WorldWideScience

Sample records for light non-zero momentum

  1. Complete orthonormal sets on the past light cone - II: Functions belonging to spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, G.H.

    1987-12-01

    This is the second of a series of papers preparing the mathematical framework for a past light cone formulation for the quantum mechanics of particles of arbitrary mass and spin. The aim of past light cone quantum theory is to define quantum states solely in terms of data accessible to an observer, i.e. information from within his current past light cone. In order to set up such a theory one needs to define on the past light cone complete orthonormal sets of functions which belong to the appropriate representation of the Poincare group. Such functions are interpreted as energy-momentum eigenfunctions. The present paper treats the case of spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass. (author). 7 refs

  2. Generalized parton distribution for non zero skewness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Narinder; Dahiya, Harleen; Teryaev, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    In the theory of strong interactions the main open question is how the nucleon and other hadrons are built from quarks and gluons, the fundamental degrees of freedom in QCD. An essential tool to investigate hadron structure is the study of deep inelastic scattering processes, where individual quarks and gluons can be resolved. The parton densities extracted from such processes encode the distribution of longitudinal momentum and polarization carried by quarks, antiquarks and gluons within a fast moving hadron. They have provided much to shape the physical picture of hadron structure. In the recent years, it has become clear that appropriate exclusive scattering processes may provide such information encoded in the general parton distributions (GPDs). Here, we investigate the GPD for deep virtual compton scattering (DVCS) for the non zero skewness. The study has investigated the GPDs by expressing them in terms of overlaps of light front wave functions (LFWFs). The work represented a spin 1/2 system as a composite of spin 1/2 fermion and spin 1 boson with arbitrary masses

  3. Orbital Angular Momentum Multiplexing over Visible Light Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Hardik Rameshchandra

    This thesis proposes and explores the possibility of using Orbital Angular Momentum multiplexing in Visible Light Communication system. Orbital Angular Momentum is mainly applied for laser and optical fiber transmissions, while Visible Light Communication is a technology using the light as a carrier for wireless communication. In this research, the study of the state of art and experiments showing some results on multiplexing based on Orbital Angular Momentum over Visible Light Communication system were done. After completion of the initial stage; research work and simulations were performed on spatial multiplexing over Li-Fi channel modeling. Simulation scenarios which allowed to evaluate the Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Received Power Distribution, Intensity and Illuminance were defined and developed.

  4. Quantitatively measuring the orbital angular momentum density of light : Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available the orbital angular momentum density of light Angela Dudleya, Christian Schulzeb, Igor Litvina, Michael Duparréb and Andrew Forbes*a,c,d a CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; b Institute of Applied Optics, Friedrich...., “Generation of high-order Bessel beams by use of an axicon,” Opt. Commun. 177(1-6), 297–301 (2000). [3] Sztul, H. I. and Alfano, R. R., “The Poynting vector and angular momentum of Airy beams,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9411–9416 (2008). [4] Allen, L...

  5. Momentum distributions in light halo nuclei and structure constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The core recoil momentum distribution of neutron-rich isotopes of light exotic nuclei is studied within a three-body model, where the nuclei are described by a core and two neutrons, with interactions dominated by the s-wave channel. In our framework, the two-body subsystems should have large scattering lengths in comparison with the interaction range allowing to use a three-body model with a zero-range force. The ground-state halo wave functions in momentum space are obtained by using as inputs the two-neutron separation energy and the energies of the singlet neutron-neutron and neutron-core virtual states. Within our model, we obtain the momentum probability densities for the Borromean exotic nuclei 11Li and 22C. In the case of the core recoil momentum distribution of 11Li, a fair reproduction of the experimental data was obtained, without free parameters, considering only the two-body low-energies. By analysing the obtained core momentum distribution in face of recent experimental data, we verify that such data are constraining the 22C two-neutron separation energy to a value between 100 and 400 keV.

  6. Detecting Lateral Motion using Light's Orbital Angular Momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetic, Neda; Milione, Giovanni; Ip, Ezra; Wang, Ting

    2015-10-23

    Interrogating an object with a light beam and analyzing the scattered light can reveal kinematic information about the object, which is vital for applications ranging from autonomous vehicles to gesture recognition and virtual reality. We show that by analyzing the change in the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a tilted light beam eclipsed by a moving object, lateral motion of the object can be detected in an arbitrary direction using a single light beam and without object image reconstruction. We observe OAM spectral asymmetry that corresponds to the lateral motion direction along an arbitrary axis perpendicular to the plane containing the light beam and OAM measurement axes. These findings extend OAM-based remote sensing to detection of non-rotational qualities of objects and may also have extensions to other electromagnetic wave regimes, including radio and sound.

  7. Quantum Field Theory at non zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R.

    1989-01-01

    The formulations of the Φ 4 Quantum Field Theory and of Quantum Electrodynamics in I+d dimensions (d spatial dimensions) at non-zero temperature are reviewed. The behaviours of all those theories in the regime of large distances and high temperatures are surveyed. Only results are reported, all technicalities being omitted. The leading high-temperature contributions to correlation functions, to all perturbative orders, in those theories turn out to be also given by simpler theories, having much milder (superrenormalizable) ultraviolet behaviour and special mass renormalizations. In particular, the triviality/non-triviality issue for the Φ 4 theory in 1+3 dimensions is discussed briefly. (Author)

  8. Angular momentum of circularly polarized light in dielectric media

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-01-01

    A circularly polarized plane-wave is known to have no angular momentum when examined through Maxwell's equations. This, however, contradicts the experimentally observed facts, where finite segments of plane waves are known to be capable of imparting angular momentum to birefringent platelets. Using a superposition of four plane-waves propagating at slightly different angles to a common direction, we derive an expression for the angular momentum density of a single plane-wave in the limit when...

  9. Twisted molecular excitons as mediators for changing the angular momentum of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning; Lusk, Mark T.

    2017-07-01

    Molecules with CN or CN h symmetry can absorb quanta of optical angular momentum to generate twisted excitons with well-defined quasiangular momenta of their own. Angular momentum is conserved in such interactions at the level of a paraxial approximation for the light beam. A sequence of absorption events can thus be used to create a range of excitonic angular momenta. Subsequent decay can produce radiation with a single angular momentum equal to that accumulated. Such molecules can thus be viewed as mediators for changing the angular momentum of light. This sidesteps the need to exploit nonlinear light-matter interactions based on higher-order susceptibilities. A tight-binding paradigm is used to verify angular momentum conservation and demonstrate how it can be exploited to change the angular momentum of light. The approach is then extended to a time-dependent density functional theory setting where the key results are shown to hold in a many-body, multilevel setting.

  10. Angular momentum of circularly polarized light in dielectric media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2005-07-01

    A circularly polarized plane-wave is known to have no angular momentum when examined through Maxwell’s equations. This, however, contradicts the experimentally observed facts, where finite segments of plane waves are known to be capable of imparting angular momentum to birefringent platelets. Using a superposition of four plane-waves propagating at slightly different angles to a common direction, we derive an expression for the angular momentum density of a single plane-wave in the limit when the propagation directions of the four beams come into alignment. We proceed to use this four-beam technique to analyze the conservation of angular momentum when a plane-wave enters a dielectric slab from the free space. The angular momentum of the beam is shown to decrease upon entering the dielectric medium, by virtue of the fact that the incident beam exerts a torque on the slab surface at the point of entry. When the beam leaves the slab, it imparts an equal but opposite torque to the exit facet, thus recovering its initial angular momentum upon re-emerging into the free-space. Along the way, we derive an expression for the outward-directed force of a normally incident, finite-diameter beam on a dielectric surface; the possible relationship between this force and the experimentally observed bulging of a liquid surface under intense illumination is explored.

  11. Non-zero total correlation means non-zero quantum correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Chen, Lin; Fan, Heng

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the super quantum discord based on weak measurements. The super quantum discord is an extension of the standard quantum discord defined by projective measurements and also describes the quantumness of correlations. We provide some equivalent conditions for zero super quantum discord by using quantum discord, classical correlation and mutual information. In particular, we find that the super quantum discord is zero only for product states, which have zero mutual information. This result suggests that non-zero correlations can always be detected using the quantum correlation with weak measurements. As an example, we present the assisted state-discrimination method.

  12. Nucleon-nucleon momentum correlation function for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Guo, W.; Liu, G.H.; Ma, C.W.; Ma, E.J.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, Y.; Su, Q.M.; Tian, W.D.; Wang, H.W.; Wang, K.; Wei, Y.B.; Yan, T.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon momentum correlation function have been presented for nuclear reactions with neutron-rich or proton-rich projectiles using a nuclear transport theory, namely Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The relationship between the binding energy of projectiles and the strength of proton-neutron correlation function at small relative momentum has been explored, while proton-proton correlation function shows its sensitivity to the proton density distribution. Those results show that nucleon-nucleon correlation function is useful to reflect some features of the neutron- or proton-halo nuclei and therefore provide a potential tool for the studies of radioactive beam physics

  13. Modal decomposition for measuring the orbital angular momentum density of light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel technique to measure the orbital angular momentum (OAM) density of light. The technique is based on modal decomposition, enabling the complete reconstruction of optical fields, including the reconstruction of the beams Poynting...

  14. Gravitational form factors and angular momentum densities in light-front quark-diquark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Narinder [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Sharma, Neetika [I K Gujral Punjab Technical University, Department of Physical Sciences, Jalandhar, Punjab (India); Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India)

    2017-12-15

    We investigate the gravitational form factors (GFFs) and the longitudinal momentum densities (p{sup +} densities) for proton in a light-front quark-diquark model. The light-front wave functions are constructed from the soft-wall AdS/QCD prediction. The contributions from both the scalar and the axial vector diquarks are considered here. The results are compared with the consequences of a parametrization of nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the light of recent MRST measurements of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and a soft-wall AdS/QCD model. The spatial distribution of angular momentum for up and down quarks inside the nucleon has been presented. At the density level, we illustrate different definitions of angular momentum explicitly for an up and down quark in the light-front quark-diquark model inspired by AdS/QCD. (orig.)

  15. Angular momentum conservation law in light-front quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Kelly Yu-Ju; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Stanford U.

    2017-03-01

    We prove the Lorentz invariance of the angular momentum conservation law and the helicity sum rule for relativistic composite systems in the light-front formulation. We explicitly show that j 3 , the z -component of the angular momentum remains unchanged under Lorentz transformations generated by the light-front kinematical boost operators. The invariance of j 3 under Lorentz transformations is a feature unique to the front form. Applying the Lorentz invariance of the angular quantum number in the front form, we obtain a selection rule for the orbital angular momentum which can be used to eliminate certain interaction vertices in QED and QCD. We also generalize the selection rule to any renormalizable theory and show that there exists an upper bound on the change of orbital angular momentum in scattering processes at any fixed order in perturbation theory.

  16. Analytic two-loop results for self-energy- and vertex-type diagrams with one non-zero mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.; Kotikov, A.V.; Veretin, O.L.

    1999-01-01

    For a large class of two-loop self-energy- and vertex-type diagrams with only one non-zero mass (m) and the vertices also with only one non-zero external momentum squared (q 2 ) the first few expansion coefficients are calculated by the large mass expansion. This allows us to 'guess' the general structure of these coefficients and to verify them in terms of certain classes of 'basis elements', which are essentially harmonic sums. Since for this case with only one non-zero mass the large mass expansion and the Taylor series in terms of q 2 are identical, this approach yields analytic expressions of the Taylor coefficients, from which the diagram can be easily evaluated numerically in a large domain of the complex q 2 -plane by well known methods. It is also possible to sum the Taylor series and present the results in terms of polylogarithms

  17. 2ω Dimensional light-cone integrals with momentum shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    A class of light-cone integrals typical to one-loop calculations in the two-component formalism is considered. One finds type of integrals in the evaluation of one-loop diagrams, such as the 'swordfish' diagrams. The results cannot be expressed as a finite sum of elementary functions, but convergence is verified for the particular cases considered. (G.D.F.) [pt

  18. Investigating Students' Mental Models about the Quantization of Light, Energy, and Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didis, Nilüfer; Eryilmaz, Ali; Erkoç, Sakir

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a multiphase study examining students' mental models about the quantization of physical observables--light, energy, and angular momentum. Thirty-one second-year physics and physics education college students who were taking a modern physics course participated in the study. The qualitative analysis of data revealed…

  19. Coding/decoding two-dimensional images with orbital angular momentum of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jiaqi; Li, Xuefeng; Smithwick, Quinn; Chu, Daping

    2016-04-01

    We investigate encoding and decoding of two-dimensional information using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. Spiral phase plates and phase-only spatial light modulators are used in encoding and decoding of OAM states, respectively. We show that off-axis points and spatial variables encoded with a given OAM state can be recovered through decoding with the corresponding complimentary OAM state.

  20. Neutrino Mass Models: impact of non-zero reactor angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    In this talk neutrino mass models are reviewed and the impact of a non-zero reactor angle and other deviations from tri-bi maximal mixing are discussed. We propose some benchmark models, where the only way to discriminate between them is by high precision neutrino oscillation experiments.

  1. Nucleon momentum distribution in deuteron and other nuclei within the light-front dynamics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Gaidarov, M.K.; Ivanov, M.V.; Kadrev, D.N.; Krumova, G.Z.; Hodgson, P.E.; Geramb, H.V. von

    2002-01-01

    The relativistic light-front dynamics (LFD) method has been shown to give a correct description of the most recent data for the deuteron monopole and quadrupole charge form factors obtained at the Jefferson Laboratory for elastic electron-deuteron scattering for six values of the squared momentum transfer between 0.66 and 1.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The good agreement with the data is in contrast with the results of the existing nonrelativistic approaches. In this work we first make a complementary test of the LFD applying it to calculate another important characteristic, the nucleon momentum distribution n(q) of the deuteron, using six invariant functions f i (i=1,...,6) instead of two (S and D waves) in the nonrelativistic case. The comparison with the y-scaling data shows the decisive role of the function f 5 which at q≥500 MeV/c exceeds all other f functions (as well as the S and D waves) for the correct description of n(q) of the deuteron in the high-momentum region. Comparison with other calculations using S and D waves corresponding to various nucleon-nucleon potentials is made. Second, using clear indications that the high-momentum components of n(q) in heavier nuclei are related to those in the deuteron, we develop an approach within the natural orbital representation to calculate n(q) in (A,Z) nuclei on the basis of the deuteron momentum distribution. As examples, n(q) in 4 He, 12 C, and 56 Fe are calculated and good agreement with the y-scaling data is obtained

  2. Design objectives with non-zero prescribed support displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    When non-zero prescribed support displacements are involved in addition to design independent loads for a continuum/structure, then the objectives of minimum compliance (total elastic energy) and of maximum strength lead to different designs. This is verified by the presented sensitivities. Designs...... minimization as well as that of direct strength maximization; we choose the objective of obtaining uniform energy density and show by examples that the obtained solutions are close to fulfilling also strength maximization, with the price of increased compliance. Optimal design examples are presented...

  3. Measurement of the orbital angular momentum density of light by modal decomposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available indices for light fields possessing orbital angular momentum Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 231115 [17] Hickmann J M, Fonseca E J S, Soares W C and Cha´vez-Cerda S 2010 Unveiling a truncated optical lattice associated with a triangular aperture using light’s... fields J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24 3500–7 [39] Lee W-H 1979 Binary computer-generated holograms Appl. Opt. 18 3661–9 [40] Born M and Wolf E 1991 Principles of Optics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [41] Berry H G, Gabrielse G and Livingston A E 1977...

  4. Optical vortex symmetry breakdown and decomposition of the orbital angular momentum of light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekshaev, A Ya; Soskin, M S; Vasnetsov, M V

    2003-08-01

    Two forms of the transverse energy circulation within plane-polarized paraxial light beams are specified: one inherent in wave-front singularities (optical vortices) and the other peculiar to astigmatism and asymmetry of beams with a smooth wave front. As quantitative measures of these energy flow components, the concepts of vortex and asymmetry parts of a beam's orbital angular momentum are introduced and their definitions are proposed on the basis of beam intensity moments. The properties and physical meaning of these concepts are analyzed, and their use for the study of transformations of optical vortices is demonstrated.

  5. The azimuthal component of Poynting's vector and the angular momentum of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robert P.; Speirits, Fiona C.; Gilson, Claire R.; Allen, L.; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2015-12-01

    The usual description in basic electromagnetic theory of the linear and angular momenta of light is centred upon the identification of Poynting's vector as the linear momentum density and its cross product with position, or azimuthal component, as the angular momentum density. This seemingly reasonable approach brings with it peculiarities, however, in particular with regards to the separation of angular momentum into orbital and spin contributions, which has sometimes been regarded as contrived. In the present paper, we observe that densities are not unique, which leads us to ask whether the usual description is, in fact, the most natural choice. To answer this, we adopt a fundamental rather than heuristic approach by first identifying appropriate symmetries of Maxwell's equations and subsequently applying Noether's theorem to obtain associated conservation laws. We do not arrive at the usual description. Rather, an equally acceptable one in which the relationship between linear and angular momenta is nevertheless more subtle and in which orbital and spin contributions emerge separately and with transparent forms.

  6. The azimuthal component of Poynting's vector and the angular momentum of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Robert P; Speirits, Fiona C; Barnett, Stephen M; Gilson, Claire R; Allen, L

    2015-01-01

    The usual description in basic electromagnetic theory of the linear and angular momenta of light is centred upon the identification of Poynting's vector as the linear momentum density and its cross product with position, or azimuthal component, as the angular momentum density. This seemingly reasonable approach brings with it peculiarities, however, in particular with regards to the separation of angular momentum into orbital and spin contributions, which has sometimes been regarded as contrived. In the present paper, we observe that densities are not unique, which leads us to ask whether the usual description is, in fact, the most natural choice. To answer this, we adopt a fundamental rather than heuristic approach by first identifying appropriate symmetries of Maxwell's equations and subsequently applying Noether's theorem to obtain associated conservation laws. We do not arrive at the usual description. Rather, an equally acceptable one in which the relationship between linear and angular momenta is nevertheless more subtle and in which orbital and spin contributions emerge separately and with transparent forms. (paper)

  7. Optical fiber design with orbital angular momentum light purity higher than 99.9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhishen; Gan, Jiulin; Heng, Xiaobo; Wu, Yuqing; Li, Qingyu; Qian, Qi; Chen, Dongdan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2015-11-16

    The purity of the synthesized orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) light in the fiber is inversely proportional to channel crosstalk level in the OAM optical fiber communication system. Here the relationship between the fiber structure and the purity is firstly demonstrated in theory. The graded-index optical fiber is proposed and designed for the OAM light propagation with the purity higher than 99.9%. 16 fiber modes (10 OAM modes) have been supported by a specific designed graded-index optical fiber with dispersion less than 35 ps/(km∙nm). Such fiber design has suppressed the intrinsic crosstalk to be lower than -30 dB, and can be potentially used for the long distance OAM optical communication system.

  8. Quantum information with even and odd states of orbital angular momentum of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumangatt, Chithrabhanu, E-mail: chithrabhanu@prl.res.in [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Lal, Nijil [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); IIT Gandhinagar, Palaj, Ahmedabad, 382355 (India); Anwar, Ali [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India); Gangi Reddy, Salla [University of Electro-communications, Chofu, Tokyo, 1828585 (Japan); Singh, R.P. [Physical Research laboratory, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad, 380009 (India)

    2017-06-15

    We address the possibility of using even/odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons for the quantum information tasks. Single photon qubit states and two photon entangled states in even/odd basis of OAM are considered. We present a method for the tomography and general projective measurement in even/odd basis. With the general projective measurement, we show the Bell violation and quantum cryptography with Bell's inequality. We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization, which can be applied in the implementation of quantum protocols like super dense coding. - Highlights: • We propose to use even and odd states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light for quantum information tasks. • We describe the OAM qubits and entangled states in even/odd basis and the corresponding projective operators. • We present a method for the tomography and the Bell's inequality violation for photons entangled in even/odd OAM states. • We also describe hyper and hybrid entanglement of even/odd OAM states along with polarization and their applications.

  9. The light-front gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorce, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization for the matrix elements of the generic asymmetric, non-local and gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor, generalizing therefore former works on the symmetric, local and gauge-invariant kinetic energy-momentum tensor also known as the Belinfante-Rosenfeld energy-momentum tensor. We discuss in detail the various constraints imposed by non-locality, linear and angular momentum conservation. We also derive the relations with two-parton generalized and transverse-momentum dependent distributions, clarifying what can be learned from the latter. In particular, we show explicitly that two-parton transverse-momentum dependent distributions cannot provide any model-independent information about the parton orbital angular momentum. On the way, we recover the Burkardt sum rule and obtain similar new sum rules for higher-twist distributions

  10. Performance of heat engines with non-zero heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odes, Ron; Kribus, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Finite heat capacity is a second irreversibility mechanism in addition to thermal resistance. ► Heat capacity introduces thermal transients and reverse heat flow. ► Engine maximum power and efficiency are lower for finite heat capacity. ► Implementing the optimal engine cycle requires active control. - Abstract: The performance of a heat engine is analyzed subject to two types of irreversibility: a non-zero heat capacity, together with the more common finite heat transfer rate between the engine and the external heat reservoirs. The heat capacity represents an engine body that undergoes significant temperature variations during the engine cycle. An option to cut off the heat exchange between the engine and the external surrounding for part of the engine cycle is also explored. A variational approach was taken to find the engine’s internal temperature profile (which defines the internal thermodynamic cycle) that would produce maximum power. The maximum power is shown to be lower than the case of zero heat capacity, due to a loss of heat that is stored in the engine body and then lost, bypassing the thermodynamic cycle. The maximum efficiency and the efficiency at maximum power are also lower than the zero heat capacity case. Similar to the Curzon–Ahlborn analysis, power can be traded for increased efficiency, but for high heat capacity, the range of efficiency that is available for such a trade is diminished. Isolating the engine during part of the cycle reduces maximum power, but the efficiency at maximum power and the maximum efficiency are improved, due to better exploitation of heat stored in the engine body. This might be useful for real engines that are limited by the internal energy change during a single engine cycle or by the operating frequency, leading to a broader power–efficiency curve.

  11. Manipulating the Orbital Angular Momentum of Light at the Micron Scale with Nematic Disclinations in a Liquid Crystal Film

    OpenAIRE

    Loussert , Charles; Delabre , Ulysse; Brasselet , Etienne

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We report on the experimental manipulation of the orbital angular momentum of light by exploiting a kind of topological defects that spontaneously appear in nematics--disclinations--as microscopic optical spin-orbit interfaces whose operating wavelength can be controlled electrically. Using six different kinds of disclinations, we demonstrate the efficient generation of both scalar and vectorial singular light beams with a broad topological diversity from a fundamental...

  12. Blue-light digital communication in underwater environments utilizing orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Joshua; Miller, Keith; Osler, Sean; Morgan, Kaitlyn; Li, Wenzhe; Johnson, Eric; Cochenour, Brandon

    2016-05-01

    Underwater optical communication has recently become the topic of much investigation as the demands for underwater data transmission have rapidly grown in recent years. The need for reliable, high-speed, secure underwater communication has turned increasingly to blue-light optical solutions. The blue-green visible wavelength window provides an attractive solution to the problem of underwater data transmission thanks to its low attenuation, where traditional RF solutions used in free-space communications collapse. Beginning with GaN laser diodes as the optical source, this work explores the encoding and transmission of digital data across underwater environments of varying turbidities. Given the challenges present in an underwater environment, such as the mechanical and optical turbulences that make proper alignment difficult to maintain, it is desirable to achieve extremely high data rates in order to allow the time window of alignment between the transmitter and receiver to be as small as possible. In this paper, work is done to increase underwater data rates through the use of orbital angular momentum. Results are shown for a range of data rates across a variety of channel types ranging in turbidity from that of a clear ocean to a dirty harbor.

  13. Orbital angular momentum of a high-order Bessel light beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volke-Sepulveda, K; Garces-Chavez, V; Chavez-Cerda, S; Arlt, J; Dholakia, K

    2002-01-01

    The orbital angular momentum density of Bessel beams is calculated explicitly within a rigorous vectorial treatment. This allows us to investigate some aspects that have not been analysed previously, such as the angular momentum content of azimuthally and radially polarized beams. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally the mechanical transfer of orbital angular momentum to trapped particles in optical tweezers using a high-order Bessel beam. We set transparent particles of known dimensions into rotation, where the sense of rotation can be reversed by changing the sign of the singularity. Quantitative results are obtained for rotation rates. This paper's animations are available from the Multimedia Enhancements page

  14. Bell’s measure and implementing quantum Fourier transform with orbital angular momentum of classical light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinbing; Sun, Yifan; Li, Pengyun; Qin, Hongwei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We perform Bell’s measurement for the non-separable correlation between polarization and orbital angular momentum from the same classical vortex beam. The violation of Bell’s inequality for such a non-separable classical correlation has been demonstrated experimentally. Based on the classical vortex beam and non-quantum entanglement between the polarization and the orbital angular momentum, the Hadamard gates and conditional phase gates have been designed. Furthermore, a quantum Fourier transform has been implemented experimentally. PMID:26369424

  15. Near-field collimation of light carrying orbital angular momentum with bull's-eye-assisted plasmonic coaxial waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zeyu; Li, Xiong; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Hui; Hu, Chenggang; Gao, Ping; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-07-10

    The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light, as an emerging hotspot in optics and photonics, introduces many degrees of freedom for applications ranging from optical communication and quantum processing to micromanipulation. To achieve a high degree of integration, optical circuits for OAM light are essential, which are, however, challenging in the optical regime owing to the lack of well-developed theory. Here we provide a scheme to guide and collimate the OAM beam at the micro- and nano-levels. The coaxial plasmonic slit was exploited as a naturally occurring waveguide for light carrying OAM. Concentric grooves etched on the output surface of the coaxial waveguide were utilized as a plasmonic metasurface to couple the OAM beam to free space with greatly increased beam directivity. Experimental results at λ = 532 nm validated the novel transportation and collimating effect of the OAM beam. Furthermore, dynamic tuning of the topological charges was demonstrated by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM).

  16. Lepton number violation, lepton flavor violation and non zero Θ_1_3 in LRSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgohain, Happy; Das, Mrinal Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We have done a phenomenological study of lepton number violation and lepton flavour violation in a generic left-right symmetric model (LRSM) considering broken ϻ-τ symmetry. The leading order TBM mass matrix originates from the type I (II) seesaw mechanism, whereas the perturbations to generate non-zero reactor mixing angle Θ_1_3, originates from the type II (I) seesaw mechanism. We studied the new physics contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD) ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and the heavy-light neutrino mixing within the framework of left-right symmetric regime by considering the presence of both type I and type II seesaw. We assumed the mass of the gauge bosons and scalars to be around TeV and studied the effects of the new physics contributions on the effective mass and compared with the current experimental limit imposed by GERDA. We further extended our analysis by correlating the lepton flavour violation of the decay process, (ϻ→ 3e) with Θ_1_3. (author)

  17. Hybridization of tensor-optimized and high-momentum antisymmetrized molecular dynamics for light nuclei with bare interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mengjiao; Isaka, Masahiro; Myo, Takayuki; Toki, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Suhara, Tadahiro; Yamada, Taiichi

    2018-01-01

    Many-body correlations play an essential role in the ab initio description of nuclei with nuclear bare interactions. We propose a new framework to describe light nuclei by the hybridization of the tensor-optimized antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (TOAMD) and the high-momentum AMD (HM-AMD), which we call "HM-TOAMD." In this framework, we describe the many-body correlations in terms of not only the correlation functions in TOAMD, but also the high-momentum pairs in the AMD wave function. With the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction AV8^', we sufficiently reproduce the energy and radius of the {^3}H nucleus in HM-TOAMD. The effects of tensor force and short-range repulsion in the bare interaction are nicely described in this new framework. We also discuss the convergence in calculation and flexibility of the model space for this new method.

  18. Modulation of controlled-not gate using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum in a nonlinear atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, YuanYuan; Zhang, YunZhe

    2018-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a controlled-not gate with light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a degenerate four-wave mixing process via a photonic band gap structure satisfying the phase-matching condition. By employing the different topological charges of a Laguerre-Gaussian beam as a qubit in this nonlinear process, the controlled-not gate with OAM can be realized. Moreover, we investigate the evolution of the controlled-not gate, which can be modulated by the frequency and the power of the incident beam, i.e., under electromagnetically induced transparency conditions. The study results are useful for applications in quantum communication and information storage.

  19. Light-quarkonium spectra and orbital-angular-momentum decomposition in a Bethe-Salpeter-equation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilger, T.; Krassnigg, A. [University of Graz, NAWI Graz, Institute of Physics, Graz (Austria); Gomez-Rocha, M. [ECT*, Villazzano, Trento (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    We investigate the light-quarkonium spectrum using a covariant Dyson-Schwinger-Bethe-Salpeter-equation approach to QCD. We discuss splittings among as well as orbital angular momentum properties of various states in detail and analyze common features of mass splittings with regard to properties of the effective interaction. In particular, we predict the mass of anti ss exotic 1{sup -+} states, and identify orbital angular momentum content in the excitations of the ρ meson. Comparing our covariant model results, the ρ and its second excitation being predominantly S-wave, the first excitation being predominantly D-wave, to corresponding conflicting lattice-QCD studies, we investigate the pion-mass dependence of the orbital-angular-momentum assignment and find a crossing at a scale of m{sub π} ∝ 1.4 GeV. If this crossing turns out to be a feature of the spectrum generated by lattice-QCD studies as well, it may reconcile the different results, since they have been obtained at different values of m{sub π}. (orig.)

  20. Realization of optimized quantum controlled-logic gate based on the orbital angular momentum of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Li, Tao; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-18

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optimized setup to implement quantum controlled-NOT operation using polarization and orbital angular momentum qubits. This device is more adaptive to inputs with various polarizations, and can work both in classical and quantum single-photon regime. The logic operations performed by such a setup not only possess high stability and polarization-free character, they can also be easily extended to deal with multi-qubit input states. As an example, the experimental implementation of generalized three-qubit Toffoli gate has been presented.

  1. Generation of Sources of Light with Well Defined Orbital Angular Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz y Cruz, S; Escamilla, N; Velazquez, V

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a technique to produce spatial electromagnetic modes with definite orbital angular momentum is presented. The method is based in the construction of binary diffractive gratings generated by computer. In the classical regime the gratings produce the well known Laguerre-Gaussian modes distributions when illuminated by a plane wave. In the quantum regime the grating is placed in the signal path of a spontaneous parametric down conversion layout and the diffraction pattern, observed in the coincidence count rate, shows that the single photons are projected onto spatial states consistent with a Laguerre-Gaussian modes distribution. (paper)

  2. The quenched limit of lattice QCD at non-zero baryon number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, J.; Kaczmarek, O.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of gluons in the background of static quark sources. In order to do so we formulate the quenched limit of QCD at non-zero baryon number. A first numerical analysis of this system shows that it undergoes a smooth deconfining transition. We find evidence for a region of coexisting phases that becomes broader with increasing baryon number density. Although the action is in our formulation explicitly Z(3) symmetric the Polyakov loop expectation value becomes non-zero already in the low temperature phase. It indicates that the heavy quark potential stays finite at large distances, i.e. the string between static quarks breaks at non-zero baryon number density already in the hadronic phase

  3. Photon mass drag and the momentum of light in a medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani

    2017-01-01

    Conventional theories of electromagnetic waves in a medium assume that the energy propagating with the light pulse in the medium is entirely carried by the field. Thus, the possibility that the optical force field of the light pulse would drive forward an atomic mass density wave (MDW...... field. We show that a light pulse having a total electromagnetic energy (h) over bar omega propagating in a nondispersive medium transfers a mass equal to delta m = (n(2) - 1) (h) over bar omega/c(2), where n is the refractive index. MDW, which carries this mass, consists of atoms, which are more......) and the related kinetic and elastic energies is neglected. In this work, we present foundations of a covariant theory of light propagation in a medium by considering a light wave simultaneously with the dynamics of the medium atoms driven by optoelastic forces between the induced dipoles and the electromagnetic...

  4. S-parameter at Non-Zero Temperature and Chemical Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Ulrik Ishøj; Sannino, Francesco; Pica, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    We compute the finite-temperature and matter density corrections to the S-parameter at the one loop level. At non-zero temperature T and matter density Lorentz symmetry breaks and therefore we suggest a suitable generalization of the S-parameter. By computing the plasma correction, we discover...... a reduction of the S-parameter in the physically relevant region of small external momenta for any non-zero chemical potential and T. In particular, the S-parameter vanishes at small m/T, where m is the mass of the fermions, due to the finite extent of the temporal direction. Our results are directly...

  5. Nonlinear momentum compaction and coherent synchrotron radiation at the metrology light source. Low-α commissioning and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Short pulses of synchrotron radiation are becoming an increasingly demanded tool in various fields of science. The generation of short synchrotron radiation pulses can be accomplished by different accelerator-based approaches such as free electron lasers, energy recovery linacs or electron storage rings. Linear accelerator driven free electron lasers are capable of generating intense pulses in the femtosecond regime at moderate repetition rates. In comparison, electron storage rings generate pulses of lower intensity with the advantage of large repetition rates. However, electron storage rings rely on radiation emitted by the same bunch(es) every turn, which are present in an equilibrium state. Thus making the electron storage ring a yet unchallenged source of short synchrotron radiation pulses in terms of stability and reproducibility. In addition, storage rings are capable to serve a large number of users simultaneously. In general, it is possible to distinguish the user community of short pulses at electron storage rings. The first user group is interested in time-resolution applying incoherent synchrotron radiation up to the X-ray regime. The second user group makes use of coherent synchrotron radiation emitted by short bunches at wavelengths large compared to the bunch dimensions, which commonly applies up to the THz-regime. Both user groups are interested in the high average power and stability available at electron storage rings. However, there is a current limitation for stable short bunch operation of electron storage rings, which is due to an instability driven by the emission of coherent synchrotron radiation. The subject of this thesis is the operation of an electron storage ring at a low momentum compaction to generate short electron bunches as a source for coherent synchrotron radiation. For this purpose the Metrology Light Source is ideally suited, as it is the first light source designed with the ability to adjust the three leading orders of the

  6. Mimicking Faraday rotation to sort the orbital angular momentum of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wuhong; Qi, Qianqian; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Lixiang

    2014-04-18

    The efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to both the classical and quantum applications with twisted photons. Here we devise and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method of mimicking the Faraday rotation to sort the OAM based on the OAM-to-polarization coupling effect induced by a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our device is capable of sorting the OAM of positive and negative numbers, as well as their mixtures. Furthermore, we report the first experimental demonstration to sort optical vortices of noninteger charges. The possibility of working at the photon-count level is also shown using an electron-multiplying CCD camera. Our scheme holds promise for quantum information applications with single-photon entanglement and for high-capacity communication systems with polarization and OAM multiplexing.

  7. Near-field collimation of light carrying orbital angular momentum with bull’s-eye-assisted plasmonic coaxial waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Zeyu; Li, Xiong; Wang, Yanqin; Gao, Hui; Hu, Chenggang; Gao, Ping; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-07-01

    The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light, as an emerging hotspot in optics and photonics, introduces many degrees of freedom for applications ranging from optical communication and quantum processing to micromanipulation. To achieve a high degree of integration, optical circuits for OAM light are essential, which are, however, challenging in the optical regime owing to the lack of well-developed theory. Here we provide a scheme to guide and collimate the OAM beam at the micro- and nano-levels. The coaxial plasmonic slit was exploited as a naturally occurring waveguide for light carrying OAM. Concentric grooves etched on the output surface of the coaxial waveguide were utilized as a plasmonic metasurface to couple the OAM beam to free space with greatly increased beam directivity. Experimental results at λ = 532 nm validated the novel transportation and collimating effect of the OAM beam. Furthermore, dynamic tuning of the topological charges was demonstrated by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM).

  8. Motion of particles of non-zero rest masses exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we extend the metric tensor exterior to astrophysically real or imaginary spherical distributions of mass whose tensor field varies with polar angle only; to derive equations of motion for test particles in this field. The time, radial, polar and azimuthal equations of motion for particles of non-zero rest masses moving ...

  9. Generalized quantization scheme for two-person non-zero sum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Ahmad; Toor, A H

    2004-01-01

    We proposed a generalized quantization scheme for non-zero sum games which can be reduced to the two existing quantization schemes under an appropriate set of parameters. Some other important situations are identified which are not apparent in the two existing quantization schemes

  10. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin

    2012-11-22

    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) is the preferred tool for obtaining non-perturbative results from QCD in the low-energy regime. It has by now entered the era in which high precision calculations for a number of phenomenologically relevant observables at the physical point, with dynamical quark degrees of freedom and controlled systematics, become feasible. Despite these successes there are still quantities where control of systematic effects is insufficient. The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the potential of todays state-of-the-art simulation algorithms for non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions to produce reliable results in the chiral regime and at the physical point both for zero and non-zero temperature. Important in this context is the control over the chiral extrapolation. This thesis is concerned with two particular topics, namely the computation of hadronic form factors at zero temperature, and the properties of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD. The electromagnetic iso-vector form factor of the pion provides a platform to study systematic effects and the chiral extrapolation for observables connected to the structure of mesons (and baryons). Mesonic form factors are computationally simpler than their baryonic counterparts but share most of the systematic effects. This thesis contains a comprehensive study of the form factor in the regime of low momentum transfer q{sup 2}, where the form factor is connected to the charge radius of the pion. A particular emphasis is on the region very close to q{sup 2}=0 which has not been explored so far, neither in experiment nor in LQCD. The results for the form factor close the gap between the smallest spacelike q{sup 2}-value available so far and q{sup 2}=0, and reach an unprecedented accuracy at full control over the main systematic effects. This enables the model-independent extraction of the pion charge radius. The results for the form factor and the charge

  11. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) is the preferred tool for obtaining non-perturbative results from QCD in the low-energy regime. It has by now entered the era in which high precision calculations for a number of phenomenologically relevant observables at the physical point, with dynamical quark degrees of freedom and controlled systematics, become feasible. Despite these successes there are still quantities where control of systematic effects is insufficient. The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the potential of todays state-of-the-art simulation algorithms for non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions to produce reliable results in the chiral regime and at the physical point both for zero and non-zero temperature. Important in this context is the control over the chiral extrapolation. This thesis is concerned with two particular topics, namely the computation of hadronic form factors at zero temperature, and the properties of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD. The electromagnetic iso-vector form factor of the pion provides a platform to study systematic effects and the chiral extrapolation for observables connected to the structure of mesons (and baryons). Mesonic form factors are computationally simpler than their baryonic counterparts but share most of the systematic effects. This thesis contains a comprehensive study of the form factor in the regime of low momentum transfer q 2 , where the form factor is connected to the charge radius of the pion. A particular emphasis is on the region very close to q 2 =0 which has not been explored so far, neither in experiment nor in LQCD. The results for the form factor close the gap between the smallest spacelike q 2 -value available so far and q 2 =0, and reach an unprecedented accuracy at full control over the main systematic effects. This enables the model-independent extraction of the pion charge radius. The results for the form factor and the charge radius are used to

  12. A two-component wave equation for particles of spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, T.

    1981-11-01

    We have discussed here the qualifications of the equation (delta 0 +sigmasup(k)deltasub(k))psi = -kappaTpsi, where deltasub(μ) is identical to delta/deltaxsup(μ), sigmasup(k) are the Pauli spin matrices, T is the linear operator which changes the sign of t, kappa=m 0 c/(h/2π) and psi a function with two components, as a suitable wave equation for a spin 1/2 particle with non-zero rest mass. We have established that both components of all its solutions satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation and that a 1-1 correspondence can be set up between its solutions and the positive energy solutions of the Dirac equation which preserves inner products (suitably defined for our case). We have then gone on to show covariance under transformations of the proper Lorentz group as also under space and time inversions and translations. Eigenfunctions of energy-momentum and spin have been explicitly found and it is shown that causality is preserved and a Green's function exists. A list appears, at the end, of points to be discussed in Part II of this paper, points which, it is hoped, will complete the acceptability of the theory. (author)

  13. Search for Light Gravitinos in Events with Photons and Missing Transverse Momentum at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.-B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Paramonov, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2005-01-01

    A search for gravitinos produced in ep collisions is performed using the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 64.3 pb^{-1} for e^+p collisions and 13.5 pb^{-1} for e^-p collisions. If R-parity is not conserved, the t-channel exchange of a selectron can produce a neutralino, which, in models where the gravitino is the lightest supersymmetric particle, subsequently decays into a photon and a light gravitino. The resulting event signature, which involves an isolated photon, a jet and missing transverse energy, is analysed for the first time at HERA. No deviation from the Standard Model is found. Exclusion limits on the cross section and on R-parity-violating Yukawa couplings are derived in a Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking scenario. The results are independent of the squark sector. Neutralinos and supersymmetric partners of the left-handed electron with masses up to 112 GeV and 164 GeV, respectively, can be ruled out at...

  14. Measuring system for correlations of light particles with low relative linear momentum: operation and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, J.

    1988-01-01

    The EMRIC set up (Ensemble de Mesure Rapide pour l'Interferometrie et les Correlations) is devoted to the study of space and time extent of nuclear sources from the measurement of light charged particles correlations. This device, composed of an array of 16 detectors (CsI crystals coupled to phototubes) used in conjunction with a multiwire chamber, is characterised by a smart granulation, a large solid angle and very small detection dead areas. It opens new possibilities in the measurement of the correlation functions (complete determination (modulus and direction) of the relative momenta in the range 1 to 100 MeV/c). This work describes the development and performances of EMRIC. The mechanics and electronics are detailed to enlighten difficulties inherent to this type of detector. An auxiliary monitoring system has been carried out to simplify some of the experimental tasks. A simulation software code has been written (based on Monte-Carlo techniques) to simulate the effect of the detector on the experimental data. The precision and efficiency in detection place EMRIC, which can be operated in the whole intermediate energy range (10-100 MeV/u), among the most powerful existing devices. First results on the 20 Ne + 27 Al system are finally shown [fr

  15. Search for light gravitinos in events with photons and missing transverse momentum at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H1 Collaboration; Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J. C.; Böhme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Bröker, H.-B.; Brown, D. P.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coppens, Y. R.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; de Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flucke, G.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Höting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Krüger, K.; Kückens, J.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Lüke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Paramonov, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Pöschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2005-06-01

    A search for gravitinos produced in ep collisions is performed using the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 64.3 pb-1 for ep collisions and 13.5 pb-1 for ep collisions. If R-parity is not conserved, the t-channel exchange of a selectron can produce a neutralino, which, in models where the gravitino is the lightest supersymmetric particle, subsequently decays into a photon and a light gravitino. The resulting event signature, which involves an isolated photon, a jet and missing transverse energy, is analysed for the first time at HERA. No deviation from the Standard Model is found. Exclusion limits on the cross section and on R-parity-violating Yukawa couplings are derived in a Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking scenario. The results are independent of the squark sector. Neutralinos and supersymmetric partners of the left-handed electron with masses up to 112 GeV and 164 GeV, respectively, can be ruled out at the 95% confidence level for R-parity-violating couplings λ equal to 1, in some parts of the parameter space of the considered model.

  16. Cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy for diagnostics of high harmonics of the extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser light source at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.-J.; Fukuzawa, H.; Pruemper, G.; Ueda, K.; Okunishi, M.; Shimada, K.; Motomura, K.; Saito, N.; Iwayama, H.; Nagaya, K.; Yao, M.; Rudenko, A.; Ullrich, J.; Foucar, L.; Czasch, A.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Doerner, R.; Nagasono, M.; Higashiya, A.; Yabashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy apparatus dedicated to the experiments using the extreme-ultraviolet light pulses at the free-electron laser facility, SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator, in Japan and used it to measure spatial distributions of fundamental, second, and third harmonics at the end station.

  17. Optical angular momentum and atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2017-02-28

    Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Electrically and magnetically controlled optical spanner based on the transfer of spin angular momentum of light in an optically active medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lixiang; Zheng Guoliang; She Weilong

    2007-01-01

    An optical spanner is a light beam that can exert a torque on an object. It is demonstrated in this Rapid Communication that, with the aid of applied electric and magnetic fields, a light beam with initially linear polarization and initially zero total spin angular momentum can interact with an optically active medium, resulting in a change of the ratio of left-handed circularly polarized photons to right-handed ones. Thus the total spin angular momentum of the light is changed, which leads to a torque, creating an electrically and magnetically controlled optical spanner on the medium. For a linearly polarized 632.8 nm laser beam incident on a 100-μm-long Ce:Bi 12 TiO 20 whisker crystal with 5 μm radius, if the magnetic field is fixed at -1.8 T, both the left- (right-)handed circularly polarized photon number and the total spin angular momentum vary with the applied electric field in a sinusoidal way, which means the torque exerted by the optical spanner on the crystal also varies sinusoidally with the electric field. It is found that at 50 (or-50) kV/cm, 56% right- (left-)handed circularly polarized photons are translated into left- (right-)handed ones, which corresponds to a transfer of 0.56(ℎ/2π) spin angular momentum contributed by each photon

  19. Alpha Momentum and Price Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lea Hühn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a novel alpha momentum strategy that invests in stocks based on three-factor alphas which we estimate using daily returns. The empirical analysis for the U.S. and for Europe shows that (i past alpha has power in predicting the cross-section of stock returns; (ii alpha momentum exhibits less dynamic factor exposures than price momentum and (iii alpha momentum dominates price momentum only in the U.S. Connecting both strategies to behavioral explanations, alpha momentum is more related to an underreaction to firm-specific news while price momentum is primarily driven by price overshooting due to momentum trading.

  20. Neutron transport assembly calculation with non-zero net current boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Chang Keun

    1993-02-01

    Fuel assembly calculation for the homogenized group constants is one of the most important parts in the reactor core analysis. The homogenized group constants of one a quarter assembly are usually generated for the nodal calculation of the reactor core. In the current nodal calculation, one or a quarter of the fuel assembly corresponds to a unit node. The homogenized group constant calculation for a fuel assembly proceeds through cell spectrum calculations, group condensation and cell homogenization calculations, two dimensional fuel assembly calculation, and then depletion calculations of fuel rods. To obtain the assembly wise homogenized group constants, the two dimensional transport calculation is usually performed. Most codes for the assembly wise homogenized group constants employ a zero net current boundary condition. CASMO-3 is such a code that is in wide use. The zero net current boundary condition is plausible and valid in an infinite reactor composed of the same kind of assemblies. However, the reactor is finite and the core is constructed by different kinds of assemblies. Hence, the assumption of the zero net current boundary condition is not valid in the actual reactor. The objective of this study is to develop a homogenization methodology that can treat any actual boundary condition, i.e. non-zero net current boundary condition. In order to treat the non-zero net current boundary condition, we modify CASMO-3. For the two-dimensional treatment in CASMO-3, a multigroup integral transport routine based on the method of transmission probability is used. The code performs assembly calculation with zero net current boundary condition. CASMO-3 is modified to consider the inhomogeneous source at the assembly boundary surface due to the non-zero net current. The modified version of CASMO-3 is called CASMO-3M. CASMO-3M is applied to several benchmark problems. In order to obtain the inhomogeneous source, the global calculation is performed. The local calculation

  1. Managing the spatial properties and photon correlations in squeezed non-classical twisted light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, R. V.; Tikhonova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Spatial photon correlations and mode content of the squeezed vacuum light generated in a system of two separated nonlinear crystals is investigated. The contribution of both the polar and azimuthal modes with non-zero orbital angular momentum is analyzed. The control and engineering of the spatial properties and degree of entanglement of the non-classical squeezed light by changing the distance between crystals and pump parameters is demonstrated. Methods for amplification of certain spatial modes and managing the output mode content and intensity profile of quantum twisted light are suggested.

  2. Neutrino mass models and the implications of a non-zero reactor angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this talk we survey some of the recent promising developments in the search for the theory behind neutrino mass and mixing, and indeed all fermion masses and mixing. The talk is organized in terms of a neutrino mass models decision tree according to which the answers to experimental questions provide sign posts to guide through the maze of theoretical models eventually towards a complete theory of flavour and unification. It is also discussed the theoretical implications of the measurement of non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  3. Two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, V.V. [Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute' ,142281 Protvino (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Goy, V.A. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,BLTP, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molochkov, A.V. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Müller-Preussker, M.; Petersson, B. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-16

    The phase diagram of two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential is studied by means of lattice simulation. We focus on the influence of a chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependences of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented. The critical temperature is observed to increase with increasing chiral chemical potential.

  4. Quantum Quench Dynamics in the Transverse Field Ising Model at Non-zero Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeling, Nils; Kehrein, Stefan

    The recently discovered Dynamical Phase Transition denotes non-analytic behavior in the real time evolution of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit and has been shown to occur in different systems at zero temperature [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. In this talk we present the extension of the analysis to non-zero temperature by studying a generalized form of the Loschmidt echo, the work distribution function, of a quantum quench in the transverse field Ising model. Although the quantitative behavior at non-zero temperatures still displays features derived from the zero temperature non-analyticities, it is shown that in this model dynamical phase transitions do not exist if T > 0 . This is a consequence of the system being initialized in a thermal state. Moreover, we elucidate how the Tasaki-Crooks-Jarzynski relation can be exploited as a symmetry relation for a global quench or to obtain the change of the equilibrium free energy density. This work was supported through CRC SFB 1073 (Project B03) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  5. Bayesian evidence for non-zero θ 13 and CP-violation in neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    We present the Bayesian method for evaluating the evidence for a non-zero value of the leptonic mixing angle θ 13 and CP-violation in neutrino oscillation experiments. This is an application of the well-established method of Bayesian model selection, of which we give a concise and pedagogical overview. When comparing the hypothesis θ 13 = 0 with hypotheses where θ 13 > 0 using global data but excluding the recent reactor measurements, we obtain only a weak preference for a non-zero θ 13, even though the significance is over 3 σ. We then add the reactor measurements one by one and show how the evidence for θ 13 > 0 quickly increases. When including the D ouble C hooz, D aya B ay, and RENO data, the evidence becomes overwhelming with a posterior probability of the hypothesis θ 13 = 0 below 10-11. Owing to the small amount of information on the CP-phase δ, very similar evidences are obtained for the CP-conserving and CP-violating hypotheses. Hence, there is, not unexpectedly, neither evidence for nor against leptonic CP-violation. However, when future experiments aiming to search for CP-violation have started taking data, this question will be of great importance and the method described here can be used as an important complement to standard analyses.

  6. Projectile fragmentation of neutron-rich nuclei on light target (momentum distribution and nucleon-removal cross section)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Tanihata, I.; Suzuki, T.

    1992-01-01

    Transverse momentum distributions of the projectile fragments from β-unstable nuclei have been measured with various projectile and target combinations. The momentum correlation of two neutrons in the neutron halo is extracted from the P c t distribution of 9 Li and hat of the neutrons. It is found that the two neutrons are moving in the same direction on average and thus strongly suggests the formation of a di-neutron in 11 Li. (Author)

  7. NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS AT NON-ZERO CHEMICAL POTENTIAL. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, T.; Creutz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center hosted its 19th workshop April 27th through May 1, 1999. The topic was Numerical Algorithms at Non-Zero Chemical Potential. QCD at a non-zero chemical potential (non-zero density) poses a long-standing unsolved challenge for lattice gauge theory. Indeed, it is the primary unresolved issue in the fundamental formulation of lattice gauge theory. The chemical potential renders conventional lattice actions complex, practically excluding the usual Monte Carlo techniques which rely on a positive definite measure for the partition function. This ''sign'' problem appears in a wide range of physical systems, ranging from strongly coupled electronic systems to QCD. The lack of a viable numerical technique at non-zero density is particularly acute since new exotic ''color superconducting'' phases of quark matter have recently been predicted in model calculations. A first principles confirmation of the phase diagram is desirable since experimental verification is not expected soon. At the workshop several proposals for new algorithms were made: cluster algorithms, direct simulation of Grassman variables, and a bosonization of the fermion determinant. All generated considerable discussion and seem worthy of continued investigation. Several interesting results using conventional algorithms were also presented: condensates in four fermion models, SU(2) gauge theory in fundamental and adjoint representations, and lessons learned from strong; coupling, non-zero temperature and heavy quarks applied to non-zero density simulations

  8. Maximum run-up behavior of tsunamis under non-zero initial velocity condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran AYDIN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami run-up problem is solved non-linearly under the most general initial conditions, that is, for realistic initial waveforms such as N-waves, as well as standard initial waveforms such as solitary waves, in the presence of initial velocity. An initial-boundary value problem governed by the non-linear shallow-water wave equations is solved analytically utilizing the classical separation of variables technique, which proved to be not only fast but also accurate analytical approach for this type of problems. The results provide important information on maximum tsunami run-up qualitatively. We observed that, although the calculated maximum run-ups increase significantly, going as high as double that of the zero-velocity case, initial waves having non-zero fluid velocity exhibit the same run-up behavior as waves without initial velocity, for all wave types considered in this study.

  9. Parity doubling structure of nucleon at non-zero density in the holographic mean field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Bing-Ran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We summarize our recent work in which we develope the holographic mean field approach to study the dense baryonic matter in a bottom-up holographic QCD model including baryons and scalar mesons in addition to vector mesons. We first show that, at zero density, the rate of the chiral invariant mass of nucleon is controlled by the ratio of the infrared boundary values of two baryon fields included in the model. Then, at non-zero density, we find that the chiral condensate decreases with the increasing density indicating the partial restoration of the chiral symmetry. Our result shows that the more amount of the proton mass comes from the chiral symmetry breaking, the faster the effective nucleon mass decrease with density.

  10. Floating potential in electronegative plasmas for non-zero ion temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regodón, Guillermo Fernando; Fernández Palop, José Ignacio; Tejero-del-Caz, Antonio; Díaz-Cabrera, Juan Manuel; Carmona-Cabezas, Rafael; Ballesteros, Jerónimo

    2018-02-01

    The floating potential of a Langmuir probe immersed in an electronegative plasma is studied theoretically under the assumption of radial positive ion fluid movement for non-zero positive ion temperature: both cylindrical and spherical geometries are studied. The model is solvable exactly. The special characteristics of the electronegative pre-sheath are found and the influence of the stratified electronegative pre-sheath is shown to be very small in practical applications. It is suggested that the use of the floating potential in the measurement of negative ions population density is convenient, in view of the numerical results obtained. The differences between the two radial geometries, which become very important for small probe radii of the order of magnitude of the Debye length, are studied.

  11. Interferometry with particles of non-zero rest mass: topological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opat, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Interferometry as a space-time process is described, together with its topology. Starting from this viewpoint, a convenient unified formalism for the phase shifts which arise in particle interferometry is developed. This formalism is based on a covariant form of Hamilton's action principle and Lagrange's equations of motion. It will be shown that this Lorentz invariant formalism yields a simple perturbation theoretic expression for the general phase shift that arises in matter-wave interferometry. The Lagrangian formalism is compared with the more usual formalism based on the wave propagation vector and frequency. The resulting formalism will be used to analyse the Sagnac effect, gravitational field measurements, and several Aharonov-Bohm-like topological phase shifts. Several topological interferometric experiments using particles of non-zero rest mass are discussed. These experiments involve the use of electrons, neutrons and neutral atoms. Neutron experiments will be emphasised. 45 refs., 15 figs

  12. Vector tomography for reconstructing electric fields with non-zero divergence in bounded domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Alexandra; Brookes, Mike; Rimpiläinen, Ville

    2017-01-01

    In vector tomography (VT), the aim is to reconstruct an unknown multi-dimensional vector field using line integral data. In the case of a 2-dimensional VT, two types of line integral data are usually required. These data correspond to integration of the parallel and perpendicular projection of the vector field along the integration lines and are called the longitudinal and transverse measurements, respectively. In most cases, however, the transverse measurements cannot be physically acquired. Therefore, the VT methods are typically used to reconstruct divergence-free (or source-free) velocity and flow fields that can be reconstructed solely from the longitudinal measurements. In this paper, we show how vector fields with non-zero divergence in a bounded domain can also be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements without the need of explicitly evaluating the transverse measurements. To the best of our knowledge, VT has not previously been used for this purpose. In particular, we study low-frequency, time-harmonic electric fields generated by dipole sources in convex bounded domains which arise, for example, in electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging. We explain in detail the theoretical background, the derivation of the electric field inverse problem and the numerical approximation of the line integrals. We show that fields with non-zero divergence can be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements with the help of two sparsity constraints that are constructed from the transverse measurements and the vector Laplace operator. As a comparison to EEG source imaging, we note that VT does not require mathematical modeling of the sources. By numerical simulations, we show that the pattern of the electric field can be correctly estimated using VT and the location of the source activity can be determined accurately from the reconstructed magnitudes of the field.

  13. Optical angular momentum and atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom’s angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light’s OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light–matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069766

  14. Brane world black holes in teleparallel theory equivalent to general relativity and their Killing vectors, energy, momentum and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2010-01-01

    The energy–momentum tensor, which is coordinate-independent, is used to calculate energy, momentum and angular momentum of two different tetrad fields. Although, the two tetrad fields reproduce the same space-time their energies are different. Therefore, a regularized expression of the gravitational energy–momentum tensor of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR), is used to make the energies of the two tetrad fields equal. The definition of the gravitational energy–momentum is used to investigate the energy within the external event horizon. The components of angular momentum associated with these space–times are calculated. In spite of using a static space–time, we get a non-zero component of angular momentum! Therefore, we derive the Killing vectors associated with these space–times using the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the framework of the TEGR to make the picture more clear. (general)

  15. Momentum transfer with light ions at energies from 70 MeV to 1000 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Laurent, F.; Conjeaud, M.; Dayras, R.; Harar, S.; Oeschler, H.; Volant, C.

    1982-01-01

    Angular correlations of fission fragments induced by bombarding a 232 Th target with protons, deuterons and alpha particles of energies from 70 MeV to 1000 MeV have been measured. They give information about the forward momentum imparted to the fissioning nuclei. We present the average values of the transferred linear momentum ([p vertical stroke vertical stroke ]) as a function of the incident energy and propose a classification into three regimes of dominating processes leading to fission: (I) low-energy behaviour, for E/A less than 10 MeV/u [p vertical stroke vertical stroke ]/psub(i) approx. equal to 1. (II) Between 10 MeV/u and about 70 MeV/u, [p vertical stroke vertical stroke ]/psub(i) decreases progressively down to 0.5 but remains proportional to the projectile mass. (III) The region between 70 MeV/u and about 1000 MeV/u corresponds to a transition region where the projectiles, whatever their masses, tend to transfer the same momentum. (orig.)

  16. Vector tomography for reconstructing electric fields with non-zero divergence in bounded domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulouri, Alexandra, E-mail: koulouri@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of Münster, Einsteinstrasse 62, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Brookes, Mike [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Rimpiläinen, Ville [Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Münster, Malmedyweg 15, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Department of Mathematics, University of Auckland, Private bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2017-01-15

    In vector tomography (VT), the aim is to reconstruct an unknown multi-dimensional vector field using line integral data. In the case of a 2-dimensional VT, two types of line integral data are usually required. These data correspond to integration of the parallel and perpendicular projection of the vector field along the integration lines and are called the longitudinal and transverse measurements, respectively. In most cases, however, the transverse measurements cannot be physically acquired. Therefore, the VT methods are typically used to reconstruct divergence-free (or source-free) velocity and flow fields that can be reconstructed solely from the longitudinal measurements. In this paper, we show how vector fields with non-zero divergence in a bounded domain can also be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements without the need of explicitly evaluating the transverse measurements. To the best of our knowledge, VT has not previously been used for this purpose. In particular, we study low-frequency, time-harmonic electric fields generated by dipole sources in convex bounded domains which arise, for example, in electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging. We explain in detail the theoretical background, the derivation of the electric field inverse problem and the numerical approximation of the line integrals. We show that fields with non-zero divergence can be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements with the help of two sparsity constraints that are constructed from the transverse measurements and the vector Laplace operator. As a comparison to EEG source imaging, we note that VT does not require mathematical modeling of the sources. By numerical simulations, we show that the pattern of the electric field can be correctly estimated using VT and the location of the source activity can be determined accurately from the reconstructed magnitudes of the field. - Highlights: • Vector tomography is used to reconstruct electric fields generated by dipole

  17. The effect of non-zero radial velocity on the impulse and circulation of starting jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Michael; Mohseni, Kamran

    2011-11-01

    Vortex ring formation dynamics are generally studied using two basic types of vortex generators. Piston cylinder vortex generators eject fluid through a long tube which ensures a purely axial jet; whereas, vortex ring generators which expel fluid through a flat plate with a circular orifice produce 2-D jets (non-zero radial velocity). At the nozzle exit plane of the orifice type vortex generator the radial component of velocity is linearly proportional to the radial distance from the axis of symmetry, reaching a maximum at the edge of the orifice with a magnitude around 10 % of the piston velocity (the ratio of the volume flux and the nozzle area). As the jet advances downstream the radial velocity quickly dissipates, and becomes purely axial less than a diameter away from the nozzle exit plane. The radial velocity gradient in the axial direction plays a key role in the rate at which circulation and impulse are ejected from the vortex generator. Though the radial component of velocity is small compared to the axial velocity, it has a significant effect on both the circulation and impulse of the starting jet because of this gradient. The extent of circulation and impulse enhancement is investigated through experimental DPIV data showing that the orifice device produces nearly double both circulation and energy (with identical piston velocity and stroke ratios).

  18. Gravitational instabilities of the cosmic neutrino background with non-zero lepton number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Barrie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a cosmic neutrino background that carries non-zero lepton charge develops gravitational instabilities. Fundamentally, these instabilities are related to the mixed gravity-lepton number anomaly. We have explicitly computed the gravitational Chern–Simons term which is generated quantum-mechanically in the effective action in the presence of a lepton number asymmetric neutrino background. The induced Chern–Simons term has a twofold effect: (i gravitational waves propagating in such a neutrino background exhibit birefringent behaviour leading to an enhancement/suppression of the gravitational wave amplitudes depending on the polarisation, where the magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the lepton asymmetry; (ii Negative energy graviton modes are induced in the high frequency regime, which leads to very fast vacuum decay producing, e.g., positive energy photons and negative energy gravitons. From the constraint on the present radiation energy density, we obtain an interesting bound on the lepton asymmetry of the universe.

  19. Optical Angular Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimondo, Ennio

    2004-01-01

    For many years the Institute of Physics has published books on hot topics based on a collection of reprints from different journals, including some remarks by the editors of each volume. The book on Optical Angular Momentum, edited by L Allen, S M Barnett and M J Padgett, is a recent addition to the series. It reproduces forty four papers originally published in different journals and in a few cases it provides direct access to works not easily accessible to a web navigator. The collection covers nearly a hundred years of progress in physics, starting from an historic 1909 paper by Poynting, and ending with a 2002 paper by Padgett, Barnett and coworkers on the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon. The field of optical angular momentum has expanded greatly, creating an interdisciplinary attraction for researchers operating in quantum optics, atomic physics, solid state physics, biophysics and quantum information theory. The development of laser optics, especially the control of single mode sources, has made possible the specific design of optical radiation modes with a high degree of control on the light angular momentum. The editors of this book are important figures in the field of angular momentum, having contributed to key progress in the area. L Allen published an historical paper in 1999, he and M J Padgett (together with M Babiker) produced few years ago a long review article which is today still the most complete basic introduction to the angular momentum of light, while S M Barnett has contributed several high quality papers to the progress of this area of physics. The editors' choice provides an excellent overview to all readers, with papers classified into eight different topics, covering the basic principles of the light and spin and orbital angular momentum, the laboratory tools for creating laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum, the optical forces and torques created by laser beams carrying angular momentum on

  20. Non-zero intercept frequency : an accurate method to determine the integral temperature of li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, L.H.J.; Danilov, D.L.; van Lammeren, J.; Lammers, T.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2016-01-01

    A new impedance-based approach is introduced in which the integral battery temperature is related to other frequencies than the recently developed zero-intercept frequency (ZIF). The advantage of the proposed non-zero-intercept frequency (NZIF) method is that measurement interferences, resulting

  1. Changes in the positron-electron momentum distribution in GaAs brought about by chopped light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.; Ling, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    We report on an attempt to observe the EL2→ EL2 * transition in semi-insulating GaAs using Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation spectroscopy. Unlike the original observation of this transition using positron annihilation spectroscopy, the present method has sought to observe the production of EL2 * through a light chopping experiment, where on the half cycle of illumination the EL2 * state is formed and on the second half cycle the EL2 * thermally quenches back to EL2. While results are at a preliminary state we have obtained evidence for the production of EL2 * from the broad-band emission of a Xenon lamp. While calculations suggest that we should be able to see the EL2 * from the IR emission (1.3eV) of GaAs light emitting diodes we have not yet been able to achieve this. Reasons why are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…

  3. Orbital rotation without orbital angular momentum: mechanical action of the spin part of the internal energy flow in light beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    flow upon tight focusing of the beam, usually applied for energy flow detection by means of the mechanical action upon probe particles. We propose a two-beam interference technique that results in an appreciable level of spin flow in moderately focused beams and detection of the orbital motion of probe...... particles within a field where the transverse energy circulation is associated exclusively with the spin flow. This result can be treated as the first demonstration of mechanical action of the spin flow of a light field....

  4. Strong Energy-momentum Dispersion of Phonon Dressed Carriers in the Lightly Doped Band Insulator SrTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meevasana, Warawat

    2010-01-01

    Much progress has been made recently in the study of the effects of electron-phonon (el-ph) coupling in doped insulators using angle resolved photoemission (ARPES), yielding evidence for the dominant role of el-ph interactions in underdoped cuprates. As these studies have been limited to doped Mott insulators, the important question arises how this compares with doped band insulators where similar el-ph couplings should be at work. The archetypical case is the perovskite SrTiO 3 (STO), well known for its giant dielectric constant of 10000 at low temperature, exceeding that of La 2 CuO 4 by a factor of 500. Based on this fact, it has been suggested that doped STO should be the archetypical bipolaron superconductor. Here we report an ARPES study from high-quality surfaces of lightly doped SrTiO 3 . Comparing to lightly doped Mott insulators, we find the signatures of only moderate electron-phonon coupling: a dispersion anomaly associated with the low frequency optical phonon with a λ(prime) ∼ 0.3 and an overall bandwidth renormalization suggesting an overall λ(prime) ∼ 0.7 coming from the higher frequency phonons. Further, we find no clear signatures of the large pseudogap or small polaron phenomena. These findings demonstrate that a large dielectric constant itself is not a good indicator of el-ph coupling and highlight the unusually strong effects of the el-ph coupling in doped Mott insulators.

  5. Dispersion forces in micromechanics: Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces affected by geometry and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingsen, Simen Andreas Aadnoey

    2011-01-15

    conclusions reached by Ford based on one of these methods, which seems to allow radically changing and tailoring the Casimir force with engineered materials, can not be realised. Part 2 presents several explicit calculations of the Casimir energy of different wedge and cylinder geometries. The Casimir energy of a perfectly conducting wedge inter cut by a circularly cylindrical arc, either perfectly conducting or (magneto)dielectric, is calculated. The energy is found to include a singular and non-regularisable term due to the corners where the arc meets the wedge, whereas the finite part is an immediate generalisation of the previously known results for a circular cylinder. The energy of a magnetodielectric wedge obeying a criterion of isorefractivity (spatially uniform speed of light) superimposed coaxially on a perfectly conducting cylindrical shell is calculated. This is the first expression for the energy of a wedge which is not perfectly reflecting. Finally, the energy of the perfectly conducting wedge and arc (and, as a special case, cylinder) is extended to the case of non-zero temperatures. After a regularisation procedure making use of the Chowla-Selberg formula an analytical expression for the temperature-dependent energy at all temperatures is derived, and showed to coincide with previously calculated high-temperature asymptotics by Bordag, Nesterenko and Pirozhenko. Part 3 considers numerical and analytical studies of the Casimir-Polder forces acting on particles prepared in a given eigenstate (or superposition of such) in an environment which is otherwise at thermal equilibrium. We first consider cold polar molecules outside a metallic half space. It is found that the force in the near-zone (non-retarded regime) is much weaker than what would result from a naive perturbative calculation, and that in the far-zone (retarded regime) the force becomes spatially oscillatory. It is demonstrated how these spatial oscillations may be enhanced in a resonating planar

  6. Bianchi type I universe in brane world scenario with non-zero Weyl tensor of the bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, S. [University of Burdwan, Department of Physics, Burdwan (India)

    2017-09-15

    In the paper, we present exact solutions of gravitational field equations for an anisotropic brane with a Bianchi type I universe with perfect fluid having non-vanishing Weyl tensor of the bulk. It is assumed that the thermodynamic pressure bears a linear relation with the energy density. For a particular non-zero value of the pressure the solutions are obtained in an exact analytic form with and without the cosmological constant for a Bianchi type I universe. The relevant physical quantities associated with the evolution of the universe are also derived in the two cases. (orig.)

  7. Updated BBN bounds on the cosmological lepton asymmetry for non-zero θ13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangano, Gianpiero; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio; Pisanti, Ofelia; Sarikas, Srdjan

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the bounds on the cosmological lepton number from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), in light of recent evidences for a large value of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 , sin 2 θ 13 ≥0.01 at 2σ. The largest asymmetries for electron and μ, τ neutrinos compatible with 4 He and 2 H primordial yields are computed versus the neutrino mass hierarchy and mixing angles. The flavour oscillation dynamics is traced till the beginning of BBN and neutrino distributions after decoupling are numerically computed. The latter contains in general, non-thermal distortion due to the onset of flavour oscillations driven by solar squared mass difference in the temperature range where neutrino scatterings become inefficient to enforce thermodynamical equilibrium. Depending on the value of θ 13 , this translates into a larger value for the effective number of neutrinos, N eff . Upper bounds on this parameter are discussed for both neutrino mass hierarchies. Values for N eff which are large enough to be detectable by the Planck experiment are found only for the (presently disfavoured) range sin 2 θ 13 ≤0.01.

  8. Modified Spectral Projected Subgradient Method: Convergence Analysis and Momentum Parameter Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Loreto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Modified Spectral Projected Subgradient (MSPS was proposed to solve Langrangen Dual Problems, and its convergence was shown when the momentum term was zero. The MSPS uses a momentum term in order to speed up its convergence. The momentum term is built on the multiplication of a momentum parameter and the direction of the previous iterate. In this work, we show convergence when the momentum parameter is a non-zero constant. We also propose heuristics to choose the momentum parameter intended to avoid the Zigzagging Phenomenon of Kind I. This phenomenon is present in the MSPS when at an iterate the subgradient forms an obtuse angle with the previous direction. We identify and diminish the Zigzagging Phenomenon of Kind I on Setcovering problems, and compare our numerical results to those of the original MSPS algorithm.

  9. On the energy-momentum density of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dereli, T; Tucker, R W

    2004-01-01

    By embedding Einstein's original formulation of general relativity into a broader context, we show that a dynamic covariant description of gravitational stress-energy emerges naturally from a variational principle. A tensor T G is constructed from a contraction of the Bel tensor with a symmetric covariant second degree tensor field Φ and has a form analogous to the stress-energy tensor of the Maxwell field in an arbitrary spacetime. For plane-fronted gravitational waves helicity-2 polarized (graviton) states can be identified carrying non-zero energy and momentum

  10. Phonon self-energy corrections to non-zero wavevector phonon modes in single-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Paulo; Mafra, Daniela; Sato, Kentaro; Saito, Richiiro; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2012-02-01

    Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q = 0) wave-vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene (1LG) in the frequency range from 2350 to 2750 cm-1, which shows the G* and the G'-band features originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q 0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q = 0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with non-zero wave-vectors (q 0) in 1LG in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q = 0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G* Raman feature at 2450 cm-1 to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q 0 and the 2iTO overtone modes with q = 0, showing both to be associated with wave-vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.

  11. The chiral critical line of $N_{f}=2+1$ QCD at ero and non-zero baryon density

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe; Forcrand, Philippe de; Philipsen, Owe

    2007-01-01

    We present numerical results for the location of the chiral critical line at finite temperature and zero and non-zero baryon density for QCD with N_f=2+1 flavours of staggered fermions on lattices with temporal extent N_t=4. For degenerate quark masses, we compare our results obtained with the exact RHMC algorithm with earlier, inexact R-algorithm results and find a reduction of 25% in the critical quark mass, for which the first order phase transition changes to a smooth crossover. Extending our analysis to non-degenerate quark masses, we map out the chiral critical line up to the neighbourhood of the physical point, which we confirm to be in the crossover region. Our data are consistent with a tricritical point at a strange quark mass of ~500 MeV. Finally, we investigate the shift of the critical line with finite baryon density, by simulating with an imaginary chemical potential for which there is no sign problem. We observe this shift to be very small or, conversely, the critical endpoint \\mu^c(m_{u,d},m_s...

  12. Amplitude damping channel for orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering work on the entanglement of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light, much attention has been devoted to the subject, with particular attention into the quantum aspects of information processing using OAM. Furthermore...

  13. Dual electromagnetism: helicity, spin, momentum and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco; Bekshaev, Aleksandr Y

    2013-01-01

    The dual symmetry between electric and magnetic fields is an important intrinsic property of Maxwell equations in free space. This symmetry underlies the conservation of optical helicity and, as we show here, is closely related to the separation of spin and orbital degrees of freedom of light (the helicity flux coincides with the spin angular momentum). However, in the standard field-theory formulation of electromagnetism, the field Lagrangian is not dual symmetric. This leads to problematic dual-asymmetric forms of the canonical energy–momentum, spin and orbital angular-momentum tensors. Moreover, we show that the components of these tensors conflict with the helicity and energy conservation laws. To resolve this discrepancy between the symmetries of the Lagrangian and Maxwell equations, we put forward a dual-symmetric Lagrangian formulation of classical electromagnetism. This dual electromagnetism preserves the form of Maxwell equations, yields meaningful canonical energy–momentum and angular-momentum tensors, and ensures a self-consistent separation of the spin and orbital degrees of freedom. This provides a rigorous derivation of the results suggested in other recent approaches. We make the Noether analysis of the dual symmetry and all the Poincaré symmetries, examine both local and integral conserved quantities and show that only the dual electromagnetism naturally produces a complete self-consistent set of conservation laws. We also discuss the observability of physical quantities distinguishing the standard and dual theories, as well as relations to quantum weak measurements and various optical experiments. (paper)

  14. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Nicolas; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    , 110702 (2013)], and more recently in a fully kinetic simulation as well [J. Dargent and N. Aunai, Phys. Plasmas (submitted)]. Nevertheless, in most asymmetric layers like the terrestrial magnetopause, one would indeed expect a magnetic field rotation from one direction to another without going through zero [J. Berchem and C. T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8139-8148 (1982)], and a non-zero normal electric field. In this paper, we propose the corresponding generalization: in the model presented, the profiles can be freely imposed for the magnetic field rotation (although restricted to a 180 rotation hitherto) and for the normal electric field. As it was done previously, the equilibrium is tested with a hybrid simulation.

  15. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorville, Nicolas; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    ) 20, 110702 (2013)], and more recently in a fully kinetic simulation as well [J. Dargent and N. Aunai, Phys. Plasmas (submitted)]. Nevertheless, in most asymmetric layers like the terrestrial magnetopause, one would indeed expect a magnetic field rotation from one direction to another without going through zero [J. Berchem and C. T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8139–8148 (1982)], and a non-zero normal electric field. In this paper, we propose the corresponding generalization: in the model presented, the profiles can be freely imposed for the magnetic field rotation (although restricted to a 180 rotation hitherto) and for the normal electric field. As it was done previously, the equilibrium is tested with a hybrid simulation

  16. Dynamics and structure of light nuclei through (e,e'p) reactions with high momentum; Dynamique et structure des noyaux legers en diffusion (e,e'p) a grandes impulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutier, E

    2005-09-15

    The (e,e'p) reaction is an efficient and accurate means to probe nuclear structure because of its simplicity (in the case of light nuclei exact calculations can be made) and because the entire nuclear volume is probed. Now high energy electron beams are available which allows nuclear matter to be investigated on distances shorter than the nucleon diameter, and as a consequence the measurement of effects linked to the internal structure of the nucleon appears reachable. Recent experiments performed at the Jefferson Laboratory on deuterium and helium targets have shown that the cross-section (e,e'p) with high momentum missing is dominated by many-body processes involving the propagation of a nucleon in the nuclear matter. The importance of these re-diffusion mechanisms can be amplified or minimized by acting on the value of the missing momentum or on the angle of the recoil particle. These experiments highlight the sensitivity of the He{sup 3}(e,e'p)pn reactions to nucleon-nucleon correlations and their importance at high momentum missing. Theoretical results predict a very narrow window in anti-parallel kinematics through which an important reduction of the many-body mechanism is expected. The study of the color transparency effect through quasi-elastic scattering in light nuclei uses the re-diffusion features to show the existence of a small spatial extension of the nucleon's wave function. Recent development in the formalism of generalized parton distributions open the way for a systematic and complete study of the internal structure of the nucleon. (A.C.)

  17. Analysis of Probability of Non-zero Secrecy Capacity for Multi-hop Networks in Presence of Hardware Impairments over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-T. Phu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate probability of non-zero secrecy capacity of multi-hop relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels in presence of hardware impairments. In the considered protocol, a source attempts to transmit its data to a destination by using multi-hop randomize-and-forward (RF strategy. The data transmitted by the source and relays are overheard by an eavesdropper. For performance evaluation, we derive exact expressions of probability of non-zero secrecy capacity (PoNSC, which are expressed by sums of infinite series of exponential functions and exponential integral functions. We then perform Monte Carlo simulations to verify the theoretical analysis.

  18. Fragmentation and momentum correlations in heavy-ion collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The role of momentum correlations in the production of light and medium mass fragments is studied by imposing momentum cut in the clusterization of the phase space. Our detailed investigation shows that momentum cut has a major role to play in the emission of fragments. A comparison with the experimental data is also ...

  19. Search for supersymmetry in events containing light leptons, jets and missing transverse momentum in √(s)=8 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, Manuel

    2015-09-25

    The results of two analyses searching for supersymmetry (SUSY) in data of the ATLAS experiment are presented in this thesis. The data were recorded in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012 at a centre of mass energy of √(s)=8 TeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of Ldt=20.3 fb{sup -1}. The first search is performed in signatures containing an opposite-sign electron or muon pair, which is compatible with originating from a Z boson decay, in addition to jets and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis targets the production of squarks and gluinos in R-parity conserving (RPC) models with SUSY breaking via General Gauge Mediation (GGM). The main Standard Model (SM) backgrounds are t anti t, WW, W+t and Z →ττ processes which are entirely estimated from data using different-flavour events. Besides that, the SM production of Z bosons in association with jets and large fake missing momentum from mismeasurements plays a role and is predicted with the data-driven jet smearing method. Backgrounds from events with fake leptons are estimated with the data-driven matrix method. WZ/ZZ production as well as smaller background contributions are determined from Monte-Carlo simulations. The search observes an excess of data over the SM prediction with a local significance of 3.0σ in the electron channel, 1.7σ in the muon channel and 3.0σ when the two channels are added together. The results are used to constrain the parameters of the GGM model. The second analysis uses the already published results of an ATLAS search for SUSY in events with one isolated electron or muon, jets and missing transverse momentum to reinterpret them in the context of squark and gluino production in SUSY models with R-parity violating (RPV) LQ anti D-operators. In contrast to RPC models, the lightest SUSY particle (LSP) is not stable but decays into SM particles. ''Standard'' analyses often do not consider SUSY models with RPV although

  20. Assessing Uncertainties in Boundary Layer Transition Predictions for HIFiRE-1 at Non-zero Angles of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Lindsay C.

    2011-01-01

    Boundary layer stability was analyzed for the HIFiRE-1 flight vehicle geometry for ground tests conducted at the CUBRC LENS I hypersonic shock test facility and the Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20- inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Boundary layer stability results were compared to transition onset location obtained from discrete heat transfer measurements from thin film gauges during the CUBRC test and spatially continuous heat transfer measurements from thermal phosphor paint data during the LaRC test. The focus of this analysis was on conditions at non-zero angles of attack as stability analysis has already been performed at zero degrees angle of attack. Also, the transition onset data obtained during flight testing was at nonzero angles of attack, so this analysis could be expanded in the future to include the results of the flight test data. Stability analysis was performed using the 2D parabolized stability software suite STABL (Stability and Transition Analysis for Hypersonic Boundary Layers) developed at the University of Minnesota and the mean flow solutions were computed using the DPLR finite volume Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. A center line slice of the 3D mean flow solution was used for the stability analysis to incorporate the angle of attack effects while still taking advantage of the 2D STABL software suite. The N-factors at transition onset and the value of Re(sub theta)/M(sub e), commonly used to predict boundary layer transition onset, were compared for all conditions analyzed. Ground test data was analyzed at Mach 7.2 and Mach 6.0 and angles of attack of 1deg, 3deg and 5deg. At these conditions, the flow was found to be second mode dominant for the HIFiRE-1 slender cone geometry. On the leeward side of the vehicle, a strong trend of transition onset location with angle of attack was observed as the boundary layer on the leeward side of the vehicle developed inflection points at streamwise positions on the vehicle that correlated to

  1. Photon momentum and optical forces in cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, the electromagnetic field momentum in material media has been under debate in the Abraham-Minkowski controversy as convincing arguments have been advanced in favor of both the Abraham and Minkowski forms of photon momentum. Here we study the photon momentum and optical....... When describing the steady-state nonequilibrium field distributions we use the recently developed quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism. While allowing detailed studies of light propagation and quantum field fluctuations in interfering structures, our methods also provide practical...

  2. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of su...

  3. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  4. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  5. Phase transitions in the hard-core Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model at non-zero temperatures in the heavy-fermion limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasyuk, I.V.; Krasnov, V.O., E-mail: krasnoff@icmp.lviv.ua

    2017-04-15

    Phase transitions at non-zero temperatures in ultracold Bose- and Fermi-particles mixture in optical lattices using the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model in the mean field and hard-core boson approximations are investigated. The case of infinitely small fermion transfer and the repulsive on-site boson-fermion interaction is considered. The possibility of change of order (from the 2nd to the 1st one) of the phase transition to the superfluid phase in the regime of fixed values of the chemical potentials of Bose- and Fermi-particles is established. The relevant phase diagrams determining the conditions at which such a change takes place, are built.

  6. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  7. Attention and Representational Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Amy; Freyd, Jennifer J

    1995-01-01

    Representational momentum, the tendency for memory to be distorted in the direction of an implied transformation, suggests that dynamics are an intrinsic part of perceptual representations. We examined the effect of attention on dynamic representation by testing for representational momentum under conditions of distraction. Forward memory shifts increase when attention is divided. Attention may be involved in halting but not in maintaining dynamic representations.

  8. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  9. On momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    The relativistic law of momentum transformation shows that the sum of momenta of even isolated particles is not invariable in all inertial reference systems. This is connected with the relativistic change of kinetic energy and mass of a system of particles in result of internal interactions. The paper proposes a short and simple proof on the necessity of potential momentum. The momentum conservation law (for all interactions in the Minkowski world) is expressed in a generalized form. The constancy of the sum of kinetic and potential momentum of closed system of particles is shown. The energy conservation is a necessary condition. The potential momentum is defined as usual (e.g. as in the Berkeley Physics Course). (author). 13 refs

  10. Longitudinal momentum distributions in transverse coordinate space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Narinder; Mondal, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we study the longitudinal momentum distributions in the transverse coordinate space in a light-front quark-diquark model inspired by soft-wall AdS/QCD. We take the phenomenological light-front quark-diquark model proposed by Gutsche et. al. In this model, the light-front wave functions (LFWFs) for the proton are constructed from the two particle wave functions obtained in soft-wall AdS/QCD

  11. Transverse momentum distributions and nuclear effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pace Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A distorted spin-dependent spectral function for 3He is considered to take care of the final state interaction in the extraction of the quark transverse-momentum distributions in the neutron from semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering off polarized 3He at finite momentum transfers. The generalization of the analysis in a Poincaré covariant framework within the light-front dynamics is outlined. The definition of the light-front spin-dependent spectral function for a J=1/2 system, as the nucleon, allows us to show that within the light-front dynamics and in the valence approximation only three of the six leading twist T-even transverse-momentum distributions are independent.

  12. Light particle emission in deeply inelastic collisions of 280 MeV 40Ar + 58Ni: Thermal equilibrium and angular momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, R.; Cauvin, B.; Girard, J.; Alexander, J.M.; Chiang, T.H.; Galin, J.; Gatty, B.; Guerreau, D.; Tarrago, X.

    1980-01-01

    Protons and α-particles emitted in coincidence with a deep inelastic fragment produced in the reaction 40 Ar(280 MeV) + 58 Ni have been measured. From a detailed study of their in-plane angular distribution, it is shown that the bulk of the light charged particle emission can be attributed to a secondary evaporation process by the two primary deep inelastic fragments. A lowest estimate of the fragment spin (assuming total alignment perpendicular to the reaction plane) is obtained from the anisotropy of the out-of-plane angular distribution of the α-particles. For very asymmetric splitting, the heavy fragment spin estimate as obtained from the α-anisotropy measurement is consistent with the observed proton to α-particle multiplicity ratio. The results are in agreement with the hypothesis of a sticking configuration between two deformed nuclei. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 MB

  13. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  14. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS_3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  15. Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.

  16. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  17. Photon-momentum transfer in molecular photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

    2018-05-01

    In most models and theoretical calculations describing multiphoton ionization by infrared light, the dipole approximation is used. This is equivalent to setting the very small photon momentum to zero. Using numerical solutions of the (nondipole) three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron in a H2+ molecular ion we investigate the effect the photon-momentum transfer to the photoelectron in an H2+ ion in various regimes. We find that the photon-momentum transfer in a molecule is very different from the transfer in atoms due to two-center interference effects. The photon-momentum transfer is very sensitive to the symmetry of the initial electronic state and is strongly dependent on the internuclear distance and on the ellipticity of the laser.

  18. Trinuc: a fortran program for the identification, and the energy and momentum determination of the light charged particles (p,d,t) and neutrons emitted after the absorption at the rest of negative pions in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui, R.

    1982-01-01

    Energy, momentum and missing mass spectra, angular distribution of two particles (n,n), (p,p), (n,d) and (n,t) detected in coincidence experiments, have been calculated with this program. At this moment only π - absorption reactions on 12 C nuclei have been studied, even if the program is adaptable to execute these calculations for any kind of target nucleus. The π - + 12 C experiment was performed at the triumf meson facility - Vancouver B.C., Canada -, under the supervision of prof. C. Cernigoi. The instrumental apparatus used to perform the experiment consisted of a beam telescope (ref. 1), of four large are a plastic counters NC (ref. 2) and of a large telescope plastic counter RT (ref.3). The tecniques of time of flight (TOF) e x de (only for charged particles) have been used to deduce the energy and identify the mass of the detected particles

  19. Momentum, March 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Momentum is the quarterly magazine of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech. In this issue: Lead-free piezoelectric material in development; Harnessing the energy of ocean waves; Meet the Hyperloop team; Maleshia Jones - Graduate student with focus.

  20. Spiral phase plates for the generation of high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams with non-zero radial index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffato, G.; Carli, M.; Massari, M.; Romanato, F.

    2015-03-01

    The work of design, fabrication and characterization of spiral phase plates for the generation of Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with non-null radial index is presented. Samples were fabricated by electron beam lithography on polymethylmethacrylate layers over glass substrates. The optical response of these phase optical elements was measured and the purity of the experimental beams was investigated in terms of Laguerre-Gaussian modes contributions. The farfield intensity pattern was compared with theoretical models and numerical simulations, while the expected phase features were confirmed by interferometric analyses. The high quality of the output beams confirms the applicability of these phase plates for the generation of high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams. A novel application consisting in the design of computer-generated holograms encoding information for light beams carrying phase singularities is shown. A numerical code based on iterative Fourier transform algorithm has been developed for the computation of the phase pattern of phase-only diffractive optical element for illumination under LG beams. Numerical analysis and preliminary experimental results confirm the applicability of these devices as high-security optical elements.

  1. On the problem of non-zero word error rates for fixed-rate error correction codes in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Sarah J; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, T C

    2017-01-01

    The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates. (paper)

  2. Which Basic Rules Underlie Social Judgments? Agency Follows a Zero-Sum Principle and Communion Follows a Non-Zero-Sum Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Michael; Leising, Daniel; Gebauer, Jochen E

    2016-05-01

    How are people who generally see others positively evaluated themselves? We propose that the answer to this question crucially hinges on the content domain: We hypothesize that Agency follows a "zero-sum principle" and therefore people who see others ashighin Agency are perceived aslowin Agency themselves. In contrast, we hypothesize that Communion follows a "non-zero-sum principle" and therefore people who see others ashighin Communion are perceived ashighin Communion themselves. We tested these hypotheses in a round-robin and a half-block study. Perceiving others as agentic was indeed linked to being perceived as low in Agency. To the contrary, perceiving others as communal was linked to being perceived as high in Communion, but only when people directly interacted with each other. These results help to clarify the nature of Agency and Communion and offer explanations for divergent findings in the literature. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Huerta-Mascotte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs. Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost.

  4. Momentum and mass relaxation in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, C.; Scheuter, F.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.

    1984-01-01

    The momentum and mass relaxation are shown to be described by transport equations. The momentum relaxation, which can be studied in the intermediate energy regime by the particle emissions, refers to a microscopic slowing down and diffusion process in the momentum space. The mass relaxation refers to the coupling of the collective mass asymmetry degree of freedom and the intrinsic system. It can be illustrated by the fast fission of light and very heavy systems

  5. Transverse Momentum Distributions of Electron in Simulated QED Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navdeep; Dahiya, Harleen

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we have studied the transverse momentum distributions (TMDs) for the electron in simulated QED model. We have used the overlap representation of light-front wave functions where the spin-1/2 relativistic composite system consists of spin-1/2 fermion and spin-1 vector boson. The results have been obtained for T-even TMDs in transverse momentum plane for fixed value of longitudinal momentum fraction x.

  6. Universal spin-momentum locked optical forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalhor, Farid [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Thundat, Thomas [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Jacob, Zubin, E-mail: zjacob@purdue.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Evanescent electromagnetic waves possess spin-momentum locking, where the direction of propagation (momentum) is locked to the inherent polarization of the wave (transverse spin). We study the optical forces arising from this universal phenomenon and show that the fundamental origin of recently reported non-trivial optical chiral forces is spin-momentum locking. For evanescent waves, we show that the direction of energy flow, the direction of decay, and the direction of spin follow a right hand rule for three different cases of total internal reflection, surface plasmon polaritons, and HE{sub 11} mode of an optical fiber. Furthermore, we explain how the recently reported phenomena of lateral optical force on chiral and achiral particles are caused by the transverse spin of the evanescent field and the spin-momentum locking phenomenon. Finally, we propose an experiment to identify the unique lateral forces arising from the transverse spin in the optical fiber and point to fundamental differences of the spin density from the well-known orbital angular momentum of light. Our work presents a unified view on spin-momentum locking and how it affects optical forces on chiral and achiral particles.

  7. Angular momentum in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, A.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that the correct expressions for the angular momentum flux carried by gravitational radiation should follow directly from the momentum currents. Following this approach, the authors compute the angular momentum associated with several different choices of energy-momentum prescriptions. (author)

  8. Electron momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-03-01

    For electron energies greater than a few hundred eV and recoil momenta less than a few atomic units, the differential cross section for the non-coplanar symmetric (e,2e) reaction on an atom or molecule depends on the target and ion structure only through the target-ion overlap. Experimental criteria for the energy and momentum are that the apparent structure information does not change when the energy and momentum are varied. The plane-wave impulse approximation is a sufficient description of the reaction mechanism for determining spherically-averaged squares of momentum-space orbitals for atoms and molecules and for coefficients describing initial and final state correlations

  9. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  10. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes themselves. However, value and momentum are negatively correlated both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three factor model. Global funding liquidity risk...... is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value and momentum simultaneously across markets. Our findings present a challenge to existing behavioral, institutional, and rational asset pricing theories that largely focus on U.S. equities....

  11. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  12. Rotations and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, P.; Froyland, J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of rotational invariance and the properties of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. In particular, the problem of addition of angular momenta is treated in detail, and tables of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are included

  13. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  14. Momentum, Fall 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Momentum is the quarterly magazine of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech. In this issue: Nano engineering - Scaling up; Coating 3D objects quickly Energy Harvesting - from soldier's backpacks to nuclear monitoring Hyperloop - team readies pod, university to build test track.

  15. Fission fragment angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenne, D. De

    1991-01-01

    Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Ghost Imaging Using Orbital Angular Momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵生妹; 丁建; 董小亮; 郑宝玉

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum. In the signal arm, object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix. For an N-grey-scale object, different phase matrices, varying from 0 to K with increment n/N, are used for different greyscales, and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator. According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system, these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement, and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm. By simulations and experiments, the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively. Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum, our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.%We present a novel encoding scheme in a ghost-imaging system using orbital angular momentum.In the signal arm,object spatial information is encoded as a phase matrix.For an N-grey-scale object,different phase matrices,varying from 0 to π with increment π/N,are used for different greyscales,and then they are modulated to a signal beam by a spatial light modulator.According to the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in the ghost imaging system,these changes will give different coincidence rates in measurement,and hence the object information can be extracted in the idler arm.By simulations and experiments,the results show that our scheme can improve the resolution of the image effectively.Compared with another encoding method using orbital angular momentum,our scheme has a better performance for both characters and the image object.

  17. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  18. Inverse scattering transform and soliton solutions for square matrix nonlinear Schrödinger equations with non-zero boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinari, Barbara; Demontis, Francesco; Li, Sitai; Horikis, Theodoros P.

    2018-04-01

    The inverse scattering transform (IST) with non-zero boundary conditions at infinity is developed for an m × m matrix nonlinear Schrödinger-type equation which, in the case m = 2, has been proposed as a model to describe hyperfine spin F = 1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates with either repulsive interatomic interactions and anti-ferromagnetic spin-exchange interactions (self-defocusing case), or attractive interatomic interactions and ferromagnetic spin-exchange interactions (self-focusing case). The IST for this system was first presented by Ieda et al. (2007) , using a different approach. In our formulation, both the direct and the inverse problems are posed in terms of a suitable uniformization variable which allows to develop the IST on the standard complex plane, instead of a two-sheeted Riemann surface or the cut plane with discontinuities along the cuts. Analyticity of the scattering eigenfunctions and scattering data, symmetries, properties of the discrete spectrum, and asymptotics are derived. The inverse problem is posed as a Riemann-Hilbert problem for the eigenfunctions, and the reconstruction formula of the potential in terms of eigenfunctions and scattering data is provided. In addition, the general behavior of the soliton solutions is analyzed in detail in the 2 × 2 self-focusing case, including some special solutions not previously discussed in the literature.

  19. NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRINO-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOWS WITH A NON-ZERO TORQUE BOUNDARY CONDITION AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong, E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-12-20

    A stellar-mass black hole (BH) surrounded by a neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) has been discussed in a number of works as the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). It is widely believed that NDAF cannot liberate enough energy for bright GRBs. However, these works have been based on the assumption of a “no torque” boundary condition, which is invalid when the disk is magnetized. In this paper, we present both numerical and analytical solutions for NDAFs with non-zero boundary stresses and reexamine their properties. We find that an NDAF with such a boundary torque can be powerful enough to account for those bright short GRBs, energetic long GRBs, and ultra-long GRBs. The disk becomes viscously unstable, which makes it possible to interpret the variability of GRB prompt emission and the steep decay phase in the early X-ray afterglow. Finally, we study the gravitational waves radiated from a processing BH-NDAF. We find that the effects of the boundary torque on the strength of the gravitational waves can be ignored.

  20. Large transverse momentum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-09-01

    It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references

  1. Angular momentum projected semiclassics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasse, R.W.

    1986-10-01

    By using angular momentum projected plane waves as wave functions, we derive semiclassical expressions for the single-particle propagator, the partition function, the nonlocal density matrix, the single-particle density and the one particle- one hole level density for fixed angular momentum and fixed z-component or summed over the z-components. Other quantities can be deduced from the propagator. In coordinate space (r, r') the relevant quantities depend on vertical stroker - r 3 vertical stroke instead of vertical stroker - r'vertical stroke and in Wigner space (R, P) they become proportional to the angular momentum constraints δ(vertical strokeRxPvertical stroke/ℎ - l) and δ((RxP) z /ℎ - m). As applications we calculate the single-particle and one particle- one hole level densities for harmonic oscillator and Hill-Wheeler box potentials and the imaginary part of the optical potential and its volume integral with an underlying harmonic oscillator potential and a zero range two-body interaction. (orig.)

  2. Momentum distributions: opening remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigold, E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the hydrogen atom has played a central role in the development of quantum mechanics, beginning with Bohr's daring speculations. It was also the first problem tackled by Schroedinger with his new wave mechanics and similarly it was used by Heisenberg in his first papers as a prime example of the success of quantum mechanics. It has always played a central role in the teaching of quantum physics and has served as a most important heuristic tool, shaping our intuition and inspiring many expositions. The Schroedinger equation for the hydrogen atom is usually solved in the position representation, the solution to the equation being the wave functions psi/sub nlm/(r). If Schroedinger's equation is solved in the momentum representation instead of the coordinate representation, the absolute square of the corresponding momentum state wave function phi/sub nlm/(p) would give the momentum probability distribution of the electron in the state defined by the quantum numbers n, l and m. Three different types of collisions which can take place in the (e,2e) reaction on atomic hydrogen, which is a three body problem, are discussed

  3. Emission of light particles associated with a high transverse momentum proton in the reaction sup 16 O + sup 27 Al at 94 MeV/u. Emission de particules legeres associees a un proton de grand moment transverse dans la reaction sup 16 O + sup 27 Al a 94 MeV/u (E75)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Schillaci, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (IT)); Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Lefebvres, F.; Patry, J.P. (Institut des Sciences de la Matiere du Rayonnement, 14 - Caen (FR)); Jin, G.; Laville, J.L.; Rosato, E. (Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (FR))

    1989-06-01

    The emission of light particles associated with a high transverse momentum proton in the reaction {sup 16}O + {sup 27}Al at 94 MeV/u has been studied with the help of the GANIL multidetectors (MUR and TONNEAU). Data are confronted with a model based on the standard high-energy participant-spectator picture coupled with the Weisskopf theory of evaporation. Reasonable agreement is achieved indicating that the mean-field effects for this light system at such a rather high incident energy are negligible.

  4. Seamless service: maintaining momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, N; Timoney, R

    1994-01-01

    Describes the process used by the Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast in 1992-1994 to achieve high quality care (Seamless Service), motivate staff to deliver and measure performance. Aims of the project include focusing the organization on the customer, improving teamwork and motivation at all levels. After comprehensive data collection from GPs, patients and staff management forums developed a full TQM strategy to gain support and maintain momentum including innovative staff events (every staff member was given the opportunity to attend) where multilevel, multidisciplinary workshops enabled staff to design customer care standards, develop teams and lead customer-driven change.

  5. Time Series Momentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Ooi, Yao Hua; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    We document significant “time series momentum” in equity index, currency, commodity, and bond futures for each of the 58 liquid instruments we consider. We find persistence in returns for one to 12 months that partially reverses over longer horizons, consistent with sentiment theories of initial...... under-reaction and delayed over-reaction. A diversified portfolio of time series momentum strategies across all asset classes delivers substantial abnormal returns with little exposure to standard asset pricing factors and performs best during extreme markets. Examining the trading activities...

  6. Galaxy angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.A.

    1974-01-01

    In order to test the theories which purport to explain the origin of galaxy angular momentum, this study presents new data for about 1000 individual galaxies in eight rich clusters. The clusters which are studied include Virgo, A 119, A 400, A 1656 (Coma), A 2147, A 2151 (Hercules), A 2197, and A 2199. Selected samples of these data are used to investigate systematic alignment effects in clusters of galaxies and to investigate the intrinsic ellipticities of E, SO, and spiral galaxies. The following new results are reported: Galaxies in the cluster A 2197 show a significant alignment effect (chi 2 probability less than 0.0002), and the preferential direction of alignment corresponds approximately to the major axis of the overall cluster elongation. None of the other seven clusters show any significant alignment trends. The spiral galaxy samples in four clusters (Virgo, A 1656, A 2151, and A 2197) were large enough to analyze the number distributions of forward and reverse winding spirals. Large and small spiral galaxies have identical ellipticity distributions. Large E and SO galaxies tend to be more spherical, and small E and SO galaxies more flattened. The intrinsic ellipticities of E, SO, and spiral galaxies are the same for galaxies in the ''field'' and for galaxies in rich clusters. Six models of galaxy formation are reviewed, and the major []mphasis is placed on how each model explains the origin of galaxy angular momentum. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  7. The Singing Cymbal: Is It Really Photon Momentum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Samantha; Etchenique, Nikki; Moore, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    A simple demonstration that is occasionally used in the classroom to show that light carries momentum involves making an orchestral cymbal audibly ring using light from a common photoflash. A metal plate or a piece of foil can also be used; however, it appears that many people use a cymbal because the sound is easily heard at a reasonable…

  8. Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Shao, Linbo; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Yi, Xu; Wiersig, Jan; Wang, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Lončar, Marko; Yang, Lan; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-10-20

    The law of momentum conservation rules out many desired processes in optical microresonators. We report broadband momentum transformations of light in asymmetric whispering gallery microresonators. Assisted by chaotic motions, broadband light can travel between optical modes with different angular momenta within a few picoseconds. Efficient coupling from visible to near-infrared bands is demonstrated between a nanowaveguide and whispering gallery modes with quality factors exceeding 10 million. The broadband momentum transformation enhances the device conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic generation by greater than three orders of magnitude over the conventional evanescent-wave coupling. The observed broadband and fast momentum transformation could promote applications such as multicolor lasers, broadband memories, and multiwavelength optical networks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Shao, Linbo; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Yi, Xu; Wiersig, Jan; Wang, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Lončar, Marko; Yang, Lan; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-10-01

    The law of momentum conservation rules out many desired processes in optical microresonators. We report broadband momentum transformations of light in asymmetric whispering gallery microresonators. Assisted by chaotic motions, broadband light can travel between optical modes with different angular momenta within a few picoseconds. Efficient coupling from visible to near-infrared bands is demonstrated between a nanowaveguide and whispering gallery modes with quality factors exceeding 10 million. The broadband momentum transformation enhances the device conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic generation by greater than three orders of magnitude over the conventional evanescent-wave coupling. The observed broadband and fast momentum transformation could promote applications such as multicolor lasers, broadband memories, and multiwavelength optical networks.

  10. Hydrogen gains further momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    As first industrial production projects should become a reality in the next few years, hydrogen as a source of energy will find important applications with mobility, which momentum is rapid and irresistible. Next steps will be the (large capacity) storage of hydrogen associated to power-to-gas systems and the generalization of renewable energies. This document presents 5 articles, which themes are: Description and explanation of the process of hydrogen production; Presentation of the H2V project for the construction, in Normandy, of the first operational industrial hydrogen production plant using electric power 100 pc generated by renewable energies; The conversion of electric power from renewable energies through hydrogen storage and fuel cells for buildings applications (Sylfen project); The development of a reversible fuel cell at Mines-Paris Tech University, that will be adapted to the storage of renewable electric power; Hydrogen as a lever for the development of zero-emission vehicles, from trucks to cars and bicycles

  11. Momentum density maps for molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.P.D.; Brion, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Momentum-space and position-space molecular orbital density functions computed from LCAO-MO-SCF wavefunctions are used to rationalize the shapes of some momentum distributions measured by binary (e,2e) spectroscopy. A set of simple rules is presented which enable one to sketch the momentum density function and the momentum distribution from a knowledge of the position-space wavefunction and the properties and effects of the Fourier Transform and the spherical average. Selected molecular orbitals of H 2 , N 2 and CO 2 are used to illustrate this work

  12. Force As A Momentum Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, Hector A.

    2010-01-01

    Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.

  13. Momentum transfer dependence of generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Neetika [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab (India)

    2016-11-15

    We revisit the model for parametrization of the momentum dependence of nucleon generalized parton distributions in the light of recent MRST measurements of parton distribution functions (A.D. Martin et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 63, 189 (2009)). Our parametrization method with a minimum set of free parameters give a sufficiently good description of data for Dirac and Pauli electromagnetic form factors of proton and neutron at small and intermediate values of momentum transfer. We also calculate the GPDs for up- and down-quarks by decomposing the electromagnetic form factors for the nucleon using the charge and isospin symmetry and also study the evolution of GPDs to a higher scale. We further investigate the transverse charge densities for both the unpolarized and transversely polarized nucleon and compare our results with Kelly's distribution. (orig.)

  14. Hadronic currents in the infinite momentum frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of the transformation properties of hadronic currents in the infinite momentum frame (IMF) is investigated. A general method is proposed to deal with the problem which is based upon the concept of group contraction. The two-dimensional aspects of the IMF description are studied in detail, and the current matrix elements of a three-dimensional Poincare covariant theory are reduced to those of a two-dimensional one. It is explicitlyshown that the covariance group of the two-dimensional theory may either be a 'non-relativistic' (Galilei) group, or a 'relativistic' (Poincare) one depending on the value of a parameter reminiscent of the light velocity in the three-dimensional theory. The value of this parameter cannot be determined by kinematical argument. These results offer a natural generalization of models which assume Galilean symmetry in the infinite momentum frame

  15. Electric dipole moments of light nuclei from {chi}EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Renato [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05314-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    I present recent calculations of EDMs of light nuclei using chiral effective field theory techniques. At leading-order, we argue that they can be expressed in terms of six CP-violating low-energy constants. With our expressions, eventual non-zero measurements of EDMs of deuteron, helion, and triton can be combined to disentangle the different sources of CP-violation.

  16. There are many ways to spin a photon: Half-quantization of a total optical angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Kyle E; Donegan, John F; Eastham, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    The angular momentum of light plays an important role in many areas, from optical trapping to quantum information. In the usual three-dimensional setting, the angular momentum quantum numbers of the photon are integers, in units of the Planck constant ħ . We show that, in reduced dimensions, photons can have a half-integer total angular momentum. We identify a new form of total angular momentum, carried by beams of light, comprising an unequal mixture of spin and orbital contributions. We demonstrate the half-integer quantization of this total angular momentum using noise measurements. We conclude that for light, as is known for electrons, reduced dimensionality allows new forms of quantization.

  17. The momentum distribution inside nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.

    1985-01-01

    Discussions are made on several reactions which can determine the momentum distribution inside nucleus. The first reaction discussed is the high energy heavy ion collision. This reaction involves many nucleons which interact strongly. Therefore, one must be careful for any possible final state interactions. The expression for the single particle momentum distribution is given. And it can be said that the expression is consistent with the description of the energetic neutrons from muon capture by heavy nucleus. The best way to determine the momentum distribution would be the lepton-nucleus scattering since it does not involve the strong interaction in the initial channel. Another reaction discussed is the backward proton production, which is governed by quite complicated reaction processes. Therefore, the determination of the momentum distribution is only indirect. Noverthless, it is found that this reaction presents a very interesting and important information on the momentum distribution. (Aoki, K.)

  18. Momentum confinement at low torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); De Grassie, J S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Budny, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J E [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kramer, G J [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luce, T C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mikkelsen, D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nazikian, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Petty, C C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Politzer, P A [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Scott, S D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Zeeland, M A Van [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Zarnstorff, M C [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized beta {beta}{sub N}, by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q{sub min} show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. GLF23 modeling suggests that the role of E x B shearing is quite different between the two plasmas, which may help to explain the different dependence of the momentum confinement on torque.

  19. Angular momentum of dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurapati, Sushma; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Pustilnik, Simon; Kamphuis, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Mass and specific angular momentum are two fundamental physical parameters of galaxies. We present measurements of the baryonic mass and specific angular momentum of 11 void dwarf galaxies derived from neutral hydrogen (HI) synthesis data. Rotation curves were measured using 3D and 2D tilted ring fitting routines, and the derived curves generally overlap within the error bars, except in the central regions where, as expected, the 3D routines give steeper curves. The specific angular momentum of void dwarfs is found to be high compared to an extrapolation of the trends seen for higher mass bulge-less spirals, but comparable to that of other dwarf irregular galaxies that lie outside of voids. As such, our data show no evidence for a dependence of the specific angular momentum on the large scale environment. Combining our data with the data from the literature, we find a baryonic threshold of ˜109.1 M⊙ for this increase in specific angular momentum. Interestingly, this threshold is very similar to the mass threshold below which the galaxy discs start to become systematically thicker. This provides qualitative support to the suggestion that the thickening of the discs, as well as the increase in specific angular momentum, are both results of a common physical mechanism, such as feedback from star formation. Quantitatively, however, the amount of star formation observed in our dwarfs appears insufficient to produce the observed increase in specific angular momentum. It is hence likely that other processes, such as cold accretion of high angular momentum gas, also play a role in increasing the specific angular momentum.

  20. On the observability of the quark orbital angular momentum distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtoy, Aurore, E-mail: aurore.courtoy@ulg.be [IFPA, AGO Department, Université de Liège, Bât. B5, Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Goldstein, Gary R., E-mail: gary.goldstein@tufts.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Osvaldo Gonzalez Hernandez, J., E-mail: jog4m@virginia.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) – Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Liuti, Simonetta, E-mail: sl4y@virginia.edu [University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati (Italy); Rajan, Abha, E-mail: ar5xc@virginia.edu [University of Virginia – Physics Department, 382 McCormick Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2014-04-04

    We argue that due to parity constraints, the helicity combination of the purely momentum space counterparts of the Wigner distributions – the generalized transverse momentum distributions – that describes the configuration of an unpolarized quark in a longitudinally polarized nucleon can enter the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude only through matrix elements involving a final state interaction. The relevant matrix elements in turn involve light-cone operators projections in the transverse direction, or they appear in the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude at twist three. Orbital angular momentum or the spin structure of the nucleon was a major reason for these various distributions and amplitudes to have been introduced. We show that the twist three contributions associated with orbital angular momentum are related to the target-spin asymmetry in deeply virtual Compton scattering, already measured at HERMES.

  1. Angular momentum from tidal torques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Efstathiou, G.; Cambridge Univ., England)

    1987-01-01

    The origin of the angular momentum of bound objects in large N-body simulations is studied using three sets of models. One model with white-noise initial conditions is analyzed as well as two in which the initial conditions have more power on large scales, as predicted in models with cold dark matter. The growth and distribution of angular momentum in individual objects is studied and it is found that the specific angular momentum distribution of bound clumps increases in a near linear fashion with radius while the orientation of the angular momentum in the inner high-density regions is often poorly correlated with that of the outer parts. It is also found that the dimensionless spin parameter is insensitive to the initial perturbation spectrum and has a median value of about 0.05. 61 references

  2. Lidar Orbital Angular Momentum Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recognition in recent decades that electromagnetic fields have angular momentum (AM) in the form of not only polarization (or spin AM) but also orbital (OAM) has...

  3. Angular Momentum in Dwarf Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Popolo A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the “angular momentum catastrophe” in the framework of interaction among baryons and dark matter through dynamical friction. By means of Del Popolo (2009 model we simulate 14 galaxies similar to those investigated by van den Bosch, Burkert and Swaters (2001, and calculate the distribution of their spin parameters and the angular momenta. Our model gives the angular momentum distribution which is in agreement with the van den Bosch et al. observations. Our result shows that the “angular momentum catastrophe” can be naturally solved in a model that takes into account the baryonic physics and the exchange of energy and angular momentum between the baryonic clumps and dark matter through dynamical friction.

  4. Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I will review  the recent progress in understanding Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution focusing on effects that go beyond the point-like approximation for the Higgs-glue interaction vertex.

  5. Forecast Accuracy Uncertainty and Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Han; Dong Hong; Mitch Warachka

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that stock price momentum and earnings momentum can result from uncertainty surrounding the accuracy of cash flow forecasts. Our model has multiple information sources issuing cash flow forecasts for a stock. The investor combines these forecasts into an aggregate cash flow estimate that has minimal mean-squared forecast error. This aggregate estimate weights each cash flow forecast by the estimated accuracy of its issuer, which is obtained from their past forecast errors. Mome...

  6. The transverse momentum of partons in large psub(T) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, M.K.

    1977-11-01

    An approximate method is used to investigate the effects of parton transverse momentum in large psub(T) particle production within the framework of hard scattering models. An approximate expression is derived for the mean bias towards the trigger of each of the two participating partons and it is found that event by event one of the partons is biased more than the other, even with a 90 0 trigger. The transverse momentum of partons and their closely related off mass shell behaviour are treated as a perturbation in the equation for the single particle inclusive cross-section, which is then expanded in a Taylor series. The first non-zero correction term is calculated and it is found that to this order, the cross-section is increased by parton transverse momentum effects by typically a factor of 2 for psub(T) = 2 to 3 GeV/c, and that the correction decreases rapidly with increasing psub(T). (author)

  7. Momentum Confinement at Low Torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, W.M.; Burrell, K.H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Budny, R.; Groebner, R.J.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Kinsey, J.E.; Kramer, G.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Mikkelsen, D.; Nazikian, R.; Petty, C.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Scott, S.D.; Van Zeeland, M.A.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized β N , by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co-neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q min show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. The relative importance of E x B shearing between the two is modeled using GLF23 and may suggest a possible explanation.

  8. Chirality and angular momentum in optical radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Matt M.; Andrews, David L.

    2012-06-01

    This paper develops, in precise quantum electrodynamic terms, photonic attributes of the “optical chirality density,” one of several measures long known to be conserved quantities for a vacuum electromagnetic field. The analysis lends insights into some recent interpretations of chiroptical experiments, in which this measure, and an associated chirality flux, have been treated as representing physically distinctive “superchiral” phenomena. In the fully quantized formalism the chirality density is promoted to operator status, whose exploration with reference to an arbitrary polarization basis reveals relationships to optical angular momentum and helicity operators. Analyzing multimode beams with complex wave-front structures, notably Laguerre-Gaussian modes, affords a deeper understanding of the interplay between optical chirality and optical angular momentum. By developing theory with due cognizance of the photonic character of light, it emerges that only the spin-angular momentum of light is engaged in such observations. Furthermore, it is shown that these prominent measures of the helicity of chiral electromagnetic radiation have a common basis in differences between the populations of optical modes associated with angular momenta of opposite sign. Using a calculation of the rate of circular dichroism as an example, with coherent states to model the electromagnetic field, it is discovered that two terms contribute to the differential effect. The primary contribution relates to the difference in left- and right-handed photon populations; the only other contribution, which displays a sinusoidal distance dependence corresponding to the claim of nodal enhancements, is connected with the quantum photon number-phase uncertainty relation. From the full analysis, it appears that the term “superchiral” can be considered redundant.

  9. Mathematical model for the contribution of individual organs to non-zero y-intercepts in single and multi-compartment linear models of whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiyala, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models for the dependence of energy expenditure (EE) on body mass and composition are essential tools in metabolic phenotyping. EE scales over broad ranges of body mass as a non-linear allometric function. When considered within restricted ranges of body mass, however, allometric EE curves exhibit 'local linearity.' Indeed, modern EE analysis makes extensive use of linear models. Such models typically involve one or two body mass compartments (e.g., fat free mass and fat mass). Importantly, linear EE models typically involve a non-zero (usually positive) y-intercept term of uncertain origin, a recurring theme in discussions of EE analysis and a source of confounding in traditional ratio-based EE normalization. Emerging linear model approaches quantify whole-body resting EE (REE) in terms of individual organ masses (e.g., liver, kidneys, heart, brain). Proponents of individual organ REE modeling hypothesize that multi-organ linear models may eliminate non-zero y-intercepts. This could have advantages in adjusting REE for body mass and composition. Studies reveal that individual organ REE is an allometric function of total body mass. I exploit first-order Taylor linearization of individual organ REEs to model the manner in which individual organs contribute to whole-body REE and to the non-zero y-intercept in linear REE models. The model predicts that REE analysis at the individual organ-tissue level will not eliminate intercept terms. I demonstrate that the parameters of a linear EE equation can be transformed into the parameters of the underlying 'latent' allometric equation. This permits estimates of the allometric scaling of EE in a diverse variety of physiological states that are not represented in the allometric EE literature but are well represented by published linear EE analyses.

  10. Gravitational Field of Ultrarelativistic Objects with Angular Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursaev, Dmitri V

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of recently found gyraton metrics which describe the gravitational field of objects having an angular momentum and moving with the velocity of light is given. The gyraton metrics belong to a class of exact plane wave solutions of four and higher dimensional Einstein equations in vacuum or in the presence of a negative cosmological constant

  11. Gravitational Field of Ultrarelativistic Objects with Angular Momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursaev, Dmitri V [Dubna International University and Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141 980, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-01

    A brief review of recently found gyraton metrics which describe the gravitational field of objects having an angular momentum and moving with the velocity of light is given. The gyraton metrics belong to a class of exact plane wave solutions of four and higher dimensional Einstein equations in vacuum or in the presence of a negative cosmological constant.

  12. Momentum-Space Josephson Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junpeng; Luo, Xi-Wang; Sun, Kuei; Bersano, Thomas; Gokhroo, Vandna; Mossman, Sean; Engels, Peter; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2018-03-01

    The Josephson effect is a prominent phenomenon of quantum supercurrents that has been widely studied in superconductors and superfluids. Typical Josephson junctions consist of two real-space superconductors (superfluids) coupled through a weak tunneling barrier. Here we propose a momentum-space Josephson junction in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate, where states with two different momenta are coupled through Raman-assisted tunneling. We show that Josephson currents can be induced not only by applying the equivalent of "voltages," but also by tuning tunneling phases. Such tunneling-phase-driven Josephson junctions in momentum space are characterized through both full mean field analysis and a concise two-level model, demonstrating the important role of interactions between atoms. Our scheme provides a platform for experimentally realizing momentum-space Josephson junctions and exploring their applications in quantum-mechanical circuits.

  13. Momentum transport in gyrokinetic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Rico

    2016-07-01

    In this thesis, the gyrokinetic-Vlasov code GKW is used to study turbulent transport, with a focus on radial transport of toroidal momentum. To support the studies on turbulent transport an eigenvalue solver has been implemented into GKW. This allows to find, not only the most unstable mode, but also subdominant modes. Furthermore it is possible to follow the modes in parameter scans. Furthermore, two fundamental mechanisms that can generate an intrinsic rotation have been investigated: profile shearing and the velocity nonlinearity. The study of toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak due to profile shearing reveals that the momentum flux can not be accurately described by the gradient in the turbulent intensity. Consequently, a description using the profile variation is used. A linear model has been developed that is able to reproduce the variations in the momentum flux as the profiles of density and temperature vary, reasonably well. It uses, not only the gradient length of density and temperature profile, but also their derivative, i.e. the second derivative of the logarithm of the temperature and the density profile. It is shown that both first as well as second derivatives contribute to the generation of a momentum flux. A difference between the linear and nonlinear simulations has been found with respect to the behaviour of the momentum flux. In linear simulations the momentum flux is independent of the normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}, whereas it is linear in ρ{sub *} for nonlinear simulations, provided ρ{sub *} is small enough (≤4.10{sup -3}). Nonlinear simulations reveal that the profile shearing can generate an intrinsic rotation comparable to that of current experiments. Under reactor conditions, however, the intrinsic rotation from the profile shearing is expected to be small due to the small normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}

  14. Relativistic analysis of the dielectric Einstein box: Abraham, Minkowski and total energy-momentum tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Tomas; Rubilar, Guillermo F.; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The definition of the momentum of light inside matter is studied. → Fully relativistic analysis of the dielectric 'Einstein box' thought experiment. → Minkowski, Abraham and the total energy-momentum tensors are derived in detail. → Some assumptions hidden in the usual Einstein box argument are identified. → The Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case. - Abstract: We analyse the 'Einstein box' thought experiment and the definition of the momentum of light inside matter. We stress the importance of the total energy-momentum tensor of the closed system (electromagnetic field plus material medium) and derive in detail the relativistic expressions for the Abraham and Minkowski momenta, together with the corresponding balance equations for an isotropic and homogeneous medium. We identify some assumptions hidden in the Einstein box argument, which make it weaker than it is usually recognized. In particular, we show that the Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case.

  15. Automated Angular Momentum Recoupling Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H. T.; Silbar, Richard R.

    1992-04-01

    We present a set of heuristic rules for algebraic solution of angular momentum recoupling problems. The general problem reduces to that of finding an optimal path from one binary tree (representing the angular momentum coupling scheme for the reduced matrix element) to another (representing the sub-integrals and spin sums to be done). The method lends itself to implementation on a microcomputer, and we have developed such an implementation using a dialect of LISP. We describe both how our code, called RACAH, works and how it appears to the user. We illustrate the use of RACAH for several transition and scattering amplitude matrix elements occurring in atomic, nuclear, and particle physics.

  16. Momentum anisotropy at freeze out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, S.; Borghini, N.; Lang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The transition from a hydrodynamical modeling to a particle-based approach is a crucial element of the description of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Assuming this “freeze out” happens instantaneously at each point of the expanding medium, we show that the local phase-space distribution of the emitted particles is asymmetric in momentum space. This suggests the use of anisotropic hydrodynamics for the last stages of the fluid evolution. We discuss how observables depend on the amount of momentum-space anisotropy at freeze out and how smaller or larger anisotropies allow for different values of the freeze-out temperature. (paper)

  17. Bound-state momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Y.; Redish, E.F.; Wall, N.S.

    1977-01-01

    Proposed forms for nuclear momentum distributions are investigated. Calculations of (p,p') reactions using those forms are done in a plane-wave impulse approximation at angles where the quasielastic peak is seen and also at back angles. The parameters used are derived from (e,e') data, where the nuclear momenta probed overlap with those of the low angle (p,p') experiment. Although there is reasonable agreement for the (p,p') data at 180 0 , the inclusion of distortion necessitates a different parameter set to obtain agreement for the quasifree process. We conclude that the (p,p') reaction cannot be readily understood with a simple momentum distribution

  18. Overview of toroidal momentum transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, A.G.; Hornsby, W.A.; Angioni, C.; Hein, T.; Kluy, N.; Strintzi, D.; Tardini, G.; Bortolon, A.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F.J.; Snodin, A.P.; Szepesi, G.; Duval, B.; Fiederspiel, L.; Idomura, Y.; Mantica, P.; Parra, F.I.; Tala, T.; De Vries, P.; Weiland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Toroidal momentum transport mechanisms are reviewed and put in a broader perspective. The generation of a finite momentum flux is closely related to the breaking of symmetry (parity) along the field. The symmetry argument allows for the systematic identification of possible transport mechanisms. Those that appear to lowest order in the normalized Larmor radius (the diagonal part, Coriolis pinch, E x B shearing, particle flux, and up-down asymmetric equilibria) are reasonably well understood. At higher order, expected to be of importance in the plasma edge, the theory is still under development.

  19. On the Dynamics and Control of Free-floating Space Manipulator Systems in the Presence of Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Nanos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control of free-floating space manipulator systems with non-zero angular momentum (NZAM, for both motions in the joint and Cartesian space, is studied. Considering NZAM, dynamic models in the joint and Cartesian space are derived. It is shown that the NZAM has a similar result to the effect of gravity in terrestrial fixed base manipulators. Based on these similarities, the application of controllers similar to the ones used for the compensation of gravity in terrestrial fixed base manipulators is proposed here to compensate the effect of angular momentum. To confirm the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop systems, some structural properties of the dynamic models must be satisfied. It is shown that despite the presence of angular momentum, these structural properties still apply. Thus, the proposed controllers can drive the system in the desired position despite the presence of angular momentum. However, the NZAM imposes constraints on the system workspace, where the end-effector can be driven in the Cartesian space. Limitations are discussed and the application of the proposed controllers is illustrated by examples.

  20. Angular Momentum and Galaxy Formation Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael

    2012-12-01

    Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j sstarf and mass M sstarf (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j sstarf reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j sstarf in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of ~100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j sstarf versus M sstarf. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j sstarf-M sstarf tracks, with log-slopes of ~0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of ~3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and ~7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j sstarf-M sstarf trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j sstarf

  1. Parton distributions from lattice QCD with momentum smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, Constantia [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, Nicosia (Cyprus). Cyprus Inst.; Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Constantinou, Martha [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda; Wiese, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-01-15

    In this work we continue our effort to explore a recent proposal, which allows light-cone distributions to be extracted from purely spatial correlations, being thus accessible to lattice methods. In order to test the feasibility of this method, we present our latest results from a twisted mass lattice calculation of the flavor non-singlet momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of the nucleon. Furthermore, we apply a newly proposed momentum improved smearing, which has the potential to reach higher nucleon momenta as required for a safe matching procedure to the physical distribution functions.

  2. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  3. Angular momentum projection with Pfaffian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments to rewrite the Onishi formula for an evaluation of the so-called norm overlap kernel necessary in angular momentum projection are to be discussed. The essential ingredients in the development, that is, the Fermion coherent states, the Grassmann numbers, and the Pfaffian, are explained. (author)

  4. Representational Momentum in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Andrea S.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion--a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of…

  5. Relativistic meson spectroscopy in momentum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersbach, H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a relativistic constituent-quark model based on the Ruijgrok--de Groot formalism is presented. The quark model is not defined in configuration space, but in momentum space. The complete meson spectrum, with the exception of the self-conjugate light unflavored mesons, is calculated. The potential used consists of a one-gluon exchange (OGE) part and a confining part. For the confining part a relativistic generalization of the linear plus constant potential was used, which is well defined in momentum space without introducing any singularities. For the OGE part several potentials were investigated. Retardations were included at all places. By the use of a fitting procedure involving 52 well-established mesons, but results were obtained for a potential consisting of a purely vector Richardson potential and a purely scalar confining potential. Reasonable results were also obtained for a modified Richardson potential. Most meson masses, with the exception of the π, the K, and the K 0 * , were found to be quite well described by the model

  6. Angular momentum in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The definition of angular momentum proposed in part I of this series (Prior. Proc. R. Soc. Lond.; A354:379 (1977)) is investigated when applied to rotating black holes. It is shown how to use the formula to evaluate the angular momentum of a stationary black hole. This acts as a description of a background space on which the effect of first matter and then gravitational perturbations is considered. The latter are of most interest and the rate of change of angular momentum, dJ/dt, is found as an expression in the shear induced in the event horizon by the perturbation and in its time integral. Teukolsky's solutions (Astrophys. J.; 185:635 (1973)) for the perturbed component of the Weyl tensor are then used to find this shear and hence to give an exact answer for dJ/dt. One of the implications of the result is a direct verification of Bekenstein's formula (Phys. Rev.; 7D:949 (1973)) relating in a simple way the rate of change of angular momentum to the rate of change of mass caused by a plane wave. A more general expression is also given for dM/dt. Considering only stationary perturbations, it is shown how to generalize the definition of angular momentum so as to include information about its direction as well. Three problems are particularly discussed - a single moon, two or more moons and a ring of matter causing the perturbation - since they provide illustrations of all the main features of the black hole's behaviour. In every case it is found that the black hole realigns its axis of rotation so that the final configuration is axisymmetric if possible; otherwise is slows down completely to reach a static state. (author)

  7. Analogies between optical and quantum mechanical angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Gerard

    2017-02-28

    The insight that a beam of light can carry orbital angular momentum (AM) in its propagation direction came up in 1992 as a surprise. Nevertheless, the existence of momentum and AM of an electromagnetic field has been well known since the days of Maxwell. We compare the expressions for densities of AM in general three-dimensional modes and in paraxial modes. Despite their classical nature, these expressions have a suggestive quantum mechanical appearance, in terms of linear operators acting on mode functions. In addition, paraxial wave optics has several analogies with real quantum mechanics, both with the wave function of a free quantum particle and with a quantum harmonic oscillator. We discuss how these analogies can be applied.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Energy, momentum and angular momentum conservations in de Sitter gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jia-An

    2016-01-01

    In de Sitter (dS) gravity, where gravity is a gauge field introduced to realize the local dS invariance of the matter field, two kinds of conservation laws are derived. The first kind is a differential equation for a dS-covariant current, which unites the canonical energy-momentum (EM) and angular momentum (AM) tensors. The second kind presents a dS-invariant current which is conserved in the sense that its torsion-free divergence vanishes. The dS-invariant current unites the total (matter plus gravity) EM and AM currents. It is well known that the AM current contains an inherent part, called the spin current. Here it is shown that the EM tensor also contains an inherent part, which might be observed by its contribution to the deviation of the dust particle’s world line from a geodesic. All the results are compared to the ordinary Lorentz gravity. (paper)

  9. Turbulence induced radial transport of toroidal momentum in boundary plasma of EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, N.; Yan, N.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wang, L.; Ding, S. Y.; Chen, R.; Chen, L.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Shao, L. M.; Wang, Z. X.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence induced toroidal momentum transport in boundary plasma is investigated in H-mode discharge using Langmuir-Mach probes on EAST. The Reynolds stress is found to drive an inward toroidal momentum transport, while the outflow of particles convects the toroidal momentum outwards in the edge plasma. The Reynolds stress driven momentum transport dominates over the passive momentum transport carried by particle flux, which potentially provides a momentum source for the edge plasma. The outflow of particles delivers a momentum flux into the scrape-off layer (SOL) region, contributing as a momentum source for the SOL flows. At the L-H transitions, the outward momentum transport suddenly decreases due to the suppression of edge turbulence and associated particle transport. The SOL flows start to decelerate as plasma entering into H-mode. The contributions from turbulent Reynolds stress and particle transport for the toroidal momentum transport are identified. These results shed lights on the understanding of edge plasma accelerating at L-H transitions.

  10. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated

  11. Momentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsbek, Lisa; Tønder, Esben Sandvik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the pilot study was to examine the use of a smartphone application as a modern decision aid to support shared decision making in mental health. METHOD: 78 people using mental health services and 116 of their providers participated in a 4-month pilot study. At the end...... FOR PRACTICE: The results indicate the relevance of using modern technology to support shared decision making (SDM) and the recovery model, though raise the question of how the actual use in the study is to be understood. The study thereby points to a need of further research into the understanding...... relating to the power asymmetry between people using mental health services and staff. Contrary to our hypothesis that peer support would be crucial, the use of the application was most widespread when it was presented to consumers by providers who found it was a useful tool. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS...

  12. Field momentum, inertial momentum and gravitational momentum of a system of bodies in the post-Newtonian approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankiewicz, Cz; Sikora, D [Wyzsza Szkola Pedagogiczna, Rzeszow (Poland)

    1980-01-01

    It is shwon that in the post-Newtonian approximation the gravitational momentum of a system of point particles is equal to the sum of field momentum and inertial momentum only in two classes of coordinate systems. This equality may be treated as a natural condition on a coordinate system in which the generally covariant Einstein equations are to be solved.

  13. Angular momentum in QGP holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett McInnes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quark chemical potential is one of the fundamental parameters describing the quark–gluon plasma produced by sufficiently energetic heavy-ion collisions. It is not large at the extremely high temperatures probed by the LHC, but it plays a key role in discussions of the beam energy scan programmes at the RHIC and other facilities. On the other hand, collisions at such energies typically (that is, in peripheral collisions give rise to very high values of the angular momentum density. Here we explain that holographic estimates of the quark chemical potential of a rotating sample of plasma can be very considerably improved by taking the angular momentum into account.

  14. Angular momentum content of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaya, E.J.; Tully, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    A schema of galaxy formation is developed in which the environmental influence of large-scale structure plays a dominant role. This schema was motivated by the observation that the fraction of E and S0 galaxies is much higher in clusters than in low-density regions and by an inference that those spirals that are found in clusters probably have fallen in relatively recently from the low-density regions. It is proposed that the tidal field of the Local Supercluster acts to determine the morphology of galaxies through two complementary mechanisms. In the first place, the supercluster can apply torques to protogalaxies. Galaxies which collapsed while expanding away from the central cluster decoupled from the external tidal field and conserved the angular momentum that they acquired before collapse. Galaxies which formed in the cluster while the cluster collapsed continued to feel the tidal field. In the latter case, the spin of outer collapsing layers can be halted and reversed, and tends to cancel the spin of inner layers. The result is a reduction of the total angular momentum content of the galaxy. In addition, the supercluster tidal field can regulate accretion of fresh material onto the galaxies since the field creates a Roche limit about galaxies and material beyond this limit is lost. Any material that has not collapsed onto a galaxy by the time the galaxy falls into a cluster will be tidally stripped. The angular momentum content of that part of the protogalactic cloud which has not yet collapsed . continues to grow linearly with time due to the continued torquing by the supercluster and neighbors. Galaxies at large distances from the cluster core can continue to accrete this high angular momentum material until the present, but galaxies that enter the cluster are cut off from replenishing material

  15. Blade-element/momentum theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    Although there exists a large variety of methods for predicting performance and loadings of wind turbines, the only approach used today by wind turbine manufacturers is based on the blade-element/momentum (BEM) theory by Glauert (Aerodynamic theory. Springer, Berlin, pp. 169-360, 1935). A basic...... assumption in the BEM theory is that the flow takes place in independent stream tubes and that the loading is determined from two-dimensional sectional airfoil characteristics....

  16. Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    asymmetry for a longitudinally polarized target in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. Keywords. .... integrate out ξ and perform the momentum integration over the diquark momentum ...... [53] European Muon: M Arneodo et al, Z. Phys. C34 ...

  17. Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.

    1977-05-01

    The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given

  18. Transverse Momentum Distributions for Heavy Quark Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Edmond L.; Meng, Ruibin

    1993-01-01

    We study the transverse momentum distribution for a $pair$ of heavy quarks produced in hadron-hadron interactions. Predictions for the large transverse momentum region are based on exact order $\\alpha_s^3$ QCD perturbation theory. For the small transverse momentum region, we use techniques for all orders resummation of leading logarithmic contributions associated with initial state soft gluon radiation. The combination provides the transverse momentum distribution of heavy quark pairs for all...

  19. Momentum in Transformation of Technical Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Current infrastructure holds a considerable momentum and this momentum is a barrier of transformation towards more sustainable technologies and more sustainable styles of network management. Using the sewage sector in Denmark as an example of a technical infrastructure system this paper argues...... that there are technical, economical and social aspects of the current infrastructures momentum....

  20. Wigner Functions and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Asmita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wigner distributions contain combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs. We report on a recent model calculation of the Wigner distributions for the quark and their relation to the orbital angular momentum.

  1. Wigner Functions and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Asmita; Nair, Sreeraj; Ojha, Vikash Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Wigner distributions contain combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs). We report on a recent model calculation of the Wigner distributions for the quark and their relation to the orbital angular momentum.

  2. Angular-momentum transport in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolschin, G.; Ayik, S.; Noerenberg, W.

    1978-01-01

    Among the various relaxation processes that can be observed in heavy-ion collisions, the dissipation of relative angular momentum into intrinsic angular momentum of the fragments attracts increasing attention. Here we present a transport theoretical description of angular-momentum and mass transport that allows for a transparent interpretation of the data. (orig.) [de

  3. Detecting Lateral Motion using Light’s Orbital Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijetic, Neda; Milione, Giovanni; Ip, Ezra; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Interrogating an object with a light beam and analyzing the scattered light can reveal kinematic information about the object, which is vital for applications ranging from autonomous vehicles to gesture recognition and virtual reality. We show that by analyzing the change in the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a tilted light beam eclipsed by a moving object, lateral motion of the object can be detected in an arbitrary direction using a single light beam and without object image reconstruction. We observe OAM spectral asymmetry that corresponds to the lateral motion direction along an arbitrary axis perpendicular to the plane containing the light beam and OAM measurement axes. These findings extend OAM-based remote sensing to detection of non-rotational qualities of objects and may also have extensions to other electromagnetic wave regimes, including radio and sound. PMID:26493681

  4. An equivalence between momentum and charge in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, J.H.; Horowitz, G.T.; Steif, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that for a translationally invariant solution to string theory, spacetime duality interchanges the momentum in the symmetry direction and the axion charge per unit length. As one application, we show explicitly that charged black strings are equivalent to boosted (uncharged) black strings. The extremal black strings (which correspond to the field outside of a fundamental macroscopic string) are equivalent to plane-fronted waves describing strings moving at the speed of light

  5. ICNTS. Benchmarking of momentum correction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beidler, Craig D.; Isaev, Maxim Yu.; Kasilov, Sergei V.

    2008-01-01

    In the traditional neoclassical ordering, mono-energetic transport coefficients are evaluated using the simplified Lorentz form of the pitch-angle collision operator which violates momentum conservation. In this paper, the parallel momentum balance with radial parallel momentum transport and viscosity terms is analysed, in particular with respect to the radial electric field. Next, the impact of momentum conservation in the stellarator lmfp-regime is estimated for the radial transport and the parallel electric conductivity. Finally, momentum correction techniques are described based on mono-energetic transport coefficients calculated e.g. by the DKES code, and preliminary results for the parallel electric conductivity and the bootstrap current are presented. (author)

  6. On the Classical and Quantum Momentum Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, Chiara

    In this thesis we study the classical and quantum momentum maps and the theory of reduction. We focus on the notion of momentum map in Poisson geometry and we discuss the classification of the momentum map in this framework. Furthermore, we describe the so-called Poisson Reduction, a technique...... that allows us to reduce the dimension of a manifold in presence of symmetries implemented by Poisson actions. Using techniques of deformation quantization and quantum groups, we introduce the quantum momentum map as a deformation of the classical momentum map, constructed in such a way that it factorizes...

  7. Recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.; Doerner, R.; Jagutzki, O.; Mergel, V.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Spielberger, L.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) is a novel technique to determine the charge state and the complete final momentum vector P R of a recoiling target ion emerging from an ionising collision of an atom with any kind of radiation. It offers a unique combination of superior momentum resolution in all three spatial directions of ΔP R = 0.07 a.u. with a large detection solid angle of ΔΩ R /4π≥ 98%. Recently, low-energy electron analysers based on rigorously new concepts and reaching similar specifications were successfully integrated into RIM spectrometers yielding so-called ''reaction microscopes''. Exploiting these techniques, a large variety of atomic reactions for ion, electron, photon and antiproton impact have been explored in unprecedented detail and completeness. Among them first kinematically complete experiments on electron capture, single and double ionisation in ion-atom collisions at projectile energies between 5 keV and 1.4 GeV. Double photoionisation of He has been investigated at energies E γ close to the threshold (E γ = 80 eV) up to E γ = 58 keV. At E γ >8 keV the contributions to double ionisation after photoabsorption and Compton scattering were kinematically separated for the first time. These and many other results will be reviewed in this article. In addition, the experimental technique is described in some detail and emphasis is given to envisage the rich future potential of the method in various fields of atomic collision physics with atoms, molecules and clusters. (orig.)

  8. Workshop on momentum distributions: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    This has been an extraordinary Workshop touching many branches of physics. The Workshop has treated momentum distributions in fluid and solid condensed matter, in nuclei, and in electronic systems. Both theoretical and experimental concepts and methods have been considered in all these branches. A variety of specific illustrations and applications in physical systems have been presented. One finds that some common unifying themes emerge. One finds, also, that some examples are available to illustrate where one branch is more mature than others and to contrast where expectations for future progress may be most encouraged. 6 refs., 2 figs

  9. Large transverse momentum hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, P.

    1977-01-01

    The possible relations between deep inelastic leptoproduction and large transverse momentum (psub(t)) processes in hadronic collisions are usually considered in the framework of the quark-parton picture. Experiments observing the structure of the final state in proton-proton collisions producing at least one large transverse momentum particle have led to the following conclusions: a large fraction of produced particles are uneffected by the large psub(t) process. The other products are correlated to the large psub(t) particle. Depending upon the sign of scalar product they can be separated into two groups of ''towards-movers'' and ''away-movers''. The experimental evidence are reviewed favouring such a picture and the properties are discussed of each of three groups (underlying normal event, towards-movers and away-movers). Some phenomenological interpretations are presented. The exact nature of away- and towards-movers must be further investigated. Their apparent jet structure has to be confirmed. Angular correlations between leading away and towards movers are very informative. Quantum number flow, both within the set of away and towards-movers, and between it and the underlying normal event, are predicted to behave very differently in different models

  10. Generation of angular-momentum-dominated electron beams from a photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yin-E.; Piot, Philippe; Kim, Kwang-Je; Barov, Nikolas; Lidia, Steven; Santucci, James; Tikhoplav, Rodion; Wennerberg, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Various projects under study require an angular-momentum-dominated electron beam generated by a photoinjector. Some of the proposals directly use the angular-momentum-dominated beams (e.g. electron cooling of heavy ions), while others require the beam to be transformed into a flat beam (e.g. possible electron injectors for light sources and linear colliders). In this paper, we report our experimental study of an angular-momentum-dominated beam produced in a photoinjector, addressing the dependencies of angular momentum on initial conditions. We also briefly discuss the removal of angular momentum. The results of the experiment, carried out at the Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory, are found to be in good agreement with theoretical and numerical models

  11. Numerical evaluation of one-loop diagrams near exceptional momentum configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giele, Walter T.; Zanderighi, Giulia; Glover, E.W.N.

    2004-01-01

    One problem which plagues the numerical evaluation of one-loop Feynman diagrams using recursive integration by part relations is a numerical instability near exceptional momentum configurations. In this contribution we will discuss a generic solution to this problem. As an example we consider the case of forward light-by-light scattering

  12. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  13. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  14. Orbital angular momentum in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L.L.; Klimov, A.B.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose a comprehensive Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum. → We present a simple and useful toolkit for the practitioner. → We derive simple evolution equations in terms of a star product in the semiclassical limit. - Abstract: A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.

  15. Momentum management strategy during Space Station buildup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lynda; Malchow, Harvey; Hattis, Philip

    1988-01-01

    The use of momentum storage devices to control effectors for Space Station attitude control throughout the buildup sequence is discussed. Particular attention is given to the problem of providing satisfactory management of momentum storage effectors throughout buildup while experiencing variable torque loading. Continuous and discrete control strategies are compared and the effects of alternative control moment gyro strategies on peak momentum storage requirements and on commanded maneuver characteristics are described.

  16. A Monte Carlo study on event-by-event transverse momentum fluctuation at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingmei

    2005-01-01

    The experimental observation on the multiplicity dependence of event-by-event transverse momentum fluctuation in relativistic heavy ion collisions is studied using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the Monte Carlo generator HIJING is unable to describe the experimental phenomenon well. A simple Monte Carlo model is proposed, which can recover the data and thus shed some light on the dynamical origin of the multiplicity dependence of event-by-event transverse momentum fluctuation. (authors)

  17. A Study of Large Transverse Momentum Phenomena

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment studies the structure of those p-p and @*-p collisions which are characterized by a very high transverse momentum flow in the central region. Some specific items studied are:\\\\ \\\\ \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is shared by charged and neutral hadron (``jets''). Transverse momentum distribution, correlations and momentum balance for such events. \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is mostly carried by one identified particle. Quantum number dependence and quantum number correlations of the high transverse momentum events. \\item -~~Structure of events containing large transverse momentum leptons or lepton pairs or direct photons. \\end{enumerate}.sk -~~Study of low momentum electrons and photons. -~~Search for gluonium states. -~~Search for new and rare particles. \\\\ \\\\ A conventional C-type magnet with a 0.5 T field in the direction of the beams together with a 42-layer cylindrical drift chamber detector is used for momentum analysi...

  18. Angular-momentum effects in subbarrier fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbert, M.L.; Beene, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    It has been known since about 1980 that fusion of heavy ions is greatly enhanced below the Coulomb barrier compared with normal barrier-penetration expectations. The excitation function for fusion of 64 Ni + 100 Mo measured in collaboration with a group at Washington University shows the effect clearly. The barrier energy is about 142 MeV; the lowest point is at about 90% of the barrier energy. The dotted curve is the prediction of a one-dimensional-barrier-penetration calculation of a type that reproduces the fusion of light projectiles very well. Several theoretical approaches have been successful in explaining the enhancement seen in much of the excitation-function data, but it cannot be said that a full understanding of the physics is in hand even after more than a decade of hard work. In fact, the reasonable success of several rather different models shows that the underlying phenomena are not well understood. Other types of data might be helpful in distinguishing among the many different theoretical approaches. An important kind of information not measured in most of the experiments is the dependence on ell, the angular momentum of the fusing system. We obtained such information on the cross sections, σ ell, as a function of ell for the fusion of 64 Ni and 100 Mo using the Spin Spectrometer. This paper will first review the experimental method and data and then present results from a more sophisticated analysis of the same data

  19. Quantitative measurement of the orbital angular momentum density of light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available of the azimuthal mode index, n, on LCD1 is equiva- lent to n on LCD2. If the reader wishes to orientate the experimental setup differently, such that the two SLMs have the same orientation (i.e., are not mirror images of each other), the complex conjugate... measurement, is separated into two parts: (1) the generation of the optical field and (2) the mea- surement of the OAM density, which is achieved by performing a modal decomposition of the opti- cal field. A. Symmetric Superposition of Two Bessel Beams...

  20. Superpositions of light fields carrying orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available -Zehnder interferometer to mimic an amplitude damping channel for OAM states in chapter 3. Our device is useful in modelling a ?lossy? environment for OAM states. In chapter 4 we develop a new technique for the generation of superimposed Bessel beams through the use... modulators.....................................................................................25 2.4. Spiral holograms................................................................................................29 2.4.1. Off-axis spiral holograms...

  1. Implementing quantum walks using orbital angular momentum of classical light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goyal, SK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available –5]. This speed up gained in quantum walks promises ad- vantages when applied in quantum computation for cer- tain classes of quantum algorithms [6], for example, quan- tum search algorithms [7, 8]. Quantum walks have also been used to analyze energy transport...

  2. Analysis of angular momentum properties of photons emitted in fundamental atomic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, V. A.; Surzhykov, A. S.; Shabaev, V. M.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2018-04-01

    Many atomic processes result in the emission of photons. Analysis of the properties of emitted photons, such as energy and angular distribution as well as polarization, is regarded as a powerful tool for gaining more insight into the physics of corresponding processes. Another characteristic of light is the projection of its angular momentum upon propagation direction. This property has attracted a special attention over the past decades due to studies of twisted (or vortex) light beams. Measurements being sensitive to this projection may provide valuable information about the role of angular momentum in the fundamental atomic processes. Here we describe a simple theoretical method for determination of the angular momentum properties of the photons emitted in various atomic processes. This method is based on the evaluation of expectation value of the total angular momentum projection operator. To illustrate the method, we apply it to the textbook examples of plane-wave, spherical-wave, and Bessel light. Moreover, we investigate the projection of angular momentum for the photons emitted in the process of the radiative recombination with ionic targets. It is found that the recombination photons do carry a nonzero projection of the orbital angular momentum.

  3. Momentum conservation decides Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelidis, T.D.

    1977-01-01

    In the light of Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas, the conditions necessary for the derivation of the quantitative statement or law of momentum conservation are considered. The result of such considerations is a contradiction between the formalism of quantum physics and the asserted consequences of Heisenberg's interpretation. This contradiction decides against Heisenberg's interpretation of the uncertainty formulas on upholding that the formalism of quantum physics is both consistent and complete, at least insofar as the statement of momentum conservation can be proved within this formalism. A few comments are also included on Bohr's complementarity interpretation of the formalism of quantum physics. A suggestion, based on a statistical mode of empirical testing of the uncertainty formulas, does not give rise to any such contradiction

  4. Transverse momentum distributions of identified particles produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We assume that the transverse momentum distributions of identified particles measured in final state are contributed by a few energy sources which can be regarded as partons or quarks in the interacting system. The particle is contributed by each source with gluons which have transverse momentum distributions in an ...

  5. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  6. Momentum and hamiltonian in complex action theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Frits Bech

    2012-01-01

    $-parametrized wave function, which is a solution to an eigenvalue problem of a momentum operator $\\hat{p}$, in FPI with a starting Lagrangian. Solving the eigenvalue problem, we derive the momentum and Hamiltonian. Oppositely, starting from the Hamiltonian we derive the Lagrangian in FPI, and we are led...

  7. Representational momentum in memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyd, J J; Kelly, M H; DeKay, M L

    1990-11-01

    When a visual pattern is displayed at successively different orientations such that a rotation or translation is implied, an observer's memory for the final position is displaced forward. This phenomenon of representational momentum shares some similarities with physical momentum. For instance, the amount of memory shift is proportional to the implied velocity of the inducing display; representational momentum is specifically proportional to the final, not the average, velocity; representational momentum follows a continuous stopping function for the first 250 ms or so of the retention interval. In a previous paper (Kelly & Freyd, 1987) we demonstrated a forward memory asymmetry using implied changes in pitch, for subjects without formal musical training. In the current paper we replicate our earlier finding and show that the forward memory asymmetry occurs for subjects with formal musical training as well (Experiment 1). We then show the structural similarity between representational momentum in memory for pitch with previous reports of parametric effects using visual stimuli. We report a velocity effect for auditory momentum (Experiment 2), we demonstrate specifically that the velocity effect depends on the implied acceleration (Experiment 3), and we show that the stopping function for auditory momentum is qualitatively the same as that for visual momentum (Experiment 4). We consider the implications of these results for theories of mental representation.

  8. Angular momentum projected wave-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, R.; Haakansson, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    Angular momentum projection has become a vital link between intrinsic model-wavefunctions and the physical states one intends to describe. We discuss in general terms some aspects of angular momentum projection and present results from projection on e.g. cranking wavefunctions. Mass densities and spectroscopic factors are also presented for some cases. (author)

  9. Essays on Momentum Strategies in Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Oord (Arco)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis section briefly summarizes in which way we have investigated momentum in this thesis. In Chapter 2 we alter the momentum strategy to improve its performance, while in Chapter 3 we leave the strategy as is, but aim at improving its performance by hedging. In Chapter 4 we develop a

  10. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Qamar, Sajid; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2016-05-01

    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials is also revealed for partial coherent light fields. Our results on the GH shifts provide a direction on the applications for partial coherent light sources in ENZ metamaterials.

  11. Fragile black holes and an angular momentum cutoff in peripheral heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECs), Valdivia (Chile); National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-08-11

    In collisions of heavy ions at extremely high energies, it is possible for a significant quantity of angular momentum to be deposited into the Quark-Gluon Plasma which is thought to be produced. We develop a simple geometric model of such a system, and show that it is dual, in the AdS/CFT sense, to a rotating AdS black hole with a topologically planar event horizon. However, when this black hole is embedded in string theory, it proves to be unstable, for all non-zero angular momenta, to a certain non-perturbative effect: the familiar planar black hole, as used in most AdS/CFT analyses of QGP physics, is 'fragile'. The upshot is that the AdS/CFT duality apparently predicts that the QGP should always become unstable when it is produced in peripheral collisions. However, we argue that holography indicates that relatively low angular momenta delay the development of the instability, so that in practice it may be observable only for peripheral collisions involving favorable impact parameters, generating extremely large angular momenta. In principle, the result may be holographic prediction of a cutoff for the observable angular momenta of the QGP, or perhaps of an analogous phenomenon in condensed matter physics.

  12. Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim, E-mail: ekarimi@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 Canada (Canada); Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.

  13. Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in ultra-thin metasurfaces with arbitrary topological charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; De Leon, Israel; Schulz, Sebastian A.; Upham, Jeremy; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum associated with the helical phase-front of optical beams provides an unbounded “space” for both classical and quantum communications. Among the different approaches to generate and manipulate orbital angular momentum states of light, coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum allows a faster manipulation of orbital angular momentum states because it depends on manipulating the polarisation state of light, which is simpler and generally faster than manipulating conventional orbital angular momentum generators. In this work, we design and fabricate an ultra-thin spin-to-orbital angular momentum converter, based on plasmonic nano-antennas and operating in the visible wavelength range that is capable of converting spin to an arbitrary value of orbital angular momentum ℓ. The nano-antennas are arranged in an array with a well-defined geometry in the transverse plane of the beam, possessing a specific integer or half-integer topological charge q. When a circularly polarised light beam traverses this metasurface, the output beam polarisation switches handedness and the orbital angular momentum changes in value by ℓ=±2qℏ per photon. We experimentally demonstrate ℓ values ranging from ±1 to ±25 with conversion efficiencies of 8.6% ± 0.4%. Our ultra-thin devices are integratable and thus suitable for applications in quantum communications, quantum computations, and nano-scale sensing.

  14. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Momentum Maps and Stochastic Clebsch Action Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzeiro, Ana Bela; Holm, Darryl D.; Ratiu, Tudor S.

    2018-01-01

    We derive stochastic differential equations whose solutions follow the flow of a stochastic nonlinear Lie algebra operation on a configuration manifold. For this purpose, we develop a stochastic Clebsch action principle, in which the noise couples to the phase space variables through a momentum map. This special coupling simplifies the structure of the resulting stochastic Hamilton equations for the momentum map. In particular, these stochastic Hamilton equations collectivize for Hamiltonians that depend only on the momentum map variable. The Stratonovich equations are derived from the Clebsch variational principle and then converted into Itô form. In comparing the Stratonovich and Itô forms of the stochastic dynamical equations governing the components of the momentum map, we find that the Itô contraction term turns out to be a double Poisson bracket. Finally, we present the stochastic Hamiltonian formulation of the collectivized momentum map dynamics and derive the corresponding Kolmogorov forward and backward equations.

  16. Momentum of the Pure Radiation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The local momentum equation of the pure radiation field is considered in terms of an earlier elaborated and revised electromagnetic theory. In this equation the contribution from the volume force is found to vanish in rectangular geometry, and to become nonzero but negligible in cylindrical geometry. Consequently the radiated momentum is due to the Poynting vector only, as in conventional electrodynamics. It results in physically relevant properties of a photon model having an angular momentum (spin. The Poynting vector concept is further compared to the quantized momentum concept for a free particle, as represented by a spatial gradient operator acting on the wave function. However, this latter otherwise successful concept leads to difficulties in the physical interpretation of known and expected photon properties such as the spin, the negligible loss of transverse momentum across a bounding surface, and the Lorentz invariance.

  17. Physical approach to price momentum and its application to momentum strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaehyung

    2014-12-01

    We introduce various quantitative and mathematical definitions for price momentum of financial instruments. The price momentum is quantified with velocity and mass concepts originated from the momentum in physics. By using the physical momentum of price as a selection criterion, the weekly contrarian strategies are implemented in South Korea KOSPI 200 and US S&P 500 universes. The alternative strategies constructed by the physical momentum achieve the better expected returns and reward-risk measures than those of the traditional contrarian strategy in weekly scale. The portfolio performance is not understood by the Fama-French three-factor model.

  18. Light Trapping with Silicon Light Funnel Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Prajapati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon light funnels are three-dimensional subwavelength structures in the shape of inverted cones with respect to the incoming illumination. Light funnel (LF arrays can serve as efficient absorbing layers on account of their light trapping capabilities, which are associated with the presence of high-density complex Mie modes. Specifically, light funnel arrays exhibit broadband absorption enhancement of the solar spectrum. In the current study, we numerically explore the optical coupling between surface light funnel arrays and the underlying substrates. We show that the absorption in the LF array-substrate complex is higher than the absorption in LF arrays of the same height (~10% increase. This, we suggest, implies that a LF array serves as an efficient surface element that imparts additional momentum components to the impinging illumination, and hence optically excites the substrate by near-field light concentration, excitation of traveling guided modes in the substrate, and mode hybridization.

  19. Transfer of orbital angular momentum to an optically trapped low-index particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces-Chavez, V.; Sibbett, W.; Dholakia, K.; Volke-Sepulveda, K.; Chavez-Cerda, S.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate the transfer of orbital angular momentum from a light beam to a trapped low-index particle. The particle is trapped in a dark annular region of a high-order Bessel beam and rotates around the beam axis due to scattering from the helical wave fronts of the light beam. A general theoretical geometrical optics model is developed that, applied to our specific situation, corroborates tweezing and transfer of orbital angular momentum to the low-index particle. Good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment for particle rotation rates is observed

  20. Renormalization, Wilson lines, and transverse-momentum-dependent parton-distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherednikov, I. O.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2008-01-01

    We perform an analysis of transverse-momentum dependent parton-distribution functions, making use of their renormalization properties in terms of their leading-order anomalous dimensions. We show that the appropriate Wilson line in the light cone gauge, associated with such quantities, is a cusped one at light cone infinity. To cancel the ensuing cusp anomalous dimension, we include in the definition of the transverse-momentum dependent parton-distribution functions an additional soft counter term (gauge link) along that cusped transverse contour. We demonstrate that this is tantamount to an 'intrinsic (Coulomb) phase', which accumulates the full gauge history of the color-charged particle.

  1. Momentum scale in the HARP TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M G; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Soler, F J P; Gössling, C; Bunyatov, S; Krasnoperov, A; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereschenko, V; Di Capua, E; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Meurer, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Ferri, F; Kirsanov, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Mezzetto, M; Dumarchez, J; Dore, U; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Howlett, L; Bogomilov, M; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Novella, P; Sorel, M

    2007-01-01

    Recently a claim was made that the reconstruction of the large angle tracks in the HARP TPC was affected by a momentum bias as large as 15% at 500 MeV/c transverse momentum. In the following we recall the main issues with the momentum measurement in the HARP TPC, and describe the cross-checks made to validate the momentum scale. Proton-proton elastic scattering data off the hydrogen target are used to alibrate the momentum of charged particles with a precision evaluated to be 3.5%. A full description of the time development of the dynamic distortions in the TPC during physics spills is now available together with a correction algorithm. This allows a new cross-check using an enlarged data set made by comparing positive and negative pion elasticscattering data collected with negative polarity of the solenoid magnet. These data confirm the absence of a bias in the sagitta measurement. The dE/dx versus momentum curves are revisited, and shown to provide a confirmation that the HARP momentum calibration is correc...

  2. On the six components of optical angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    In special relativity the angular momentum is a rank-two antisymmetric tensor with six independent components. Three of these are the familiar generators of spatial rotation, which for light have been studied at length. The remaining three, which are responsible for the Lorentz boosts, have largely been neglected. We introduce the latter and compare their properties with those of the more familiar generators of rotations. The seemingly natural separation of the generators of Lorentz boosts into spin and orbital parts fails, however, as the spin part is identically zero

  3. Regaining momentum for international climate policy beyond Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Constanze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 'Copenhagen Accord' fails to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement beyond 2012. The current climate policy regime dynamics are insufficient to reflect the realities of topical complexity, actor coalitions, as well as financial, legal and institutional challenges in the light of extreme time constraints to avoid 'dangerous' climate change of more than 2°C. In this paper we analyze these stumbling blocks for international climate policy and discuss alternatives in order to regain momentum for future negotiations.

  4. Large momentum transfer electron scattering from few-nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1979-08-01

    A review is given of the experimental results from a series of measurements at SLAC of large momentum transfer (Q 2 > 20 fm -2 ) electron scattering at forward angles from nuclei with A less than or equal to 4. Theoretical interpretations of these data in terms of traditional nuclear physics models and in terms of quark constituent models are described. Some physics questions for future experiments are explored, and a preview of possible future measurements of magnetic structure functions of light nuclei at large Q 2 is given

  5. The nucleon spin and momentum decomposition using lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia; Constantinou, M.; Hadjiyiannakou, K.; Kallidonis, C.; Koutsou, G.; Jansen, K.; Wiese, K.; Vaquero Aviles-Casco, A.

    2017-11-01

    We determine within lattice QCD, the nucleon spin carried by valence and sea quarks, and gluons. The calculation is performed using an ensemble of gauge configurations with two degenerate light quarks with mass fixed to approximately reproduce the physical pion mass. We find that the total angular momentum carried by the quarks in the nucleon is J u+d+s =0.408(61) stat. (48) syst. and the gluon contribution is J g =0.133(11) stat. (14) syst. giving a total of J N =0.54(6) stat. (5) syst. consistent with the spin sum. For the quark intrinsic spin contribution we obtain (1)/(2)ΔΣ u+d+s =0.201(17) stat. (5) syst. All quantities are given in the MS scheme at 2 GeV. The quark and gluon momentum fractions are also computed and add up to left angle x right angle u+d+s + left angle x right angle g =0.804(121) stat. (95) syst. +0.267(12) stat. (10) syst. =1.07(12) stat. (10) syst. satisfying the momentum sum.

  6. Momentum diffusion for coupled atom-cavity oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murr, K.; Maunz, P.; Pinkse, P. W. H.; Puppe, T.; Schuster, I.; Rempe, G.; Vitali, D.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the momentum diffusion of free-space laser cooling has a natural correspondence in optical cavities when the internal state of the atom is treated as a harmonic oscillator. We derive a general expression for the momentum diffusion, which is valid for most configurations of interest: The atom or the cavity or both can be probed by lasers, with or without the presence of traps inducing local atomic frequency shifts. It is shown that, albeit the (possibly strong) coupling between atom and cavity, it is sufficient for deriving the momentum diffusion to consider that the atom couples to a mean cavity field, which gives a first contribution, and that the cavity mode couples to a mean atomic dipole, giving a second contribution. Both contributions have an intuitive form and present a clear symmetry. The total diffusion is the sum of these two contributions plus the diffusion originating from the fluctuations of the forces due to the coupling to the vacuum modes other than the cavity mode (the so-called spontaneous emission term). Examples are given that help to evaluate the heating rates induced by an optical cavity for experiments operating at low atomic saturation. We also point out intriguing situations where the atom is heated although it cannot scatter light

  7. Uncertainty principle for angular position and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Barnett, Stephen M; Yao, Eric; Leach, Jonathan; Courtial, Johannes; Padgett, Miles

    2004-01-01

    The uncertainty principle places fundamental limits on the accuracy with which we are able to measure the values of different physical quantities (Heisenberg 1949 The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory (New York: Dover); Robertson 1929 Phys. Rev. 34 127). This has profound effects not only on the microscopic but also on the macroscopic level of physical systems. The most familiar form of the uncertainty principle relates the uncertainties in position and linear momentum. Other manifestations include those relating uncertainty in energy to uncertainty in time duration, phase of an electromagnetic field to photon number and angular position to angular momentum (Vaccaro and Pegg 1990 J. Mod. Opt. 37 17; Barnett and Pegg 1990 Phys. Rev. A 41 3427). In this paper, we report the first observation of the last of these uncertainty relations and derive the associated states that satisfy the equality in the uncertainty relation. We confirm the form of these states by detailed measurement of the angular momentum of a light beam after passage through an appropriate angular aperture. The angular uncertainty principle applies to all physical systems and is particularly important for systems with cylindrical symmetry

  8. Angular momentum transport with twisted exciton wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoning; Lusk, Mark T.

    2017-10-01

    A chain of cofacial molecules with CN or CN h symmetry supports excitonic states with a screwlike structure. These can be quantified with the combination of an axial wave number and an azimuthal winding number. Combinations of these states can be used to construct excitonic wave packets that spiral down the chain with well-determined linear and angular momenta. These twisted exciton wave packets can be created and annihilated using laser pulses, and their angular momentum can be optically modified during transit. This allows for the creation of optoexcitonic circuits in which information, encoded in the angular momentum of light, is converted into excitonic wave packets that can be manipulated, transported, and then reemitted. A tight-binding paradigm is used to demonstrate the key ideas. The approach is then extended to quantify the evolution of twisted exciton wave packets in a many-body, multilevel time-domain density functional theory setting. In both settings, numerical methods are developed that allow the site-to-site transfer of angular momentum to be quantified.

  9. The nucleon spin and momentum decomposition using lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, C. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Constantinou, M. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hadjiyiannakou, K.; Kallidonis, C.; Koutsou, G. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Jansen, K.; Wiese, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Vaquero Aviles-Casco, A. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-11-15

    We determine within lattice QCD, the nucleon spin carried by valence and sea quarks, and gluons. The calculation is performed using an ensemble of gauge configurations with two degenerate light quarks with mass fixed to approximately reproduce the physical pion mass. We find that the total angular momentum carried by the quarks in the nucleon is J{sub u+d+s}=0.408(61){sub stat.}(48){sub syst.} and the gluon contribution is J{sub g}=0.133(11){sub stat.}(14){sub syst.} giving a total of J{sub N}=0.54(6){sub stat.}(5){sub syst.} consistent with the spin sum. For the quark intrinsic spin contribution we obtain (1)/(2)ΔΣ{sub u+d+s}=0.201(17){sub stat.}(5){sub syst.} All quantities are given in the MS scheme at 2 GeV. The quark and gluon momentum fractions are also computed and add up to left angle x right angle {sub u+d+s}+ left angle x right angle {sub g}=0.804(121){sub stat.}(95){sub syst.}+0.267(12){sub stat.}(10){sub syst.}=1.07(12) {sub stat.}(10){sub syst.} satisfying the momentum sum.

  10. Optical momentum and angular momentum in complex media: from the Abraham–Minkowski debate to unusual properties of surface plasmon-polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Bekshaev, Aleksandr Y.; Nori, Franco

    2017-12-01

    We examine the momentum and angular momentum (AM) properties of monochromatic optical fields in dispersive and inhomogeneous isotropic media, using the Abraham- and Minkowski-type approaches, as well as the kinetic (Poynting-like) and canonical (with separate spin and orbital degrees of freedom) pictures. While the kinetic Abraham–Poynting momentum describes the energy flux and the group velocity of the wave, the Minkowski-type quantities, with proper dispersion corrections, describe the actual momentum and AM carried by the wave. The kinetic Minkowski-type momentum and AM densities agree with phenomenological results derived by Philbin. Using the canonical spin–orbital decomposition, previously used for free-space fields, we find the corresponding canonical momentum, spin and orbital AM of light in a dispersive inhomogeneous medium. These acquire a very natural form analogous to the Brillouin energy density and are valid for arbitrary structured fields. The general theory is applied to a non-trivial example of a surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) wave at a metal-vacuum interface. We show that the integral momentum of the SPP per particle corresponds to the SPP wave vector, and hence exceeds the momentum of a photon in the vacuum. We also provide the first accurate calculation of the transverse spin and orbital AM of the SPP. While the intrinsic orbital AM vanishes, the transverse spin can change its sign depending on the SPP frequency. Importantly, we present both macroscopic and microscopic calculations, thereby proving the validity of the general phenomenological results. The microscopic theory also predicts a transverse magnetization in the metal (i.e. a magnetic moment for the SPP) as well as the corresponding direct magnetization current, which provides the difference between the Abraham and Minkowski momenta.

  11. Optical momentum and angular momentum in complex media: from the Abraham-Minkowski debate to unusual properties of surface plasmon-polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Bliokh, Konstantin; Y Bekshaev, Aleksandr; Nori, Franco

    2017-12-01

    We examine the momentum and angular momentum (AM) properties of monochromatic optical fields in dispersive and inhomogeneous isotropic media, using the Abraham- and Minkowski-type approaches, as well as the kinetic (Poynting-like) and canonical (with separate spin and orbital degrees of freedom) pictures. While the kinetic Abraham-Poynting momentum describes the energy flux and the group velocity of the wave, the Minkowski-type quantities, with proper dispersion corrections, describe the actual momentum and AM carried by the wave. The kinetic Minkowski-type momentum and AM densities agree with phenomenological results derived by Philbin. Using the canonical spin-orbital decomposition, previously used for free-space fields, we find the corresponding canonical momentum, spin and orbital AM of light in a dispersive inhomogeneous medium. These acquire a very natural form analogous to the Brillouin energy density and are valid for arbitrary structured fields. The general theory is applied to a non-trivial example of a surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) wave at a metal-vacuum interface. We show that the integral momentum of the SPP per particle corresponds to the SPP wave vector, and hence exceeds the momentum of a photon in the vacuum. We also provide the first accurate calculation of the transverse spin and orbital AM of the SPP. While the intrinsic orbital AM vanishes, the transverse spin can change its sign depending on the SPP frequency. Importantly, we present both macroscopic and microscopic calculations, thereby proving the validity of the general phenomenological results. The microscopic theory also predicts a transverse magnetization in the metal (i.e. a magnetic moment for the SPP) as well as the corresponding direct magnetization current, which provides the difference between the Abraham and Minkowski momenta.

  12. Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Sean A

    2007-01-01

    Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around the spacetime due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses the rate of the change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation

  13. Pengembangan Alat Peraga Momentum dengan Sistem Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upik Rahma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research aims to develop the props with the concept of momentum by using motion sensors. The method used is a method of research and development (Research and Development. In the implementation of the study outlines the development of research carried out in two stages: Theoretical and Empirical. Results of this research is a props momentum that has been developed and can be used by high school teachers who will perform physical demonstration of the momentum of an object. This tool can also be used as a media demonstration teacher for high school students to explain the physics of matter other. From the test results Viewer tool development momentum in SMAN 100 Jakarta indicate that the tool has been able to meet the expectations of teachers and learners in the orientation of the development of the various needs of props for high school students in the learning process of physics. Based on the results of this study concluded that, with the development of props momentum sensor system has met the criteria of props as a medium of learning physics. Keywords: learning media devlopment, learning media momentum with sensor systems, instructional media. Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan alat peraga dengan konsep momentum dengan menggunakan sensor gerak. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode penelitian pengembangan (Research and Development. Dalam pelaksanaan penelitian secara garis besar penelitian pengembangan dilaksanakan dalam dua tahap yaitu Teoritik dan Empiris. Hasil penelitian ini adalah sebuah alat peraga momentum yang sudah dikembangkan dan dapat digunakan oleh guru SMA yang akan melakukan peragaan fisika tentang momentum suatu benda. Alat ini juga dapat dipakai guru sebagai media demonstrasi bagi siswa SMA untuk menjelaskan materi fisika lainnya. Dari hasil uji coba pengembangan Alat Peraga Momentum di SMAN 100 Jakarta menunjukan bahwa alat telah mampu memenuhi harapan bagi guru dan peserta didik dalam

  14. The electromagnetic impulse pendulum and momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.; Graneau, P.N.

    1986-01-01

    Largely quantitative experiments by Pappas have indicated that the momentum imparted to an electrodynamic impulse pendulum was not balanced by an equal and opposite momentum change of field energy as required by the special theory of relativity. The authors repeated Pappas' experiment using discharge currents from a capacitor bank which contained a known amount of stored energy. It turned out that, for momentum conservation, the magnetic-field energy required would have been 1000 to 2000 times as large as the energy that was actually stored in the capacitors. In the second part of the paper the pendulum experiments are interpreted in terms of Ampere's force law

  15. Deuterium electrodisintegration at high recoil momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenholen, G.

    1996-01-01

    The availability of continuous electron beams made it possible to carry out various deuterium electro-disintegration experiments in kinematical domains corresponding to a high recoil momentum. Three such experiments are discussed: 1) the left-right asymmetry with respect to the direction of the momentum transfer has been measured with good precision; 2) cross sections have been obtained in a kinematical region well above the quasi-elastic peak; 3) data have been taken in quasi-elastic kinematics that can be used to study high-momentum components in the deuterium wave function [ru

  16. Strong-field non-sequential ionization: The vector momentum distribution of multiply charged Ne ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottke, H.; Trump, C.; Wittmann, M.; Korn, G.; Becker, W.; Hoffmann, K.; Sandner, W.; Moshammer, R.; Feuerstein, B.; Dorn, A.; Schroeter, C.D.; Ullrich, J.; Schmitt, W.

    2000-01-01

    COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil-Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) was used to measure the vector momentum distribution of Ne n+ (n=1,2,3) ions formed in ultrashort (30 fsec) high-intensity (≅10 15 W/cm 2 ) laser pulses with center wavelength at 795 nm. To a high degree of accuracy the length of the Ne n+ ion momentum vector is equal to the length of the total momentum vector of the n photoelectrons released, with both vectors pointing into opposite directions. At a light intensity where non-sequential ionization of the atom dominates the Ne 2+ and Ne 3+ momentum distributions show distinct maxima at 4.0 a.u. and 7.5 a.u. along the polarization axis of the linearly polarized light beam. First, this is a clear signature of non-sequential multiple ionization. Second, it indicates that instantaneous emission of two (or more) electrons at electric field strength maxima of the light wave can be ruled out as main mechanism of non-sequential strong-field multiple ionization. In contrast, this experimental result is in accordance with the kinematical constraints of the 'rescattering model'

  17. Morse Potential in the Momentum Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国华; 董世海

    2012-01-01

    The momentum representation of the Morse potential is presented analytically by hypergeometric function. The properties with respect to the momentum p and potential parameter β are studied. Note that [q2(p)l is a nodeless function and the mutual orthogonality of functions is ensured by the phase functions arg[(p)], It is interesting to see that the [~ (p)[ is symmetric with respect to the axis p = 0 and the number of wave crest of [ (p)[ is equal to n + 1. We also study the variation of ]k(p)l with respect to . The arnplitude of |ψ(p)] first increases with the quantum number n and then deceases. Finally, we notice that the discontinuity in phase occurs at some points of the momentum p and the position and momentum probability densities are symmetric with respect to their arguments.

  18. Energy-momentum tensor in scalar QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, S.D.; Misra, A.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar quantum electrodynamics. We show the need for adding an improvement term to the conventional energy-momentum tensor. We consider two possible forms for the improvement term: (i) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite function of bare parameters of the theory (so that the energy-momentum tensor can be obtained from an action that is a finite function of bare quantities); (ii) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite quantity, i.e., a finite function of renormalized parameters. We establish a negative result; viz., neither form leads to a finite energy-momentum tensor to O(e 2 λ/sup n/). .AE

  19. Morse Potential in the Momentum Representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guohua; Dong Shihai

    2012-01-01

    The momentum representation of the Morse potential is presented analytically by hypergeometric function. The properties with respect to the momentum p and potential parameter β are studied. Note that |Ψ(p)| is a nodeless function and the mutual orthogonality of functions is ensured by the phase functions arg[Ψ(p)]. It is interesting to see that the |Ψ(p)| is symmetric with respect to the axis p = 0 and the number of wave crest of |Ψ(p)| is equal to n + 1. We also study the variation of |Ψ(p)| with respect to β. The amplitude of |Ψ(p)| first increases with the quantum number n and then deceases. Finally, we notice that the discontinuity in phase occurs at some points of the momentum p and the position and momentum probability densities are symmetric with respect to their arguments.

  20. Constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion of constituent models and large transverse momentum reactions includes the structure of hard scattering models, dimensional counting rules for large transverse momentum reactions, dimensional counting and exclusive processes, the deuteron form factor, applications to inclusive reactions, predictions for meson and photon beams, the charge-cubed test for the e/sup +-/p → e/sup +-/γX asymmetry, the quasi-elastic peak in inclusive hadronic reactions, correlations, and the multiplicity bump at large transverse momentum. Also covered are the partition method for bound state calculations, proofs of dimensional counting, minimal neutralization and quark--quark scattering, the development of the constituent interchange model, and the A dependence of high transverse momentum reactions

  1. Orbital-angular-momentum entanglement in turbulence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hamadou Ibrahim, A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The turbulence-induced decay of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) entanglement between two photons is investigated numerically and experimentally. To compare our resultswith previouswork,we simulate the turbulent atmosphere with a single phase screen...

  2. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.; Hakobyan, H.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Braverman, M.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilad, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Arrington, J.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Beck, A.; Beck, S. May-Tal; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bertozzi, W.; Biselli, A.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkanov, B. I.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lowry, M.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Shneor, R.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Wood, S. A.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.; aff16

    2014-10-01

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe, and 208Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems.

  3. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.; Hakobyan, H.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Braverman, M.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilad, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Arrington, J.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Beck, A.; Beck, S. M. -T.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bertozzi, W.; Biselli, A.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Crede, V.; D' Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Forest, T.; Garillon, B.; Garcon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkanov, B. I.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Levine, W. I.; Livingston, K.; Lowry, M.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mokeev, V.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. M.; Mustapha, B.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Roy, P.; Rossi, P.; Sabatie, F.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Shneor, R.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Wood, S. A.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zheng, X.; Zonta, I.

    2014-10-16

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using C-12, Al-27, Fe-56, and Pb-208 targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems.

  4. Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.

  5. Do Momentum Strategies Work?: - Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Drew; Madhu Veeraraghavan; Min Ye

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the profitability of momentum investment strategy and the predictive power of trading volume for equities listed in the Australian Stock Exchange. Recent research finds that momentum and trading volume appear to predict subsequent returns in U.S. market and past volume helps to reconcile intermediate-horizon “under reaction” and long-horizon “overreaction” effects. However, bulk of the evidence on this important relationship between past returns and future returns is l...

  6. The gluon propagator in momentum space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, C. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Parrinello, C. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Soni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-12-31

    We consider quenched QCD on a 16{sup 3}{times}40 lattice at {beta}=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.

  7. The gluon propagator in momentum space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, C. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics); Parrinello, C. (New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Soni, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    We consider quenched QCD on a 16[sup 3][times]40 lattice at [beta]=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others.

  8. The gluon propagator in momentum space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, C. (Dept. of Physics, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Parrinello, C. (Physics Dept., New York Univ., NY (United States) Physics Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Soni, A. (Physics Dept., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1993-03-01

    We consider quenched QCD on a 16[sup 3] x 40 lattice at [beta] = 6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others. (orig.)

  9. Behavioral momentum in the treatment of noncompliance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, F C; Hock, M L; Lalli, J S; West, B J; Belfiore, P; Pinter, E; Brown, D K

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral momentum refers to the tendency for behavior to persist following a change in environmental conditions. The greater the rate of reinforcement, the greater the behavioral momentum. The intervention for noncompliance consisted of issuing a sequence of commands with which the subject was very likely to comply (i.e., high-probability commands) immediately prior to issuing a low-probability command. In each of five experiments, the high-probability command sequence resulted in a "moment...

  10. Momentum distribution in the nucleus. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, R.D.; Woloshyn, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    We calculate the single particle momentum distribution n(q) for a one-dimensional model with delta forces. There is a domain of q for which n(q) has an exponential falloff; but, after allowance is made for the nonsaturation in the model, that domain does not grow significantly with particle number. The relation of this result to large momentum scattering from the nucleus and to the Hartree approximation is briefly discussed

  11. The gluon propagator in momentum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Soni, A.

    1992-01-01

    We consider quenched QCD on a 16 3 x40 lattice at β=6.0. We give preliminary numerical results for the lattice gluon propagator evaluated both in coordinate and momentum space. Our findings are compared with earlier results in the literature at zero momentum. In addition, by considering nonzero momenta we attempt to extract the form of the propagator and compare it to continuum predictions formulated by Gribov and others

  12. Comparative study of the excitation functions of nuclear reactions induced by light ions (protons and α) and heavy ions (Ne, Ca, Ar) and, after neutron evaporation, leading to platinum and polonium isotopes. Analysis by de-excitation programme allowing for the angular momentum and fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarde, Brigitte.

    1979-01-01

    This work is a study on the de-excitation of heavy nuclei from the Pt - Po area obtained by the complete fusion of various projectiles (p, 3 He, 4 He, 20 Ne, 40 Ar and 40 Ca) and of various targets. The aim was to create from different couples the same compound nucleus of a mass equal to the sum of the masses of the component parts. The excitation energy of the system thus created can vary between 60 and 120 MeV. The experimental study of one or more particular de-excitation channels performed by measuring the cross sections of residual nuclei production for various bombardment energies is a very conventional approach. An in depth examination was made of the effect of the angular momentum given to the compound nucleus by the input channel to the de-excitation processes. Now the population of orbital angular momenta depends essentially on the mass of the projectile at equal velocities. Consequently, the utilization of projectiles extending from the proton to mass 40 covers a wide range. Decay by neutrons is not the only de-excitation method. Fission has a significant role particularly for the Po's and consequently this strongly diminishes the probability (P,xn). The decay of (α,xn) when going from the compound nucleus of 204 Po to 182 Pt makes it possble to evaluate the importance of the phenomenon and to have an item of experimental information that can be compared to a theoretical calculation. Theoretical calculations using the 'ALICE' code which expresses schematically the reduction in level densities by subtracting from the excitation energy a rotation energy and the 'JULIAN' code which uses a more accurate level density calculation and takes into account the gamma emission competing with the emission of neutrons show that the last programme reports the experimental results whereas the 'ALICE' code does not enable a consistent presentation to be made of all the results by light and heavy ions. Finally, it had to be agreed that the fission does not intervene as

  13. Poincare invariant algebra from instant to light-front quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Mitchell, Chad

    2001-01-01

    We present the Poincare algebra interpolating between instant and light-front time quantizations. The angular momentum operators satisfying SU(2) algebra are constructed in an arbitrary interpolation angle and shown to be identical to the ordinary angular momentum and Leutwyler-Stern angular momentum in the instant and light-front quantization limits, respectively. The exchange of the dynamical role between the transverse angular mometum and the boost operators is manifest in our newly constructed algebra

  14. Encoding mutually unbiased bases in orbital angular momentum for quantum key distribution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We encode mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) using the higher-dimensional orbital angular momentum (OAM) degree of freedom associated with optical fields. We illustrate how these states are encoded with the use of a spatial light modulator (SLM). We...

  15. Propagation of orbital angular momentum carrying beams through a perturbing medium

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaibi, A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The orbital angular momentum of light has been suggested as a means of information transfer over free-space, yet the detected optical vortex is known to be sensitive to perturbation. Such effects have been studied theoretically, in particular...

  16. Quantum X waves with orbital angular momentum in nonlinear dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornigotti, Marco; Conti, Claudio; Szameit, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    We present a complete and consistent quantum theory of generalised X waves with orbital angular momentum in dispersive media. We show that the resulting quantised light pulses are affected by neither dispersion nor diffraction and are therefore resilient against external perturbations. The nonlinear interaction of quantised X waves in quadratic and Kerr nonlinear media is also presented and studied in detail.

  17. The total energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic fields in a dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Michael E.

    2017-08-01

    Radiation pressure is an observable consequence of optically induced forces on materials. On cosmic scales, radiation pressure is responsible for the bending of the tails of comets as they pass near the sun. At a much smaller scale, optically induced forces are being investigated as part of a toolkit for micromanipulation and nanofabrication technology [1]. A number of practical applications of the mechanical effects of light-matter interaction are discussed by Qiu, et al. [2]. The promise of the nascent nanophotonic technology for manufacturing small, low-power, high-sensitivity sensors and other devices has likely motivated the substantial current interest in optical manipulation of materials at the nanoscale, see, for example, Ref. [2] and the references therein. While substantial progress toward optical micromanipulation has been achieved, e.g. optical tweezers [1], in this report we limit our consideration to the particular issue of optically induced forces on a transparent dielectric material. As a matter of electromagnetic theory, these forces remain indeterminate and controversial. Due to the potential applications in nanotechnology, the century-old debate regarding these forces, and the associated momentums, has ramped up considerably in the physics community. The energy-momentum tensor is the centerpiece of conservation laws for the unimpeded, inviscid, incompressible flow of non-interacting particles in the continuum limit in an otherwise empty volume. The foundations of the energy-momentum tensor and the associated tensor conservation theory come to electrodynamics from classical continuum dynamics by applying the divergence theorem to a Taylor series expansion of a property density field of a continuous flow in an otherwise empty volume. The dust tensor is a particularly simple example of an energy-momentum tensor that deals with particles of matter in the continuum limit in terms of the mass density ρm, energy density ρmc 2 , and momentum density

  18. Nucleon internal structure: a new set of quark, gluon momentum, angular momentum operators and parton distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Sun Weimin; Chen Xiangsong; Lu Xiaofu; Goldman, T.

    2009-01-01

    It is unavoidable to deal with the quark and gluon momentum and angular momentum contributions to the nucleon momentum and spin in the study of nucleon internal structure. However we never have the quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and gluon spin operators which satisfy both the gauge invariance and the canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation. The conflicts between the gauge invariance and canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both the gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation, are proposed. The key point to achieve such a proper decomposition is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discussed. (authors)

  19. Momentum-dependent excitation processes in crystalline and amorphous films of conjugated oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zojer, E.; Knupfer, M.; Shuai, Z.; Fink, J.; Bredas, J.L.; Hoerhold, H.-H.; Grimme, J.; Scherf, U.; Benincori, T.; Leising, G.

    2000-01-01

    The electronic structure of periodic materials is usually described on the basis of band-structure models, in which each state is not only characterized by its energy but also by the corresponding electron momentum. In this paper we present investigations of momentum-dependent excitation processes in a number of molecular crystals and amorphous thin films. For our studies we have chosen ladder-type quinquephenyl (5LP), distyrylbenzene (3PV), a substituted quinquephenylenevinylene (5PV), and a bridged quarterthienyl (4TB). These substances are representative for several classes of conjugated organic materials. Their physical properties are dominated by the molecular building blocks. The investigated films, however, also allow us to study differences in the characteristics of crystalline (3PV and 4TB), partly amorphous (5LP) and fully amorphous (5PV) systems. Momentum-dependent excitations are induced by inelastic electron scattering in electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) experiments. The experimental data are compared to molecule based post-Hartree-Fock quantum-chemical simulations performed with the intermediate neglect of differential overlap (INDO) approach coupled to a configuration interaction (CI) technique applying the proper momentum-dependent transition matrix elements. Our results show that even in relatively small systems the molecular electronic states can be characterized by an associated range in momentum space. In addition, differences between inelastic electron scattering spectra for low values of momentum transfer and the optical data obtained for the crystalline samples underline the strong impact of light propagation on the absorption characteristics of highly anisotropic crystalline materials

  20. Mass and momentum conservation for fluid simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lentine, Michael; Aanjaneya, Mridul; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Momentum conservation has long been used as a design principle for solid simulation (e.g. collisions between rigid bodies, mass-spring elastic and damping forces, etc.), yet it has not been widely used for fluid simulation. In fact, semi-Lagrangian advection does not conserve momentum, but is still regularly used as a bread and butter method for fluid simulation. In this paper, we propose a modification to the semi-Lagrangian method in order to make it fully conserve momentum. While methods of this type have been proposed earlier in the computational physics literature, they are not necessarily appropriate for coarse grids, large time steps or inviscid flows, all of which are common in graphics applications. In addition, we show that the commonly used vorticity confinement turbulence model can be modified to exactly conserve momentum as well. We provide a number of examples that illustrate the benefits of this new approach, both in conserving fluid momentum and passively advected scalars such as smoke density. In particular, we show that our new method is amenable to efficient smoke simulation with one time step per frame, whereas the traditional non-conservative semi-Lagrangian method experiences serious artifacts when run with these large time steps, especially when object interaction is considered. Copyright © 2011 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  1. Momentum considerations on the New MEXICO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E. A.; Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.; Snel, H.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper regards axial and angular momentum considerations combining detailed loads from pressure sensors and the flow field mapped with particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. For this end, the study implements important results leaning on experimental data from wind tunnel measurements of the New MEXICO project. The measurements, taken on a fully instrumented rotor, were carried out in the German Dutch Wind tunnel Organisation (DNW) testing the MEXICO rotor in the open section. The work revisits the so-called momentum theory, showing that the integral thrust and torque measured on the rotor correspond with an extent of 0.7 and 2.4% respectively to the momentum balance of the global flow field using the general momentum equations. Likewise, the sectional forces combined with the local induced velocities are found to plausibly obey the annular streamtube theory, albeit some limitations in the axial momentum become more apparent at high inductions after a=0.3. Finally, azimuth induced velocities are measured and compared to predictions from models of Glauert and Burton et al., showing close-matching forecasts for blade spans above 25%.

  2. The amplituhedron from momentum twistor diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yuntao; He, Song

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new diagrammatic formulation of the all-loop scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in planar N=4 SYM, dubbed the “momentum-twistor diagrams”. These are on-shell-diagrams obtained by gluing trivalent black and white vertices in momentum twistor space, which, in the reduced diagram case, are known to be related to diagrams in the original twistor space. The new diagrams are manifestly Yangian invariant, and they naturally represent factorization and forward-limit contributions in the all-loop BCFW recursion relations in momentum twistor space, in a fashion that is completely different from those in momentum space. We show how to construct and evaluate momentum-twistor diagrams, and how to use them to obtain tree-level amplitudes and loop-level integrands; in particular the latter involve isolated bubble-structures for loop variables arising from forward limits, or the entangled removal of particles. From each diagram, the generalized “boundary measurement” directly gives the C, D matrices, thus a cell in the amplituhedron associated with the amplitude, and we expect that our diagrammatic representations of the amplitude provide triangulations of the amplituhedron. To demonstrate the computational power of the formalism, we give explicit results for general two-loop integrands, and the cells of the amplituhedron for two-loop MHV amplitudes.

  3. Momentum and Stochastic Momentum for Stochastic Gradient, Newton, Proximal Point and Subspace Descent Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Loizou, Nicolas

    2017-12-27

    In this paper we study several classes of stochastic optimization algorithms enriched with heavy ball momentum. Among the methods studied are: stochastic gradient descent, stochastic Newton, stochastic proximal point and stochastic dual subspace ascent. This is the first time momentum variants of several of these methods are studied. We choose to perform our analysis in a setting in which all of the above methods are equivalent. We prove global nonassymptotic linear convergence rates for all methods and various measures of success, including primal function values, primal iterates (in L2 sense), and dual function values. We also show that the primal iterates converge at an accelerated linear rate in the L1 sense. This is the first time a linear rate is shown for the stochastic heavy ball method (i.e., stochastic gradient descent method with momentum). Under somewhat weaker conditions, we establish a sublinear convergence rate for Cesaro averages of primal iterates. Moreover, we propose a novel concept, which we call stochastic momentum, aimed at decreasing the cost of performing the momentum step. We prove linear convergence of several stochastic methods with stochastic momentum, and show that in some sparse data regimes and for sufficiently small momentum parameters, these methods enjoy better overall complexity than methods with deterministic momentum. Finally, we perform extensive numerical testing on artificial and real datasets, including data coming from average consensus problems.

  4. Momentum and Stochastic Momentum for Stochastic Gradient, Newton, Proximal Point and Subspace Descent Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Loizou, Nicolas; Richtarik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study several classes of stochastic optimization algorithms enriched with heavy ball momentum. Among the methods studied are: stochastic gradient descent, stochastic Newton, stochastic proximal point and stochastic dual subspace ascent. This is the first time momentum variants of several of these methods are studied. We choose to perform our analysis in a setting in which all of the above methods are equivalent. We prove global nonassymptotic linear convergence rates for all methods and various measures of success, including primal function values, primal iterates (in L2 sense), and dual function values. We also show that the primal iterates converge at an accelerated linear rate in the L1 sense. This is the first time a linear rate is shown for the stochastic heavy ball method (i.e., stochastic gradient descent method with momentum). Under somewhat weaker conditions, we establish a sublinear convergence rate for Cesaro averages of primal iterates. Moreover, we propose a novel concept, which we call stochastic momentum, aimed at decreasing the cost of performing the momentum step. We prove linear convergence of several stochastic methods with stochastic momentum, and show that in some sparse data regimes and for sufficiently small momentum parameters, these methods enjoy better overall complexity than methods with deterministic momentum. Finally, we perform extensive numerical testing on artificial and real datasets, including data coming from average consensus problems.

  5. Momentum-energy of the non-radiating electromagnetic field: open problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    This paper inspects more closely the problem of the momentum and energy of a bound (non-radiative) electromagnetic (EM) field. It has been shown that for an isolating system of non-radiative non-relativistic mechanically free charged particles, a transformation of mechanical to EM momentum and vice versa occurs in accordance with the requirement P-vector G =const, where P-vector G = P-vector M + Σ i N q i A-vector i is the canonical momentum (N>1 is the number of particles, q is the charge, A-vector is the vector potential, P-vector M is the mechanical momentum of the system). Then dP-vector M /dt = -(d/dt)Σq i A-vector i represents the self-force, acting on this isolating system due to violation of Newton's third law in EM interaction. This equation is not applicable to an isolated charged particle, and the problems of its self-action and its own EM momentum have been examined. Analysing the systems of non-radiative particles, where the retardation is not negligible ('dynamical' systems in our definition) it has been found that the total momentum is the same at the initial and final stationary states of such systems, but it varies with time during the dynamical processes. It means a violation of continuous conservation of the total momentum, if the bound EM field spreads at the light velocity c. Finally, the compatibility of the energy conservation law and the Lentz rule for retarded non-radiative EM field has been examined. It has been shown that for dynamical systems the energy conservation law comes into a certain contradiction with the finite (light) spread velocity for the bound EM field

  6. A Key Experiment of Quantum Optics: The Transfer of Spin Angular Momentum from Photons to a Birefringent Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frins, E [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Dultz, W [J.W.v.Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmitzer, H, E-mail: requalivahanus@t-online.de [Xavier University, Cincinnati (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Rotating small birefringent particles with the spin angular momentum of light is a key experiment of quantum optics. We derive the equation of motion of small retarders in viscose liquids, demonstrate their some times irregular rotation in polarized light, and discuss possible technical applications.

  7. Staggering of angular momentum distribution in fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagno, Pierre; Litaize, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    We review here the role of angular momentum distributions in the fission process. To do so the algorithm implemented in the FIFRELIN code [?] is detailed with special emphasis on the place of fission fragment angular momenta. The usual Rayleigh distribution used for angular momentum distribution is presented and the related model derivation is recalled. Arguments are given to justify why this distribution should not hold for low excitation energy of the fission fragments. An alternative ad hoc expression taking into account low-lying collectiveness is presented as has been implemented in the FIFRELIN code. Yet on observables currently provided by the code, no dramatic impact has been found. To quantify the magnitude of the impact of the low-lying staggering in the angular momentum distribution, a textbook case is considered for the decay of the 144Ba nucleus with low excitation energy.

  8. Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the transverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure

  9. Borel resummation of transverse momentum distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We present a new prescription for the resummation of contributions due to soft gluon emission to the trasverse momentum distribution of processes such as Drell-Yan production in hadronic collisions. We show that familiar difficulties in obtaining resummed results as a function of transverse momentum starting from impact-parameter space resummation are related to the divergence of the perturbative expansion of the momentum-space result. We construct a resummed expression by Borel resummation of this divergent series, removing the divergence in the Borel inversion through the inclusion of a suitable higher twist term. The ensuing resummation prescription is free of numerical instabilities, is stable upon the inclusion of subleading terms, and the original divergent perturbative series is asymptotic to it. We compare our results to those obtained using alternative prescriptions, and discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure.

  10. A Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Acconcia, T.V.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G.G.; Bellwied, R.; Bencedi, G.; Bencze, G.; Berenyi, D.; Boldizsar, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cindolo, F.; Chinellato, D.D.; D'Ambrosio, S.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Das-Bose, L.; Dash, A.K.; De Cataldo, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Futo, E.; Garcia, E.; Hamar, G.; Harton, A.; Iannone, G.; Jimenez, R.T.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, J.S.; Knospe, A.; Kovacs, L.; Levai, P.; Nappi, E.; Markert, C.; Martinengo, P.; Mayani, D.; Molnar, L.; Olah, L.; Paic, G.; Pastore, C.; Patimo, G.; Patino, M.E.; Peskov, V.; Pinsky, L.; Piuz, F.; Pochybova, S.; Sgura, I.; Sinha, T.; Song, J.; Takahashi, J.; Timmins, A.; Van Beelen, J.B.; Varga, D.; Volpe, G.; Weber, M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Yi, J.; Yoo, I.K.

    2014-01-01

    The construction of a new detector is proposed to extend the capabilities of ALICE in the high transverse momentum (pT) region. This Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) performs charged hadron identification on a track-by-track basis in the 5 GeV/c < p < 25 GeV/c momentum range and provides ALICE with new opportunities to study parton-medium interactions at LHC energies. The VHMPID covers up to 30% of the ALICE central barrel and presents sufficient acceptance for triggered- and tagged-jet studies, allowing for the first time identified charged hadron measurements in jets. This Letter of Intent summarizes the physics motivations for such a detector as well as its layout and integration into ALICE.

  11. The price momentum of stock in distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijun; Wang, Longfei

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a new momentum of stock in distribution is proposed and applied in real investment. Firstly, assuming that a stock behaves as a multi-particle system, its share-exchange distribution and cost distribution are introduced. Secondly, an estimation of the share-exchange distribution is given with daily transaction data by 3 σ rule from the normal distribution. Meanwhile, an iterative method is given to estimate the cost distribution. Based on the cost distribution, a new momentum is proposed for stock system. Thirdly, an empirical test is given to compare the new momentum with others by contrarian strategy. The result shows that the new one outperforms others in many places. Furthermore, entropy of stock is introduced according to its cost distribution.

  12. Staggering of angular momentum distribution in fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamagno Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We review here the role of angular momentum distributions in the fission process. To do so the algorithm implemented in the FIFRELIN code [?] is detailed with special emphasis on the place of fission fragment angular momenta. The usual Rayleigh distribution used for angular momentum distribution is presented and the related model derivation is recalled. Arguments are given to justify why this distribution should not hold for low excitation energy of the fission fragments. An alternative ad hoc expression taking into account low-lying collectiveness is presented as has been implemented in the FIFRELIN code. Yet on observables currently provided by the code, no dramatic impact has been found. To quantify the magnitude of the impact of the low-lying staggering in the angular momentum distribution, a textbook case is considered for the decay of the 144Ba nucleus with low excitation energy.

  13. Plasma electron hole kinematics. I. Momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Zhou, C. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, which behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.

  14. Maximum entropy method in momentum density reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzynski, L.; Holas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is applied to the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional electron momentum density distributions observed through the set of Compton profiles measured along various crystallographic directions. It is shown that the reconstruction of electron momentum density may be reliably carried out with the aid of simple iterative algorithm suggested originally by Collins. A number of distributions has been simulated in order to check the performance of MEM. It is shown that MEM can be recommended as a model-free approach. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  15. Turbulent momentum transport due to neoclassical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jungpyo; Barnes, Michael; Parra, Felix I; Belli, Emily; Candy, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic toroidal rotation in a tokamak can be driven by turbulent momentum transport due to neoclassical flow effects breaking a symmetry of turbulence. In this paper we categorize the contributions due to neoclassical effects to the turbulent momentum transport, and evaluate each contribution using gyrokinetic simulations. We find that the relative importance of each contribution changes with collisionality. For low collisionality, the dominant contributions come from neoclassical particle and parallel flows. For moderate collisionality, there are non-negligible contributions due to neoclassical poloidal electric field and poloidal gradients of density and temperature, which are not important for low collisionality. (paper)

  16. Valence electron momentum distributions in cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Weigold, E.; Mitroy, J.

    1982-08-01

    The valence 5s and 4d electron momentum distributions in cadmium have been measured using noncoplanar symmetric (e, 2e) electron coincidence spectroscopy at a total energy of 1200eV. They are in close agreement with Hartree-Fock momentum distributions both in shape and relative magnitudes. Some satellite lines of very low intensity have been detected. A CI calculation of the Cd ground state and several Cd + ion states has been carried out to predict cross reactions for the ground state and various satellite transitions. The predictions are in agreement with the data

  17. Total angular momentum from Dirac eigenspinors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabados, Laszlo B

    2008-01-01

    The eigenvalue problem for Dirac operators, constructed from two connections on the spinor bundle over closed spacelike 2-surfaces, is investigated. A class of divergence-free vector fields, built from the eigenspinors, are found, which, for the lowest eigenvalue, reproduce the rotation Killing vectors of metric spheres, and provide rotation BMS vector fields at future null infinity. This makes it possible to introduce a well-defined, gauge invariant spatial angular momentum at null infinity, which reduces to the standard expression in stationary spacetimes. The general formula for the angular momentum flux carried away by the gravitational radiation is also derived

  18. A momentum filter for atomic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoji; Yue, Xuguang; Zhai, Yueyang; Chen, Xuzong

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a momentum filter for atomic gas-based on a designed Talbot–Lau interferometer. It consists of two identical optical standing-wave pulses separated by a delay equal to odd multiples of the half Talbot time. The one-dimensional momentum width along the long direction of a cigar-shaped condensate is rapidly and greatly purified to a minimum, which corresponds to the ground state energy of the confining trap in our experiment. We find good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results. The filter is also effective for non-condensed cold atoms and could be applied widely. (paper)

  19. The blade element momentum (BEM) method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The current chapter presents the blade element momentum (BEM) method. The BEM method for a steady uniform inflow is presented in a first section. Some of the ad-hoc corrections that are usually added to the algorithm are discussed in a second section. An exception is made to the tip-loss correction...... which is introduced early in the algorithm formulation for practical reasons. The ad-hoc corrections presented are: the tip-loss correction, the high-thrust correction (momentum breakdown) and the correction for wake rotation. The formulation of an unsteady BEM code is given in a third section...

  20. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.; Hakobyan, H.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Braverman, M.; Brooks, W. K.; Gilad, S.; Adhikari, K. P.; Arrington, J.; Asryan, G.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions, protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe and 208Pb targets show that, even in heavy neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in ne...

  1. Light-front quantization of field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Prem P. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Some basic topics in Light-Front (LF) quantized field theory are reviewed. Poincare algebra and the LF spin operator are discussed. The local scalar field theory of the conventional framework is shown to correspond to a non-local Hamiltonian theory on the LF in view of the constraint equations on the phase space, which relate the bosonic condensates to the non-zero modes. This new ingredient is useful to describe the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the LF. The instability of the symmetric phase in two dimensional scalar theory when the coupling constant grows is shown in the LF theory renormalized to one loop order. Chern-Simons gauge theory, regarded to describe excitations with fractional statistics, is quantized in the light-cone gauge and a simple LF Hamiltonian obtained which may allow us to construct renormalized theory of anyons. (author). 20 refs.

  2. Light-front quantization of field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1996-07-01

    Some basic topics in Light-Front (LF) quantized field theory are reviewed. Poincare algebra and the LF spin operator are discussed. The local scalar field theory of the conventional framework is shown to correspond to a non-local Hamiltonian theory on the LF in view of the constraint equations on the phase space, which relate the bosonic condensates to the non-zero modes. This new ingredient is useful to describe the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the LF. The instability of the symmetric phase in two dimensional scalar theory when the coupling constant grows is shown in the LF theory renormalized to one loop order. Chern-Simons gauge theory, regarded to describe excitations with fractional statistics, is quantized in the light-cone gauge and a simple LF Hamiltonian obtained which may allow us to construct renormalized theory of anyons. (author). 20 refs

  3. Ionization in elliptically polarized pulses: Multielectron polarization effects and asymmetry of photoelectron momentum distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvetsov-Shilovskiy, Nikolay; Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    In the tunneling regime we present a semiclassical model of above-threshold ionization with inclusion of the Stark shift of the initial state, the Coulomb potential, and a polarization induced dipole potential. The model is used for the investigation of the photoelectron momentum distributions...... in close to circularly polarized light, and it is validated by comparison with ab initio results and experiments. The momentum distributions are shown to be highly sensitive to the tunneling exit point, the Coulomb force, and the dipole potential from the induced dipole in the atomic core...

  4. Halo-independent direct detection of momentum-dependent dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherry, J. F.; Frandsen, M. T.; Shoemaker, I. M.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the momentum dependence of dark matter interactions with nuclei can be probed in direct detection experiments without knowledge of the dark matter velocity distribution. This is one of the few properties of DM microphysics that can be determined with direct detection alone, given...... a signal of dark matter in multiple direct detection experiments with different targets. Long-range interactions arising from the exchange of a light mediator are one example of momentum-dependent DM. For data produced from the exchange of a massless mediator we find for example that the mediator mass can...

  5. What is the transverse momentum of partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.; Halzen, F.; Scott, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical arguments for a picture where the average transverse momentum of partons inside hadrons increases when x increases towards x=0.4 approximately 0.5, peaks and subsequently decreases when x approaches 1. This result is contrary to that suggested by asymptotic freedom arguments. Phenomenological support for this is discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Experimental determination of high angular momentum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, J.L.V.

    1985-01-01

    The current knowledge of the atomic nucleus structure is summarized. A short abstract of the nuclear properties at high angular momentum and a more detailed description of the experimental methods used in the study of high angular momenta is made. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Observation of Polarization Vortices in Momentum Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwen; Chen, Ang; Liu, Wenzhe; Hsu, Chia Wei; Wang, Bo; Guan, Fang; Liu, Xiaohan; Shi, Lei; Lu, Ling; Zi, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The vortex, a fundamental topological excitation featuring the in-plane winding of a vector field, is important in various areas such as fluid dynamics, liquid crystals, and superconductors. Although commonly existing in nature, vortices were observed exclusively in real space. Here, we experimentally observed momentum-space vortices as the winding of far-field polarization vectors in the first Brillouin zone of periodic plasmonic structures. Using homemade polarization-resolved momentum-space imaging spectroscopy, we mapped out the dispersion, lifetime, and polarization of all radiative states at the visible wavelengths. The momentum-space vortices were experimentally identified by their winding patterns in the polarization-resolved isofrequency contours and their diverging radiative quality factors. Such polarization vortices can exist robustly on any periodic systems of vectorial fields, while they are not captured by the existing topological band theory developed for scalar fields. Our work provides a new way for designing high-Q plasmonic resonances, generating vector beams, and studying topological photonics in the momentum space.

  8. High Momentum Probes of Nuclear Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.

    2009-07-24

    We discuss how the chemical composition of QCD jets is altered by final state interactions in surrounding nuclear matter. We describe this process through conversions of leading jet particles. We find that conversions lead to an enhancement of kaons at high transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at RHIC, while their azimuthal asymmetry v{sub 2} is suppressed.

  9. The Das-Popowicz Moyal momentum algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulahoual, A.; Sedra, M.B.

    2002-08-01

    We introduce in this short note some aspects of the Moyal momentum algebra that we call the Das-Popowicz Mm algebra. Our interest on this algebra is motivated by the central role that it can play in the formulation of integrable models and in higher conformal spin theories. (author)

  10. Angular-momentum-bearing modes in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Peaslee, G.F.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1989-03-01

    The angular-momentum-bearing degrees of freedom involved in the fission process are identified and their influence on experimental observables is discussed. The excitation of these modes is treated in the ''thermal'' limit, and the resulting distributions of observables are calculated. Experiments demonstrating the role of these modes are presented and discussed. 61 refs., 12 figs

  11. Angular and linear momentum of excited ferromagnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, P.; Kamra, A.; Cao, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2013-01-01

    The angular momentum vector of a Heisenberg ferromagnet with isotropic exchange interaction is conserved, while under uniaxial crystalline anisotropy the projection of the total spin along the easy axis is a constant of motion. Using Noether's theorem, we prove that these conservation laws persist

  12. ''Turbulent Equipartition'' Theory of Toroidal Momentum Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Gurcan, O.D.; Rewaldt, G.

    2008-01-01

    The mode-independent part of magnetic curvature driven turbulent convective (TuroCo) pinch of the angular momentum density (Hahm et al., Phys. Plasmas 14,072302 (2007)) which was originally derived from the gyrokinetic equation, can be interpreted in terms of the turbulent equipartition (TEP) theory. It is shown that the previous results can be obtained from the local conservation of 'magnetically weighted angular momentum density', nm i U # parallel# R/B 2 , and its homogenization due to turbulent flows. It is also demonstrated that the magnetic curvature modification of the parallel acceleration in the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in the laboratory frame, which was shown to be responsible for the TEP part of the TurCo pinch of angular momentum density in the previous work, is closely related to the Coriolis drift coupling to the perturbed electric field. In addition, the origin of the diffusive flux in the rotating frame is highlighted. Finally, it is illustrated that there should be a difference in scalings between the momentum pinch originated from inherently toroidal effects and that coming from other mechanisms which exist in a simpler geometry.

  13. Orbital momentum and topological phase transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Středa, Pavel; Kučera, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 23 (2015), "235152-1"-"235152-6" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : orbital momentum * anomalous Hall effect * topological phase transformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  14. Elastic electron scattering at large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1979-05-01

    A review is given of elastic electron scattering at large momentum transfer (Q 2 > 20 fm -2 ) from nuclei with A less than or equal to 4. Recent experimental results are reviewed and the current problems in interpretation of these results are pointed out. Some questions for future experiments are posed, and a preview of possible future measurements is presented. 28 references

  15. ANGULAR MOMENTUM ACQUISITION IN GALAXY HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Bullock, James S.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Diemand, Jürg; Wadsley, James; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2013-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky-Way-sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with ∼70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by λ ∼ 0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms ''cold flow disks.'' We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.

  16. W UMa stars and angular momentum loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilhu, O.; Rahunen, T.

    1980-01-01

    The structure and evolution of W UMa stars is still unsolved although considerable progress has been achieved in recent years. The authors aim is to find out whether it is possible to obtain more extreme mass ratios, what is the angular momentum needed and what is the time scale. (Auth.)

  17. Momentum transfer in a Brillouin surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of acoustic excitation scattering in the surface of Brilloiun of opaque materials, is related to the question of momentum transfexed from radiation fields to the material when the incident eight is scattered in a measurable spectrum. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  18. Anomalous momentum transport from drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.R.; Staebler, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    A sheared slab magnetic field model B = B 0 [z + (x/L s )y], with inhomogeneous flows in the y and z directions, is used to perform a fully-kinetic stability analysis of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and dissipative trapped electron (DTE) modes. The concomitant quasilinear stress components that couple to the local perpendicular (y-component) and parallel (z-component) momentum transport are also calculated and the anomalous perpendicular and parallel viscous stresses obtained. A breakdown of the ITG-induced perpendicular viscous stress is generally observed at moderate values of the sheared perpendicular flow. The ITG-induced parallel viscous stress is generally larger and strongly dependent on the sheared flows. The DTE-induced perpendicular viscous stress may sometimes be negative, tending to cancel the ITG contributions while the DTE-induced parallel viscous stress is generally small. The effect of the perpendicular stress component in the momentum balance equations is generally small while the parallel stress component can dominate the usual neoclassical viscous stress terms. The dominant contribution to parallel viscous stress by the ITG mode suggests that bulk plasma toroidal momentum confinement, like energy confinement, is governed by an anomalous ion loss mechanism. Furthermore, the large anomalous effect suggests that the neoclassical explanation of poloidal flows in tokamaks may be incorrect. The present results are in general agreement with existing experimental observations on momentum transport in tokamaks

  19. Method II : The energy-momentum map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter we apply the energy–momentum map reduction method to the same class of systems as in Chap. 2, namely two degree-of-freedom systems with optional symmetry, near equilibrium and close to resonance. We calculate the tangent space and nondegeneracy conditions for the 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4

  20. The laser elevator - Momentum transfer using an optical resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Mckenna, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    In a conventional laser lightsail system the payload is propelled by the momentum imparted to it by the reflection of a laser beam without the use of any propellant. Because of the unfavorable relationship between energy and momentum in a light beam, these systems are very inefficient. The efficiency can be greatly improved, in principle, if the photons that impact the payload mirror are returned to the source and then redirected back toward the payload again. This system, which recirculates the laser beam, is defined as the 'laser elevator'. The gain of the laser elevator over conventional lightsails depends on the number of times the beam is recycled which is limited by the reflectance of the mirrors used, any losses in the transmission of the beam, and diffraction. Due to the increase pathlength of the folded beam, diffraction losses occur at smaller separations of the payload and the source mirror than for conventional lightsail system. The laser elevator has potential applications in launching to low earth orbit, orbital transfer, and rapid interplanetary delivery of small payloads.

  1. New energy levels of praseodymium with large angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shamim; Siddiqui, Imran; Gamper, Bettina; Syed, Tanweer Iqbal; Guthoehrlein, Guenter H.; Windholz, Laurentius [Inst. f. Experimentalphysik, Techn. Univ. Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    The electronic ground state configuration of praseodymium {sup 59}Pr{sub 141} is [Xe] 4f{sup 3}6s{sup 2}, with ground state level {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}. Our research is mainly devoted to find previously unknown energy levels by the investigation of spectral lines and their hyperfine structures. In a hollow cathode discharge lamp praseodymium atoms and ions in ground and excited states are excited to high lying states by laser light. The excitation source is a tunable ring-dye laser system, operated with R6G, Kiton Red, DCM and LD700. A high resolution Fourier transform spectrum is used for selecting promising excitation wavelengths. Then the laser wavelength is tuned to a strong hyperfine component of the spectral line to be investigated, and a search for fluorescence from excited levels is performed. From the observed hyperfine structure we determine J-values and hyperfine constants A of the combining levels. This information, together with excitation and fluorescence wavelengths, allows us to find the energies of involved new levels. Up to now we have discovered large number of previously unknown energy levels with various angular momentum values. We present here the data (energies, parities, angular momenta J, magnetic hyperfine constants A) of ca. 40 new, until now unknown energy levels with high angular momentum values: 15/2, 17/2, 19/2, 21/2.

  2. Pion form factor in QCD at intermediate momentum transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V. M.; Khodjamirian, A.; Maul, M.

    2000-04-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the electromagnetic pion form factor in the light-cone sum rule approach, including radiative corrections and higher-twist effects. The comparison to the existing data favors the asymptotic profile of the pion distribution amplitude and allows us to estimate the deviation: [∫du/uφπ(u)]/[∫du/uφasπ(u)]=1.1+/-0.1 at the scale of 1 GeV. Special attention is paid to the precise definition and interplay of soft and hard contributions at intermediate momentum transfer, and to the matching of the sum rule to the perturbative QCD prediction. We observe a strong numerical cancellation between the soft (end-point) contribution and power-suppressed hard contributions of higher twist, so that the total nonperturbative correction to the usual PQCD result turns out to be of the order of 30% for Q2~1 GeV2.

  3. Multiple orbital angular momentum generated by dielectric hybrid phase element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Kuchmizhak, Aleksandr; Hu, Dejiao; Li, Xiangping

    2017-09-01

    Vortex beam carrying multiple orbital angular momentum provides a new degree of freedom to manipulate light leading to the various exciting applications as trapping, quantum optics, information multiplexing, etc. Helical wavefront can be generated either via the geometric or the dynamic phase arising from a space-variant birefringence (q-plate) or from phase accumulation through propagation (spiral-phase-plate), respectively. Using fast direct laser writing technique we fabricate and characterize novel hybrid q-plate generating vortex beam simultaneously carrying two different high-order topological charges, which arise from the spin-orbital conversion and the azimuthal height variation of the recorded structures. We approve the versatile concept to generate multiple-OAM vortex beams combining the spin-orbital interaction and the phase accumulation in a single micro-scale device, a hybrid dielectric phase plate.

  4. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  5. Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Ma, Xiaoliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhao, Zeyu; Wang, Changtao; Hu, Chenggang; Gao, Ping; Huang, Cheng; Ren, Haoran; Li, Xiangping; Qin, Fei; Yang, Jing; Gu, Min; Hong, Minghui; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    The catenary is the curve that a free-hanging chain assumes under its own weight, and thought to be a “true mathematical and mechanical form” in architecture by Robert Hooke in the 1670s, with nevertheless no significant phenomena observed in optics. We show that the optical catenary can serve as a unique building block of metasurfaces to produce continuous and linear phase shift covering [0, 2π], a mission that is extremely difficult if not impossible for state-of-the-art technology. Via catenary arrays, planar optical devices are designed and experimentally characterized to generate various kinds of beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). These devices can operate in an ultra-broadband spectrum because the anisotropic modes associated with the spin-orbit interaction are almost independent of the incident light frequency. By combining the optical and topological characteristics, our approach would allow the complete control of photons within a single nanometric layer. PMID:26601283

  6. Dirac states for unit position and momentum: Phase consistency of their angular momentum representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the position and momentum directional representations of angular momentum states must satisfy Σ/sub lambdas/ = Σ/sub lambdas/(i)/sup lambda/Y/sub lambdas/(r)Y/sub lambdas/ (p)*. This imposes phase constraints on the relation between , , Y/sub lambdas/ (r), and Y/sub lambdas/(p). In the accompanying paper, it is shown that this resolves a problem in the centrifugal sudden approximation of molecular collision theory

  7. Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y., E-mail: k.bliokh@gmail.com [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nonlinear Physics Centre, RSPhysE, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Nori, Franco [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2015-08-26

    We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin  angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin–direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.

  8. Air Bag Momentum Force Including Aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Nusholtz

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A gas-jet momentum force drives the air bag into position during a crash. The magnitude of this force can change as a result of aspiration. To determine the potential magnitude of the effect on the momentum force and mass flow rate in an aspirated system, a series of experiments and simulations of those experiments was conducted. The simulation consists of a two-dimensional unsteady isentropic CFD model with special “infinite boundaries”. One of the difficulties in simulating the gas-jet behavior is determining the mass flow rate. To improve the reliability of the mass flow rate input to the simulation, a sampling procedure involving multiple tests was used, and an average of the tests was adopted.

  9. Dynamics of high momentum transfer processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.

    1977-01-01

    The high momentum transfer processes are considered in terms of field theory of quarks interacting through scalar or pseudoscalar gluons. This approach is based on an algorithm involving the consideration of the Feynman diagram asymptotical behaviour and its summation. The Parton model and quark counting power are an approximation of not too high momentum transfer when anti g 2 (q 2 )ln(-q 2 /Λ) 2 -invariant charge, Λ-boundary parameter. The violation of scaling beyond this region depends on the character of charge renormalization and is of the same kind as in the Wilson expansion approach. Scaling in this region is suppressed by anti g 4 factor for high psub(UPSILON) hadroproduction and wide angle elastic scattering, and by anti g 2 factor for inclusive lepton production and wide angle electro- and photoproduction. Parameter Λ is controlled by hadron masses and can be essential for not too high psub(UPSILON)

  10. Transverse Momentum Correlations in Hadronic Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rizzo, G; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Hoffmann, C; Jakobs, K; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Bauer, C; Berlich, R; Blum, Walter; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1997-01-01

    Using data obtained with the ALEPH detector at the Z resonance, a measure based on transverse momentum is shown to exhibit a correlation between the two halves of a hadronic event which cannot be explained by energy-momentum conservation, flavour conservation, the imposition of an event axis or imperfect event reconstruction. Two possible explanations based on Monte Carlo models are examined: a) ARIADNE, with the correlation forming early in the parton shower and with the transition from partons to hadrons playing only a minor part; b) JETSET, with the correlation forming at the fragmentation stage. A correlation technique based on a jet cluster analysis is used to make a comparison of the models with the data. It is concluded that both non-perturbative and perturbative effects make important contributions to the observed correlation.

  11. Transport of momentum in full f gyrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I.; Catto, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Full f electrostatic gyrokinetic formulations employ two gyrokinetic equations, one for ions and the other for electrons, and quasineutrality to obtain the ion and electron distribution functions and the electrostatic potential. We demonstrate with several examples that the long wavelength radial electric field obtained with full f approaches is extremely sensitive to errors in the ion and electron density since small deviations in density give rise to large, nonphysical deviations in the conservation of toroidal angular momentum. For typical tokamak values, a relative error of 10 -7 in the ion or electron densities is enough to obtain the incorrect toroidal rotation. Based on the insights gained with the examples considered, three simple tests to check transport of toroidal angular momentum in full f simulations are proposed.

  12. Quantum scattering theory on the momentum lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubtsova, O. A.; Pomerantsev, V. N.; Kukulin, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach based on the wave-packet continuum discretization method recently developed by the present authors for solving quantum-mechanical scattering problems for atomic and nuclear scattering processes and few-body physics is described. The formalism uses the complete continuum discretization scheme in terms of the momentum stationary wave-packet basis, which leads to formulation of the scattering problem on a lattice in the momentum space. The solution of the few-body scattering problem can be found in the approach from linear matrix equations with nonsingular matrix elements, averaged on energy over lattice cells. The developed approach is illustrated by the solution of numerous two- and three-body scattering problems with local and nonlocal potentials below and well above the three-body breakup threshold.

  13. Angular momentum alignment in molecular beam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treffers, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown how the angular momentum alignment in a molecular beam can be determined using laser-induced fluorescence in combination with precession of the angular momenta in a magnetic field. After a general analysis of the method, some results are presented to illustrate the possibilities of the method. Experimental data are presented on the alignment production for Na 2 molecules that made a collision induced angular momentum transition. Magnitude as well as direction of the alignment have been determined for scattering with several scattering partners and for a large number of scattering angles and transitions. The last chapter deals with the total alignment production in a final J-state, i.e. without state selection of the initial rotational state. (orig.)

  14. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  15. Double-slit experiment in momentum space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I. P.; Seipt, D.; Surzhykov, A.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-08-01

    Young's classic double-slit experiment demonstrates the reality of interference when waves and particles travel simultaneously along two different spatial paths. Here, we propose a double-slit experiment in momentum space, realized in the free-space elastic scattering of vortex electrons. We show that this process proceeds along two paths in momentum space, which are well localized and well separated from each other. For such vortex beams, the (plane-wave) amplitudes along the two paths acquire adjustable phase shifts and produce interference fringes in the final angular distribution. We argue that this experiment can be realized with the present-day technology. We show that it gives experimental access to the Coulomb phase, a quantity which plays an important role in all charged particle scattering but which usual scattering experiments are insensitive to.

  16. Behavior of nuclei at high angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1982-07-01

    The present report begins with a brief overview of nuclear shapes and level structures at high-spin values. The new spectroscopy associated with angular-momentum alignments is described, and some of the exciting possibilities of this spectroscopy are explored. Nuclear moments of inertia are discussed and a somewhat different one is defined, together with a method for measuring it and some early results. Finally a few comments on the future prospects for high-spin physics are offered

  17. Relativistic neoclassical transport coefficients with momentum correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marushchenko, I.; Azarenkov, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The parallel momentum correction technique is generalized for relativistic approach. It is required for proper calculation of the parallel neoclassical flows and, in particular, for the bootstrap current at fusion temperatures. It is shown that the obtained system of linear algebraic equations for parallel fluxes can be solved directly without calculation of the distribution function if the relativistic mono-energetic transport coefficients are already known. The first relativistic correction terms for Braginskii matrix coefficients are calculated.

  18. On transverse momentum dependence of average multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slepchenko, L.A.; Matveev, V.A.; Sissakian, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    The behaviour of the mean associated multiplicity of the secondary particles as function of the transverse momentum is considered. New scaling regularities of the cross-sections of the semi-inclusive reactions are predicted and compared with the experimental data obtained in the two-meter propane chamber of JINR, irradiated by π - -mesons with p=40 GeV/c at the Serpukhov accelerator

  19. Production of baryons with large transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.; Scott, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    The multiple scattering of constituent quarks provides a natural mechanism for fairly copious production of large-transverse-momentum baryons in nucleon--nucleon collisions. The predicted scaling law agrees well with available data, and the mechanism provides a qualitative explanation of nuclear-target effects. In comparison with previous parton models, correlations are predicted to be qualitatively different, and large-p/sub T/ baryon production by meson beams is relatively suppressed

  20. Energy-momentum-tensor in quantumelectrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, T

    1974-01-01

    This work deals with the operator properties of the energy-momentum-tensor (ET) in the framework of quantum electrodynamics. The principles of construction of the ET are discussed for quantized fields in the Schwinger variation principle. Dealing with the conserved quantities for quantized fields operator problems are coming up in the Coulomb gauge because Dirac- and Maxwellfield do not commute completely. Further on contemporary commutators of the ET components are investigated mutually. Finally non-canonical methods are developed.

  1. Transverse momentum signatures for heavy Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahn, R.N.; Ellis, S.D.; Kleiss, R.; Stirling, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Heavy Higgs bosons produced by WW fusion at the SSC will have transverse mementum of order M/sub w/. The background due to q anti q → ZZ will produce pairs with characteristically less transverse momentum. This provides a useful discriminator. It may be possible to tag the WW fusion events in a manner analogous to that used in two photon physics. 12 refs., 4 figs

  2. Our Theme for 2016: Sustaining Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    of design architectures and interfaces to make both open sys- tems and modularity a reality. This is “owning the technical baseline,” and the devil... write this year, although we will be implementing the changes required in the Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 National Defense Au- thorization Act. We still...Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics on the momentum we have gained as we get ready for a new administration next year. Promote Technical

  3. High momentum transfer processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Radyushkin, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A unified approach to the investigation of inclusive high momentum transfer processes in the QCD framework is proposed. A modified parton model (with parton distribution functions depending on an additional renormalization parameter) is shown to be valid in all orders of perturbation theory. The approach is also applicable for studying wide-angle elastic scattering processes of colourless bound states of quarks (the hadrons). The asymptotic behaviour of pion electromagnetic form factor is calculated as an example

  4. High Angular Momentum Rydberg Wave Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyker, Brendan

    2011-12-01

    High angular momentum Rydberg wave packets are studied. Application of carefully tailored electric fields to low angular momentum, high- n (n ˜ 300) Rydberg atoms creates coherent superpositions of Stark states with near extreme values of angular momentum, ℓ. Wave packet components orbit the parent nucleus at rates that depend on their energy, leading to periods of localization and delocalization as the components come into and go out of phase with each other. Monitoring survival probability signals in the presence of position dependent probing leads to observation of characteristic oscillations based on the composition of the wave packet. The discrete nature of electron energy levels is observed through the measurement of quantum revivals in the wave packet localization signal. Time-domain spectroscopy of these signals allows determination of both the population and phase of individual superposition components. Precise manipulation of wave packets is achieved through further application of pulsed electric fields. Decoherence effects due to background gas collisions and electrical noise are also detailed. Quantized classical trajectory Monte-Carlo simulations are introduced and agree remarkably well with experimental results.

  5. On the angular momentum in star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horedt, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    The author discusses the rotation of interstellar clouds which are in a stage immediately before star formation. Cloud collisions seem to be the principal cause of the observed rotation of interstellar clouds. The rotational motion of the clouds is strongly influenced by turbulence. Theories dealing with the resolution of the angular momentum problem in star formation are classified into five major groups. The old idea that the angular momentum of an interstellar cloud passes during star formation into the angular momentum of double star systems and/or circumstellar clouds, is developed. It is suggested that a rotating gas cloud contracts into a ring-like structure which fragments into self-gravitating subcondensations. By collisions and gas accretion these subcondensations accrete into binary systems surrounded by circumstellar clouds. Using some rough approximations the authors find analytical expressions for the semi-major axis of the binary system and for the density of the circumstellar clouds as a function of the initial density and of the initial angular velocity of an interstellar cloud. The obtained values are well within the observational limits. (Auth.)

  6. Asymmetric Extreme Tails and Prospective Utility of Momentum Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stork, P.A.; Gregory-Allen, R.; Lu, H.

    2012-01-01

    We use extreme value theory to analyse the tails of a momentum strategy's return distribution. The asymmetry between the fat left tail and thin right tail strongly reduces a momentum strategy's prospective utility levels. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Sorting and quantifying orbital angular momentum of laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel tool for sorting the orbital angular momentum and to determine the orbital angular momentum density of laser beams, which is based on the use of correlation filters....

  8. Dimensional Effects on the Momentum distribution of Bosonic Trimer States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Bellotti, F.; Frederico, T.; T. Yamashita, M.

    2013-01-01

    -body contact parameter is universal and then demonstrate that the momentum distribution at next-to-leading order has a logarithmic dependence on momentum which is vastly different from the three-dimensional case. Based on this, we propose a scheme for measuring the effective dimensionality of a quantum many......-body system by exploiting the functional form of the momentum distribution....

  9. Parametric dependences of momentum pinch and Prandtl number in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tala, T.; Salmi, A.; Angioni, C.; Casson, F. J.; Corrigan, G.; Ferreira, J.; Giroud, C.; Mantica, P.; Naulin, V.; Peeters, A.G.; Solomon, W. M.; Strintzi, D.; Tsalas, M.; Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2011-01-01

    Several parametric scans have been performed to study momentum transport on JET. A neutral beam injection modulation technique has been applied to separate the diffusive and convective momentum transport terms. The magnitude of the inward momentum pinch depends strongly on the inverse density

  10. REIT Momentum and the Performance of Real Estate Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Derwall (Jeroen); J.J. Huij (Joop); W.A. Marquering (Wessel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractREITs exhibit a strong and prevalent momentum effect that is not captured by conventional factor models. This REIT momentum anomaly hampers proper judgments about the performance of actively managed REIT portfolios. In contrast, a REIT momentum factor adds incremental explanatory power

  11. Poynting Theorem, Relativistic Transformation of Total Energy-Momentum and Electromagnetic Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander; Missevitch, Oleg; Yarman, Tolga

    2016-02-01

    We address to the Poynting theorem for the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic field, and demonstrate that the standard expressions for the electromagnetic energy flux and related field momentum, in general, come into the contradiction with the relativistic transformation of four-vector of total energy-momentum. We show that this inconsistency stems from the incorrect application of Poynting theorem to a system of discrete point-like charges, when the terms of self-interaction in the product {\\varvec{j}} \\cdot {\\varvec{E}} (where the current density {\\varvec{j}} and bound electric field {\\varvec{E}} are generated by the same source charge) are exogenously omitted. Implementing a transformation of the Poynting theorem to the form, where the terms of self-interaction are eliminated via Maxwell equations and vector calculus in a mathematically rigorous way (Kholmetskii et al., Phys Scr 83:055406, 2011), we obtained a novel expression for field momentum, which is fully compatible with the Lorentz transformation for total energy-momentum. The results obtained are discussed along with the novel expression for the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.

  12. Dependence of two-neutron momentum densities on total pair momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joseph A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiringa, R B [ANL; Schiavilla, R [JEFFERSON LAB; Pieper, Steven C [ANL

    2008-01-01

    Two-nucleon momentum distributions are calculated for the ground states of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He as a function of the nucleons' relative and total momenta. We use variational Monte Carlo wave functions derived from a realistic Hamiltonian with two- and three-nucleon potentials. The momentum distribution of pp pairs is found to be much smaller than that of pn pairs for values of the relative momentum in the range (300--500) MeV/c and vanishing total momentum. Howeer, as the totalmomentum increases to 400 MeV/c, the ratio of pp to pn pairs in this relative momentum range grows and approaches the limit 1/2 for {sup 3}He and 1/4 for {sup 4}He, corresponding to the ratio of pp to pn pairs in these nuclei. This behavior should be easily observable in two-nucleon knock-out processes, such as A(e, e'pN).

  13. Transverse characterization of focused Bessel beams with angular momentum applied to study degree of coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xi; Wu, Fengtie; Chen, Ziyang; Pu, Jixiong; Chavez-Cerda, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    The transverse focusing properties at the ‘pseudo-focal’ plane of coherent Bessel beams with angular momentum are analyzed in detail. The transverse magnification of the central dark region of Bessel beams at this pseudo-focal plane is derived for the first time by calculating the ratio of the magnitude of the transverse components of the corresponding wave vectors before and after the focusing lens. We test our results experimentally with coherent laser Bessel beams and excellent agreement is observed. Then, an LED light source is used to generate Bessel beams. By modifying the coherence of the LED light source, we observe that by reducing coherence a smaller and shallower central dark region of Bessel beams with angular momentum is produced at the pseudo-focal plane. This technique can be used as a method to characterize the degree of coherence of vortex beams. (paper)

  14. Optical forces through guided light deflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton

    2013-01-01

    . In this work we look into the object shaping aspect and its potential for controlled optical manipulation. Using a simple bent waveguide as example, our numerical simulations show that the guided deflection of light efficiently converts incident light momentum into optical force with one order...

  15. Systematic studies of binding energy dependence of neutron-proton momentum correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y B; Ma, Y G; Shen, W Q; Ma, G L; Wang, K; Cai, X Z; Zhong, C; Guo, W; Chen, J G; Fang, D Q; Tian, W D; Zhou, X F

    2004-01-01

    Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) results of the neutron-proton correlation function have been systematically investigated for a series of nuclear reactions with light projectiles with the help of the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The relationship between the binding energy per nucleon of the projectiles and the strength of the neutron-proton HBT at small relative momentum has been obtained. Results show that neutron-proton HBT results are sensitive to the binding energy per nucleon

  16. Energy-momentum tensor in the fermion-pairing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawati, S.; Miyata, H.

    1980-01-01

    The symmetric energy-momentum tensor for the self-interacting fermion theory (psi-barpsi) 2 is expressed in terms of the collective mode within the Hartree approximation. The divergent part of the energy-momentum tensor for the fermion theory induces an effective energy-momentum tensor for the collective mode, and this effective energy-momentum tensor automatically has the Callan-Coleman-Jackiw improved form. The renormalized energy-momentum tensor is structurally equivalent to the Callan-Coleman-Jackiw improved tensor for the Yukawa theory

  17. First-principles momentum-dependent local ansatz wavefunction and momentum distribution function bands of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi–Dirac function for the d electrons with e g symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. (author)

  18. First-Principles Momentum-Dependent Local Ansatz Wavefunction and Momentum Distribution Function Bands of Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac function for the d electrons with eg symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data.

  19. Electron--molecule scattering in momentum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, B.

    1979-01-01

    We examine the Fourier transform of the Schroedinger equation for electron--molecule scattering, treated as potential scattering from a multicenter distribution of charged fixed in space. When the angle theta between R,the internuclear vector of a diatomic target, and q, the momentum transfer, is held fixed during the collision, then the directions of incidence and scattering are fixed relative to R. The process is then described as having a dynamical dependence on the magnitude of q, q, from which the scattering angle is determined, and a parametric dependence on q's direction relative to R. This approximation is used routinely at high energies in the calculation of the Born amplitude. Fixed--nuclei coordinate--space studies suggest that this approximation can be extended to low energies, provided the amplitude is taken from the solution of the integral equation of momentum space rather than from its inhomogeneity, proportional to the Born amplitude. We constrain R to be in the same direction relative to q', a virtual momentum transfer belonging to the kernel, as it is to q.Calculations are performed for the e, H 2 scattering in the static approximation, and cross sections averaged over theta/sub R/ are shown to be in good agreement with cross sections calculated by use of coupled spherical and coupled spheroidal partial wave theories. The angular distribution in the static approximation is also calculated at an incident energy close to 7 eV, where exchange is relatively unimportant. This result is in reasonably good agreement with that of R matrix theory in the static--exchange approximation. The extension of the theory to treat exchange is formulated and discussed. Also its extension to treat more complicated molecular targets is discussed

  20. Parasitic momentum flux in the tokamak core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.

    2017-10-01

    Tokamak plasmas rotate spontaneously without applied torque. This intrinsic rotation is important for future low-torque devices such as ITER, since rotation stabilizes certain instabilities. In the mid-radius `gradient region,' which reaches from the sawtooth inversion radius out to the pedestal top, intrinsic rotation profiles may be either flat or hollow, and can transition suddenly between these two states, an unexplained phenomenon referred to as rotation reversal. Theoretical efforts to explain the mid-radius rotation shear have largely focused on quasilinear models, in which the phase relationships of some selected instability result in a nondiffusive momentum flux (``residual stress''). In contrast, the present work demonstrates the existence of a robust, fully nonlinear symmetry-breaking momentum flux that follows from the free-energy flow in phase space and does not depend on any assumed linear eigenmode structure. The physical origin is an often-neglected portion of the radial ExB drift, which is shown to drive a symmetry-breaking outward flux of co-current momentum whenever free energy is transferred from the electrostatic potential to ion parallel flows. The fully nonlinear derivation relies only on conservation properties and symmetry, thus retaining the important contribution of damped modes. The resulting rotation peaking is counter-current and scales as temperature over plasma current. As first demonstrated by Landau, this free-energy transfer (thus also the corresponding residual stress) becomes inactive when frequencies are much higher than the ion transit frequency, which allows sudden transitions between hollow and flat profiles. Simple estimates suggest that this mechanism may be consistent with experimental observations. This work was funded in part by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics and in part by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  1. Energy-momentum density of graphite by electron-momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, M.; Fang, Z.; Canney, S.; Kheifets, A.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1996-11-01

    The energy-resolved electron momentum density of graphite has been measured along a series of well-defined directions using electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). This is the first measurement of this kind performed on a single-crystal target with a thoroughly controlled orientation which clearly demonstrates the different nature of the σ and π bands in graphite. Good agreement between the calculated density and the measured one is found, further establishing that fact that EMS yields more direct and complete information on the valence electronic structure that any other method. 12 refs., 2 figs

  2. The angular momentum of isolated white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brassard P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a very brief report on an ongoing program aimed at mapping the internal rotation profiles of stars through asteroseismology. Three years ago, we developed and applied successfully a new technique to the pulsating GW Vir white dwarf PG 1159−035, and were able to infer that it rotates very slowly and rigidly over some 99% of its mass. We applied the same approach to the three other GW Vir pulsators with available rotational splitting data, and found similar results. We discuss the implications of these findings on the question of the angular momentum of white dwarfs resulting from single star evolution.

  3. Projection of angular momentum via linear algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Calvin W.; O'Mara, Kevin D.

    2017-12-01

    Projection of many-body states with good angular momentum from an initial state is usually accomplished by a three-dimensional integral. We show how projection can instead be done by solving a straightforward system of linear equations. We demonstrate the method and give sample applications to 48Cr and 60Fe in the p f shell. This new projection scheme, which is competitive against the standard numerical quadrature, should also be applicable to other quantum numbers such as isospin and particle number.

  4. MINET [momentum integral network] code documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Nepsee, T.C.; Guppy, J.G.

    1989-12-01

    The MINET computer code, developed for the transient analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer, is documented in this four-part reference. In Part 1, the MINET models, which are based on a momentum integral network method, are described. The various aspects of utilizing the MINET code are discussed in Part 2, The User's Manual. The third part is a code description, detailing the basic code structure and the various subroutines and functions that make up MINET. In Part 4, example input decks, as well as recent validation studies and applications of MINET are summarized. 32 refs., 36 figs., 47 tabs

  5. Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trichili, A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available :27674 | DOI: 10.1038/srep27674 www.nature.com/scientificreports Optical communication beyond orbital angular momentum Abderrahmen Trichili1, Carmelo Rosales-Guzmán2, Angela Dudley2,3, Bienvenu Ndagano2, Amine Ben Salem1, Mourad Zghal1,4 & Andrew Forbes2 Mode....rosalesguzman@wits.ac.za) received: 29 March 2016 Accepted: 24 May 2016 Published: 10 June 2016 OPEN www.nature.com/scientificreports/ 2Scientific RepoRts | 6:27674 | DOI: 10.1038/srep27674 Results Consider a LG mode in cylindrical coordinates, at its waist plane (z = 0), described...

  6. The QCD vacuum at infinite momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    We outline how ''topological confinement'' can be seen by the analysis of Regge limit infra-red divergences. We suggest that it is a necessary bridge between conventional confinement and the parton model at infinite momentum. It is produced by adding a chiral doublet of color sextet quarks to conventional QCD. An immediate signature of the resultant electroweak symmetry breaking would be large cross-sections for W + W/sup /minus// and Z 0 Z 0 pairs at the CERN and Fermilab /bar p/p colliders. 24 refs

  7. Angular momentum effects in subbarrier fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbert, M.L.; Beene, J.R.; Hensley, D.C.; Honkanen, K.; Semkow, T.M.; Abenante, V.; Sarantites, D.G.; Li, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss angular-momentum distributions σ l for the compound nucleus 164 Yb deduced from measurements of γ-ray multiplicity for all significant evaporation residues from fusion of 64 Ni and 100 Mo and 16 O + 148 Sm. At the lowest bombarding energies the σ l extend to higher l values than do predictions that include coupling of the principal inelastic channels, even if the coupling strengths are increased to match the experimental excitation function. Likewise, σ l from an energy-dependent real potential fitted to the excitation function fails to reproduce the experimental σ l distribution. No effects attributed to superdeformation were observed

  8. Symmetry and bifurcations of momentum mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arms, J.M.; Marsden, J.E.; Moncrief, V.

    1981-01-01

    The zero set of a momentum mapping is shown to have a singularity at each point with symmetry. The zero set is diffeomorphic to the product of a manifold and the zero set of a homogeneous quadratic function. The proof uses the Kuranishi theory of deformations. Among the applications, it is shown that the set of all solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on a Lorentz manifold has a singularity at any solution with symmetry, in the sense of a pure gauge symmetry. Similarly, the set of solutions of Einstein's equations has a singularity at any solution that has spacelike Killing fields, provided the spacetime has a compact Cauchy surface. (orig.)

  9. External momentum expansion in NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mei; Zhao Weiqin; Zhuang Pengfei

    1999-01-01

    In the large N c expansion beyond mean-field approximation, the authors develop a general scheme of SU(2) NJL model including current quark mass explicitly. In the scheme, the constituent quark's propagator is expanded in pions external momentum k, and all the Feynman diagrams are naturally expanded to k 2 term in a unified way. The numerical results show that in the mean field approximation, the effect of current quark mass is invisible, however, the effect of current quark mass can be seen explicitly beyond mean-field approximation for reasonable choices of the parameters in NJL model

  10. Symmetry and bifurcations of momentum mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Judith M.; Marsden, Jerrold E.; Moncrief, Vincent

    1981-01-01

    The zero set of a momentum mapping is shown to have a singularity at each point with symmetry. The zero set is diffeomorphic to the product of a manifold and the zero set of a homogeneous quadratic function. The proof uses the Kuranishi theory of deformations. Among the applications, it is shown that the set of all solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on a Lorentz manifold has a singularity at any solution with symmetry, in the sense of a pure gauge symmetry. Similarly, the set of solutions of Einstein's equations has a singularity at any solution that has spacelike Killing fields, provided the spacetime has a compact Cauchy surface.

  11. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department

    2017-01-01

    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  12. Spatiotemporal polarization gradients in phase-bearing light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lembessis, V. E.; Babiker, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown how the interference of two circularly polarized laser beams endowed with orbital angular momentum can give rise to spatial and temporal polarization gradients, displaying axial as well as angular symmetry properties. Illustrations are given with reference to circularly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams as typical light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

  13. A proposed measurement of optical orbital and spin angular momentum and its implications for photon angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Elliot

    2018-04-01

    The expression for the total angular momentum carried by a laser optical vortex beam, splits, in the paraxial approximation, into two terms which seem to represent orbital and spin angular momentum respectively. There are, however, two very different competing versions of the formula for the spin angular momentum, one based on the use of the Poynting vector, as in classical electrodynamics, the other related to the canonical expression for the angular momentum which occurs in Quantum Electrodynamics. I analyze the possibility that a sufficiently sensitive optical measurement could decide which of these corresponds to the actual physical angular momentum carried by the beam.

  14. Orbital angular momentum of general astigmatic modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Jorrit; Nienhuis, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    We present an operator method to obtain complete sets of astigmatic Gaussian solutions of the paraxial wave equation. In case of general astigmatism, the astigmatic intensity and phase distribution of the fundamental mode differ in orientation. As a consequence, the fundamental mode has a nonzero orbital angular momentum, which is not due to phase singularities. Analogous to the operator method for the quantum harmonic oscillator, the corresponding astigmatic higher-order modes are obtained by repeated application of raising operators on the fundamental mode. The nature of the higher-order modes is characterized by a point on a sphere, in analogy with the representation of polarization on the Poincare sphere. The north and south poles represent astigmatic Laguerre-Gaussian modes, similar to circular polarization on the Poincare sphere, while astigmatic Hermite-Gaussian modes are associated with points on the equator, analogous to linear polarization. We discuss the propagation properties of the modes and their orbital angular momentum, which depends on the degree of astigmatism and on the location of the point on the sphere

  15. The LANSCE Low Momentum Beam Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Merl, R

    2004-01-01

    A diagnostic has been developed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for the purpose of identifying low momentum beam tails in the linear accelerator. These tails must be eliminated in order to maintain the transverse and longitudinal beam size. Instead of the currently used phosphor camera system, this instrument consists of a Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) front end coupled to an EPICS compliant VME-based electronics package. Low momentum tails are detected with a resolution of 5 mm in the MWPC at a high dispersion point near a bending magnet. While phosphor is typically not sensitive in the nano amp range, the MWPC is sensitive down to about a pico amp. The electronics package processes the signals from each of the MWPC wires to generate an array of beam currents at each of the lower energies. The electronics has an analog front end with a high-speed analog to digital converter for each wire. Data from multiple wires are processed with an embedded digital signal processor and results p...

  16. Momentum Cogging at the Fermilab Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiya, K.; Drennan, C.C.; Pellico, W.; Triplett, A.K.; Waller, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermilab Booster has an upgrade plan called the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). The flux throughput goal is 2E17 protons/hour which, is almost double the present flux, 1.1E17 protons/hour. The beam loss in the machine is going to be an issue. The Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV and extracts to the Main Injector (MI). The current cogging process synchronizes the extraction kicker gap to the MI by changing radial position of the beam during the cycle. The gap creation occurs at about 700 MeV, which is about 6 ms into the cycle. The cycle-to-cycle variations of the Booster are larger at lower energy. However, changing the radial position at low energy for cogging is limited because of aperture. Momentum cogging is able to move the gap creation to an earlier time by using dipole correctors and radial position feedback, and is able to control the revolution frequency and radial position at the same time. The new cogging is expected to reduce beam loss and not be limited by aperture. The progress of the momentum cogging system development is going to be discussed in this paper.

  17. Inefficient Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers: Angular Momentum Belt in the Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Quataert, Eliot

    2018-04-01

    We present unstratified 3D MHD simulations of an accretion disk with a boundary layer (BL) that have a duration ˜1000 orbital periods at the inner radius of the accretion disk. We find the surprising result that angular momentum piles up in the boundary layer, which results in a rapidly rotating belt of accreted material at the surface of the star. The angular momentum stored in this belt increases monotonically in time, which implies that angular momentum transport mechanisms in the BL are inefficient and do not couple the accretion disk to the star. This is in spite of the fact that magnetic fields are advected into the BL from the disk and supersonic shear instabilities in the BL excite acoustic waves. In our simulations, these waves only carry a small fraction (˜10%) of the angular momentum required for steady state accretion. Using analytical theory and 2D viscous simulations in the R - ϕ plane, we derive an analytical criterion for belt formation to occur in the BL in terms of the ratio of the viscosity in the accretion disk to the viscosity in the BL. Our MHD simulations have a dimensionless viscosity (α) in the BL that is at least a factor of ˜100 smaller than that in the disk. We discuss the implications of these results for BL dynamics and emission.

  18. Momentum and Angular Momentum Transfer in Oblique Impacts: Implications for Asteroid Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Hasegawa, Sunao; Shirogane, Nobutoshi

    1996-09-01

    We conducted a series of high velocity oblique impact experiments (0.66-6.7 km/s) using polycarbonate (plastic) projectiles and targets made of mortar, aluminum alloy, and mild steel. We then calculated the efficiencies of momentum transfer for small cratering impacts. They are η = (M‧Vn‧)/(mvn) and ζ = (M‧Vt‧)/(mvt), wheremandvare the mass and velocity of a projectile, andM‧ andV‧ represent those of a postimpact target. Subscripts “n” and “t” denote the components normal and tangential to the target surface at the impact point, respectively. The main findings are: (1) η increases with increasing impact velocity; (2) η is larger for mortar than for ductile metallic targets; (3) ζ for mortar targets seems to increase with the impact velocity in the velocity range less than about 2 km/s and decrease with it in the higher velocity range; (4) ζ for the aluminum alloy targets correlates negatively with incident zenith angle of the projectile. In addition to these findings on the momentum transfer, we show theoretically that “ζL” can be expressed by η and ζ for small cratering impact. Here, ζLis the spin angular momentum that the target acquires at impact divided by the collisional angular momentum due to the projectile. This is an important parameter to study the collisional evolution of asteroid rotation. For a spherical target, ζLis shown to be well approximated by ζ.

  19. Energy-momentum structure of the krypton valence shell by electron-momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.; Braidwood, S.W.; McCathy, I.E.; Weigold, E.; Brunger, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    Momentum distributions and spectroscopic factors are obtained in a high resolution electron-momentum spectroscopy study of krypton at 1000 eV. The shapes and relative magnitudes of the momentum profiles are in good agreement with the results of calculations made within the distorted-wave impulse approximation (DWIA) framework. The DWIA describes the relative magnitudes of the 4p and 4s manifolds as well as giving a good representation of the shapes of the respective 4p and 4s cross sections. Results for the momentum profiles belonging to excited 2 P o and 2 S e manifolds are also presented. Spectroscopic factors for transitions belonging to the 2 p o and 2 S e manifolds are assigned up to a binding energy of 42 eV. The spectroscopic factor for the lowest 4s transition is 0.51 ± 0.01, whereas that for the ground-state 4p transition is 0.98± 0.01. Comparisons of the present binding energies and spectroscopic factors are made against the results of several many-body calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) results. In addition, a new procedure is outlined, utilising the experimental 4p and 4s manifold cross sections, that provides information on possible initial state configuration interaction effects in krypton. 50 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  20. Toward a general theory of momentum-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    The future actions, behaviors, and outcomes of objects, individuals, and processes can often be anticipated, and some of these anticipations have been hypothesized to result from momentum-like effects. Five types of momentum-like effects (representational momentum, operational momentum, attentional momentum, behavioral momentum, psychological momentum) are briefly described. Potential similarities involving properties of momentum-like effects (continuation, coherence, role of chance or guessing, role of sensory processing, imperviousness to practice or error feedback, shifts in memory for position, effects of changes in velocity, rapid occurrence, effects of retention interval, attachment to an object rather than an abstract frame of reference, nonrigid transformation) are described, and potential constraints on a future theory of momentum-like effects (dynamic representation, nature of extrapolation, sensitivity to environmental contingencies, bridging gaps between stimulus and response, increasing adaptiveness to the environment, serving as a heuristic for perception and action, insensitivity to stimulus format, importance of subjective consequences, role of knowledge and belief, automaticity of occurrence, properties of functional architecture) are discussed. The similarity and ubiquity of momentum-like effects suggests such effects might result from a single or small number of mechanisms that operate over different dimensions, modalities, and time-scales and provide a fundamental adaptation for perception and action. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Free-space data transfer using the spatial modes of light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gailele, Lucas M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light has become the focus of intensive research. Traditional optical communication systems optimize multiplexing in the polarization and the wavelength of light to attain an increase in bandwith. However we...

  2. Light-Front QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.

    2004-11-30

    In these lectures, I survey a number of applications of light-front methods to hadron and nuclear physics phenomenology and dynamics, including light-front statistical physics. Light-front Fock-state wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom. Nonperturbative methods for computing LFWFs in QCD are discussed, including string/gauge duality which predicts the power-law fall-off at high momentum transfer of light-front Fock-state hadronic wavefunctions with an arbitrary number of constituents and orbital angular momentum. The AdS/CFT correspondence has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders derivation of counting rules for exclusive processes. One can also compute the hadronic spectrum of near-conformal QCD assuming a truncated AdS/CFT space. Given the LFWFs, one can compute form factors, heavy hadron decay amplitudes, hadron distribution amplitudes, and the generalized parton distributions underlying deeply virtual Compton scattering. The quantum fluctuations represented by the light-front Fock expansion leads to novel QCD phenomena such as color transparency, intrinsic heavy quark distributions, diffractive dissociation, and hidden-color components of nuclear wavefunctions. A new test of hidden color in deuteron photodisintegration is proposed. The origin of leading-twist phenomena such as the diffractive component of deep inelastic scattering, single-spin asymmetries, nuclear shadowing and antishadowing is also discussed; these phenomena cannot be described by light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. Part of the anomalous NuTeV results for the weak mixing angle {theta}{sub W} could be due to the non-universality of nuclear antishadowing for charged and neutral currents.

  3. Untangling Galaxy Components - The Angular Momentum Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Martha; Merrifield, Michael; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a new technique to decompose Integral Field spectral data cubes into separate bulge and disk components, allowing us to study the kinematic and stellar population properties of the individual components and how they vary with position. We present here the application of this method to a sample of fast rotator early type galaxies from the MaNGA integral field survey, and demonstrate how it can be used to explore key properties of the individual components. By extracting ages, metallicities and the angular momentum parameter lambda of the bulges and disks, we show how this method can give us new insights into the underlying structure of the galaxies and discuss what this can tell us about their evolution history.

  4. Intrinsic Orbital Angular Momentum States of Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Ronald L.; Jach, Terrence; Vinson, John

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that single-particle wave functions, of both photons and electrons, can be created with a phase vortex, i.e., an intrinsic orbital angular momentum (OAM). A recent experiment has claimed similar success using neutrons [C. W. Clark et al., Nature, 525, 504 (2015), 10.1038/nature15265]. We show that their results are insufficient to unambiguously demonstrate OAM, and they can be fully explained as phase contrast interference patterns. Furthermore, given the small transverse coherence length of the neutrons in the original experiment, the probability that any neutron was placed in an OAM state is vanishingly small. We highlight the importance of the relative size of the coherence length, which presents a unique challenge for neutron experiments compared to electron or photon work, and we suggest improvements for the creation of neutron OAM states.

  5. China-The Momentum Keeps Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Stephen Green; Judy H Zhu

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's August data came in better than July's.In particular,new loans were CNY 410bn(USD 60bn),allaying concerns about the negative impact of slower loan growth.We expect the momentum to remain strong for at least two more quarters.We look for the domestic private sector and exports to pick up some of the slack as the stimulus effect fades in H2-2010.Real tightening-by which we mean a hard constraint on loan availability-is at least three quarters away.However,in the meantime,we expect reserve requirements and rate hikes to be a shot across the bow,the latter possibly starting in Q2.

  6. Angular momentum of dark matter black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.frampton@gmail.com

    2017-04-10

    We provide strongly suggestive evidence that the halo constituents of dark matter are Primordial Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (PIMBHs). PIMBHs are described by a Kerr metric with two parameters, mass M and angular momentum J. There has been little discussion of J since it plays no role in the upcoming attempt at PIMBH detection by microlensing. Nevertheless J does play a central role in understanding their previous lack of detection, especially by CMB distortion. We explain why bounds previously derived from lack of CMB distortion are too strong for PIMBHs with J non-vanishing and that, provided almost no dark matter black holes originate from stellar collapse, excessive CMB distortion is avoided.

  7. Topological photonic orbital-angular-momentum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2018-04-01

    The large number of available orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) states of photons provides a unique resource for many important applications in quantum information and optical communications. However, conventional OAM switching devices usually rely on precise parameter control and are limited by slow switching rate and low efficiency. Here we propose a robust, fast, and efficient photonic OAM switch device based on a topological process, where photons are adiabatically pumped to a target OAM state on demand. Such topological OAM pumping can be realized through manipulating photons in a few degenerate main cavities and involves only a limited number of optical elements. A large change of OAM at ˜10q can be realized with only q degenerate main cavities and at most 5 q pumping cycles. The topological photonic OAM switch may become a powerful device for broad applications in many different fields and motivate a topological design of conventional optical devices.

  8. Behavioral momentum theory: equations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral momentum theory provides a quantitative account of how reinforcers experienced within a discriminative stimulus context govern the persistence of behavior that occurs in that context. The theory suggests that all reinforcers obtained in the presence of a discriminative stimulus increase resistance to change, regardless of whether those reinforcers are contingent on the target behavior, are noncontingent, or are even contingent on an alternative behavior. In this paper, we describe the equations that constitute the theory and address their application to issues of particular importance in applied settings. The theory provides a framework within which to consider the effects of interventions such as extinction, noncontingent reinforcement, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, and other phenomena (e.g., resurgence). Finally, the theory predicts some counterintuitive and potentially counterproductive effects of alternative reinforcement, and can serve as an integrative guide for intervention when its terms are identified with the relevant conditions of applied settings.

  9. Anderson localization and momentum-space entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Eric C; Steudtner, Mark; Vojta, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We consider Anderson localization and the associated metal–insulator transition for non-interacting fermions in D = 1, 2 space dimensions in the presence of spatially correlated on-site random potentials. To assess the nature of the wave function, we follow a recent proposal to study momentum-space entanglement. For a D = 1 model with long-range disorder correlations, both the entanglement spectrum and the entanglement entropy allow us to clearly distinguish between extended and localized states based upon a single realization of disorder. However, for other models, including the D = 2 case with long-range correlated disorder, we find that the method is not similarly successful. We analyze the reasons for its failure, concluding that the much desired generalization to higher dimensions may be problematic. (paper)

  10. Fourier transform of momentum distribution in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Manuel, A.A.; Peter, M.; Singru, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental Compton profile and 2D-angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation data from vanadium are analyzed by the mean of their Fourier transform. They are compared with the functions calculated with the help of both the linear muffin-tin orbital and the Hubbard-Mijnarends band structure methods. The results show that the functions are influenced by the positron wave function, by the e + -e - many-body correlations and by the differences in the electron wave functions used for the band structure calculations. It is concluded that Fourier analysis is a sensitive approach to investigate the momentum distributions in transition metals and to understnad the effects of the positron. (Auth.)

  11. Symmetry and bifurcations of momentum mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arms, J.M.; Marsden, J.E.; Moncrief, V.

    1981-01-01

    The zero set of a momentum mapping is shown to have a singularity at each point with symmetry. The zero set is diffeomorphic to the product of a manifold and the zero set of a homogeneous quadratic function. The proof uses the Kuranishi theory of deformations. Among the applications, it is shown that the set of all solutions of the Yang-Mills equations on a Lorentz manifold has a singularity at any solution with symmetry, in the sense of a pure gauge symmetry. Similarly, the set of solutions of Einstein's equations has a singularity at any solution that has spacelike Killing fields, provided the spacetime has a compact Cauchy surface.

  12. Anomalous transport and holographic momentum relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Christian; Fernández-Pendás, Jorge; Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio

    2017-09-01

    The chiral magnetic and vortical effects denote the generation of dissipationless currents due to magnetic fields or rotation. They can be studied in holographic models with Chern-Simons couplings dual to anomalies in field theory. We study a holographic model with translation symmetry breaking based on linear massless scalar field backgrounds. We compute the electric DC conductivity and find that it can vanish for certain values of the translation symmetry breaking couplings. Then we compute the chiral magnetic and chiral vortical conductivities. They are completely independent of the holographic disorder couplings and take the usual values in terms of chemical potential and temperature. To arrive at this result we suggest a new definition of energy-momentum tensor in presence of the gravitational Chern-Simons coupling.

  13. Orbital Propagation of Momentum Exchange Tether Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, John

    2002-01-01

    An advanced concept in in-space transportation currently being studied is the Momentum-Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost Tether System (MXER). The system acts as a large momentum wheel, imparting a Av to a payload in low earth orbit (LEO) at the expense of its own orbital energy. After throwing a payload, the system reboosts itself using an electrodynamic tether to push against Earth's magnetic field and brings itself back up to an operational orbit to prepare for the next payload. The ability to reboost itself allows for continued reuse of the system without the expenditure of propellants. Considering the cost of lifting propellant from the ,ground to LEO to do the same Av boost at $10000 per pound, the system cuts the launch cost of the payload dramatically, and subsequently, the MXER system pays for itself after a small number of missions.1 One of the technical hurdles to be overcome with the MXER concept is the rendezvous maneuver. The rendezvous window for the capture of the payload is on the order of a few seconds, as opposed to traditional docking maneuvers, which can take as long ets necessary to complete a precise docking. The payload, therefore, must be able to match its orbit to meet up with the capture device on the end of the tether at a specific time and location in the future. In order to be able to determine that location, the MXER system must be numerically propagated forward in time to predict where the capture device will be at that instant. It should be kept in mind that the propagation computation must be done faster than real-time. This study focuses on the efforts to find and/or build the tools necessary to numerically propagate the motion of the MXER system as accurately as possible.

  14. Momentum Injection in Tokamak Plasmas and Transitions to Reduced Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, F. I.; Highcock, E. G.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Barnes, M.; Cowley, S. C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of momentum injection on the temperature gradient in tokamak plasmas is studied. A plausible scenario for transitions to reduced transport regimes is proposed. The transition happens when there is sufficient momentum input so that the velocity shear can suppress or reduce the turbulence. However, it is possible to drive too much velocity shear and rekindle the turbulent transport. The optimal level of momentum injection is determined. The reduction in transport is maximized in the regions of low or zero magnetic shear.

  15. Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.

  16. Off-momentum loss maps with one beam

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this MD is the benchmarking of simulation of off-momentum loss maps. This will help us to further understand the dynamics of the off-momentum collimation cleaning and give input to the determination of the operational settings of the off-momentum cleaning insertion. The MD was carried out during different end-of-fills of other MDs. In this note we summarize the procedures and the measurements taken during the MD week.

  17. MD 2179: Scraping of off-momentum halo after injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Patecki, Marcin; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    In this MD, a beam scraping was performed using the momentum primary collimator in IR3 where dispersion is high. A second scraping was performed using a TCSG in IR7 where dispersion is almost negligible. In such a way, we aim to disentangle the contribution of off-momentum particles to halo population. These scrapings will provide useful information to better understand the usual off-momentum losses we see at the start of the ramp. The MD results would also be used to benchmark simulations of off-momentum beam losses in order to gain confidence in simulation models.

  18. The Role of Zero-Modes in the Canonical Quantization of Heavy-Fermion QED in Light-Cone Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert W.; Jun, Jin Woo; Shvartsman, Shmaryu M.; Taylor, Cyrus C.

    1993-01-01

    Four-dimensional heavy-fermion QED is studied in light-cone coordinates with (anti-)periodic field boundary conditions. We carry out a consistent light-cone canonical quantization of this model using the Dirac algorithm for a system with first- and second-class constraints. To examine the role of the zero modes, we consider the quantization procedure in {the }zero-mode {and the non-zero-mode} sectors separately. In both sectors we obtain the physical variables and their canonical commutation ...

  19. A proposed measurement of optical orbital and spin angular momentum and its implications for photon angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Leader

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression for the total angular momentum carried by a laser optical vortex beam, splits, in the paraxial approximation, into two terms which seem to represent orbital and spin angular momentum respectively. There are, however, two very different competing versions of the formula for the spin angular momentum, one based on the use of the Poynting vector, as in classical electrodynamics, the other related to the canonical expression for the angular momentum which occurs in Quantum Electrodynamics. I analyze the possibility that a sufficiently sensitive optical measurement could decide which of these corresponds to the actual physical angular momentum carried by the beam. Keywords: Photon, Angular momentum, Laser optics, Particle physics

  20. T-odd momentum correlation in radiative {beta} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Susan, E-mail: gardner@pa.uky.edu; He, Daheng [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The triple-product correlations observable in ordinary neutron or nuclear beta decay are all naively T violating and can connect, through an assumption of CPT invariance, to constraints on sources of CP violation beyond the Standard Model. They are also spin dependent. In this context the study of radiative beta decay opens a new possibility, in that a triple-product correlation can be constructed from momenta alone. Consequently its measurement would constrain new spin-independent sources of CP violation. We will describe these in light of the size of the triple momentum correlation in the decay rate arising from electromagnetic final-state interactions in the Standard Model. Our expression for the corresponding T-odd asymmetry is exact in O({alpha}) up to terms of recoil order, and we evaluate it numerically under various kinematic conditions. We consider the pattern of the asymmetries in nuclear {beta} decays and show that the asymmetry can be suppressed in particular cases, facilitating searches for new sources of CP violation in such processes.

  1. The Effects of Minimal Length, Maximal Momentum, and Minimal Momentum in Entropic Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Wen Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified entropic force law is studied by using a new kind of generalized uncertainty principle which contains a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum. Firstly, the quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of a black hole are investigated. Then, according to Verlinde’s theory, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP corrected entropic force is obtained. The result shows that the GUP corrected entropic force is related not only to the properties of the black holes but also to the Planck length and the dimensionless constants α0 and β0. Moreover, based on the GUP corrected entropic force, we also derive the modified Einstein’s field equation (EFE and the modified Friedmann equation.

  2. Janus and Huygens Dipoles: Near-Field Directionality Beyond Spin-Momentum Locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Michela F.; Zayats, Anatoly V.; Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J.

    2018-03-01

    Unidirectional scattering from circularly polarized dipoles has been demonstrated in near-field optics, where the quantum spin-Hall effect of light translates into spin-momentum locking. By considering the whole electromagnetic field, instead of its spin component alone, near-field directionality can be achieved beyond spin-momentum locking. This unveils the existence of the Janus dipole, with side-dependent topologically protected coupling to waveguides, and reveals the near-field directionality of Huygens dipoles, generalizing Kerker's condition. Circular dipoles, together with Huygens and Janus sources, form the complete set of all possible directional dipolar sources in the far- and near-field. This allows the designing of directional emission, scattering, and waveguiding, fundamental for quantum optical technology, integrated nanophotonics, and new metasurface designs.

  3. Halo-independent direct detection of momentum-dependent dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, John F. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M., E-mail: jcherry@lanl.gov, E-mail: frandsen@cp3-origins.net, E-mail: shoemaker@cp3-origins.net [CP3-Origins and the Danish Institute for Advanced Study, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2014-10-01

    We show that the momentum dependence of dark matter interactions with nuclei can be probed in direct detection experiments without knowledge of the dark matter velocity distribution. This is one of the few properties of DM microphysics that can be determined with direct detection alone, given a signal of dark matter in multiple direct detection experiments with different targets. Long-range interactions arising from the exchange of a light mediator are one example of momentum-dependent DM. For data produced from the exchange of a massless mediator we find for example that the mediator mass can be constrained to be ∼< 10 MeV for DM in the 20-1000 GeV range in a halo-independent manner.

  4. Halo-independent direct detection of momentum-dependent dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, John F.; Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the momentum dependence of dark matter interactions with nuclei can be probed in direct detection experiments without knowledge of the dark matter velocity distribution. This is one of the few properties of DM microphysics that can be determined with direct detection alone, given a signal of dark matter in multiple direct detection experiments with different targets. Long-range interactions arising from the exchange of a light mediator are one example of momentum-dependent DM. For data produced from the exchange of a massless mediator we find for example that the mediator mass can be constrained to be ∼< 10 MeV for DM in the 20-1000 GeV range in a halo-independent manner

  5. A new analysis of the momentum and mass-loss rates of stellar jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    A very important question in the theory of bipolar outflows from young stars is posed by the still not understood relation between molecular outflows and optical outflows (i.e., stellar jets and Herbig-Haro objects). In some past studies, estimates of mass and momentum rates associated with these outflows indicated that stellar jets have approximately 2 orders of magnitude smaller values for these parameters than the molecular outflows associated with the same sources. However, a reanalysis of observations of stellar jets in the light of new theoretical jet models yields values of mass and momentum rates comparable to the ones of molecular outflows. From this result it can be tentatively speculated that stellar jets (or Herbig-Haro objects) and molecular outflows might be different manifestations of basically the same flow. 21 refs

  6. Momentum and angular momentum in the H-space of asymptotically flat, Einstein-Maxwell space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallidy, W.; Ludvigsen, M.

    1979-01-01

    New definitions are proposed for the momentum and angular momentum of Einstein-Maxwell fields that overcome the deficiencies of earlier definitions of these terms and are appropriate to the new H-space formulations of space-time. Definitions are made in terms of the Winicour-Tamburino linkages applied to the good cuts of Cj + . The transformations between good cuts then correspond to the translations and Lorentz transformations at points in H-space. For the special case of Robinson-Trautman type II space-times, it is shown that the definitions of momentum and angular momentum yield previously published results. (author)

  7. Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Angular-momentum-dominated electron beams and flat-beam generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yin-e [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-06-01

    In the absence of external forces, if the dynamics within an electron beam is dominated by its angular momentum rather than other effects such as random thermal motion or self Coulomb-repulsive force (i.e., space-charge force), the beam is said to be angular-momentum-dominated. Such a beam can be directly applied to the field of electron-cooling of heavy ions; or it can be manipulated into an electron beam with large transverse emittance ratio, i.e., a flat beam. A flat beam is of interest for high-energy electron-positron colliders or accelerator-based light sources. An angular-momentum-dominated beam is generated at the Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector Laboratory (FNPL) and is accelerated to an energy of 16 MeV. The properties of such a beam is investigated systematically in experiment. The experimental results are in very good agreement with analytical expectations and simulation results. This lays a good foundation for the transformation of an angular-momentum-dominated beam into a flat beam. The round-to-flat beam transformer is composed of three skew quadrupoles. Based on a good knowledge of the angular-momentum-dominated beam, the quadrupoles are set to the proper strengths in order to apply a total torque which removes the angular momentum, resulting in a flat beam. For bunch charge around 0.5 nC, an emittance ratio of 100 ± 5 was measured, with the smaller normalized root-mean-square emittance around 0.4 mm-mrad. Effects limiting the flat-beam emittance ratio are investigated, such as the chromatic effects in the round-to-flat beam transformer, asymmetry in the initial angular-momentum-dominated beam, and space-charge effects. The most important limiting factor turns out to be the uncorrelated emittance growth caused by space charge when the beam energy is low, for example, in the rf gun area. As a result of such emittance growth prior to the round-to-flat beam transformer, the emittance ratio achievable in simulation decreases from orders of thousands to

  9. Angular-momentum-dominated electron beams and flat-beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yin-e

    2005-01-01

    In the absence of external forces, if the dynamics within an electron beam is dominated by its angular momentum rather than other effects such as random thermal motion or self Coulomb-repulsive force (i.e., space-charge force), the beam is said to be angular-momentum-dominated. Such a beam can be directly applied to the field of electron-cooling of heavy ions; or it can be manipulated into an electron beam with large transverse emittance ratio, i.e., a flat beam. A flat beam is of interest for high-energy electron-positron colliders or accelerator-based light sources. An angular-momentum-dominated beam is generated at the Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector Laboratory (FNPL) and is accelerated to an energy of 16 MeV. The properties of such a beam is investigated systematically in experiment. The experimental results are in very good agreement with analytical expectations and simulation results. This lays a good foundation for the transformation of an angular-momentum-dominated beam into a flat beam. The round-to-flat beam transformer is composed of three skew quadrupoles. Based on a good knowledge of the angular-momentum-dominated beam, the quadrupoles are set to the proper strengths in order to apply a total torque which removes the angular momentum, resulting in a flat beam. For bunch charge around 0.5 nC, an emittance ratio of 100 ± 5 was measured, with the smaller normalized root-mean-square emittance around 0.4 mm-mrad. Effects limiting the flat-beam emittance ratio are investigated, such as the chromatic effects in the round-to-flat beam transformer, asymmetry in the initial angular-momentum-dominated beam, and space-charge effects. The most important limiting factor turns out to be the uncorrelated emittance growth caused by space charge when the beam energy is low, for example, in the rf gun area. As a result of such emittance growth prior to the round-to-flat beam transformer, the emittance ratio achievable in simulation decreases from orders of thousands to

  10. Quantum computation with classical light: The Deutsch Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Francis, Jason; McLaren, Melanie; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Forbes, Andrew; Konrad, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We present an implementation of the Deutsch Algorithm using linear optical elements and laser light. We encoded two quantum bits in form of superpositions of electromagnetic fields in two degrees of freedom of the beam: its polarisation and orbital angular momentum. Our approach, based on a Sagnac interferometer, offers outstanding stability and demonstrates that optical quantum computation is possible using classical states of light. - Highlights: • We implement the Deutsh Algorithm using linear optical elements and classical light. • Our qubits are encoded in the polarisation and orbital angular momentum of the beam. • We show that it is possible to achieve quantum computation with two qubits in the classical domain of light

  11. Quantum computation with classical light: The Deutsch Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin [Photonics and Mathematical Optics Group, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849 (Mexico); University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Francis, Jason [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); McLaren, Melanie [University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I. [Photonics and Mathematical Optics Group, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849 (Mexico); Forbes, Andrew [University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas, E-mail: konradt@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); National Institute of Theoretical Physics, Durban Node, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2015-08-28

    We present an implementation of the Deutsch Algorithm using linear optical elements and laser light. We encoded two quantum bits in form of superpositions of electromagnetic fields in two degrees of freedom of the beam: its polarisation and orbital angular momentum. Our approach, based on a Sagnac interferometer, offers outstanding stability and demonstrates that optical quantum computation is possible using classical states of light. - Highlights: • We implement the Deutsh Algorithm using linear optical elements and classical light. • Our qubits are encoded in the polarisation and orbital angular momentum of the beam. • We show that it is possible to achieve quantum computation with two qubits in the classical domain of light.

  12. Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

  13. Relating inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum are related by a local application of the correspondence principle of Bjorken and Kogut. The recent predictions for the inclusive process by Escobar are thus compared with wide angle exclusive data. The inclusive photoproduction of (rho 0 +ω) at large transverse momentum is discussed. (Auth.)

  14. [Analysis of momentum and impurity confinment in TFTR (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Work during the present grant period has been concentrated in two areas and are discussed in this report: (1) a review of momentum confinement experiments in tokamaks, of momentum confinement theories and of previous comparisons of the two; and (2) analysis and documentation of the dedicated power-scan rotation experiment performed on TFTR in September 1988

  15. Non-linear variation of the beta function with momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1983-07-01

    A theory is presented for computing the non-linear dependence of the β-functions on momentum. Results are found for the quadratic term. The results of the theory are compared with computed results. A procedure is proposed for computing the strengths of the sextupole correctors to correct the dependence of the β-function on momentum

  16. Energy-momentum tensor in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, K.

    1981-01-01

    The definition of the energy-momentum tensor as a source current coupled to the background gravitational field receives an important modification in quantum theory. In the path-integral approach, the manifest covariance of the integral measure under general coordinate transformations dictates that field variables with weight 1/2 should be used as independent integration variables. An improved energy-momentum tensor is then generated by the variational derivative, and it gives rise to well-defined gravitational conformal (Weyl) anomalies. In the flat--space-time limit, all the Ward-Takahashi identities associated with space-time transformations including the global dilatation become free from anomalies in terms of this energy-momentum tensor, reflecting the general covariance of the integral measure; the trace of this tensor is thus finite at zero momentum transfer for renormalizable theories. The Jacobian for the local conformal transformation, however, becomes nontrivial, and it gives rise to an anomaly for the conformal identity. All the familiar anomalies are thus reduced to either chiral or conformal anomalies. The consistency of the dilatation and conformal identities at vanishing momentum transfer determines the trace anomaly of this energy-momentum tensor in terms of the renormalization-group b function and other parameters. In contrast, the trace of the conventional energy-momentum tensor generally diverges even at vanishing momentum transfer depending on the regularization scheme, and it is subtractively renormalized. We also explain how the apparently different renormalization properties of the chiral and trace anomalies arise

  17. Angular momentum dependence of the distribution of shell model eigenenergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, M.K.

    1974-01-01

    In the conventional shell model calculation the many-particle energy matrices are constructed and diagonalized for definite angular momentum and parity. However the resulting set of eigenvalues possess a near normal behavior and hence a simple statistical description is possible. Usually one needs only about four parameters to capture the average level densities if the size of the set is not too small. The parameters are essentially moments of the distribution. But the difficulty lies in the yet unsolved problem of calculating moments in the fixed angular momentum subspace. We have derived a formula to approximate the angular momentum projection dependence of any operator averaged in a shell model basis. This approximate formula which is a truncated series in Hermite polynomials has been proved very good numerically and justified analytically for large systems. Applying this formula to seven physical cases we have found that the fixed angular momentum projection energy centroid, width and higher central moments can be obtained accurately provided for even-even nuclei the even and odd angular momentum projections are treated separately. Using this information one can construct the energy distribution for fixed angular momentum projection assuming normal behavior. Then the fixed angular momentum level densities are deduced and spectra are extracted. Results are in reasonably good agreement with the exact values although not as good as those obtained using exact fixed angular momentum moments. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  18. Energy-momentum distribution: A crucial problem in general relativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is aimed to elaborate the problem of energy–momentum in general relativity. In this connection, we use the prescriptions of Einstein, Landau–Lifshitz, Papapetrou and Möller to compute the energy–momentum densities for two exact solutions of Einstein field equations. The space–times under

  19. Non-physical momentum sources in slab geometry gyrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    We investigate momentum transport in the Hamiltonian electrostatic gyrokinetic formulation of Dubin et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524). We prove that the long wavelength electric field obtained from the gyrokinetic quasineutrality introduces a non-physical momentum source in the low flow ordering.

  20. Energy-momentum tensor in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo.

    1980-12-01

    The definition of the energy-momentum tensor as a source current coupled to the background gravitational field receives an important modification in quantum theory. In the path integral approach, the manifest covariance of the integral measure under general coordinate transformations dictates that field variables with weight 1/2 should be used as independent integration variables. An improved energy-momentum tensor is then generated by the variational derivative, and it gives rise to well-defined gravitational conformal (Weyl) anomalies. In the flat space-time limit, all the Ward-Takahashi identities associate with space-time transformations including the global dilatation become free from anomalies, reflecting the general covariance of the integral measure; the trace of this energy-momentum tensor is thus finite at the zero momentum transfer. The Jacobian for the local conformal transformation however becomes non-trivial, and it gives rise to an anomaly for the conformal identity. All the familiar anomalies are thus reduced to either chiral or conformal anomalies. The consistency of the dilatation and conformal identities at the vanishing momentum transfer determines the trace anomaly of this energy-momentum tensor in terms of the renormalization group β-function and other parameters. In contrast, the trace of the conventional energy-momentum tensor generally diverges even at the vanishing momentum transfer depending on the regularization scheme, and it is subtractively renormalized. We also explain how the apparently different renormalization properties of the chiral and trace anomalies arise. (author)

  1. A new uncertainty relation for angular momentum and angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranold, H.U.

    1984-01-01

    An uncertainty relation of the form ΔL 2 ΔSo >=sup(h/2π)/sub(2) is derived for angular momentum and angle. The non-linear operator So measures angles and has a simple interpretation. Subject to very general conditions of rotational invariance the above relation is unique. Radial momentum is not quantized

  2. The resummed Higgs boson transverse momentum distribution at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kulesza, A; Vogelsang, W

    2003-01-01

    We apply QCD resummation techniques to study the transverse momentum distribution of Higgs bosons produced via gluon-gluon fusion at the LHC. In particular we focus on the joint resummation formalism which resums both threshold and transverse momentum corrections simultaneously. A comparison of results obtained in the joint and the standard recoil resummation frameworks is presented.

  3. The algebra of the energy-momentum tensor and the Noether currents in classical non-linear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forger, M.; Mannheim Univ.; Laartz, J.; Schaeper, U.

    1994-01-01

    The recently derived current algrbra of classical non-linear sigma models on arbitrary Riemannian manifolds is extended to include the energy-momentum tensor. It is found that in two dimensions the energy-momentum tensor θ μv , the Noether current j μ associated with the global symmetry of the theory and the composite field j appearing as the coefficient of the Schwinger term in the current algebra, together with the derivatives of j μ and j, generte a closed algebra. The subalgebra generated by the light-cone components of the energy-momentum tensor consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra, with central charge c=0, reflecting the classical conformal invariance of the theory, but the current algebra part and the semidirect product structure are quite different from the usual Kac-Moody/Sugawara type contruction. (orig.)

  4. Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowski, Adam; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas

    2014-03-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple- K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple- K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper.

  5. Nuclear structure at high angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1976-08-01

    There is considerable interest in high angular-momentum states of nuclei, and some recent progress in three areas is discussed. Part I considers transitional nuclei, where two types of rotational bands--decoupled and strongly coupled--are found to occur very frequently. These can be described by several collective models, but the required potential-energy surfaces seem to differ somewhat from those calculated microscopically. In Part II the processes that might cause backbending (irregularities in the rotational levels of certain nuclei) are discussed, and alignment of individual nucleons now seems to be the cause in most cases. The mixing of the ground band with this aligned band can be studied in some detail using Coulomb excitation with very heavy ions. Part III deals with the very high-spin states where effective moments of inertia have been obtained for spins up to 50h. Also structure has been seen in the spectra around these spin values which can be tentatively related to calculated shell effects. 74 references, 61 figures

  6. Cyclic transformation of orbital angular momentum modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlederer, Florian; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The spatial modes of photons are one realization of a QuDit, a quantum system that is described in a D-dimensional Hilbert space. In order to perform quantum information tasks with QuDits, a general class of D-dimensional unitary transformations is needed. Among these, cyclic transformations are an important special case required in many high-dimensional quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a cyclic transformation in the high-dimensional space of photonic orbital angular momentum (OAM). Using simple linear optical components, we show a successful four-fold cyclic transformation of OAM modes. Interestingly, our experimental setup was found by a computer algorithm. In addition to the four-cyclic transformation, the algorithm also found extensions to higher-dimensional cycles in a hybrid space of OAM and polarization. Besides being useful for quantum cryptography with QuDits, cyclic transformations are key for the experimental production of high-dimensional maximally entangled Bell-states. (paper)

  7. Angular momentum transport by tidal acoustic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, T.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical expression of the braking torque on a Jacobian ellipsoid rotating steadily in an enviromental gas is given, based on the assumption that the ellipsoid rotates around its shortest principal axis with an angular momentum slightly larger than that at the bifurcation point of the Maclaurin spheroid. This braking torque is effected by the gravitational interaction between the ellipsoid matter and a spiral density configuration in the environmental gas. This spiral configuration which is called a tidal acoustic wave, is caused by the zone of silence effect in a supersonic flow. With respect to a coordinates system rotating with the ellipsoid, a supersonic region appears outside a certain radius. In this supersonic region, the effect of the non-axisymmetric fluctuation in the ellipsoid potential propagates along the downstream branches of the Mach waves. This one-sided response of the supersonic part causes the tidal acoustic wave. The discussion is restricted to the equatorial plane, and an acoustic approximation of the basic equations is used under the assumption that the self-gravity effect of the environmental gas is negligable in comparison to the main gravity of the ellipsoid. The results are applied to the pre- and post-Main sequence phases of a rotating star, and relating astrophysical problems are discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Angular momentum transport by tidal acoustic wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, T [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1976-05-01

    An analytical expression of the braking torque on a Jacobian ellipsoid rotating steadily in an enviromental gas is given, based on the assumption that the ellipsoid rotates around its shortest principal axis with an angular momentum slightly larger than that at the bifurcation point of the Maclaurin spheroid. This braking torque is effected by the gravitational interaction between the ellipsoid matter and a spiral density configuration in the environmental gas. This spiral configuration which is called a tidal acoustic wave, is caused by the zone of silence effect in a supersonic flow. With respect to a coordinates system rotating with the ellipsoid, a supersonic region appears outside a certain radius. In this supersonic region, the effect of the non-axisymmetric fluctuation in the ellipsoid potential propagates along the downstream branches of the Mach waves. This one-sided response of the supersonic part causes the tidal acoustic wave. The discussion is restricted to the equatorial plane, and an acoustic approximation of the basic equations is used under the assumption that the self-gravity effect of the environmental gas is negligable in comparison to the main gravity of the ellipsoid. The results are applied to the pre- and post-Main sequence phases of a rotating star, and relating astrophysical problems are discussed.

  9. Continuous Wheel Momentum Dumping Using Magnetic Torquers and Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa-Suk; Choi, Wan-Sik; Eun, Jong-Won

    1996-12-01

    Two momentum management schemes using magnetic torquers and thrusters are sug-gested. The stability of the momentum dumping logic is proved at a general attitude equilibrium. Both momentum dumping control laws are implemented with Pulse-Width- Pulse-Frequency Modulated on-off control, and shown working equally well with the original continuous and variable strength control law. Thrusters are assummed to be asymmetrically configured as a contingency case. Each thruster is fired following separated control laws rather than paired thrusting. Null torque thrusting control is added on the thrust control calculated from the momentum control law for the gener-ation of positive thrusting force. Both magnetic and thrusting control laws guarantee the momentum dumping, however, the wheel inner loop control is needed for the "wheel speed" dumping, The control laws are simulated on the KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite (KOMPSAT) model.

  10. Relativistic differential-difference momentum operators and noncommutative differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir-Kasimov, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: (author)The relativistic kinetic momentum operators are introduced in the framework of the Quantum Mechanics in the relativistic configuration space (RCS). These operators correspond to the half of the non-Euclidean distance in the Lobachevsky momentum space. In terms of kinetic momentum operators the relativistic kinetic energy is separated from the total Hamiltonian. The role of the plane wave (wave function of the motion with definite value of momentum and energy) plays the generation function for the matrix elements of the unitary irreps of Lorentz group (generalized Jacobi polynomials). The kinetic momentum operators are the interior derivatives in the framework of the non-commutative differential calculus over the commutative algebra generated by the coordinate functions over the RCS

  11. Matches and mismatches in the descriptions of semi-inclusive processes at low and high transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchetta, A.; Diehl, M.; Boer, D.; Mulders, P.J.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the transverse-momentum-dependence in semi-inclusive deep inelastic leptoproduction of hadrons. There are two different theoretical approaches to study this dependence, one for low and one for high transverse momentum of the observed hadron. We systematically investigate their connection, paying special attention to azimuthal distributions and to polarization dependence. In the region of intermediate transverse momentum, where both approaches are applicable, we find that their results match for certain observables but not for others. Interpolating expressions are discussed for the case where one has no matching. We then use power counting to determine which mechanism is dominant in various azimuthal and spin asymmetries that are integrated over the transverse momentum. Our findings have consequences for the extension of transversemomentum- dependent factorization beyond leading twist. They also shed light on the problem of resumming logarithms of transverse momentum for azimuthal distributions. Our results can be carried over to the Drell-Yan process and to two-hadron production in e + e - annihilation. (orig.)

  12. On the Momentum Transported by the Radiation Field of a Long Transient Dipole and Time Energy Uncertainty Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Cooray

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the net momentum transported by the transient electromagnetic radiation field of a long transient dipole in free space. In the dipole a current is initiated at one end and propagates towards the other end where it is absorbed. The results show that the net momentum transported by the radiation is directed along the axis of the dipole where the currents are propagating. In general, the net momentum P transported by the electromagnetic radiation of the dipole is less than the quantity U / c , where U is the total energy radiated by the dipole and c is the speed of light in free space. In the case of a Hertzian dipole, the net momentum transported by the radiation field is zero because of the spatial symmetry of the radiation field. As the effective wavelength of the current decreases with respect to the length of the dipole (or the duration of the current decreases with respect to the travel time of the current along the dipole, the net momentum transported by the radiation field becomes closer and closer to U / c , and for effective wavelengths which are much shorter than the length of the dipole, P ≈ U / c . The results show that when the condition P ≈ U / c is satisfied, the radiated fields satisfy the condition Δ t Δ U ≥ h / 4 π where Δ t is the duration of the radiation, Δ U is the uncertainty in the dissipated energy and h is the Plank constant.

  13. Linear momentum, angular momentum and energy in the linear collision between two balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, C.; Hofmann, F.; Ziese, M.

    2018-01-01

    In an experiment of the basic physics laboratory, kinematical motion processes were analysed. The motion was recorded with a standard video camera having frame rates from 30 to 240 fps the videos were processed using video analysis software. Video detection was used to analyse the symmetric one-dimensional collision between two balls. Conservation of linear and angular momentum lead to a crossover from rolling to sliding directly after the collision. By variation of the rolling radius the system could be tuned from a regime in which the balls move away from each other after the collision to a situation in which they re-collide.

  14. Scaling function, spectral function and nucleon momentum distribution in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Ivanov, M.V.; Caballero, J.A.; Barbaro, M.B.; Udias, J.M.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Donnelly, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find a good simultaneous description of the spectral function and the momentum distribution in relation to the realistic scaling function obtained from inclusive electron-nuclei scattering experiments. We start with a modified Hartree-Fock spectral function in which the energy dependent part (δ-function) is replaced by the Gaussian distributions with hole state widths as free parameters. We calculate the scaling function and the nucleon momentum distribution on the basis of the spectral function constructed in this way, trying to find a good description of the experimental data. The obtained scaling function has a weak asymmetry and the momentum distribution has not got a high-momentum tail in the case when harmonic-oscillator single-particle wave functions are used. So, to improve the behavior of the momentum distribution we used the basis of natural orbitals (NO) in which short-range correlations are partly incorporated. The results for the scaling function show again a weak asymmetry, but in this case the momentum distribution has a high-momentum tail. As a next step we include final-state interactions (FSI) in the calculations to reproduce the experimentally observed asymmetry of the scaling function. (author)

  15. Lattice fermions at non-zero temperature and chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, I.

    1993-01-01

    We study the free fermion gas at finite temperature and chemical potential in the lattice regularized version proposed by Hasenfratz and Karsch. Special emphasis is placed on the identification of the particle and antiparticle contributions to the partition function. In the case of naive fermions we show that the partition function no longer separates into particle-antiparticle contributions in the way familiar from the continuum formulation. The use of Wilson fermions, on the other hand, eliminates this unpleasant feature, and leads, after subtracting the vacuum contributions, to the familiar expressions for the average energy and charge densities. (orig.)

  16. Wigner functions for the pair angle and orbital angular momentum. Possible applications in quantum information theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastrup, H.A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2017-10-17

    The framework of Wigner functions for the canonical pair angle and orbital angular momentum, derived and analyzed in 2 recent papers [H. A. Kastrup, Phys. Rev. A 94, 062113(2016) and Phys. Rev. A 95, 052111(2017)], is applied to elementary concepts of quantum information like qubits and 2-qubits, e.g., entangled EPR/Bell states etc. Properties of the associated Wigner functions are discussed and illustrated. The results may be useful for quantum information experiments with orbital angular momenta of light beams or electron beams.

  17. Tunable orbital angular momentum mode filter based on optical geometric transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Yan, Yan; Yue, Yang; Ahmed, Nisar; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Dolinar, Sam; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2014-03-15

    We present a tunable mode filter for spatially multiplexed laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). The filter comprises an optical geometric transformation-based OAM mode sorter and a spatial light modulator (SLM). The programmable SLM can selectively control the passing/blocking of each input OAM beam. We experimentally demonstrate tunable filtering of one or multiple OAM modes from four multiplexed input OAM modes with vortex charge of ℓ=-9, -4, +4, and +9. The measured output power suppression ratio of the propagated modes to the blocked modes exceeds 14.5 dB.

  18. Wigner functions for the pair angle and orbital angular momentum. Possible applications in quantum information theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastrup, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    The framework of Wigner functions for the canonical pair angle and orbital angular momentum, derived and analyzed in 2 recent papers [H. A. Kastrup, Phys. Rev. A 94, 062113(2016) and Phys. Rev. A 95, 052111(2017)], is applied to elementary concepts of quantum information like qubits and 2-qubits, e.g., entangled EPR/Bell states etc. Properties of the associated Wigner functions are discussed and illustrated. The results may be useful for quantum information experiments with orbital angular momenta of light beams or electron beams.

  19. Orbital angular momentum modes by twisting of a hollow core antiresonant fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Kuhlmey, Boris T.; Fleming, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Generation and use of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light is finding more and more interest in a wide variety of fields of photonics: communications, optical trapping, quantum optics, and many more [1]. In the investigation of such behavior, twisting of photonic crystal fibers shows interesting......, allowing a simple and tunable way to generate OAM modes. We take advantage of THz time domain spectroscopy to obtain information on both intensity and field components, and to be able to investigate how they change both in time and with frequency....

  20. Entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of modes within two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, B.; Leach, J.; Franke-Arnold, S.; Ireland, D. G.; Padgett, M. J.; Yao, A. M.; Barnett, S. M.; Romero, J.

    2010-01-01

    We use spatial light modulators (SLMs) to measure correlations between arbitrary superpositions of orbital angular momentum (OAM) states generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our technique allows us to fully access a two-dimensional OAM subspace described by a Bloch sphere, within the higher-dimensional OAM Hilbert space. We quantify the entanglement through violations of a Bell-type inequality for pairs of modal superpositions that lie on equatorial, polar, and arbitrary great circles of the Bloch sphere. Our work shows that SLMs can be used to measure arbitrary spatial states with a fidelity sufficient for appropriate quantum information processing systems.

  1. Linear and nonlinear waves with orbital angular momentum in magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Kant Shukla, Padma; Tito Mendonca, José.

    2009-11-01

    Here we discuss the concept of orbital angular momentum (OAM) for electromagnetic waves in a magnetized plasma. Nonlinear effects of photons with spin and OAM will be considered. In particular, we examine the case of parametric interactions between circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and Langmuir and ion acoustic waves, including the ponderomotive force of light with OAM in magnetized plasma (Shukla & Stenflo, PRA). This will be a generalization of recent results published in PRL by J.T. Mendonca and B. Thide. We also examine the influence of OAM on the magnetic field generation by the inverse Faraday effect.

  2. Development of an electron calorimeter to be used in high transverse momentum reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, Philippe.

    1977-01-01

    In order to select high transverse momentum particles, an electron calorimeter made of two super-units of 2x5 m 2 was developed. A new type of scintillator called Plexipop and having the following characteristics, was developed: the light produced equals only 20% of that produced by NE 110, it has a high attenuation length (about 3.80 m), and a short lifetime (5 nsec). Various calibration methods were defined for this apparatus. The resolution obtained was 5% at 10 GeV/c [fr

  3. Investigation of incomplete linear momentum transfer in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1986-07-01

    At intermediate energies, heavy ion central collisions lead to the incomplete fusion of the incident nuclei while part of the initial linear momentum is carried away by fast light particles. Experiments were performed with 30 MeV per nucleon neon and 20, 35 and 44 MeV per nucleon argon projectiles bombarding heavy targets. Results obtained with 30 MeV per nucleon neon and 20 MeV per nucleon argon beams are in good agreement with an empirical law established with lighter projectiles. On the contrary, 35 and 44 MeV per nucleon argon projectiles do not follow the same law and fission fragments progressively disappear. A simple model explains the evolution of the amount of transferred linear momentum versus incident energy. The disappearance of the fusion products of the composite system observed with argon projectiles beyond 35 MeV per nucleon is explained by a limitation of the excitation energy per nucleon which can be deposited in a nucleus. The limit is evaluated from nucleon binding energy in nuclei and probability to emit clusters and is in good agreement with experimental data. Because of the coupling between intrinsic motion of nucleons and relative motion of nuclei, some nucleons have a kinetic energy high enough to be emitted: a theoretical model is proposed which rather well fits the data concerning fast nucleons but cannot explain the measured amounts of transferred linear momentum. This is attributed to the existence of other mechanisms [fr

  4. Role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Hailu; Wen Shuangchun; Shu Weixing; Fan Dianyuan

    2010-01-01

    We establish a general vector field model to describe the role of transverse-momentum currents in the optical Magnus effect in free space. As an analogy of the mechanical Magnus effect, the circularly polarized wave packet in our model acts as the rotating ball, and its rotation direction depends on the polarization state. Based on this model, we demonstrate the existence of an optical polarization-dependent Magnus effect which is significantly different from the conventional optical Magnus effect in that light-matter interaction is not required. Further, we reveal the relation between transverse-momentum currents and the optical Magnus effect, and find that such a polarization-dependent rotation is unavoidable when the wave packet possesses transverse-momentum currents. The physics underlying this intriguing effect is the combined contributions of transverse spin and orbital currents. We predict that this effect may be observed experimentally even in the propagation direction. These findings provide further evidence for the optical Magnus effect in free space and can be extrapolated to other physical systems.

  5. A condensed matter electron momentum spectrometer with parallel detection in energy and momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storer, P; Caprari, R S; Clark, S A.C.; Vos, M; Weigold, E

    1994-03-01

    An electron momentum spectrometer has been constructed which measures electron binding energies and momenta by fully determining the kinematics of the incident, scattered and ejected electrons resulting from (e,2e) ionizing collisions in a thin solid foil. The spectrometer operates with incident beam energies of 20-30 keV in an asymmetric, non-coplanar scattering geometry. Bethe ridge kinematics are used. The technique uses transmission through the target foil, but it is most sensitive to the surface from which the 1.2 keV electrons emerge, to a depth of about 5 nm. Scattered and ejected electron energies and azimuthal angles are detected in parallel using position sensitive detection, yielding true coincidence count rates of 6 Hz from a 5.5 nm thick evaporated carbon target and an incident beam current of around 100 nA. The energy resolution is approximately 1.3 eV and momentum resolution approximately 0.15 a{sub 0}{sup -1}. The energy resolution could readily be improved by monochromating the incident electron beam. 28 refs., 15 figs.

  6. A condensed matter electron momentum spectrometer with parallel detection in energy and momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, P.; Caprari, R.S.; Clark, S.A.C.; Vos, M.; Weigold, E.

    1994-03-01

    An electron momentum spectrometer has been constructed which measures electron binding energies and momenta by fully determining the kinematics of the incident, scattered and ejected electrons resulting from (e,2e) ionizing collisions in a thin solid foil. The spectrometer operates with incident beam energies of 20-30 keV in an asymmetric, non-coplanar scattering geometry. Bethe ridge kinematics are used. The technique uses transmission through the target foil, but it is most sensitive to the surface from which the 1.2 keV electrons emerge, to a depth of about 5 nm. Scattered and ejected electron energies and azimuthal angles are detected in parallel using position sensitive detection, yielding true coincidence count rates of 6 Hz from a 5.5 nm thick evaporated carbon target and an incident beam current of around 100 nA. The energy resolution is approximately 1.3 eV and momentum resolution approximately 0.15 a 0 -1 . The energy resolution could readily be improved by monochromating the incident electron beam. 28 refs., 15 figs

  7. Enhanced Portfolio Performance Using a Momentum Approach to Annual Rebalancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Mattei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After diversification, periodic portfolio rebalancing has become one of the most widely practiced methods for reducing portfolio risk and enhancing returns. Most of the rebalancing strategies found in the literature are generally regarded as contrarian approaches to rebalancing. A recent article proposed a rebalancing approach that incorporates a momentum approach to rebalancing. The momentum approach had a better risk adjusted return than either the traditional approach or a Buy-and-Hold approach. This article identifies an improvement to the momentum approach and then examines the impact of transactions costs and taxes on the portfolio performance of four active rebalancing approaches.

  8. Momentum integral network method for thermal-hydraulic transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new momentum integral network method has been developed, and tested in the MINET computer code. The method was developed in order to facilitate the transient analysis of complex fluid flow and heat transfer networks, such as those found in the balance of plant of power generating facilities. The method employed in the MINET code is a major extension of a momentum integral method reported by Meyer. Meyer integrated the momentum equation over several linked nodes, called a segment, and used a segment average pressure, evaluated from the pressures at both ends. Nodal mass and energy conservation determined nodal flows and enthalpies, accounting for fluid compression and thermal expansion

  9. Transverse momentum in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccopieri, Federico Alberto; Trentadue, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics we derive the evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent distributions and apply them to the case of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The evolution equations encode the perturbative component of transverse momentum generated by collinear parton branchings. The current fragmentation is described via transverse momentum dependent parton densities and fragmentation functions. Target fragmentation instead is described via fracture functions. We present, to leading logarithmic accuracy, the corresponding semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross-section, which applies to the entire phase space of the detected hadron. Some phenomenological implications and further developments are briefly outlined

  10. Electron momentum spectroscopy of the core state of solid carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprari, R.S.; Clark, S.A.C.; McCarthy, I.E.; Storer, P.J.; Vos, M.; Weigold, E.

    1994-08-01

    Electron momentum spectroscopy (binary encounter (e,2e)) experimental results are presented for the core state of an amorphous carbon allotrope. The (e,2e) cross section has two identifiable regions. One is a narrow energy width 'core band peak' that does not disperse with momentum. At higher binding energies there is an energy diffuse 'multiple scattering continuum', which is a consequence of (e,2e) collisions with core electrons that are accompanied by inelastic scattering of one or more of the incoming or outgoing electrons. Comparisons of experimental momentum distributions with the Hartree-Fock atomic carbon ls orbital are presented for both regions. 16 refs., 4 figs

  11. Evidence of Inward Toroidal Momentum Convection in the JET Tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tala, T.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Ferreira, J.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus tokamak to determine the diffusive and convective momentum transport. Torque, injected by neutral beams, was modulated to create a periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity. Novel transport analysis shows the magnitude...... and profile shape of the momentum diffusivity are similar to those of the ion heat diffusivity. A significant inward momentum pinch, up to 20 m/s, has been found. Both results are consistent with gyrokinetic simulations. This evidence is complemented in plasmas with internal transport barriers....

  12. Laser trapping and spatial light modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    INVITED: Robotics at the macro-scale typically uses light for carrying information in machine vision for monitoring and feedback in intelligent robotic guidance systems. With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robots down to the micro-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical f...

  13. Light-like noncommutativity, light-front quantization and new light on UV/IR mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Tureanu, A.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the problem of quantizing field theories on noncommutative Moyal space-time with light-like noncommutativity. To tackle the issues arising from noncommuting and hence nonlocal time, we argue that for this case light-front quantization procedure should be employed. In this appropriate quantization scheme we perform the non-planar loop analysis for the light-like noncommutative field theories. One of the important and peculiar features of light-front quantization is that the UV cutoff of the light-cone Hamiltonian manifests itself as an IR cutoff for the light-cone momentum, p + . Due to this feature, the naive results of covariant quantization for the light-like case allude to the absence of the UV/IR mixing in the light-front quantization. However, by a careful analysis of non-planar loop integrals we show that this is not the case and the UV/IR mixing persists. In addition, we argue in favour of the perturbative unitarity of light-like noncommutative field theories in the light-front quantization scheme.

  14. Inelastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1979-01-01

    Recent advances of high energy resolution (ΔE approx. 30 keV FWHM) inelastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer (q -1 ) using selected experimental data from the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator are discussed. Strong emphasis is given to a comparison of the data with theoretical nuclear model predictions. Of the low multipolarity electric transitions investigated, as examples only E1 transitions to unnatural parity states in 11 B and E2 transitions of the very fragmented isoscalar quadrupole giant resonance in 208 Pb are considered. In 11 B the role of the Os hole in the configuration of the 1/2 + , 3/2 + and 5/2 + states is quantitatively determined via an interference mechanism in the transition probability. By comparison of the high resolution data with RPA calculations the E2 EWSR in 208 Pb is found to be much less exhausted than anticipated from previous medium energy resolution (e,e) and hadron scattering experiments. In the case of M1 transitions it is shown that the simplest idealized independent particle shell-model prediction breaks down badly. In 28 Si, ground-state correlations influence largely the detected M1 strength and such ground-state correlations are also responsible for the occurence of a strong M1 transition to a state at Ex = 10.319 MeV in 40 Ca. In 90 Zr only about 10% of the theoretically expected M1 strength is seen in (e,e) and in 140 Ce and 208 Pb none (detection limit 1-2 μ 2 K). In the case of 208 Pb high resolution spectra exist now up to an excitation energy of Ex = approx. 12MeV. The continuous decrease of the M1 strength with mass number is corroborated by the behaviour of strong but very fragmented M2 transitions which are detected in 28 Si, 90 Zr, 140 Ce and 208 Pb concentrated at an excitation energy E x approx. 44A -1 / 3 MeV. In 90 Zr, the distribution of spacings and widths of the many Jπ = 2 states are consistent with a Wigner and Porter-Thomas distribution, respectively. (orig.) 891 KBE/orig. 892 ARA

  15. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  16. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  17. Experimental evidence for Abraham pressure of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; She, Weilong; Peng, Nan; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    The question of how much momentum light carries in media has been debated for over a century. Two rivalling theories, one from 1908 by Hermann Minkowski and the other from 1909 by Max Abraham, predict the exact opposite when light enters an optical material: a pulling force in Minkowski's case and a pushing force in Abraham's. Most experimental tests have agreed with Minkowski's theory, but here we report the first quantitative experimental evidence for Abraham's pushing pressure of light. Our results matter in optofluidics and optomechanics, and wherever light exerts mechanical pressure.

  18. A very light Higgs at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.

    1990-01-01

    If the standard Higgs particle is very light (≤50 MeV) then it will be sufficiently long lived that it could decay outside the detectors at LEP. This could give a signal of two final state leptons which are not back-to-back, with missing transverse momentum. We show that with suitable cuts this Higgs signal can be distinguished from backgrounds with a large enough rate that such a light Higgs will either be discovered or completely ruled out. (author)

  19. Effects of trees on momentum exchange within and above a real urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salesky, S.; Giometto, M. G.; Christen, A.; Egli, P. E.; Schmid, M. F.; Tooke, T. R.; Coops, N. C.; Parlange, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) are used to gain insight into the effects of trees on momentum transfer rates characterizing the atmosphere within and above a real urban canopy. Several areas are considered that are part of a neighbourhood in the city of Vancouver, BC, Canada where a small fraction of trees are taller than buildings. In this area, eight years of continuous wind and turbulence measurements are available from a 30 m meteorological tower. Buildings and vegetation geometries are obtained from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. In the LES algorithm, buildings are accounted through an immersed boundary method, whereas vegetation is parameterized via a location-specific leaf area density. LES are performed varying wind direction and leaf area densities. Surface roughness lengths (z0) from both LES and tower measurements are sensitive to the 0 ≤ LAI/λ lower than the 27% increase featured by LES for the most representative canopy (leaves-off LAI/λ = 0.74, leaves-on LAI/λ = 2.24). Removing vegetation from such a canopy would cause a dramatic drop of approximately 50% in z0 when compared to the reference summer value. The momentum displacement height (d) from LES also consistently increases as LAI/λ increases, due to the disproportionate amount of drag that the (few) relatively taller trees exert on the flow. Within the urban canopy, the effects of trees are twofold: on one hand, they act as a direct momentum sink for the mean flow; on the other, they reduce downward turbulent transport of high-momentum fluid, significantly reducing the wind intensity at the heights where people live and buildings consume energy.

  20. Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available where tight focusing is required, e.g., optical trapping and tweezing and optically driven flow for optofluidics. II. THEORY We recall that light fields with a phase factor of exp(i�ϕ), where ϕ is the azimuthal angle and � the topological charge... out that the total optical field may be viewed as two separate structures that perform independent rigid rotations. The dominant structure with the petal pattern is located in the central region of the beam. The other structure, which has rings, has a...

  1. Novel High Transverse Momentum Phenomena in Hadronic and Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC

    2009-04-10

    I discuss a number of novel phenomenological features of QCD in high transverse momentum reactions. The presence of direct higher-twist processes, where a proton is produced directly in the hard subprocess, can explain the 'baryon anomaly' - the large proton-to-pion ratio seen at RHIC in high centrality heavy ion collisions. Direct hadronic processes can also account for the deviation from leading-twist PQCD scaling at fixed x{sub T} = 2 p{sub T}/{radical}s. I suggest that the 'ridge' --the same-side long-range rapidity correlation observed at RHIC in high centrality heavy ion collisions is due to the imprint of semihard DGLAP gluon radiation from initial-state partons which have transverse momenta biased toward the trigger. A model for early thermalization of the quark-gluon medium is also outlined. Rescattering interactions from gluon-exchange, normally neglected in the parton model, have a profound effect in QCD hard-scattering reactions, leading to leading-twist single-spin asymmetries, diffractive deep inelastic scattering, diffractive hard hadronic reactions, the breakdown of the Lam-Tung relation in Drell-Yan reactions, nuclear shadowing--all leading-twist dynamics not incorporated in the light-front wavefunctions of the target computed in isolation. Anti shadowing is shown to be quark flavor specific and thus different in charged and neutral deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering. I also discuss other aspects of quantum effects in heavy ion collisions, such as tests of hidden color in nuclear wavefunctions, the use of diffraction to materialize the Fock states of a hadronic projectile and test QCD color transparency, and the important consequences of color-octet intrinsic heavy quark distributions in the proton for particle and Higgs production at high x{sub F}. I also discuss how the AdS/CFT correspondence between Anti-de Sitter space and conformal gauge theories allows one to compute the analytic form of frame-independent light

  2. Twistor theory and the energy-momentum and angular momentum of the gravitational field at spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Penrose's 'quasi-local mass and angular momentum' is investigated for 2-surfaces near spatial infinity in both linearized theory on Minkowski space and full general relativity. It is shown that for space-times that are radially smooth of order one in the sense of Beig and Schmidt with asymptotically electric Weyl curvature, there exists a global concept of a twistor space at spatial infinity. Global conservation laws for the energy-momentum and angular momentum are obtained, and the ten conserved quantities are shown to be invariant under asymptotic coordinate transformations. The relation to other definitions is discussed briefly. (author)

  3. The angular momentum dependence of complex fragment emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobtka, L.G.; Sarantites, D.G.; Li, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Large fragment (A > 4) production at high angular momentum is studied via the reaction, 200 MeV 45 Sc + 65 Cu. Comparisons of the fragment yields from this reaction (high angular momentum) to those from 93 Nb + Be (low angular momentum) are used to verify the strong angular momentum dependence of large fragment production predicted by equilibrium models. Details of the coincident γ-ray distributions not only confirm a rigidly rotating intermediate but also indicate that the widths of the primary L-wave distributions decrease with increasing symmetry in the decay channel. These data are used to test the asymmetry and L-wave dependence of emission barriers calculated from a rotating, finite range corrected, liquid drop model. 21 refs., 10 figs

  4. On energy-momentum tensors of gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenological approach to gravitation is discussed in which the 3-graviton interaction is reduced to the interaction of each graviton with the energy-momentum tensor of two others. If this is so, (and in general relativity this is not so), then the problem of choosing the correct energy-momentum tensor comes to finding the right 3-graviton vertex. Several energy-momentum tensors od gravitational field are considered and compared in the lowest approximation. Each of them together with the energy-momentum tensor of point-like particles satisfies the conservation laws when equations of motion of particles are the same as in general relativity. It is shown that in Newtonian approximation the considered tensors differ one from other in the way their energy density is distributed between energy density of interaction (nonzero only at locations of particles) and energy density of gravitational field. Stating from Lorentz invariance, the Lagrangians for spin-2, mass-0 field are considered [ru

  5. Energy-momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horndeski, G.W.; Wainwright, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the energy-momentum tensor of the most general second-order vector-tensor theory of gravitation and electromagnetism which has field equations which are (i) derivable from a variational principle, (ii) consistent with the notion of conservation of charge, and (iii) compatible with Maxwell's equations in a flat space. This energy-momentum tensor turns out to be quadratic in the first partial derivatives of the electromagnetic field tensor and depends upon the curvature tensor. The asymptotic behavior of this energy-momentum tensor is examined for solutions to Maxwell's equations in Minkowski space, and it is demonstrated that this energy-momentum tensor predicts regions of negative energy density in the vicinity of point sources

  6. Electronic orbital angular momentum and magnetism of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Ji, E-mail: ji.luo@upr.edu

    2014-10-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of graphene electrons in a perpendicular magnetic field is calculated and corresponding magnetic moment is used to investigate the magnetism of perfect graphene. Variation in magnetization demonstrates its decrease with carrier-doping, plateaus in a large field, and de Haas–van Alphen oscillation. Regulation of graphene's magnetism by a parallel electric field is presented. The OAM originates from atomic-scale electronic motion in graphene lattice, and vector hopping interaction between carbon atomic orbitals is the building element. A comparison between OAM of graphene electrons, OAM of Dirac fermions, and total angular momentum of the latter demonstrates their different roles in graphene's magnetism. Applicability and relation to experiments of the results are discussed. - Highlights: • Orbital angular momentum of graphene electrons is calculated. • Orbital magnetic moment of graphene electrons is obtained. • Variation in magnetization of graphene is calculated. • Roles of different kinds of angular momentum are investigated.

  7. Phase-space distributions and orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquini B.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of Wigner distributions to describe the phase-space distributions of quarks in the nucleon, emphasizing the information encoded in these functions about the quark orbital angular momentum.

  8. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Reynolds, Reid G.; Liu, Frank X.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum that the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical strategies for distributing a prescribed torque or momentum among the n wheels are presented, with special emphasis on configurations of four, five, and six wheels.

  9. Josephson oscillation and self-trapping in momentum space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Feng, Shiping; Yang, Shi-Jie

    2018-04-01

    The Creutz ladder model is studied in the presence of unconventional flux induced by complex tunneling rates along and between the two legs. In the vortex phase, the double-minima band structure is regarded as a double well. By introducing a tunable coupling between the two momentum minima, we demonstrate a phenomenon of Josephson oscillations in momentum space. The condensate density locked in one of the momentum valleys is referred to as macroscopic quantum self-trapping. The on-site interaction of the lattice provides an effective analogy to the double-well model within the two-mode approximation which allows for a quantitative understanding of the Josephson effect and the self-trapping in momentum space.

  10. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions : status and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, I.I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F.A.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Luyando, J. Grados; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J.P.; Lelek, A.; Lykasov, G.; Martinez, J. D. Madrigal; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Scimemi, I.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Monfared, S. Taheri; van der Veken, F.F.; van Haevermaet, H.J.; van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A.; Wallon, S.

    2015-01-01

    We review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of

  11. Relation of the runaway avalanche threshold to momentum space topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2018-02-01

    The underlying physics responsible for the formation of an avalanche instability due to the generation of secondary electrons is studied. A careful examination of the momentum space topology of the runaway electron population is carried out with an eye toward identifying how qualitative changes in the momentum space of the runaway electrons is correlated with the avalanche threshold. It is found that the avalanche threshold is tied to the merger of an O and X point in the momentum space of the primary runaway electron population. Such a change of the momentum space topology is shown to be accurately described by a simple analytic model, thus providing a powerful means of determining the avalanche threshold for a range of model assumptions.

  12. Angular Momentum Transport in Quasi-Keplerian Accretion Disks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Keplerian accretion disk yield results that are inconsistent with the generally accepted model. If correct, the ideas proposed by Hayashi &. Matsuda would radically alter our understanding of the nature of the angular momentum transport in the disk, ...

  13. Low-momentum ghost dressing function and the gluon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Gomez, M. E.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2010-01-01

    We study the low-momentum ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Landau gauge, assuming for the truncation a constant ghost-gluon vertex, as it is extensively done, and a simple model for a massive gluon propagator. Then, regular Dyson-Schwinger equation solutions (the zero-momentum ghost dressing function not diverging) appear to emerge, and we show the ghost propagator to be described by an asymptotic expression reliable up to the order O(q 2 ). That expression, depending on the gluon mass and the zero-momentum Taylor-scheme effective charge, is proven to fit pretty well some low-momentum ghost propagator data [I. L. Bogolubsky, E. M. Ilgenfritz, M. Muller-Preussker, and A. Sternbeck, Phys. Lett. B 676, 69 (2009); Proc. Sci., LAT2007 (2007) 290] from big-volume lattice simulations where the so-called ''simulated annealing algorithm'' is applied to fix the Landau gauge.

  14. The mass and angular momentum of reconstructed metric perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Meent, Maarten

    2017-06-01

    We prove a key result regarding the mass and angular momentum content of linear vacuum perturbations of the Kerr metric obtained through the formalism developed by Chrzarnowski, Cohen, and Kegeles (CCK). More precisely, we prove that the Abbott-Deser mass and angular momentum integrals of any such perturbation vanish when that perturbation was obtained from a regular Fourier mode of the Hertz potential. As a corollary we obtain a generalization of previous results on the completion of the ‘no string’ radiation gauge metric perturbation generated by a point particle. We find that for any bound orbit around a Kerr black hole, the mass and angular momentum perturbations completing the CCK metric are simply the energy and angular momentum of the particle ‘outside’ the orbit and vanish ‘inside’ the orbit.

  15. Excited Landau levels, orbital angular momentum and axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teryaev, O.V.

    1993-01-01

    The IR cutoff via the exclusion of the high orbital momentum components for the excited Landau levels leads to the physical interpretation of the cancellation between the explicity and anomalous chiral symmetry breaking. 21 refs

  16. The Fourier law in a momentum-conserving chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardinà, C.; Kurchan, J.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a family of models for heat conduction with and without momentum conservation. They are analytically solvable in the high temperature limit and can also be efficiently simulated. In all cases the Fourier law is verified in one dimension.

  17. ON THE USE OF THIN SCRAPERS FOR MOMENTUM COLLIMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CATALAN-LASHERAS, N.

    2001-01-01

    In transverse collimation systems, thin scrapers are used as primary collimators to interact with the beam halo and increase its impact parameter on the secondary collimators or absorbers. In the same way, placing the primary collimator in a dispersion region is used for momentum collimation. However, the use of scrapers for momentum collimation presents an additional disadvantage when handling medium-low energy beams. The energy lost by ionization is non negligible and the proton can be kicked out of the RF bucket. The material and thickness of the scraper have to be carefully adjusted according to the position of secondary collimators and momentum aperture of the machine. We derive simple analytical expressions for a generic case. The same calculations have been applied to the case of the SNS accumulator ring. After careful considerations, the use of scrapers for momentum collimation was ruled out in favor of a beam in gap kicker system

  18. Importance of high order momentum terms in SLC optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozanecki, W.

    1985-01-01

    The evaluation of background levels at the SLC relies, in several cases, on the proper representation of how low momentum electrons propagate through the Arcs and the Final Focus System (FFS). For example, beam - gas bremsstrahlung in the arcs causes electrons of up to 6% energy loss to be transported through to the IP; secondary showers on edges of masks and collimators yield debris with a very wide momentum spectrum. This note is a naive attempt at checking the validity of TRANSPORT and TURTLE calculations, by evaluating the contributions of the momentum terms to increasingly higher order, and checking the mutual consistency of the results produced by the two methods on a beam of wide momentum spread. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. The Earth, the Moon and Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    We consider the application of both conservation of momentum and Newton's laws to the Moon in an assumed circular orbit about the Earth. The inadequacy of some texts in applying Newton's laws is considered.

  20. Nuclear physics. Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, O; Sargsian, M; Weinstein, L B; Piasetzky, E; Hakobyan, H; Higinbotham, D W; Braverman, M; Brooks, W K; Gilad, S; Adhikari, K P; Arrington, J; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Beck, A; May-Tal Beck, S; Bedlinskiy, I; Bertozzi, W; Biselli, A; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Forest, T; Garillon, B; Garcon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkanov, B I; Isupov, E L; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Korover, I; Kuhn, S E; Kubarovsky, V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; Lowry, M; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Mineeva, T; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Munoz Camacho, C; Mustapha, B; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Roy, P; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Shneor, R; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Wei, X; Wood, M H; Wood, S A; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhao, Z W; Zheng, X; Zonta, I

    2014-10-31

    The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions: protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority of fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron-scattering measurements using (12)C, (27)Al, (56)Fe, and (208)Pb targets show that even in heavy, neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few-body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin-state, ultracold atomic gas systems. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. A Very Fast and Angular Momentum Conserving Tree Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcello, Dominic C.

    2017-01-01

    There are many methods used to compute the classical gravitational field in astrophysical simulation codes. With the exception of the typically impractical method of direct computation, none ensure conservation of angular momentum to machine precision. Under uniform time-stepping, the Cartesian fast multipole method of Dehnen (also known as the very fast tree code) conserves linear momentum to machine precision. We show that it is possible to modify this method in a way that conserves both angular and linear momenta.

  2. Existence of black holes due to concentration of angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuri, Marcus A. [Department of Mathematics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    We present a general sufficient condition for the formation of black holes due to concentration of angular momentum. This is expressed in the form of a universal inequality, relating the size and angular momentum of bodies, and is proven in the context of axisymmetric initial data sets for the Einstein equations which satisfy an appropriate energy condition. A brief comparison is also made with more traditional black hole existence criteria based on concentration of mass.

  3. A Very Fast and Angular Momentum Conserving Tree Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcello, Dominic C., E-mail: dmarce504@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Center for Computation and Technology Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    There are many methods used to compute the classical gravitational field in astrophysical simulation codes. With the exception of the typically impractical method of direct computation, none ensure conservation of angular momentum to machine precision. Under uniform time-stepping, the Cartesian fast multipole method of Dehnen (also known as the very fast tree code) conserves linear momentum to machine precision. We show that it is possible to modify this method in a way that conserves both angular and linear momenta.

  4. Enhanced Portfolio Performance Using a Momentum Approach to Annual Rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Mattei

    2018-01-01

    After diversification, periodic portfolio rebalancing has become one of the most widely practiced methods for reducing portfolio risk and enhancing returns. Most of the rebalancing strategies found in the literature are generally regarded as contrarian approaches to rebalancing. A recent article proposed a rebalancing approach that incorporates a momentum approach to rebalancing. The momentum approach had a better risk adjusted return than either the traditional approach or a Buy-and-Hold app...

  5. High transverse momentum phenomena involving π and eta mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesser, F.W.; Camilleri, L.; Di Lella, L.

    1975-01-01

    The inclusive production of π and eta mesons at theta/sub cm/ = 90 0 was measured for proton-proton collisions at five center-of-mass energies between 23.5 and 62.4 GeV. The momentum correlation of charged particles emitted together with a large transverse momentum π was also studied using two magnetic spectrometers each centered at theta/sub cm/ = 90 0

  6. Shape coexistence in 72Kr at finite angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almehed, Daniel; Walet, Niels R.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate shape coexistence in a rotating nucleus. We concentrate on the case of 72 Kr which exhibits an interesting interplay between prolate and oblate shaped states as a function of angular momentum. The calculation uses the local harmonic version of the method of self-consistent adiabatic large-amplitude collective motion. We analyse how the collective behaviour of the system changes with angular momentum and we focus on the role of non-axial shapes

  7. The energy-momentum operator in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.; Ottewill, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the only meaningful geometrical measure of the energy-momentum of states of matter described by a free quantum field theory in a general curved space-time is that provided by a normal ordered energy-momentum operator. The finite expectation values of this operator are contrasted with the conventional renormalized expectation values and it is further argued that the use of renormalization theory is inappropriate in this context. (author)

  8. Spin and intrinsic angular momentum; application to the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, P.

    1993-05-01

    Within the framework of the field theory governed by a Lagrangian, function of the tensor quantities and their covariant first derivatives, and starting with the third order intrinsic angular momentum tensor obtained from a variational principle, the intrinsic angular momentum vector of the electromagnetic field in vacuum is determined. This expression leads to spin matrices for the electromagnetic field, with unity as eigenvalue, thus allowing to bridge the gap between continuous physics and quantum physics. 6 refs

  9. Rise of mean multiplicity depending on transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troshin, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Dependence of mean multiplicity on the transversal momentum transfer is studied. In framework of the model in view, based on possible probabilitic interpretation of the unitarity condition, and assuming a weak correlation between the recoil particle momenta in the intermediate n-particle state, it is shown that mean multiplicity increases linearly with rise of the transversal momentum. Behaviour of the mean multiplicity depending on the impact parameter is also studied

  10. Transverse momentum correlations of quarks in recursive jet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artru, X.; Belghobsi, Z.; Redouane-Salah, E.

    2016-08-01

    In the symmetric string fragmentation recipe adopted by PYTHIA for jet simulations, the transverse momenta of successive quarks are uncorrelated. This is a simplification but has no theoretical basis. Transverse momentum correlations are naturally expected, for instance, in a covariant multiperipheral model of quark hadronization. We propose a simple recipe of string fragmentation which leads to such correlations. The definition of the jet axis and its relation with the primordial transverse momentum of the quark is also discussed.

  11. Energy-momentum tensor in the quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakov, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    An energy-momentum tensor in the scalar field theory is built. The tensor must satisfy the finiteness requirement of the Green function. The Green functions can always be made finite by renormalizations in the S-matrix by introducing counter terms into the Hamiltonian (or Lagrangian) of the interaction. Such a renormalization leads to divergencies in the Green functions. Elimination of these divergencies requires the introduction of new counter terms, which must be taken into account in the energy-momentum tensor

  12. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  13. Strangeness in the nucleon on the light-cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malheiro, Manuel; Melnitchouk, Wally

    1999-01-01

    Strange matrix elements of the nucleon are calculated within the light-cone formulation of the meson cloud model. The Q 2 dependence of the strange vector form factors is computed, and the strangeness radius and magnetic moment extracted, both of which are found to be very small. The strange magnetic moment μ S is seen to change sign once the spurious form factors arising from the violation of rotational invariance are subtracted. The resulting μ S is small and slightly positive, in agreement with the trend of the recent data from the SAMPLE experiment. Within the same framework one finds a small but non-zero excess of the antistrange distribution over the strange at large x. (author)

  14. Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1 87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented

  15. Edge momentum transport by neutrals: an interpretive numerical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotani, J. T.; Newton, S. L.; Pusztai, I.; Viezzer, E.; Fülöp, T.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-06-01

    Due to their high cross-field mobility, neutrals can contribute to momentum transport even at the low relative densities found inside the separatrix and they can generate intrinsic rotation. We use a charge-exchange dominated solution to the neutral kinetic equation, coupled to neoclassical ions, to evaluate the momentum transport due to neutrals. Numerical solutions to the drift-kinetic equation allow us to cover the full range of collisionality, including the intermediate levels typical of the tokamak edge. In the edge there are several processes likely to contribute to momentum transport in addition to neutrals. Therefore, we present here an interpretive framework that can evaluate the momentum transport through neutrals based on radial plasma profiles. We demonstrate its application by analysing the neutral angular momentum flux for an L-mode discharge in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The magnitudes of the angular momentum fluxes we find here due to neutrals of 0.6-2 \\text{N} \\text{m} are comparable to the net torque on the plasma from neutral beam injection, indicating the importance of neutrals for rotation in the edge.

  16. A systematic construction of microstate geometries with low angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Heidmann, Pierre; Ramírez, Pedro F.

    2017-10-01

    We outline a systematic procedure to obtain horizonless microstate geometries that have the same charges as three-charge five-dimensional black holes with a macroscopically-large horizon area and an arbitrarily-small angular momentum. There are two routes through which such solutions can be constructed: using multi-center Gibbons-Hawking (GH) spaces or using superstratum technology. So far the only solutions corre-sponding to microstate geometries for black holes with no angular momentum have been obtained via superstrata [1], and multi-center Gibbons-Hawking spaces have been believed to give rise only to microstate geometries of BMPV black holes with a large angular mo-mentum [2]. We perform a thorough search throughout the parameter space of smooth horizonless solutions with four GH centers and find that these have an angular momentum that is generally larger than 80% of the cosmic censorship bound. However, we find that solutions with three GH centers and one supertube (which are smooth in six-dimensional supergravity) can have an arbitrarily-low angular momentum. Our construction thus gives a recipe to build large classes of microstate geometries for zero-angular-momentum black holes without resorting to superstratum technology.

  17. Orbital momentum distribution and binding energies for the complete valence shell of molecular chlorine by electron momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, L.; Grisogono, A.M.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    The complete valence shell binding energy spectrum (10-50 eV) of Cl 2 has been determined using electron momentum (binary (e,2e)) spectroscopy. The inner valence region, corresponding to 4σ u and 4σ g ionization, has been measured for the first time and shows extensive splitting of the ionization strength due to electron correlation effects. These measurements are compared with the results of many-body calculations using Green's function and CI methods employing unpolarised as well as polarised wave functions. Momentum distributions, measured in both the outer and inner valence regions, are compared with calculations using a range of unpolarised and polarised wave functions. Computed orbital density maps in momentum and position space for oriented Cl 2 molecules are discussed in comparison with the measured and calculated spherically averaged momentum distributions

  18. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  19. 850-nm hybrid fiber/free-space optical communications using orbital angular momentum modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Light beams can carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) associated to the helicity of their phasefronts. These OAM modes can be employed to encode information onto a laser beam for transmitting not only in a fiber link but also in a free-space optical (FSO) one. Regarding this latter scenario, FSO...... communications are considered as an alternative and promising mean complementing the traditional optical communications in many applications where the use of fiber cable is not justified. This next generation FSO communication systems have attracted much interest recently, and the inclusion of beams carrying OAM...... modes can be seen as an efficient solution to increase the capacity and the security in the link. In this paper, we discuss an experimental demonstration of a proposal for next generation FSO communication system where a light beam carrying different OAM modes and affected by M turbulence is coupled...

  20. The detection of objects in a turbid underwater medium using orbital angular momentum (OAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochenour, Brandon; Rodgers, Lila; Laux, Alan; Mullen, Linda; Morgan, Kaitlyn; Miller, Jerome K.; Johnson, Eric G.

    2017-05-01

    We present an investigation of the optical property of orbital angular momentum (OAM) for use in the detection of objects obscured by a turbid underwater channel. In our experiment, a target is illuminated by a Gaussian beam. An optical vortex is formed by passing the object-reflected and backscattered light through a diffractive spiral phase plate at the receiver, which allows for the spatial separation of coherent and non-coherent light. This provides a method for discriminating target from environment. Initial laboratory results show that the ballistic target return can be detected 2-3 orders of magnitude below the backscatter clutter level. Furthermore, the detection of this coherent component is accomplished with the use of a complicated optical heterodyning scheme. The results suggest new optical sensing techniques for underwater imaging or LIDAR.