded that the J band can be described as a disordered Frenkel-exciton band with states that are pseudolocalized on segments of the aggregate chain. The resonance

  17. Modified low temperature Czochralski growth of xylenol orange doped benzopheone single crystal for fabricating dual band patch antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Harsh; Sinha, Nidhi; Kumar, Binay

    2016-09-01

    Organic non-linear optical pure and xylenol orange (XO) doped benzophenone (BP) single crystals have been grown by a modified Czochralski technique. A low cost CZ system was designed and fabricated that is suitable for the growth of single crystals of low melting point organic materials. Structural analysis was performed by powder and single crystal XRD. LC-HRMS spectra reveal that the dye molecules are present in the doped crystal. The linear optical characterization was carried out by UV-vis spectroscopy. In the case of the XO doped BP crystal, two absorption peaks were found at 504 nm and 620 nm. The enhancement of photoluminescence intensity of blue emission was observed in the dye doped crystal. Dielectric studies reveal that the XO doped BP has shown improved a dielectric constant with low dielectric loss. A dual band compact circular patch antenna was simulated and fabricated using the XO doped crystal. Resonant frequencies of the dual bands at 4.80 GHz and 9.22 GHz were achieved by introducing a defect ground state in the circular patch antenna. The piezoelectric coefficient (d33) value was increased from 1 to 4 pC/N by XO dye doping, which opens up the possibilities of simultaneous transducer applications.

  18. White light emission from Dy3+ doped sodium-lead borophosphate glasses under UV light excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, N.; Suresh Kumar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Sodium-lead borophosphate glasses doped with different Dy3+ concentrations have been prepared and characterized through, XRD, FTIR, optical absorption and photoluminescence techniques. FTIR spectrum indicates the presence of BO3 and PO4 structural units. The optical absorption spectrum has been studied at room temperature and several bands have been observed. These bands have been assigned to the ground state 6H15/2 to several excited states. The bonding parameters have been evaluated based on the observed band positions. From the absorption spectrum, Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters have been evaluated. By using J-O parameters radiative parameters such as transition probabilities, branching ratios and absorption cross section have been evaluated. The emission spectra have been studied for different concentrations of Dy3+ ions. The yellow/blue values due to 4F9/2 → 6H13/2/4F9/2 → 6H15/2 luminescence intensity ratios of Dy3+ ions, increase with increasing concentrations, suggesting higher asymmetry and more covalent bonding character between Dy and oxygen ligands. The chromaticity coordinates were calculated from emission spectra and analysed with Commission International deI'Eclarige Color diagram. The life time of the 4F9/2 level has been measured and found to decrease with increase in Dy3+ ions concentration.

  19. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongodi, G.; Anandan, P.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Jayavel, R.

    2015-09-01

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO.

  20. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongodi, G; Anandan, P; Kumar, R Mohan; Jayavel, R

    2015-09-05

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO.

  1. Characteristics of N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays by N{sub 2}-plasma for visible light-driven photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xu [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Liu Zhongqing, E-mail: 301zql@vip.sina.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zheng Jian; Yan Xin; Li Dandan; Chen Si [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chu Wei, E-mail: chuwei1965_scu@yahoo.com [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > A new pathway is provided to prepare N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays using N{sub 2}-plasma treatment. > N{sub 2}-plasma treatment did not wreck the structure of nanotube arrays. > Nitrogen doping promoted the phase transition to rutile phase at low annealing temperatures > Nitrogen doping narrow band gap of TiO{sub 2} and improve the photocatalytic activity of samples. - Abstract: N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by electrochemical anode oxidation of Ti foil followed by treatment with N{sub 2}-plasma and subsequent annealed under Ar atmosphere. The morphologies, composition and optical properties of N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction spectrometer (XRD), Photoluminescence (PL) and UV-vis diffusion reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). Methylene blue (MB) solution was utilized as the degradation model to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the samples under visible light irradiation. The results suggested N{sub 2}-plasma treatment created doping of nitrogen onto the surface of photoelectrodes successfully and the N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays display a significantly enhancement of the photocatalytic activity comparing with the pure TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays under the visible light irradiation.

  2. White light simulation and luminescence studies on Dy{sup 3+} doped Zinc borophosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, R. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302 (India); Venkataiah, G. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Marimuthu, K., E-mail: mari_ram2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302 (India)

    2015-01-15

    The Dy{sup 3+} doped Zinc borophosphate glasses with the chemical composition (79-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}+xP{sub 2}O{sub 5}+10Li{sub 2}O+10ZnO+1Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x=0, 10, 20, 30 and 50 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The prepared glass samples were characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay measurements. The bonding parameters, optical band gap and Urbach's energy values were calculated from the optical absorption spectra to explore the bonding nature of the Dy–O metal ligand and electronic band structure of the studied glasses. Judd–Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated from the absorption spectra by using the JO theory and it gives information about symmetry of the ligand environment around the Dy{sup 3+} ion site. The Y/B intensity ratio and radiative properties were obtained from the emission spectra and the results were compared with the reported literature. The x, y chromaticity color coordinates of the studied glasses were analyzed using a CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram and found that the x, y coordinates lie in the white light region. The decay curve measurements of the prepared glasses exhibit non-exponential behavior and are well fitted to Inokuti–Hirayama (IH) model to understand the energy transfer mechanism between Dy{sup 3+} ions. The Q, R{sub 0} and C{sub DA} values of the prepared Dy{sup 3+} doped glasses were obtained from the IH model and the results were discussed and compared with the reported literature.

  3. Enhanced upconversion luminescence and single-band red emission of NaErF{sub 4} nanocrystals via Mn{sup 2+} doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haibo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Materials and Application Technology (Ministry of Education), Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Lu, Wei [Department of Applied Physics and Materials Research Center, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Yi, Zhigao; Rao, Ling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Materials and Application Technology (Ministry of Education), Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Zeng, Songjun, E-mail: songjunz@hunnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Information Science and Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of the Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Li, Zheng, E-mail: zhengli58@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Low-dimensional Materials and Application Technology (Ministry of Education), Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The structure and upconversion luminescence can be readily tuned by Mn{sup 2+} doping. • The upconversion luminescence intensity can be remarkably enhanced by doping Mn{sup 2+}. • The single-band red emission can be achieved when the Mn{sup 2+}-doped contents reached 20%. - Abstract: In this paper, the monodispersed NaErF{sub 4}:Yb, Mn nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by a simple and mild solvothermal method. The as-prepared NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and spectrophotometer. The crystal phase, size, morphology, and upconversion (UC) properties of these NPs can be readily tuned by doping Mn{sup 2+}. With increasing Mn{sup 2+} contents, the crystal phase of NaErF{sub 4}:Yb NPs was transferred from hexagonal to cubic, and then a new orthorhombic phase NaMn{sub 3}F{sub 10} appeared. The morphology of NaErF{sub 4}:Yb was tuned from nanodisks to nanocubes and then to large nanoflakes with increasing Mn{sup 2+} dopant contents. Moreover, the UC luminescence (UCL) intensity can be enhanced by increasing Mn{sup 2+} content. Interestingly, single-band red emission can be achieved when the Mn{sup 2+} content reaches 20%. This is mainly ascribed to the efficient energy transfer between Er{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+}. The enhanced UCL intensity and single-band red UCL make these NaErF{sub 4}:Yb/Mn NPs ideal probes for optical bioimaging owing to the low tissue absorption and deep tissue penetration of red light.

  4. Origin of the ``Red'' Luminescence Band in Bulk N-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, E. R.; Garces, N. Y.; Tarun, M. C.; McCluskey, M. D.

    2012-02-01

    Optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) at 24 GHz was performed on bulk ZnO crystals doped with nitrogen impurities (of high interest for p-type conductivity) to provide more details on the origin of a recently reported red/near-IR photoluminescence (PL) band.ootnotetextM.C. Tarun et al., AIP Advances 1, 022105 (2011). PL at 7K revealed strong bandedge excitonic recombination at 3.364 eV, a broad ``green'' emission band at 2.45 eV, and a broad ``red'' PL band near 1.7 eV. Two luminescence-increasing ODMR signals were found on this ``red'' emission. The first was a sharp feature with g-value of 1.957 and FWHM of 1 mT and is attributed to shallow donors based on electron spin resonance (ESR) of n-type ZnO. The second feature exhibited a g-value near 2 and a broad, asymmetric lineshape with FWHM of ˜ 10 mT. A simulation of the spectrum showed that the broad resonance could be fit as the sum of three equally spaced lines with magnetic field splitting value and relative intensities in close agreement to those observed for deep nitrogen acceptors as identified from previous ESR studies. Thus, the ODMR results strongly suggest that the ``red'' PL is due to radiative recombination involving residual shallow donors and deep nitrogen acceptor centers.

  5. Ultra High p-doping Material Research for GaN Based Light Emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Dmitriev

    2007-06-30

    The main goal of the Project is to investigate doping mechanisms in p-type GaN and AlGaN and controllably fabricate ultra high doped p-GaN materials and epitaxial structures. Highly doped p-type GaN-based materials with low electrical resistivity and abrupt doping profiles are of great importance for efficient light emitters for solid state lighting (SSL) applications. Cost-effective hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) technology was proposed to investigate and develop p-GaN materials for SSL. High p-type doping is required to improve (i) carrier injection efficiency in light emitting p-n junctions that will result in increasing of light emitting efficiency, (ii) current spreading in light emitting structures that will improve external quantum efficiency, and (iii) parameters of Ohmic contacts to reduce operating voltage and tolerate higher forward currents needed for the high output power operation of light emitters. Highly doped p-type GaN layers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with low electrical resistivity will lead to novel device and contact metallization designs for high-power high efficiency GaN-based light emitters. Overall, highly doped p-GaN is a key element to develop light emitting devices for the DOE SSL program. The project was focused on material research for highly doped p-type GaN materials and device structures for applications in high performance light emitters for general illumination P-GaN and p-AlGaN layers and multi-layer structures were grown by HVPE and investigated in terms of surface morphology and structure, doping concentrations and profiles, optical, electrical, and structural properties. Tasks of the project were successfully accomplished. Highly doped GaN materials with p-type conductivity were fabricated. As-grown GaN layers had concentration N{sub a}-N{sub d} as high as 3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Mechanisms of doping were investigated and results of material studies were reported at several International conferences providing

  6. Band alignment at the interface between Ni-doped Cr2O3 and Al-doped ZnO: implications for transparent p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca, Elisabetta; McInerney, Michael A.; Shvets, Igor V.

    2016-06-01

    The realization of transparent electronic and optoelectronic devices requires the use of transparent p-n junctions. In this context, understanding the band alignment at the interface between the p- and n-components represents a fundamental step towards the realization of high performance devices. In this work, the band alignment at the interface between Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and Ni-doped Cr2O3 has been analysed. The formation and evolution of the core levels as the interface progressively forms have been followed by means of x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity. A type two (staggered) band alignment was identified, with the valence band offset and conduction band offset found to be 2.6 eV and 2.5 eV, respectively. The electrical behaviour will be discussed in terms of the position of the bands, the presence of band bending and the expected built-in potential and how these can be engineered in order to achieve the maximum performance for this hetero-structure.

  7. Influence of Mg-doped barriers on semipolar (202xAF1) multiple-quantum-well green light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chia-Yen; Yan, Qimin; Zhao, Yuji; Fujito, Kenji; Feezell, Daniel; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Speck, James S.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji

    2011-10-01

    We report the effects of Mg doping in the barriers of semipolar (202¯1) multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with long emission wavelengths (>500 nm). With moderate Mg doping concentrations (3 × 1018-5 × 1018 cm-3) in the barriers, the output power was enhanced compared to those with undoped barriers, which suggests that hole transport in the active region is a limiting factor for device performance. Improved hole injection due to Mg doping in the barriers is demonstrated by dichromatic LED experiments and band diagram simulations. With Mg-doped AlGaN barriers, double-quantum-well LEDs with orange to red emission (λ > 600 nm) were also demonstrated.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and visible light photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped zinc oxide nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul B. Lavand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pure and Nitrogen (N-doped ZnO nanospheres were successfully prepared using microemulsion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD study indicates formation of nanosized N-doped ZnO with wurtzite phase. Nitrogen incorporation into oxygen site of ZnO causes lattice compression and small peak shift toward lower 2θ value. Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR measurements revealed the presence of N in ZnO lattice. Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM study revealed spherical morphology of pure and N-doped ZnO samples. UV–visible spectra show that N-doping significantly enhanced the light absorption capacity of ZnO in the visible region. N-doped ZnO exhibits higher photocatalytic activity compared with that of commercial and pure ZnO nanoparticles. As prepared nanosized N-doped ZnO photocatalyst is highly stable and reusable.

  9. Visible light photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol using vanadium and nitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, R.; Kothari, D. C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098 (India); Patel, N.; Miotello, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trento, I-38123 Povo ( Trento) (Italy)

    2013-02-05

    Vanadium and Nitrogen were codoped in TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst by Sol-gel method to utilize visible light more efficiently for photocatalytic reactions. A noticeable shift of absorption edge to visible light region was obtained for the singly-doped namely V-TiO{sub 2}, N-TiO{sub 2} and codoped V-N-TiO{sub 2} samples in comparison with undoped TiO{sub 2}, with smallest band gap obtained with codoped-TiO{sub 2}. The photocatalytic activities for all TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were tested by 4-chlorophenol (organic pollutant) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that codoped TiO{sub 2} exhibits the best photocatalytic activity, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect produced by V and N dopants.

  10. Shape control of colloidal Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals and their visible light photocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Li, Yaguang; Zhu, Liping; He, Haiping; Hu, Liang; Huang, Jingyun; Hu, Fengchun; He, Bo; Ye, Zhizhen

    2013-11-07

    For colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), shape control and doping as two widely applied strategies are crucial for enhancing and manipulating their functional properties. Here we report a facile and green synthetic approach for high-quality colloidal Mn doped ZnO NCs with simultaneous control over composition, shape and optical properties. Specifically, the shape of doped ZnO NCs can be finely modulated from three dimensional (3D) tetrapods to 0D spherical nanoparticles in a single reaction scheme. The growth mechanism of doped ZnO NCs with interesting shape transition is explored. Furthermore, we demonstrate the tunable optical absorption features of Mn doped ZnO NCs by varying the Mn doping levels, and the enhanced photocatalytic performance of Mn doped ZnO NCs under visible light, which can be further optimized by delicately controlling their shapes and Mn doping concentrations. Our results provide an improved understanding of the growth mechanism of doped NCs during the growth process and can be potentially extended to ZnO NCs doped with other metal ions for various applications.

  11. A novel approach for enhanced visible light activity in doped nanosize titanium dioxide through the excitons trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimy, Kanakkanmavudi B.; Baiju, K. V.; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Warrier, K. G. K.

    2012-02-01

    Titanium dioxide doped with iron oxide (0-10 mol%) has been synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel method. The extent of phase transformation is higher in presence of up to 1 mol% of Fe3+ ions in doped titania. A further increase in Fe3+ content was found to decrease the phase transformation. A composition which contains ∼90% rutile and the remaining anatase phase shows the highest photocatalytic activity. Even though surface area values are dramatically decreased by the modification of TiO2 by Fe3+ doping, crystallinity plays a major role in photocatalytic activity enhancement. UV-vis reflectance spectra indicate a red-shift in band gap energy and thus an enhanced photoactivity in visible light, suitable for application in photodegradation of toxic industrial effluents as well as other organic contaminants, is achieved. Low concentrations of Fe3+ ions act as excitons trapping centers, while higher concentrations act as recombination centers. The synergy between the rutile-anatase ratios and optimum amount of Fe3+ ions improve the interfacial charge transfer and trapping which enhanced the photochemical degradation of MB dye. The Fe3+ doped TiO2 composition has the highest photoactivity, having an apparent rate constant of 11.1×10-3 min-1, which is much higher than that of commercial P25 Degussa titania (6.03×10-3 min-1).

  12. Comparative Photocatalytic Degradation of Monoazo and Diazo Dyes Under Simulated Visible Light Using Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anku, William Wilson; Oppong, Samuel Osei-Bonsu; Shukla, Sudheesh Kumar; Govender, Poomani Penny

    2016-01-01

    This research work delved into the photocatalytic degradation of monoazo dye (methyl orange) and diazo dye (congo red) in aqueous solution using Fe3+/C/S-doped TiO2 nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were synthesised through sol-gel method and characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, EDX, BET and UV-Vis. Photocatalytic degradation of the dyes was monitored under simulated visible light using pristine TiO2, C/S/doped-TiO2 and Fe3+/C/S doped-TiO2 with varying concentrations of Fe3+. The influence of catalyst doping, solution pH, and light intensity were also examined. Doping TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S caused reduction in its band gap value with the resultant improvement in its visible light activity. The photocatalytic efficiency of the catalysts is given as follows: TiO2 TiO2 TiO2 with Fe3+/C/S-TiO2 (0.3% Fe3+) as the best performing photocatalyst. The monoazo dye experienced higher degradation efficiency than the diazo dye. Degradation of the azo dyes was observed to decrease with increasing pH from 2 to 12. Increased visible light intensity enhanced the photodegradation efficiency of the dye. Dye decolourization was observed to be faster than its mineralization.

  13. Effective visible light-active boron and europium co-doped BiVO4 synthesized by sol-gel method for photodegradion of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Che, Yinsheng; Niu, Chao; Dang, Mingyan; Dong, Duo

    2013-11-15

    Eu-B co-doped BiVO4 visible-light-driven photocatalysts have been synthesized using the sol-gel method. The resulting materials were characterized by a series of joint techniques, including XPS, XRD, SEM, BET, and UV-vis DRS analyses. Compared with BiVO4 and B-BiVO4 photocatalysts, the Eu-B-BiVO4 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity for methyl orange (MO) degradation under visible light irradiation. The optimal Eu doping content is 0.8 mol%. It was revealed that boron and europium were doped into the lattice of BiVO4 and this led to more surface oxygen vacancies, high specific surface areas, small crystallite size, a narrower band gap and intense light absorbance in the visible region. The doped Eu(III) cations can help in the separation of photogenerated electrons. The synergistic effects of boron and europium in doped BiVO4 were the main reason for improving visible light photocatalytic activity.

  14. First-principles study of the effect of B/N doping in TiO2 thin films for visible light photo-catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovali, Rasim Volga; Uddin, Md. Nizam; Bengu, Erman; Gulseren, Oguz

    2014-05-01

    Anatase phase of titanium dioxide (TiO2) , a non-toxic and biocompatible wide-band gap semiconductor, when irradiated with a suitable wavelength light is known to facilitate chemical processes on its surface including degradation reactions. In addition, TiO2 is one of the most important and widely investigated photo-catalyst materials. In this work several atomic models for B/N doping have been used to investigate the effect of doping on electronic structure and density of states of TiO2 through ab-initio density functional theory calculations. The results showed that doping with B and/or N induced a) band gap narrowing (red shift of the absorbance spectra to the visible light region) and b) formation of midgap states especially in case of N interstitial model. These results also supported the observed synergistic effects of B/N doping for higher photo-degradation activity. These computational findings supported the experimental data by indicating the possible routes that can be responsible for the improvement of the photo-catalytic activity in TiO2 due to B and N doping in our experiments. TUBITAK Grant No: TBAG 112T771, TUBITAK Grant No: TBAG 110T394.

  15. Gain and noise properties of small-signal erbium-doped fiber amplifiers pumped in the 980-nm band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B.; Chirravuri, J.; Miniscalco, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have experimentally and theoretically investigated the effects of detuning the pump wavelength on the gain and noise properties of small-signal, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers codirectionally pumped in the 980-nm band. While the pump wavelength can be varied over a wide range with little...

  16. Optimizing the pumping configuration for the power scaling of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ee-Leong; Alam, Shaif-ul; Richardson, David J

    2012-06-18

    A highly efficient (~80%), high power (18.45 W) in-band, core pumped erbium/ytterbium co-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported efficiency from an in-band pumped 1.5 µm fiber laser operating in the tens of watts regime. Using a fitted simulation model, we show that the significantly sub-quantum limit conversion efficiency of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers observed experimentally can be explained by concentration quenching. We then numerically study and experimentally validate the optimum pumping configuration for power scaling of in-band, cladding pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers. Our simulation results indicate that a ~77% power conversion efficiency with high output power should be possible through cladding pumping of current commercially available pure Erbium doped active fibers providing the loss experienced by the cladding guided 1535 nm pump due to the coating absorption can be reduced to an acceptable level by better coating material choice. The power conversion efficiency has the potential to exceed 90% if concentration quenching of erbium ions can be reduced via improvements in fiber design and fabrication.

  17. Flat supercontinuum generation covering C-band to U-band in two-stage Er/Yb co-doped double-clad fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Hou, J.; Liu, P. Z.; Jin, A. J.; Jiang, Z. F.

    2011-11-01

    Supercontinuum generation in the gain fiber in two-stage nanosecond pulse Er/Yb co-doped double-clad fiber amplifier had been demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge instead of the conventional method in which nonlinear fiber was pumped by lasers. The Er/Yb co-doped double-clad fiber acts as the gain media and nonlinear media. This route reduces the splice between fiber laser and nonlinear fiber. The supercontinuum was achieved with spectrum range from 1530 nm to beyond 1700 nm at 6 W output power covering the total C-band to U-band. From the analyzing of the spectra at different stages in the amplifiers, it can be found that it is the modulation instability in the anomalous dispersion regime that initiates the supercontinuum gereration.

  18. P-doping-free III-nitride high electron mobility light-emitting diodes and transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Baikui; Tang, Xi; Chen, Kevin J., E-mail: eekjchen@ust.hk [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang, Jiannong [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-07-21

    We report that a simple metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diode is capable of producing GaN band-edge ultraviolet emission at 3.4 eV at a small forward bias larger than ∼2 V at room temperature. Based on the surface states distribution of AlGaN, a mature impact-ionization-induced Fermi-level de-pinning model is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) process. By experimenting with different Schottky metals, Ni/Au and Pt/Au, we demonstrated that this EL phenomenon is a “universal” property of metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes. Since this light-emitting Schottky diode shares the same active structure and fabrication processes as the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, straight-forward and seamless integration of photonic and electronic functional devices has been demonstrated on doping-free III-nitride heterostructures. Using a semitransparent Schottky drain electrode, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility light-emitting transistor is demonstrated.

  19. Stress-dependent band gap shift and quenching of defects in Al-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Bhupendra K; Khare, Neeraj, E-mail: nkhare@physics.iitd.ernet.i [Department of Physics, IIT Delhi, New Dehi-110016 (India)

    2010-11-24

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films were deposited on quartz substrates by the ultrasonically assisted chemical vapour deposition technique. The undoped ZnO film was found to be subjected to a stress which increases initially up to 3% Al doping, and then a slight decrease was observed for 5% Al doping. The band gap of AZO shows a blue shift up to 3% of Al doping as compared with the undoped ZnO. The blue shift in the band gap of the AZO films cannot be understood in the framework of Burstein-Moss shift and has been attributed to an increase in the stress present in the film. The photoluminescence spectrum of the undoped ZnO film shows a wide peak in the visible region which is suppressed with a small red shift after Al doping in the ZnO film. A detailed analysis of photoluminescence of ZnO and AZO films indicates suppression of zinc interstitials (Zn{sub i}) and oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) and creation of oxygen interstitial (O{sub i}) defects after Al doping in ZnO films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study also reveals suppression of oxygen vacancy related defects after Al doping in the ZnO film. The presence of Al in the ZnO matrix seems to change the defect equilibria leading to a suppression of Zn{sub i} and V{sub O} and enhancement of O{sub i} defects. The suppression of Zn{sub i} defects is correlated with the increase in stress in Al-doped ZnO films.

  20. Effect of Gd doping on the structural, optical band-gap, dielectric and magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A., Jr.; Pessoni, H. V. S.

    2017-02-01

    Nanostructured Zn1-xGdxOδ (0 ≤ x ⩽ 0.02) powders were synthesized by the combustion reaction method (CR) with the purpose to investigate the effect of Gd doping on the structural, optical band-gap, dielectric and magnetic properties at room temperature. The structure and morphology of all samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The XRD patterns of all samples exhibited sharp and intensive peaks of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO without any evidence of spurious crystalline phases. The nanoparticles crystalized in roughly spherical morphology with bimodal particle size distribution centered at ∼ 30 , ∼ 100 and ∼ 70 , ∼ 160 nm for undoped and Gd - doped ZnO (x=0.02), respectively. Diffuse reflectance spectrum of each sample was obtained by using a UV/VIS/Near spectrometer and the optical band-gap, Eg, values decreased with increasing Gd doping concentration; being ∼ 3.23 , and ∼ 3.17 eV for x=0 and 0.02, respectively at room temperature. This red shift on the band-gap was discussed in terms of new band levels below the conducting band. Also, the dielectric permittivity data of all samples could be evaluated by the Cole- Cole model. Seems that both oxygen vacancies (VO) or/and interstitial oxygen (O″ı¨) defects present in the Gd - doped ZnO samples play an important rule in the dielectric permittivity at room temperature. Furthermore, all Gd - doped ZnO samples exhibited typical paramagnetic behavior at rom temperature.

  1. Application and comparison of band gap narrowing models for passivated phosphorus doped silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerle, Achim; Greulich, Johannes; Haug, Halvard; Wolf, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the recently proposed band-gap narrowing model by Yan and Cuevas [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 044508 (2013)] is evaluated by simulations of the recombination pre-factor J0 of highly phosphorus doped, passivated crystalline silicon surfaces, which are particularly relevant for solar cell applications. The results were fitted to experimental J0 data measured on a large range of samples exhibiting different dopant profiles and passivation coatings, both for planar and textured surfaces. For each sample, the surface recombination velocity parameter Sp was extracted by fitting the simulation results to the experimental data. We show that the Yan and Cuevas' model developed for Fermi-Dirac statistics leads to a smooth and monotonically increasing curve for Sp as a function of the surface dopant concentration Nsurf, for both investigated passivation layers. We provide a parameterization for this relation and compare the findings with those obtained with the widely used model by Schenk [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3684 (1998)]. On the other hand, we show that the apparent band gap narrowing of Yan and Cuevas developed for use with Boltzmann statistics cannot be used to describe the experimental data, requiring unphysical negative Sp values for high Nsurf.

  2. Erbium Doped Fibre Lasers up t 1618 nm for Optical Communication beyond the L-band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Varming, Poul; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    Up to a few months ago it was expected theoretically that erbium doped DFB fibre lasers could not be made to operate at wavelengths above the L-band (1570nm-1610nm). This is due to the combination of very low gain and problems with two-photon absorption in the erbium. In addition semiconductor DFB...... lasers are difficult to get beyond the L-band. Therefore no transmission systems have ever been made in this wavelength region despite that low loss transmission should still be possible in standard fibres. With the increasing demand for optical bandwidth it will soon be essential to use the entire low....../s transmission over 80km with such a DFB fibre laser at 1613nm. Only a minor power penalty was observed compared to standard transmission.We also show that the intrinsic properties of the DFB fibre lasers remain very good at these long wavelengths. We even observe a few dB improvement of the noise...

  3. New Insights on the Burstein-Moss Shift and Band Gap Narrowing in Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Burstein-Moss shift and band gap narrowing of sputtered indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are investigated as a function of carrier concentrations. The optical band gap shifts below the carrier concentration of 5.61 × 1019 cm-3 are well-described by the Burstein-Moss model. For carrier concentrations higher than 8.71 × 1019 cm-3 the shift decreases, indicating that band gap narrowing mechanisms are increasingly significant and are competing with the Burstein-Moss effect. The incorp...

  4. Significant band-gap opening in graphene and Pd-doped graphene via the adsorption of ionized methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Fang; Chen, Li-Yong; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2017-04-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to study the adsorptions of ionized methane (i.e., CHn+ (n = 3,4) fragments) on pristine graphene (G-CHn+) and Pd-doped graphene (G/Pd-CHn+). Remarkably, CH3+ adsorption induces significant band-gap for both systems, while it is absent in the cases of both CH4+ and CH3 adsorptions. The charge-induced gaps are found to be about 665 meV and 401 meV for G-CH3+ and G/Pd-CH3+ systems, respectively. Promisingly, the Pd-doped graphene with CH3+ adsorption not only achieves a significant band-gap at Dirac point, but also retains nearly linear dispersion near the Fermi level. Both hole effect and localized electron hybridization mediate the band-gap opening. Within DFT + U scheme, coulomb-correction dependences of band-gap, Fermi velocity and effective mass of carriers are handled for the Pd-doped graphene with CH3+ adsorption. These results may be interesting for exploring the applications of graphene in band-gap engineering and gaseous ionization detectors.

  5. Light-Driven Preparation, Microstructure, and Visible-Light Photocatalytic Property of Porous Carbon-Doped TiO2

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xin Zou; Guo-Dong Li; Jun Zhao; Juan Su; Xiao Wei; Kai-Xue Wang; Yu-Ning Wang; Jie-Sheng Chen

    2012-01-01

    Highly porous carbon-doped TiO2 (C-TiO2) has been prepared, for the first time, through a light-driven approach using crystalline titanium glycolate (TG) as the single-source precursor. Although the nonthermally prepared porous C-TiO2 is amorphous, it shows a remarkable visible-light photocatalytic activity higher than that of nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) due to its significant surface area (530 m2/g) and pore-rich structure. X-ray photoelectron, electron paramagnetic resonance, and UV-Vis di...

  6. Novel chromium doped perovskites A2ZnTiO6 (A = Pr, Gd): Synthesis, crystal structure and photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hekai; Fang, Minghao; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yan'gai; Chen, Kai; Guan, Ming; Tang, Chao; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Double perovskite related oxides A2ZnTiO6 (A = Pr, Gd) have been successfully synthesized by solid state reaction and investigated as photocatalysts for the first time. The two layered titanates mainly demonstrate absorbances under UV irradiation, except for several sharp absorption bands above 400 nm for Pr2ZnTiO6. Therefore, a series of photocatalysts by doping A2ZnTiO6 (A = Pr, Gd) with Cr have been developed in the hope to improve their absorption in the visible light region. The successful incorporation of Cr was detected by XRD and XPS, and the prepared samples have also been characteriazed by SEM, UV-vis DRS and PL. The characterization results suggested that Cr was present mainly in the form of Cr3+, with only a small amount of Cr6+ species. It served as an efficient dopant for the extension of visible light absorbance and improved photocatalytic activities under solar light irradiation. For both Pr2ZnTiO6 and Gd2ZnTiO6, the valence band (VB) was composed of hybridized states of the Zn 3d, O 2p and the conduction band (CB) has major contribution from Zn 4s, Ti 3d orbitals. For Cr doped samples, the newly formed spin-polarized valence band in the middle of the band gap that primarily arises from Cr 3d orbitals was responsible for the improved optical and photocatalytic properties.

  7. Electron concentration dependence of optical band gap shift in Ga-doped ZnO thin films by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaqin [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Tang, Wu, E-mail: tang@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhang, Lan [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhao, Junliang [Shanghai Juntech Co. Ltd., 1378 Xingxian Road, Shanghai 201815 (China)

    2014-08-28

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The optical properties of the deposited GZO films were evaluated using an optical transmission measurement. The optical band gap increased from 3.32 eV to 3.45 eV with the increasing carrier density from 2.0 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} to 3.24 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. Based on the experimental results, the optical band gap as a function of carrier density is systematically investigated with four available theoretical models taken into consideration. The blueshift of the optical band gap in GZO films can be well interpreted with a complex model which combines the Burstein–Moss effect, the band gap renormalization effect and the nonparabolic nature of conduction band. In addition, the BM contribution is almost offset by the BGR effect in both conduction band and valence band due to the approximate equality between electron and hole effective masses in GZO films with a nonparabolic conduction band. The tunability of optical band gap in GZO thin films by carrier density offers a number of potential advantages in the development of semiconductor optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • The effects of electron concentration on optical band gap were analyzed. • The measured optical band gap corresponded well with the calculated ones. • The Burstein–Moss (BM) and band gap renormalization (BGR) effects were considered. • Nonparabolic conduction band parameters were used in theoretical analysis. • The BM effect was offset by the BGR effect in both conduction band and valence band.

  8. A Two-Stage S-Band Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Based on W-type Erbium-Doped Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Lei; JIA Yuan-Yuan; XING Jun-Bo; ZHANG Zhen; SUN Jian-Jun; LU Ke-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ An S-band erbium-doped fiber (EDF) amplifier based on a W-type EDF designed by ourselves is demonstrated by employing a two-stage double-pass configuration.The amplifier provides a bandwidth of 34 nm (1486-1520 nm) for the gain over 20 dB.The maximal gain of 32.8 dB is achieved at 1501 nm and the corresponding noise figure is 6.0 dB.The proposed amplifier has a promising foreground in extending the current network to the S band.

  9. Ab initio studies of Nb-N-S tri-doped TiO2 with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dahua; Cheng, Junxia; Cheng, Xinlu

    2016-06-01

    The electronic and optical properties of Nb-N-S tri-doped anatase TiO2 were investigated within the frame of the density functional theory (DFT) plus U method. Results show that a significant red-shift effect and improvement of visible-light absorption for Nb-N-S tri-doped TiO2 are observed with respect to pure TiO2 and S-N codoped TiO2. At the same time, the enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of tri-doped TiO2 is derived from the narrowing band gap, the appearance of Nb 4d state at the bottom of conduction band and the mixture of N 2p, S 3p states forming new defect levels at the top of valance band, which is excellently consistent with the previous experiment. Moreover, S ion leads to the lattice distortion and promotes the visible-light photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the absorbance of 1.39NbNS-TiO2 accords well with the experimental result in the visible region. It is also found that the 2.78NbNS-TiO2 can be easily grown under O-rich condition and have the strongest absorbance from 2.0 to 4.2 eV among four models.

  10. Solid-state chemical synthesis of rod-like fluorine-doped β-Bi2O3 and their enhanced photocatalytic property under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhiting; Cao, Yali; Li, Yizhao; Xie, Jing; Guo, Nana; Jia, Dianzeng

    2016-12-01

    The pure β-Bi2O3 and fluorine-doped β-Bi2O3 rod-like microstructures were successfully prepared by a facile solid-state chemical reaction process. The composition, structure and morphology of the samples were determined by XRD, EDS, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, XPS and PL. Photocatalytic activities of all samples were investigated via the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under the irradiation of visible light. The fluorine-doped β-Bi2O3 rods exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than the pure β-Bi2O3 rod-like structures and commercial sample. The 82% MO can be degraded by the fluorine-doped β-Bi2O3 rods after irradiation for 2 h under visible light, which is 2-3 times higher than that of counterparts. The enhanced properties of the fluorine-doped samples attribute to their higher separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs and strong oxidation potential of valance band holes. The results show that the as-prepared rod-like fluorine-doped β-Bi2O3 materials are potential candidates for photocatalysts irradiated by visible light.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and degradation of Bisphenol A using Pr, N co-doped TiO 2 with highly visible light activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Dai, Jun; Li, Jiantong

    2011-08-01

    Praseodymium and nitrogen co-doped titania (Pr/N-TiO 2) photocatalysts, which could degrade Bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, were prepared by the modified sol-gel process. Tetrabutyl titanate, urea and praseodymium nitrate were used as the sources of titanium, nitrogen and praseodymium, respectively. The resulting materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). It was found that Pr doping inhibited the growth of crystalline size and the transformation from anatase to rutile. The degradation of BPA under visible light illumination was taken as probe reaction to evaluate the photo-activity of the co-doped photocatalyst. In our experiments, the optimal dopant amount of Pr was 1.2 mol% and the calcination temperature was 500 °C for the best photocatalytic activity. Pr/N-TiO 2 samples exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared to N-TiO 2, undoped TiO 2 and commercial P25. The nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the crystal of titania and could narrow the band gap energy. Pr doping could slow the radiative recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO 2. The improvement of photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen and Pr co-doping.

  12. Effect of Pd ion doping in the band gap of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles: structural and optical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Brajesh; Venugopal, B. [Pondicherry University, Centre for Nanoscience and Technology (India); Amirthapandian, S.; Panigrahi, B. K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Ion Beam and Computer Simulation Section, Materials Science Group (India); Thangadurai, P., E-mail: thangadurai.p@gmail.com [Pondicherry University, Centre for Nanoscience and Technology (India)

    2013-10-15

    Pd ion doping has influenced the band gap of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Undoped and Pd ion-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. A tetragonal phase of SnO{sub 2} with a grain size range of 7-13 nm was obtained (studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy). A decreasing trend in the particle size with increasing doping concentration was observed. The presence of Pd in doped SnO{sub 2} was confirmed by chemical analysis carried out by energy-dispersive spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope. Diffuse reflectance spectra showed a blue shift in absorption with increasing palladium concentration. Band gap of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles was estimated from the diffuse reflectance spectra using Kubelka-Munk function and it was increasing with the increase of Pd ion concentration from 3.73 to 4.21 eV. The variation in band gap is attributed predominantly to the lattice strain and particle size. All the samples showed a broad photoluminescence emission centered at 375 nm when excited at 270 nm. A systematic study on the structural and optical properties of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles is presented.

  13. Band Gap Tailoring of TiO2 Nanowires by Nitrogen Doping Under N2/Ar Plasma Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, J C; Mondal, A; Bhattacharya, S; Singh, N K; Ngangbam, C; Chattopadhyay, K K

    2015-05-01

    Glancing angle deposited TiO2 nanowires (NWs) were doped with nitrogen (N) using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique, under the treatment of N2/Ar plasma. A red shift (- 0.51 eV) in the main band transition and oxygen defect related transition (-2.1 eV) was observed for the N doped TiO2 nanowires. The interstitial nitrogen introduces mid-gap levels N (2P) above the O (2P) in the TiO2 forbidden gap. The photoluminescence measurement revealed a small red shift of -7 nm of anatase band gap from N doped TiO2 nanowires due to radiative recombination of carriers from conduction band to the N (2P) trap state. The low frequency Raman peaks at 304 cm(-1) (acoustical phonons with LA mode), 618 cm(-1) (optical phonons with LO modes) and the high frequency peak at 832 cm(-1) was observed from Ti-O-N due to the partial replacement of oxygen molecules by nitrogen into TiO2, during the doping process.

  14. Effects of Mo sources on Mo doped SrTiO{sub 3} powder prepared by spray pyrolysis for H{sub 2} evolution under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Woo, E-mail: hyunwookang@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Bin [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daehak-ro 291, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Three types of molybdenum ions (Mo{sup 6+}, Mo{sup 4+}, and Mo{sup 2+}) were doped into SrTiO{sub 3}. • Molybdenum oxidation states were changed by photocatalyst preparation process. • Hydrogen was evolved by molybdenum doped SrTiO{sub 3} under visible light. • SrTiO{sub 3} doped with Mo{sup 4+} and Mo{sup 6+} showed the best photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: SrTiO{sub 3} was doped with three types of molybdenum ions (Mo{sup 6+}, Mo{sup 4+}, and Mo{sup 2+}) by spray pyrolysis. The molybdenum ions narrowed the band gap of SrTiO{sub 3} to allow hydrogen evolution under visible-light irradiation. The molybdenum-doped SrTiO{sub 3} photocatalyst prepared from MoO{sub 2} (0.4 mol%) exhibited hydrogen evolution up to a rate of 1410.3 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1} with an induction period of 1 h. The use of MoO{sub 2} resulted in SrTiO{sub 3} doping by Mo{sup 6+} and Mo{sup 4+} ions, which enhanced the hydrogen evolution by forming 4d-like states under the conduction band. The ionic structure of SrTiO{sub 3} doped with Mo{sup 4+} and Mo{sup 6+} could be expressed as Sr[Ti{sup 4+}{sub 1−x−y}(Mo{sup 4+}{sub x}Mo{sup 6+}{sub y})]O{sub 3} from the X-ray photoelectron spectra.

  15. Persistent spin excitations in doped antiferromagnets revealed by resonant inelastic light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C. J.; Nowadnick, E. A.; Wohlfeld, K.; Kung, Y. F.; Chen, C.-C.; Johnston, S.; Tohyama, T.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2014-02-01

    How coherent quasiparticles emerge by doping quantum antiferromagnets is a key question in correlated electron systems, whose resolution is needed to elucidate the phase diagram of copper oxides. Recent resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments in hole-doped cuprates have purported to measure high-energy collective spin excitations that persist well into the overdoped regime and bear a striking resemblance to those found in the parent compound, challenging the perception that spin excitations should weaken with doping and have a diminishing effect on superconductivity. Here we show that RIXS at the Cu L3-edge indeed provides access to the spin dynamical structure factor once one considers the full influence of light polarization. Further we demonstrate that high-energy spin excitations do not correlate with the doping dependence of Tc, while low-energy excitations depend sensitively on doping and show ferromagnetic correlations. This suggests that high-energy spin excitations are marginal to pairing in cuprate superconductors.

  16. Superhydrophilicity-assisted preparation of transparent and visible light activated N-doped titania film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing Chi; Wellia, Diana V; Amal, Rose; Liao, Dai Wei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2010-07-01

    A novel and environmental friendly method was developed to prepare transparent, uniform, crack-free and visible light activated nitrogen doped (N-doped) titania thin films without the use of organic Ti precursors and organic solvents. The N-doped titania films were prepared from heating aqueous peroxotitanate thin films deposited uniformly on superhydrophilic uncoated glass substrates. The pure glass substrates were superhydrophilic after being heated at 500 degrees C for 1 h. Nitrogen concentrations in the titania films were adjusted by changing the amount of ammonia solution. The optimal photocatalytic activity of the N-doped titania films was about 14 times higher than that of a commercial self-cleaning glass under the same visible light illumination. The current reported preparative technique is generally applicable for the preparation of other thin films.

  17. Superhydrophilicity-assisted preparation of transparent and visible light activated N-doped titania film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing Chi; Wellia, Diana V.; Amal, Rose; Liao, Dai Wei; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2010-07-01

    A novel and environmental friendly method was developed to prepare transparent, uniform, crack-free and visible light activated nitrogen doped (N-doped) titania thin films without the use of organic Ti precursors and organic solvents. The N-doped titania films were prepared from heating aqueous peroxotitanate thin films deposited uniformly on superhydrophilic uncoated glass substrates. The pure glass substrates were superhydrophilic after being heated at 500 °C for 1 h. Nitrogen concentrations in the titania films were adjusted by changing the amount of ammonia solution. The optimal photocatalytic activity of the N-doped titania films was about 14 times higher than that of a commercial self-cleaning glass under the same visible light illumination. The current reported preparative technique is generally applicable for the preparation of other thin films.

  18. An efficient broad-band mid-wave IR fiber optic light source: Design and performance simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Barh, A; Varshney, R K; Pal, B P

    2013-01-01

    Design of a mid-wave IR (MWIR) broad-band fiber-based light source exploiting four-wave mixing (FWM) in a meter long suitably designed highly nonlinear (NL) chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber (MOF) is reported. This superior FWM bandwidth (BW) was obtained through precise tailoring of the fibers dispersion profile so as to realize positive quartic dispersion at the pump wavelength. We consider an Erbium (Er3+) doped continuous wave (CW) ZBLAN fiber laser emitting at 2.8 micron as the pump source with an average power of 5 W. Amplification factor as high as 25 dB is achievable in the 3 to 3.9 microns spectral range with average power conversion efficiency more than 32 percent.

  19. Effect of n-type doping level on direct band gap electroluminescence intensity for asymmetric metal/Ge/metal diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekura, T.; Tanaka, K.; Motoyama, C.; Yoneda, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Nakashima, H.; Wang, D.

    2017-10-01

    The direct band gap electroluminescence (EL) intensity was investigated for asymmetric metal/Ge/metal diodes fabricated on n-type Ge with doping levels in the range of 4.0 × 1013-3.1 × 1018 cm-3. Up to a doping level of 1016 cm-3 order, commercially available (100) n-Ge substrates were used. To obtain a doping level higher than 1017 cm-3 order, which is commercially unavailable, n+-Ge/p-Ge structures were fabricated by Sb doping on p-type (100) Ge substrates with an in-diffusion at 600 °C followed by a push-diffusion at 700 °C-850 °C. The EL intensity was increased with increasing doping level up to 1.0 × 1018 cm-3. After that, it was decreased with a further increase in n-type doping level. This EL intensity decrease is explained by the decreased number of holes in the active region. One reason is the difficulty in hole injection through the PtGe/n-Ge contact due to the occurring of tunneling electron current. Another reason is the loss of holes caused by both the small thickness of n+-Ge layer and the existence of n+p junction.

  20. White light generation from Dy3+-doped ZnO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasimhadri, M.; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb; Chen, Baojiu; Yi, Soung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Hyun

    2009-07-01

    Dysprosium doped ZnO-B2O3-P2O5 (ZBP) glasses were prepared by a conventional melt quenching technique in order to study the luminescent properties and their utility for white light emitting diodes (LEDs). X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. The present glasses were characterized by infrared and Raman spectra to evaluate the vibrational features of the samples. The emission and excitation spectra were reported for the ZBP glasses. Strong blue (484 nm) and yellow (574 nm) emission bands were observed upon various excitations. These two emissions correspond to the F49/2→H615/2 and F49/2→H613/2 transitions of Dy3+ ions, respectively. Combination of these blue and yellow bands gives white light to the naked eye. First time, it was found that ZnO-B2O3-P2O5 glasses efficiently emit white light under 400 and 454 nm excitations, which are nearly match with the emissions of commercial GaN blue LEDs and InGaN LED, respectively. CIE chromaticity coordinates also calculated for Dy3+: ZBP glasses to evaluate the white light emission.

  1. Magnetic Dispersion of the Diagonal Incommensurate Phase in Lightly Doped La2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Fujita, M. [Tohoku University, Japan; Wakimoto, S [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A [ORNL; Tranquada, John M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Yamada, K. [Tohoku University, Japan

    2008-01-01

    We present inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a single-domain crystal of lightly doped La1:96Sr0:04CuO4. We find that the magnetic excitation spectrum in this insulating phase with a diagonal incommensurate spin modulation is remarkably similar to that in the superconducting regime, where the spin modulation is bond parallel. In particular, we find that the dispersion slope at low energy is essentially independent of doping and temperature over a significant range. The energy at which the excitations cross the commensurate antiferromagnetic wave vector increases roughly linearly with doping through the underdoped regime.

  2. High energy transmission of Al2O3 doped with light transition metals

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Cosima

    2012-01-31

    The transmission of transparent colored ceramics based on Al2O3doped with light transition metals is measured in the visible and infrared range. To clarify the role of the dopands we perform ab initiocalculations. We discuss the electronic structure and present optical spectra obtained in the independent particle approximation. We argue that the gross spectral features of Co- and Ni-doped Al2O3 samples are described by our model, while the validity of the approach is limited for Cr-doped Al2O3.

  3. Enhancing the visibility of injuries with narrow-banded beams of light within the visible light spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmen, Roxane M; Ceelen, Manon; Reijnders, Udo J L; Joris Stomp, S; de Keijzer, Koos C; Das, Kees

    2013-03-01

    The use of narrow-banded visible light sources in improving the visibility of injuries has been hardly investigated, and studies examining the extent of this improvement are lacking. In this study, narrow-banded beams of light within the visible light spectrum were used to explore their ability in improving the visibility of external injuries. The beams of light were induced by four crime-lites(®) providing narrow-banded beams of light between 400 and 550 nm. The visibility of the injuries was assessed through specific long-pass filters supplied with the set of crime-lites(®) . Forty-three percent of the examined injuries improved in visibility by using the narrow-banded visible light. In addition, injuries were visualized that were not visible or just barely visible to the naked eye. The improvements in visibility were particularly marked with the use of crime-lites(®) "violet" and "blue" covering the spectrum between 400-430 and 430-470 nm. The simple noninvasive method showed a great potential contribution in injury examination.

  4. Hypersonic modulation of light in three-dimensional photonic and phononic band-gap materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, A V; Tanaka, Y; Pevtsov, A B; Kaplan, S F; Golubev, V G; Tamura, S; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M

    2008-07-18

    The elastic coupling between the a-SiO2 spheres composing opal films brings forth three-dimensional periodic structures which besides a photonic stop band are predicted to also exhibit complete phononic band gaps. The influence of elastic crystal vibrations on the photonic band structure has been studied by injection of coherent hypersonic wave packets generated in a metal transducer by subpicosecond laser pulses. These studies show that light with energies close to the photonic band gap can be efficiently modulated by hypersonic waves.

  5. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its du...

  6. Rare-earth doped polymer waveguides and light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    Polymer-based optical waveguide amplifiers offer a low-cost alternative for inorganic waveguide amplifiers. Due to the fact that their refractive index is almost similar to that of standard optical fibers, they can be easily coupled with existing fibers at low coupling losses. Doping the polym

  7. Plant lighting system with five wavelength-band light-emitting diodes providing photon flux density and mixing ratio control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yano Akira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth and development depend on the availability of light. Lighting systems therefore play crucial roles in plant studies. Recent advancements of light-emitting diode (LED technologies provide abundant opportunities to study various plant light responses. The LED merits include solidity, longevity, small element volume, radiant flux controllability, and monochromaticity. To apply these merits in plant light response studies, a lighting system must provide precisely controlled light spectra that are useful for inducing various plant responses. Results We have developed a plant lighting system that irradiated a 0.18 m2 area with a highly uniform distribution of photon flux density (PFD. The average photosynthetic PFD (PPFD in the irradiated area was 438 micro-mol m–2 s–1 (coefficient of variation 9.6%, which is appropriate for growing leafy vegetables. The irradiated light includes violet, blue, orange-red, red, and far-red wavelength bands created by LEDs of five types. The PFD and mixing ratio of the five wavelength-band lights are controllable using a computer and drive circuits. The phototropic response of oat coleoptiles was investigated to evaluate plant sensitivity to the light control quality of the lighting system. Oat coleoptiles irradiated for 23 h with a uniformly distributed spectral PFD (SPFD of 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 at every peak wavelength (405, 460, 630, 660, and 735 nm grew almost straight upwards. When they were irradiated with an SPFD gradient of blue light (460 nm peak wavelength, the coleoptiles showed a phototropic curvature in the direction of the greater SPFD of blue light. The greater SPFD gradient induced the greater curvature of coleoptiles. The relation between the phototropic curvature (deg and the blue-light SPFD gradient (micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1 was 2 deg per 1 micro-mol m–2 s–1 nm–1 m–1. Conclusions The plant lighting system, with a computer with a

  8. Photoelectric conversion performances of Mn doped TiO2 under >420 nm visible light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mn doped TiO2 was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of titanium boride and manganese chloride. The doped nano powders were fabricated by adding ammonium water into the mother solution which was obtained hydrothermally. The calcination of precursory powders took place at the temperature of 400–600 °C which resulted in the formation of anatase with a small amount of rutile phase. The shift of valence band maximum (VBM toward the lower binding energies was observed by measuring the position of VBM with reference to the Fermi level, which contributed to the significant red-shift of absorption edges. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurement shows that manganese exists in both 4+ and 3+ valance states, which may have a temperate replacing of Ti4+ because of the charge compensation compared with 2+ and 3+ valence states. The property of photoelectric conversion was detected by evaluating the photocurrent under visible light (>420 nm, and the fluorescence spectra also proved that 6%-Mn doped TiO2 (DM6 shows a better photoelectric conversion performance.

  9. Gadolinium doped tin dioxide nanoparticles:an efficient visible light active photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah M Al-Hamdi; Mika Sillanp; Joydeep Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of phenol with sol-gel prepared rare earth doped tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles was reported. Gadolinium doped tin dioxide (SnO2:Gd) nanoparticles were found to absorb higher visible light compared to lanthanum, neodymium and cerium doped materials that were studied in detail. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol under artificial white light and sunlight in the presence of SnO2:Gd nanoparticles was studied with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), total organic carbon (TOC) measurements and the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Clear correlations be-tween the results obtained from these multiple measurements were found, and a kinetic pathway for the degradation process was pro-posed. Within 150 min of solar irradiation, the TOC of a 10 ppm phenol solution in water was reduced by 95%–99%, thus demon-strating that SnO2:Gd nanoparticles are efficient visible light photocatalysts.

  10. Luminescence and phonon side band analysis of Eu3+-doped lead fluorosilicate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasa, P.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-12-01

    Lead fluorosilicate (SPbKNLFEu) glasses doped with different concentrations of Eu3+ ions have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. The structural and spectroscopic analysis have been carried out by Raman, absorption, excitation, emission, phonon side band (PSB) spectra and decay time measurements. The Judd-Ofelt theory has been used to predict the radiative properties for the emission levels of Eu3+ ions. Local structure around the Eu3+ ions and the phonon energy of SPbKNLFEu glasses have been confirmed on the basis of PSB associated with the 7F0 → 5D2 transition. The decay curves of the 5D0 and 5D1 levels exhibit single exponential nature with a lifetime of 2240 μs and 20 μs, respectively. The multiphonon relaxation rates (Wmp) from the excited levels to the next lower level of Eu3+ ions have been calculated. The higher stimulated emission cross-section and the strong red emission at 613 nm corresponding to the 5D0 → 7F2 transition suggests that the present lead fluorosilicate glasses could be useful for the optical display devices.

  11. Photocatalytic activity of Fe-doped CaTiO₃ under UV-visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, He; Han, Chong; Xue, Xiangxin

    2014-07-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) over Fe-doped CaTiO₃ under UV-visible light was investigated. The as-prepared samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) system, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The results show that the doping with Fe significantly promoted the light absorption ability of CaTiO₃ in the visible light region. The Fe-doped CaTiO₃ exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than CaTiO₃ for the degradation of MB. However, the photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped CaTiO₃ was greatly influenced by the calcination temperature during the preparation process. The Fe-doped CaTiO₃ prepared at 500°C exhibited the best photocatalytic activity, with degradation of almost 100% MB (10ppm) under UV-visible light for 180 min. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Origin of enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of transition-metal (Fe, Cr and Co)-doped CeO2: effect of 3 d orbital splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Li, Dong-Feng; Huang, Wei-Qing; Xu, Liang; Huang, Gui-Fang; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of transition-metal-doped ceria (CeO2) nanomaterials has experimentally been demonstrated, whereas there are very few reports mentioning the mechanism of this behavior. Here, we use first-principles calculations to explore the origin of enhanced photocatalytic performance of CeO2 doped with transition metal impurities (Fe, Cr and Co). When a transition metal atom substitutes a Ce atom into CeO2, t 2g and e g levels of 3 d orbits appear in the middle of band gap owing to the effect of cubic ligand field, and the former is higher than latter. Interestingly, t 2g subset of FeCe (CoCe and CrCe)-Vo-CeO2 splits into two parts: one merges into the conduction band, the other as well as e g will remain in the gap, because O vacancy defect adjacent to transition metal atom will break the symmetry of cubic ligand field. These e g and t 2g levels in the band gap are beneficial for absorbing visible-light and enhancing quantum efficiency because of forbidden transition, which is one key factor for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. The band gap narrowing also leads to a redshift of optical absorbance and high photoactivity. These findings can rationalize the available experimental results and provide some new insights for designing CeO2-based photocatalysts with high photocatalytic performance.

  13. First-principles investigation of impurity concentration influence on bonding behavior, electronic structure and visible light absorption for Mn-doped BiOCl photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaochao; Zhao Lijun [Institute of Clean Technique for Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Fan Caimei, E-mail: fancm@163.com [Institute of Clean Technique for Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liang Zhenhai [Institute of Clean Technique for Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Han Peide [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2012-11-01

    We performed first-principles calculation to investigate the bonding behavior, electronic structure and visible light absorption of Mn{sub x}Bi{sub 1-x}OCl (x=0, 0.0625, 0.09375 and 0.125) using density functional theory (DFT) within a plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme. The relaxed structural parameters are consistent with the experimental results. The bonding behavior, bond orders, Mulliken charges and bond populations as well as formation energies are obtained. The calculated band structures and density of states show that Mn incorporation results in some impurity energy levels of Mn 3d states in forbidden band as well as valence band and conduction band, and that Mn 3d states, for the modest Mn doping concentration, not only can act as the capture center of excited electrons under longer wavelength light irradiation, but also may trap the photo-excited holes, improving the transfer of photo-excited carriers to the reactive sites. Our calculated optical absorption spectra exhibit that the spectral absorption edge is obviously red-shifted and extends to the visible, red and infrared light region due to the incorporation of Mn. Our calculated absorption spectra are in excellent agreement with the experimental results of Mn-doped BiOCl photocatalyst.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of micro-band boron-doped diamond electrode for an application in adenosine phosphates sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayikaputri, P. U.; Gunlazuardi, J.; Ivandini, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    Micro-band electrode was successfully fabricated by lamination method through sealing a piece of boron-doped diamond film inside a sandwich of two insulating plates, namely Teflon and silicon rubber as the gaskets. Characterization was performed using Raman and XPS spectra of the BDD film, while the fabricated micro-band was characterized by analyzing its SEM image. The electrode was examined for cyclic voltammetry of adenosine triphosphate solution, where an oxidation peak at +0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl can be observed. The influence of scan rate and pH was also studied, in which pH 2 was selected as the optimum pH. The diffusion coefficient of 0.1 mM ATP at micro-band electrode was 3.84 x 10-8 m2/s, while the effective surface of the micro-band BDD electrode was 8.72 x 10-14 m2.

  15. Photodarkening of Infrared Irradiated Yb3+-Doped Alumino-Silicate Glasses: Effect on UV Absorption Bands and Fluorescence Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Gebavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The photodarkening phenomenon in alumino-silicate glass preforms, doped with different ytterbium concentrations, was studied. The UV band, comprised between 180 and 350 nm, was examined before and after irradiation at 976 nm. The non-linear dependence of 240 nm band with concentration after infra-red irradiation was demonstrated and ascribed predominantly to Yb3+ pair’s interaction. The emission spectrum after the excitation in UV spectral region showed increased intensity after photodarkening, probably due to Yb2+ ions creation. Phenomenological photodarkening model and the possible existence of several defect types are presented.

  16. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT ERBIUM DOPED FIBER BASED CODIRECTIONALLY PUMPED WDMSYSTEMS OPERATING IN OPTICAL WIDE-BAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICKY ANTHONY

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, simulation studies for different types of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA based codirectionally pumped systems, operating in C and L band have been analyzed for wave division multiplexing (WDM, which is in accordance with ITU standards. The natural gain and noise figure (NF for variable pump powers at 0.03W, 0.06W, 0.12W, 0.18W and 0.24W were obtained. A comparative study of these fiberamplifiers using a figure of merit (FOM, in terms of gain uniformity in the given optical band was discussed.

  17. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dye under visible light on mesoporous microspheres by defects in manganese- and nitrogen-co-doped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lu; Jiang, Heng; Zou, Mingming; Xiong, Fengqiang; Ganeshraja, Ayyakannu Sundaram; Pervaiz, Erum; Liu, Yinan; Zou, Shunying; Yang, Minghui

    2016-09-01

    Manganese- and nitrogen-co-doped mesoporous TiO2 microsphere photocatalysts are prepared by a simple sol-gel method with controllable sizes in the range of 400-500 nm and high surface area of 112 m2 g-1. Manganous acetate is the Mn source, and ammonia gas is the nitrogen source used. The dopants are found to be uniformly distributed in the TiO2 matrix. Interestingly, in (Mn,N)-co-doped TiO2, we observe an effective indirect band gap of 2.58 eV. (Mn,N)-co-doped mesoporous TiO2 microspheres show higher photocatalytic activity than Mn-TiO2 microspheres under visible light irradiation. Among the samples reported in this work, 0.2 at.% Mn doping and 500 °C 2-h nitriding condition give the highest photocatalytic activity. The observed photocatalytic activity in the (Mn,N)-co-doped TiO2 is attributed to the contribution from improved absorption due to trap levels of Mn, oxygen vacancies and N doping.

  18. Effect of nitrogen doping on the microstructure and visible light photocatalysis of titanate nanotubes by a facile cohydrothermal synthesis via urea treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng-Ching; Hsu, Tzu-Chien; Lu, Shan-Yu

    2013-09-01

    A facile one-step cohydrothermal synthesis via urea treatment has been adopted to prepare a series of nitrogen-doped titanate nanotubes with highly efficient visible light photocatalysis of rhodamine B, in an effect to identify the effect of nitrogen doping on the photodegradation efficiency. The morphology and microstructure of the thus-prepared N-doped titanates were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. With increasing urea loadings, the N-doped titanates change from a porous multi-layer and nanotube-shaped to a dense and aggregated particle-shaped structure, accompanied with reduced specific surface area and pore volume and enhanced pore diameter. Interstitial linkage to titanate via Tisbnd Osbnd N and Tisbnd Nsbnd O is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Factors governing the photocatalytic degradation such as the specific surface area of the catalyst and the degradation pathway are analyzed, a mechanistic illustration on the photodegradation is provided, and a 3-stage degradation mechanism is identified. The synergistic contribution due to the enhanced deethylation and chromophore cleavage on rhodamine B molecules and the reduced band gap on the catalyst TiO2 by interstitial nitrogen-doping has been accounted for the high photodegradation efficiency of the N-doped titanate nanotubes.

  19. Synergetic effects of lanthanum, nitrogen and phosphorus tri-doping on visible- light photoactivity of TiO2 fabricated by microwave-hydrothermal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜洪泉; 刘彦铎; 李井申; 王海燕

    2016-01-01

    Effects of La, N, and P doping on the structural, electronic and optical properties of TiO2 synthesized from TiCl4 hydroly-sis via a microwave-hydrothermal process were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorp-tion-desorption isotherm, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, photoelectrochemical measurements, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the presence of La in the tri-doped TiO2 played a predominant role in inhibiting the recombination of the photogenerated electrons and holes. The existence of the substitutional N, interstitial N, and oxygen vacancies in TiO2 lattices led to the band gap narrowing. It was P-doping rather than La or N doping that played a key role in inhibiting both anatase-to-rutile phase transformation and crystal growth, in stabilizing the mesoporous textural properties, and in increasing the content of surface bridging hydroxyl. Moreover, the tri-doping significantly en-hanced the surface Ti4+−O2−−Ti4+−O−• species.All above-mentioned factors cooperated to result in the enhanced photoactivity of the tri-doped TiO2. As a result, it exhibited the highest photoactivity towards the degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under visible-light irradiation among all samples, whichwas much superior to commercial P25 TiO2.

  20. Tuning near-gap electronic structure, interface charge transfer and visible light response of hybrid doped graphene and Ag3PO4 composite: Dopant effects

    CERN Document Server

    He, Chao-Ni; Xu, Liang; Yang, Yin-Cai; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Huang, Gui-Fang; Peng, P; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The enhanced photocatalytic performance of doped graphene(GR)/semiconductor nanocomposites have recently been widely observed, but an understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind it is still out of reach. As a model system to study the effect of dopants, we investigate the electronic structures and optical properites of doped GR/Ag3PO4 nanocomposites using the first-principles calculations, demonstrating that the band gap, near-gap electronic structure and interface charge transfer of the doped GR/Ag3PO4(100) composite can be tuned by the dopants. Interestingly, the doping atom and C atoms bonded to dopant become active sites for photocatalysis because they are positively or negatively charged due to the charge redistribution caused by interaction. The dopants can enhance the visible light absorption and photoinduced electrons transfer. We propose that the N atom may be most appropriate doping for the GR/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst. This work can rationalize the available experimental results about N-doped GR-s...

  1. Lanthanum and boron co-doped BiVO4 with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for degradation of methyl orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 车寅生; 牛超; 党明岩; 董多

    2013-01-01

    BiVO4 photocatalysts co-doped with La and B were prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as chelate. The samples were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Bru-mauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and the photocatalytic activity was investigated by photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO). The results showed that boron and lanthanum ions incorporated into the lattice of BiVO4, and co-doping led to more surface oxygen vacancies, high specific surface areas, small crystallite size, narrow band gap and intense light absorbance in visible region. And the doped La(III) ions could help the separation of photogenerated electrons. Com-pared with BiVO4 and B-BiVO4, the photocatalytic activity of La-B co-doped BiVO4 was remarkably improved due to the synergistic effects of the co-doped ions. The degradation rate of MO in 60 min was 98.4%when La doping content was 0.05 mol.%, which was much higher than that of pure BiVO4(20%) and B-BiVO4(37%).

  2. Effect of nitrogen doping on the microstructure and visible light photocatalysis of titanate nanotubes by a facile cohydrothermal synthesis via urea treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Cheng-Ching; Hsu, Tzu-Chien, E-mail: tjhsu@facmail.nsysu.edu.tw; Lu, Shan-Yu

    2013-09-01

    A facile one-step cohydrothermal synthesis via urea treatment has been adopted to prepare a series of nitrogen-doped titanate nanotubes with highly efficient visible light photocatalysis of rhodamine B, in an effect to identify the effect of nitrogen doping on the photodegradation efficiency. The morphology and microstructure of the thus-prepared N-doped titanates were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. With increasing urea loadings, the N-doped titanates change from a porous multi-layer and nanotube-shaped to a dense and aggregated particle-shaped structure, accompanied with reduced specific surface area and pore volume and enhanced pore diameter. Interstitial linkage to titanate via Ti-O-N and Ti-N-O is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Factors governing the photocatalytic degradation such as the specific surface area of the catalyst and the degradation pathway are analyzed, a mechanistic illustration on the photodegradation is provided, and a 3-stage degradation mechanism is identified. The synergistic contribution due to the enhanced deethylation and chromophore cleavage on rhodamine B molecules and the reduced band gap on the catalyst TiO{sub 2} by interstitial nitrogen-doping has been accounted for the high photodegradation efficiency of the N-doped titanate nanotubes.

  3. A novel visible-light Nd-doped CdTe photocatalyst for degradation of Reactive Red 43:Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Younes HANIFEHPOUR; Nazanin HAMNABARD; Bamin KHOMAMI; Sang Woo JOO; Bong-Ki MIN; Jae Hak JUNG

    2016-01-01

    Novel high-efficiency visible-light-sensitive Nd-doped CdTe nanoparticles were prepared with various doping concentra-tions of neodymium ion by a facile hydrothermal method. The reaction products were analyzed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-Vis diffuse re-flectance spectroscopy techniques. Red shift was seen in the absorption band edge peak in the UV-Vis absorbance spectrum with in-creasing Nd content. The XRD and XPS results confirmed that Nd ions successfully replaced Cd atoms and were incorporated into the crystal lattice of CdTe. SEM and TEM images indicated spherical structure and high crystallinity. Even at a very low Nd/CdTe molar ratio of 2 mol.%, Nd doping could greatly enhance the photocatalytic activity of CdTe. The photocatalytic activity of Nd-doped CdTe nanoparticles was evaluated by monitoring the decolorization of RRed 43 in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The color removal efficiency of Nd0.08Cd0.92Te and pure CdTe were 83.14% and 14.32% after 100 min of treatment, respectively. Among different amounts of the doping agent, 8 mol.% Nd indicated the highest decolorization. The presence of radical scavengers such as Cl−, CO32−, SO42−, and buthanol was found to reduce the decolorization efficiency.

  4. Mechanochemical Synthesis of Visible-light Induced Photocatalyst with Nitrogen and Carbon Doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen and/or carbon doped titania photocatalysts were prepared by a novel mechanochemical method. The prepared powders possessed two absorption edges around 400 and 540 nm wavelengths and showed excellent photocatalytic ability for nitrogen monoxide oxidation under visible light irradiation. Under the irradiation of visible light of wavelength >510 nm, 37% of nitrogen monoxide could be continuously removed by the carbon and nitrogen co-doped titania prepared by planetary ball milling of P-25 titania-10% hexamethylenetetramine mixture followed by calcination in air at 400 ℃.

  5. THE BAND STRUCTURE AND WORK FUNCTION OF TRANSPARENT CONDUCTING ALUMINUM AND MANGANESE CO-DOPED ZINC OXIDE FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.T. Cao; Z.L. Pei; X.B. Zhang; J. Gong; C. Sun; L.S. Wen

    2005-01-01

    Al and Mn co-doped-ZnO films have been prepared at room temperature by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The optical absorption coefficient, apparent and fundamental band gap, and work function of the films have been investigated using optical spectroscopy, band structure analyses and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). ZnO films have direct allowed transition band structure, which has been confirmed by the character of the optical absorption coefficient. The apparent band gap has been found directly proportional to N2/3, showing that the effect of Burstein-Moss shift on the band gap variations dominates over the many-body effect. With only standard cleaning protocols, the work function of ZnO: (Al, Mn) and ZnO: Al films have been measured to be 4.26 and 4.21eV, respectively. The incorporation of Mn element into the matrix of ZnO, as a relatively deep donor, can remove some electrons from the conduction band and deplete the density of occupied states at the Fermi energy, which causes a loss in measured photoemission intensity and an increase in the surface work function. Based on the band gap and work function results, the energy band diagram of the ZnO: (Al, Mn)film near its surface is also given.

  6. Low-Temperature Preparation of Ag-Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays, DFT Study, and Application to Light-Emitting Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Zhang, Jie; Tugsuz, Tugba; Ciofini, Ilaria; Labat, Frédéric; Viana, Bruno

    2015-06-10

    Doping ZnO nanowires (NWs) by group IB elements is an important challenge for integrating nanostructures into functional devices with better and tuned performances. The growth of Ag-doped ZnO NWs by electrodeposition at 90 °C using a chloride bath and molecular oxygen precursor is reported. Ag acts as an electrocatalyst for the deposition and influences the nucleation and growth of the structures. The silver atomic concentration in the wires is controlled by the additive concentration in the deposition bath and a content up to 3.7 atomic % is reported. XRD analysis shows that the integration of silver enlarges the lattice parameters of ZnO. The optical measurements also show that the direct optical bandgap of ZnO is reduced by silver doping. The bandgap shift and lattice expansion are explained by first principle calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) on the silver impurity integration as an interstitial (Ag(i)) and as a substitute of zinc atom (Ag(Zn)) in the crystal lattice. They notably indicate that Ag(Zn) doping forms an impurity band because of Ag 4d and O 2p orbital interactions, shifting the Fermi level toward the valence band. At least, Ag-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanowire arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN(001) substrate. The heterostructure has been inserted in a light emitting device. UV-blue light emission has been achieved with a low emission threshold of 5 V and a tunable red-shifted emission spectrum related to the bandgap reduction induced by silver doping of the ZnO emitter material.

  7. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Dioxide and Evaluation of Its Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Qian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized from nanotube titanic acid (denoted as NTA; molecular formula H2Ti2O5·H2O precursor via a hydrothermal route in ammonia solution. As-synthesized N-doped TiO2 catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. It was found that nanotube ammonium titanate (NAT was produced as an intermediate during the preparation of N-doped TiO2 from NTA, as evidenced by the N1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic peak of NH4 + at 401.7 eV. The catalyst showed much higher activities to the degradation of methylene blue and p-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation than Degussa P25. This could be attributed to the enhanced absorption of N-doped TiO2 in visible light region associated with the formation of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies and the inhibition of recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pair by doped nitrogen.

  8. Preparation, Characterization and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Nitrogen-doped TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhengpeng; GONG Wenqi; HONG Xiaoting; CAI Weimin; JIANG Juhui; ZHOU Baoxue

    2006-01-01

    The N- doped TiO2 polycrystalline powder was synthesized through calcining the hydrolysis product of tetra-butyl titanate with ammonia. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 powder with anatase phase calcined at 400 ℃ was 2.7 times higher than that of Degussa P25 for phenol decomposition under visible light. All samples had mesoporous structures. X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy corfirmed that a trace amount of N atoms remained in the anatase polycrystalline TiO2 powder when calcined at 400 ℃ as substitutional atoms at the oxygen sites. UV-Vis and EPR analyses indicated that oxygen vacancy states were created during the course of N-doped TiO2 powder formation. It is considered that substitutional N atoms, oxygen vacancy states, large BET surface areas and mesoporous structure are important factors for the N-doped photocatalyst to present a high vis-activity.

  9. A versatile new method for synthesis and deposition of doped, visible light-activated TiO2 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In, Su-il; Kean, A.H.; Orlov, A.

    2009-01-01

    A flexible and widely applicable method allows the deposition of carbon-doped visible light-activated photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on a variety of substrates.......A flexible and widely applicable method allows the deposition of carbon-doped visible light-activated photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on a variety of substrates....

  10. Facile synthesis of phosphorus doped graphitic carbon nitride polymers with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ligang [Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Xiufang; Guan, Jing; Jiang, Yijun; Hou, Tonggang [Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Mu, Xindong, E-mail: muxd@qibebt.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Biobased Materials, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • P-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} has been prepared by a one-pot green synthetic approach. • The incorporation of P resulted in favorable textural and electronic properties. • Doping with P enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • A postannealing treatment further enhanced the activity of P-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Photogenerated holes were the main species responsible for the activity. - Abstract: Phosphorus-doped carbon nitride materials were prepared by a one-pot green synthetic approach using dicyandiamide monomer and a phosphorus containing ionic liquid as precursors. The as-prepared materials were subjected to several characterizations and investigated as metal-free photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants (dyes like Rhodamine B, Methyl orange) in aqueous solution under visible light. Results revealed that phosphorus-doped carbon nitride have a higher photocatalytic activity for decomposing Rhodamine B and Methyl orange in aqueous solution than undoped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which was attributed to the favorable textural, optical and electronic properties caused by doping with phosphorus heteroatoms into carbon nitride host. A facile postannealing treatment further improved the activity of the photocatalytic system, due to the higher surface area and smaller structural size in the postcalcined catalysts. The phosphorus-doped carbon nitride showed high visible-light photocatalytic activity, making them promising materials for a wide range of potential applications in photochemistry.

  11. Enhancing visible light photocatalytic and photocharge separation of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} plate via dramatic I{sup −} ions doping effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Lei [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000, Anhui (China); Cao, Jing [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000, Anhui (China); Anhui Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Functional Composite, Huaibei, 235000, Anhui (China); Lin, Haili, E-mail: linhaili@mail.ipc.ac.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000, Anhui (China); Guo, Xiaomin; Zhang, Meiyu [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000, Anhui (China); Chen, Shifu, E-mail: chshifu@chnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, 235000, Anhui (China); College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Anhui Science and Technology University, Fengyang, 233100, Anhui (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Novel I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was prepared by a facile chemical precipitation method. • I{sup −} ions impurity level located on the top of valence band of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • I{sup −} ions doping largely improved photocatalytic activity of I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} displayed excellent photocharge separation efficiency. - Abstract: Novel I{sup −} ions doped (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} (I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via a facile chemical precipitation method. Under visible light (λ > 400 nm), I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} displayed much higher activity for rhodamine B and dichlorophenol degradation than the undoped (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The pseudo-first-order rate constant k{sub app} of RhB degradation over 15.0% I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was 0.54 h{sup −1}, which is 11.3 times higher than that of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The doped I{sup −} ions formed an impurity level on the top of valence band of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and induced much more visible light to be absorbed. The enhanced photocurrent and surface photovoltage properties were detected, which strongly ensures the efficient separation of electrons and holes in I-(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} system under visible light. It provides a facile way to improve the photocatalytic activity of the wide-band-gap (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} via intense doping effect of I{sup −} ions.

  12. Wideband electromagnetic wave absorber using doped barium hexaferrite in Ku-band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrani, Masoud Kavosh, E-mail: m_kavosh@mut-es.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Malek-ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Ali [Department of Material Engineering, Malek-ashtar University of Technology, Shahin Shahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Mahmood; Alam, Reza Shams [Department of Physics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-18

    Highlights: > Substituted barium hexaferrite BaMg{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 1.0}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19} was prepared in powder configuration by solid state reaction. > The results exhibit a wideband single-layer microwave absorber with a satisfactory reflection loss throughout Ku-band. > The composite specimens for measurement of microwave absorber properties were prepared by mixing doped barium ferrite and PVC with a concentration of 70:30 by weight. > The bandwidth that can be achieved by utilization of this sample is 4.5 GHz. Minimum reflection loss of -34 dB can be obtained by sample '(e)'. - Abstract: Substituted barium hexaferrite BaMg{sub 0.25}Mn{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 1.0}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19} was prepared in powder configuration by solid state reaction. The ferrite powders were mixed with polyvinylcloride (PVC) plasticizer to fabricate a microwave absorbing composite. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and vector network analyzer were employed to characterize phase identification coupled with size and morphology of powder and microwave absorption properties of synthesized composites. It was found that the maximum reflection loss of -40 dB was appeared at frequency range of 12-18 GHz. In the present work, new cation substitutions in iron sites in the crystal lattice of barium ferrite, which can easily tune the bandwidth of the reflection loss, were used. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which displays the wideband absorber by employing single layer hexaferrite backed on the surface of copper.

  13. Red-light emission induced by Mn-doped magnesium fluorogermanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiabei; Li, Hao-Bo; Yuan, Linlin; Wang, Changhong; Cheng, Yahui; Wang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Feng; Li, Lan; Wang, Weichao; Liu, Hui

    2015-12-01

    As a potential red-light source in the white light emitting diodes (LEDs), Mn-doped magnesium fluorogermanate (Mg28Ge7.5O38F10) are investigated by the first principles calculation with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) functional. The results demonstrate that the neutral Mn substitutions at the Mg (Mn{{}\\text{Mg}} ), octahedral Ge (Mn{{}\\text{Ge≤ft(\\text{oct}\\right)}} ) and tetrahedral Ge (Mn{{}\\text{Ge≤ft(\\text{tet}\\right)}} ) sites are all energetically favorable. However, only Mn{{}\\text{Mg}} could create proper transition levels leading to the experimentally observed red-light emission under near ultra-violet (UV) excitation. Our results provide fundamental understanding of the Mn defects behavior and the corresponding red-light emission in Mn-doped magnesium fluorogermanate.

  14. Solvothermal synthesis of carbon coated N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanostructures with enhanced visible light catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xuemin, E-mail: yanzhangmm2002@163.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China); Kang Jialing; Gao Lin; Xiong Lin; Mei Ping [College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitosan was used as carbon and nitrogen resource to modify TiO{sub 2} nanostructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposites with mesostructure were obtained by one-step solvothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon species were modified on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen was doped into the anatase titania lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CTS-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites show superior visible light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Visible light-active carbon coated N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanostructures(CTS-TiO{sub 2}) were prepared by a facile one-step solvothermal method with chitosan as carbon and nitrogen resource at 180 Degree-Sign C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The CTS-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites possess anatase phase of nanocrystalline structure with average particle size of about 5-7 nm. A wormhole mesostructure can be observed in the CTS-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites due to the constituent agglomerated of nanoparticles. It has been evidenced that the nitrogen was doped into the anatase titania lattice and the carbon species were modified on the surface of TiO{sub 2}. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation at {lambda} {>=} 400 nm. The results show that CTS-TiO{sub 2} nanostructures display a higher visible light photocatalytic activity than pure TiO{sub 2}, commercial P25 and C-coated TiO{sub 2} (C-TiO{sub 2}) photocatalysts. The higher photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the band-gap narrowed by N-doping and the accelerated separation of the photo-generated electrons

  15. Excitation of Light-Induced Acoustic Waves in Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The phenomena of acoustic emission in doped lithium niobate crystals were observed in the process of light-induced quasi-breakdown. It is found that the ultrasonic waves introduce into the crystal have been modulated by the low frequency acoustic waves. Its frequency increases with the rise of the intensity of incident light and its jump period of breakdown is the same as that of the photovoltaic current Ic, the change of light-induced refractive index Δn and the diffracted light intensity L. This effect was explained with the interaction of the three waves and resonant state theory. The experimental results and the theoretical analysis are in conformity.

  16. Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 doping with N-rich melamine produced a stable, active and visible light sentisized nanocatalyst that showed a remarkable efficiency towards the photobleaching of a model compound – methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The photobleaching followed a mixed reaction order ki...

  17. Light output and energy resolution of Ce sup 3 sup + -doped scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Dorenbos, P

    2002-01-01

    The systematic trends regarding wavelength of emission, maximum obtainable scintillation light output, gamma-ray energy resolution, and scintillation decay time of Ce sup 3 sup + -doped fluorides, chlorides, bromides, iodides, oxides, sulfides, and selenides are reviewed. Theoretical limits will be compared with actually achieved values. The relation between energy resolution and non-proportional response of scintillators will be discussed.

  18. Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 doping with N-rich melamine produced a stable, active and visible light sentisized nanocatalyst that showed a remarkable efficiency towards the photobleaching of a model compound – methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The photobleaching followed a mixed reaction order ki...

  19. A compact Ⅰ-Ⅴ model for lightly-doped-drain MOSFETs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chun-Li; Yang Lin-An; Hao Yue

    2004-01-01

    A novel model for lightly-doped-drain (LDD) MOSFETs is proposed, which utilizes the empirical hyperbolic tangent function to describe the Ⅰ-Ⅴcharacteristics. The model includes the strong inversion and subthreshold mechanism, and shows a good prediction for submicron LDD MOSFET. Moreover, the model requires low computation time consumption and is suitable for design of MOSFETs devices and circuits.

  20. Light-Induced Domain Inversion in Mg-Doped near Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-De; KONG Yong-Fa; HU Qian; WU Ri-Wen; WANG Wen-Jie; LI Xiao-Chun; CHEN Shao-Lin; LIU Shi-Guo; XU Jing-Jun

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the influence of visible light on domain inversion in Mg-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals and find that the switching electric field decreases about 70% above a threshold light intensity. This effect helps us optically control domain switching and produce bulk domain structures on the micrometre scale. Finally, we introduce a model of photo-induced carriers to explain the origin of the reduction of switching electric field.

  1. Investigation of the scintillation light from liquid argon doped with xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerskjöld, Maxim; Lindblad, Thomas; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Székely, Géza

    1993-11-01

    The scintillation light induced by 241Am 5.5 MeV α- particles in liquid argon doped with about 2% xenon detected with a fused silica UV photomultiplier tube is investigated. The pulse-height spectrum, the anode pulse shape and the attenuation of the light output are measured. The latter measurement was the main task of the present investigation and an effective half-length of more than 35 mm was found.

  2. Efficient light amplification in low gain materials due to a photonic band edge effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondič, L; Pelant, I

    2012-03-26

    One of the possibilities of increasing optical gain of a light emitting source is by embedding it into a photonic crystal (PhC). If the properties of the PhC are tuned so that the emission wavelength of the light source with gain falls close to the photonic band edge of the PhC, then due to low group velocity of the light modes near the band edge caused by many multiple reflections of light on the photonic structure, the stimulated emission can be significantly enhanced. Here, we perform simulation of the photonic band edge effect on the light intensity of spectrally broad source interacting with a diamond PhC with low optical gain. We show that even for the case of low gain, up to 10-fold increase of light intensity output can be obtained for the two-dimensional PhC consisting of only 19 periodic layers of infinitely high diamond rods ordered into a square lattice. Moreover, considering the experimentally feasible structure composed of diamond rods of finite height - PhC slab - we show that the gain enhancement, even if reduced compared to the ideal case of infinite rods, still remains relatively high. For this particular structure, we show that up to 3.5-fold enhancement of light intensity can be achieved.

  3. Visible light-induced N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of microcystin-LR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    N-doped nano-crystalline TiO2 powders have been synthesized by the sol-gel method.The shape and crystal structure of the resulting N-doped TiO2 were investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS),X-ray spectroscopy (XRD),Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis reflection spectrum.The results showed that doping TiO2 with nitrogen can lower its band gap and apparently shift its optical response to the visible region.Under the visible light (λ> 420 nm) irradiation,the MC-LR was degraded by the synthesized N-TiO2 nano-material.The variation of MC-LR amount and its intermediates were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and LC-MS,respectively.The mineralization of MC-LR was determined by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis.Simultaneously,transient oxidative species generated during photocatalysis were tracked by electron spin resonance (ESR) and Peroxidase method.All these results indicated that visible-light excited N-TiO2 can activate molecular oxygen and thereby achieve degradation of MC-LR completely within 14 h.The removal of 59% of TOC was achieved after 20 h irradiation.The major oxidative species in the system were hydroxyl radical (·OH) and H2O2.13 Kinds of intermediates were primarily identified in the process.Based on these results,a reasonable conclusion was drawn for the degradation of MC-LR wherein its four positions are easy to be attacked by the photo-generated OH radical followed by the hydrolyzation of peptides.

  4. Statistical comparisons of data on band-gap narrowing in heavily doped silicon - Electrical and optical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, H. S.; Wilson, C. L.

    1984-05-01

    A system of subroutines for iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLS) computations has been applied to the published measured and theoretical data on band-gap narrowing in heavily doped silicon. The data include electrical and optical measurements at room temperature, photoluminescence and optical measurements for temperatures below 35 K, and theoretical calculations at 300 and 0 K. The IRLS procedure allows a clear graphical comparison of the various experimental and theoretical data in band-gap narrowing to be made. The results are (1) band-gap changes determined by the optical absorption are consistent at both 300 K and at temperatures below 35 K with recent theoretical calculations, (2) the electrical and optical measurements are not consistent with each other, and (3) the low temperature optical absorption data and the photoluminescence data are not consistent with each other.

  5. Band structure of TiO sub 2 -doped yttria-stabilized zirconia probed by soft-x-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Higuchi, T; Kobayashi, K; Yamaguchi, S; Fukushima, A; Shin, S

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structure of TiO sub 2 -doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been studied by soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The valence band is mainly composed of the O 2p state. The O 1s XAS spectrum exhibits the existence of the Ti 3d unoccupied state under the Zr 4d conduction band. The intensity of the Ti 3d unoccupied state increases with increasing TiO sub 2 concentration. The energy separation between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the Ti 3d unoccupied state is in accord with the energy gap, as expected from dc-polarization and total conductivity measurements. (author)

  6. Light-Driven Preparation, Microstructure, and Visible-Light Photocatalytic Property of Porous Carbon-Doped TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xin Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous carbon-doped TiO2 (C-TiO2 has been prepared, for the first time, through a light-driven approach using crystalline titanium glycolate (TG as the single-source precursor. Although the nonthermally prepared porous C-TiO2 is amorphous, it shows a remarkable visible-light photocatalytic activity higher than that of nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2 due to its significant surface area (530 m2/g and pore-rich structure. X-ray photoelectron, electron paramagnetic resonance, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy reveal that the as-prepared porous C-TiO2 photocatalyst contains Ti–O–C bonds which result in visible-light absorption of the material at wavelengths less than 550 nm. Furthermore, it is discovered that the Ti–O–C bonds in the as-prepared C-TiO2 is easily transformed to coke-type species under mild thermal treatment (200°C. The resulting coke-containing porous TiO2 is an even better visible-light photocatalyst, almost twice as effective as N-TiO2, because of its stronger visible-light absorption. The Ti–O–C and the coke-containing porous TiO2 materials follow two different mechanisms in the visible-light photocatalysis process for degradation of methylene blue.

  7. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B over phosphorus doped graphitic carbon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Bo; Yan, Juntao; Wang, Chunlei; Ren, Zhandong; Zhu, Yuchan

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus doped graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was easily synthesized using ammonium hexafluorophosphate (NH4PF6) as phosphorus source, and ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) as g-C3N4 precursor, through a direct thermal co-polycondensation procedure. The obtained phosphorus doped g-C3N4 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra (UV-DRS), photoelectrochemical measurement and photoluminescence spectra (PL). The photocatalytic activities of phosphorus doped g-C3N4 samples were evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) solution under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the phosphorus doped g-C3N4 had a superior photocatalytic activity than that of pristine g-C3N4, attributing to the phosphorus atoms substituting carbon atoms of g-C3N4 frameworks to result in light harvesting enhancement and delocalized π-conjugated system of this copolymer, beneficial for the increase of photocatalytic performance. The photoelectrochemical measurements also verified that the charge carrier separation efficiency was promoted by phosphorus doping g-C3N4. Moreover, the tests of radical scavengers demonstrated that the holes (h+) and superoxide radicals (rad O2-) were the main active species for the degradation of RhB.

  8. Doping Evolution and Junction Formation in Stacked Cyanine Dye Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenatsch, Sandra; Wang, Lei; Bulloni, Matia; Véron, Anna C; Ruhstaller, Beat; Altazin, Stéphane; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Cyanine dyes are fluorescent organic salts with intrinsic conductivity for ionic and electronic charges. Recently ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013 , 135 , 18008 - 18011 ), these features have been exploited in cyanine light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). Here, we demonstrate that stacked, constant-voltage driven trimethine cyanine LECs with various counteranions develop a p-i-n junction that is composed of p- and n-doped zones and an intrinsic region where light-emission occurs. We introduce a method that combines spectral photocurrent response measurements with optical modeling and find that at maximum current the intrinsic region is centered at ∼37% away from the anode. Transient capacitance, photoluminescence and attenuance experiments indicate a device situation with a narrow p-doped region, an undoped region that occupies ∼72% of the dye layer thickness and an n-doped region with a maximum doping concentration of 0.08 dopant/cyanine molecule. Finally, we observe that during device relaxation the parent cyanines are not reformed. We ascribe this to irreversible reactions between doped cyanine radicals. For sterically conservative cyanine dyes, this suggests that undesired radical decomposition pathways limit the LEC long-term stability in general.

  9. Tunable dual-band light trapping and absorption enhancement with graphene concentric ring arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Shuyuan; Liu, Yuebo; Han, Xu; Yan, Xicheng

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been intensively studied and widely employed for light trapping and absorption enhancement. In the mid-infrared and terahertz (THz) regime, graphene supports the tunable SPR via manipulating its Fermi energy and enhances light-matter interaction at the selective wavelength. In this paper, a pair of graphene concentric rings has been proposed to introduce tunable dual-band light trapping with good angle polarization tolerance and enhance the absorption in the low light-absorbing efficiency materials nearby to more than one order. Moreover, the design principle here could be set as a template to achieve multi-band plasmonic absorption enhancement by introducing more graphene concentric rings into each unit cell. This work not only opens up new ways of employing graphene SPR, but also leads to practical applications in high-performance simultaneous multi-color photodetection with high efficiency and tunable spectral selectivity.

  10. Improvement of the performance of microwave X band absorbers based on pure and doped Ba-hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyed Afghahi, Seyyed Salman; Jafarian, Mojtaba; Salehi, Mohsen; Atassi, Yomen

    2017-01-01

    Optimum Fe/Ba mole ratio is determined in doped Ba-hexaferrite prepared via mechanical activation. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer are used to analyze phases, structures, electromagnetic and microwave absorption properties. The mole ratio of Fe/Ba=10 is detected to be optimum for doping and synthesizing the Ba-hexaferrite. In order to achieve high absorption in X band the ions of Zr4+-Sn4+-Ti4+-M2+ (M=Mg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+) are used as dopants. The results indicate the formation of single phase Ba-hexaferrite in either pure or doped compounds without any non-magnetic intermediate phases and with spherical and hexagonal morphologies respectively for the pure and doped ferrite. It is found out that BaCo2Zr(SnTi)0.5Fe8O19 compound has the maximum saturation magnetization (49.80 emu/g). Also the composite of BaCo2Zr(SnTi)0.5Fe8O19 50 wt% in epoxy resin exhibits a minimum reflection loss of -29 dB at 12.2 GHz with 2.6 GHz bandwidth.

  11. Solvothermal syntheses of Bi and Zn co-doped TiO2 with enhanced electron-hole separation and efficient photodegradation of gaseous toluene under visible-light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan-Juan; Cai, Song-Cai; Xu, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Chen, Jin; Jia, Hong-Peng; Chen, Jing

    2017-03-05

    This study investigated the effects of Bi doped and Bi-Zn co-doped TiO2 on photodegradation of gaseous toluene. The doped TiO2 with various concentration of metal was prepared using the solvothermal route and characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, BET, DRS, XPS, PL and EPR. Their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation were drastically influenced by the dopant content. The results showed that moderate metal doping levels were obviously beneficial for the toluene degradation, while high doping levels suppressed the photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of toluene over TiBi1.9%O2 and TiBi1.9%Zn1%O2 can reach to 51% and 93%, respectively, which are much higher than 25% of TiO2. Bi doping into TiO2 lattice generates new intermediate energy level of Bi below the CB edge of TiO2. The electron excitation from the VB to Bi orbitals results in the decreased band gap, extended absorption of visible-light and thus enhances its photocatalytic efficiency. Zn doping not only further enhances the absorption in this visible-light region, but also Zn dopant exists as the form of ZnO crystallites located on the interfaces of TiO2 agglomerates and acts as a mediator of interfacial charge transfer to suppress the electron-hole recombination. These synergistic effects are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  12. N-Doped TiO2 Nanobelts with Coexposed (001) and (101) Facets and Their Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuchao; Gao, Peng; Yang, Yurong; Yang, Piaoping; Chen, Yujin; Wang, Yanbo

    2016-07-20

    To narrow the band gap (3.2 eV) of TiO2 and extend its practical applicability under sunlight, the doping with nonmetal elements has been used to tune TiO2 electronic structure. However, the doping also brings new recombination centers among the photoinduced charge carriers, which results in a quantum efficiency loss accordingly. It has been proved that the {101} facets of anatase TiO2 are beneficial to generating and transmitting more reductive electrons to promote the H2-evolution in the photoreduction reaction, and the {001} facets exhibit a higher photoreactivity to accelerate the reaction involved of photogenerated hole. Thus, it was considered by us that using the surface heterojunction composed of both {001} and {101} facets may depress the disadvantage of N doping. Fortunately, we successfully synthesized anatase N-doped TiO2 nanobelts with a surface heterojunction of coexposed (101) and (001) facets. As expected, it realized the charge pairs' spatial separation and showed higher photocatalytic activity under a visible-light ray: a hydrogen generation rate of 670 μmol h(-1) g(-1) (much higher than others reported previously in literature of N-doped TiO2 nanobelts).

  13. Synthesis of Mn-doped ZnS microspheres with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Wang, Peng; Huang, Baibiao; Ma, Xiaojuan; Wang, Gang; Dai, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Qin, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    ZnS microspheres with a series of Mn-doping concentration were synthesized via a facile solvothermal route. The phase structures, morphologies, and chemical states were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The phase structure of the synthesized Mn-ZnS microspheres is hexagonal from the XRD patterns. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra were employed to analyze the absorption properties of the samples. The Mn-doped ZnS exhibited stronger visible light absorption with the increasing of Mn content. Their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by H2 production from water and reducing Cr6+ under visible light irradiation. The as-prepared Mn-doped ZnS exhibited better photocatalytic performance than that of pure ZnS and the optimal doping concentration was 7%. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the expansion of light absorption and the increase in life time of photogenerated carriers.

  14. Visible light active photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A using nitrogen doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, N; Vinu, A; Anandan, S; Arabindoo, Banumathi; Murugesan, V

    2006-08-01

    Nitrogen doped titania was prepared by low temperature sol-gel method using titanium precursor and nitrogen containing bases like triethylamine and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide compounds. The materials were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, XPS, DRS-UV, and FT-IR techniques. DRS-UV study substantially indicates shift of the absorption edge of TiO2 to lower energy region. The phase composition, crystallinity, specific surface area, and visible light activity of nitrogen doped titania depend upon the preparation conditions. Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A in aqueous medium was investigated by TiO2 and nitrogen doped TiO2 under visible light irradiation in a batch photocatalytic reactor. The results indicate higher visible light activity for nitrogen doped TiO2 than commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25) for bisphenol-A degradation. The influence of various parameters such as initial concentration of bisphenol-A, catalyst loading and pH was examined for maximum degradation efficiency.

  15. Discrete Electronic Bands in Semiconductors and Insulators: Potential High-Light-Yield Scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongliang; Du, Mao-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Bulk semiconductors and insulators typically have continuous valence and conduction bands. Here, we show that valence and conduction bands of a multinary semiconductor or insulator can be split to narrow discrete bands separated by large energy gaps. This unique electronic structure is demonstrated by first-principles calculations in several quaternary elpasolite compounds, i.e., Cs2NaInBr6 , Cs2NaBiCl6 , and Tl2NaBiCl6 . The narrow discrete band structure in these quaternary elpasolites is due to the large electronegativity difference among cations and the large nearest-neighbor distances in cation sublattices. We further use Cs2NaInBr6 as an example to show that the narrow bands can stabilize self-trapped and dopant-bound excitons (in which both the electron and the hole are strongly localized in static positions on adjacent sites) and promote strong exciton emission at room temperature. The discrete band structure should further suppress thermalization of hot carriers and may lead to enhanced impact ionization, which is usually considered inefficient in bulk semiconductors and insulators. These characteristics can enable efficient room-temperature light emission in low-gap scintillators and may overcome the light-yield bottleneck in current scintillator research.

  16. Wavelength-Tunable Electroluminescent Light Sources from Individual Ga-Doped ZnO Microwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingming; He, Gaohang; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Zheng, Lingxia; Shan, Chongxin; Shen, Dezhen; Fang, Xiaosheng

    2017-03-07

    Electrically driven wavelength-tunable light emission from biased individual Ga-doped ZnO microwires (ZnO:Ga MWs) is demonstrated. Single crystalline ZnO:Ga MWs with different Ga-doping concentrations have been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition method. Strong electrically driven light emission from individual ZnO:Ga MW based devices is realized with tunable colors, and the emission region is localized toward the center of the wires. Increasing Ga-doping concentration in the MWs can lead to the redshift of electroluminescent emissions in the visible range. Interestingly, owing to the lack of rectification characteristics, relevant electrical measurement results show that the alternating current-driven light emission functions excellently on the ZnO:Ga MWs. Consequently, individual ZnO:Ga MWs, which can be analogous to incandescent sources, offer unique possibilities for future electroluminescence light sources. This typical multicolor emitter can be used to rival and complement other conventional semiconductor devices in displays and lighting.

  17. White Light Emission Through Downconversion of Terbium and Europium Doped CeF3 Nanophosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varun, S; Kalra, Mohit; Gandhi, Mayuri

    2015-09-01

    CeF3 nanophosphors have been extensively investigated in recent years for lighting and numerous bio-applications. Downconversion emissions in CeF3:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) phosphors were studied with the objective of attaining a white light emitting composition, by means of a simple co-precipitation method. The material was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Photoluminescence (PL). Uniformly distributed nanoparticles were obtained with an average particle size range of 8-10 nm. Various studies were undertook utilizing different doping concentrations and respective fluorescence studies were carried out to optimize dopant concentrations while achieving maximum luminescence intensity. From PL results, it was observed that the efficient energy transfers from the donor to the acceptor ions. Different concentrations of Tb(3+), Eu(3+) were doped in order to achieve a white light emitting phosphor for UV-based Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). The nanoparticles showed characteristic emission of respective dopants (Eu(3+), Tb(3+)) when excited at the 4f → 5d transition of Ce(3+). The chromaticity coordinates for CeF3 doped with Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) were calculated and an emission very close to white light was observed.

  18. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of Br-Doped Bismuth Oxide Formate Nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Feng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to enhance the visible light photocatalytic activity of bismuth oxide formate (BiOCOOH nanosheets via Br-doping. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurement. The Br− ions replaced the COOH− ions in the layers of BiOCOOH, result in a decreased layer distance. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared materials was evaluated by removal of NO in qir at ppb level. The results showed that the Br-doped BiOCOOH nanosheets showed enhanced visible light photocatalytic activtiy with a NO removal of 37.8%. The enhanced activity can be ascribed to the increased visible light absorption and the promoted charge separation.

  19. Photocatalytic Degradation of Nox Under Visible Light Irradiation Using Fe-Doped Titanium Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to utilize visible light in photocatalytic conversion of NOx, Fe atoms were doped in commercially available photocatalytic TiO2 powders by impregnating method.The crystal phase of TiO2 was not changed after calcination process. Analysis by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that Fe atoms were incorporated in TiO2 as Ti-O-Fe linkages. One significant shift of the absorption edge to a Iower energy and a higher absorption in the visible light region were observed. The Fe-doped TiO2 powder exhibited photocatalytic activity for the degradation of NOx under visible light irradiation. The sample mixed with 0.2 at% Fe3+ and calcined at 600 ℃ showed the best photocatalytic activity.

  20. Light emission of double-walled carbon nanotube filaments doped with yttrium and europium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU QinKe; WU DeHai; WANG KunLin; WEI JinQuan; ZHU HongWei; LI XinMing; CHEN Xi; JIA Yi; GUI XuChun; XU ErYang

    2009-01-01

    As the potential applications of carbon nanotubes in the field of electroluminescence, elements yttrium and europium were introduced to modify the emission properties of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) to obtain higher efficacy and other properties. The light emission spectrum of the Y-Eu-doped DWNT filament is suppressed in the near-infrared range, while enhanced in the mid-infrared range. The doped DWNT filament can reach higher efficacy than that of the pure DWNT filament at the same input power and can work stably as long as 5000 h at 12 V. These filaments could be useful for the light sources with special functions, such as infrared light sources operated at low input power.

  1. Tunable flat band slow light in reconfigurable photonic crystal waveguides based on magnetic fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Shengli; Wang, Haotian; Wang, Ning;

    2013-01-01

    A kind of two-dimensional photonic crystal line-defect waveguide with 45 -rotated square lattice is proposed to present slow light phenomena. Infiltrating the photonic crystal waveguide with appropriate magnetic fluids can generate very wide flat bands of guided modes, which give rise...

  2. Characterizing the V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Joseph P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Hamuy, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diversity of V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae. Analyzing a sample of 116 supernovae, several magnitude measurements are defined, together with decline rates at different epochs, and time durations of different phases. It is found that magnitude...

  3. Timescale Stretch Parameterization of Type Ia Supernova B-band Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Goldhaber, Gerson; Kim, A; Aldering, G; Astier, Pierre; Conley, A; Deustua, S E; Ellis, R; Fabbro, S; Fruchter, A S; Goobar, A; Hook, I; Irwin, M; Kim, M; Knop, R A; Lidman, C E; McMahon, R; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Panagia, N; Pennypacker, C R; Perlmutter, S; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Schaefer, B; Walton, N A; York, T; Project, The Supernova Cosmology

    2001-01-01

    R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) are fitted in brightness to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w = s(1+z). The data points are then individually aligned in the time-axis, normalized and K-corrected back to the rest frame, after which the nearly 1300 normalized intensity measurements are found to lie on a well-determined common rest-frame B-band curve which we call the ``composite curve''. The same procedure is applied to 18 low-redshift Calan/Tololo SNe with z < 0.11; these nearly 300 B-band photometry points are found to lie on the composite curve equally well. The SCP search technique produces several measurements before maximum light for each supernova. We demonstrate that the linear stretch factor, s, which parameterizes the light-curve timescale appears independent of z,and applies equally well to the declining and rising parts of the light curve. In fact, the B-band template that ...

  4. Mapping H-band Scattered Light Emission in the Mysterious SR21 Transitional Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Follette, K.B.; Tamura, M.; Hashimoto, J.; Whitney, B.; Grady, C.; Close, L.; Andrews, S.M.; Kwon, J.; Wisniewski, J.; Brandt, T.D.; Mayama, S.; Kandori, R.; Dong, R.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Currie, T.; Egner, S.E.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Knapp, G.R.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.; McElwain, M.W.; Matsuo, T.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Moro-Martin, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, E.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Tomono, D.; Turner, E.L.; Watanabe, M.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved images of the circumstellar transitional disk around SR21. These images were obtained with the Subaru HiCIAO camera, adaptive optics, and the polarized differential imaging technique. We resolve the disk in scattered light at H-band for ste

  5. Tri-band color transmission filter for white LED-based visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixia; Gu, Huarong; Tan, Qiaofeng

    2016-10-01

    Visible light communication (VLC) based on light emitting diodes has been regarded as an effective complement to radio frequency signal transmission. The color filter in VLC system plays the pivotal role for boosting signal-noise-ratio. In this paper, a tri-band color transmission filter with bandwidths consisting with LED's 30nm is designed based on guided mode resonance, incorporating a sub-wavelength aluminum grating on slab dielectric waveguide made of titanium dioxide on silica substrate. Parameters of grating structure, including the grating period, duty cycle, grating thickness, and waveguide thickness, are optimized by employing particle swarm optimization toolbox. The far field spectrum is calculated by rigorous coupled-wave analysis to verify the effectiveness of the designed filter. Three center-wavelength of transmission bands are 440nm, 530 and 630 nm. The full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) bandwidths of three bands are about 30nm which consist with LED's bandwidth.

  6. Band gap widening and d{sup 0} ferromagnetism in epitaxial Li-doped SnO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianchun; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Ping, E-mail: Pingwu@tju.edu.cnpingwu

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • The band gap widening is observed in Li-doped SnO{sub 2} films. • All the films are ferromagnetic and the largest saturation magnetization of 7.9 emu/cm{sup 3} has been observed in Sn{sub 0.88}Mg{sub 0.12}O{sub 2}film. • The holes induced by Li replacing Sn enhance the magnetism. • The p–p interaction between the 2p states of the O atom is responsible for the long-range ferromagnetic order. - Abstract: Epitaxial grown Li doped SnO{sub 2} films with room temperature d{sup 0} ferromagnetism were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy give clear evidence of Li presence at both substitutional and interstitial sites. A conversion of conductivity from n-type to p-type was observed as the Li concentration reaches 6 at.%. The band gap of films increased non-montonically with the Li concentration. All the films are ferromagnetic, and the largest saturation magnetization of 7.9 emu/cm{sup 3} is observed in the Sn{sub 0.88}Li{sub 0.12}O{sub 2} film which has the widest band gap. The consistency of the variation between the magnetic, structural, electrical and optical properties indicates that holes introduced by Li substitutions can enhance the ferromagnetism though p–p interaction.

  7. Effect of Al Doping on Optical Band Gap Energy of Al-TiO2 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yo-Seung; Kim, Bae-Yeon; Cho, Nam-Ihn; Lee, Deuk Yong

    2015-07-01

    Al-TiO2 thin films were prepared using a sol-gel derived spin coating by varying the Al/Ti molar ratio from 0 to 0.73 to investigate the effect of Al doping on the optical band gap energy (Eg) of the films. GAXRD results indicated that Al-TiO2 is composed of anatase and FTO phases when the Al/Ti molar ratio was less than 0.18. Above 0.38, no other peaks except FTO were found and transparency of the films was severely deteriorated. Eg of Al-TiO2 decreased from 3.20 eV to 2.07 eV when the Al/Ti ratio was raised from 0 to 0.38. Eg of 2.59 eV was found for the anatase Al-TiO2 films having the Al/Ti ratio of 0.18. The absorption band of Al-TiO2 coatings shifted dramatically from the UV region to the visible region with increasing the amount of Al dopant. The Al doping was mainly attributed to the optical band gap energy of Al-TiO2.

  8. Fabrication of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and investigation of photocatalytic decolorization of reactive red 198 under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Halimeh; Eshaghi, Akbar; Hosseini, Seyed Rahman; Ghani, Kamal

    2016-09-01

    In this research, Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with various Fe concentrations (0. 0.1, 1, 5 and 10wt%) were prepared by a sol-gel method. Then, nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), BET surface area, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the nano-particles was evaluated through degradation of reactive red 198 (RR 198) under UV and visible light irradiations. XRD results revealed that all samples contained only anatase phase. DRS showed that the Fe doping in the titania induced a significant red shift of the absorption edge and then the band gap energy decreased from 3 to 2.1eV. Photocatalytic results indicated that TiO2 had a highest photocatalytic decolorization of the RR 198 under UV irradiation whereas photocatalytic decolorization of the RR 198 under visible irradiation increased in the presence of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Among the samples, Fe-1wt% doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed the highest photocatalytic decolorization of RR198 under visible light irradiation.

  9. Spectrophotometric studies of visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange using phthalocyanine-modified Fe-doped TiO2 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgari, Zohreh; Gharagozlou, Mehrnaz; Khosravi, Alireza; Gharanjig, Kamaladin

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, preparation and visible light induced photocatalytic activity of phthalocyanine-modified Fe-doped TiO(2) nanocrystals (Pc/Fe-TiO(2)) with different Fe doping content (0, 0.05, 0.5 and 3.0 mol% Fe) as photocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange have been reported. The study carried out using XRD, FT-IR, EDX, BET, DRS, UV-Vis, SEM and TEM techniques. Results revealed that modified TiO(2) nanocrystals possessed only the anatase phase with crystal sizes of about 10-23 nm and high surface areas of 2.8-37.3 m(2)/g. It can be seen phthalocyanine and Fe(3+) ion exist in photocatalysts based on analysis of FT-IR and EDX. The doping amount of Fe remarkably affects the activity of modified TiO(2) nanocrystals as catalysts. The 0.5 mol% Fe doping exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in this work. It was found that phthalocyanine and Fe induced a shift in the energy band gap to lower energies, which changes from 3.26 to 2.26 eV for pure TiO(2) and Pc/3% Fe-TiO(2) nanocrystals, respectively. Results of the degradation of methyl orange revealed that modified TiO(2) nanocrystals showed much more photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2) under visible light which makes the applicability of TiO(2) photocatalysts even more versatile.

  10. Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped ZnS with Camellia Brushfield Yellow Nanostructures for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang-Juan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen modified zinc sulfide photocatalysts were successfully prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and surface area analysis. Thermal decomposition of the semisolid was carried out under nitrogen conditions at 500°C for 2 hours, and a series of nitrogen-doped ZnS photocatalysts were produced by controlling inflow flow rate of nitrogen at 15–140 mL/min. Optical characterizations of the synthesized N-doping ZnS substantially show the shifted photoabsorption properties from ultraviolet (UV region to visible light. The band gaps of nitrogen-doped ZnS composite catalysts were calculated to be in the range of 2.58~2.74 eV from the absorptions edge position. The 15N/ZnS catalyst shows the highest photocatalytic activity, which results in 75.7% degradation of Orange II dye in 5 hrs by visible light irradiation, compared with pristine ZnS and higher percentage N-doping ZnS photocatalysts.

  11. Enhancing the Performance of Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes Using Room-Temperature-Processed Ga-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles as the Electron Transport Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Sheng

    2017-04-19

    Colloidal ZnO nanoparticle (NP) films are recognized as efficient electron transport layers (ETLs) for quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) with good stability and high efficiency. However, because of the inherently high work function of such films, spontaneous charge transfer occurs at the QD/ZnO interface in such a QD-LED, thus leading to reduced performance. Here, to improve the QD-LED performance, we prepared Ga-doped ZnO NPs with low work functions and tailored band structures via a room-temperature (RT) solution process without the use of bulky organic ligands. We found that the charge transfer at the interface between the CdSe/ZnS QDs and the doped ZnO NPs was significantly weakened because of the incorporated Ga dopants. Remarkably, the as-assembled QD-LEDs, with Ga-doped ZnO NPs as the ETLs, exhibited superior luminances of up to 44 000 cd/m2 and efficiencies of up to 15 cd/A, placing them among the most efficient red-light QD-LEDs ever reported. This discovery provides a new strategy for fabricating high-performance QD-LEDs by using RT-processed Ga-doped ZnO NPs as the ETLs, which could be generalized to improve the efficiency of other optoelectronic devices.

  12. Self-doped Ti3+-TiO2 as a photocatalyst for the reduction of CO2 into a hydrocarbon fuel under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasan, Koroush; Zuo, Fan; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Pingyun

    2015-08-01

    Self-doped TiO2 shows visible light photocatalytic activity, while commercial TiO2 (P25) is only UV responsive. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap (2.90 eV), leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into a renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH4) in the presence of water vapour under visible light irradiation.Self-doped TiO2 shows visible light photocatalytic activity, while commercial TiO2 (P25) is only UV responsive. The incorporation of Ti3+ into TiO2 structures narrows the band gap (2.90 eV), leading to significantly increased photocatalytic activity for the reduction of CO2 into a renewable hydrocarbon fuel (CH4) in the presence of water vapour under visible light irradiation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XPS, XRD and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02974k

  13. Photo-induced changes of the surface band bending in GaN: Influence of growth technique, doping and polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnerl, Andrea; Pereira, Rui N.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we use conductance and contact potential difference photo-transient data to study the influence of the growth technique, doping, and crystal polarity on the kinetics of photo-generated charges in GaN. We found that the processes, and corresponding time scales, involved in the decay of charge carriers generated at and close to the GaN surface via photo-excitation are notably independent of the growth technique, doping (n- and p-types), and also crystal polarity. Hence, the transfer of photo-generated charges from band states back to surface states proceeds always by hopping via shallow defect states in the space-charge region (SCR) close to the surface. Concerning the charge carrier photo-generation kinetics, we observe considerable differences between samples grown with different techniques. While for GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, the accumulation of photo-conduction electrons results mainly from a combined trapping-hopping process (slow), where photo-generated electrons hop via shallow defect states to the conduction band (CB), in hydride vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy materials, a faster direct process involving electron transfer via CB states is also present. The time scales of both processes are quite insensitive to the doping level and crystal polarity. However, these processes become irrelevant for very high doping levels (both n- and p-types), where the width of the SCR is much smaller than the photon penetration depth, and therefore, most charge carriers are generated outside the SCR.

  14. Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Thorhauge, Morten;

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of TM polarized light in planar photonic crystal waveguide structures, which exhibit photonic band gaps for TE polarized light. Straight and bent photonic crystal waveguides and couplers have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and modelled using a 3...... in a simple photonic crystal coupler with a size of ~ 20 m × 20 m. These promising features may open for the realization of ultra-compact photonic crystal components, which are easily integrated in optical communication networks....

  15. ARTICLES: Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Valerii V.; Dorosh, I. R.; Kuz'minov, Yu S.; Tkachenko, N. V.

    1980-11-01

    Photoinduced light scattering was observed in cerium-doped (SrxBa1-x)1-y(Nb2O6)y crystals having the composition x = 0.61, y = 0.4993. It was found that this effect is due to holographic amplification of light scattered by crystal defects. An analysis is made of static and dynamic characteristics of self-amplification of scattered light in the crystals. A theoretical model of the process is constructed assuming that the hologram recording process is of the diffusion type. Theoretical results are compared with the experiment.

  16. Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, V. V.; Dorosh, I. R.; Kuz'minov, Yu. S.; Tkachenko, N. V.

    Photoinduced light scattering was observed in cerium-doped (Srx Ba1-x)1-y(Nb2O6)y crystals having the composition x = 0.61, y = 0.4993. It was found that this effect is due to holographic amplification of light scattered by crystal defects. An analysis is made of static and dynamic characteristics of self-amplification of scattered light in the crystals. A theoretical model of the process is constructed assuming that the hologram recording process is of the diffusion type. Theoretical results are compared with the experiment.

  17. Improved Carrier Transfer in Red Organic Light Emitting Diodes Doped with Rubrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏宇; 高文宝; 杨开霞; 刘式墉

    2002-01-01

    A red organic light emitting diode doped with rubrene is constructed with the configuration of ITO/NPB/Alq3:rubrene:DCM/Alq3/LiF/Al. In the device, N,N'-bis-(1-naphthl)-N,N:diphenyl-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB) is used as the hole-transporting layer, tris(8-quinolinolato) aluminium (Alq3) as the electron-transporting layer and Alq3 doped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) and 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) as the emitting layer. When the doping concentration of rubrene is 6% and that of DCM is 4%, red purity of the device is improved effectively. The experimental phenomena are explained as the result of the improved carrier transfer from rubrene to DCM.

  18. Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalysis: Ag-Doped TiO2 Catalyst Development and Reactor Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Meier, Anne; Shah, Malay G.; Devor, Robert W.; Surma, Jan M.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Bauer, Brint M.; Mazyck, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the alteration of titanium dioxide to become visible-light-responsive (VLR) has been a major focus in the field of photocatalysis. Currently, bare titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactors to provide adequate levels of ultraviolet light for catalyst activation; these mercury-containing lamps, however, hinder the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. VLR-TiO2 would allow for use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient visible wavelength LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Over the past three years, Kennedy Space Center has developed a VLR Ag-doped TiO2 catalyst with a band gap of 2.72 eV and promising photocatalytic activity. Catalyst immobilization techniques, including incorporation of the catalyst into a sorbent material, were examined. Extensive modeling of a reactor test bed mimicking air duct work with throughput similar to that seen on the International Space Station was completed to determine optimal reactor design. A bench-scale reactor with the novel catalyst and high-efficiency blue LEDs was challenged with several common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in ISS cabin air to evaluate the system's ability to perform high-throughput trace contaminant removal. The ultimate goal for this testing was to determine if the unit would be useful in pre-heat exchanger operations to lessen condensed VOCs in recovered water thus lowering the burden of VOC removal for water purification systems.

  19. Computer vision on color-band resistor and its cost-effective diffuse light source design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Wang, Jeng-Yau

    2016-11-01

    Color-band resistor possessing specular surface is worthy of studying in the area of color image processing and color material recognition. The specular reflection and halo effects appearing in the acquired resistor image will result in the difficulty of color band extraction and recognition. A computer vision system is proposed to detect the resistor orientation, segment the resistor's main body, extract and identify the color bands, as well as recognize the color code sequence and read the resistor value. The effectiveness of reducing the specular reflection and halo effects are confirmed by several cheap covers, e.g., paper bowl, cup, or box inside pasted with white paper combining with a ring-type LED controlled automatically by the detected resistor orientation. The calibration of the microscope used to acquire the resistor image is described and the proper environmental light intensity is suggested. Experiments are evaluated by 200 4-band and 200 5-band resistors comprising 12 colors used on color-band resistors and show the 90% above correct rate of reading resistor. The performances reported by the failed number of horizontal alignment, color band extraction, color identification, as well as color code sequence flip over checking confirm the feasibility of the presented approach.

  20. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of V2O5 Cluster Modified N-Doped TiO2 for Degradation of Toluene in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available V2O5 cluster-modified N-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2/V2O5 nanocomposites photocatalyst was prepared by a facile impregnation-calcination method. The effects of V2O5 cluster loading content on visible light photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared samples were investigated for degradation of toluene in air. The results showed that the visible light activity of N-doped TiO2 was significantly enhanced by loading V2O5 clusters. The optimal V2O5 loading content was found to be 0.5 wt.%, reaching a removal ratio of 52.4% and a rate constant of 0.027 min−1, far exceeding that of unmodified N-doped TiO2. The enhanced activity is due to the deposition of V2O5 clusters on the surface of N-doped TiO2. The conduction band (CB potential of V2O5 (0.48 eV is lower than the CB level of N-doped TiO2 (−0.19 V, which favors the photogenerated electron transfer from CB of N-doped TiO2 to V2O5 clusters. This function of V2O5 clusters helps promote the transfer and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. The present work not only displays a feasible route for the utilization of low cost V2O5 clusters as a substitute for noble metals in enhancing the photocatalysis but also demonstrates a facile method for preparation of highly active composite photocatalyst for large-scale applications.

  1. Photonic band-gap properties for two-component slow light

    CERN Document Server

    Ruseckas, J; Juzeliunas, G; Unanyan, R G; Otterbach, J; Fleischhauer, M

    2011-01-01

    We consider two-component "spinor" slow light in an ensemble of atoms coherently driven by two pairs of counterpropagating control laser fields in a double tripod-type linkage scheme. We derive an equation of motion for the spinor slow light (SSL) representing an effective Dirac equation for a massive particle with the mass determined by the two-photon detuning. By changing the detuning the atomic medium acts as a photonic crystal with a controllable band gap. If the frequency of the incident probe light lies within the band gap, the light tunnels through the sample. For frequencies outside the band gap, the transmission probability oscillates with increasing length of the sample. In both cases the reflection takes place into the complementary mode of the probe field. We investigate the influence of the finite excited state lifetime on the transmission and reflection coefficients of the probe light. We discuss possible experimental implementations of the SSL using alkali atoms such as Rubidium or Sodium.

  2. Accurately control and flatten gain spectrum of L-band erbium doped fiber amplifier based on suitable gain-clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiuru; Meng, Xiangyu; Liu, Chunyu

    2016-04-01

    The increasing traffic with dynamic nature requires the applications of gain-clamped L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). However, the weak or over clamping may lead the unexpected gain-compression and flatness-worsening. In this article, to enhance practicality, we modify the partly gain-clamping configuration and utilize a pair of C-band fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to non-uniformly compress the gain spectrum of L-band. Through a comprehensive test and comparison, the suitable gain-clamping region for the amplified signals is found, and the gain in L-band is accurately controlled and flattened under the matched central wavelength of FBGs. The experimental results show that, our designed L-band EDFA achieves a trade-off among the output gain, flatness and stability. The ±0.44 dB flatness and 20.2 dB average gain are together obtained in the range of 1570-1610 nm, with the ±0.1 dB stability of signals in over 30 dBm dynamic range.

  3. Conduction band energy level control of titanium dioxide: toward an efficient visible-light-sensitive photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huogen; Irie, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2010-05-26

    Through the use of a strategy that involves narrowing the TiO(2) band gap by shifting its conduction band positively and utilizing the catalytic activity of photoproduced Cu(I) for oxygen reduction, a novel visible-light-sensitive TiO(2) photocatalyst, Cu(II)-grafted Ti(1-3x)W(x)Ga(2x)O(2), was designed and synthesized. The Cu(II)/Ti(1-3x)W(x)Ga(2x)O(2) photocatalyst produced high activity under visible-light irradiation. In fact, it decomposed 2-propanol to CO(2) via acetone under visible light (>400 nm) with a high quantum efficiency of 13%. The turnover number for this reaction exceeded 22, indicating that it functioned catalytically.

  4. Visible light-responded C, N and S co-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, X.F., E-mail: leixuefei69@163.com [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Institute of Metallurgical Resource and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Key Laboratory of Metallurgical Resource Recycling Science, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Engineering and Technology Research Center of Boron Resource, Comprehensive, Utilization, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Provincial Universities Key Laboratory of Boron Resource Ecological, Utilization, Technology and Boron Materials, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xue, X.X.; Yang, H. [Institute of Metallurgical Resource and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Key Laboratory of Metallurgical Resource Recycling Science, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Engineering and Technology Research Center of Boron Resource, Comprehensive, Utilization, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Provincial Universities Key Laboratory of Boron Resource Ecological, Utilization, Technology and Boron Materials, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chen, C.; Li, X.; Pei, J.X.; Niu, M.C.; Yang, Y.T.; Gao, X.Y. [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The (C, N and S) co-doped TiO{sub 2} (TH-TiO{sub 2}) samples were synthesized by a sol-gel method calcined at 500 °C, employing butyl titanate as the titanium source and thiourea as the dopant. The structures of TH-TiO{sub 2} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Thermo gravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activities were checked through the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) as a model compound under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the thiourea content played an important role on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the samples. According to XPS results, (C, N and S) atoms were successfully co-doped into the nanostructures of TH-TiO{sub 2} samples. TH-TiO{sub 2} samples with thiourea: Ti molar ratio of 1.5 exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than that of the other samples under visible light irradiation, which can be attributed to the synergic effect of the pure anatase structure, the higher light absorption characteristics in visible regions, separation efficiency of electron–hole pairs, the specific surface area and the optimum (C, N and S) content. - Graphical abstract: (C, N and S) co-doped TiO{sub 2} samples show good photocatalytic activity for Cr (VI) reduction under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • (C, N and S) co-doping in TH-TiO{sub 2} samples can promote the formation of the pure anatase structure. • (C, N and S) atoms were successfully co-doped into the nanostructures of TH-TiO{sub 2} samples. • The band gap energy of TH-TiO{sub 2} samples reduced after (C, N and S) co-doping. • (C, N and S) co-doped TiO{sub 2} samples were effective for the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under visible light

  5. Improved photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Du, Hejun; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Sun, Gengzhi; Li, Fengji; Zheng, Lianxi; Zhang, Sam

    2014-09-01

    We report synthesis of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures by using carbon cloth as substrates to obtain multiple hollow ZnO microtube-nanowire structures. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis clearly show that carbon is doped into ZnO through substitution of carbon for oxygen in the growth and annealing processes. Upon exposure to 633-nm red laser, a distinct photoresponse can be observed, which indicates that carbon doping in ZnO can well extend its light harvesting to visible light region. Furthermore, a prototype of photovoltaic cell was fabricated to demonstrate the photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation. This result shows that carbon-doped ZnO can act as effective photoactive materials for photoelectric components.

  6. Timescale stretch parameterization of Type Ia supernova B-band light curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, G.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goobar, A.; Hook, I.; Irwin, M.; Kim, M.; Knop, R.A.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.; York, T.

    2001-04-01

    R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Cosmology Project (SCP) are fitted in brightness to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w identically equal to s times (1+z). The data points are then individually aligned in the time-axis, normalized and K-corrected back to the rest frame, after which the nearly 1300 normalized intensity measurements are found to lie on a well-determined common rest-frame B-band curve which we call the ''composite curve.'' The same procedure is applied to 18 low-redshift Calan/Tololo SNe with Z < 0.11; these nearly 300 B-band photometry points are found to lie on the composite curve equally well. The SCP search technique produces several measurements before maximum light for each supernova. We demonstrate that the linear stretch factor, s, which parameterizes the light-curve timescale appears independent of z, and applies equally well to the declining and rising parts of the light curve. In fact, the B band template that best fits this composite curve fits the individual supernova photometry data when stretched by a factor s with chi 2/DoF {approx} 1, thus as well as any parameterization can, given the current data sets. The measurement of the data of explosion, however, is model dependent and not tightly constrained by the current data. We also demonstrate the 1 + z light-cure time-axis broadening expected from cosmological expansion. This argues strongly against alternative explanations, such as tired light, for the redshift of distant objects.

  7. White light generation via up-conversion and blue tone in Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped zinc-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, V. A. G.; Ferri, F. A.; Nunes, L. A. O.; Marega, E.

    2017-05-01

    Yb3+, Er3+ and Tm3+ triply doped zinc-tellurite glass have been prepared containing up to 3.23 wt% of rare-earth ion oxides, were characterized by absorption spectroscopy, excitation, emission and up-conversion spectra. Transparent and homogeneous glasses have been produced, managing the red, green and blue emission bands, in order to generate white light considering the human eye perception. The energy transfer (resonant or non-resonant) between those rare-earth ions provides a color balancing mechanism that maintains the operating point in the white region, generating warm white light, cool white light and artificial daylight through the increase of the 976/980 nm diode laser excitation power from 4 to 470 mW. A light source at 4000 K is obtained under the excitation at 980 nm with 15 mW, providing a white light environment that is comfortable to the human eye vision. The spectroscopic study presented in this work describes the white light generation by the triply-doped zinc-tellurite glass, ranging from blue, green and red, by controlling the laser excitation power and wavelength at 976/980 nm. Such white tuning provokes healthy effects on human health throughout the day, especially the circadian system.

  8. A comprehensive investigation of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO{sub 4} with enhanced photocatalytic performance under sun-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yangyang; Tan, Guoqiang, E-mail: tan3114@163.com; Dong, Guohua; Ren, Huijun; Xia, Ao

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4} with enhanced photocatalytic activity was synthesized. • Gd doping can induce the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal BiVO{sub 4}. • GdVO{sub 4} seeds as crystal nucleus dominate the formation of tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4}. • Tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4} exhibits the excellent separation of electrons and holes. • The contribution of high photocatalytic activity under sun-light is from UV-light. - Abstract: Tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO{sub 4} having enhanced photocatalytic activity have been synthesized by a facile microwave hydrothermal method. The structural analysis indicates that Gd doping can induce the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal BiVO{sub 4}. The reaction results in precursor solutions imply that tetragonal GdVO{sub 4} seeds as crystal nucleus are the original and determined incentives to force the formation of tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4}. The influences of the surface defect, band structure, and BET surface area on the improved photocatalytic activities of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO{sub 4} are investigated systematically. The results demonstrate that the more surface oxygen deficiencies as active sites and the excellent mobility and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes are beneficial to the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance of tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4}. The RhB photodegradation experiments indicate that the contribution of high photocatalytic activities under simulated sun-light is mainly from UV-light region due to the tetragonal structure feature. The best photocatalytic performance is obtained for tetragonal 10 at% Gd-BiVO{sub 4}, of which the RhB degradation rate can reach to 96% after 120 min simulated sun-light irradiation. The stable tetragonal Gd-BiVO{sub 4} with efficient mineralization will be a promising photocatalytic material applied in water purification.

  9. Organic Light Emitting Diodes Using Doped Alq3 as the Hole-transport Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chun-Jun; WANG Yang; YI Li-Xin

    2008-01-01

    EFfects of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) doping on the hole conductivity of Alq3 layer are measured.In the hole-only device of Alq3,the current densities increase in 1-3 orders of magnitude upon doping with F4TCNQ,suggesting that the doping can effectively enhance the hole-injection and holetransport ability of Alq3.An organic light-emitting device using an F4TCNQ doped Alq3 layer as the holeinjection and hole-transport layer,and pristine Alq3 as the electron-transport and emitting layer is fabricated and characterized.Bright emission is achieved in the simple OLED with p-doped Alqa as the hole-transport layer and the intrinsic Alq3 as the electron-transport and emitting layer.The emitting efficiency and brightness of the device are further improved by inserting a thin electron block layer to confine the carrier recombination zone in the middle of the organic layers.

  10. A hydrothermal synthesis of Pr3+ doped mesoporous TiO2 for UV light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Guihua; Shen, Qianhong; Yang, Hui; Li, Liquan; Song, Yanjiang

    2014-07-01

    Pr3+ doped mesoporous TiO2 photocatalysts with a different molar ratio of Pr to Ti were prepared by a hydrothermal method using triblock copolymer as the template. The as-prepared samples were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectra, transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The characterizations indicated all the samples had mesoporous structure and narrow pore size distribution. Pr3+ doping enlarged the surface area and decreased the crystallite size. The surface area of the samples varied from 136 to 170 m2/g, and the average crystallite size ranged between 5.04 and 7.60 nm. The effect of Pr3+ doping amount on the photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the suitable amount of Pr3+ doped samples exhibited the higher photocatalytic activity than mesoporous TiO2. Among the samples, 1 at.% Pr3+ doped mesoporous TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity.

  11. Probing Photocatalytic Characteristics of Sb-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjing Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticle with varied dopant concentrations was synthesized using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and antimony chloride (SbCl3 as the precursors. The properties of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, fluorescence spectrophotometer, and Uv-vis spectrophotometer. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles could be extended to visible region after doping with antimony, in contrast to the UV absorption of pure TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was much more active than pure TiO2. The 0.1% Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the best photocatalytic activity which was better than that of the Degussa P25 under visible light irradiation using terephthalic acid as fluorescent probe. The effects of Sb dopant on the photocatalytic activity and the involved mechanism were extensively investigated in this work as well.

  12. Band structure engineering of TiO2 nanowires by n-p codoping for enhanced visible-light photoelectrochemical water-splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daoyu; Yang, Minnan

    2013-11-14

    The advantages of one-dimensional nanostructures, such as excellent charge separation and charge transport, low charge carrier recombination losses and so on, render them the photocatalysts of choice for many applications that exploit solar energy. In this work, based on very recently synthesized ultrathin anatase TiO2 nanowires, we explore the possibility of these wires as photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water-splitting via the mono-doping (C, N, V, and Cr) and n-p codoping (C&V, C&Cr, N&V, and N&Cr) schemes. Our first-principles calculations predict that the C&Cr and C&V codoped ANWs may be strong candidates for photoelectrochemical water-splitting, because they have a substantially reduced band gap of 2.49 eV, appropriate band edge positions, no carrier recombination centers, and enhanced optical absorption in the visible light region.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of N-doped TiO2 and its enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuwen Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2 nano-photocatalysts were successfully synthesized in the presence of ammonium chloride. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS. The results of XRD, SEM and TEM revealed that the as-synthesized photocatalyst was composed of spheroidal particles, which were smaller than undoped ones. XPS analysis revealed that N was effectively incorporated into the lattice of TiO2 through substituting oxygen atoms, and N might coexist in the form of substitutional N (O–Ti–N and interstitial N (Ti–O–N. DRS exhibited that the light absorption edge red-shifted to visible region. The enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of RhB was mainly attributed to the smaller crystal size, more surface hydroxyl groups, stronger light absorption in visible region and narrower band gap energy.

  14. Low-level boron doping and light-induced effects in amorphous silicon pin solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, M.; Rauscher, B.; Kruehler, W.; Plaettner, R.; Pfleiderer, H.

    Amorphous silicon solar cells with the structure pin/ITO produced in the laboratory show an AM1 efficiency of up to 7.4 percent on 6 sq mm. The impact of doping the i-layer slightly with boron on the cell performance was studied together with its possible influence on the cell stability. Cells exposed to continuous AM1 illumination (up to 2000 hours) show a degradation of the efficiency. Differences in the bias-voltage during the deposition lead to significant differences in the stability whereas the influence of boron doping was not so prominent. The nu-tau-products for electrons and holes were shown to degrade differently through light-soaking for different doping-level. A further investigation was made by evaluating the frequency dependence of the capacitance via a new p i n junction model to obtain the density of states and the drift field in the i-layer for doping and light-soaking.

  15. Preparation and characterization of visible-light-driven TiO2 photocatalyst Co-doped with nitrogen and erbium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guihua; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Juihui; Wu, Chenglin; Liang, Huading; Yang, Hui

    2012-05-01

    A series of nitrogen and erbium co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by sol-hydrothermal method. The structure and properties of the photocatalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The XRD and BET results showed that co-doping inhibited the increase of crystallite size and enlarged specific surface areas. XPS spectroscopy indicated nitrogen atoms were incorporated into TiO2 lattice, and erbium atoms mostly existed in the forms of Er2O3. A shift of the absorption edge to the lower energy and four absorption bands located at 654, 544, 524 and 489 nm attributed to the 4f transitions of 4I15/2 --> 4F2/9, 4I15/2 --> 4S3/2, 4I15/2 --> 2H11/2, 4I15/2 --> 4F7/2 of Er3+ were observed using DRS spectroscopy. The catalytic efficency was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the photocatalytic performance of the co-doped TiO2 was related with the hydrothermal temperature and the molar ratio of N/Ti, and they showed higher acitivites than pure TiO2. Results determined by fluorescence technique revealed that irradiation (lambda > 400 nm) of TiO2 photocatalyst dispersed in MO solution induces the generation of the highly active hydroxyl radicals (OH). It indicated the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 photocatalyst were correlation with the formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and other active oxygen species.

  16. The evaluation of various designs for a C and L band superfluorescent source based erbium doped fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani Jazi, M.; Shahi, S.; Hekmat, M. J.; Saghafifar, H.; Khuzani, A. T.; Khalilian, H.; Baghi, M. D.

    2013-06-01

    An efficient erbium doped superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) is proposed by comparing the different configurations in the C and L band regions. The flat spectrum of the source over a wide range is examined in various arrangements. The suggested array employed is based on loop mirror and double-pass bidirectional sources for making a flat and stable amplified spontaneous emission power. The maximum power of each of the two 980 nm laser diodes was optimized at 180 mW. Furthermore, the place effect of the laser diode’s power near the output port was demonstrated for the first time. Finally, the optimum flattening manner of this ASE source was achieved in 185-50 mW pump powers and 32 mW total power over the 1525-1605 nm region (C+L band).

  17. Photocatalytic Hydrogen or Oxygen Evolution from Water over S- or N-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumoto Nishijima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available S- or N-doping of TiO2 powder having an anatase or rutile phase extended the photocatalytic activity for water oxidation and reduction under UV light and visible light irradiation. For the reduction of water, anatase-doped TiO2 showed higher level of activity than that of doped TiO2 having a rutile phase using ethanol as an electron donor. Furthermore, the activity level of S-doped TiO2 for hydrogen evolution was higher than that of N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts under visible light. Photocatalytic oxidation of water on doped TiO2 having a rutile phase proceeded with fairly high efficiency when Fe3+ ions were used as electron acceptors compared to that on doped TiO2 having an anatase phase. In addition, water splitting under visible light irradiation was achieved by construction of a Z-scheme photocatalysis system employing the doped TiO2 having anatase and rutile phases for H2 and O2 evolution and the I−/IO3− redox couple as an electron relay.

  18. Three-Dimensional Ruthenium-Doped TiO2 Sea Urchins for Enhanced Visible-Light-Responsive H2 Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Luo, Si; Vovchok, Dimitriy; Llorca, Jordi; Sallis, Shawn; Kattel, Shyam; Xu, Wenqian; Piper, Louis F. J.; Polyansky, Dmitry E.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Stacchiolaa, Dario J.; Rodriguez, Jose A.

    2016-06-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) monodispersed sea urchin-like Ru-doped rutile TiO2 hierarchical architectures composed of radially aligned, densely-packed TiO2 nanorods have been successfully synthesized via an acid-hydrothermal method at low temperature without the assistance of any structure-directing agent and post annealing treatment. The addition of a minuscule concentration of ruthenium dopants remarkably catalyze the formation of the 3D urchin structure and drive the enhanced photocatalytic H2 production under visible light irradiation, not possible on undoped and bulk rutile TiO2. Increasing ruthenium doping dosage not only increases the surface area up to 166 m2 g-1 but also induces enhanced photo response in the regime of visible and near infrared light. The doping introduces defect impurity levels, i.e. oxygen vacancy and under-coordinated Ti3+, significantly below the conduction band of TiO2, and ruthenium species act as electron donors/acceptors that accelerate the photogenetated hole and electron transfer and efficiently suppress the rapid charge recombination, therefore improving the visible-light-driven activity.

  19. Preparation and characterization of visible-light-active nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xian-huai; TANG Yu-chao; HU Chun; YU Han-qing; CHEN Chu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    A visible-light photocatalyst was prepared by calcination of the hydrolysis product of Ti(SO4 )2 with ammonia as precipitator. The color of this photocatalyst was vivid yellow. It could absorb light under 550 nm wavelength. The crystal structure of anatase was characterized by XRD. The structure analysis result of X-ray fluorescence(XRF) shows that doped-nitrogen was presented in the sample.The photocatalytic activities were evaluated using methyl orange and phenol as model pollutants. The photocatalytic activities of samples were increasing gradually with calcination temperature from 400℃ to 700℃ under UV irradiation. It can be seen that the degradation of methyl orange follows zero-order kinetics. However, the calcination temperatures have no significant influence on the degradation of phenol under sunlight. The N-doped catalyst shows higher activity than the bare one under solar irradiation.

  20. Spin-state polarons in lightly-hole-doped LaCoO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnyak, A; Russina, M; Furrer, A; Alfonsov, A; Vavilova, E; Kataev, V; Büchner, B; Strässle, Th; Pomjakushina, E; Conder, K; Khomskii, D I

    2008-12-12

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS), electron spin resonance (ESR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were employed to establish the origin of the strong magnetic signal in lightly-hole-doped La1-xSrxCoO3, x approximately 0.002. Both INS and ESR low temperature spectra show intense excitations with large effective g factors approximately 10-18. NMR data indicate the creation of extended magnetic clusters. From the Q dependence of the INS magnetic intensity, we conclude that the observed anomalies are caused by the formation of octahedrally shaped spin-state polarons comprising seven Co ions. The present INS, ESR, and NMR data give evidence for two regimes in the lightly-hole-doped samples: (i) T35 K dominated by thermally activated magnetic Co3+ ions.

  1. Spin-state polarons in lightly hole-doped LaCoO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlesnyak, Andrey A [ORNL; Russina, Margarita [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin, Germany; Furrer, Albert [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering ETHZ & PSI; Alfonsov, Aleksei [IFW Dresden; Vavilova, Eugenia [IFW Dresden; Kataev, Vladislav [IFW Dresden; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden; Straessle, Thierry [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering ETHZ & PSI; Pomjakushina, Ekaterina [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Conder, Kazimierz [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Khomskii, Daniel [Universitat zu Koln, Koln, Germany

    2008-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS), electron spin resonance (ESR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements were employed to establish the origin of the strong magnetic signal in lightly-hole-doped La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3}, x{approx}0.002. Both INS and ESR low temperature spectra show intense excitations with large effective g factors {approx}10-18. NMR data indicate the creation of extended magnetic clusters. From the Q dependence of the INS magnetic intensity, we conclude that the observed anomalies are caused by the formation of octahedrally shaped spin-state polarons comprising seven Co ions. The present INS, ESR, and NMR data give evidence for two regimes in the lightly-hole-doped samples: (i) T < 35 K dominated by spin polarons; (ii) T > 35 K dominated by thermally activated magnetic Co{sup 3+} ions.

  2. Organic light emitting devices with doped electron transport and hole blocking layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardy, J. [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes (LEOM, UMR CNRS no 5512) Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jacques.tardy@ec-lyon.fr; Khalifa, M. Ben [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes (LEOM, UMR CNRS no 5512) Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Vaufrey, D. [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Optoelectronique et Microsystemes (LEOM, UMR CNRS no 5512) Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France)

    2006-03-15

    This study reports on heterostructure OLEDs with n-type molecularly doped electron transport layer and hole blocking layer. The influence of doping on the operating voltage and on light emission performances was investigated. The n-type doping molecule is 2-(4-biphenyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) dispersed into either an 8-(hydroquinoline) aluminum (Alq) electron transport layer (ETL) or a 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bathocuproine BCP) hole blocking layer (HBL). The typical device structure is glass substrate/indium tin oxide/PEDOT/TPD-F4-TCNQ/Alq-DCM/BCP/Alq/Mg-Ag where Poly(3,4)ethylenedioxythiophene/Polystyrenesulphonate (PEDOT/PSS) is a hole injecting layer, TPD-F4-TCNQ is a hole transport layer (HTL) made of N,N'-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) doped with 2 wt.% of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-quinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) and Alq-DCM is the emitting layer (EML) made of Alq doped with 2 wt.% of 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) orange dye. The modified cathode consists in a combination of a BCP HBL and an Alq ETL where BCP or/and Alq were doped with PBD. Lowest operating voltage (3 V for a luminance of 10 Cd/m{sup 2}) and brightest devices (6000 Cd/m{sup 2}) were obtained with a hole blocking bilayer made of BCP doped with 28 wt.% deposited onto an undoped BCP (each one being 5 nm thick). Adding an undoped Alq layer improved the device current efficiency (4 Cd/A) but is detrimental to the operating voltage (6 V for a luminance of 10 Cd/m{sup 2}). In the absence of real n-type doping with organic molecules, our results point out that the design of molecular doped injection layer at the cathode will need for a compromise between high luminance and efficiency on one hand and low operating voltage on the other hand.

  3. Magnetism switching and band-gap narrowing in Ni-doped PbTiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wenliang; Yu, Lu; Yang, Pingxiong, E-mail: pxyang@ee.ecnu.edu.cn; Chu, Junhao [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Deng, Hongmei [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-05-21

    Ions doping-driven structural phase transition accompanied by magnetism switching and band-gap narrowing effects has been observed in PbTi{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3−δ} (xPTNO, x = 0.00, 0.06, and 0.33) thin films. With the increase of x, the xPTNO thin films exhibit not only a phase transition from the pseudotetragonal structure to a centrosymmetric cubic structure but also a drastic decrease of grain size. Moreover, the as-grown Ni-doped PbTiO{sub 3} (PTO) thin films show obvious room-temperature ferromagnetism and an increased saturation magnetization with increasing the Ni content, in contrast to undoped PTO, which shows diamagnetism. A bound magnetic polaron model was proposed to understand the observed ferromagnetic behavior of PTO-derived perovskite thin films. Furthermore, the 0.33PTNO thin film presents a narrowed band-gap, much smaller than that of PTO, which is attributed to new states of both the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in an electronic structure with the presence of Ni. These findings may open up a route to explore promising perovskite oxides as candidate materials for use in multiferroics and solar-energy devices.

  4. Origin of the Enhanced Visible-Light Absorption in N-Doped Bulk Anatase TiO 2 from First-Principles Calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, M.

    2011-10-06

    Extension of the absorption properties of TiO2 photocatalytic materials to the visible part of the solar spectrum is of major importance for energy and cleaning up applications. We carry out a systematic study of the N-doped anatase TiO2 material using spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT) and the range-separated hybrid HSE06 functional. The thermodynamic stability of competitive N-doped TiO2 structural configurations is studied as a function of the oxygen chemical potential and of various chemical doping agents: N2, (N2 + H2), NH3, N2H4. We show that the diamagnetic TiO (2-3x)N2x system corresponding to a separated substitutional N species (with 2-4% N impurities) and formation of one-half concentration of O vacancies (1-2 atom %) is an optimal configuration thermodynamically favored by NH3, N2H4, and (N2 + H2) chemical doping agents presenting a dual nitrating-reducing character. The simulated UV-vis absorption spectra using the perturbation theory (DFPT) approach demonstrates unambiguously that the diamagnetic TiO(2-3x)N2x system exhibits the enhanced optical absorption in N-doped TiO2 under visible-light irradiation. Electronic analysis further reveals a band gap narrowing of 0.6 eV induced by delocalized impurity states located at the top of the valence band of TiO 2. A fruitful comparison with experimental data is furnished. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. L-band automatic-gain-controlled erbium-doped fiber amplifier utilizing C-band backward-amplified spontaneous emission and electrical feedback monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jyi-Lai; Lee, Yueh-Chien; Huang, Chia-Chih

    2009-02-10

    A new L-band automatic-gain-controlled (AGC) erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) for dense wavelength-division-multiplexing transmission systems is presented, in which a single 1480 nm laser with an internal thermoelectric cooler is used as a primary pump for stable amplification. All C-band amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is recycled by the secondary pump to enhance the gain efficiency. A fraction of the output signal is used as an electrical feedback monitor for the AGC to improve the gain-clamped (GC) flatness. Experimental results prove that the AGC EDFA has a gain flatness of better than 0.46 dB/40 nm, i.e., below 1.5%, and a higher gain of approximately 36.5 dB compared to that of approximately 35.3 dB for the conventional GC EDFA at -30 dBm input signal power. The best gain flatness of +/-0.25 dB can be achieved over the dynamic range greater than 20 dB. The dynamic range of noise figure is between 6.7 and 7.1. The 3 dB down bandwidth is more than 40 nm. Overall dynamics measurements for the AGC EDFA feedback stabilization have been carried out. The recorded corresponding rise time of 1.565 ms indicates that the system does not exhibit any overshoot of gain or ASE variation due to the signal at the beginning of the pulse.

  6. Visible light photocatalytic decoloration of methylene blue on novel N-doped TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG JiWei; JIN ZhenSheng; WU ZhiShen; ZHANG ShunLi

    2007-01-01

    Novel N-doped TiO2 (denoted as N-NTA600) was prepared by treating nanotube titanic acid (NTA) in NH3 flow. Its visible light photocatalytic activity, evaluated by decoloration reaction of methylene blue, is higher than that of N-P25(600) prepared by treatment of P25-TiO2 in the same condition. It is suggested that the origin of visible-light photocatalytic activity is single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancy (Vo·) modified by chemisorbed NO.

  7. Dual-etalon cavity ring-down frequency-comb spectroscopy with broad band light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David W; Strecker, Kevin E

    2014-04-01

    In an embodiment, a dual-etalon cavity-ring-down frequency-comb spectrometer system is described. A broad band light source is split into two beams. One beam travels through a first etalon and a sample under test, while the other beam travels through a second etalon, and the two beams are recombined onto a single detector. If the free spectral ranges ("FSR") of the two etalons are not identical, the interference pattern at the detector will consist of a series of beat frequencies. By monitoring these beat frequencies, optical frequencies where light is absorbed may be determined.

  8. Full-Band Monte Carlo Analysis of Hot-Carrier Light Emission in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, I.; Abramo, A.; Brunetti, R.; Jacobini, C.

    1997-11-01

    A computational analysis of light emission from hot carriers in GaAs due to direct intraband conduction-conduction (c-c) transitions is presented. The emission rates have been evaluated by means of a Full-Band Monte-Carlo simulator (FBMC). Results have been obtained for the emission rate as a function of the photon energy, for the emitted and absorbed light polarization along and perpendicular to the electric field direction. Comparison has been made with available experimental data in MESFETs.

  9. Effect of thickness on microwave absorptive behavior of La-Na doped Co-Zr barium hexaferrites in 18.0-26.5 GHz band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Narang, Sukhleen Bindra; Pubby, Kunal

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the microwave properties of Lanthanum-Sodium doped Cobalt-Zirconium barium hexaferrites, intended as microwave absorbers, are analyzed on Vector Network Analyzer in K-band. The results indicate that the doping has resulted in lowering of real permittivity and enhancement of dielectric losses. Real permeability has shown increase while magnetic losses have shown decrease in value with doping. All these four properties have shown very small variation with frequency in the scanned frequency range which indicates the relaxation type of behavior. Microwave absorption characteristics of these compositions are analyzed with change in sample thickness. The results demonstrate that the matching frequency of the microwave absorber shifts towards lower side of frequency band with increase in thickness. The complete analysis of the prepared microwave absorbers shows a striking achievement with very low reflection loss and wide absorption bandwidth for all the six compositions in 18-26.5 GHz frequency band.

  10. Substrate doping: A strategy for enhancing reactivity on gold nanocatalysts by tuning sp bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammen, Nisha; Narasimhan, Shobhana [Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560064 (India); Gironcoli, Stefano de [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-10-14

    We suggest that the reactivity of Au nanocatalysts can be greatly increased by doping the oxide substrate on which they are placed with an electron donor. To demonstrate this, we perform density functional theory calculations on a model system consisting of a 20-atom gold cluster placed on a MgO substrate doped with Al atoms. We show that not only does such substrate doping switch the morphology of the nanoparticles from the three-dimensional tetrahedral form to the two-dimensional planar form, but it also significantly lowers the barrier for oxygen dissociation by an amount proportional to the dopant concentration. At a doping level of 2.78%, the dissociation barrier is reduced by more than half, which corresponds to a speeding up of the oxygen dissociation rate by five orders of magnitude at room temperature. This arises from a lowering in energy of the s and p states of Au. The d states are also lowered in energy, however, this by itself would have tended to reduce reactivity. We propose that a suitable measure of the reactivity of Au nanoparticles is the difference in energy of sp and d states.

  11. Quantum information processing in localized modes of light within a photonic band-gap material

    CERN Document Server

    Vats, N; John, S; Vats, Nipun; Rudolph, Terry; John, Sajeev

    1999-01-01

    The single photon occupation of a localized field mode within an engineered network of defects in a photonic band-gap (PBG) material is proposed as a unit of quantum information (qubit). Qubit operations are mediated by optically-excited atoms interacting with these localized states of light as the atoms traverse the connected void network of the PBG structure. We describe conditions under which this system can have independent qubits with controllable interactions and very low decoherence, as required for quantum computation.

  12. Detection of Time Lags between Quasar Continuum Emission Bands Based On Pan-STARRS Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei; Green, Paul J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Morganson, Eric; Shen, Yue; Pancoast, Anna; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Rix, H.-W.; Ruan, John J.; Protopapas, Pavlos; Scott, Caroline; Burgett, W. S.; Hodapp, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Tonry, J. T.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.

    2017-02-01

    We study the time lags between the continuum emission of quasars at different wavelengths, based on more than four years of multi-band (g, r, i, z) light curves in the Pan-STARRS Medium Deep Fields. As photons from different bands emerge from different radial ranges in the accretion disk, the lags constrain the sizes of the accretion disks. We select 240 quasars with redshifts of z ≈ 1 or z ≈ 0.3 that are relatively emission-line free. The light curves are sampled from day to month timescales, which makes it possible to detect lags on the scale of the light crossing time of the accretion disks. With the code JAVELIN, we detect typical lags of several days in the rest frame between the g band and the riz bands. The detected lags are ∼2–3 times larger than the light crossing time estimated from the standard thin disk model, consistent with the recently measured lag in NGC 5548 and microlensing measurements of quasars. The lags in our sample are found to increase with increasing luminosity. Furthermore, the increase in lags going from g ‑ r to g ‑ i and then to g ‑ z is slower than predicted in the thin disk model, particularly for high-luminosity quasars. The radial temperature profile in the disk must be different from what is assumed. We also find evidence that the lags decrease with increasing line ratios between ultraviolet Fe ii lines and Mg ii, which may point to changes in the accretion disk structure at higher metallicity.

  13. Light emission from conductive paths in nanocrystalline CdSe embedded Zr-doped HfO{sub 2} high-k stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Chou; Kuo, Yue [Thin Film Nano and Microelectronics Research Laboratory, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3122 (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Electrical and optical properties of the solid state incandescent light emitting devices made of zirconium doped hafnium oxide high-k films with and without an embedded nanocrystalline CdSe layer on the p-type Si wafer have been studied. The broad band white light was emitted from nano sized conductive paths through the thermal excitation mechanism. Conductive paths formed from the dielectric breakdown have been confirmed from scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images and the secondary ion mass spectrometric elemental profiles. Si was diffused from the wafer to the device surface through the conductive path during the high temperature light emission process. There are many potential applications of this type of device.

  14. Band structure of the heavily-electron-doped FeAs-based Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 superconductor suppresses antiferromagnetic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudayama, T; Wakisaka, Y; Takubo, K; Morinaga, R; Sato, T J; Arita, M; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Mizokawa, T

    2010-04-30

    In the heavily-electron-doped regime of the Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 superconductor, three hole bands at the zone center are observed and two of them reach the Fermi level. The larger hole pocket at the zone center is apparently nested with the smaller electron pocket around the zone corner. However, the (pi,0) Fermi surface reconstruction reported for the hole-doped case is absent in the heavily-electron-doped case. This observation shows that the apparent Fermi surface nesting alone is not enough to enhance the antiferromagnetic correlation as well as the superconducting transition temperature.

  15. Visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of the organic pollutant methylene blue with hybrid palladium–fluorine-doped titanium oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lázaro-Navas, Sonia; Prashar, Sanjiv; Fajardo, Mariano; Gómez-Ruiz, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.gomez@urjc.es [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Departamento de Biología y Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, ESCET (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    The synthesis of mesoporous aggregates of titanium oxide nanoparticles (F0) is described using a very cheap and simple synthetic protocol. This consists of the reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide and a solution of HNO{sub 3} in water (pH 2.0) and subsequent filtration. In addition, fluorine-doped titanium oxides (F1, F2, F5 and F10) were synthesized using the same method, adding increasing amounts of NaF to the reaction mixture (avoiding the use of expensive reagents such as NH{sub 4}F or trifluoroacetic acid). The resulting materials were calcined at different temperatures (500, 600 and 650 °C) giving particles sized between 10 and 20 nm. Furthermore, a hybrid F-doped TiO{sub 2} with supported palladium nanoparticles of ca. 20 nm (F5-500-Pd1) was synthesized by grafting an organometallic palladium(II) salt namely [Pd(cod)Cl{sub 2}] (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene). Photocatalytic studies of the degradation of methylene blue (MB) were carried out under UV light using all the synthesized material (non-doped an F-doped TiO{sub 2}), observing that the increase in the quantity of fluorine has a positive effect on the photocatalytic activity. F5-500 is apparently the material which has the most convenient structural properties (in terms of surface area and anatase/rutile ratio) and thus a higher photocatalytic activity. The hybrid material F-doped TiO{sub 2}–Pd nanoparticles (F5-500-Pd1) has a lower band gap value than F5-500, and thus photocatalytic degradation of MB under LED visible light was achieved using F5-500-Pd1 as photocatalyst.

  16. Visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of the organic pollutant methylene blue with hybrid palladium-fluorine-doped titanium oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Navas, Sonia; Prashar, Sanjiv; Fajardo, Mariano; Gómez-Ruiz, Santiago

    2015-02-01

    The synthesis of mesoporous aggregates of titanium oxide nanoparticles (F0) is described using a very cheap and simple synthetic protocol. This consists of the reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide and a solution of HNO3 in water (pH 2.0) and subsequent filtration. In addition, fluorine-doped titanium oxides (F1, F2, F5 and F10) were synthesized using the same method, adding increasing amounts of NaF to the reaction mixture (avoiding the use of expensive reagents such as NH4F or trifluoroacetic acid). The resulting materials were calcined at different temperatures (500, 600 and 650 °C) giving particles sized between 10 and 20 nm. Furthermore, a hybrid F-doped TiO2 with supported palladium nanoparticles of ca. 20 nm (F5-500-Pd1) was synthesized by grafting an organometallic palladium(II) salt namely [Pd(cod)Cl2] (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene). Photocatalytic studies of the degradation of methylene blue (MB) were carried out under UV light using all the synthesized material (non-doped an F-doped TiO2), observing that the increase in the quantity of fluorine has a positive effect on the photocatalytic activity. F5-500 is apparently the material which has the most convenient structural properties (in terms of surface area and anatase/rutile ratio) and thus a higher photocatalytic activity. The hybrid material F-doped TiO2-Pd nanoparticles (F5-500-Pd1) has a lower band gap value than F5-500, and thus photocatalytic degradation of MB under LED visible light was achieved using F5-500-Pd1 as photocatalyst.

  17. Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by the stepwise doping structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Wang, Xiaoping; Kou, Zhiqi; Ji, Changyan

    2017-04-01

    The electro-optical properties of the blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) can be affected by the stepwise doping structure in the emitting layer (EML). A series of multi-EML devices with different doping concentration of blue dopant (FIrpic) are fabricated. The effect of the stepwise doping structure close to the electron transport layer is more obvious than that close to the hole transport layer. When the doping concentration increases gradually from the hole injection side to the electron injection side, the maximum values of the luminance, current and power efficiency can reach to 9745 cd/m2 (at 9 V), 32.0 cd/A and 25.1 lm/W in the device with the asymmetric tri-EML structure, which is improved by about 10% compared with that in the bi-EML device. When the number of the EML is four, the performance of the device becomes worse because of the interface effect resulting from different concentration of dopant.

  18. Effects of refractive index changes on four-wave mixing bands in Er-doped photonic crystal fibers pumped at 976 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Ibarra, L; Díez, A; Andrés, M V; Lucio, J L

    2012-04-01

    An experimental study of the effects of an auxiliary 976 nm pump signal on the four-wave mixing parametric bands generated with a 1064 nm pump in a normal dispersion Er-doped photonic crystal fiber is presented. The four-wave mixing signal and idler bands shift to shorter and longer wavelengths, respectively, with increasing 976 nm pump power. It is shown that the wavelength-dependent resonant refractive index change in the erbium-doped core under 976 nm pumping is at the origin of the effect.

  19. Enhanced Performance of Quantum Dot-Based Light-Emitting Diodes with Gold Nanoparticle-Doped Hole Injection Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Lin, Qingli; Wang, Hongzhe; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fengjuan; Du, Zuliang; Shen, Huaibin; Li, Lin Song

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the performance of quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) comprising ZnCdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs as an emitting layer were enhanced by employing Au-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) hole injection layer (HIL). By varying the concentration and dimension of Au nanoparticle (NP) dopants in PEDOT:PSS, the optimal devices were obtained with ~22-nm-sized Au NP dopant at the concentration with an optical density (OD) of 0.21. Highly bright green QLEDs with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.2 % and a current efficiency of 29.1 cd/A exhibit 80 % improvement compared with devices without Au NP dopants. The improved performance may be attributed to the significant increase in the hole injection rate as a result of the introduction of Au NPs and the good matching between the resonance frequency of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) generated by the Au NPs and the emission band of QD layer, as well as the suppressed Auger recombination of QD layer due to the LSPR-induced near-field enhanced radiative recombination rate of excitons. These results are helpful for fabricating high-performance QD-based applications, such as full-color displays and solid-state lighting.

  20. Insight into visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of diesel oil by doped TiO2-PS floating composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuejiang; Zhao, Jianfu; Zhang, Jing; Song, Jingke

    2016-09-01

    TiO2-pearlstone (PS) floatable photocatalysts were synthesized using a facile sol-gel method and confirmed by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, EDX, TEM, FT-IR, XPS, and UV-vis DRS measurements. It has been found that the photocatalysts composed of anatase TiO2 deposited on the surface of PS and formed mesoporous structure. By N or B/N doping, the band gap of the photocatalyst has been narrowed. The obtained floatable photocatalysts can be applied to solar light-driven remediation of oil-contaminated water. Diesel oil was chosen as the model pollutant to evaluate the photocatalytic activity. The results showed B/N-TiO2-PS exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for diesel oil under visible light irradiation, which is 48 % removal rate for 9 h. The reaction rate constant k of B/N-TiO2-PS is 0.08423 h(-1), which is four times larger than that of pure TiO2-PS. Moreover, the characteristic of floatable makes the photocatalysts easier to separate and reuse, which showed great potential for practical applications in the field of environmental cleanup and solar energy conversion.

  1. Preparation of Ag-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles by a miniemulsion method and their photoactivity in visible light illuminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Youji, E-mail: bcclyj@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou 46000, Hunan (China); Ma Mingyuan; Chen Wei; Li Leiyong; Zen Mengxiong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou 46000, Hunan (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Ag/TiO{sub 2} catalyst nanopowders have high photocatalytic activity for MB photodegrade in the visible light spectral range. {yields} Ag can play an important role in increasing the BET surface area and pore size of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. {yields} An optimum doping level (0.8% Ag) is obtained for the photodegradation of MB by this catalyst nanomaterial. - Abstract: Visible-light-driven photocatalysts based on silver-doped TiO{sub 2} (Ag-TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a miniemulsion method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), BET surface area analysis and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Degradation of methylene blue (MB) was applied to evaluate photocatalytic activity of samples. The results show that Ag doping showed a controlling effect on the transformation of titania from anatase to rutile. A red shift occurred in the absorption edge of titania with the certain Ag-doped amount. Moreover, the addition of Ag resulted in a higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area as well as a larger average pore size of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The specific surface area increased with the Ag-doped amount to reach a maximum (86.3 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) at Ag/Ti molar ratio of 0.8% and then decreased with further increase of the Ag-doped amount. The Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could effectively photodegrade MB under visible light irradiation and the obtained maximum reaction constant (k{sub app} = 0.007 min{sup -1}) was three times higher than that of pure TiO{sub 2} (k{sub app} = 0.002 min{sup -1}) when the Ag-doped amount was 0.8%. The commendable visible photoactivities of Ag-TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts are predominantly attributable to simultaneous effects of Ag deposits by the acting as electron traps, enhancing the MB adsorption on the Ag-TiO{sub 2} surface, occurring red shift of the absorption edge and decreasing band gap.

  2. Luminescence studies on Dy3+ doped calcium boro-tellurite glasses for White light applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Vijayakumar, R.; Marimuthu, K.

    2017-09-01

    A new series of Dy3+ doped calcium boro-tellurite glasses have been prepared by melt quenching technique and their spectroscopic properties were studied through FTIR, absorption luminescence and lifetime spectral measurements. FTIR studies have been made to explore the presence of various stretching and bending vibrations of different borate and tellurite groups in the prepared glasses. The bonding parameter values were estimated from the absorption band positions using Nephelauxetic ratios to examine the nature of the metal-ligand bond. The optical band gap and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were obtained from the absorption spectra to explore the electronic band structure of the studied glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) theory have been used to determine the JO intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) following the least square fitting procedure between the experimental and calculated oscillator strength values. The luminescence spectra of the Dy3+ doped calcium boro-tellurite glasses exhibit two intense emission bands corresponding to the 4F9/2→6H15/2 and 4F9/2→6H13/2 transitions. Further, they exhibit less intense emission band due to the 4F9/2→6H11/2 transition. Luminescence spectra were characterized through CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram to obtain the dominant emission color of the prepared glasses. The JO intensity parameters and refractive index values have been used to calculate the radiative parameters such as transition probabilities (AR), branching ratios (βR) and stimulated emission cross-section (σPE) values for the observed transitions in the luminescence spectra. The decay curves of all the studied glasses found to exhibit non-exponential behavior and further to understand the energy transfer process takes place between the Dy3+ ions, the decay curves were fitted to the Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model. The structural and optical properties of the Dy3+ doped calcium boro-tellurite glasses have been studied as a function of different metal cations (Zn, Cd, Pb and

  3. Nanosized alkali-metal-doped ethoxotitanate clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Trzop, Elzbieta; Makal, Anna; Sokolow, Jesse D; Coppens, Philip

    2013-05-06

    The synthesis and crystallographic characterization of alkali-metal-doped ethoxotitanate clusters with 28 and 29 Ti atoms as well as a new dopant-free Ti28 cluster are presented. The light-metal-doped polyoxotitanate clusters in which the alkali-metal atom is the critical structure-determining component are the largest synthesized so far. Calculations show that doping with light alkali atoms narrows the band gap compared with the nondoped crystals but does not introduce additional energy levels within the band gap.

  4. Antibacterial and Photodegradative Properties of Metal Doped TiO2 thin Films Under Visible Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorevc, Jerneja Šauta; Tratar-Pirc, Elizabeta; Matoh, Lev; Peter, Bukovec

    2012-06-01

    Doped (Au, Ag) and undoped TiO2 thin films were prepared on soda-lime glass via the sol-gel method by dip-coating from TiCl4 precursor, followed by 30 minutes calcination at 500 °C to obtain transparent thin films with good adhesion to the substrate. XRD analysis showed that the particle size of samples heat treated at 500 °C was ~10 nm for all of the samples prepared, both doped and undoped ones. SEM images revealed that the thin film surface was homogeneous and nano-porous. The hydrophilicity of the thin films was estimated by contact angle measurements. The photodegradation rate of an aqueous solution of the azo dye Plasmocorinth B on the thin films was tested by in-situ UV-Vis spectroscopic measurements of the dye solution. The best photocatalytic activity under visible and UVA light was exhibited by undoped TiO2 thin films, whereas Au doped thin films were slightly less active. On the other hand, the best antimicrobial activity toward the E. coli strain DH5a under visible light was displayed by the Au/TiO2 thin films.

  5. Synergetic effects of I- ions and BiOI on visible-light-activity enhancement of wide-band-gap (BiO)2CO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Cao, Jing; Lin, Haili; Guo, Xiaomin; Zhang, Meiyu; Chen, Shifu

    2017-08-01

    The wide-band-gap semiconductor (BiO)2CO3 was modified by interior doping with I- ions and surface loading with BiOI to prepare a highly efficient visible-light active photocatalyst for the degradation of methyl orange and phenol. The interior I- ions elevate the valence band position of (BiO)2CO3 and induce visible-light photocatalytic activity, while the in-situ-formed BiOI/I-(BiO)2CO3 heterojunction significantly improves the separation of photoinduced charge carriers. By the action of the reactive species h+ and rad O2-, methyl orange and phenol were degraded over the novel BiOI/I-(BiO)2CO3 composite at rates that were 18- and 4-times, respectively, those of unmodified (BiO)2CO3. Thus, the findings presented here may be widely applied in the development of wide-band-gap semiconductor photocatalytic systems for the highly efficient removal of contaminants from wastewater.

  6. The Gadolinium (Gd3+) and Tin (Sn4+) Co-doped BiFeO3 Nanoparticles as New Solar Light Active Photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Syed; Rizwan, Syed; Shen, Yang; Li, Liangliang; Asfandiyar; Butt, Sajid; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2017-02-01

    The process of photocatalysis is appealing to huge interest motivated by the great promise of addressing current energy and environmental issues through converting solar light directly into chemical energy. However, an efficient solar energy harvesting for photocatalysis remains a critical challenge. Here, we reported a new full solar spectrum driven photocatalyst by co-doping of Gd3+ and Sn4+ into A and B-sites of BiFeO3 simultaneously. The co-doping of Gd3+ and Sn4+ played a key role in hampering the recombination of electron-hole pairs and shifted the band-gap of BiFeO3 from 2.10 eV to 2.03 eV. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement confirmed that the co-doping of Gd3+ and Sn4+ into BiFeO3 increased the surface area and porosity, and thus the photocatalytic activity of the Bi0.90Gd0.10Fe0.95Sn0.05O3 system was significantly improved. Our work proposed a new photocatalyst that could degrade various organic dyes like Congo red, Methylene blue, and Methyl violet under irradiation with different light wavelengths and gave guidance for designing more efficient photocatalysts.

  7. Doping nano-Co3O4 surface with bigger nanosized Ag and its photocatalytic properties for visible light photodegradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangliang; Si, Xiaolei; Yu, Jinsong; Bai, Huiyu; Zhang, Xianhui

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composite catalysts using a silver-mirror reaction and the calibration of their catalytic activities towards methyl blue (MB) dye degradation with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under visible light. The nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The experimental evidence indicated that the hydrothermal synthesis approach lead to the exposure of the {1 1 2} facets of the Co3O4 nanoflakes. Compared to Co3O4 nanoflakes, Co3O4 doped with Ag nanoparticle (average diameters of 10-15 nm) presented lower band gap energy and photoluminescent (PL) intensity. Meanwhile, the Ag/Co3O4 exhibited high stability and excellent dispersion property in dye solution. Experimental data suggested that 3.06 wt% Ag nanoparticle-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite catalyst possessed the highest catalytic activity towards MB degradation in aqueous solution at the tested concentration level of 15 mg/L, about 2.4 times higher than that of pure Co3O4. Complete decolorization of the 15 mg/L MB solution can be achieved by 3.06 wt% Ag-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite within 20 min of visible light irradiation.

  8. The Gadolinium (Gd3+) and Tin (Sn4+) Co-doped BiFeO3 Nanoparticles as New Solar Light Active Photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Syed; Rizwan, Syed; Shen, Yang; Li, Liangliang; Asfandiyar, A; Butt, Sajid; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2017-01-01

    The process of photocatalysis is appealing to huge interest motivated by the great promise of addressing current energy and environmental issues through converting solar light directly into chemical energy. However, an efficient solar energy harvesting for photocatalysis remains a critical challenge. Here, we reported a new full solar spectrum driven photocatalyst by co-doping of Gd3+ and Sn4+ into A and B-sites of BiFeO3 simultaneously. The co-doping of Gd3+ and Sn4+ played a key role in hampering the recombination of electron-hole pairs and shifted the band-gap of BiFeO3 from 2.10 eV to 2.03 eV. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement confirmed that the co-doping of Gd3+ and Sn4+ into BiFeO3 increased the surface area and porosity, and thus the photocatalytic activity of the Bi0.90Gd0.10Fe0.95Sn0.05O3 system was significantly improved. Our work proposed a new photocatalyst that could degrade various organic dyes like Congo red, Methylene blue, and Methyl violet under irradiation with different light wavelengths and gave guidance for designing more efficient photocatalysts. PMID:28195198

  9. Optical nonlinearities in semiconductor-doped glasses near and below the band edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, K. S.; Oak, S. M.; Rustagi, K. C.

    1998-03-01

    We present a brief review of our recent experimental results on optical nonlinearities in semiconductor-doped glasses. It is shown that even below the absorption edge the nonlinearities are determined by nonlinear absorption. The optical Kerr effect is found to have a susceptibility which is comparable to that for nonlinear refraction. We also find that in degenerate four-wave mixing the observed intensity dependence can be strongly influenced by nonlinear absorption.

  10. New Insights on the Burstein-Moss Shift and Band Gap Narrowing in Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K G Saw

    Full Text Available The Burstein-Moss shift and band gap narrowing of sputtered indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO thin films are investigated as a function of carrier concentrations. The optical band gap shifts below the carrier concentration of 5.61 × 1019 cm-3 are well-described by the Burstein-Moss model. For carrier concentrations higher than 8.71 × 1019 cm-3 the shift decreases, indicating that band gap narrowing mechanisms are increasingly significant and are competing with the Burstein-Moss effect. The incorporation of In causes the resistivity to decrease three orders of magnitude. As the mean-free path of carriers is less than the crystallite size, the resistivity is probably affected by ionized impurities as well as defect scattering mechanisms, but not grain boundary scattering. The c lattice constant as well as film stress is observed to increase in stages with increasing carrier concentration. The asymmetric XPS Zn 2p3/2 peak in the film with the highest carrier concentration of 7.02 × 1020 cm-3 suggests the presence of stacking defects in the ZnO lattice. The Raman peak at 274 cm-1 is attributed to lattice defects introduced by In dopants.

  11. New Insights on the Burstein-Moss Shift and Band Gap Narrowing in Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, K G; Aznan, N M; Yam, F K; Ng, S S; Pung, S Y

    2015-01-01

    The Burstein-Moss shift and band gap narrowing of sputtered indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are investigated as a function of carrier concentrations. The optical band gap shifts below the carrier concentration of 5.61 × 1019 cm-3 are well-described by the Burstein-Moss model. For carrier concentrations higher than 8.71 × 1019 cm-3 the shift decreases, indicating that band gap narrowing mechanisms are increasingly significant and are competing with the Burstein-Moss effect. The incorporation of In causes the resistivity to decrease three orders of magnitude. As the mean-free path of carriers is less than the crystallite size, the resistivity is probably affected by ionized impurities as well as defect scattering mechanisms, but not grain boundary scattering. The c lattice constant as well as film stress is observed to increase in stages with increasing carrier concentration. The asymmetric XPS Zn 2p3/2 peak in the film with the highest carrier concentration of 7.02 × 1020 cm-3 suggests the presence of stacking defects in the ZnO lattice. The Raman peak at 274 cm-1 is attributed to lattice defects introduced by In dopants.

  12. Valence band states in Si-based p-type delta-doped field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Orozco, J C; Vlaev, Stoyan J, E-mail: jcmover@correo.unam.m [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    We present tight-binding calculations of the hole level structure of delta-doped Field Effect Transistor in a Si matrix within the first neighbors sp{sup 3}s* semi-empirical tight-binding model including spin. We employ analytical expressions for Schottky barrier potential and the p-type delta-doped well based on a Thomas-Fermi approximation, we consider these potentials as external ones, so in the computations they are added to the diagonal terms of the tight-binding Hamiltonian, by this way we have the possibility to study the energy levels behavior as we vary the backbone parameters in the system: the two-dimensional impurity density (p{sub 2d}) of the p-type delta-doped well and the contact voltage (V{sub c}). The aim of this calculation is to demonstrate that the tight-binding approximation is suitable for device characterization that permits us to propose optimal values for the input parameters involved in the device design.

  13. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H; Hussain, T; Ahuja, R; Kang, T W; Luo, W

    2016-08-24

    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties.

  14. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H.; Hussain, T.; Ahuja, R.; Kang, T. W.; Luo, W.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties. PMID:27554285

  15. On the Matsubara-Toyozawa Formalism to Treat Impurity Bands in δ-DOPED Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Lima, I. C.; da Silva, A. Ferreira

    We obtain the density of the ground and excited states for electrons bound to shallow donors in a δ-dopping of a quantum well. We use the Matsubara-Toyozawa technique to treat disorder. The impurity bands are calculated for a concentration of 9.4×109 cm-2. We show that for this concentration of interest the excited bands do not overlap the ground state.

  16. Emission tunability and local environment in europium-doped OH{sup −}-free calcium aluminosilicate glasses for artificial lighting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Aline M.; Sandrini, Marcelo; Viana, José Renato M.; Baesso, Mauro L.; Bento, Antônio C.; Rohling, Jurandir H. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av Colombo, 5790, 87020-900, Maringá, PR (Brazil); Guyot, Yannick [Laboratoire de Physico–Chimie des Matériaux Luminescents, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, UMR 5620 CNRS 69622 (France); De Ligny, Dominique [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Erlangen Nürnberg, Martens str. 5, 91058, Erlangen (Germany); Nunes, Luiz Antônio O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense400, 13566-590, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Gandra, Flávio G. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sampaio, Juraci A. [Lab Ciências Físicas, Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense, 28013-602, Campos Dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Sandro M.; Andrade, Luis Humberto C. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Óptica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul-UEMS, Dourados, MS, C. P. 351, CEP 79804-970 (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-15

    The relationship between emission tunability and the local environment of europium ions in OH{sup −}-free calcium aluminosilicate glasses was investigated, focusing on the development of devices for artificial lighting. Significant conversion of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} was obtained by means of melting the glasses under a vacuum atmosphere and controlling the silica content, resulting in broad, intense, and tunable luminescence ranging from blue to red. Electron spin resonance and X-ray absorption near edge structure measurements enabled correlation of the luminescence behavior of the material with the Eu{sup 2+}/Eu{sup 3+} concentration ratio and changes in the surrounding ions' crystal field. The coordinates of the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram were calculated from the spectra, and the contour maps showed that the light emitted from Eu{sup 2+} presented broad bands and enhanced color tuning, ranging from reddish-orange to blue. The results showed that these Eu doped glasses can be used for tunable white lighting by combining matrix composition and the adjustment of the pumping wavelength. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 2+}-doped OH{sup −} free calcium aluminosilicate glass as a new source for white lighting. • Correlation between emission tunability and local environment of europium ions. • Significant reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} by melting the glasses under vacuum atmosphere. • Broad, intense and tunable luminescence ranging from blue to red.

  17. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO Nanowires Doped with Mn2+ and Co2+ Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Guojing; Chen, Chienhua; Liao, Jiecui; Li, Zhengcao

    2017-01-01

    In this research, ZnO nanowires doped with Mn2+ and Co2+ ions were synthesized through a facile and inexpensive hydrothermal approach, in which Mn2+ and Co2+ ions successfully substituted Zn2+ in the ZnO crystal lattice without changing the morphology and crystalline structure of ZnO. The atomic percentages of Mn and Co were 6.29% and 1.68%, respectively, in the doped ZnO nanowires. The photocatalytic results showed that Mn-doped and Co-doped ZnO nanowires both exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than undoped ZnO nanowires. Among the doped ZnO nanowires, Co-doped ZnO, which owns a twice active visible-light photocatalytic performance compared to pure ZnO, is considered a more efficient photocatalyst material. The enhancement of its photocatalytic performance originates from the doped metal ions, which enhance the light absorption ability and inhibit the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs as well. The effect of the doped ion types on the morphology, crystal lattice and other properties of ZnO was also investigated.

  18. A controllable growth-doping approach to synthesize bright white-light-emitting Cd:In2S3 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Xiurong

    2013-06-01

    A new type of doped Cd:In2S3 NC, which exhibits bright white-light emission with a QY of about 18%, synthesized by a one-pot G-doping synthesis approach is presented. The successful realization of temporal separation of nucleation doping and growth doping makes this approach a facile method to synthesize the In2S3/Cd:In2S3 core/shell nanostructure.A new type of doped Cd:In2S3 NC, which exhibits bright white-light emission with a QY of about 18%, synthesized by a one-pot G-doping synthesis approach is presented. The successful realization of temporal separation of nucleation doping and growth doping makes this approach a facile method to synthesize the In2S3/Cd:In2S3 core/shell nanostructure. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthetic procedure, ICP-MS, TEM, HRTEM, PL decay curves, CIE coordinates and CCT of Cd:In2S3 NCs, and PL spectra of In2S3 and CdS. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00878a

  19. Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO Nanowires Doped with Mn2+ and Co2+ Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, ZnO nanowires doped with Mn2+ and Co2+ ions were synthesized through a facile and inexpensive hydrothermal approach, in which Mn2+ and Co2+ ions successfully substituted Zn2+ in the ZnO crystal lattice without changing the morphology and crystalline structure of ZnO. The atomic percentages of Mn and Co were 6.29% and 1.68%, respectively, in the doped ZnO nanowires. The photocatalytic results showed that Mn-doped and Co-doped ZnO nanowires both exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than undoped ZnO nanowires. Among the doped ZnO nanowires, Co-doped ZnO, which owns a twice active visible-light photocatalytic performance compared to pure ZnO, is considered a more efficient photocatalyst material. The enhancement of its photocatalytic performance originates from the doped metal ions, which enhance the light absorption ability and inhibit the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs as well. The effect of the doped ion types on the morphology, crystal lattice and other properties of ZnO was also investigated.

  20. The Electric and Optical Properties of Doped Small Molecular Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kwang Ohk Cheo

    2003-01-01

    Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) constitute a new and exciting emissive display technology. In general, the basic OLED structure consists of a stack of fluorescent organic layers sandwiched between a transparent conducting-anode and metallic cathode. When an appropriate bias is applied to the device, holes are injected from the anode and electrons from the cathode; some of the recombination events between the holes and electrons result in electroluminescence (EL). Until now, most of the efforts in developing OLEDs have focused on display applications, hence on devices within the visible range. However some organic devices have been developed for ultraviolet or infrared emission. Various aspects of the device physics of doped small molecular OLEDs were described and discussed. The doping layer thickness and concentration were varied systematically to study their effects on device performances, energy transfer, and turn-off dynamics. Low-energy-gap DCM2 guest molecules, in either alpha-NPD or DPVBi host l...

  1. An Encryption-Decryption Method Using XOR Gate Based on the XPM between O-Band and C-Band Light Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-Ping; WU Chong-Qing; WANG Zhi; WANG Yong-Jun; YANG Shuang-Shou

    2009-01-01

    An all-optical encryption-decryption method using an exclusive-or gate hazed on the cross-phase modulation between O-band and C-band light waves is proposed. The feasibility of the encryption-decryption technique is verified by handling binary signals at 2.5Gbps, with less than 3dB penalty of extinction ratio and 1 dB polarization dependent loss.

  2. Effects of Ce doping on the luminescent property of Ca3 SiO4 Cl2 :Eu phosphor for green lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingsheng

    2015-03-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for green lighting are new solutions for energy saving and environmental protection. Ca3 SiO4 Cl2 :Ce,Eu is an efficient phosphor for white LEDs. Effective energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) occurs in Ca3 SiO4 Cl2 :Ce,Eu due to good spectrum overlap between the emission band of Ca3 SiO4 Cl2 :Ce and the excitation band of Ca3 SiO4 Cl2 :Eu, and hues vary systematically from blue to green at different Ce concentrations. A great improvement in the luminescent property of Ca3 SiO4 Cl2 :Eu has been observed on Ce(3+) doping, which is attributed to energy transfer from Ce(3+) to Eu(2+) and an increase in the number of luminescent centers (Eu(2+) ) on Ce doping. The optimal sample has a quantum efficiency of up to 75%, and can be an efficient green phosphor for white LEDs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of N-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Acephate Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodic oxidation method and then annealed in a N2 atmosphere to obtain N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The samples were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS, and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis spectrum. Degradation of the insecticide acephate under the visible light was used as a model to examine the visible-light photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The results show that N type doping has no notable effects on the morphology and structure of TiO2 nanotube arrays. After N type doping, the N replaces a small amount of O in TiO2, forming an N–Ti–O structure. This shifts the optical absorption edge and enhances absorption of the visible light. N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays subjected to annealing at 500°C in N2 atmosphere show the strongest photocatalytic activity and reach a degradation rate of 84% within 2 h.

  4. The ALMA Band 9 receiver. Design, construction, characterization, and first light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Mena, F. P.; Klapwijk, T. M.; van Kempen, T. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Jackson, B. D.; Adema, J.; Gerlofsma, G. J.; Bekema, M. E.; Barkhof, J.; de Haan-Stijkel, L. H. R.; van den Bemt, M.; Koops, A.; Keizer, K.; Pieters, C.; Koops van het Jagt, J.; Schaeffer, H. H. A.; Zijlstra, T.; Kroug, M.; Lodewijk, C. F. J.; Wielinga, K.; Boland, W.; de Graauw, M. W. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jager, H.; Wild, W.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We describe the design, construction, and characterization of the Band 9 heterodyne receivers (600-720 GHz) for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). First-light Band 9 data, obtained during ALMA commissioning and science verification phases, are presented as well. Methods: The ALMA Band 9 receiver units (so-called "cartridges"), which are installed in the telescope's front end, have been designed to detect and down-convert two orthogonal linear polarization components of the light collected by the ALMA antennas. The light entering the front end is refocused with a compact arrangement of mirrors, which is fully contained within the cartridge. The arrangement contains a grid to separate the polarizations and two beam splitters to combine each resulting beam with a local oscillator signal. The combined beams are fed into independent double-sideband mixers, each with a corrugated feedhorn coupling the radiation by way of a waveguide with backshort cavity into an impedance-tuned superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction that performs the heterodyne down-conversion. Finally, the generated intermediate frequency (IF) signals are amplified by cryogenic and room-temperature HEMT amplifiers and exported to the telescope's IF back end for further processing and, finally, correlation. Results: The receivers have been constructed and tested in the laboratory and they show an excellent performance, complying with ALMA requirements. Performance statistics on all 73 Band 9 receivers are reported. Importantly, two different tunnel-barrier technologies (necessitating different tuning circuits) for the SIS junctions have been used, namely conventional AlOx barriers and the more recent high-current-density AlN barriers. On-sky characterization and tests of the performance of the Band 9 cartridges are presented using commissioning data. Continuum and line images of the low-mass protobinary IRAS 16293-2422 are presented which were obtained as part

  5. Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws; Majeed Khan, M A; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2015-09-08

    We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of Al(x)Zn(1-x)O nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 &caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved.

  6. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability.

  7. High Thermoelectric Performance by Convergence of Bands in IV-VI Semiconductors, Heavily Doped PbTe, and Alloys/Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Pei, Yanzhong (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention teaches an effective mechanism for enhancing thermoelectric performance through additional conductive bands. Using heavily doped p-PbTe materials as an example, a quantitative explanation is disclosed, as to why and how these additional bands affect the figure of merit. A high zT of approaching 2 at high temperatures makes these simple, likely more stable (than nanostructured materials) and Tl-free materials excellent for thermoelectric applications.

  8. Eu3+-Doped Wide Band Gap Zn2SnO4 Semiconductor Nanoparticles: Structure and Luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrievska, Mirjana; Ivetic, Tamara B.; Litvinchuk, Alexander P.; Fairbrother, Andrew; Miljevic, Bojan B.; Strbac, Goran R.; Rodriguez, Alejandro Perez; Lukic-Petrovic, Svetlana R.

    2016-08-25

    Nanocrystalline Zn2SnO4 powders doped with Eu3+ ions were synthesized via a mechanochemical solid-state reaction method followed by postannealing in air at 1200 degrees C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies provide convincing evidence for the incorporation of Eu3+ ions into the host matrix on noncentrosymmetric sites of the cubic inverse spinel lattice. Microstructural analysis shows that the crystalline grain size decreases with the addition of Eu3+. Formation of a nanocrystalline Eu2Sn2O7 secondary phase is also observed. Luminescence spectra of Eu3+-doped samples show several emissions, including narrow-band magnetic dipole emission at 595 nm and electric dipole emission at 615 nm of the Eu3+ ions. Excitation spectra and lifetime measurements suggest that Eu3+ ions are incorporated at only one symmetry site. According to the crystal field theory, it is assumed that Eu3+ ions participate at octahedral sites of Zn2+ or Sn4+ under a weak crystal field, rather than at the tetrahedral sites of Zn2+, because of the high octahedral stabilization energy for Eu3+. Activation of symmetry forbidden (IR-active and silent) modes is observed in the Raman scattering spectra of both pure and doped samples, indicating a disorder of the cation sublattice of Zn2SnO4 nanocrystallites. These results were further supported by the first principle lattice dynamics calculations. The spinel-type Zn2SnO4 shows effectiveness in hosting Eu3+ ions, which could be used as a prospective green/red emitter. This work also illustrates how sustainable and simple preparation methods could be used for effective engineering of material properties.

  9. Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser at C-band region based on WS₂ saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H; Ruslan, N E; Ismail, M A; Reduan, S A; Lee, C S J; Sathiyan, S; Sivabalan, S; Harun, S W

    2016-02-10

    We demonstrate a Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using tungsten disulfide (WS₂) as a saturable absorber. The WS₂ is deposited onto fiber ferrules using a drop-casting method. Passive Q-switched pulses operating in the C-band region with a central wavelength of 1560.7 nm are successfully generated by a tunable pulse repetition rate ranging from 27.2 to 84.8 kHz when pump power is increased from 40 to 220 mW. At the same time, the pulse width decreases from a maximum value of 3.84 μs to a minimum value of 1.44 μs. The signal-to-noise ratio gives a stable value of 43.7 dB. The modulation depth and saturation intensity are measured to be 0.99% and 36.2  MW/cm², respectively.

  10. Analysis of the experimental data for impurity-band conduction in Mn-doped InSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajikawa, Yasutomo [Department of Electric and Control Systems Engineering, Interdisciplinary Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    The experimental data of the temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurements on Mn-doped p -type InSb samples, which exhibit the anomalous sign reversal of the Hall coefficient to negative at low temperatures, have been analyzed on the basis of the nearest-neighbor hopping model in an impurity band. It is shown that the anomalous sign reversal of the Hall coefficient to negative can be well explained with assuming the hopping Hall factor in the form of A{sub hop} = (k{sub B}T/J{sub 3}) exp(K{sub NNH}T{sub 3}/T) with the negative sign of J{sub 3}. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Enhanced photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals-doped cellulose nanofibers by plasmonic light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Zhang, Ran [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States); Reinhard, Björn M. [Department of Chemistry and Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Fujii, Minoru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Perotto, Giovanni; Marelli, Benedetto; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Physics, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Dal Negro, Luca, E-mail: dalnegro@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-07-27

    We report the development of bio-compatible cellulose nanofibers doped with light emitting silicon nanocrystals and Au nanoparticles via facile electrospinning. By performing photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced PL by a factor of 2.2 with negligible non-radiative quenching due to plasmon-enhanced scattering of excitation light from Au nanoparticles to silicon nanocrystals inside the nanofibers. These findings provide an alternative approach for the development of plasmon-enhanced active systems integrated within the compact nanofiber geometry. Furthermore, bio-compatible light-emitting nanofibers prepared by a cost-effective solution-based processing are very promising platforms for biophotonic applications such as fluorescence sensing and imaging.

  12. Microscopical characterization of known postmortem root bands using light and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietpas, Jack; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Richard, Adam H; Shaw, Stephen; Castillo, Hilda S; Donfack, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    A postmortem root band (PMRB) is a distinct microscopic feature that is postulated to occur in hair remaining in the follicle during the postmortem interval [1] (Petraco et al., 1998). The scientific validity of this premise has been highlighted in two recent high-profile criminal cases involving PMRBs [2,3] (State of Florida v. Casey Marie Anthony, 2008; People v. Kogut, 2005). To better understand the fundamental aspects of postmortem root banding, the microscopical properties of known PMRBs(1) were characterized by light microscopy, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of microtomed sections of hairs showing root banding. The results from this study show that the appearance of the PMRB may be due to the degradation of the chemically labile, non-keratin intermacrofibrillar matrix (IMM) in the pre-keratin/keratogenous region of anagen hairs. In addition, this degradation is confined to the cortex of the hair, with no apparent damage to the layers of the cuticle. These results could provide valuable information for determining the mechanism of band formation, as well as identify a set of microscopic features that could be used to distinguish hairs with known PMRBs from similarly looking environmentally degraded hairs. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Fabrication of bidirectionally doped β-Bi2O3/TiO2-NTs with enhanced photocatalysis under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deyi; Zhang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei; Guo, Sujin

    2013-08-15

    Stable β-Bi2O3/TiO2-NTs photocatalyst with excellent visible-light-activity is successfully prepared by bidirectional doping. Stake structure of the TiO2-NTs provides a larger specific surface area and makes the contact area between the TiO2-NTs and β-Bi2O3 much larger; The stake structure of TiO2-NTs not only leads to a firmer combination of TiO2-NTs and β-Bi2O3, but also makes them dope one another deeply. The modification of Bi species into TiO2-NTs can form Bi-O-Ti chemical absorption bonds, then a localized impurity level is generated within the band gap. Electrons can be excited and transferred from the Bi(3+) impurity level to the conduction band (CB) of TiO2, similar to narrowing the band-gap of TiO2-NTs, resulting in a red shift of the absorption edge and an enhancement in visible-light activity. During annealing, Bi atoms are partially replaced by Ti atoms. The lattice of β-Bi2O3 is compressed around the Ti impurity, making the lattice dislocate and distort. This dislocation and distortion leads to an increase in the β-Bi2O3 valance band (VB), from 2.02 to 2.28 eV. Accordingly, the weak oxidability of β-Bi2O3 is improved, and its photocatalytic ability is further enhanced. Moreover, this lattice dislocation and distortion changes the Bi-O distances, thus remarkably improving the stability of the β-Bi2O3/TiO2-NTs.

  14. Empirical determination of the energy band gap narrowing in p{sup +} silicon heavily doped with boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Di, E-mail: di.yan@anu.edu.au; Cuevas, Andres [Research School of Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-11-21

    In the analysis of highly doped silicon, energy band gap narrowing (BGN) and degeneracy effects may be accounted for separately, as a net BGN in conjunction with Fermi-Dirac statistics, or lumped together in an apparent BGN used with Boltzmann statistics. This paper presents an experimental study of silicon highly doped with boron, with the aim of evaluating the applicability of previously reported BGN models. Different boron diffusions covering a broad range of dopant densities were prepared, and their characteristic recombination current parameters J{sub 0} were measured using a contactless photoconductance technique. The BGN was subsequently extracted by matching theoretical simulations of carrier transport and recombination in each of the boron diffused regions and the measured J{sub 0} values. An evaluation of two different minority carrier mobility models indicates that their impact on the extraction of the BGN is relatively small. After considering possible uncertainties, it can be concluded that the BGN is slightly larger in p{sup +} silicon than in n{sup +} silicon, in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions by Schenk. Nevertheless, in quantitative terms that theoretical model is found to slightly underestimate the BGN in p{sup +} silicon. With the two different parameterizations derived in this paper for the BGN in p{sup +} silicon, both statistical approaches, Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac, provide a good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Critical increase in Na-doping facilitates acceptor band movements that yields ~180 meV shallow hole conduction in ZnO bulk crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Narendra S.; Yim, Haena; Choi, Ji-Won

    2017-03-01

    Stable p-type conduction in ZnO has been a long time obstacle in utilizing its full potential such as in opto-electronic devices. We designed a unique experimental set-up in the laboratory for high Na-doping by thermal diffusion in the bulk ZnO single crystals. SIMS measurement shows that Na concentration increases by 3 orders of magnitude, to ~3 × 1020 cm‑3 as doping temperature increases to 1200 °C. Electronic infrared absorption was measured for Na-acceptors. Absorption bands were observed near (0.20–0.24) eV. Absorption bands blue shifted by 0.04 eV when doped at 1200 °C giving rise to shallow acceptor level. NaZn band movements as a function of doping temperature are also seen in Photoluminescence emission (PL), Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and UV-Vis transmission measurements. Variable temperature Hall measurements show stable p-type conduction with hole binding energy ~0.18 eV in ZnO samples that were Na-doped at 1200 °C.

  16. Enhanced p-type conductivity and band gap narrowing in heavily Al doped NiO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, S; Maiti, U N; Ghosh, C K; Chattopadhyay, K K

    2009-03-18

    Stoichiometric NiO, a Mott-Hubbard insulator at room temperature, shows p-type electrical conduction due to the introduction of Ni(2+) vacancies (V(Ni)('')) and self-doping of Ni(3+) ions in the presence of excess oxygen. The electrical conductivity of this important material is low and not sufficient for active device fabrication. Al doped NiO thin films were synthesized by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 250 °C in an oxygen + argon atmosphere in order to enhance the p-type electrical conductivity. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the correct phase formation and also oriented growth of NiO thin films. Al doping was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated as a function of Al doping (0-4 wt%) in the target. The room temperature electrical conductivity increased from 0.01-0.32 S cm (-1) for 0-4% Al doping. With increasing Al doping, above the Mott critical carrier density, energy band gap shrinkage was observed. This was explained by the shift of the band edges due to the existence of exchange and correlation energies amongst the electron-electron and hole-hole systems and also by the interaction between the impurity quasi-particle system.

  17. Near Band Edge Emission by Free Exciton Decay and Intrinsic Ferromagnetic Ordering of Cu-Doped SnO2 Hollow Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanapriya, P; Jaya, N Victor

    2015-03-01

    High quality nanocrystalline pristine and Cu-doped SnO2 hollow nanofibers were successfully prepared through simple and effective electrospinning technique. Nanofibers calcined at 600 °C for 3 h were characterized with different analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron Microscope (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Observed TEM images and XRD patterns were corroborate to the formation of tetragonal crystalline SnO2 hollow nanofibers with rutile phase. Excellent optical behaviour was observed for Cu-doped SnO2. Highly intense near band edge emission at 3.58 eV for Cu-doped SnO2 evidences the free exciton decay process in the hollow nanofibers. For the first time we have reported here the near band edge PL emission in Cu-doped SnO2 tubular hollow nanostructure. This study substantiates that material potential for UV-lasing application. In addition to the above, magnetic measurement ascribes that Cu-doped SnO2 exhibit the intrinsic room temperature ferromagnetism within the low field strength. The occurrence of ferromagnetism in Cu-doped SnO2 is directly related to the p-d ferromagnetic exchange coupling between the local magnetic moment of Cu2+ and the polarized valence electrons of surrounding oxygen. Over all this study provides the primary information about tunable multifunctionality of SnO2 hollow nanostructures by adding the non-magnetic Cu ions.

  18. The role of deep acceptor centers in the oxidation of acceptor-doped wide-band-gap perovskites ABO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilov, L. P.; Tsidilkovski, V. I.

    2017-03-01

    The impact of deep acceptor centers on defect thermodynamics and oxidation of wide-band-gap acceptor-doped perovskites without mixed-valence cations is studied. These deep centers are formed by the acceptor-bound small hole polarons whose stabilization energy can be high enough (significantly higher than the hole-acceptor Coulomb interaction energy). It is shown that the oxidation enthalpy ΔHox of oxide is determined by the energy εA of acceptor-bound states along with the formation energy EV of oxygen vacancies. The oxidation reaction is demonstrated to be either endothermic or exothermic, and the regions of εA and EV values corresponding to the positive or negative ΔHox are determined. The contribution of acceptor-bound holes to the defect thermodynamics strongly depends on the acceptor states depth εA: it becomes negligible at εA less than a certain value (at which the acceptor levels are still deep). With increasing εA, the concentration of acceptor-bound small hole polarons can reach the values comparable to the dopant content. The results are illustrated with the acceptor-doped BaZrO3 as an example. It is shown that the experimental data on the bulk hole conductivity of barium zirconate can be described both in the band transport model and in the model of hopping small polarons localized on oxygen ions away from the acceptor centers. Depending on the εA magnitude, the oxidation reaction can be either endothermic or exothermic for both mobility mechanisms.

  19. Influence of NH3-treating temperature on visible light photocatalytic activity of N-doped P25-Ti02

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WeiPing; WANG Yan; JIN ZhenSheng; FENG CaiXia; WU ZhiShen; ZHANG ZhiJun

    2009-01-01

    The influence of NH3-treating temperature on the visible light photocatalytic activity of N-doped P25-TiO2 as well as the relationship between the surface composition structure of TiO2 and its visible lightphotocatalytic activity were investigated. The results showed that N-doped P25-TiO2 treated at 600°C had the highest activity. The structure of P25-Ti02 was converted from anatase to rutile at 700°C. More-over,no N-doping was detected at the surface of P25-Ti02. There was no simply linear relationship be-tween the visible light photocatalytic activity and the concentration of doped nitrogen,and visible light absorption. The visible light photocatalytic activity of N-doped P25-Ti02 was mainly influenced by the synergistic action of the following factors: (i) the formation of the single-electron-trapped oxygen va-cancies (denoted as Vo); (ii) the doped nitrogen on the surface of TiO2; (iii) the anatase TiO2 structure.

  20. Controlling Proton Conductivity with Light: A Scheme Based on Photoacid Doping of Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Shima; Ostresh, Sarah; Dawlaty, Jahan M

    2016-02-11

    Transducing light energy to changes in material properties is central to a large range of functional materials, including those used in light harvesting. In conventional semiconductors, photoconductivity arises due to generation of mobile electrons or holes with light. Here we demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, an analogue of this effect for protons in an organic polymer solution and in water. We show that when a material is doped with photoacids, light excitation generates extra mobile protons that change the low-frequency conductivity of the material. We measure such change both in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and in water sandwiched between two transparent electrodes and doped with a well-known photoacid 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS). The complex impedance of the material is measured over a range of 0.1 Hz-1 MHz in both the presence and absence of light, and it is found that shining light changes the low frequency impedance significantly. We model the impedance spectra of the material with a minimal circuit composed of a diffusive impedance (Warburg element), a parallel capacitance, and a resistance. Fitting the light and dark impedance spectra to the model reveals that light reduces the low-frequency diffusive impedance of the material, which is consistent with generation of extra free carriers by light. We further suggest that the light-induced conductivity change arises mainly due to those photoreleased protons that manage to escape the zone of influence of the parent ion and avoid recapture. Such escape is more likely in materials with larger diffusion coefficient for protons and shorter electrostatic screening lengths for the parent ion. This explanation is consistent with our observed differences in the photoconductivity of solution of HPTS in water and in PEG. We anticipate that this scheme can be employed in protonic circuits where direct transduction of energy from light to protonic gradients or protonic currents is

  1. A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band

    OpenAIRE

    Sergei V. Firstov; Sergey V. Alyshev; Konstantin E. Riumkin; Khopin, Vladimir F.; Alexey N. Guryanov; Melkumov, Mikhail A.; Evgeny M. Dianov

    2016-01-01

    It is now almost twenty-five years since the first Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) was demonstrated. Currently, the EDFA is one of the most important elements widely used in different kinds of fiber-optic communication systems. However, driven by a constantly increasing demand, the network traffic, growing exponentially over decades, will lead to the overload of these systems (“capacity crunch”) because the operation of the EDFA is limited to a spectral region of 1530–1610 nm. It will req...

  2. A wide-angle metamaterial narrow-band-stop filter for 532 nm wavelength green light

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Liyang; Yan, Bing; Tung, Nguyen Thanh; Lam, Vu Dinh; Wang, Zengbo

    2016-01-01

    Traditional optical interference narrow-band-stop filters do not possess wide-angle property, because peaks and troughs of filter spectrum would be moved at a non-normal angle of incidence (AOI), which could result in functional failure in particular cases, e.g. blocking of laser for pilot in cockpit during premeditated laser pointer direct. For this reason, we designed a wide-angle metamaterial narrow-band-stop filter assembled by cross shaped units to block 532 nm green light, which is firstly reported in the world. Unnecessary shift of spectrum caused by AOI change is effectively inhibited, and angular tolerance of wide-angle capability achieves to 35 degrees non-normal AOIs.

  3. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-06-29

    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  4. Cholesteric liquid crystalline materials with a dual circularly polarized light reflection band fixed at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agez, Gonzague; Mitov, Michel

    2011-05-26

    An unpolarized normal-incidence light beam reflected by a cholesteric liquid crystal is left- or right-circularly polarized, in the cholesteric temperature range. In this article, we present a novel approach for fabricating a cholesteric liquid crystalline material that exhibits reflection bands with both senses of polarization at room temperature. A cholesteric liquid crystal that presents a twist inversion at a critical temperature T(c) is blended with a small quantity of photopolymerizable monomers. Upon ultraviolet irradiation above T(c), the liquid crystal becomes a polymer-stabilized liquid crystal. Below T(c), the material reflects a dual circularly polarized band in the infrared. By quenching the experimental cell at a temperature below the blend's melting point, the optical properties of the material in an undercooled state are conserved for months at room temperature, which is critical to potential applications such as heat-repelling windows and polarization-independent photonic devices.

  5. The diverse broad-band light-curves of Swift GRBs reproduced with the cannonball model

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo; De Rújula, A

    2009-01-01

    Two radiation mechanisms, inverse Compton scattering (ICS) and synchrotron radiation (SR), suffice within the cannonball (CB) model of long gamma ray bursts (LGRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) to provide a very simple and accurate description of their observed prompt emission and afterglows. Simple as they are, the two mechanisms and the burst environment generate the rich structure of the light curves at all frequencies and times. This is demonstrated for 33 selected Swift LGRBs and XRFs, which are well sampled from early time until late time and well represent the entire diversity of the broad band light curves of Swift LGRBs and XRFs. Their prompt gamma-ray and X-ray emission is dominated by ICS of glory light. During their fast decline phase, ICS is taken over by SR which dominates their broad band afterglow. The pulse shape and spectral evolution of the gamma-ray peaks and the early-time X-ray flares, and even the delayed optical `humps' in XRFs, are correctly predicted. The canonical and non-canonical X-ra...

  6. Cost-effective and eco-friendly synthesis of novel and stable N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 core-shell nanoplates with excellent visible-light responsive photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Baruah, Arabinda; Tonda, Surendar; Kumar, Bharat; Shanker, Vishnu; Sreedhar, B

    2014-05-07

    N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 hybrid core-shell nanoplates have been successfully prepared via a facile, cost-effective and eco-friendly ultrasonic dispersion method for the first time. HRTEM studies confirm the formation of the N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 hybrid core-shell nanoplates with an average diameter of 50 nm and the g-C3N4 shell thickness can be tuned by varying the content of loaded g-C3N4. The direct contact of the N-doped ZnO surface and g-C3N4 shell without any adhesive interlayer introduced a new carbon energy level in the N-doped ZnO band gap and thereby effectively lowered the band gap energy. Consequently, the as-prepared hybrid core-shell nanoplates showed a greatly enhanced visible-light photocatalysis for the degradation of Rhodamine B compare to that of pure N-doped ZnO surface and g-C3N4. Based on the experimental results, a proposed mechanism for the N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst was discussed. Interestingly, the hybrid core-shell nanoplates possess high photostability. The improved photocatalytic performance is due to a synergistic effect at the interface of the N-doped ZnO and g-C3N4 including large surface-exposure area, energy band structure and enhanced charge-separation properties. Significantly, the enhanced performance also demonstrates the importance of evaluating new core-shell composite photocatalysts with g-C3N4 as shell material.

  7. Asymmetrically doped stacked channel strained SOI FinFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shashank; Kondekar, Pravin N.

    2017-02-01

    Strained SOI (SSOI) n-channel trigate FinFET is designed with asymmetrically doped stacked channels along the fin height. The OFF current is reduced with respect to lightly doped uniform SSOI FinFET because of band gap modification, originated between highly doped uniaxial strained and lightly doped Si fin. Through TCAD simulation it is observed that for the stacked devices the OFF current is reduced by more than 47%. The performances are also compared with highly doped uniform SSOI FinFETs and the results indicated that these devices have lesser random dopant variation at a moderate cost of ON and OFF current.

  8. Theoretical modelling of intermediate band solar cell materials based on metal-doped chalcopyrite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, P. [Instituto de Energia Solar and Dpt. de Tecnologias Especiales, ETSI de Telecomunicacion, UPM, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: pablop@etsit.upm.es; Sanchez, K. [Instituto de Energia Solar and Dpt. de Tecnologias Especiales, ETSI de Telecomunicacion, UPM, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Conesa, J.C. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez, J.J. [Dpt. de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, 28080, Madrid (Spain); Wahnon, P. [Instituto de Energia Solar and Dpt. de Tecnologias Especiales, ETSI de Telecomunicacion, UPM, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-05-31

    Electronic structure calculations are carried out for CuGaS{sub 2} partially substituted with Ti, V, Cr or Mn to ascertain if some of these systems could provide an intermediate band material able to give a high efficiency photovoltaic cell. Trends in electronic level positions are analyzed and more accurate advanced theory levels (exact exchange or Hubbard-type methods) are used in some cases. The Ti-substituted system seems more likely to yield an intermediate band material with the desired properties, and furthermore seems realizable from the thermodynamic point of view, while those with Cr and Mn might give half-metal structures with applications in spintronics.

  9. Antibacterial properties of F-doped ZnO visible light photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podporska-Carroll, Joanna, E-mail: joannapcarroll@gmail.com [Center for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), DIT FOCAS Institute, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); Myles, Adam [Center for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), DIT FOCAS Institute, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); Quilty, Brid [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland); McCormack, Declan E.; Fagan, Rachel [Center for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), DIT FOCAS Institute, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); Hinder, Steven J. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering (DBCEE), 705 Engineering Research Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Pillai, Suresh C., E-mail: Pillai.Suresh@itsligo.ie [Center for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), DIT FOCAS Institute, Kevin St., Dublin (Ireland); Nanotechnology Research Group, Department of Environmental Science, PEM Centre, Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo (Ireland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • F doped ZnO nano-powders were obtained by a modified sol–gel method. • These materials were found to be effective against S. aureus and E. coli. • Enhanced visible light photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties were obtained. • The toxic effect of ZnO on bacteria can be due to the release of zinc cations. • Production of reactive oxidation species influences bacterial viability. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline ZnO photocatalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method and modified with fluorine to improve their photocatalytic anti-bacterial activity in visible light. Pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) were employed to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of synthesized materials. The interaction with biological systems was assessed by analysis of the antibacterial properties of bacteria suspended in 2% (w/w) powder solutions. The F-doping was found to be effective against S. aureus (99.99% antibacterial activity) and E. coli (99.87% antibacterial activity) when irradiated with visible light. Production of reactive oxygen species is one of the major factors that negatively impact bacterial growth. In addition, the nanosize of the ZnO particles can also be toxic to microorganisms. The small size and high surface-to-volume ratio of the ZnO nanoparticles are believed to play a role in enhancing antimicrobial activity.

  10. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets: synthesis, characterization and visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Quanjun; Yu, Jiaguo; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2011-03-21

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped TiO(2) nanosheets with exposed {001} facets (N-S-TiO(2)) were prepared by a simple mixing-calcination method using the hydrothermally prepared TiO(2) nanosheets powder as a precursor and thiourea as a dopant. The resulting samples were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The electronic properties of N,S co-doped TiO(2) were studied using the first-principle density functional theory (DFT). The photocatalytic activity of N-S-TiO(2) was evaluated by degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The production of hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) on the surface of visible-light-irradiated samples was detected by photoluminescence technique using terephthalic acid as a probe molecule. The results show that nitrogen and sulfur atoms were successfully incorporated into the lattice of TiO(2), which resulted in N-S-TiO(2) samples exhibiting stronger absorption in the UV-visible range with a red shift in the band gap transition. The first-principle DFT calculations further confirm that N and S co-dopants can induce the formation of new energy levels in the band gap, which is associated with the response of N-S-TiO(2) nanosheets to visible light irradiation. Surprisingly, pure TiO(2) nanosheets show the visible-light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of 4-CP mainly due to the substrate-surface complexation of TiO(2) and 4-CP, which results in extending absorption of titania to visible light region through ligand-to-titanium charge transfer. The N-S-TiO(2) samples studied exhibited an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2). Especially, the doped TiO(2) sample at the nominal weight ratio of thiourea to TiO(2) powder of 2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity, which was about twice greater than that of Degussa P25. The enhanced activity of

  11. Spectral variation of light-emitting diodes based on organic molecules doped polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes based on naphthylimine-gallium complexes doped into a PPV derivative have been fabricated by a spin coating method.Color variation from green to blue with increase of the applied voltage has been observed.And the electroluminescent intensity of the blend samples is much stronger than that of the samples containing the complexes only.The results have been attributed to the variation of the recombination zone and the charge transfer between the materials.The process of the charge transport has been analyzed in detail.

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Polymer Optical Fibers Doped with Perylene-Derivatives for Fluorescent Lighting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso Parola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Four different dye-doped polymer optical fibers (POFs have been fabricated following a two-step fabrication process of preform extrusion and fiber drawing, using poly-(methyl methacrylate (PMMA as host material and dye derivatives from perylene and naphtalimide as active dopants. The side illumination technique (SIT has been employed in order to determine some optical properties of the fabricated fibers, such as the side illumination coupling efficiency, optical loss coefficients, and their performance under solar simulator excitation. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of the manufactured fibers for fluorescent lighting applications, specially targeting on fluorescent fiber based solar concentrators.

  13. ZIF-8 derived porous N-doped ZnO with enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Lu, Haiqiang; Gu, Xiaoli; Qiu, Jianhao; Jia, Mingmin; Huang, Chaobo; Yao, Jianfeng

    2017-03-01

    A facile and simple method was offered to synthesize porous N-doped ZnO via direct calcination of urea and ZIF-8 mixture. From XRD and XPS analysis, nitrogen has been successfully incorporated into ZnO lattices without introducing other N-containing or Zn-containing phases. Such nitrogen doping can enhance the visible-light harvesting ability and inhibit the recombination rate of electron-hole pairs; as a result, improved visible-light driven photocatalytic activity was achieved in N-doped porous ZnO and the photocatalytic activity of N-doped ZnO is 2.58 times higher than that of ZIF-derived pure ZnO.

  14. Investigation of band offsets and direct current leakage properties of nitrogen doped epitaxial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chaudhuri, Ayan; Osten, H. J. [Institute of Electronic Materials and Devices, Leibniz University of Hannover, Schneiderberg 32, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Fissel, A. [Information Technology Laboratory, Leibniz University of Hannover, Schneiderberg 32, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-05-14

    Dielectric properties of epitaxial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown on Si have been found to improve significantly by incorporation of suitable dopants. However, in order to achieve optimum electrical properties from such doped oxides, it is important to understand the correlation between doping and the electronic structure of the material. In the present article, we report about the effect of nitrogen doping on the electronic structure and room temperature dc leakage properties of epitaxial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films. Epitaxial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:N thin films were grown on p-type Si (111) substrates by solid source molecular beam epitaxy technique using molecular N{sub 2}O as the nitridation agent. First investigations confirmed the presence of substitutional N in the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:N layers. Incorporation of nitrogen did not affect the structural quality of the oxide layers. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations revealed band gap narrowing in epitaxial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to nitrogen doping, which leads to reduction in the valence band offset of the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:N layers with Si. DC leakage current measured at room temperature revealed that despite reduction in the band gap and valence band offsets due to N doping, the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:N layers remain sufficiently insulating. A significant reduction of the leakage current densities in the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}:N layers with increasing nitrogen content suggests that doping of epitaxial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films with nitrogen can be an effective route to eliminate the adverse effects of the oxygen vacancy induced defects in the oxide layers.

  15. Carbon-nanotube-assisted nanoepitaxy of Si-doped GaN for improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ah Hyun; Chandramohan, S.; Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Gun Hee; Min, Kyung Hyun; Hong, Chang-Hee; Jong Kim, Myung; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as nanomasks on an undoped GaN template, a significant biaxial stress relaxation was achieved in the subsequently-grown Si-doped n-GaN layer. Enhanced near band edge (NBE) emission intensity, similar free carrier concentrations, and the reduced peak width of the asymmetric (102) crystallographic plane all confirmed the suppression of threading dislocations due to the nanoepitaxial growth process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) revealed improved internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown on this n-GaN layer. Furthermore, enhanced light output power and a remarkable reduction in efficiency droop were observed for the blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), especially at higher injection currents. Our results emphasize the strong potential for SWCNTs as nanomasks in the heteroepitaxy of GaN-based devices without the exploitation of complicated lithography or etching processes.

  16. Bistable light shutter using dye-doped liquid crystals for a see-through display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jae-Won; Heo, Joon; Yu, Byeong-Huh; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    See-through displays have got high attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, see-through displays that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been actively studied. However, a see-through display using OLEDs cannot provide black color because of their see-through area. Although a see-through display using LCDs can provide black color with crossed polarizers, it cannot block the background. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter at the back of a see-through display. To maintain the transparent or opaque state, an electric field must be applied to a light shutter. To achieve low power consumption, a bistable light shutter using polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) has been proposed. It is switchable between the translucent and transparent states only. Therefore, it cannot provide black color. Moreover, it cannot block the background perfectly because of poor performance in the translucent state. In this work we will introduce a bistable light shutter using dye-doped CLCs. To improve the electro-optic characteristics in the opaque state, we employed a crossed electrode structure instead of a parallel one. We will demonstrate that the light shutter can exhibit stable bistable operation between the transparent homeotropic and opaque focal-conic states thanks to polymer stabilization.

  17. Nanocrystalline ZnO doped lanthanide oxide: An efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of malachite green dye under visible light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Suganya Josephine

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visible light induced semiconductor photocatalysis has received a great attention in recent years due to the contamination of water bodies. In the present study, we have reported the photo catalytic degradation of a toxic organic dye, malachite green using a ZnO doped Dy2O3 photo catalyst under visible light irradiation. The nanocrystalline photocatalyst was prepared by a precipitation method employing the respective nitrates and sodium carbonate as precursors and were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, UV–Vis DRS, FE-SEM and AFM analysis. The experimental results proved that the prepared photo catalysts were crystalline, nanosized and highly active in the visible region. UV–Vis DRS results suggested that the band gap was 3.1 eV for the prepared photo catalyst. The photodegradation efficiency of malachite green was analysed by various experimental parameters namely pH, catalyst dosage, variation of substrate concentration and effect of electrolyte addition. The photo degradation process followed a pseudo first order kinetics and was continuously monitored by UV–Visible spectrophotometer. The degradation of malachite green was above 99% within 1 h of visible light irradiation employing the doped photocatalyst, whereas pristine metal oxide possessed only 67% and pristine lanthanide oxide possessed activity which was only due to photolysis. A plausible mechanism for the generation of OH radicals and the pathway for MG dye degradation has been proposed in this study. The experimental results clearly show that nanocrystalline semiconductor doped lanthanide oxides are highly active under visible light irradiations and may find wider applications in environmental remediation technologies.

  18. An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Denghui [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Information Storage and Display, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Deng Zhenbo [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Information Storage and Display, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)]. E-mail: zbdeng@center.njtu.edu.cn; Xu Ying [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Information Storage and Display, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Xiao Jing [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Information Storage and Display, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Liang Chunjun [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Information Storage and Display, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Pei Zhiliang [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun Chao [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2005-10-10

    Doped zinc oxides are attractive alternative materials as transparent conducting electrode because they are nontoxic and inexpensive compared with indium tin oxide (ITO). Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. Films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 150-bar {sup o}C in 0.03 Pa of oxygen pressure. The electrical and optical properties of the film with the Al-doping amount of 2 wt% in the target were investigated. For the 300-nm thick AZO film deposited using a ZnO target with an Al content of 2 wt%, the lowest electrical resistivity was 4x10{sup -4}{omega}cm and the average transmission in the visible range 400-700 nm was more than 90%. The AZO film was used as an anode contact to fabricate organic light-emitting diodes. The device performance was measured and the current efficiency of 2.9 cd/A was measured at a current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on Fe3+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Bitao; WANG Ke; BAI Jie; MU Hongmei; TONG Yongchun; MIN Shixiong; SHE Shixiong; LEI Ziqiang

    2007-01-01

    Fe3+-doped TiO2 composite nanoparticles with different doping amounts were successfully synthesized using sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue was used as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of Fe3+/TiO2 nanoparticles under visible light irradia-tion. The influence of doping amount of Fe3+ (ω: 0.00%-3.00%) on photocatalytic activities of TiO2 was investigated.Results show that the size of Fe3+/TiO2 particles decreases with the increase of the amount of Fe3+ and their absorptionspectra are broaden and absorption intensities are also increased. Doping Fe3+ can control the conversion of TiO2 from anatase to rutile. The doping amount of Fe3+ remarkably affects the activity of the catalyst, and the optimum efficiency occurs at about the doping amount of 0.3%. The appropriate doping of Fe3+ can markedly increase the catalytic activity of TiO2 under visible light irradiation.

  20. Preparation and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity for Photocatalyst of Permeable Glass Membrane/TiO2 Doped with Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ke-Yan; CUI Ping; CHEN Xiao-Ming; ZHANG Min; LI Yong

    2007-01-01

    @@ The photocatalyst of permeable glass membrane/TiO2 doped with Co (permeable glass membrane/TiO2 doped with Co) is prepared by the sol-gel method. The morphology and phase of the samples are determined by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction experiment, respectively. The photocatalytic results show that the photocatalyst is sensitive to the visible light and exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity of photodegradation methylene blue. The photocatalytic mechanism is also discussed.

  1. Magnetic dispersion of the diagonal incommensurate phase in lightly doped La2-xSrxCuO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Fujita, M; Wakimoto, S; Fernandez-Baca, J A; Tranquada, J M; Yamada, K

    2008-11-07

    We present inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a single-domain crystal of lightly doped La1.96Sr0.04CuO4. We find that the magnetic excitation spectrum in this insulating phase with a diagonal incommensurate spin modulation is remarkably similar to that in the superconducting regime, where the spin modulation is bond parallel. In particular, we find that the dispersion slope at low energy is essentially independent of doping and temperature over a significant range. The energy at which the excitations cross the commensurate antiferromagnetic wave vector increases roughly linearly with doping through the underdoped regime.

  2. Annealing-induced optical and sub-band-gap absorption parameters of Sn-doped CdSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of Sn-doped CdSe were prepared by thermal evaporation onto glass substrates in an argon gas atmosphere and annealed at different temperatures. Structural evaluation of the films was carried out using X-ray diffraction and their stoichiometry studied by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The films exhibit a preferred orientation along the hexagonal direction of CdSe. The optical transmittance of the films shows a red shift of the absorption edge with annealing. The fundamental absorption edge corresponds to a direct energy gap with a temperature coefficient of 3.34 × 10-3 eV K-1. The refractive index, optical conductivity and real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constants were found to increase after annealing. The sub-band gap absorption coefficient was evaluated using the constant photocurrent method. It varies exponentially with photon energy. The Urbach energy, the density of defect states, and the steepness of the density of localized states were evaluated from the sub-band-gap absorption.

  3. Nanomaterial Host Bands Effect on the Photoluminescence Properties of Ce-Doped YAG Nanophosphor Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guerbous

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium trivalent (Ce3+ doped YAG nano-sized phosphors have been successfully synthesized by sol-gel method using different annealing temperatures. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetry (TG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and steady photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the pure cubic phase YAG was formed and strongly depends on the cerium content and the annealing temperature. It was found that the grain size ranges from 30 to 58 nm depending on the calcination temperature. The YAG: Ce nanophosphors showed intense, green-yellow emission, corresponding to Ce3+ 5d1→2F5/2, 2F7/2 transitions and its photoluminescence excitation spectrum contains the two Ce3+ 4f1→5d1, 5d2 bands. The crystal filed splitting energy levels positions 5d1 and 5d2 and the emission transitions blue shift with annealing temperatures have been discussed. It was found that the Ce3+ 4f1 ground state position relative to valence band maximum of YAG host nanomaterial decreases with increasing the temperature.

  4. Fast and complete degradation of Congo red under visible light with Er3+ and Nd3+ ions doped TiO2 nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report fast and complete destruction of the dye Congo red (CR under visible light in the presence of Nd3+ and Er3+ doped TiO2 nanocomposites (NCs. TiO2 NCs with general composition TiO2[R2O3]x, {x=0.1, 0.2; R≡ Nd, Er} and particle size 12-16 nm were synthesized through co-precipitation/hydrolysis (CPH. A set of similar composites was also prepared through solid state reaction (SSR route, which produced 31- 47 nm particles. After characterization, visible light photocatalytic activity of all the samples was recorded for the degradation of CR. NCs with molar concentration x=0.2 of both doping types produced close to 100% degradation in 180 min. The apparent rate constant (kobs was found to be 2.91×10–2 min–1 and 2.36×10–2 min–1, for these Nd3+ and Er3+ doped NCs, respectively. The other NCs with x=0.1, also showed significant degradation of CR, but the samples prepared through SSR performed worse. The excellent degradation obtained with the NCs may be attributed to their small particle size. Moreover, the doping of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions further supported the photocatalysis through formation of intermediate energy levels within the band gap of TiO2. These new levels not only acted as electron traps for efficient suppression of the undesired e–/h+ recombination, but also facilitated to a certain extent the absorption of visible irradiation.

  5. Band-tunable color cone lasing emission based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with various pitches and a pitch gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C-R; Lin, S-H; Yeh, H-C; Ji, T-D

    2009-12-07

    This study elucidates, for the first time, a novel band-tunable color cone lasing emission (CCLE) based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) films with various pitches. For several CLC cells with different pitches it was shown experimentally that the lasing band on the CCLE can be tuned among various color regions measured within different angular ranges. Some important features of the tunable CCLE are also identified and discussed. A spatially band-tunable color cone laser, based on a single DDCLC with a gradient pitch, is developed as a real application.

  6. One-step hydrothermal method to prepare nitrogen and lanthanum co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with exposed {0 0 1} facets and study on their photocatalytic activities in visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lian; Yang, Xiaofang; He, Jie; He, Yi; Wang, Dongsheng, E-mail: wangdongshengrcees@126.com

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • (0 0 1) dominated TiO{sub 2} nanosheets co-doped with N and La is synthesized. • N,La–TiO{sub 2} nanosheets shows higher visible light photocatalytic activity than N,La–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • N and La co-doping could produce a synergistic effect. • N and La co-doping could increase BET surface area. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} can be mainly improved from three approaches: (1) enhancing the separation efficiency of photoelectrons and holes, (2) enhancing surface energy, and (3) increasing availability of visible light. Here, we report a one-step method to obtain nitrogen and lanthanum co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanosheets with dominant {0 0 1} facets through a hydrothermal process, using TBOT, triethylamine and LaCl{sub 3}·nH{sub 2}O as precursor and sources of N, La respectively in HF–HNO{sub 3} mixed aqueous solution, and the samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, UV-DRS and BET analyses. The XRD and XPS results confirmed that N was doped into the lattice of anatase TiO{sub 2}, while La was not. N acts as an O–Ti–N structure or interstitial N and La exists as LaF{sub 3} in TiO{sub 2} nanosheets. The SEM and TEM results show that the percentage of {0 0 1} facets in the as-synthesized N,La–TiO{sub 2} nanosheets is estimated to be about 75% on average at R{sub F} = 1.0. N,La–TiO{sub 2} nanosheets can absorb visible light due to the red shift in the absorption edges, and compared with N–TiO{sub 2} nanosheets, N and La co-doping can further strengthen the absorption of visible light. N,La–TiO{sub 2} nanosheets exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of Rh B under visible light than pure TiO{sub 2}, N–TiO{sub 2}, La–TiO{sub 2} nanosheets and N,La–TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. N and La co-doping could produce a synergistic effect. The N doping narrowed the band gap of TiO{sub 2}, while the La doping could improve the separation efficiency of photoelectrons and holes. In

  7. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeo, M., E-mail: marco.mazzeo@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Genco, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gambino, S. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Istituto Italiano Tecnologia, Via Barsanti 1, 73010 Lecce (Italy); Ballarini, D.; Mangione, F.; Sanvitto, D. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Di Stefano, O.; Patanè, S.; Savasta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d' Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Gigli, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Istituto Italiano Tecnologia, Via Barsanti 1, 73010 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-06-09

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field with an electronic transition gives rise, for strong enough light-matter interactions, to hybrid states called exciton-polaritons. When the energy exchanged between light and matter becomes a significant fraction of the material transition energy an extreme optical regime called ultrastrong coupling (USC) is achieved. We report a microcavity embedded p-i-n monolithic organic light emitting diode working in USC, employing a thin film of squaraine dye as active layer. A normalized coupling ratio of 30% has been achieved at room temperature. These USC devices exhibit a dispersion-less angle-resolved electroluminescence that can be exploited for the realization of innovative optoelectronic devices. Our results may open the way towards electrically pumped polariton lasers.

  8. Dy{sup 3+}-doped germanate glasses for waveguide-typed irradiation light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.Y.; Shen, L.F. [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pun, E.Y.B. [Department of Electronic Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, H., E-mail: lhai8686@yahoo.com [School of Textile and Material Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-10-15

    Intense orange-yellow luminescence was achieved in trivalent dysprosium ion (Dy{sup 3+}) doped waveguide-adaptive sodium magnesium aluminium germanate (NMAG) glasses under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The dominant 482.5 nm (blue) and 574.5 nm (yellow) peaks correspond to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions, respectively. The internal quantum efficiency for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} and the total external quantum yield for the four visible emissions were calculated to be 70.88% and 8.90%, respectively. Slab and channel waveguides were attempted by K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion-exchange processes and the effective diffusion coefficient D{sub e} was derived to be 0.085 μm{sup 2}/min, indicating that thermal ion exchange was feasible to fabricate Dy{sup 3+}-doped NMAG glasses waveguide. The efficient visible emissions in Dy{sup 3+}-doped NMAG glasses demonstrate the potential in developing waveguide-typed irradiation light sources for minimally invasive photodynamic therapy. - Highlights: • Dy{sup 3+}-doped germanate glass was confirmed suitable for K{sup +}-Na{sup +} ion exchange for waveguide devices. • Orange-yellow luminescence dominated by {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 13/2} yellow emission was recorded. • High quantum efficiency of 70.88% was identified for {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} in germanate glasses. • Total quantum yield of four emissions in visible spectral region was derived to be 8.90%.

  9. Crystal-field investigations of rare-earth-doped wide band gap semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Muller, S; Wahl, U

    Crystal field investigations play a central role in the studies of rare earth doped semiconductors. Optical stark level spectroscopy and lattice location studies of radioactive rare earth isotopes implanted at ISOLDE have provided important insight into these systems during the last years. It has been shown that despite a major site preference of the probe atoms in the lattice, several defect configurations do exist. These sites are visible in the optical spectra but their origin and nature aren't deducible from these spectra alone. Hyperfine measurements on the other hand should reveal these defect configurations and yield the parameters necessary for a description of the optical properties at the atomic scale. In order to study the crystal field with this alternative approach, we propose a new concept for perturbed $\\gamma\\gamma$-angular correlation (PAC) experiments at ISOLDE based on digital signal processing in contrast to earlier analog setups. The general functionality of the spectrometer is explained ...

  10. Instantaneous band gap collapse in VO{sub 2} caused by photocarrier doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Marc; Wegkamp, Daniel; Wolf, Martin; Staehler, Julia [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Berlin (Germany); Xian, Lede; Cudazzo, Pierluigi [Univ. del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (France); Gatti, Matteo [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (France); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); McGahan, Christina L.; Marvel, Robert E.; Haglund, Richard F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Rubio, Angel [Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG, Berlin (Germany); Univ. del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) (France); MPI for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the controversially discussed mechanism of the insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) in VO{sub 2} by means of femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (trPES). Our data show that photoexcitation transforms insulating monoclinic VO{sub 2} quasi-instantaneously into a metal without an 80 fs structural bottleneck for the photoinduced electronic phase transition. First-principles many-body perturbation theory calculations reveal an ultrahigh sensitivity of the VO{sub 2} band gap to variations of the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction thus supporting the fully electronically driven isostructural IMT indicated by our trPES results. We conclude that the ultrafast band structure renormalization is caused by photoexcitation of carriers from localized V 3d valence states, strongly changing the screening before significant hot-carrier relaxation or ionic motion has occurred.

  11. Microwave-assisted aqueous synthesis of transition metal ions doped ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots with tunable white-light emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Wanlu; Mei, Shiliang; He, Liangjie; Zhu, Jiatao [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute for Electric Light Sources, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Guoping [School of Information Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo, Ruiqian, E-mail: rqguo@fudan.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute for Electric Light Sources, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • ZnSe-based QDs were formed via a microwave-assisted aqueous approach. • The stabilizer, ZnS coats and UV irradiation played a role in the PL enhancement. • Tunable white-light-emitting Mn:ZnSe QDs and Cu,Mn:ZnSe/ZnS QDs were synthesized. • The formation mechanism of Cu,Mn:ZnSe QDs was clarified. • The corresponding CIE color coordinates of different PL spectra were obtained. - Abstract: Synthesis of bright white-light emitting Mn and Cu co-doped ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) (Cu,Mn:ZnSe/ZnS) was reported. Water-soluble ZnSe-based QDs with Mn and Cu doping were prepared using a versatile hot-injection method in aqueous solution with a microwave-assisted approach. Influence of the Se/S ratio, stabilizer, refluxing time and the concentration of Cu/Mn dopant ions on the particle size and photoluminescence (PL) were investigated. The as-prepared QDs in the different stages of growth were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV–visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometer, and fluorescence spectrophotometer. It is found that these ZnSe-based QDs synthesized under mild conditions exhibit emission in the range of 390–585 nm. The PL quantum yield (QY) of the as-prepared water-soluble ZnSe QDs can be up to 24.3% after the UV-irradiation treatment. The band-gap emission of ZnSe is effectively restrained through Mn and Cu doping. The refluxing time influences the doping of not only Mn, but also Cu, which leads to the best refluxing time of Mn:ZnSe and the red-shift of the emission of Cu:ZnSe d-dots. Co-doping induced white-light emission (WLE) from Cu,Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QDs were obtained, which can offer the opportunity for future-generation white-light emitting diodes (LEDs)

  12. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped TiO2/C nanocomposites with high visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Hong; Jia, Li; Wu, Xi-Lin; Lu, Li-Qiang; Xu, An-Wu

    2012-01-21

    N-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles modified with carbon (denoted N-TiO(2)/C) were successfully prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal treatment in the presence of L-lysine, which acts as a ligand to control the nanocrystal growth and as a source of nitrogen and carbon. As-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, and N(2) adsorption-desorption analysis. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation at λ≥ 400 nm. The results show that N-TiO(2)/C nanocomposites increase absorption in the visible light region and exhibit a higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO(2), commercial P25 and previously reported N-doped TiO(2) photocatalysts. We have demonstrated that the nitrogen was doped into the lattice and the carbon species were modified on the surface of the photocatalysts. N-doping narrows the band gap and C-modification enhances the visible light harvesting and accelerates the separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes. As a consequence, the photocatalytic activity is significantly improved. The molar ratio of L-lysine/TiCl(4) and the pH of the hydrothermal reaction solution are important factors affecting the photocatalytic activity of the N-TiO(2)/C; the optimum molar ratio of L-lysine/TiCl(4) is 8 and the optimum pH is ca. 4, at which the catalyst exhibits the highest reactivity. Our findings demonstrate that the as-obtained N-TiO(2)/C photocatalyst is a better and more promising candidate than well studied N-doped TiO(2) alternatives as visible light photocatalysts for

  13. Characterizing the V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Joseph P; Hamuy, Mario; Gutiérrez, Claudia P; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; E., Felipe Olivares; Phillips, Mark M; Schulze, Steve; Antezana, Roberto; Bolt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Contreras, Carlos; de Jaeger, Thomas; Folatelli, Gastón; Förster, Francisco; Freedman, Wendy L; González, Luis; Hsiao, Eric; Krzemiński, Wojtek; Krisciunas, Kevin; Maza, José; McCarthy, Patrick; Morrell, Nidia I; Persson, Sven E; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the diversity of V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae. Analyzing a sample of 116 supernovae, several magnitude measurements are defined, together with decline rates at different epochs, and time durations of different phases. It is found that magnitudes measured at maximum light correlate more strongly with decline rates than those measured at other epochs: brighter supernovae at maximum generally have faster declining light-curves at all epochs. We find a relation between the decline rate during the 'plateau' phase and peak magnitudes, which has a dispersion of 0.56 magnitudes, offering the prospect of using type II supernovae as purely photometric distance indicators. Our analysis suggests that the type II population spans a continuum from low-luminosity events which have flat light-curves during the 'plateau' stage, through to the brightest events which decline much faster. A large range in optically thick phase durations is observed, implying a range in progeni...

  14. Band gap characterization and slow light effects in periodic and quasiperiodic one dimensional photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, J.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2008-04-01

    Slow light offers many opportunities for photonic devices by increasing the effective interaction length of imposed refractive index changes. The slow wave effect in photonic crystals is based on their unique dispersive properties and thus entirely dielectric in nature. In this work we demonstrate an interesting opportunity to decrease drastically the group velocity of light in one-dimensional photonic crystals constructed form materials with large dielectric constant without dispersion). We use numerical analysis to study the photonic properties of periodic (Bragg mirror) and quasiperiodic one dimensional photonic crystals realized to engineer slow light effects. Various geometries of the photonic pattern have been characterized and their photonic band-gap structure analyzed. Indeed, one dimensional quasi periodic photonic multilayer structure based on Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and Cantor sequences were studied. Quasiperiodic structures have a rich and highly fragmented reflectivity spectrum with many sharp resonant peaks that could be exploited in a microcavity system. A comparison of group velocity through periodic and quasiperiodic photonic crystals was discussed in the context of slow light propagation. The velocity control of pulses in materials is one of the promising applications of photonic crystals. The material systems used for the numerical analysis are TiO II/SiO II and Te/SiO II which have a refractive index contrast of approximately 1.59 and 3.17 respectively. The proposed structures were modelled using the Transfer Matrix Method.

  15. Stray light correction and contrast analysis of Hinode broad band images

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, S K; Solanki, S K

    2009-01-01

    The contrasts of features in the quiet Sun are studied using filtergrams recorded by the Broad-band Filter Imager on the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope. In a first step, the scattered light originating in the instrument is modeled using Mercury transit data. Combinations of four two-dimensional Gaussians with different widths and weights were employed to retrieve the point-spread functions (PSF) of the instrument at different wavelengths, which also describe instrumental scattered light. The parameters of PSFs at different wavelengths are tabulated. The observed images were then deconvolved using the PSFs. The corrected images were used to obtain contrasts of features such as bright points and granulation in different wavelength bands. After correction, rms contrasts of the granulation of between 0.11 (at 668 nm) and 0.22 (at 388 nm) are obtained. Similarly, bright point contrasts ranging from 0.07 (at 668 nm) to 0.78 (at 388 nm) are found, which are a factor of 1.8 to 2.8 higher than those obtained before PS...

  16. Thermo-optical and polarized light studies of MWCNT doped PDLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Jyoti; Gupta, Sureshchandra J.; Saxena, S.; Swati, K.

    2016-05-01

    Optical properties of liquid crystals (LCs) are very essential in an understanding of the technological applications of the LCs. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLCs) are prepared by dispersing the liquid crystal droplets in polymer matrix. Experiments to study thermo-optical properties and polarized light studies are considered in the present work. PDLCs used in the present work are composed of poly (methyl methacrylate) and cholestric liquid crystal namely cholesteryl propionate. These are further doped with Multi-walled carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs). Thermo-optical study reveals that there is decrease in the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature (Clearing point temperature i.e. CPT) with increase in the concentration of MWCNTs. The effect of polarized light is studied by means of change in polarization which is characteristic of the material properties. The optical constants graphs obtained from ellipsometry provides the possibility of the use of composite material for optical switching systems.

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light with Nd-doped titanium dioxide films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Xiaohong

    2009-01-01

    Microporous titanium dioxide films were prepared by the sol-gel methods on glass substrates, using tetrabutyl titanate as source material. In order to absorb the visible light and increase the photocatalytic activities, different concentrations of neodymium ions (Nd/Ti molar ratio was 0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9%, and 1.1% respectively) were added into the sol. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectros-copy (XPS), and atom force microscopy (AFM) were applied to characterize the modified films. A kind of typical textile industry pollutant (Rhodamine B) was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activities of the films under visible light. The results showed that the activities of the films were improved by doping Nd ions into the sol.

  18. Improving performance of electrostatic heater-theaters for light crude doped heavy crude; A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Ray, S.; Rai, R. [Institute of Oil and Gas Production Technology, New Bombay (India)

    1995-12-31

    Crude oil treatment systems for heavy oil assume paramount importance due to the difficult nature of emulsions formed and presence of water in the form of small droplets. With the aging of heavy oil fields, operating under active water drive, water content in the emulsion produced increases substantially. This has a direct impact on heater-treater performance and treated crude quality. A typical problem is discussed in this paper where the gradual increase in emulsion production over a period of time in heavy oil belts of ONGC have affected the electrostatic heater-treater performance, treating light crude doped heavy crude, resulting in increased BS&W (basic sediments and water) in the treated crude. Critical levels of water cut in both heavy and light crudes have been identified beyond which the existing emulsion treating system becomes ineffective. Analysis have also been carried out to identify optimum mixing proportion which result in the most effective demulsification.

  19. Characterizing the V-band Light-curves of Hydrogen-rich Type II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Hamuy, Mario; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Olivares E., Felipe; Phillips, Mark M.; Schulze, Steve; Antezana, Roberto; Bolt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Contreras, Carlos; de Jaeger, Thomas; Folatelli, Gastón; Förster, Francisco; Freedman, Wendy L.; González, Luis; Hsiao, Eric; Krzemiński, Wojtek; Krisciunas, Kevin; Maza, José; McCarthy, Patrick; Morrell, Nidia I.; Persson, Sven E.; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the diversity of V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae. Analyzing a sample of 116 supernovae, several magnitude measurements are defined, together with decline rates at different epochs, and time durations of different phases. It is found that magnitudes measured at maximum light correlate more strongly with decline rates than those measured at other epochs: brighter supernovae at maximum generally have faster declining light-curves at all epochs. We find a relation between the decline rate during the "plateau" phase and peak magnitudes, which has a dispersion of 0.56 mag, offering the prospect of using type II supernovae as purely photometric distance indicators. Our analysis suggests that the type II population spans a continuum from low-luminosity events which have flat light-curves during the "plateau" stage, through to the brightest events which decline much faster. A large range in optically thick phase durations is observed, implying a range in progenitor envelope masses at the epoch of explosion. During the radioactive tails, we find many supernovae with faster declining light-curves than expected from full trapping of radioactive emission, implying low mass ejecta. It is suggested that the main driver of light-curve diversity is the extent of hydrogen envelopes retained before explosion. Finally, a new classification scheme is introduced where hydrogen-rich events are typed as simply "SN II" with an "s 2" value giving the decline rate during the "plateau" phase, indicating its morphological type. Based on observations obtained with the du-Pont and Swope telescopes at LCO, and the Steward Observatory's CTIO60, SO90 and CTIO36 telescopes.

  20. Characterizing the V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Joseph P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Hamuy, Mario; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Antezana, Roberto; De Jaeger, Thomas; Förster, Francisco; González, Luis [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Contreras, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Olivares E, Felipe [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Phillips, Mark M.; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Hsiao, Eric [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Schulze, Steve [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Bolt, Luis [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Folatelli, Gastón [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Freedman, Wendy L. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Krzemiński, Wojtek, E-mail: janderso@eso.org [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the diversity of V-band light-curves of hydrogen-rich type II supernovae. Analyzing a sample of 116 supernovae, several magnitude measurements are defined, together with decline rates at different epochs, and time durations of different phases. It is found that magnitudes measured at maximum light correlate more strongly with decline rates than those measured at other epochs: brighter supernovae at maximum generally have faster declining light-curves at all epochs. We find a relation between the decline rate during the 'plateau' phase and peak magnitudes, which has a dispersion of 0.56 mag, offering the prospect of using type II supernovae as purely photometric distance indicators. Our analysis suggests that the type II population spans a continuum from low-luminosity events which have flat light-curves during the 'plateau' stage, through to the brightest events which decline much faster. A large range in optically thick phase durations is observed, implying a range in progenitor envelope masses at the epoch of explosion. During the radioactive tails, we find many supernovae with faster declining light-curves than expected from full trapping of radioactive emission, implying low mass ejecta. It is suggested that the main driver of light-curve diversity is the extent of hydrogen envelopes retained before explosion. Finally, a new classification scheme is introduced where hydrogen-rich events are typed as simply 'SN II' with an 's {sub 2}' value giving the decline rate during the 'plateau' phase, indicating its morphological type.

  1. Visible-light-driven Cu(II)-(Sr(1-y)Na(y))(Ti(1-x)Mo(x))O3 photocatalysts based on conduction band control and surface ion modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoqing; Miyauchi, Masahiro; Yu, Huogen; Irie, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2010-11-03

    Band-gap narrowing is generally considered to be a primary method in the design of visible-light-active photocatalysts because it can decrease the photo threshold to lower energies. However, controlling the valence band by up-shifting the top of the band or inducing localized levels above the band results in quantum efficiencies under visible light much lower than those under UV irradiation (such as those reported for N-doped TiO(2): Science 2001, 293, 269. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 5483). Herein, we report a systematic study on a novel, visible-light-driven photocatalyst based on conduction band control and surface ion modification. Cu(II)-(Sr(1-y)Na(y))(Ti(1-x)Mo(x))O(3) photocatalysts were prepared by a soft chemical method in combination with an impregnation technique. It is found that Mo(6+) as well as Na(+) doping in the SrTiO(3) can lower the bottom of the conduction band and effectively extend the absorption edge to the visible light region. The Cu(II) clusters grafted on the surface act as a co-catalyst to efficiently reduce the oxygen molecules, thus consuming the excited electrons. Consequently, photocatalytic decomposition of gaseous 2-propanol into CO(2) is achieved, that is, CH(3)CHOHCH(3) + (9)/(2)O(2) → 3CO(2) + H(2)O. For Cu(II)-(Sr(1-y)Na(y))(Ti(1-x)Mo(x))O(3) at x = 2.0% under visible light irradiation, the maximum CO(2) generation rate can reach 0.148 μmol/h; the quantum efficiency under visible light is calculated to be 14.5%, while it is 10% under UV light irradiation. Our results suggest that high visible light photocatalytic efficiency can be achieved by combining conduction band control and surface ion modification, which provides a new approach for rational design and development of high-performance photocatalysts.

  2. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films.

  3. New approach towards an optimized light trapping morphology of Al-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sittinger, V.; Dewald, W.; Szyszka, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering and Thin Films IST, Braunschweig (Germany); Saeuberlich, F. [Schmid Technology Center, Dunningen (Germany); Stannowski, B. [Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Throughout the last years strong efforts have been make to use Al-doped ZnO films on glass as substrates for amorphous or amorphous/microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The material promises better performance at low cost especially because ZnO:Al can be roughened in order to enhance the light scattering into the cell. Best optical and electrical properties are usually achieved by RF sputtering of ceramic targets. Aluminium doped ZnO films were deposited dynamically by DC magnetron sputtering from a ceramic ZnO:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} target (1 wt.%) onto an additional seed layer. The process parameters, namely oxygen partial pressure, total pressure and temperature were kept constant, only the seed layer thickness was varied. ZnO:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are investigated in respect of optical, electrical properties and etch enhanced morphology for a-Si:H/{mu}c-Si:H solar cells. Additionally the etch morphology was examined by SEM. The seed layer allows getting an optimized light trapping morphology after the hydrochloric etching which shows nearly the same as a pure RF sputtered film. (orig.)

  4. UV light emitting transparent conducting tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Chen, R; Li, D H; Jiang, L; Ye, J C; Ma, X C; Chen, X D; Xiong, Q H; Sun, H D; Wu, T

    2011-05-13

    Multifunctional single crystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowires with tuned Sn doping levels are synthesized via a vapor transport method. The Sn concentration in the nanowires can reach 6.4 at.% at a synthesis temperature of 840 °C, significantly exceeding the Sn solubility in ITO bulks grown at comparable temperatures, which we attribute to the unique feature of the vapor-liquid-solid growth. As a promising transparent conducting oxide nanomaterial, layers of these ITO nanowires exhibit a sheet resistance as low as 6.4 Ω/[Symbol: see text] and measurements on individual nanowires give a resistivity of 2.4 × 10(-4) Ω cm with an electron density up to 2.6 × 10(20) cm(-3), while the optical transmittance in the visible regime can reach ∼ 80%. Under the ultraviolet excitation the ITO nanowire samples emit blue light, which can be ascribed to transitions related to defect levels. Furthermore, a room temperature ultraviolet light emission is observed in these ITO nanowires for the first time, and the exciton-related radiative process is identified by using temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements.

  5. Doping Dependence of the $(\\pi,\\pi)$ Shadow Band in La-Based Cuprates Studied by Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Z. X.

    2011-08-15

    The ({pi},{pi}) shadow band (SB) in La-based cuprate family (La214) was studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) over a wide doping range from x = 0.01 to x = 0.25. Unlike the well-studied case of the Bi-based cuprate family, an overall strong, monotonic doping dependence of the SB intensity at the Fermi level (E{sub F}) was observed. In contrast to a previous report for the presence of the SB only close to x = 1/8, we found it exists in a wide doping range, associated with a doping-independent ({pi},{pi}) wave vector but strongly doping-dependent intensity: It is the strongest at x {approx} 0.03 and systematically diminishes as the doping increases until it becomes negligible in the overdoped regime. This SB with the observed doping dependence of intensity can in principle be caused by the antiferromagnetic fluctuations or a particular form of low-temperature orthorhombic lattice distortion known to persist up to x {approx} 0.21 in the system, with both being weakened with increasing doping. However, a detailed binding energy dependent analysis of the SB at x = 0.07 does not appear to support the former interpretation, leaving the latter as a more plausible candidate, despite a challenge in quantitatively linking the doping dependences of the SB intensity and the magnitude of the lattice distortion. Our finding highlights the necessity of a careful and global consideration of the inherent structural complications for correctly understanding the cuprate Fermiology and its microscopic implication.

  6. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity in N-doped edge- and corner-truncated octahedral Cu2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mingming; Liu, Honghong; Feng, Lu; Thomas, Tiju; Yang, Minghui

    2017-03-01

    Edge- and corner-truncated octahedral Cu2O is successfully synthesized using an aqueous mixture of CuCl2, sodium dodecyl sulfate, NaOH, and NH2OH3·HCl. Cu2O1-xNx(150 °C, 30 min) samples are synthesized by nitridation of Cu2O using an ammonothermal process. Cu retains a formal valence state through and beyond the nitridation process. N concentration in this sample is 1.73 at%, out of which 1.08 at% is substitutional in nature. Photocatalytic activity of Cu2O1-xNx(150 °C, 30 min) sample is investigated and compared to that of pristine edge- and corner-truncated octahedral Cu2O. Results show that Cu2O1-xNx(150 °C, 30 min) sample with dominant {110} facets has a higher photocatalytic activity than the pristine Cu2O material. Higher surface energy and a greater density of the "Cu" dangling bonds on {110} facets of edge- and corner-truncated octahedral Cu2O1-xNx is the plausible reason for the observed optimum catalytic activity. Furthermore defect states induced by nitridation results in improved visible light adsorption. And also the band edge states changes which brought about by N doping. This is an interesting result since it bypasses the usual challenge faced by pristine Cu2O which have band edge states between which transitions are normally forbidden. Selective radical quenching experiments suggest that photocatalytic activity of Cu2O1-xNx is due to formation of hydroxyl radicals in water, subsequent to photogeneration of charge carriers in the photocatalyst.

  7. Mechanochemical preparation of sulfur-doped nanosized TiO2 and its photocatalytic activity under visible light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhiqiang; ZHANG Xianyou; WU Ze; DONG Limin

    2005-01-01

    In order to make nanosized TiO2 photocatalyst responsive to visible light and effectively utilize solar energy, we have, for the first time, prepared S-doped nanosized TiO2 by a mechanochemical method with hydrolysis of TiCl4. The as-prepared S-doped nanosized TiO2 possesses strong absorption for visible light of 400―650 nm and shows high photocatalytic activity for decomposition of methylene blue under irradiation of visible light. The oxidation states of the S atoms incorporated into TiO2 were determined to be S6+ and S4+. The comparative study of fluorescence emission spectra shows that S-doping has also improved the separation of electron-hole pairs.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of p,p'-DDT under UV and visible light using interstitial N-doped TiO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2015-01-01

    1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (or p,p'-DDT) is one of the most persistent pesticides. It is resistant to breakdown in nature and cause the water contamination problem. In this work, a major objective was to demonstrate the application of N-doped TiO2 in degradation and mineralization of the p,p'-DDT under UV and visible light in aqueous solution. The N-doped TiO2 nanopowders were prepared by a simple modified sol-gel procedure using diethanolamine (DEA) as a nitrogen source. The catalyst characteristics were investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM, and XPS. The adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation of p,p'-DDT using the synthesized N-doped TiO2 under UV and visible light were conducted in a batch photocatalytic experiment. The kinetics and p,p'-DDT degradation performance of the N-doped TiO2 were evaluated. Results show that the N-doped TiO2 can degrade p,p'-DDT effectively under both UV and visible lights. The rate constant of the p,p'-DDT degradation under UV light was only 0.0121 min(-1), whereas the rate constant of the p,p'-DDT degradation under visible light was 0.1282 min(-1). Under visible light, the 100% degradation of p,p'-DDT were obtained from N-doped TiO2 catalyst. The reaction rate of p,p'-DDT degradation using N-doped TiO2 under visible light was sixfold higher than that under UV light. According to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the adsorption equilibrium constant (K) for the N-doped TiO2 under visible light was 0.03078 L mg(-1), and the apparent reaction rate constant (k) was 1.3941 mg L(-1)-min. Major intermediates detected during the p,p'-DDT degradation were p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDD. Results from this work can be applied further for the breakdown of p,p'-DDT molecule in the real contaminated water using this technology.

  9. Luminescence properties of Dy3+ doped different fluoro-phosphate glasses for solid state lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S.; Reddy Prasad, V.; Rajesh, D.; Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2015-01-01

    Dy3+ doped different fluoro-phosphate glasses are prepared and they are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Raman, optical absorption, and photoluminescence (PL) techniques. The structural characterization is accomplished by XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The morphological analysis was performed by SEM. The absorption spectra have been analyzed using Judd-Ofelt theory and the intensity parameters have been evaluated. These parameters are used to calculate radiative properties such as emission probabilities (AR), radiative lifetimes (τR) and integrated absorption cross-sections (Σ) for different Dy3+ transitions. The PL spectra exhibit bands in the blue, yellow and red regions. Furthermore, the dependence of luminescence properties such as stimulated emission cross-sections (σp) and branching ratios (β) on different metal cations in these glasses is studied. From decay curve analysis, the lifetimes of the excited state 4F9/2 have been measured. The calorimetric property is also studied based on Commission International del'Eclairage (CIE) standards for Dy3+ doped different fluoro-phosphate glasses and discussed.

  10. Compensation of band-edge positions in titanium-doped Ta3N5 photoanode for enhanced water splitting performance: A first-principles insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guozheng; Wang, Xin; Fu, Hongwei; Feng, Jianyong; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2017-08-01

    Ta3N5 is a promising photoanode for solar water splitting. However, it often suffers from high onset potential for water oxidation, which may be partially ascribed to the oxygen impurities in Ta3N5 . Oxygen impurities, which are always introduced into Ta3N5 during the preparation process, are difficult to remove due to the low formation energy of O-doped Ta3N5 . The valence- and conduction-band-edge positions shift almost in parallel towards more positive potentials with addition of oxygen impurities, which may increase the onset potential for water oxidation. In this study, the hybrid-DFT (density functional theory) calculations of Ti-doped Ta3N5 show that as Ti doping concentration increases, both the valence- and conduction-band-edge positions of Ta3N5 move towards more negative potentials, which is opposite to the role of oxygen impurties. In the case of Ti-O codoped Ta3N5 , Ti doping can compensate the effect of oxygen impurities and may reduce the onset potential for water oxidation. Defect formation energies reveal that Ti-O codoped Ta3N5 is thermodynamically stable. Therefore we propose that by controlling the amount of O and Ti, the band-edge positions can be modified to a proper level so that better photoelectrochemical performances for solar water splitting can be achieved.

  11. Explaining simultaneous dual-band carbon nanotube mode-locking Erbium-doped fiber laser by net gain cross section variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Henrique G; Steinberg, David; Thoroh de Souza, Eunézio A

    2014-11-17

    In this paper we report the pulse evolution of a simultaneously mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser at 1556-nm-band and 1533-nm-band. We explain the dual wavelength laser operation by means of net gain cross section variations caused by the population inversion rate dependence on the pump power. At 1556-nm-band, we observed pulse duration of 370 fs with bandwidth of 8.50 nm and, for pump power higher than 150 mW, we observe the rise of a CW and mode-locked laser, sequentially, at 1533-nm-band. We show that both bands are simultaneously mode-locked and operate at different repetition rates.

  12. Nanocrystalline lanthanide-doped Lu3Ga5O12 garnets: interesting materials for light-emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramu, V; Giarola, M; Mariotto, G; Enzo, S; Polizzi, S; Jayasankar, C K; Piccinelli, F; Bettinelli, M; Speghini, A

    2010-04-30

    Nanocrystalline Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12), with average particle sizes of 40 nm, doped with a wide variety of luminescent trivalent lanthanide ions have been prepared using a sol-gel technique. The structural and morphological properties of the powders have been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Structural data have been refined and are presented for Pr(3+), Eu(3+), Gd(3+), Ho(3+), Er(3+) and Tm(3+) dopants, while room temperature excited luminescence spectra and emission decay curves of Eu(3+)-, Tm(3+)- and Ho(3+)-doped Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12) nanocrystals have been measured and are discussed. The Eu(3+) emission spectrum shows typical bands due to 5D(0)-->7F(J) (J = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) transitions and the broadening of these emission bands with the non-exponential behaviour of the decay curves indicates the presence of structural disorder around the lanthanide ions. Lanthanide-doped nanocrystalline Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12) materials show better luminescence intensities compared to Y(2)O(3), Gd(3)Ga(5)O(12) and Y(3)Al(5)O(12) nanocrystalline hosts. Moreover, the upconversion emission intensity in the blue-green region for the Tm(3+)- and Ho(3+)-doped samples shows a significant increase upon 647.5 nm excitation with respect to other common oxide hosts doped with the same lanthanide ions.

  13. Solvothermal syntheses of Bi and Zn co-doped TiO{sub 2} with enhanced electron-hole separation and efficient photodegradation of gaseous toluene under visible-light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan-Juan [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Cai, Song-Cai [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xu, Zhen [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Xi [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Chen, Jin [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Jia, Hong-Peng, E-mail: hpjia@iue.ac.cn [Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, and Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Jing, E-mail: jing.chen@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2017-03-05

    Highlights: • Bi-Zn co-doped TiO{sub 2} catalysts were prepared by solvothermal route. • The incorporation of Bi doping into the TiO{sub 2} generates intermediate energy levels. • Bi and Zn doping showed the enhanced absorption in visible-light region. • Zn dopant acts as a mediator of interfacial charge transfer. • TiBi{sub 1.9%}Zn{sub 1%}O{sub 2} exhibited high photocatalytic degradation for toluene. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of Bi doped and Bi-Zn co-doped TiO{sub 2} on photodegradation of gaseous toluene. The doped TiO{sub 2} with various concentration of metal was prepared using the solvothermal route and characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, BET, DRS, XPS, PL and EPR. Their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation were drastically influenced by the dopant content. The results showed that moderate metal doping levels were obviously beneficial for the toluene degradation, while high doping levels suppressed the photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of toluene over TiBi{sub 1.9%}O{sub 2} and TiBi{sub 1.9%}Zn{sub 1%}O{sub 2} can reach to 51% and 93%, respectively, which are much higher than 25% of TiO{sub 2}. Bi doping into TiO{sub 2} lattice generates new intermediate energy level of Bi below the CB edge of TiO{sub 2}. The electron excitation from the VB to Bi orbitals results in the decreased band gap, extended absorption of visible-light and thus enhances its photocatalytic efficiency. Zn doping not only further enhances the absorption in this visible-light region, but also Zn dopant exists as the form of ZnO crystallites located on the interfaces of TiO{sub 2} agglomerates and acts as a mediator of interfacial charge transfer to suppress the electron-hole recombination. These synergistic effects are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance.

  14. Photocatalytic activity of tungsten-doped TiO2 with hydrothermal treatment under blue light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putta, Thapanan; Lu, Ming-Chun; Anotai, Jin

    2011-09-01

    Tungsten doping and hydrothermal treatment were found to significantly improve the visible-light photoactivity of TiO(2) synthesized by the sol-gel method. It was observed that TiO(2) doped with a 0.5% W:Ti mole ratio and treated with 4 h of hydrothermal curing showed photoactivity under blue light irradiation equal to 74% of the commercial Degussa P-25 under UV irradiation, i.e., 0.01 mM 2-chlorophenol was completely removed in 120 and 90 min, respectively. Light absorptivity and photocatalytic activity under blue light irradiation were not dependent on the crystallite structure of the TiO(2). The oxidation kinetics under blue light irradiation can be effectively explained by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model with an apparent reaction rate constant and a Langmuir constant of 3.60 × 10(-4) mM min(-1) and 206.53 mM(-1), respectively.

  15. The effects of low-intensity narrow-band blue-light treatment compared to bright white-light treatment in sub-syndromal seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Meesters, Ybe; Winthorst, Wim H; Duijzer, Wianne B.; Hommes, Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Background The discovery of a novel photoreceptor in the retinal ganglion cells with a highest sensitivity of 470-490 nm blue light has led to research on the effects of short-wavelength light in humans. Several studies have explored the efficacy of monochromatic blue or blue-enriched light in the treatment of SAD. In this study, a comparison has been made between the effects of broad-wavelength light without ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths compared to narrow-band blue light in the treatment of ...

  16. The effects of low-intensity narrow-band blue-light treatment compared to bright white-light treatment in sub-syndromal seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Meesters, Ybe; Winthorst, Wim H; Duijzer, Wianne; Bos, Elisabeth; V, Hommes,

    2016-01-01

    Background The discovery of a novel photoreceptor in the retinal ganglion cells with a highest sensitivity of 470-490 nm blue light has led to research on the effects of short-wavelength light in humans. Several studies have explored the efficacy of monochromatic blue or blue-enriched light in the treatment of SAD. In this study, a comparison has been made between the effects of broad-wavelength light without ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths compared to narrow-band blue light in the treatment of ...

  17. Observation of an electron band above the Fermi level in FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45} from in-situ surface doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P.; Ma, J.; Qian, T. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Richard, P., E-mail: p.richard@iphy.ac.cn; Ding, H., E-mail: dingh@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Xu, N. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Xu, Y.-M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fedorov, A. V.; Denlinger, J. D. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gu, G. D. [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    We used in-situ potassium (K) evaporation to dope the surface of the iron-based superconductor FeTe{sub 0.55}Se{sub 0.45}. The systematic study of the bands near the Fermi level confirms that electrons are doped into the system, allowing us to tune the Fermi level of this material and to access otherwise unoccupied electronic states. In particular, we observe an electron band located above the Fermi level before doping that shares similarities with a small three-dimensional pocket observed in the cousin, heavily electron-doped KFe{sub 2−x}Se{sub 2} compound.

  18. Photocatalytic Activity of Lanthanum and Sulfur Co-doped TiO2 Photocatalyst under Visible Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Huili; ZHUANG HUISHENG; XIAO Dongchang; ZHANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    A novel lanthanum and sulfur co-doped TiO2,photocatalyst was synthesized by precipitation-dipping method,and characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),transmission electron microscopy(TEM)and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.Compared with the S-doped TiO2,La-doped TiO2 and the standard Degussa P25 photocatalysts,the lanthanum and sulfur co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst(the molar percentage of La is 3.O%) calcined at 450℃for 2 h showed the strongest absorption for visible light and highest activities for degradation of reactive blue 19 dye in aqueous solution under visible light(?>400 nm)irradiation.It was also discovered that the co-doping of lanthanum and sulfur hindered the aggregation and growth of TiO2 particles,and the doping of lanthanum reduced slightly the phase transition temperature of TiO2 from anatase to rutile.

  19. Bismuth-doped ordered mesoporous TiO2: visible-light catalyst for simultaneous degradation of phenol and chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Shamaila; Leghari, Sajjad A K; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jinlong

    2010-12-10

    A controllable and reproducible synthesis of highly ordered two-dimensional hexagonal mesoporous, crystalline bismuth-doped TiO(2) nanocomposites with variable Bi ratios is reported here. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal that the well-ordered mesostructure is doped with Bi, which exists as Bi(3+) and Bi((3+x+)). The Bi-doped mesoporous TiO(2) (ms-TiO(2)) samples exhibit improved photocatalytic activities for simultaneous phenol oxidation and chromium reduction in aqueous suspension under visible and UV light over the pure ms-TiO(2), P-25, and conventional Bi-doped titania. The high catalytic activity is due to both the unique structural characteristics and the Bi doping. This new material extends the spectral response from UV to the visible region, and reduces electron-hole recombination, which renders the 2.0% Bi-doped ms-TiO(2) photocatalyst highly responsive to visible light.

  20. Facile Preparation and Visible-light Photocatalysis Enhancement of N-Doped β-TiO2 Nanobelts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Tian-hao; LIU Yang; DONG Li-ya; HAN Peng; SUN Jia-yue

    2012-01-01

    A facile preparation of nitrogen-doped β-TiO2(N-doped β-TiO2) nanobelts and their visible-light photocatalytic activity were reported.The preparation of N-doped β-TiO2 nanobelts consisted of cation-exchange between layered sodium titanate nanobelts and NH4+ in aqueous solution at room temperature and subsequent calcination in air.Such a calcination treatment is beneficial to the formation of monoclinic N-doped β-TiO2 nanobelts.Various measurement results indicate that not only were the nitrogen atoms doped into the lattice ofβ-TiO2 nanobelts resulting in a strong visible-light absorption,but also a large number of defects were caused by them in the lattice,increasing the stability of β-TiO2.The photocatalysis enhancement of N-doped β-TiO2 nanobelts for the photodegradation of Rhodamine B was demonstrated.

  1. Photodecolorization of Rhodamine B on tungsten-doped TiO2/activated carbon under visible-light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youji; Zhou, Xiaoming; Chen, Wei; Li, Leiyong; Zen, Mengxiong; Qin, Shidong; Sun, Shuguo

    2012-08-15

    Tungsten-doped TiO(2)/activated carbon catalysts have been prepared by a supercritical-pretreatment-assisted sol-gel process. The structural features of the photocatalysts have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV/Vis diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), electron dispersive X-ray (EDX), photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The results revealed that a W-TiO(2) layer was coated on the AC surface, and had higher surface area and smaller crystallite size than TiO(2)/AC obtained by a similar route. The W dopant was responsible for narrowing the band gap of TiO(2) and shifting its optical response from the ultraviolet (UV) to the visible-light region. The photocatalytic performances of the supported catalysts have been evaluated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) solution under visible-light irradiation. Compared with bulk W-TiO(2), the photoactivity was obviously enhanced when it was coated onto AC. In addition, it was found that the reactivity showed a significant relationship with the amount of W dopant, and the photoactivity order of the catalysts from weak to strong showed good agreement with their PL intensities. The effects of TiO(2) content, tungsten ion content, catalyst amount, pH, and initial RhB concentration have been examined as operational parameters. The photocatalytic reactions followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and are discussed in terms of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  2. Carbon implanted waveguides in soda lime glass doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ for visible light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, G. V.; Valiente, R.; Gómez-Salces, S.; Flores-Romero, E.; Rickards, J.; Trejo-Luna, R.

    2016-05-01

    Channel waveguides were fabricated by carbon implantation in soda lime glass samples doped with Er3+ and Yb3+, exhibiting good confinement and both monomode and multimode behaviour at 633 nm. Excitation at near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectral ranges were used in order to obtain anti-Stokes (upconversion) and Stokes (downshift) emission in the visible range, respectively. The characteristic green and red bands of Er3+ transitions were observed, showing the potential of Yb3+ and Er3+ co-doping for the generation of visible guided emission under NIR excitation.

  3. Cu doped TiO{sub 2}/GF for photocatalytic disinfection of Escherichia coli in bioaerosols under visible light irradiation: Application and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu, E-mail: bklee@ulsan.ac.kr

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Cu dopants enhanced electron-hole separation efficiency and capacity of TiO{sub 2}. • Cu-TiO{sub 2}/GF exhibited high bioaerosol disinfection even under visible light. • The disinfection enhancement is depended on Cu content in Cu-TiO{sub 2}/GF. • The moderate humidity was the optimum condition for the bioaerosol disinfection. - Abstract: This study investigated the role of Cu as a doping agent to enhance photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} in Cu-doped TiO{sub 2}/glass fibers (Cu-TiO{sub 2}/GF) used for disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in aerosols under visible light irradiation. Glass fiber was used as a substrate to immobilize TiO{sub 2} for disinfection of E. coli in bioaerosols. Cu in the prepared photocatalyst acted as an intermediate agent for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the valence band to the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. Cu dopants increased the electron-hole pair separation efficiency, inhibited their recombination leading to a lifetime increase of the generated electrons, and thus improved photocatalytic activity even under visible light irradiation. Cu also defected the TiO{sub 2} lattice by producing Ti{sup 3+} ions, which can increase the electron-hole separation capacity of the photocatalyst, thereby increasing photocatalytic capacity. The optimal Cu content in Cu/TiO{sub 2} to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} was 5 wt.%. Among three humidity conditions (dry (40 ± 5%), moderate (60 ± 5%) and humid (80 ± 5%)), the moderate condition showed the highest disinfection efficiency of E. coli. When the 5% Cu-TiO{sub 2}/GF was used under a moderate level of humidity, the highest disinfection efficiency and disinfection capacity of E. coli were identified as 87.8% and 23 CFU/s cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  4. The design of common aperture and multi-band optical system based on day light telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Bo; Teng, Guoqi; Wang, Meng

    2017-02-01

    As the development of electro-optical weapon system, the technique of common path and multi-sensor are used popular, and becoming a trend. According to the requirement of miniaturization and lightweight for electro-optical stabilized sighting system, a day light telescope/television viewing-aim system/ laser ranger has been designed in this thesis, which has common aperture. Thus integration scheme of multi-band and common aperture has been adopted. A day light telescope has been presented, which magnification is 8, field of view is 6°, and distance of exit pupil is more than 20mm. For 1/3" CCD, television viewing-aim system which has 156mm focal length, has been completed. In addition, laser ranging system has been designed, with 10km raging distance. This paper outlines its principle which used day light telescope as optical reference of correcting the optical axis. Besides, by means of shared objective, reserved image with inverting prism and coating beam-splitting film on the inclined plane of the cube prism, the system has been applied to electro-optical weapon system, with high-resolution of imaging and high-precision ranging.

  5. Phosphorus Doping in Si Nanocrystals/SiO2 msultilayers and Light Emission with Wavelength compatible for Optical Telecommunication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Mu, Weiwei; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji

    2016-03-09

    Doping in semiconductors is a fundamental issue for developing high performance devices. However, the doping behavior in Si nanocrystals (Si NCs) has not been fully understood so far. In the present work, P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers are fabricated. As revealed by XPS and ESR measurements, P dopants will preferentially passivate the surface states of Si NCs. Meanwhile, low temperature ESR spectra indicate that some P dopants are incorporated into Si NCs substitutionally and the incorporated P impurities increase with the P doping concentration or annealing temperature increasing. Furthermore, a kind of defect states will be generated with high doping concentration or annealing temperature due to the damage of Si crystalline lattice. More interestingly, the incorporated P dopants can generate deep levels in the ultra-small sized (~2 nm) Si NCs, which will cause a new subband light emission with the wavelength compatible with the requirement of the optical telecommunication. The studies of P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers suggest that P doping plays an important role in the electronic structures and optoelectronic characteristics of Si NCs.

  6. Workfunction-tunable, N-doped reduced graphene transparent electrodes for high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin Ok; Park, Ji Sun; Choi, Dong Sung; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Song, Myoung Hoon; Yoo, Seunghyup; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2012-01-24

    Graphene is a promising candidate to complement brittle and expensive transparent conducting oxides. Nevertheless, previous research efforts have paid little attention to reduced graphene, which can be of great benefit due to low-cost solution processing without substrate transfer. Here we demonstrate workfunction-tunable, highly conductive, N-doped reduced graphene film, which is obtainable from the spin-casting of graphene oxide dispersion and can be successfully employed as a transparent cathode for high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) as an alternative to fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). The sheet resistance of N-doped reduced graphene attained 300 Ω/□ at 80% transmittance, one of the lowest values ever reported from the reduction of graphene oxide films. The optimal doping of quaternary nitrogen and the effective removal of oxygen functionalities via sequential hydrazine treatment and thermal reduction accomplished the low resistance. The PLEDs employing N-doped reduced graphene cathodes exhibited a maximum electroluminescence efficiency higher than those of FTO-based devices (4.0 cd/A for FTO and 7.0 cd/A for N-doped graphene at 17,000 cd/m(2)). The reduced barrier for electron injection from a workfunction-tunable, N-doped reduced graphene cathode offered this remarkable device performance.

  7. Self-doped TiO{sub 2} hierarchical hollow spheres with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, HYong; Wang, XLong [Institute of Environmental Materials and Applications, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Ling [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); N, QLin, E-mail: qlyuan@hdu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Materials and Applications, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhao, HTing [Institute of Environmental Materials and Applications, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Self-doped TiO{sub 2} hierarchical hollow spheres were prepared by facile sol–gel methods. • The photocatalyst has stable Ti{sup 3+} even after annealing at high temperature in air. • Enhanced visible and solar light photocatalytic activity was obtained on the catalyst. • The stable Ti{sup 3+} play an important role in improving the visible light absorption. - Abstract: The self-doped TiO{sub 2} hierarchical hollow spheres were successfully prepared by a facile sol–gel method using the carbon spheres as templates. Characteristics and properties of the products were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), photocurrent measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the self-doped TiO{sub 2} hierarchical hollow spheres, with diameters about 800–950 nm and shell thickness of 20–30 nm, were constituted with thousands of self-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with diameters of 20–30 nm. The Ti{sup 3+} was investigated in the calcinated samples which suggested that there existed stable Ti{sup 3+} in the bulk of self-doped TiO{sub 2} hollow spheres. The as prepared samples showed improved solar light and visible light induced photocatalytic activities by decomposing Rhodamine B. The improved visible light photocatalytic activities may be due to the oxygen vacancies and Ti{sup 3+} localized states of the self-doped TiO{sub 2} hierarchical hollow spheres.

  8. Preparation and photocatalytic performance of iodine-doped NaTaO3 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peilin; Su, Yiguo; Meng, Yue; Wang, Shuwei; Jia, Qingyue; Wang, Xiaojing

    2011-11-01

    Iodine-doped NaTaO3 nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal conditions and explored as the visible-light-driven photocatalysts for photodegradation of methylene blue in water. It is found that I-doped NaTaO3 showed photodegradation efficiency superior over the un-doped NaTaO3. UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicate that the absorption edges shifted towards longer wavelength with increasing the iodine concentration. The energy band structure and the transient behavior of the photogenerated charge carriers for both un-doped and doped NaTaO3 powders were investigated using density functional theory. The improved photocatalytic activity under visible light for I-doped NaTaO3 may be caused by both the broadening of valence band that inhibited the recombination of e-h+ pairs and the narrowing of energy band gap due to the much negative energy levels in the bottom of conduction bands.

  9. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by F-doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wei [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Liu, Xinjuan, E-mail: lxj669635@126.com [Shanghai Nanotechnlogy Promotion Center, Shanghai 200237 (China); Center for Coordination Bond and Electronic Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Pan, Likun, E-mail: lkpan@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Li, Jinliang; Liu, Junying [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang, Jing; Li, Ping; Chen, Chen [Shanghai Nanotechnlogy Promotion Center, Shanghai 200237 (China); Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: F-doped TiO2 is synthesized using a modified sol–gel method for visible photocatalytic degradation of MB with a high degradation rate of 91%. - Highlights: • F-doped TiO{sub 2} are synthesized using a modified sol–gel method. • The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by F-doped TiO{sub 2} is investigated. • A high methylene blue degradation rate of 91% is achieved under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: F-doped TiO{sub 2} (F-TiO{sub 2}) were successfully synthesized using a modified sol–gel method. The morphologies, structures, and photocatalytic performance in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectra, respectively. The results show that F-TiO{sub 2} exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic performance in the degradation of MB with a maximum degradation rate of 91% under visible light irradiation as compared with pure TiO{sub 2} (32%). The excellent photocatalytic activity is due to the contribution from the increased visible light absorption, promoted separation of photo-generated electrons and holes as well as enhanced photocatalytic oxidizing species with the doping of F in TiO{sub 2}.

  10. TiO2 nanopowder co-doped with iodine and boron to enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianqiang; Yuan, Yali; Xu, Jinsheng; Deng, Jian; Guo, Jianbo

    2009-10-01

    An iodine and boron co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by the hydrolyzation-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied to characterize the crystalline structure, light absorbing ability, and the chemical state of iodine and boron in the photocatalysts. The results of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange demonstrated that the I-B-TiO2 catalyst prepared at 400 degrees C for 3 h exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with a methyl orange degradation ratio of 61% under visible-light (lambda > or = 420 nm) irradiation for 120 min. The characterization results revealed that I-B-TiO2 is in conformity with the anatase TiO2 and that the doping of iodine and boron ions could efficiently inhibit the grain growth. Doped iodine was present in the multivalent forms of 17+, I- and I5+. Doped boron was present as B3+ in an as-prepared sample, forming a possible chemical environment such as B-O-Ti. Overall, the doping of I and B enhanced the ability of TiO2 to absorb visible-light, and it was observed that the photocatalytic activity of I-B-TiO2 was enhanced by the synergistic effect of I and B.

  11. Slow and fast light via two-wave mixing in the rare-earth doped optical fibers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Serguei I.; Plata Sánchez, Marcos; Hernández, Eliseo

    2017-02-01

    Dynamic population Bragg gratings can be recorded in the rare-earth-doped (e.g. doped with erbium or ytterbium) optical fibers with mWatt-scale cw laser power. Two-wave mixing (TWM) via such gratings is utilized in single-frequency fiber lasers and in adaptive interferometric fiber sensors with automatic stabilization of the operation point. Slow and fast light propagation can also be observed in the vicinity of narrow ( 20-200Hz) spectral profile of stationary no-degenerate TWM. In particular, slow light propagation is observed for the purely amplitude grating, recorded in the erbium-doped fiber in spectral range 1510-1550nm. In its turn, in ytterbium-doped fibers at 1064nm (or in erbium-doped fiber at the wavelength below 1500nm) the dynamic grating has significant contribution of the phase component, the TWM profile has essentially asymmetric form, and both slow and fast (superluminal) light propagation is possible at different frequency off-sets between the counter-propagating interacting waves.

  12. Efficient degradation of Methylene Blue dye over highly reactive Cu doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles photocatalyst under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi Inamur; Ahmad, Musheer; Misra, Sunil Kumar; Lohani, Minaxi

    2012-09-01

    Visible light induced photocatalysts of Cu doped SrTiO3 (Cu/SrTiO3) nanoparticles with the size -60-75 nm were prepared via facile sol-gel method. The morphological, optical, crystalline properties and compositions of synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles were thoroughly characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). A significant red shift in the UV-diffused reflectance spectrum was observed and the absorption edge shifted to visible region by the Cu doping. Surprisingly, the band gap of SrTiO3 was changed from 3.2 eV drop to 2.96 eV. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles was demonstrated for the degradation of Methylene Blue dye under visible light irradiation. The formation of new acceptor region in Cu/SrTiO3 was responsible for high photocatalytic activity of Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. The results showed that the Methylene Blue dye was degraded by -66% within time span of 2 h over the Cu/SrTiO3 nanoparticles. This dye degradation reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics and also exhibited first order reaction rate. The calculated rate constant for the degradation reaction following first order kinetics was k = 0.0016 min(-1).

  13. High-efficiency white organic light-emitting devices with a non-doped yellow phosphorescent emissive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Juan; Yu Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn; Hu Xiao; Hou Menghan; Jiang Yadong

    2012-03-30

    Highly efficient phosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices (PHWOLEDs) with a simple structure of ITO/TAPC (40 nm)/mCP:FIrpic (20 nm, x wt.%)/bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C{sup 2} Prime ] iridium (acetylacetonate) (tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) (y nm)/Bphen (30 nm)/Mg:Ag (200 nm) have been developed, by inserting a thin layer of non-doped yellow phosphorescent (tbt){sub 2}Ir(acac) between doped blue emitting layer (EML) and electron transporting layer. By changing the doping concentration of the blue EML and the thickness of the non-doped yellow EML, a PHWOLED comprised of higher blue doping concentration and thinner yellow EML achieves a high current efficiency of 31.7 cd/A and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of (0.33, 0.41) at a luminance of 3000 cd/m{sup 2} could be observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We introduce a simplified architecture for phosphorescent white organic light-emitting device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The key concept of device fabrication is combination of doped blue emissive layer (EML) with non-doped ultra-thin yellow EML. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doping concentration of the blue EML and thickness of the yellow EML are sequentially adjusted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High device performance is achieved due to improved charge carrier balance as well as two parallel emission mechanisms in the EMLs.

  14. Effects of Ag doping on the photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli in bioaerosol by Ag-TiO₂/GF under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2014-08-15

    Ag doped TiO2/glass fibers (Ag-TiO2/GF) were prepared and used for photocatalytic disinfection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in an indoor air environment. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) for morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for microstructure, UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) for optical properties and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine elemental state. The optimized weight fraction of TiO2 in the TiO2/glass fiber (TiO2/GF) was 3%. The silver content in Ag/TiO2 was altered from 1% to 10% to investigate the optimal ratio of Ag doped on the TiO2/GF for the photocatalytic disinfection of E. coli. Doped Ag enhanced the electron-hole separation as well as charge transfer efficiency between the valance band and the conduction band of TiO2. The generated electron-hole pairs reacted with water and molecular oxygen to form strong oxidative radicals, which participated in the oxidation of organic components of E. coli, resulting in bacterial death. The photocatalytic disinfection activity under visible light increased with the increase in silver content up to 7.5% and then decreased slightly with further increasing Ag content. Among the three humidity conditions used in this study (40±5%, 60±5%, 80±5%), the highest disinfection ratio of E. coli by the photocatalytic system was observed in the intermediate humidity level followed by the high humidity level. Using the 7.5% Ag-TiO2/GF and the intermediate level of humidity (60±5%), the highest disinfection ratio and disinfection capacity of E. coli were 93.53% and 26 (CFU/s cm(2)), respectively.

  15. Near-infrared broad-band cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a superluminescent light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, W; Hamilton, M L; Hancock, G; Islam, M; Langley, C E; Peverall, R; Ritchie, G A D

    2009-11-01

    A fibre coupled near-infrared superluminescent light emitting diode that emits approximately 10 mW of radiation between 1.62 and 1.7 microm is employed in combination with a broad-band cavity enhanced spectrometer consisting of a linear optical cavity with mirrors of reflectivity approximately 99.98% and either a dispersive near-infrared spectrometer or a Fourier transform interferometer. Results are presented on the absorption of 1,3-butadiene, and sensitivities are achieved of 6.1 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the dispersive spectrometer in combination with phase-sensitive detection, and 1.5 x 10(-8) cm(-1) using the Fourier transform interferometer (expressed as a minimum detectable absorption coefficient) over several minutes of acquisition time.

  16. Room-temperature direct band-gap electroluminescence from germanium (111)-fin light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kazuki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Oda, Katsuya; Miura, Makoto; Wakayama, Yuki; Okumura, Tadashi; Mine, Toshiyuki; Ido, Tatemi

    2017-03-01

    Germanium (Ge) (111) fins of 320 nm in height were successfully fabricated using a combination of flattening sidewalls of a silicon (Si) fin structure by anisotropic wet etching with tetramethylammonium hydroxide, formation of thin Ge fins by selective Si oxidation in SiGe layers, and enlargement of Ge fins by Ge homogeneous epitaxial growth. The excellent electrical characteristics of Ge(111) fin light-emitting diodes, such as an ideality factor of 1.1 and low dark current density of 7.1 × 10‑5 A cm‑2 at reverse bias of ‑2 V, indicate their good crystalline quality. A tensile strain of 0.2% in the Ge fins, which originated from the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients between Ge and the covering SiO2 layers, was expected from the room-temperature photoluminescence spectra, and room-temperature electroluminescence corresponding to the direct band-gap transition was observed from the Ge fins.

  17. Mapping H-band Scattered Light Emission in the Mysterious SR21Transitional Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follette, Katherine B.; Motohide, Tamura; Hashimoto, Jun; Whitney, Barbara; Grady, Carol; Close, Laird; Andrews, Sean M.; Kwon, Jungmi; Wisniewski, John; Brandt, Timothy D.; Mayama, Satoshi; Kandori, Ryo; Dong, Ruobing; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E.; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier.; Hayano, Yutaka; McElwain, Michael W.; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko

    2013-01-01

    We present the first near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved images of the circumstellar transitional disk around SR21. These images were obtained with the Subaru HiCIAO camera, adaptive optics, and the polarized differential imaging technique. We resolve the disk in scattered light at H-band for stellocentric 0.1 < or approx. r < or approx. 0.6 (12 < or approx. r < or approx. 75AU). We compare our results with previously published spatially resolved 880 micron continuum Submillimeter Array images that show an inner r < or approx. 36AU cavity in SR21. Radiative transfer models reveal that the large disk depletion factor invoked to explain SR21's sub-mm cavity cannot be "universal" for all grain sizes. Even significantly more moderate depletions (delta = 0.1, 0.01 relative to an undepleted disk) than those that reproduce the sub-mm cavity (delta approx. 10(exp -6) are inconsistent with our H-band images when they are assumed to carry over to small grains, suggesting that surface grains scattering in the NIR either survive or are generated by whatever mechanism is clearing the disk midplane. In fact, the radial polarized intensity profile of our H-band observations is smooth and steeply inwardly-increasing (r(sup -3), with no evidence of a break at the 36AU sub-mm cavity wall. We hypothesize that this profile is dominated by an optically thin disk envelope or atmosphere component.We also discuss the compatibility of our data with the previously postulated existence of a sub-stellar companion to SR21 at r approx. 10-20AU, and find that we can neither exclude nor verify this scenario. This study demonstrates the power of multiwavelength imaging of transitional disks to inform modeling efforts, including the debate over precisely what physical mechanism is responsible for clearing these disks of their large midplane grains.

  18. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2014-08-07

    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu(2+) ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu(2+) introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu(2+) may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu(2+). A further increase in the Cu(2+) concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu(2+). The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu(2+) doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems.

  19. Photodegradation of ibuprofen by TiO2 co-doping with urea and functionalized CNT irradiated with visible light - Effect of doping content and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ching; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Li, Huei-Wen; Chang, Wei-Hsian

    2016-07-01

    Ibuprofen (IBP) is one kind of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are classified as Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs). IBP possesses bioactive property and the substantial use of IBP results in a harmful impact on bioreceptors even in small concentrations. Accordingly, the treatment of these wastewaters is important before discharging them into the ecosystem. The photodegradation of IBP with TiO2 co-doped with functionalized CNTs (CNT-COOH and CNT-COCl) and urea, named as N-doping CNT/TiO2, irradiated with visible light of 410 nm was investigated in this study. The titanium tetrachloride was used as the precursor of Ti. The N-doping CNT-COCl/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a better crystalline structure and smaller crystal size than the N-doping CNT-COOH/TiO2 photocatalyst. It might largely ascribe to strong binding between acyl chloride functional group and TiO2. About 85.0%-86.0% of IBP was degraded with N-doping CNT/TiO2 within 120 min at natural condition, which obeyed the pseudo first order reaction and the rate constant was 4.45 × 10(-3)-1.22 × 10(-2) min(-1) and 5.03 × 10(-3)-1.47 × 10(-2) min(-1) for N-doping CNT-COOH/TiO2 and N-doping CNT-COCl/TiO2, respectively. The best IBP degradation of 87.9%-89.0% was found at pH 5, which indicated superoxide radicals (O2(-)) played a key role. The optimal pH was majorly dominated by the nature of IBP and N-doping CNT/TiO2. A successful synergy effect of TiO2 and dopants was exhibited and this mainly attributed to the strong binding strength by functional group of acyl chloride (COCl) and carboxylic acid (COOH). In summary, IBP could be effectively photodegraded by the fabricated N-doping CNT/TiO2 photocatalysts.

  20. Mapping H-band Scattered Light Emission in the Mysterious SR21 Transitional Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Follette, Katherine B; Hashimoto, Jun; Whitney, Barbara; Grady, Carol; Close, Laird; Andrews, Sean M; Kwon, Jungmi; Wisniewski, John; Brandt, Timothy D; Mayama, Satoshi; Kandori, Ryo; Dong, Ruobing; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Knapp, Gillian R; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W; Matsuo, Taro; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    We present the first near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved images of the circumstellar transitional disk around SR21. These images were obtained with the Subaru HiCIAO camera, adaptive optics and the polarized differential imaging (PDI) technique. We resolve the disk in scattered light at H-band for stellocentric 0.1"band images when they are assumed to carry over to small grains, suggesting that surface grains scattering in the NIR either survive or are generated by whatever mechanism ...

  1. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of Direct Green-6 and Reactive Blue-160 under UV & visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Thejaswini, T V L; Prabhakaran, D; Sivakumar, A; Satyanarayana, V S V; Arun Prasad, A S

    2015-10-05

    This work is focused on sol-gel synthesis of silver and strontium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their utilization as photo-catalysts in degradation of two textile dyes. Effect of pH, intensity of light, amount of photo-catalyst, concentration of dye, sensitizers, etc., were studied to optimize conditions for obtaining enhanced photo-catalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles. XRD, BET, HR-TEM, EDAX and UV-Vis (diffused reflectance mode) techniques were used to characterize the nanoparticles. Interestingly, band gap of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed considerable narrowing (2.6 eV) when compared to Ag doped TiO2 (2.7 eV) and undoped TiO2 (3.17 eV) nanoparticles. Incorporation of Ag and Sr in the lattice of TiO2 could bring isolated energy levels near conduction and valence bands thus narrowing band gap. The XRD analysis shows that both Ag and Sr nanoparticles are finely dispersed on the surface of titania framework, without disturbing its crystalline structure. TEM images indicate that representative grain sizes of Ag-doped TiO2 & Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are in the range of 8-20 nm and 11-25 nm, respectively. Effective degradation of Direct Green-6 (DG-6) and Reactive Blue-160 (RB-160) under UV and visible light has been achieved using the photo-catalysts. Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 photo-catalysts showed higher catalytic activity during degradation process in visible region when compared to Ag-doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles which could be attributed to the interactive effect caused by band gap narrowing and enhancement in charge separation. For confirming degradation of the dyes, total organic carbon (TOC) content was monitored periodically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mott insulators and the doping-induced Mott transition within DMFT: exact results for the one-band Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, David E.; Galpin, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    The paramagnetic phase of the one-band Hubbard model is studied at zero-temperature, within the framework of dynamical mean-field theory, and for general particle-hole asymmetry where a doping-induced Mott transition occurs. Our primary focus is the Mott insulator (MI) phase, and our main aim to establish what can be shown exactly about it. To handle the locally doubly-degenerate MI requires two distinct self-energies, which reflect the broken symmetry nature of the phase and together determine the standard single self-energy. Exact results are obtained for the local charge, local magnetic moment and associated spin susceptibilities, the interaction-renormalised levels, and the low-energy behaviour of the self-energy in the MI phase. The metallic phase is also considered briefly, and shown to acquire an emergent particle-hole symmetry as the Mott transition is approached. Throughout the metal, Luttinger’s theorem is reflected in the vanishing of the Luttinger integral; for the generic MI by contrast this is shown to be non-vanishing, but again to have a universal magnitude. Numerical results are also obtained using NRG, for the metal/MI phase boundary, the scaling behaviour of the charge as the Mott transition is aproached from the metal, and associated universal scaling of single-particle dynamics as the low-energy Kondo scale vanishes.

  3. In situ surface hydrogenation synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with enhanced visible light photoactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Junchao; Hu, Yanjie; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-07-01

    A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light.A novel one-step, vapor-fed aerosol flame synthetic process (VAFS) has been developed to prepare Ti3+ self-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2). The freshly formed TiO2 was in situ surface hydrogenated during the condensation stage by introducing H2 above the flame, and Ti3+ ions were created near the surface of TiO2. The relative content of Ti3+ ions near the surface of TiO2 is estimated to be 8%. Because of the high absorption of visible light and suppression of charge recombination, the photocurrent density and decomposition of MB under visible light irradiation were remarkably enhanced. This study demonstrates a simple, potential method to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with effective photoactivity in visible light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematic setup for Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanoparticles is shown in Fig. S1. The BET specific surface and pore-size distribution of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 is shown in Fig. S2. XRD patterns of pristine TiO2 and Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 are shown in Fig. S3. HRTEM image of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with mixture phase is shown in Fig. S4. The photographs of different colors of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with different flow rates of hydrogen are shown in Fig. S5. TEM images of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 samples with different

  4. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of sulfate modified Nd-doped TiO2 under visible light irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙东峰; 王凯; 徐志坚; 李锐星

    2015-01-01

    Nd-doped TiO2 (NT) photocatalysts with different contents of Nd were synthesized by sol-gel method. Then sulfated Nd-doped TiO2 (SNT) solid superacid photocatalysts were prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation technique. The photocata-lytic activity of catalysts was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. Analytical results demonstrated that Nd doping inhibited the growth of TiO2 crystallite and enhanced the thermal stability of anatase TiO2. Meanwhile, sulfate ions modification increased the specific surface area of samples. In addition, the optical absorption edges of SNT photocata-lysts shifted to longer wavelength compared with the undoped TiO2. Such SNT with Nd dosage of 0.25 at.%exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue upon irradiation with visible light.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light over Cr doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Inamur Rahman; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Hassan, Mallick Shamshi; Yang, O-Bong

    2010-05-01

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) and chromium doped SrTiO3 (Cr/SrTiO3) were prepared by modified sol-gel method with the citric acid as a chelating agent in the ethylene glycol solution for the effective photodegradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation. The synthesized doped and un-doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles were structurally characterized and their photoresponse performances for the efficient degradation of methylene blue dye have been demonstrated. After introducing the Cr on SrTiO3, UV-Vis absorption was appeared the red-shift at 566 nm from 392 nm as compare with bare SrTiO3. The photocatalytic degradation activity of Cr/SrTiO3 was significantly improved to 60% degradation of methylene blue in 3 h under visible light, which is approximately 5 times higher than that of the bare SrTiO3.

  6. Doped and non-doped organic light-emitting diodes based on a yellow carbazole emitter into a blue-emitting matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Choukri, H; Forget, S; Chenais, S; Castex, M C; Geffroy, B; Ades, D; Siove, A; Choukri, Hakim; Fischer, Alexis; Forget, Sebastien; Chenais, Sebastien; Castex, Marie-Claude; Geffroy, Bernard; Ades, Dominique; Siove, Alain

    2007-01-01

    A new carbazole derivative with a 3,3'-bicarbazyl core 6,6'-substituted by dicyanovinylene groups (6,6'-bis(1-(2,2'-dicyano)vinyl)-N,N'-dioctyl-3,3'-bicarbazyl; named (OcCz2CN)2, was synthesized by carbonyl-methylene Knovenagel condensation, characterized and used as a component of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Due to its -donor-acceptor type structure, (OcCz2CN)2 was found to emit a yellow light at max=590 nm (with the CIE coordinates x=0.51; y = 0.47) and was used either as a dopant or as an ultra-thin layer in a blue-emitting matrix of 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (DPVBi). DPVBi (OcCz2CN)2-doped structure exhibited, at doping ratio of 1.5 weight %, a yellowish-green light with the CIE coordinates (x = 0.31; y = 0.51), an electroluminescence efficiency EL=1.3 cd/A, an external quantum efficiency ext= 0.4 % and a luminance L= 127 cd/m2 (at 10 mA/cm2) whereas for non-doped devices utilizing the carbazolic fluorophore as a thin n...

  7. Visible-Light Excitated Photocatalytic Activity of Rare Earth Metal-Ion-Doped Titania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢一兵; 李萍; 袁春伟

    2002-01-01

    The rare earth ion Ce4+ doped TiO2 was prepared by sol-gel method. The average particle sizes are about 10 nm for sol phase and 55 nm for polycrystalline phase. The photocatalytic activities to degrade Reactive Brilliant Red Dye X-3B were investigated. The result reveals that the spectrum response of Ce4+-TiO2 has extended to visible region from the UV region(λ<387 nm) of pure TiO2. Amorphous phase Ce4+-TiO2 sol with an electron scavenger (1.0% atom fraction Ce4+ ion doping amount) shows the capability of the photocatalytic degradation of the dye X-3B as well as the nanocrystallite Ce4+-TiO2 with an interband trap site. Despite of the difference in the morphology of Ce4+-TiO2 photocatalyst, there is no apparent difference in respect of the decoloring effects. Whereas, polycrystalline phase Ce4+-TiO2 exhibits strong photomineralization power in comparison with the amorphous phase. The photocatalytic oxidation mechanisms of the dye molecule mainly involved in the self-photo-sensitization photolysis process by the first excited singlet oxygen (1O2) and photocatalysis process by hydroxyl radicals(*OH) under visible light irradiation.

  8. Formation of magnetic polarons in lightly Ca doped LaCoO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataev, Vladislav [IFW Dresden; Alfonsov, Aleksei [IFW Dresden; Vavilova, Eugenia [IFW Dresden; Podlesnyak, Andrey A [ORNL; Khomskii, D. I. [Universitat zu Koln, Koln, Germany; Buchner, B [IFW Dresden

    2010-01-01

    We performed high field electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and static magnetization measurements on a powder sample of lightly hole-doped La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}CoO{sub 3}, x {approx} 0.002 in order to study the influence of the size of the substitution ion on the formation of the hole induced spin-state polaron. Previous works showed that doping of LaCoO{sub 3} with Sr in very small concentrations (x {approx} 0.002) yields the formation of a magnetic polaron with a big spin value and large spin orbital coupling. The Ca{sup 2+} ion, in contrast to the Sr{sup 2+} ion, has almost the same ionic radius as the La{sup 3+} ion. Therefore, the substitution of Ca for La provides mainly a hole to the system without creation of a sizeable crystal field distortion around the substituted Ca ion. The data obtained on La{sub 0.998}Ca{sub 0.002}CoO{sub 3} provide experimental evidence that the introduced hole indeed plays the main role in the formation of the spin-state polaron. Accompanying crystal field distortions seem to play a minor role, e.g. influencing the fine splitting of the spin polaron energy levels and the contribution of the spin orbital coupling.

  9. Elucidating the band structure and free charge carrier dynamics of pure and impurities doped CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) perovskite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Xin; Wang, Hai-Yu; Xu, Ming; Gao, Bing-Rong; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-11-28

    CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite material has been commonly used as the free charge generator and reservoir in highly efficient perovskite-based solid-state solar photovoltaic devices. However, many of the underlying fundamental photophysical mechanisms in this material such as the perovskite transition band structure as well as the dependent relationship between the carrier properties and lattice properties still lack sufficient understanding. Here, we elucidated the fundamental band structure of the pure CH3NH3PbI3-xClx pervoskite lattice, and then reported about the dependent relationship between the free charge carrier characteristic and the different CH3NH3PbI3-xClx pervoskite lattice thin films utilizing femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe technologies. The data demonstrated that the pure perovskite crystal band structure should only have one conduction and one valence band rather than dual valences, and the pure perovskite lattice could trigger more free charge carriers with a slower recombination rate under an identical pump intensity compared with the impurities doped perovskite crystal. We also investigated the perovskite film performance when exposed to moisture and water, the corresponding results gave us a dip in the optimization of the performance of perovskite based devices, and so as a priority this material should be isolated from moisture (water). This work may propose a deeper perspective on the comprehension for this material and it is useful for future optimization of applications in photovoltaic and light emission devices.

  10. The Effect of Nitrogen-Doped ATO Nanotubes on Radical Multiplication of Buffer Media by Visible Light Photocatalysis Rather UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan-Hung Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of TiO2 in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer has generally been studied in cultured cancer cells in serum-containing RPMI 1640 medium under visible light application rather than ultraviolet (UV light. An ordered channel array of N-doped anodic titanium dioxide (ATO has been successfully made for visible light application. ATO nanotubes in the anatase form with a length of 10 μm are more effective than nanotubes of 1.8 μm in length as a photocatalyst for radical multiplication in buffer solution by generating hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radical anions under UV-A exposure. Only the N-doped ATO is applicable to visible light photocatalysis for radical multiplication in RPMI 1640+1% FBS and acrylamide, a free radical carrier.

  11. The effects of low-intensity narrow-band blue-light treatment compared to bright white-light treatment in sub-syndromal seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Ybe; Winthorst, Wim H; Duijzer, Wianne B; Hommes, Vanja

    2016-02-18

    The discovery of a novel photoreceptor in the retinal ganglion cells with a highest sensitivity of 470-490 nm blue light has led to research on the effects of short-wavelength light in humans. Several studies have explored the efficacy of monochromatic blue or blue-enriched light in the treatment of SAD. In this study, a comparison has been made between the effects of broad-wavelength light without ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths compared to narrow-band blue light in the treatment of sub-syndromal seasonal affective disorder (Sub-SAD). In a 15-day design, 48 participants suffering from Sub-SAD completed 20-minute sessions of light treatment on five consecutive days. 22 participants were given bright white-light treatment (BLT, broad-wavelength light without UV 10 000 lux, irradiance 31.7 Watt/m(2)) and 26 participants received narrow-band blue light (BLUE, 100 lux, irradiance 1.0 Watt/m(2)). All participants completed daily and weekly questionnaires concerning mood, activation, sleep quality, sleepiness and energy. Also, mood and energy levels were assessed by means of the SIGH-SAD, the primary outcome measure. On day 15, SIGH-SAD ratings were significantly lower than on day 1 (BLT 54.8 %, effect size 1.7 and BLUE 50.7 %, effect size 1.9). No statistically significant differences were found on the main outcome measures. Light treatment is an effective treatment for Sub-SAD. The use of narrow-band blue-light treatment is equally effective as bright white-light treatment. This study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (Nederlands Trial Register TC =  4342 ) (20-12-2013).

  12. A novel 3-stage structure for a low-noise, high-gain and gain-flattened L-band erbium doped fiber amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强则煊; 何赛灵; 张徐亮; 沈林放

    2004-01-01

    The configuration of the novel three-stage L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with very large and flat gain and very low noise figure presented in this paper uses the forward ASE (amplified spontaneous emission) from the first section of the EDF (erbium-doped fiber) and the backward ASE from the third section of the EDF (both serve as the secondary pump sources of energy) to pump the second EDF. To improve the pump efficiency, the power of the pump is split into two parts (with a ratio of e.g. 2:7). The characteristics of this L-band EDFA are studied on the basis of the Giles Model with ASE.

  13. A novel 3-stage structure for a low-noise, high-gain and gain-flattened L-band erbium doped fiber amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强则煊; 何赛灵; 张徐亮; 沈林放

    2004-01-01

    The configuration of the novel three-stage L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with very large and flat gain and very low noise figure presented in this paper uses the forward ASE (amplified spontaneous emission) from the first section of the EDF (erbium-doped fiber) and the backward AS E from the third section of the EDF (both serve as the secondary pump sources of energy) to pump the second EDF. To improve the pump efficiency, the power of the pump is split into two parts(with a ratio of e.g. 2:7). The characteristics of this L-band EDFA are studied on the basis of the Giles Model with ASE.

  14. Enhancement of Gain in L-Band Bismuth-Based Erbium-Doped Fibre Amplifier Using an Un-pumped EDF and Midway Isolator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Y. Chong; S. W. Harun; H. Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    @@ A hybrid L-band erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) with enhanced gain characteristic is demonstrated without a significant noise figure penalty. It uses a backward C-band amplified stimulated emission from both the ends of a bismuth-based EDFA system to pump an unpumped erbium-doped fibre (EDF) for gain enhancing. The maximum gain enhancement of 4.0dB is obtained at wavelength 1604nm with EDF length of 20m. The gain spectrum is reasonably flat in this amplifier compared with the amplifier without an EDF. The gain varies from 27.4 dB to 30.2 dB at wavelength region 1564-1608 nm with incorporation of 20 m EDF. Noise figure also varies from 6.0 to 7. 7 dB at this wavelength region.

  15. Band gap narrowing of titanium oxide semiconductors by noncompensated anion-cation codoping for enhanced visible-light photoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenguang; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Iancu, Violeta; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Pan, Hui; Wang, Wei; Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Rajh, Tijana; Meyer, Harry M; Paranthaman, M Parans; Stocks, G M; Weitering, Hanno H; Gu, Baohua; Eres, Gyula; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2009-11-27

    "Noncompensated n-p codoping" is established as an enabling concept for enhancing the visible-light photoactivity of TiO2 by narrowing its band gap. The concept embodies two crucial ingredients: the electrostatic attraction within the n-p dopant pair enhances both the thermodynamic and kinetic solubilities, and the noncompensated nature ensures the creation of tunable intermediate bands that effectively narrow the band gap. The concept is demonstrated using first-principles calculations, and is validated by direct measurements of band gap narrowing using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, dramatically redshifted optical absorbance, and enhanced photoactivity manifested by efficient electron-hole separation in the visible-light region. This concept is broadly applicable to the synthesis of other advanced functional materials that demand optimal dopant control.

  16. High gain L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with two-stage double-pass configuration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S W Harun; N Tamchek; P Poopalan; H Ahmad

    2003-07-01

    An experiment on gain enhancement in the long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (L-band EDFA) is demonstrated using dual forward pumping scheme in double-pass system. Compared to a single-stage single-pass scheme, the small signal gain for 1580 nm signal can be improved by 13.5 dB. However, a noise figure penalty of 2.9 dB was obtained due to the backward C-band ASE from second stage and the already amplified signal from the first pass that extracting energy from the forward C-band ASE. The maximum gain improvement of 13.7 dB was obtained at a signal wavelength of 1588 nm while signal and total pump powers were fixed at -30 dBm and 92 mW, respectively.

  17. Nanophotonic coherent light-matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Tian; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces (QLMIs) connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching, and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion (REI) doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium REIs to photonic nano-cavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent 4I9/2-4F3/2 optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled REIs is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2~100 microseconds) and small inhomogeneous...

  18. Modeling and Design Guidelines for P⁺ Guard Rings in Lightly Doped CMOS Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ming; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Zhang, Ke;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a compact model for ${rm P}^{+}$ guard rings in lightly doped CMOS substrates featuring a P-well layer. Simple expressions for the impedances in the model are derived based on a conformal mapping approach. The model can be used to predict the noise suppression performance...... of ${rm P}^{+}$ guard rings in terms of S-parameters, which is useful for substrate noise mitigation in mixed-signal system-on-chips. Validation of the model has been done by both electromagnetic simulation and experimental results from guard rings implemented using a standard 0.18-$mu{rm m}$ CMOS process....... In addition, design guidelines have been drawn for minimizing the guard ring size while maintaining the noise suppression performance....

  19. TEM Observation of the Dislocations Nucleated from Cracks inside Lightly or Heavily Doped Czochralski Silicon Wafers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Shiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The crack propagation from the indent introduced with a Vickers hardness tester at room temperature and the dislocation nucleation from the cracks at 900°C inside lightly boron (B, heavily B, or heavily arsenic (As doped Czochralski (CZ Si wafers were investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM observations. It was found that the dopant concentration and the dopant type did not significantly affect the crack propagation and the dislocation nucleation. The slip dislocations with a density of about (0.8∼2.8 × 1013/cm3 were nucleated from the cracks propagated about 10 μm in depth. Furthermore, small dislocations that nucleated with very high density and without cracks were found around the indent introduced at 1000°C.

  20. Modeling the drain current and its equation parameters for lightly doped symmetrical double-gate MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Mini; Chatterjee, Arun Kumar

    2015-04-01

    A 2D model for the potential distribution in silicon film is derived for a symmetrical double gate MOSFET in weak inversion. This 2D potential distribution model is used to analytically derive an expression for the subthreshold slope and threshold voltage. A drain current model for lightly doped symmetrical DG MOSFETs is then presented by considering weak and strong inversion regions including short channel effects, series source to drain resistance and channel length modulation parameters. These derived models are compared with the simulation results of the SILVACO (Atlas) tool for different channel lengths and silicon film thicknesses. Lastly, the effect of the fixed oxide charge on the drain current model has been studied through simulation. It is observed that the obtained analytical models of symmetrical double gate MOSFETs are in good agreement with the simulated results for a channel length to silicon film thickness ratio greater than or equal to 2.

  1. Porous silicon photonic devices using pulsed anodic etching of lightly doped silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escorcia-Garcia, J; Sarracino MartInez, O; Agarwal, V [CIICAP-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col Chamilpa, CP 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Gracia-Jimenez, J M, E-mail: vagarwal@uaem.m [Instituto de Fisica, BUAP, Apdo. Postal J-48, San Manuel, 72570 Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-07-21

    The fabrication of porous silicon photonic structures using lightly doped, p-type, silicon wafers (resistivity: 14-22 OMEGA cm) by pulsed anodic etching is reported. The optical properties have been found to be strongly dependent on the duty cycle and frequency of the applied current. All the interfaces of the single layered samples were digitally analysed by calculating the mean interface roughness (R{sub m}). The interface roughness was found to be maximum for the sample with direct current. The use of a duty cycle above 50%, in a certain range of frequencies, is found to reduce the interface roughness. The optical properties of some microcavities and rugate filters are investigated from the optimized parameters of the duty cycle and frequency, using the current densities of 10, 90 and 150 mA cm{sup -2}.

  2. Bi2+-doped strontium borates for white-light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingying; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2009-10-01

    We report on Bi(2+)-doped SrB(4)O(7) and SrB(6)O(10) as orange and red phosphors for white-light-emitting diodes. In both compounds, absorption due to (2)P(1/2)-->(2)S(1/2) in Bi(2+) could be observed and quantified. The emission redshift from SrB(4)O(7) to SrB(6)O(10) and their different phonon satellite spectra are attributed to the enhancement of phonon-electron interaction. Investigation of the reduction mechanism of Bi(3+) to Bi(2+) suggests that in oxidizing atmosphere, Bi(2+) can be stabilized on Sr(2+) sites only in such lattices that are dominated by tetrahedrally coordinated boron.

  3. Short-channel drain current model for asymmetric heavily/lightly doped DG MOSFETs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRADIPTA DUTTA; BINIT SYAMAL; KALYAN KOLEY; ARKA DUTTA; C K SARKAR

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents a drain current model for double gate metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (DG MOSFETs) based on a new velocity saturation model that accounts for short-channel velocity saturation effect independently in the front and the back gate controlled channels under asymmetric front and back gate bias and oxide thickness. To determine the front and the back-channel velocity saturation, drain-induced barrierlowering is evaluated by effective gate voltages at the front and back gates obtained from surface potential at the threshold condition after considering symmetric and asymmetric front and back oxide thickness. The model alsoincorporates surface roughness scattering and ionized impurity scattering to estimate drain current for heavily/lightly doped channel for short-channel asymmetric DG MOSFET and a good agreement has been achieved with TCADsimulations, with a relative error of around 3–7%.

  4. Mn Doping Effects on the Electronic Band Structure of PbS Quantum Dot Thin Films: A Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Andrew J.; Rimal, Gaurab; Tang, Jinke; Chien, Teyu

    A thorough understanding of the phenomena associated with doping of transition metals in semiconductors is important for the development of semiconducting electronic technologies such as semiconducting quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC). Manganese doping is of particular interest in a PbS QD as it is potentially capable of increasing overall QDSSC performance. Here we present scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies about the effects of Manganese doping on the energy band structures of PbS semiconducting QD thin films, grown using pulsed laser deposition. As a result of Manganese doping in the PbS QD thin films, a widening of the electronic band gap was observed, which is responsible for the observed increase in resistivity. Furthermore, a loss of long range periodicity observed by XRD, upon incorporation of Manganese, indicates that the Manganese dopants also induce a large amount of grain boundaries. This work was supported by the following: U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, DEFG02-10ER46728 and the National Science Foundation Grant #0948027.

  5. Processing of Transparent Rare Earth Doped Zirconia for High Temperature Light Emission Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    The high fracture toughness of stabilized zirconia makes it one of the most widely applicable high temperature structural materials. However, it is not typicality considered for optical applications since the microstructure achieved by traditional processing makes it opaque. The aim of this dissertation is to develop processing methods for the introducing new functionalities of light transparency and light emission (photoluminescence) and to understand the nanostructure-property relationships that make these functionalities possible. A processing study of rare-earth (RE) doped Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2, zirconia) via Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) is presented. The role of processing temperature and dopant concentration on the crystal structure, microstructure and properties of the RE: ZrO2 is studied. Microstructural shows sub-100 nm grain size and homogeneous dopant distribution. X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis show that with increased dopant concentration the material changes from monoclinic to tetragonal. Structural analysis shows the material shows high hardness and toughness values 30% greater than similarly processed yttria-stabilized zirconia. Despite birefringence in the tetragonal phase, optical characterization is presented showing the samples are both highly transparent and photo-luminescent. Special attention is paid to analyzing structural and photoluminescence development during densification, as well as the role of oxygen vacancies on the optical properties of the densified material. This material is shown to be a promising candidate for a number of applications including luminescence thermometry and high temperature light emission.

  6. The nature of paramagnetic species in nitrogen doped TiO2 active in visible light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livraghi, Stefano; Votta, Annamaria; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Giamello, Elio

    2005-01-28

    Nitrogen doped TiO2, a novel photocatalyst active in the decomposition of organic pollutants using visible light, contains two different types of paramagnetic centres (neutral NO radicals and NO2(2-) type radical ions respectively) which are likely related to specific properties of the solid.

  7. Photoelectrocatalytic properties of nitrogen doped TiO2/Ti photoelectrode prepared by plasma based ion implantation under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Xin, Yanjun; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Xinxin; Tang, Guangze

    2010-03-15

    Nitrogen doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes were prepared by a sequence of anodization and plasma based ion implantation (PBII). The properties of this photoelectrode were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), Ultra violet/visible light diffuse reflectance spectra (UV/vis/DRS), surface photovoltage (SPV), etc. Photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) performance of N-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrode was tested under visible light irradiation. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh.B). The results of XPS showed that nitrogen element was in form of three species, i.e. beta-N, molecular gamma-N and O-Ti-N, which existed in the lattices of TiO(2) and gaps between molecules. The results of UV/vis/DRS spectra and SPV revealed that proper doping of nitrogen could expand the response of photoelectrodes towards visible light and diminish the recombination of photo-generated holes and electrons, respectively. The photoelectrocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes was superior to those of undoped one under visible light region irradiation.

  8. A Compact P⁺ Contact Resistance Model for Characterization of Substrate Coupling in Modern Lightly Doped CMOS Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ming; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Jensen, Ole Kiel;

    2012-01-01

    lightly-doped CMOS processes with P-well layers are still unavailable. This paper presents a new compact resistance model aiming at solving this problem. A Conformal Mapping(CM) method was used to derive the closed-form expressions for the resistances in the model. The model requires no fitting factors...

  9. Synthesis of N-doped TiO2 Using Guanidine Nitrate: An Excellent Visible Light Photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    An excellent visible light active nitrogen-rich TiO2 photocatalyst have been synthesized by using guanidine nitrate as the doping material. The catalytic efficiency of the catalyst has been demonstrated by the decomposition of the dye, methyl orange (MO), and the pollutant, 2,4 d...

  10. Simulation analysis of one-stage C+L-band erbium-doped fiber ASE source with double-pass bi-directional pumping configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wencai Huang(黄文财); Hai Ming(明海)

    2004-01-01

    A new technique to generate a C+L-band flat amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source in one-stage erbium-doped fiber (EDF) using bi-directional pumping configuration is analyzed. The simulation results show that the key point of obtaining flat C+L-band ASE spectrum in one-stage EDF is using a laser diode operated at 980 nm as backward pump source. ASE source with nearly 80-nm bandwidth can be obtained by means of selecting suitable fiber length and properly adjusting the ratio of forward to backward pump power.

  11. Reduction of Light-induced Degradation of Boron-doped Solar-grade Czochralski Silicon by Corona Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Boulfrad, Yacine; Lindroos, Jeanette; Inglese, Alessandro; Yli-Koski, Marko; Savin, Hele

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study aims at the reduction of light-induced degradation of boron-doped solar-grade Czochralski silicon wafers by corona charging. The method consists of deposition of negative charges on both surface sides of wafer and keeping the wafer in dark for 24 hours to allow the diffusion of positively-charged interstitial copper towards the surfaces. This method proves to be useful to reduce or eliminate light-induced degradation caused by copper. The degradation was significantly redu...

  12. Enhanced 1.32 μm fluorescence and broadband amplifying for O-band optical amplifier in Nd3+-doped tellurite glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zi-zhong; Zhou, Ming-han; Su, Xiu-e.; Cheng, Pan; Zhou, Ya-xun

    2017-01-01

    WO3 oxides with relatively high phonon energy and different concentrations were introduced into the Nd3+-doped tellurite-based glasses of TeO2-ZnO-Na2O to improve the 1.32 μm band fluorescence emission. The absorption spectra, Raman spectra, 1.32 μm band fluorescence spectra and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curves were measured, together with the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, stimulated emission and gain parameters were calculated to evaluate the effects of WO3 amount on the glass structure and spectroscopic properties of 1.32 μm band fluorescence. It is shown that the introduction of an appropriate amount of WO3 oxide can effectively improve the 1.32 μm band fluorescence intensity through the enhanced multi-phonon relaxation (MPR) processes between the excited levels of Nd3+. The results indicate that the prepared Nd3+-doped tellurite glass with an appropriate amount of WO3 oxide is a potential gain medium applied for the O-band broad and high-gain fiber amplifier.

  13. Hydraulic and anatomical properties of light bands in Norway spruce compression wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Stefan; Bardage, Stig; Brändström, Jonas

    2006-01-01

    Compression wood (CW), which is formed on the underside of conifer branches, exhibits a lower specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) compared with normal wood. However, the first-formed tracheids of an annual ring on the underside of a conifer branch often share several properties with normal tracheids, e.g., thin cell walls and angular cross sections. These first-formed tracheids appear bright when observed by the naked eye and are therefore called light bands (LB). In this study, hydraulic and related anatomical properties of LBs were characterized and compared with typical CW and opposite wood (OW). Measurements were made on branches of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Specific hydraulic conductivity was measured with fine cannulas connected to microlitre syringes. Micro- and ultrastructural analysis were performed on transverse and radial longitudinal sections by light and scanning electron microscopy. Xylem areas containing both typical CW and LBs had a k(s) 51.5% that of OW (7.95 +/- 0.97 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) x 10(-4)), whereas k(s) of pure CW was only 26.7% that of OW. The k(s) of LBs (6.38 +/- 0.97 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) x 10(-4); 80.3% of OW) was estimated from these k(s) values because the cannulas were too wide to measure the k(s) of LBs directly. Mean lumen area of first-formed tracheids on the underside of branches was 65.7% that of first-formed tracheids in OW and about three times that of CW. Light-band tracheids exhibited a bordered pit frequency of 42.7 +/- 1.3 pits mm(-1), which was three times that in CW and 1.6 times that in OW. Bordered pit apertures in LB tracheids (9.15 +/- 0.60 microm(2)) were 1.7 times wider than those in CW and similar in aperture to those in OW. The high k(s) of LBs was correlated with their wide tracheid lumina, high pit frequency and wide pit apertures. We therefore suggest that LBs have a primarily hydraulic function within the mechanically optimized CW region. This might be important for supplying water to living

  14. Interfacially Al-doped ZnO nanowires: greatly enhanced near band edge emission through suppressed electron-phonon coupling and confined optical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiming; Dai, Yanmeng; Jiang, Shenlong; Ma, Chao; Lin, Yue; Du, Dongxue; Wu, Yukun; Ding, Huaiyi; Zhang, Qun; Pan, Nan; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-04-05

    Aluminium (Al)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with a unique core-shell structure and a Δ-doping profile at the interface were successfully grown using a combination of chemical vapor deposition re-growth and few-layer AlxOy atomic layer deposition. Unlike the conventional heavy doping which degrades the near-band-edge (NBE) luminescence and increases the electron-phonon coupling (EPC), it was found that there was an over 20-fold enhanced NBE emission and a notably-weakened EPC in this type of interfacially Al-doped ZnO NWs. Further experiments revealed a greatly suppressed nonradiative decay process and a much enhanced radiative recombination rate. By comparing the finite-difference time-domain simulation with the experimental results from intentionally designed different NWs, this enhanced radiative decay rate was attributed to the Purcell effect induced by the confined and intensified optical field within the interfacial layer. The ability to manipulate the confinement, transport and relaxation dynamics of ZnO excitons can be naturally guaranteed with this unique interfacial Δ-doping strategy, which is certainly desirable for the applications using ZnO-based nano-photonic and nano-optoelectronic devices.

  15. Preparation, characterization of Sb-doped ZnO nanocrystals and their excellent solar light driven photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Othmen, Walid Ben Haj; Elhouichet, Habib; Férid, Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, undoped and antimony (Sb) doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared by a simple and economical sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the purity of the obtained phase and its high crystallinity. Raman analysis confirms the hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO structure. According to the diffuse reflectance results, the band gap was found to decrease up to 3% of Sb doping (ZSb3 sample). The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that Sb ions occupied both Zn and interstitials sites. The successful substitution of antimony in ZnO lattice suggests the formation of the complex (SbZn-2 VZn) acceptor level above the valence band. Particularly for ZSb3 sample, the UV photoluminescence (PL) band presents an obvious red-shift attributed to the formation of this complex. Rhodamine B (RhB) was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped ZnO NCs under sunlight irradiation. It was found that oxygen vacancies play a major role in the photocatalytic process by trapping the excited electrons and inhibiting the radiative recombination. During the photocatalytic mechanism, the Sb doping, expressed through the apparition of the (SbZn-2 VZn) correspondent acceptor level, enhances the sunlight absorption within the ZnO band gap, which stimulates the generation of hydroxyl radicals and promotes the photocatalytics reaction rates. Such important contribution of the hydroxyl radicals was confirmed experimentally when using ethanol as scavenger in the photocatalytic reaction. The photodegradation experiments reveal that ZSb3 sample exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity among all the prepared samples and presents a good cycling stability and reusability. The influence of the initial pH in the photodegradation efficiency was also monitored and discussed.

  16. Band gap narrowing of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystals by electrochemically active biofilms and their visible light activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Ansari, Sajid Ali; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-07-21

    We report a simple biogenic-route to narrow the band gap of TiO2 nanocrystals for visible light application by offering a greener method. When an electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) was challenged with a solution of Degussa-TiO2 using sodium acetate as the electron donor, greyish blue-colored TiO2 nanocrystals were obtained. A band gap study showed that the band gap of the modified TiO2 nanocrystals was significantly reduced (E(g) = 2.85 eV) compared to the unmodified white Degussa TiO2 (E(g) = 3.10 eV).

  17. Visible light induced photodegradation of organic pollutants on nitrogen and fluorine co-doped TiO2 photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-peng; XU Jun; CAI Wei-min; ZHOU Bao-xue; HE Zheng-guang; CAI Chun-guang; HONG Xiao-ting

    2005-01-01

    The nitrogen and fluorine co-doped TiO2 polycrystalline powder was synthesized by calcinations of the hydrolysis product of tetrabutyl titanate with ammonium fluoride. Nitrogen and fluorine co-doping causes the absorption edge of TiO2 to shift to a lower energy region.The photocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO2 with anatase phases was found to be 2.4 times higher than that of the commercial TiO2photocatalyst Degussa P25 for phenol decomposition under visible light irradiation. The co-doped TiO2 powders only contain anatase phases even at 1000℃. Apparently, ammonium fluoride added retarded phase transformation of the TiO2 powders from anatase to rutile.The substitutional fluorine and interstitial nitrogen atoms in co-doped TiO2 polycrystalline powder were responsible for the vis light response and caused the absorption edge of TiO2 to shift to a lower energy region.

  18. Fabrication of Ni-doped BiVO4 semiconductors with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performances for wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Chhabilal; Kshetri, Yuwaraj K.; Kim, Tae-Ho; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Ray, Schindra Kumar; Lee, Soo Wohn

    2017-08-01

    A visible-light-driven Ni-doped BiVO4 photocatalyst was synthesized using a microwave hydrothermal method. The nominal Ni doping amount of 1 wt% provided excellent photoactivity for a variety of water pollutants, such as ibuprofen (pharmaceutical), Escherichia coli (bacteria), and green tides (phytoplankton). Each Ni-doped BiVO4 sample exhibits better performance than pure BiVO4. The degradation of ibuprofen reaches 80% within 90 min, the deactivation of Escherichia coli reaches around 92% within 5 h, and the inactivation of green tide (Chlamydomonas pulsatilla) reaches 70% upon 60 min of the visible light irradiation. The first principle calculation and thermodynamic modeling revealed that Ni doping in the vanadium site gives the most stable configuration of the synthesized samples with the formation of an in-gap energy state and oxygen vacancies. The in-gap energy state and the oxygen vacancies serve as an electron-trapping center that decreases the migration time of the photogenerated carrier and increases the separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs, which are responsible for the observed efficient photocatalytic, anti-bacterial and anti-algal activity of the samples. These properties thus suggest potential applications of Ni-doped BiVO4 as a multifunctional material in the field of wastewater treatment.

  19. Electron and hole doping in the relativistic Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 : A first-principles study using band unfolding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peitao; Reticcioli, Michele; Kim, Bongjae; Continenza, Alessandra; Kresse, Georg; Sarma, D. D.; Chen, Xing-Qiu; Franchini, Cesare

    2016-11-01

    We study the effects of dilute La and Rh substitutional doping on the electronic structure of the relativistic Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 using fully relativistic and magnetically noncollinear density functional theory with the inclusion of an on-site Hubbard U . To model doping effects, we have adopted the supercell approach, that allows for a realistic treatment of structural relaxations and electronic effects beyond a purely rigid band approach. By means of the band unfolding technique we have computed the spectral function and constructed the effective band structure and Fermi surface (FS) in the primitive cell, which are readily comparable with available experimental data. Our calculations clearly indicate that La and Rh doping can be interpreted as effective electron and (fractional) hole doping, respectively. We found that both electron and hole doping induce an insulating-to-metal transition (IMT) but with different characteristics. In Sr2 -xLaxIrO4 the IMT is accompanied by a moderate renormalization of the electronic correlation substantiated by a reduction of the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion U -J from 1.6 eV (x =0 ) to 1.4 eV (metallic regime of x =12.5 % ). The progressive closing of the relativistic Mott gap leads to the emergence of connected elliptical electron pockets at (π /2 ,π /2 ) and less intense features at X on the Fermi surface. The average ordered magnetic moment is slightly reduced upon doping, but the canted antiferromagnetic state is perturbed on the Ir-O planes located near the La atoms. The substitution of Ir with the nominally isovalent Rh is accompanied by a substantial hole transfer from the Rh site to the nearest-neighbor Ir sites. This shifts down the chemical potential, creates almost circular disconnected hole pockets in the FS, and establishes the emergence of a two-dimensional metallic state formed by conducting Rh planes intercalated by insulating Ir planes. Finally, our data indicate that hole doping causes a flipping

  20. White organic light-emitting devices using Zn(BTZ)2 doped with Rubrene as emitting layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jiajin; HUA Yulin; YIN Shougen; FENG Xiulan; WU Xiaoming; SUN Yuanyuan; LI Yongfang; YANG Chunhe; SHUAI Zhigang

    2005-01-01

    Zn(BTZ)2 was synthesized from the complex reaction between zinc acetate dihydrate and 2-(2- hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazolate. Then Zn(BTZ)2 was used as main light-emitting material doped with different amounts of fluorescent dye Rubrene and fabricated a series of white organic light emitting devices. The configurations were as follows: ITO/PVK:TPD/Zn(BTZ)2:Rubrene/Al. The doping concentration of Rubrene in Zn(BTZ)2 was 1.2%, 0.12%, 0.08% and 0.05%, respectively. According to the EL spectra and CIE coordinates of the above devices, the optimum doping concentration (0.05%, weight percent) had been determined. The steady and bright white light emitting of the device with 0.05% doping concentration had been obtained, and the white emission covered a wide range of driving voltage (10-22.5 V). The CIE coordinates were (x=0.341, y=0.334) at the driving voltage of 20 V, which was very close to the equi-energy point (x=0.333, y=0.333), and the corresponding luminance and external quantum efficiency were 4048 Cd/m2 and 0.63% (4.05 Cd/A), respectively. Lastly, we also discussed the emitting mechanisms of the material and the devices.

  1. Significant enhancement of the intergrain coupling in lightly F-doped SmFeAsO superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Jee; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Ogino, Hiraku; Kishio, Kohji

    2013-06-01

    A series of polycrystalline SmFeAsO1-xFx bulks (x = 0-0.25) were synthesized by a one step solid state reaction method at a low heat temperature of 900 ° C, which was about 300 ° C lower than the conventional temperature (˜1200 ° C). The magnetic susceptibility measurements showed single step superconducting transitions for the lightly doped samples with 0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.12, while the double-step-like transitions were observed in samples x ≥ 0.15, indicating weak-link behavior of the grains. The double step transition is due to the possible occurrence of intergranular (at low temperature) and intragranular (near Tc) superconductivity consisting of coupled superconducting grains, and becomes broad with increasing x. The lightly doped samples with x = 0.10-0.12 have the onset Tc up to 51 K and the intergranular critical current density of over 103 A cm-2 at 5 K in self-field. This intergrain Jc value is one order of magnitude higher than the optimally doped samples (x = 0.2, Tc = 57 K), as assessed by remanent magnetization measurements. These results suggest strong intergrain coupling, and are expected to motivate future research and development for lightly fluorine-doped regions of REFeAs(O, F) superconductors.

  2. Preparation,characterization and photocatalytic activity of visible light driven chlorine-doped TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Mingce; CAI Weimin; CHEN Heng; XU Jun

    2007-01-01

    A novel chlorine-doped titanium dioxide catalyst with visible light response was prepared by hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate in hydrochloric acid.The catalyst samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS).Results showed that the doped element of CI lowered the temperatures of phase transformation of TiO2 from amorphous to anatase and from anatase to rutile.The absorption edge of chlorine-doped TiO2 calcined at 300℃ shifted to visible light region.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results proved that chlorine existed in the TiO2 crystal lattice as anion.The photocatalytic degradation of phenol showed that under visible light (λ>400 nm)irradiation,the chlorine-doped TiO2 calcined at 300℃ displayed the best performance,the degradation ratio of phenol was 42.5% after 120min.

  3. Formation of polar surfaces in microstructured ZnO by doping with Cu and applications in photocatalysis using visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, Rajendra C.; Choi, Da-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Sung; Lee, Caroline S., E-mail: sunyonglee@hanyang.ac.kr

    2015-02-01

    We report the synthesis of copper-doped zinc oxide microstructures with a large amount of polar surfaces using a single-step facile chemical method by collecting powders of zinc oxide (ZnO) microstructures. It was found that rod-like morphology of ZnO transformed into disk and sphere-like structure with nanosheets. Hollow disk-like structures were formed due to the surface etching properties of Cl{sup −} ions in the copper chloride precursor. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes was measured under irradiation with visible light using the structures as catalysts. The Cu-doped ZnO exhibited better photodegradation properties than did undoped ZnO. The enhanced performance is attributed to the existence of (001) polar surfaces, oxygen vacancies, and increased optical absorbance at visible wavelengths, which is consistent with the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and optical absorbance measurements. These favorable photocatalytic properties of the doped microstructures demonstrate their potential for use in wastewater treatment. - Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract shows the electron transfer mechanism under visible light for Cu-doped ZnO microstructures and the photocatalytic degradation of dye. - Highlights: • Cu induced microstructures of ZnO with polar surfaces. • Methylene blue degradation under visible light irradiation. • Room temperature ferromagnetism due to oxygen vacancies in ZnO. • 7% Cu–ZnO has highest photocatalytic activity.

  4. Carbon coating stabilized Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gao; Zhou, Peng; Zhao, Meiming; Zhu, Weidong; Yan, Shicheng; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-07-28

    Self-doping by Ti(3+) is a useful method to expand the light response of TiO2 into the visible light region. However, to obtain a stable Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 seems to be a challenge due to the easy oxidation of Ti(3+) during the heterogeneous reaction. Here, we propose a simple carbon coating route to stabilize the Ti(3+)-doped TiO2, in which both the Ti(3+) and precursor of the carbon coating layer were in situ formed from the hydrothermal hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide. The carbon coated Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 exhibited excellent stability for photocatalytic hydrogen production. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, the proposed stabilizing mechanism is that the conductive carbon coating layer as a barrier layer prevents the H2O and O2 from diffusing into the surface of the photocatalyst, which can oxidize the surface O vacancies and Ti(3+) in TiO2. Our findings offer a simple route to prepare a highly stable TiO2-based photocatalyst with visible light response.

  5. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped TiO2 for the photocatalytic destruction of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeok; Antoniou, Maria G; Pelaez, Miguel; De la Cruz, Armah A; Shoemaker, Jody A; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2007-11-01

    The presence of the harmful cyanobacterial toxins in water resources worldwide drives the development of an innovative and practical water treatment technology with great urgency. This study deals with two important aspects: the fabrication of mesoporous nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) photocatalysts and their environmental application for the destruction of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) under visible light. In a nanotechnological sol-gel synthesis method, a nitrogen-containing surfactant (dodecylammonium chloride) was introduced as a pore templating material for tailor-designing the structural properties of TiO2 and as a nitrogen dopant for its visible light response. The resulting N-TiO2 exhibited significantly enhanced structural properties including 2-8 nm mesoporous structure (porosity 44%) and high surface area of 150 m2/g. Red shift in light absorbance up to 468 nm, 0.9 eV lower binding energy of electrons in Ti 2p state, and reduced interplanar distance of crystal lattices proved nitrogen doping in the TiO2 lattice. Due to its narrow band gap at 2.65 eV, N-TiO2 efficiently degraded MC-LR under visible spectrum above 420 nm. Acidic condition (pH 3.5) was more favorable for the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR on N-TiO2 due to electrostatic attraction forces between negatively charged MC-LR and +6.5 mV charged N-TiO2. Even under UV light, MC-LR was decomposed 3-4 times faster using N-TiO2 than control TiO2. The degradation pathways and reaction intermediates of MC-LR were not directly related to the energy source for TiO2 activation (UV and visible) and nature of TiO2 (neat and nitrogen-doped). This study implies a strong possibility for the in situ photocatalytic remediation of contaminated water with cyanobacterial toxins and other toxic compounds using solar light, a sustainable source of energy.

  6. Visible light induced TiO2 pillared MMT photocatalyst coupling-doped with S and N

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU An-ning; CHEN You-mei; YU Zhan-jiang

    2008-01-01

    Visible light induced titanium dioxide (TiO2) pillared montmorillonite clay (MMT)photocatalyst coupling-doped with S and N elements was prepared by the two-step ad-sorption method. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectros-copy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalysic ef-ficacy of the prepared photocatalyst for degrading gaseous formaldehyde was evaluatedunder visible light irradiation. The degrading rate of gaseous formaldehyde is nearly 85%in 300 min visible light irradiation. The results demonstrate that the much higher visiblelight photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst is due to the synergistic effects of coupling-doping of S and N elements to TiO2, extensive specific surface area of MMT and quantumsized efficacy between layers of MMT.

  7. White light emission of dysprosium doped lanthanum calcium phosphate oxide and oxyfluoride glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luewarasirikul, N.; Kim, H. J.; Meejitpaisan, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lanthanum calcium phosphate oxide and oxyfluoride glasses doped with dysprosium oxide were prepared by melt-quenching technique with chemical composition 20La2O3:10CaO:69P2O5:1Dy2O3 and 20La2O3:10CaF2:69P2O5:1Dy2O3. The physical, optical and luminescence properties of the glass samples were studied to evaluate their potential to using as luminescence materials for solid-state lighting applications. The density, molar volume and refractive index of the glass samples were carried out. The optical and luminescence properties were studied by investigating absorption, excitation, and emission spectra of the glass samples. The absorption spectra were investigated in the UV-Vis-NIR region from 300 to 2000 nm. The excitation spectra observed under 574 nm emission wavelength showed the highest peak centered at 349 nm (6H15/2 → 6P7/2). The emission spectra, excited with 349 nm excitation wavelength showed two major peaks corresponding to 482 nm blue emission (4F9/2 → 6H15/2) and 574 nm yellow emission (4F9/2 → 6H13/2). The experimental lifetime were found to be 0.539 and 0.540 for oxide and oxyfluoride glass sample, respectively. The x,y color coordinates under 349 nm excitation wavelength were (0.38, 0.43) for both glass samples, that be plotted in white region of CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. The CCT values obtained from the glass samples are 4204 K for oxide glass and 4228 K for oxyfluoride glass corresponding to the commercial cool white light (3100-4500 K). Judd-Ofelt theory had also been employed to obtain the J-O parameters (Ω2, Ω4 and Ω6), oscillator strength, radiative transition possibility, stimulated emission cross section and branching ratio. The Ω2 > Ω4 > Ω6 trend of J-O parameters of both glass samples may indicate the good quality of a glass host for using as optical device application. Temperature dependence of emission spectra was studied from 300 K to 10 K and found that the intensity of the emission peak was found to be increased with

  8. Nanophotonic coherent light-matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion-doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium rare-earth-ions to photonic nanocavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent 4I9/2-4F3/2 optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled rare-earth ions is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2~100 μs) and small inhomogeneous broadening are measured for the cavity-coupled rare-earth ions, thus demonstrating their potential for on-chip scalable quantum light-matter interfaces.

  9. Electronic, optical and photocatalytic behavior of Mn, N doped and co-doped TiO2: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya Fei; Li, Can; Lu, Song; Liu, Ru Xi; Hu, Ji Yuan; Gong, Yin Yan; Niu, Leng Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The crystal phase structure, surface morphology, chemical states and optical properties of Mn, N mono-doped and co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Meanwhile, geometry structures, formation energies, electronic and optical properties of all systems have been also analyzed by density functional theory. The results showed that the band gap values and the carrier mobility in the valence band, conduction band and impurity levels have a synergetic influence on the visible-light absorption and photocatalytic activity of the doped TiO2. The number and the carrier mobility of impurity level jointly influence the photocatalytic activity of catalyst under visible-light. Especially, the photocatalytic activity of Mn-2N co-doped TiO2 beyond three-fold than that of pure TiO2 under visible-light.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol by visible light-responsive iron-doped TiO2 and spontaneous sedimentation of the TiO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Mst Shamsun; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kagaya, Shigehiro

    2006-12-01

    Fe-doped TiO2 was prepared by the calcination of Fe(x)TiS(2) (x=0, 0.002, 0.005, 0.008, 0.01) and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra. All the Fe-doped TiO2 were composed of an anatase crystal form and showed red shifts to a longer wavelength. The activity of the Fe-doped TiO2 for the degradation of phenol was investigated by varying the iron content during UV (365nm) and visible light (405nm and 436nm) irradiation. The degradation rate depended on the Fe content and the Fe-doped TiO2 was responsive to the visible light as well as the elevated activity toward UV light. The molar ratio of 0.005 was the optimum for both the UV and visible light irradiations. The result was discussed on the basis of the balance of the excited electron-hole trap by the doped Fe(3+) and their charge recombination on the doped Fe(3+) level. The Fe-doped TiO2 (x=0.005) was more active than P25 TiO2 under solar light irradiation. The suspended Fe-doped TiO2 spontaneously precipitated once the stirring of the reaction mixture was terminated.

  11. Facile Atmospheric Pressure Synthesis of High Thermal Stability and Narrow-Band Red-Emitting SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+) Phosphor for High Color Rendering Index White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Shin-Mou; Lin, Yin-Chih; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2016-08-03

    Red phosphors (e.g., SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+)) with high thermal stability and narrow-band properties are urgently explored to meet the next-generation high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, to date, synthesis of such phosphors remains an arduous task. Herein, we report, for the first time, a facile method to synthesize SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+) through Sr3N2, Li3N, Al, and EuN under atmospheric pressure. The as-synthesized narrow-band red-emitting phosphor exhibits excellent thermal stability, including small chromaticity shift and low thermal quenching. Intriguingly, the title phosphor shows an anomalous increase in theoretical lumen equivalent with the increase of temperature as a result of blue shift and band broadening of the emission band, which is crucial for high-power white LEDs. Utilizing the title phosphor, commercial YAG:Ce(3+), and InGaN-based blue LED chip, a proof-of-concept warm white LEDs with a color rendering index (CRI) of 91.1 and R9 = 68 is achieved. Therefore, our results highlight that this method, which is based on atmospheric pressure synthesis, may open a new means to explore narrow-band-emitting nitride phosphor. In addition, the underlying requirements to design Eu(2+)-doped narrow-band-emitting phosphors were also summarized.

  12. Fundamental emission characteristics of light-emitting liquid crystal cells with rubrene-doped 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Michinori; Horiuchi, Takao; Tanimoto, Masashi; Nose, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the light emission properties in rubrene-doped nematic liquid crystal (LC) cells from the following three standpoints: (i) effect of the heating temperature during the sample preparation, (ii) role of the emissive LC layer thickness, and (iii) role of different LC types used as the emissive layer. As a result, the light-emitting LC cells simultaneously exhibit the features of electrochemiluminescent cells (the carrier transport is governed by an ionic conduction) as well as of organic light-emitting diodes (the luminance strongly depends on the emissive layer thickness). Furthermore, we report that devices with cyano group containing LCs exhibit higher luminance compared to a fluorinated LC.

  13. Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glass with silver nanoparticles for 1.85 μm band laser material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Zhou, Yaxun; Cheng, Pan; Zhou, Zizhong; Li, Jun; Jin, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glasses with different silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) concentrations were prepared using the conventional melt-quenching technique and characterized by the UV/Vis/NIR absorption spectra, 1.85 μm band fluorescence emission spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curves and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns to investigate the effects of Ag NPs on the 1.85 μm band spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ ions, thermal stability and structural nature of glass hosts. Under the excitation of 980 nm laser diode (LD), the 1.85 μm band fluorescence emission of Tm3+ ions enhances significantly in the presence of Ag NPs with average diameter of ∼8 nm and local surface Plasmon resonance (LSPR) band of ∼590 nm, which is mainly attributed to the increased local electric field induced by Ag NPs at the proximity of doped rare-earth ions on the basis of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tm3+ ions. An improvement by about 110% of fluorescence intensity is observed in the Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped tellurite glass containing 0.5 mol% amount of AgNO3 while the prepared glass samples possess good thermal stability and amorphous structural nature. Meanwhile, the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt (t = 2,4,6), spontaneous radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence branching