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Sample records for lichen species showed

  1. Lichen species preference by reindeer

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    Holleman, D F; Luick, J R

    1977-08-01

    The preference by reindeer for five species of lichens commonly found on Central Alaska rangelands was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that reindeer are strongly selective species in their lichen grazing habits. The five tested species ranged as follows in order of decreasing acceptibility: Caldonia alpestris, C. rangiferina, Stereocaulon paschale, Cetraria richardsonii, and Peltigera aphthosa.

  2. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

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    Snežana Marković

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+ bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  3. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

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    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  4. Comparative study of the suitability of two lichen species for trace element atmospheric monitoring

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    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2013-07-01

    Lichens have been widely used in monitoring studies. Consequently, it is very useful to study the suitability of lichen species to monitor pollutants allowing in this way the best choice. The aim of this study was to compare the accumulation of trace elements by two epiphytic lichen species Canoparmelia texana (Tuck) Elix and Hale and Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg.) Zahlbr. Five samples of each species were collected during the period from November 2010 in a same site far from downtown Sao Paulo city. Lichens collected from tree barks were cleaned, freeze-dried, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Aliquots of lichen samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced gamma activities were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a digital spectrum analyzer. Concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, V and Zn were determined in both lichen species. The results demonstrated that both species can be used for evaluating air quality. The element concentrations showed difference between lichen species and also among their sampling periods. These differences may be attributed to the distinct mechanisms of element absorption by lichens as well as various other factors that affect their element accumulation. The comparative evaluation made calculating the ratios between C. texana species sample and that in Usnea amblyoclada for elemental concentrations indicated that, in general, foliose C. texana present similar or higher concentrations than those presented by fruticose Usnea. (author)

  5. Prevalence of Candida Species in Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

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    Masoumeh Mehdipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The clinical management of oral lichen planus poses considerable difficulties to the clinician. In recent years, researchers have focused on the presence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Candida albicans in the patients with refractory lichen planus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of candida species in the erosive oral lichen planus lesions. Materials and methods. Twenty-one patients with erosive oral lichen planus and twenty-one healthy individuals aged 18-60 were randomly selected; samples were taken from the tongue, saliva and buccal mucosa with swab friction. Theses samples were sent to the laboratory for determining the presence of candida species in cultures and direct examination method. Results. No significant difference was found between healthy individuals and patients with erosive lichen planus regarding presence of candida species. The type of candida in the evaluated samples was Candida albicans in both healthy and patient groups. Conclusion. According to the results, candida was not confirmed as an etiologic factor for erosive lichen planus lesions.

  6. Ecological pattern of lichen species abundance in mixed forests of Eastern Romania

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    Ioana Vicol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this study consists in the knowledge of the ecological attributes characteristic to mixed forestry habitats and how they affect the structure of the lichen species abundances. The field activities were performed within five forest habitat types from Moldavia Province, characterised mainly by oak mixed forests, riparian mixed forests and mixed beech forests. The habitat variables, tree variables and the lichen species abundances were analysed to get informations on the structural disimilarities, on the one hand, and relationships on the other hand. Within this study no significant disimilarities were found out from abundance lichen species point of view. The lichen species abundances are a result of interactions between components of their microhabitat and macrohabitat. The correlation analysis pointed out the preferences of lichen species to their host trees, especially Quercus and Fraxinus, altitude and tree level variables as are aspect and mosses coverage. The regression analysis has highlighted that the changes in lichen species abundances are caused by macrohabitat level predictors such as host trees represented by Fraxinus. This study demonstrates that, structure of lichen species is influenced by attributes of mixed forest habitats; therefore maintaining the diversity of tree species and ensuring the continuous occurrence of forestry land is necessary for lichen and their habitat conservation.

  7. Lichen Endozoochory by Snails

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    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens. PMID:21533256

  8. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

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    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of trace elements in different species of lichens by neutron activation analysis

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    Coccaro, D.M.B.; Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied for the determination of trace elements in five epiphytic lichens: Canoparmelia texana, Canoparmelia caroliniana, Parmotrema tinctorum, Parmotrema sancti-angeli and Usnea sp. that were collected at the same sampling area of the Botanic Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The elemental concentration results showed that these five lichens can be chosen in the species intercalibration for biomonitoring studies. Also, some aspects related to the occurrence, tolerance to pollution, treatment and ease of sampling of the species are presented. (author)

  10. Biological activities of undescribed North American lichen species.

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    Yeash, Erik A; Letwin, Lyndon; Malek, Lada; Suntres, Zacharias; Knudsen, Kerry; Christopher, Lew P

    2017-11-01

    Lichens provide a large array of compounds with the potential for pharmaceutical development. In the present study, extracts from three previously undescribed North American lichen species were examined for antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activities. The results from this study demonstrated the following: (i) Acarospora socialis ethanol extract exhibited significant DPPH antioxidant scavenging activities, which were concentration dependent; (ii) acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Xanthoparmelia mexicana inhibited Gram-positive bacteria but had no effect on Gram-negative bacteria; X. mexicana acetone extract yielded a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 20.9 µg mL -1 against Staphylococcus aureus, and 41.9 µg mL -1 against Enterococcus faecalis; (iii) acetone extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca inhibited growth of cultured breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an effective concentration (EC 50 ) of 87 µg mL -1 ; the MCF-7 cell cycle appears arrested in the G2 phase, whereas the DNA synthesis cell cycle (S) may be inhibited. New lichen species that possess strong biological activities have been identified. These lichens comprise secondary metabolites that possess antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Evaluation of Antifungal Potentials and Antioxidant Capacities of Some Foliose Lichen Species

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    Bahar BİLGİN SÖKMEN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to assess of antioxidant and antifungal potential of the foliose lichen species: Flavoparmelia caperata, Xanthoparmelia stenophylla and Xanthoparmelia conspersa. The antifungal activity of lichens were studied against some pathogenic fungi by disc diffusion method. The acetonitrile extracts of these lichens were obtained with Soxhlet extraction. While F. caperata exhibited maximum antifungal activity (32 mm against the C. albicans, the minimum antifungal activity (10 mm was obtained from X. stenophylla lichen against S. cerevisiae. In CUPRAC assay, absorbance values was in order of BHT>X. conspersa>F. caperata>X. stenophylla. As a result of the study, it was concluded that these lichen species may be a potential source for the development of new antifungal and antioxidant compounds.

  12. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

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    Steffen Boch

    Full Text Available Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin, the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2 comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging, various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks. We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1 conserving unmanaged forests, (2 promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3 conserving old trees in managed forests, (4 promoting stands of native deciduous

  13. Richness of Lichen Species, Especially of Threatened Ones, Is Promoted by Management Methods Furthering Stand Continuity

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    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m2 comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  14. Lichens show that fungi can acclimate their respiration to seasonal changes in temperature.

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    Lange, Otto L; Green, T G Allan

    2005-01-01

    Five species of lichens, the majority members of a soil-crust community ( Cladonia convoluta, Diploschistes muscorum, Fulgensia fulgens, Lecanora muralis, Squamarina lentigera) showed seasonal changes of temperature sensitivity of their dark respiration (DR) to such an extent that several substantially met the definition of full acclimation, i.e. near identical DR under different nocturnal temperature conditions during the course of the year. C. convoluta, for example, had maximal DR at 5 degrees C of -0.42, -1.11 and -0.09 nmol CO(2) g(-1) s(-1) in autumn, winter, and summer, respectively, a tenfold range. However, at the mean night temperatures for the same three seasons, 9.7 degrees C, 4.2 degrees C and 13.6 degrees C, maximal DR were almost identical at -1.11, -0.93, and -1.45 nmol CO(2) g(-1) s(-1). The information was extracted from measurements using automatic cuvettes that continuously recorded a sample lichen's gas exchange every 30 min under near-natural conditions. The longest period (for L. muralis) covered 15 months and 22,000 data sets whilst, for the other species studied, data blocks were available throughout the calendar year. The acclimation of DR means that maximal net carbon fixation rates remain substantially similar throughout the year and are not depressed by increased carbon loss by respiration in warmer seasons. This is especially important for lichens because of their normally high rate of DR compared to net photosynthesis. We suggest that lichens, especially soil-crust species, could be a suitable model for fungi generally, a group of organisms for which little is known about temperature acclimation because of the great difficulty in separating the organism from its growth medium. Fungi, whether saprophytic, symbiotic or parasitic, including soil lichens, are important components of soil ecosystems and contribute much of the respired CO(2) from these systems. Temperature acclimation by fungi would mean that expected increases in carbon

  15. MICROMORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF SOME LICHENIZED FUNGI SPECIES

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    PÎNDARU DIANA-MIHAELA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, lichenized fungi are used in biomonitoring studies of air quality, being good receptors in the climate change. This paper aims to investigate surface micromorphology of Xanthoria parietina and Phaeophyscia orbicularis species (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota. The study also includes the investigation of selected chemical parameters as pH and conductivity of the lichenized fungi samples collected from various locations in the Iaşi County (Romania. Measurements of the pH provide information on the degree of pollution in the location of interest. Bark trees pH was also investigated in order to see if our matrix substrate influences the pH of the interest lichenized fungi samples.

  16. [Diversity of Bacillus species inhabiting on the surface and endophyte of lichens collected from Wuyi Mountain].

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    Ge, Cibin; Liu, Bo; Che, Jianmei; Chen, Meichun; Liu, Guohong; Wei, Jiangchun

    2015-05-04

    The present work reported the isolation, identification and diversity of Bacillus species colonizing on the surface and endophyte in lichens collected from Wuyi Mountain. Nine lichen samples of Evernia, Stereocaulon, Menegazzia and other 6 genera belonging to 7 families were collected from Wuyi mountain nature reserve. The bacillus-like species colonizing on the surface and endophyte in these lichens were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. There was no bacillus-like species isolated from Evernia, Ramalina and Lecarona. A total of 34 bacillus-like bacteria were isolated from another 6 lichen samples. These bacteria were identified as 24 species and were classified into Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridiibacillus. Paenibacillus and Bacillus are the dominant genera, and accounting for 41. 2% and 35. 3% of all isolated bacteria respectively. Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridiibacillu were first reported being isolated from lichens. There were different species and quantity of bacillus colonizing on the surface and endophyte in different lichens. The quantity of bacillus colonizing on the surface of Physcia was more than 3.85 x 10(6) cfu/g and was the largest in the isolated bacteria, while the species of bacillus colonizing on the surface and endophyte in Stereocaulon was the most abundant. Most of the isolated bacteria were colonizing on (in) one lichen genera, but Paenibacillus taichungensis, Paenibacillus odorifer, Brevibacillus agri, Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus was respectively colonizing on (in) 2-3 lichen genera and Bacillus mycoides was colonizing on (in) Menegazzia, Cladonia Physcia, and Stereocaulon. There are species and quantity diversity of bacillus colonizing on (in) lichens.

  17. Lichen-derived compounds show potential for central nervous system therapeutics.

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    Reddy, R Gajendra; Veeraval, Lenin; Maitra, Swati; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Tomasi, Sophie; Dévéhat, Françoise Lohézic-Le; Boustie, Joël; Chakravarty, Sumana

    2016-11-15

    Natural products from lichens are widely investigated for their biological properties, yet their potential as central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic agents is less explored. The present study investigated the neuroactive properties of selected lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and usnic acid), for their neurotrophic, neurogenic and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activities. Neurotrophic activity (neurite outgrowth) was determined using murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells. A MTT assay was performed to assess the cytotoxicity of compounds at optimum neurotrophic activity. Neuro2A cells treated with neurotrophic lichen compounds were used for RT-PCR to evaluate the induction of genes that code for the neurotrophic markers BDNF and NGF. Immunoblotting was used to assess acetyl H3 and H4 levels, the epigenetic markers associated with neurotrophic and/or neurogenic activity. The neurogenic property of the compounds was determined using murine hippocampal primary cultures. AChE inhibition activity was performed using a modified Ellman's esterase method. Lichen compounds atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and (+)-usnic acid showed neurotrophic activity in a preliminary cell-based screening based on Neuro2A neurite outgrowth. Except for usnic acid, no cytotoxic effects were observed for the two depsides (atranorin and perlatolic acid) and the alkyl depsidone (physodic acid). Perlatolic acid appears to be promising, as it also exhibited AChE inhibition activity and potent proneurogenic activity. The neurotrophic lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid) modulated the gene expression of BDNF and NGF. In addition, perlatolic acid showed increased protein levels of acetyl H3 and H4 in Neuro2A cells. These lichen depsides and depsidones showed neuroactive properties in vitro (Neuro2A cells) and ex vivo (primary neural stem or progenitor cells), suggesting their potential to treat CNS disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Gmb

  18. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds.

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    Meessen, J; Sánchez, F J; Sadowsky, A; de la Torre, R; Ott, S; de Vera, J-P

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  19. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research II. Secondary Lichen Compounds

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    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Sadowsky, A.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.; de Vera, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  20. Citizen science identifies the effects of nitrogen deposition, climate and tree species on epiphytic lichens across the UK.

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    Welden, N A; Wolseley, P A; Ashmore, M R

    2018-01-01

    A national citizen survey quantified the abundance of epiphytic lichens that are known to be either sensitive or tolerant to nitrogen (N) deposition. Records were collected across the UK from over 10,000 individual trees of 22 deciduous species. Mean abundance of tolerant and sensitive lichens was related to mean N deposition rates and climatic variables at a 5 km scale, and the response of lichens was compared on the three most common trees (Quercus, Fraxinus and Acer) and by assigning all 22 tree species to three bark pH groups. The abundance of N-sensitive lichens on trunks decreased with increasing total N deposition, while that of N-tolerant lichens increased. The abundance of N-sensitive lichens on trunks was reduced close to a busy road, while the abundance of N-tolerant lichens increased. The abundance of N-tolerant lichen species on trunks was lower on Quercus and other low bark pH species, but the abundance of N-sensitive lichens was similar on different tree species. Lichen abundance relationships with total N deposition did not differ between tree species or bark pH groups. The response of N-sensitive lichens to reduced nitrogen was greater than to oxidised N, and the response of N-tolerant lichens was greater to oxidised N than to reduced N. There were differences in the response of N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichens to rainfall, humidity and temperature. Relationships with N deposition and climatic variables were similar for lichen presence on twigs as for lichen abundance on trunks, but N-sensitive lichens increased, rather than decreased, on twigs of Quercus/low bark pH species. The results demonstrate the unique power of citizen science to detect and quantify the air pollution impacts over a wide geographical range, and specifically to contribute to understanding of lichen responses to different chemical forms of N deposition, local pollution sources and bark chemistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant potential of lichen species and their secondary metabolites. A systematic review.

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    Fernández-Moriano, Carlos; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar; Crespo, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological interest of lichens lies in their capacity to produce bioactive secondary metabolites, being most of them phenolic compounds with reactive hydroxyl groups that confer antioxidant potential through various mechanisms. Increasing incidence and impact of oxidative stress-related diseases (i.e., neurodegenerative disorders) has encouraged the search of new pharmacological strategies to face them. Lichens appear to be a promising source of phenolic compounds in the discovery of natural products exerting antioxidant activity. The present review thoroughly discusses the available knowledge on antioxidant properties of lichens, including both in vitro and in vivo studies and the parameters assessed so far on lichen constituents. Literature survey was performed by using as main databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Recent Literature on Lichens. We reviewed 98 highlighted research articles without date restriction. Current report collects data related to antioxidant activities of more than 75 lichen species (from 18 botanical families) and 65 isolated metabolites. Much information comes from in vitro investigations, such as chemical assays evaluating radical scavenging properties, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and reducing power of lichen species and compounds; similarly, research on cellular substrates and animal models generally measures antioxidant enzymes levels and other antioxidant markers, such as glutathione levels or tissue peroxidation. Since consistent evidence demonstrated the contribution of oxidative stress on the development and progression of several human diseases, reviewed data suggest that some lichen compounds are worthy of further investigation and better understanding of their antioxidant and neuroprotective potentials.

  2. Oribatid communities and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected species associated with lichens in a heavily contaminated habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubała, Piotr; Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    The study examines oribatid communities and heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected species associated with different microhabitats of a post-smelting dump, i.e. three lichen species of Cladonia with various growth forms and the slag substrate. The abundance of oribatids collected from the substrate was significantly lower than observed in lichen thalli. The morphology and chemical properties of lichens, and to some extent varying concentrations of heavy metals in thalli, are probably responsible for significant differences in oribatid communities inhabiting different Cladonia species. Some oribatids demonstrate the ability to accumulate zinc and cadmium with unusual efficiency, whereas lead is the most effectively regulated element by all species. A positive correlation was found between Zn content in all studied oribatids and their microhabitats. Oribatids exploring different food resources, i.e. fungivorous and non-fungivorous grazers, show considerable differences in bioconcentrations of certain elements.

  3. Identification of most tolerant lichen species to vehicular traffic's pollutants at Batu Pahat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nur Ain; Muhammad, Norhayati; Hashim, Nor Haslina; Yusof, Hasliza; Jusoh, Samsiah; Abas, Azlan; Talip, Balkis A.; Abdullah, Norazlin; Din, Laily B.

    2017-10-01

    Bio-indicators are organisms that can be used for the identification and qualitative determination of human generated environmental factors. The decreasing population of sensitive lichens in specific regions around the world due to low air quality level has make lichens as a bio-indicator for air pollution. Lichen is a result of symbiotic association of fungus and alga and well known for having wide variety of sensitivity towards environmental stressors such as air quality and climate change. The aim of this study is to identify the most tolerant lichen species to vehicular traffic's pollutant at Batu Pahat urban and suburban areas. This study was conducted by using Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) method and followed by morphological and chemicals testing for species identification. Dirinaria picta has been identified as the most tolerant lichen species against pollutants from vehicle traffic. The results also indicated that the air quality of Batu Pahat town/urban area could be considered as moderately clean.

  4. Isolation and antimicrobial acitivity of anthraquinones from some species of the lichen genus Xanthoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ. KRSTIC

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of six anthraquinones, erythroglaucin, physcion, xanthorin, emodin, fallacinal and teloschistin, from three species of the lichen genus Xanthoria (X. fallax, X. elegans and X. policarpa is reported. Physcion is the dominant anthraquinone in all species. the anthraquinones showed broad-spectrum antifingal activity and selective activity against some phytopathogenic bacterial species.

  5. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce--The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcklund, Sofia; Jönsson, Mari; Strengbom, Joachim; Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden.

  6. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce--The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bäcklund

    Full Text Available With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden.

  7. Species richness of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens along an altitudinal gradient in western Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytnes, John Arvid; Heegaard, Einar; Ihlen, Per G.

    2006-05-01

    Species richness patterns of ground-dwelling vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens were compared along an altitudinal gradient (310-1135 m a.s.l.), in western Norway. Total species richness peaked at intermediate altitudes, vascular plant species richness peaked immediately above the forest limit (at 600-700 m a.s.l.), bryophyte species richness had no statistically significant trend, whereas lichen richness increased from the lowest point and up to the forest limit, with no trend above. It is proposed that the pattern in vascular plant species richness is enhanced by an ecotone effect. Bryophyte species richness responds to local scale factors whereas the lichen species richness may be responding to the shading from the forest trees.

  8. Lichen indicator [Section 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson; Susan Will-Wolf; Marie T. Trest

    2009-01-01

    Lichens are very responsive to environmental stressors in forests, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate. Each lichen species on a plot is an indicator of how lichen communities respond to ecological conditions. Individual lichen species occur erratically and even common species are often absent from plots with suitable habitat. The combined...

  9. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth's ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future.

  10. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Violeta Ardelean

    Full Text Available Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth's ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future.

  11. A Pine Is a Pine and a Spruce Is a Spruce – The Effect of Tree Species and Stand Age on Epiphytic Lichen Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcklund, Sofia; Jönsson, Mari; Strengbom, Joachim; Frisch, Andreas; Thor, Göran

    2016-01-01

    With an increasing demand for forest-based products, there is a growing interest in introducing fast-growing non-native tree species in forest management. Such introductions often have unknown consequences for native forest biodiversity. In this study, we examine epiphytic lichen species richness and species composition on the trunks of non-native Pinus contorta and compare these to the native Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in managed boreal forests in northern Sweden across a chronosequence of age classes. Overall, we recorded a total of 66,209 lichen occurrences belonging to 57 species in the 96 studied forest stands. We found no difference in species richness of lichens between stands of P. contorta and P. sylvestris, but stands of P. abies had higher total species richness. However, species richness of lichens in stands of P. abies decreased with increasing stand age, while no such age effect was detected for P. contorta and P. sylvestris. Lichen species composition progressively diverged with increasing stand age, and in 30-year-old stands all three tree species showed species-specific assemblages. Epiphytic lichen assemblages in stands of 30-year-old P. contorta were influenced by greater basal area, canopy closure, and average diameter at breast height, P. abies stands by higher branch density and canopy closure, and stands of P. sylvestris by greater bark crevice depth. Differences in lichen species richness and composition were mainly explained by canopy closure and habitat availability, and the greater canopy closure in mature P. abies stands promoted the colonization and growth of calicioid lichen species. Our results indicate that the non-native P. contorta have similar species richness as the native P. sylvestris. The main difference in lichen species richness and composition is between P. abies and Pinus spp. in managed forests of boreal Sweden. PMID:26799558

  12. Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bennett, James P

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than twenty lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered. PMID:22453171

  13. Dynamics of species diversity of epiphytic lichenized fungi in the southern district of Moscow city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biazrov Lev

    2013-03-01

    2006-2007 on the same territory the representatives of 54 epiphytic lichen species were found. The basic reason of the changes in the compositionof lichen biota revealed on the studied urban territory is eutrophication mainly nitrophication of lichen habitats in Moscow city."

  14. Rinodina degeliana: a corticolous lichen species overlooked in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Rinodina degeliana in Poland are described. The morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of the species are discussed and characters that help to differentiate R. degaliana from similar lichens are presented. The species is relatively frequent in lime-hornbeam forests of northern and central Poland.

  15. New method of measuring lichen respiration: response of selected species to temperature, pH and sulphur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baddeley, M S; Ferry, B W; Finegan, E J

    1971-01-01

    The respiration of selected lichens and their response to temperature, pH and sulphur dioxide concentration were investigated in aqueous solution using an oxygen electrode. Respiration rates increased to a maximum at 40/sup 0/ C although some individual species showed variations from this general pattern. The optimal pH for respiration was found to be 4.2 except in Hypogymnia physodes (3.2) and Ramalina fastigiata (5.2). Sulfur dioxide at concentrations similar to those likely to be encountered in heavily polluted areas in nature had marked inhibitory effects of the respiration rate of all species investigated but as these variations did not entirely correspond to the tolerances of the species in the field some other factors must also be involved in the sensitivity of lichens to sulphur dioxide pollution. The advantages of using an oxygen electrode rather than manometric or other techniques in studies on the respiration rate of lichens are discussed. 29 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Lichen explants and natural occurrence of lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschbaum, A; Klee, R

    1971-01-01

    Studies with lichen explants and with naturally occurring lichens, conducted in the Lower Main region in West Germany within the framework of an air hydgienic and meteorologic model study of that region, are described. Parmelia physodes explants from oak trees growing in nonpolluted areas were exposed in polluted areas, such as in an industrial area, an airport, a petroleum refinery, and near a large chemical plant. The degree of air pollution in the exposure site was evaluated by the degree of the lichen damage in seven grades. The large-scale average distribution of air pollution in the survey area was studied by surveying the natural occurrence of lichen species on 10 apple trees in area units of 6.25 sq km each. The lichen explant and lichen survey methods compared by the study of naturally occurring lichens were near the exposure site of lichen explants.

  17. New and interesting species of lichens from xerothermic habitats in NW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Wieczorek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on the occurrence of lichens in xerothermic grasslands, representing a great mycological peculiarity of the NW part of Pomerania, Poland. The 12 examined specimens of six species originated from fieldwork carried out in 2011–2014 in the nature reserves Brodogóry, Stary Przylep, Bielinek, Wrzosowiska Cedyńskie, Prof. Adam Wodziczko Nature Reserve in the Wolin National Park, and an old chalk excavation site on Wolin Island. Within the study sites, four lichen species were recorded as a new to Western Pomerania: Agonimia gelatinosa, Collema cristatum, Dermatocarpon luridum, and Leptogium subtile. The other two species, Collema auriforme and C. flaccidum, are rarely observed in the studied region.

  18. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling.

  19. The use of lichens in post-smelting dumps reclamation - preliminary results of experimental cultivation of selected species on slag substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Conventional reclamation interventions of post-smelting slag dumps being undertaken so far either failed or produced poor results. Certain lichens, especially of the genus Cladonia, are known as effective colonisers of bare ground in anthropogenic habitats. The paper presents preliminary results of the experiment aimed at the evaluation of lichen usefulness in reclamation interventions. The cultivation in vivo involving transplantation of lichens directly on slag substrate was established in 2015. Five species, i.e. Cladonia rei, C. cariosa, C. pyxidata, C. subulata, C. macilenta, were transplanted into 32 cuvettes filled with sterilised slag substrate. The sample weight of 2 and 6 g were used and half of cuvettes were regularly supplied with 2% malt solution. The first important symptoms at the present stage of the experiment are as follow: the growth of thalli has appeared only in the case of first three species; C. rei shows the most effective development; cuvettes with 6 g sample weight are characterized by higher coverage of fresh lichen thalli; lichen biomass are visually higher in cuvettes treated with malt solution. The results give us reason to believe that lichens could be successfully used as an alternative element during planning of slag dumps reclamation in the future.

  20. Lichens as bioindicators of air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Stolte; D. Mangis; R. Doty; K. Tonnessen; Laurie S.  Huckaby

    1993-01-01

    This report is the result of a workshop held in Denver, Colorado on April 9-11, 1991. It summarizes the current literature and techniques for using lichens to monitor air quality. Experts in lichenology and ecology contributed information on lichen floristics, characterization of monitoring sites, lichen species and communities, identifying lichen species...

  1. Lichen substances prevent lichens from nutrient deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Willenbruch, Karen; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The dibenzofuran usnic acid, a widespread cortical secondary metabolite produced by lichen-forming fungi, was shown to promote the intracellular uptake of Cu(2+) in two epiphytic lichens, Evernia mesomorpha and Ramalina menziesii, from acidic, nutrient-poor bark. Higher Cu(2+) uptake in the former, which produces the depside divaricatic acid in addition to usnic acid, suggests that this depside promotes Cu(2+) uptake. Since Cu(2+) is one of the rarest micronutrients, promotion of Cu(2+) uptake by lichen substances may be crucial for the studied lichens to survive in their nutrient-poor habitats. In contrast, study of the uptake of other metals in E. mesomorpha revealed that the intracellular uptake of Mn(2+), which regularly exceeds potentially toxic concentrations in leachates of acidic tree bark, was partially inhibited by the lichen substances produced by this species. Inhibition of Mn(2+) uptake by lichen substances previously has been demonstrated in lichens. The uptake of Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), which fail to reach toxic concentrations in acidic bark at unpolluted sites, although they are more common than Cu(2+), was not affected by lichen substances of E. mesomorpha.

  2. Lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kershaw, K A

    1963-01-01

    The extreme susceptibility of lichens to air pollution is emphasized in a discussion of the distribution and ecology of the symbionts. The susceptibility is possible due to the indiscriminate and rapid absorption of solutes over the surface of the thallus. Lichens are virtually absent from towns and industrial areas. In an investigation in Kvarntorp, Sweden, the distribution of lichens corresponded markedly with the levels of air pollution, mainly by sulfur dioxide and secondly to the low humidity of the area. There are a few lichens that are tolerant of pollution and occur abundantly in industrial and suburban areas. Lecandra conizaeoides and Stereocaulton pileatum are prevalent in large cities of Great Britain and are early colonizers of trees and brickwork. The apparent preference of lichens for asbestos roofing in polluted areas is related to the high water absorbing power of the substratum and the high base content, with the consequent power of neutralizing acidic atmospheric pollutants. The flora growing on an asbestos tiled roof eight miles from London was examined and revealed four species: S. muralis, L. dispersa, R. demissa, and C. vitellina. The density of the S. muralis was approximately 1/sq m with diameters up to 6 cm. The density of the other species was extremely high, up to 368 apothecia/sq cm for L. dispersa. The figures suggest that the high water absorbing properties and basicity of the asbestos are the factors responsible for the prolific lichen growth. 15 references, 13 figures.

  3. The natural depuration rate of 137Cs radionuclides in a lichen and moss species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, S.; Dawen, A.M. van; Gungor, N.

    1995-01-01

    Caesium-137 concentrations in lichen and moss samples have been studied for calculations of natural depuration rates. The lichen and moss species were collected from the same trees in western and eastern Black Sea region during the periods of 1987-1992 and 1990-1993, respectively. The natural depuration rates are estimated at biological half-lives. The pattern of depuration results represented by a single component for each non-vascular plant. The biological half-lives of 137 Cs in a lichen and moss samples (Xanthoria parietina and Leucodon immersus) are estimated to be 5.86 and 10.9 months, respectively. This work set supports the view that radioactivity monitoring in lichens can be a more useful monitor than mosses to determine the lasting effect of radioactive fallout. (author)

  4. The use of lichens in post-smelting dumps reclamation – preliminary results of experimental cultivation of selected species on slag substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola Kaja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional reclamation interventions of post-smelting slag dumps being undertaken so far either failed or produced poor results. Certain lichens, especially of the genus Cladonia, are known as effective colonisers of bare ground in anthropogenic habitats. The paper presents preliminary results of the experiment aimed at the evaluation of lichen usefulness in reclamation interventions. The cultivation in vivo involving transplantation of lichens directly on slag substrate was established in 2015. Five species, i.e. Cladonia rei, C. cariosa, C. pyxidata, C. subulata, C. macilenta, were transplanted into 32 cuvettes filled with sterilised slag substrate. The sample weight of 2 and 6 g were used and half of cuvettes were regularly supplied with 2% malt solution. The first important symptoms at the present stage of the experiment are as follow: the growth of thalli has appeared only in the case of first three species; C. rei shows the most effective development; cuvettes with 6 g sample weight are characterized by higher coverage of fresh lichen thalli; lichen biomass are visually higher in cuvettes treated with malt solution. The results give us reason to believe that lichens could be successfully used as an alternative element during planning of slag dumps reclamation in the future.

  5. Community assembly in epiphytic lichens in early stages of colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Ivar; Blom, Hans H; Lindblom, Louise; Saetersdal, Magne; Schei, Fride Høstad

    2012-04-01

    Colonization studies may function as natural experiments and have the potential of addressing important questions about community assembly. We studied colonization for a guild of epiphytic lichens in a former treeless heathland area of 170 km2 in southwest Norway. We investigated if epiphytic lichen species richness and composition on aspen (Populus tremula) trees corresponded to a random draw of lichen individuals from the regional species pool. We compared lichen communities of isolated young (55-120 yr) and old (140-200 yr) forest patches in the heathland area to those of aspen forest in an adjacent reference area that has been forested for a long time. All thalli (lichen bodies) of 32 selected lichen species on trunks of aspen were recorded in 35 aspen sites. When data for each site category (young, old, and reference) were pooled, we found the species richness by rarefaction to be similar for reference sites and old sites, but significantly lower for young sites. The depauperated species richness of young sites was accompanied by a skew in species composition and absence of several species that were common in the reference sites. In contrast, genetic variation screened with neutral microsatellite markers in the lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria showed no significant differences between site categories. Our null hypothesis of a neutral species assembly in young sites corresponding to a random draw from the regional species pool was rejected, whereas an alternative hypothesis based on differences in colonization capacity among species was supported. The results indicate that for the habitat configuration in the heathland area (isolated patches constituting lichen communities may need a colonization time of 100-150 yr for species richness to level off, but given enough time, isolation will not affect species richness. We suggest that this contradiction to expectations from classical island equilibrium theory results from low extinction rates.

  6. Lichen flora of Derbyshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawksworth, D L

    1969-01-01

    The lichen flora of the central English county of Derbyshire is described and discussed. The distribution of each species is described with reference to 10 km grid squares. In areas where air pollution is severe, very few species are found, even if otherwise suitable habitants are available. Air pollution is therefore considered to be the dominant factor affecting the present lichen flora of the county. The lichen communities have been studied and nineteen unions belonging to eleven federations are recognized. Several species are discussed taxonomically. 182 references, 15 tables.

  7. Can Antarctic lichens acclimatize to changes in temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard; Hurry, Vaughan; Green, Thomas George Allan

    2018-03-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula, a tundra biome dominated by lichens and bryophytes, is an ecozone undergoing rapid temperature shifts. Such changes may demand a high physiological plasticity of the local lichen species to maintain their role as key drivers in this pristine habitat. This study examines the response of net photosynthesis and respiration to increasing temperatures for three Antarctic lichen species with different ecological response amplitudes. We hypothesize that negative effects caused by increased temperatures can be mitigated by thermal acclimation of respiration and/or photosynthesis. The fully controlled growth chamber experiment simulated intermediate and extreme temperature increases over the time course of 6 weeks. Results showed that, in contrast to our hypothesis, none of the species was able to down-regulate temperature-driven respiratory losses through thermal acclimation of respiration. Instead, severe effects on photobiont vitality demonstrated that temperatures around 15°C mark the upper limit for the two species restricted to the Antarctic, and when mycobiont demands exceeded the photobiont capacity they could not survive within the lichen thallus. In contrast, the widespread lichen species was able to recover its homoeostasis by rapidly increasing net photosynthesis. We conclude that to understand the complete lichen response, acclimation processes of both symbionts, the photo- and the mycobiont, have to be evaluated separately. As a result, we postulate that any acclimation processes in lichen are species-specific. This, together with the high degree of response variability and sensitivity to temperature in different species that co-occur spatially close, complicates any predictions regarding future community composition in the Antarctic. Nevertheless, our results suggest that species with a broad ecological amplitude may be favoured with on-going changes in temperature. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Forests Regenerating after Clear-Cutting Function as Habitat for Bryophyte and Lichen Species of Conservation Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolphi, Jörgen; Gustafsson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The majority of managed forests in Fennoscandia are younger than 70 years old but yet little is known about their potential to host rare and threatened species. In this study, we examined red-listed bryophytes and lichens in 19 young stands originating from clear-cutting (30–70 years old) in the boreal region, finding 19 red-listed species (six bryophytes and 13 lichens). We used adjoining old stands, which most likely never had been clear-cut, as reference. The old stands contained significantly more species, but when taking the amount of biological legacies (i.e., remaining deciduous trees and dead wood) from the previous forest generation into account, bryophyte species number did not differ between old and young stands, and lichen number was even higher in young stands. No dispersal effect could be detected from the old to the young stands. The amount of wetlands in the surroundings was important for bryophytes, as was the area of old forest for both lichens and bryophytes. A cardinal position of young stands to the north of old stands was beneficial to red-listed bryophytes as well as lichens. We conclude that young forest plantations may function as habitat for red-listed species, but that this depends on presence of structures from the previous forest generation, and also on qualities in the surrounding landscape. Nevertheless, at repeated clear-cuttings, a successive decrease in species populations in young production stands is likely, due to increased fragmentation and reduced substrate amounts. Retention of dead wood and deciduous trees might be efficient conservation measures. Although priority needs to be given to preservation of remnant old-growth forests, we argue that young forests rich in biological legacies and located in landscapes with high amounts of old forests may have a conservation value. PMID:21490926

  9. Nature reserve Pfaueninsel in Berlin-Wannsee. V. The Lichen Flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grummann, V J; Poelt, J

    1972-01-01

    During the years 1965-1971 about 95 species of lichens were identified within the district of West Berlin. A few of them were growing on trees; corticolous foliaceous species are present in very reduced numbers, and the surviving individuals do not appear healthy. The majority of the species are found on walls and large rocks or on the ground in pine woods. Even these species are showing signs of diminution. Several species seem to have disappeared since the beginning of the observations. Air pollution is singled out as the cause of the decline of the lichens. Berlin today must be considered a lichen desert. 29 references, 2 figures.

  10. Cladonia metacorallifera, a lichen species new to the Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A rare lichen Cladonia metacorallifera was found in the Bieszczady Mts. and this is the first report of the species from the Eastern Carpathians. In Poland, its occurrence is probably limited to small populations scattered in high mountain situations. The data of distribution of the species in Poland, ecological characterization of the new locality and some taxonomical remarks concerning the recorded specimen, as well as a photograph of its habit are provided.

  11. Atmospheric pollution and specific tolerance of lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sloover, J

    1968-01-01

    An ecological method has been designed which allows a quantitative estimation of specific sensitivity of lichens to atmospheric pollution. That method is based on a comparison of the ''cortege moyen specifique'' i.e. the mean number of lichens growing with each species in a given area. Four of the obtained sequences are compared (The Dender valley and the area surrounding Gand, Belgium: the Oslo and the Helsinki areas); they show the order to toxiphoby of the related epiphytic lichens.

  12. Relationship of a lichen species diversity indicator to environmental factors across the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Mark J. Ambrose; Randall S. Morin

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated relationships between one simple indicator of lichen species diversity and environmental variables in forests across the coterminous United States. We want to know whether this indicator can help quantify the influence that factors such as climate and air quality have on lichen biodiversity at large scales and whether it will be useful in...

  13. Elemental compositions of lichens from Duolun County, Inner Mongolia, China: Origin, road effect and species difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Wang, Jing-Gong; Xia, Yu; Yang, Meng-Jie; Liu, Si-Wa; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Jiang, Yun-Jun; Li, Xin; Wu, Qing-Feng; Fang, Shi-Bo

    2017-07-17

    To assess the response of lichen elemental compositions to road traffic and species difference in the context of high dust input and anthropogenic emissions, two foliose epiphytic lichens (Phaeophyscia hirtuosa, PHh; Candelaria fibrosa, CAf) were sampled near a road adjacent to Dolon Nor Town (Duolun County, Inner Mongolia, China). Twenty elements (Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) in lichen and surface soil samples were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results demonstrate that lichen elemental compositions are highly influenced by both their natural environment and anthropogenic input. Windblown dust associated with sand dunes and degraded/desertified steppes represents the predominant source of lichen elements. Road traffic can enhance the lichen elemental burden by increasing the number of soil particles. Anthropogenic emissions from the town and road traffic have also led to the enrichment of Cd and Zn in lichens. PHh was higher than CAf in concentrations of 14 terrigenous metals. Both lichens are applicable to biomonitoring of atmospheric element deposition and, in most cases, yield comparable results.

  14. Lichenized Ascomycetes (Lichenes of the Choszczno Lake District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Lipnicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper includes the list of 184 species of Lichens stated in the area of Choszczno Lake District. It gives the ecological conditions of their occurrence and the number of sites. Theendangered lichens growing in the forest-bereft regions which were under the strong influence of factors included by intensive agriculture were presented.

  15. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Martins-Loucao, M.A. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Cerena, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Maguas, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, Universidade de Lisboa, edificio C4, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, Universidade Atlantica, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-08-15

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO{sub 2} and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species.

  16. Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species in a Mediterranean climate: Impact of land cover and atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Martins-Loucao, M.A.; Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Maguas, C.; Branquinho, C.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of determining the main drivers of changes in nitrophytic and oligotrophic macro-lichen communities in an industrial region with a Mediterranean climate, we considered both land-cover types and atmospheric pollutants. We determined the relation between the abundance of nitrophytic and oligotrophic species with environmental factors considering the distance of influence of land-cover types. The results showed that oligotrophic species decreased in the proximity of artificial areas, barren land and agricultural areas, associated with higher concentrations of NO 2 and Zn, and Ti, probably dust of industrial and agricultural origin. Nitrophytic species were positively related to all the mentioned land-cover types, and with higher concentrations of Fe and N. Magnesium, probably from ocean aerosols, was negatively related to oligotrophic species and positively to nitrophytic. - Causes of change in nitrophytic and oligotrophic lichen species

  17. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O.; Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  18. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  19. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  20. Assessment of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry using lichen species Canoparmelia texana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardo, Lucio, E-mail: lucioleo@ipen.br [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Mazzilli, Barbara Paci; Damatto, Sandra Regina [Laboratorio de Radiometria Ambiental, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Saiki, Mitiko [Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Sao Paulo, CEP 05508 000 (Brazil); Barros de Oliveira, Sonia Maria [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper examines the viability of using Canoparmelia texana lichen species as a bioindicator of air pollution by radionuclides and rare earth elements (REEs) in the vicinity of a tin and lead industry. The lichen and soil samples were analyzed for uranium, thorium and REEs by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were determined either by Gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) (soils) or by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting using a gas flow proportional counter (lichens). The lichens samples concentrate radionuclides (on the average 25-fold higher than the background for this species) and REEs (on the average 10-fold higher), therefore they can be used as a fingerprint of contamination by the operation of the tin industry.

  1. Lichen communities as bioindicators of the Aburra Valley air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo C, Margarita M; Botero B, Liliana R

    2010-01-01

    Lichens have been used as bioindicators of air quality. They are sensitive to changes in air composition at any given site affecting their abundance, biomass and vitality.This study evaluated lichen affectation as a consequence of air pollution. Two study areas within the Aburra Valley and the RedAire network were selected: Miguel Aguinaga (high pollution station) and the Medellin University (low pollution station). Four phorophytic tree species were chosen at each site Terminalia catappa Linneaus, Eritrina fusca Loureiro, Mangifera indica Linneaus y Fraxinus chinensis Roxb. The lichen cover by species, the vitality and the fructification were used to analyze the effect of air pollution. Finally, the lichen cover information was used to calculate the index of atmospheric purity (IAP) and the Q factor determination. Total qualitative and quantitative information obtained made evident that Canoparmelia sp. and Parmotrema austrosinensis (Zahlbr) Hale. lichen species are the most sensitive, and therefore appropriate to assess air quality. Additionally, the statistical analysis carried out using the relative abundances by phorophytic trees, showed that Fraxinus chinensis Roxb is the most appropriate tree species for bioindicator lichens studies into the Aburra valley.

  2. Bacterial Communities Associated with the Lichen Symbiosis▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Scott T.; Cropsey, Garrett W. G.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and “algae” (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N2 fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N2 fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses. PMID:21169444

  3. Traffic represents the main source of pollution in small Mediterranean urban areas as seen by lichen functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Esteve; Pinho, Pedro; Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pereira, Maria João; Branquinho, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The land-use type (residential, green areas, and traffic) within relatively small Mediterranean urban areas determines significant changes on lichen diversity, considering species richness and functional groups related to different ecological factors. Those areas with larger volume of traffic hold lower species diversity, in terms of species richness and lichen diversity value (LDV). Traffic areas also affect the composition of the lichen community, which is evidenced by sensitive species. The abundance of species of lichens tolerant to low levels of eutrophication diminishes in traffic areas; oppositely, those areas show a higher abundance of species of lichens tolerating high levels of eutrophication. On the other hand, residential and green areas have an opposite pattern, mainly with species highly tolerant to eutrophication being less abundant than low or moderate ones. The characteristics of tree bark do not seem to affect excessively on lichen composition; however, tree species shows some effect that should be considered in further studies.

  4. Mapping lichen color-groups in western Arctic Alaska using seasonal Landsat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Mapping lichens at a landscape scale has received increased recent interest due to fears that terricolous lichen mats, primary winter caribou forage, may be decreasing across the arctic and boreal zones. However, previous efforts have produced taxonomically coarse, total lichen cover maps or have covered relatively small spatial extents. Here we attempt to map lichens of differing colors as species proxies across northwestern Alaska to produce the finest taxonomic and spatial- grained lichen maps covering the largest spatial extent to date. Lichen community sampling in five western Alaskan National Parks and Preserves from 2007-2012 generated 328 FIA-style 34.7 m radius plots on which species-level macrolichen community structure and abundance was estimated. Species were coded by color and plot lichen cover was aggregated by plot as the sum of the cover of each species in a color group. Ten different lichen color groupings were used for modeling to deduce which colors were most detectable. Reflectance signatures of each plot were extracted from a series of Landsat composites (circa 2000-2010) partitioned into two-week intervals from June 1 to Sept. 15. Median reflectance values for each band in each pixel were selected based on filtering criteria to reduce likelihood of snow cover. Lichen color group cover was regressed against plot reflectance plus additional abiotic predictors in two different data mining algorithms. Brown and grey lichens had the best models explaining approximately 40% of lichen cover in those color groups. Both data mining techniques produced similarly good fitting models. Spatial patterns of lichen color-group cover show distinctly different ecological patterns of these color-group species proxies.

  5. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  6. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Måns Svensson

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years, managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1 total lichen species richness, (2 species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3 the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  7. Lichens: Unexpected anti-prion agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bennett, James P.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than 20 lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  8. Lichens as bio indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication discusses the use of lichens as biological indicators. Perennial growth, long life, efficient take-up of mineral nutrients from air and rain and small loss of nutrition are properties that make lichens suitable as biological indicators. In surveys and monitoring, species diversity and coverage by organisms that live as epiphytes on tree trunks have been the most commonly used parameters. A decline in the occurrence of this type of lichen is often related to the content of sulphur compounds in the air and it has been demonstrated that many species are sensitive to sulphur dioxide. It is also known that the growth of many types of lichens increases with a moderate increase in available nitrogen. In South Norway, pollution sensitive species such as Bryoria spp. have advanced strongly, which is probably due to less sulphur in the rain and a higher content of nutrition in the form of nitrate and ammonium

  9. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens - an integrative approach to discovering and delimiting fungal species in the lichen-forming rhizoplaca melanophthalma speciescomplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence indicates that morphology-based species circumspection of lichenized ascomycetes greatly misrepresents the number of existing species. Recently it has been demonstrated that population-level processes operating within diverging populations can facilitate the identification...

  10. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face.

  11. Verrucaria species and other rare amphibious lichens in the Beskid Sądecki Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten freshwater lichen species from the Beskid Sądecki Mts are presented. Seven of them: Hydropunctaria rheitrophila, Thelidium aquaticum, T. minutulum, T. zwackhii, Verrucaria dolosa, V. elaeomelaena and V. submersella, are new to the region. Three species: Verrucaria elaeina, V. hydrophila and V. latebrosa, were previously known from single localities.

  12. Species of lichenized and allied fungi new to Białowieża Large Forest (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents 38 species of lichenized and allied fungi new to Białowieża Large Forest. 24 taxa of lichenized Ascomycota and 14 taxa of lichenicolous and saprobic fungi are the result of the analysis of collected materials as well as additional field studies.

  13. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  14. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  15. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lichen compounds restrain lichen feeding by bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybakken, Line; Helmersen, Anne-Marit; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Selås, Vidar

    2010-03-01

    Some lichen compounds are known to deter feeding by invertebrate herbivores. We attempted to quantify the deterring efficiency of lichen compounds against a generalist vertebrate, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In two separate experiments, caged bank voles had the choice to feed on lichens with natural or reduced concentrations of secondary compounds. We rinsed air-dry intact lichens in 100% acetone to remove extracellular compounds non-destructively. In the first experiment, pairs of control and rinsed lichen thalli were hydrated and offered to the bank voles. Because the lichens desiccated fast, we ran a second experiment with pairs of ground control and compound-deficient thalli, each mixed with water to porridge. Eight and six lichen species were tested in the first and second experiment, respectively. In the first, bank voles preferred compound-deficient thalli of Cladonia stellaris and Lobaria pulmonaria, but did not discriminate between the other thallus pairs. This was likely a result of deterring levels of usnic and stictic acid in the control thalli. When lichens were served as porridge, significant preference was found for acetone-rinsed pieces of Cladonia arbuscula, C. rangiferina, Platismatia glauca, and Evernia prunastri. The increased preference was caused mainly by lower consumption of control thalli. Grinding and mixing of thallus structures prevented bank voles from selecting thallus parts with lower concentration of secondary compounds and/or strengthened their deterring capacity. We conclude that some lichen secondary compounds deter feeding by bank voles.

  17. Physiological responses of lichens to factorial fumigations with nitric acid and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, J.; Padgett, P.E.; Nash, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of gaseous nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and ozone (O 3 ), two important air pollutants, on six lichen species with different morphological, ecological, and biological characteristics. The treatment chambers were set up in a factorial design consisting of control chambers, chambers fumigated with HNO 3 , with O 3 , and with HNO 3 and O 3 , together. Each species showed a different sensitivity to the fumigations, reflecting the physiological variation among species. Our results clearly indicate that HNO 3 is a strong phytotoxin to many lichens, and that O 3 alone has little effect on the measured parameters. The combined fumigation effects of HNO 3 and O 3 were not significantly different from HNO 3 alone. - Highlights: ► We fumigated 6 lichen species with factorial combinations of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and ozone (O 3 ). ► Some species were highly sensitive to HNO 3 while others were tolerant. ► No species responded significantly to O 3 . ► The combined fumigation effects of HNO 3 and O 3 were not significantly different from HNO 3 alone. ► HNO 3 may play an important role in lichen community composition in areas with high HNO 3 pollution. - Nitric acid can be highly toxic to lichens through several physiological mechanisms. Ozone is relatively non-toxic to fumigated lichens.

  18. Barcoding lichen-forming fungi using 454 pyrosequencing is challenged by artifactual and biological sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kristiina; Cornejo, Carolina; Keller, Christine; Flück, Daniela; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Although lichens (lichen-forming fungi) play an important role in the ecological integrity of many vulnerable landscapes, only a minority of lichen-forming fungi have been barcoded out of the currently accepted ∼18 000 species. Regular Sanger sequencing can be problematic when analyzing lichens since saprophytic, endophytic, and parasitic fungi live intimately admixed, resulting in low-quality sequencing reads. Here, high-throughput, long-read 454 pyrosequencing in a GS FLX+ System was tested to barcode the fungal partner of 100 epiphytic lichen species from Switzerland using fungal-specific primers when amplifying the full internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). The present study shows the potential of DNA barcoding using pyrosequencing, in that the expected lichen fungus was successfully sequenced for all samples except one. Alignment solutions such as BLAST were found to be largely adequate for the generated long reads. In addition, the NCBI nucleotide database-currently the most complete database for lichen-forming fungi-can be used as a reference database when identifying common species, since the majority of analyzed lichens were identified correctly to the species or at least to the genus level. However, several issues were encountered, including a high sequencing error rate, multiple ITS versions in a genome (incomplete concerted evolution), and in some samples the presence of mixed lichen-forming fungi (possible lichen chimeras).

  19. Influence of Time since Fire and Micro-Habitat Availability on Terricolous Lichen Communities in Black Spruce (Picea mariana Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Zouaoui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Terricolous lichens are an important component of boreal forest ecosystems, both in terms of function and diversity. In this study, we examined the relative contribution of microhabitat characteristics and time elapsed since the last fire in shaping terricolous lichen assemblages in boreal forests that are frequently affected by severe stand-replacing fires. We sampled 12 stands distributed across five age classes (from 43 to >200 years. In each stand, species cover (% of all terricolous lichen species and species richness were evaluated within 30 microplots of 1 m2. Our results show that time elapsed since the last fire was the factor that contributed the most to explaining terricolous lichen abundance and species composition, and that lichen cover showed a quadratic relationship with stand age. Habitat variables such as soil characteristics were also important in explaining lichen richness. These results suggest that the presence of suitable substrates is not sufficient for the conservation of late-successional terricolous lichen communities in this ecosystem, and that they also need relatively long periods of times for species dispersal and establishment.

  20. Lichens Lite?” chemical analysis of lichens for tracking 26 pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Jovan; Susan Will-Wolf; Michael. Amacher

    2015-01-01

    Lichen chemistry can be used to estimate concentrations of environmental contaminants, ranging from heavy metals and fertilizers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, pesticides, herbicides, and flame retardants. We conducted a pilot looking at 26 metals and nutrient anions in 5 widespread lichen species across the upper Midwest, including: As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd,...

  1. New and noteworthy species of lichens from the Augustów Forest (northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matwiejuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Augustów Forest is one of the biggest forest complex in Poland. In this paper, 13 rare species of lichens from Augustów Forest are presented. Four of these species are new to Augustów Forest: Bacidina egenula, Lecanora persimilis, Rhizocarpon reductum, Scoliciosporum pruinosum and one species, Rhizocarpon hochstetteri, is new to northeastern Poland. Short notes on their features and distributions are provided.

  2. Antioxidant, Antibacterial activity and Brine shrimp toxicity test of some Mountainous Lichens from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Paudel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty four lichen species belonging to six families were collected from mountainous region of Nepal. The methanol extracts of each species were tested for antimicrobial and antioxidant activitiesin vitro. It was found that extracts of twenty one lichen species were active againstB. subtilis and seven species were active againstS. aureus. Similarly, in DPPH assay, three speciesPeltigera sp.,Cladonia sp., andCanoparmelia sp. showed comparable activity with commercial standard, BHA. In ABTS+ assay, extracts ofParmoterma sp.,Ramalina sp.,Peltigera sp. andCladonia sp. showed stronger activity than ascorbic acid. The observed data after comparison with previously published reports indicated that the high altitude lichens contain stronger antioxidant and antibacterial constituents. Similarly, the methanol extracts ofHeterodermia sp. andRamalina sp. showed comparable toxicity effect with commercial standard berberine chloride indicating a potent source of anticancer drugs.

  3. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  4. The lichen genus Caloplaca (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) on Svalbard. Notes and additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Lorentsen, Line Balschmidt; Arup, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    23 species of the lichen genus Caloplaca from Svalbard are described and/or discussed. The descriptions are natural language descriptions based on characters for each species coded into LIAS (Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes). A total of 37 Caloplaca species...

  5. Antifungal activity of extracts from three species of lichens in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant-Flores, Daymara Idonay; Romeu-Carballo, Carlos Rafael; Ramirez-Ochoa, Rebeca; Porras-Gonzalez, Angela; Gomez-Peralta, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal activity of the three lichens extracts was evaluated in this work. Extracts from Leptogium cyanescens, Physcia americana and Pyxine aff. cocoes were collected extracts from the lichens thallus in 2009 in areas fromo the Jardin Botanico Cienfuego, Cuba. The fungicide activity was evaluated against phytopathogens fungi of potato: Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora nicotianae var parasitica. The study was conducted from 2009 to 2011. The compounds were extracted with acetone, concentrated by rotoevaporation, and evaluated at concentrated of 0,01 and 0,07% in potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture medium; stock solution was made of 5% dimethilsufoxide. These extracts were classified by their toxicity as: toxic, slight and moderately toxic and harmless. The extracts from P. americana of 0,07% inhibited P. nicotianae 100%, and it showed values over 50% for R. solani. L. cyanescens only showed fungicide activity in both phytopathogens at the maximum concentration studied; similar results were obtained with the extract from P. aff. cocoes. The lichens extracts were classified as lightly toxic at the maximun concentration, and harmless at the minimum concentration. (author) [es

  6. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rosianarocha@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  7. Atmospheric element pollutant evaluation at the Sao Paulo University campus, Sao Paulo using Canoparmelia texana Lichen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Rosiana R.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2015-01-01

    The use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric pollutants has been considered as a very suitable tool when compared to conventional methods of direct measurements. Lichens in particular are widely used as biomonitors due to its easy sampling, low cost and resistance to environmental stresses. In this study, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for element determinations in Canoparmelia texana lichenized fungi species. The samples were collected from tree barks in different sites at the Sao Paulo University Campus and in sites of areas considered non-polluted. Comparisons were made between the element concentration obtained in lichen from the study area and those from non-polluted sites. Results indicated that lichens from study area presented higher concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Se and U than clean areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the results obtained and five principal components were found as being responsible for almost 77 % of the variance. These findings suggest that element pollutants found may be associated with vehicular emissions, construction of buildings and metallurgical activities. (author)

  8. Noteworthy lichen species in Poland collected in the Świętokrzyski National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łubek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 25 species of the lichens new to the Świętokrzyski National Park are presented on the basis of recent collection and revision of the herbarial material from this arc. Some of these species are new to the Świętokrzykie Mountains and one have not been recorded in Poland so far.

  9. In vitro receptivity of carbonate rocks to endolithic lichen-forming aposymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero-Longo, Sergio E; Borghi, Alessandro; Tretiach, Mauro; Piervittori, Rosanna

    2009-10-01

    Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming aposymbionts have not yet been used to investigate lichen-rock interactions under controlled conditions. In this study mycobionts and photobiont of the endolithic lichens Bagliettoa baldensis and Bagliettoa marmorea were isolated and inoculated with coupons of one limestone and four marbles commonly employed in the Cultural Heritage framework. After one year of incubation, microscopic observations of polished cross-sections were performed to verify if the typical colonization patterns observed in the field may be reproduced in vitro and to evaluate the receptivity of the five lithotypes to endolithic lichens. The mycobionts of the two species developed both on the surface of and within all the lithotypes, showing different penetration pathways which depend on mineralogical and structural features and highlight different receptivity. By contrast, algae inoculated with the coupons did not penetrate them. Observations suggest that the hyphal penetration along intrinsic discontinuities of rocks is a relatively fast phenomenon when these organisms are generally considered as slow-growing. Samples from limestone outcrops and abandoned marble quarries, colonized by the same species or other representatives of Verrucariaceae, showed penetration pathways intriguingly similar to those reproduced in vitro and highlighted that lichen-driven erosion processes only increase the availability of hyphal passageways after a long-term colonization. These results show that in vitro incubation of sterile cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with rock coupons is a practicable experimental system to investigate the lichen-rock interactions under controlled conditions and, together with analysis in situ, may support decisions on conservative treatments of historical and cultural significant stone substrata.

  10. Analysis of the distribution of epiphytic lichens on Cedrus libani in Elmali Research Forest (Antalya, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanoglu, Gulsah; Sevgi, Orhan

    2009-03-01

    In order to evaluate environmental factors limiting distribution of species, diversity of epiphytic lichens was studied in 34 sites along an altitudinal gradient from 1300 to 1900 m on north-facing and south-facing slopes of Elmali Cedar Research Forest (Antalya province, Turkey) regarding the dispersion of lichens in different tree-diameter classes (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-45 cm, 45-60 cm and >75 cm). The results showed that the relationship between diameter classes with the number of lichen species was R2=0.6022. The highest number of species was in the diameter class of 30-45 cm. There was a clear relationship between all parameters, diameter, altitude and aspect, with species richness. Changes in the community structure of the epiphytic lichen vegetation were detected along an altitudinal gradient revealing the highest species richness in the highest zone. The elevation affected both the number and the composition of the lichen communities and the relationship between the attitudinal zones with number of lichen species was designated as R2=0.6462. The number of species was higher in the north aspects than in the south aspects in all diameter classes. The species number depending on the altitude was also higher in the north-facing slopes than in the south-facing slopes.

  11. Changes in the lichen flora of Bookham Commons with increased air pollution and other factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1973-01-01

    The status of the epiphytic lichen flora from 1953-56 and from 1969-73 is compared. Forty-eight species were recorded in the former period and 36 in the latter interval. Twenty-five per cent of the species have become extinct since 1956; all were formerly local or scarce. Some lichens which were common have decreased dramatically, while other species show no apparent decline. No lichens show any notable increase in status. The Xanthorion has disappeared from its two main habitats on the plains due to the cessation of grazing and the decline in eutrophication; it survives on an elm exposed to roadside dust. The Conizaeoidion has replaced the Physodion in much of Central Wood. As the woodland is little altered and it is the species which is more sensitive to sulfur dioxide which has declined, the reduction can be attributed to increased air pollution. An analysis of sulfur dioxide shows that there has been no general increase in concentration for the peripheral suburbs of south-west London, and therefore the increased pollution would appear to be of local origin. The population of Bookham and Fetcham has doubled since 1951, with substantial residential infilling having occurred to the south of the Commons. The decline in the epiphytic lichen flora would appear to be due to increased sulfur dioxide emissions from this infilling. Terricolous lichens appear to have been exterminated by increased competition from higher plants, but the saxicolous lichen flora remains undiminished.

  12. FLORA LICHEN WESTERN MOUNTAINS VRANJE PLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bogdanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a symbiotic plant built by the cells of algae and fungi hyphae. Algae are usually presented - green (Chlorophyta or blue green (Cyanophyta, a mushroom commonly found is ascomycetae and sometimes basidiomycetae. Mushrooms receive oxygen and carbohydrates from algae, and they in turn provide water, CO2 and mineral salts. Lichens are often found on trees and rocks in unpolluted environments and can be used as a bioindicator species. In during 2015-2016. was realized a survey of epiphytic lichen flora of the western mountains in environment of Vranje. Sampling was carried out at 4 locations: Borino brdo, Krstilovica, Markovo Kale and Pljačkovica. Based on the collected and determined samples can be concluded that the study implemented of the area of 25 species of lichens of which: 8 as crust, leafy 12 and 5 shrub. The research results indicate that the lichen flora of the western mountains environments Vranje of a rich and diverse as a result of favorable geographic position, geological and soil composition, climate and plant cover that provide opportunities for the development and survival of lichens.

  13. Heavy metal content of lichens in relation to distance from a nickel smelter in Sudbury, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieboer, E; Ahmed, H M; Puckett, K J; Richardson, D H.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Sudbury region of Ontario has large deposits of nickel, iron, and copper, and thus a number of smelting plants which produce sulfur dioxide and heavy metal pollution. Since lichens are good indicators of SO/sub 2/ pollution levels, the pattern of heavy metal content in lichen species in the area of a copper smelter in Sudbury was correlated with distance from the smelter to ascertain whether lichens might also be good indicators of the amount of heavy metal fallout. The lichens were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. All seven species of lichens contained copper, iron, zinc, nickel, manganese, and lead. Cadmium and cobalt were detected in two species. Neither gold nor silver could be identified in lichen material with the tests used. A pollution model was developed and compared to field results. The simple dilution of the stack effluent was consistent with the fact that the lichen metal content was related to the reciprocal of the distance from the pollution source. The lichens from the area could tolerate simultaneously high concentrations of several heavy metals that are known to be toxic to other plants. The mechanism of metal uptake was not clearly established. The study showed that lichens and other epiphytes are potentially the most useful indicators of heavy metal fallout around industrial plants.

  14. Lichens as litmus for air pollution: a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawksworth, D L

    1971-01-01

    The literature on the relationships between lichens and air pollution is reviewed, with particular reference to the development of the concepts governing their use as indicators of air pollution levels. Lichens are particularly sensitive to sulfur dioxide which acts by the destruction of chlorophyll. By considering both the species present and their abundance, zones indicative of mean air pollution levels can be quickly mapped. The way in which some species respond in different regions varies and so zonal scales can only be reliably applied in the areas where they were devised. Only in a few cases has it been possible to correlate lichen zones with particular sulfur dioxide concentrations, principally because of a lack of physico-chemical measurements; but even where such correlations are not possible, lichen zones provide a rapid qualitative means of assessing the effects of air pollution. Maps showing the type of data obtained by this method are presented, and a table summarizes the published work on major cities, towns, industrial plants, and in larger geographical regions. 119 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  15. [Superimposed lichen planus pigmentosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Suarez-Amor, Óscar; Cabanillas, Miguel; de Las Heras, Cristina; Álvarez, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-16

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus that is characterized by the insidious onset of dark brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. Superimposed linear lichen planus is an exceedingly rare disorder, but it has been found in both lichen planopilaris and lichen planus types. A 39-year-old woman is presented showing a segmental and linear lichen planus associated with non-segmental lesions meeting all criteria for the diagnosis of superimposed linear planus pigmentosus. The segmental lesions were always more pronounced.

  16. Lichens of the alps as biomonitors for radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Gastberger, M.; Tuerk, R.

    1995-07-01

    A number of surveys has shown, that shortly after a radioactive fallout lichens are highly contaminated and their contamination correlates well with the soil deposition data. One of the major advantages of lichens is that samples can be collected from quite large areas, thereby getting an average contamination of this area. Especially in mountain ecosystems, lichens could gain great importance as biomonitors, because many lichens grow in this area. Moreover, the collection of soil samples can be very difficult. For this survey soil and lichen samples were collected from a mountain called Stubnerkogel, which is located in the south of the province of Salzburg. The samples were taken in the summer of 1993, that means more than 7 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. The aim of this study was to find out, if some years after a nuclear fallout has occurred lichens are still suitable biological detectors of the radioactive contamination. The lichen samples had 137 Cs activities between 400 and 5.000 Bq per kg dry weight. Even for small samples these comparatively high activities are easy to measure, because of their long life expectancy lichens can be used as biomonitors for a radioactive contamination which happened a few years ago. One sampling site allowed the collection of different lichen species in a very restricted area. It was possible to find specific differences in the 137 Cs contamination between the various species; Cetraria islandica, Cladonia arbuscula and Cladonia rangiferina had the highest contamination levels. These three species are very common in alpine regions, so they prove to be especially suitable biomonitors of radioactive fallout. Furthermore it was partly possible to find small amounts of 137 Cs in the soil, which originate from nuclear weapons tests (this was impossible for any of the lichen samples). Thus lichens can be very useful when a fallout which occurred shortly ago should be separated from a fallout which had occurred a long

  17. Modelling relationships between lichen bioindicators, air quality and climate on a national scale: Results from the UK OPAL air survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, Lindsay; Wolseley, Pat; Gosling, Laura; Davies, Linda; Power, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution has many negative effects on the natural environment, from changes in plant growth patterns to loss of ecosystem function. This study uses citizen science to investigate national-scale patterns in the distribution and abundance of selected lichen species on tree trunks and branches, and to relate these to air pollution and climate. Volunteers collected data for nine lichen indicators on 19,334 deciduous trees. Submitted data provided information on species-level patterns, and were used to derive composite lichen indices. Multiple linear regression and ANCOVA were used to model the relationships between lichen response variables on Quercus spp. and pollution, climate and location. The study demonstrated significant relationships between patterns in indicator lichens and levels of N- and S-containing pollutants on trunks and twigs. The derived lichen indices show great potential as a tool to provide information on local, site-specific levels of air quality. -- Highlights: •Data on presence and abundance of selected lichens were collected by members of the public. •Indicator species and indices were modelled against air pollution and climate data. •Lichens and indices show significant relationships with nitrogenous air pollution. •Lichen indices are useful tools for providing information on local air quality. -- Data on selected lichen taxa collected by members of the public in England is used to show the relationship of indicator taxa and pollution indices to air pollution and climate data

  18. Cold resistance and metabolic activity of lichens below 0 degC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, L.; Schroeter, B.; Scheidegger, C.; Sommerkorn, M.; Hestmark, G.

    Laboratory measurements show that lichens are extremely tolerant of freezing stress and of low-temperature exposure. Metabolic activity recovered quickly after severe and extended cold treatment. Experimental results demonstrate also that CO_2 exchange is already active at around -20 degC. The psychrophilic character of polar lichen species is demonstrated by optimum temperatures for net photosynthesis between 0 and 15 degC. In situ measurements show that lichens begin photosynthesizing below 0 degC if the dry thalli receive fresh snow. The lowest temperature measured in active lichens was -17 degC at a continental Antarctic site. The fine structure and the hydration state of photobiont and mycobiont cells were studied by low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) of frozen hydrated specimens. Water potentials of the frozen system are in the range of or even higher than those allowing dry lichens to start photosynthesis by water vapor uptake at +10 degC. The great success of lichens in polar and high alpine regions gives evidence of their physiological adaptation to low temperatures. In general lichens are able to persist through glacial periods, but extended snow cover and glaciation are limiting factors.

  19. Is bark pH more important than tree species in determining the composition of nitrophytic or acidophytic lichen floras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spier, L. [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dobben, H. van, E-mail: han.vandobben@wur.n [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dort, K. van [Alterra, Landscape Center, POB 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    To study the pH preference of epiphytic lichens, the bark pH of Fraxinus, Tilia, Quercus and Ulmus trees in an urban environment was measured using a flat surface electrode. The total number of trees was 253. A survey was made of the lichens in a 40 x 40 cm quadrat surrounding the pH measurement point. Our data analysis using multivariate and univariate statistical techniques indicates that the tree species is the most important factor influencing lichen colonisation, and that bark pH alone is of less importance. We hypothesize that the changed pollution climate, with strong decreases in both sulphur dioxide and ammonia concentrations over the past two decades and a concomitant general increase in bark pH, has made epiphytes less sensitive to pH. - Tree species, rather than bark pH determines the occurrence of acidophytes and nitrophytes on trees.

  20. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena K. Mittermeier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-targeted 1H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis.

  1. Influence of industrial smoke on the germination spores of certain lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofler, L; Jacquard, F; Martin, J F

    1968-01-01

    Dust particles produced by calcium carbide and iron-alloy factories strongly inhibit the germination of the spores of Physcia pulverulenia. The spores of Xanthoria parietina and above ali of Lecanora hageni are much more resistant. This agrees with the distribution of these Lichens around the factories. The three species show the same scale of resistance with respect to town dust. The basicity of the particles plays certainly a part in the inhibition of spores, but this can not be the only active factor. Up to now attention has been drawn upon the damages caused by gaseous pollutants to Lichen gonidia. The present work shows that solid particles can sometimes be responsible for Lichen scarcity and that the Lichen fungus is also sensitive to certain pollutants. 9 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  2. Epiphytic lichens and air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wit, T

    1978-01-01

    The WHEN workgroup has made an inventory of the epiphytic lichens on freestanding trees in The Netherlands, using a 5 km square-grid as a basis. On the basis of the number of lichen species per tree species per square, the squares were divided into six classes of epiphyte richness. The data for the west of the country were analyzed in more detail, resulting in a zone map. It appeared possible to construct a descriptive model of the correlation between SO/sub 2/ concentrations and epiphyte richness. At median winter SO/sub 2/ concentrations higher than 100..mu..g/m/sup 3/ only a few insensitive species occur. At lower concentrations winter peak values (98 percentile) are more important than median ones. The extent to which a species is restricted to epiphyte-rich squares is used as a measure for ranking the species according to sensitivity. The more sensitive species have disappeared from large areas of The Netherlands. Comparison of the present situation with data from around 1950 reveals a decline almost everywhere in the country. The southern and western parts of the country are impoverished, the area between Rotterdam and Den Haag and the area between Arnhem and Nijmegen in particular have become very poor. A further decline of the epiphytic lichen vegetation, in particular of the relatively rich areas, is expected. In fumigation experiments, using HF, SO/sub 2/, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, O/sub 3/ and O/sub 3/ combined with SO/sub 2/ at realistic concentrations and prolonged exposition it was found that these air pollutants cause (under glasshouse conditions) significant morphological damage to all or some of the tested lichen species.

  3. Species delimitation and evolution in morphologically and chemically diverse communities of the lichen-forming genus Xanthoparmelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Johnson, Leigh; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-02-01

    Accurate species delimitation is important for understanding the diversification of biota and has critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that morphology-based species circumspection in lichenized fungi misrepresents fungal diversity. The foliose lichen genus Xanthoparmelia includes over 800 species displaying a complex array of morphological and secondary metabolite diversity. We used a multifaceted approach, applying phylogenetic, population genetic, and genealogical analyses to delimit species in a single well-supported monophyletic clade containing 10 morphologically and chemically diverse Xanthoparmelia species in western North America. Sequence data from four ribosomal and two low-copy, protein-coding markers, along with chemical and morphological data were used to assess species diversity. We found that traditionally circumscribed species are not supported by molecular data. Rather, all sampled taxa were better represented by three polymorphic population clusters. Our results suggest that secondary metabolite variation may have limited utility in diagnosing lineages within this group, while identified populations clusters did not reflect major phylogeographic or ecological patterns. In contrast to studies revealing previously undiscovered fungal lineages masked within lichen species circumscribed by traditional morphological and chemical concepts, the present study suggests that species diversity has been overestimated in the species-rich genus Xanthoparmelia.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL POTENTIALS OF HIGH ALTITUDINAL NEPALESE LICHENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya Laxmi Maharjan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lichens and lichen products have been used in traditional medicines for centuries. The lichens of the high altitudinal meadow of MCA (Manaslu Conservation Area have remained unexplored for which this research has been conducted with an aim of unveiling the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of lichens present there. Four densely populated lichen species namely Usnea longifolia, Setraria spp, Parmotrema reticulatum and Evernastrium nepalense were chosen for the study. The extracts of these species were obtained in 6 different solvents viz. hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and water by soxhlet extraction method and the antimicrobial assay was carried out by agar well diffusion method. The extract yield varied from 0.07 -29.4%. The extracts obtained showed the presence of volatile oil, saponins, coumarins and quinines, flavonic glycosides and carotenoids. The ethyl acetate fraction of E. nepalense and U. longifolia were found to be most effective against all the 8 clinical bacterial pathogens and 5 phytopathogenic fungi tested. The extracts of Cetraria spp and P. milghenensis were found to be specifically inhibiting the fungal pathogens compared to the bacterial pathogens. Generally the lichen extracts tested demonstrated antimicrobial effect which suggests a possibility of their use in treatment of various diseases caused by these and similar microorganisms.

  5. Reindeer lichen productivity: Problems and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjartmar Sveinbjörnsson

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer lichens are important in the structure and function of tundra and taiga ecosystems, as exemplified by cover values, biomass, mineral content, and effect on other ecosystem components. They are particularly important for winter ecology of reindeer and caribou which largely relay on them. Growth measurement is difficult due to the very slow rate and the methods that have been used are not sufficiently documented, precise, or appropriate. Use of carbon dioxide exchange models, coupled with models of lichen microclimate and water relations, based on microclimatic data are suggested as alternatives for land managers. The assumptions of such models are discussed and the performance of mixed species lichen mats and of the lichen CO2 environment and its effect on lichen CO2 exchange.

  6. INFLUENCE OF MINING AND METAL INDUSTRY ON PHYSCIA LICHENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachinskaya V.V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of lichens Physcia. Рopulation at different levels of aerotechnogenic pollution of industrial mining – metallurgical complex of Krivyi Rig Basin. In the highway area there was found the worsening living conditions of thallus at the lichens Physcia, manifested in the reduction of a projective cover and reducing of the size of thallus with the increasing of the degree of their damage. It is set that specific composition and conformities to law of distribution of cladinas is determined the type of the industrial loading. Predominance at the lichens of crustaceous cladinas, insignificant participation of fissile cladinas and complete absence of bushy forms is the possible consequence of industrial influence. We registered some 3 species of epiphytic lichens, namely Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physcia tenella, Physcia adscendens in a residential zone, while on conditional control area we found Physcia orbicularis. The dominant species was scum-like shape Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physcia adscendens, Physcia tenella, while on conditional control region we marked predominance of Physcia orbicularis and did not registered bushy lichens form. We also divided the lichens into two groups according to the resistance towards air pollution - moderate (2 species, Phaeophyscia nigricans, Physcia tenella and toxic-resistant (2 species, Physcia orbicularis, Physcia adscendens. Epiphytic lichens in terms of residential areas compared to conventionally control area characterized by a decrease of morphometric parameters of the melt. Key results can be used to predict the state of ecosystems using lichenoindication in terms of industrial regions of Ukraine.

  7. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to different volcanic disturbances were attributable to varying degrees of mortality and subsequent availability of substrate, quantity of light and removal of competitors. While sensitive to disturbance, lichens are apparently resilient to and can quickly recolonize after a variety of large, violent volcanic

  8. Responses of lichen communities to 18 years of natural and experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Juha M; Jägerbrand, Annika K; Chen, Shengbin; Molau, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    Climate change is expected to have major impacts on high alpine and arctic ecosystems in the future, but empirical data on the impact of long-term warming on lichen diversity and richness are sparse. This study report the effects of 18 years of ambient and experimental warming on lichens and vascular plant cover in two alpine plant communities, a dry heath with sparse canopy cover (54 %) and a mesic meadow with a more developed (67 %) canopy cover, in sub-arctic Sweden. The effects of long-term passive experimental warming using open top chambers (OTCs) on lichens and total vascular plant cover, and the impact of plant cover on lichen community parameters, were analysed. Between 1993 and 2013, mean annual temperature increased about 2 °C. Both site and experimental warming had a significant effect on cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness of lichens, and total plant canopy cover. Lichen cover increased in the heath under ambient conditions, and remained more stable under experimental warming. The negative effect on species richness and effective number of species was driven by a decrease in lichens under experimental warming in the meadow. Lichen cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness were negatively correlated with plant canopy cover. There was a significant negative impact on one species and a non-significant tendency of lower abundance of the most common species in response to experimental warming. The results from the long-term warming study imply that arctic and high alpine lichen communities are likely to be negatively affected by climate change and an increase in plant canopy cover. Both biotic and abiotic factors are thus important for future impacts of climate change on lichens. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. [Factors limiting distribution of the rare lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria (in forests of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns and coenotic confines ofthe epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria have been studied. The factors limiting the habitat of this rare lichen species in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (southern taiga subzone) have been revealed. It has been shown that L. pulmonaria is attracted to forest areas, which are less affected by humans and characterized by better light conditions than other communities. It has been found that L. pulmonaria is able to colonize trees at various ontogenetic states, beginning from virginal ones.

  10. Influence of wavelength on the laser removal of lichens colonizing heritage stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, M.; Oujja, M.; Ascaso, C.; Pérez-Ortega, S.; Souza-Egipsy, V.; Fort, R.; Rios, A. de los; Wierzchos, J.; Cañamares, M.V.; Castillejo, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal laser removal conditions depend on light absorption of lichen species. • Highly UV absorbing species (C. vitellina) removed by 266 nm nanosecond pulses. • Dual 1064-266/355 nm irradiation strongly damages a large variety of lichen species. • Calcium inside the lichen thallus prevents the damaging effect of laser irradiation. - Abstract: Laser irradiation of lichen thalli on heritage stones serves for the control of epilithic and endolithic biological colonizations. In this work we investigate rock samples from two quarries traditionally used as source of monumental stone, sandstone from Valonsadero (Soria, Spain) and granite from Alpedrete (Madrid, Spain), in order to find conditions for efficient laser removal of lichen thalli that ensure preservation of the lithic substrate. The samples presented superficial areas colonized by different types of crustose lichens, i.e. Candelariella vitellina, Aspicilia viridescens, Rhizocarpon disporum and Protoparmeliopsis muralis in Valonsadero samples and P. cf. bolcana and A. cf. contorta in Alpedrete samples. A comparative laser cleaning study was carried out on the mentioned samples with ns Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses of 1064 nm (fundamental radiation), 355 nm (3rd harmonic) and 266 nm (4th harmonic) and sequences of IR-UV pulses. A number of techniques such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low vacuum, SEM with backscattered electron imaging (SEM-BSE), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and FT-Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the best laser irradiation conditions and to detect possible structural, morphological and chemical changes on the irradiated surfaces. The results show that the laser treatment does not lead to the complete removal of the studied lichen thalli, although clearly induces substantial damage, in the form of loss of the lichen upper cortex and damage to the algal layer. In the medium term these

  11. Influence of wavelength on the laser removal of lichens colonizing heritage stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M., E-mail: mikel.sanz@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR-CSIC), Serrano 119, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Oujja, M. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR-CSIC), Serrano 119, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Ascaso, C. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Pérez-Ortega, S. [Real Jardín Botánico (RJB-CSIC), Plaza de Murillo 2, 28014, Madrid (Spain); Souza-Egipsy, V. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 121, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Fort, R. [Instituto de Geociencias (IGEO-CSIC, UCM), José Antonio Nováis 12, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Rios, A. de los; Wierzchos, J. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC), José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Cañamares, M.V. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 121, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Castillejo, M. [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR-CSIC), Serrano 119, 28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Optimal laser removal conditions depend on light absorption of lichen species. • Highly UV absorbing species (C. vitellina) removed by 266 nm nanosecond pulses. • Dual 1064-266/355 nm irradiation strongly damages a large variety of lichen species. • Calcium inside the lichen thallus prevents the damaging effect of laser irradiation. - Abstract: Laser irradiation of lichen thalli on heritage stones serves for the control of epilithic and endolithic biological colonizations. In this work we investigate rock samples from two quarries traditionally used as source of monumental stone, sandstone from Valonsadero (Soria, Spain) and granite from Alpedrete (Madrid, Spain), in order to find conditions for efficient laser removal of lichen thalli that ensure preservation of the lithic substrate. The samples presented superficial areas colonized by different types of crustose lichens, i.e. Candelariella vitellina, Aspicilia viridescens, Rhizocarpon disporum and Protoparmeliopsis muralis in Valonsadero samples and P. cf. bolcana and A. cf. contorta in Alpedrete samples. A comparative laser cleaning study was carried out on the mentioned samples with ns Q-switched Nd:YAG laser pulses of 1064 nm (fundamental radiation), 355 nm (3rd harmonic) and 266 nm (4th harmonic) and sequences of IR-UV pulses. A number of techniques such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low vacuum, SEM with backscattered electron imaging (SEM-BSE), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and FT-Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the best laser irradiation conditions and to detect possible structural, morphological and chemical changes on the irradiated surfaces. The results show that the laser treatment does not lead to the complete removal of the studied lichen thalli, although clearly induces substantial damage, in the form of loss of the lichen upper cortex and damage to the algal layer. In the medium term these

  12. ITS1 metabarcoding highlights low specificity of lichen mycobiomes at a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mendoza, Fernando; Fleischhacker, Antonia; Kopun, Theodora; Grube, Martin; Muggia, Lucia

    2017-09-01

    As self-supporting and long-living symbiotic structures, lichens provide a habitat for many other organisms beside the traditionally considered lichen symbionts-the myco- and the photobionts. The lichen-inhabiting fungi either develop diagnostic phenotypes or occur asymptomatically. Because the degree of specificity towards the lichen host is poorly known, we studied the diversity of these fungi among neighbouring lichens on rocks in an alpine habitat. Using a sequencing metabarcoding approach, we show that lichen mycobiomes clearly reflect the overlap of multiple ecological sets of taxa, which differ in their trophic association with lichen thalli. The lack of specificity to the lichen mycobiome is further supported by the lack of community structure observed using clustering and ordination methods. The communities encountered across samples largely result from the subsampling of a shared species pool, in which we identify three major ecological components: (i) a generalist environmental pool, (ii) a lichenicolous/endolichenic pool and (iii) a pool of transient species. These taxa majorly belong to the fungal classes Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes and Tremellomycetes with close relatives in adjacent ecological niches. We found no significant evidence that the phenotypically recognized lichenicolous fungi influence the occurrence of the other asymptomatic fungi in the host thalli. We claim that lichens work as suboptimal habitats or as a complex spore and mycelium bank, which modulate and allow the regeneration of local fungal communities. By performing an approach that minimizes ambiguities in the taxonomic assignments of fungi, we present how lichen mycobiomes are also suitable targets for improving bioinformatic analyses of fungal metabarcoding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A hypothesis to explain lichen-Rangifer dynamic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar Gaare

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A small group of fruticous lichen species, viz. Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia mitis, C. stellaris, and Stereocaulon paschale forms extensive mats in the most winter habitats of Rangifer tarandus populations in Norway. The plant communities accessible for grazing are often found on easily drained, moraine ridges. These lichen species are perennial, lying on the ground while growing slowly at the top. As they decompose they add humus to the top of the soil profile. The lichen mats catch all water from small showers, thus preventing vascular plants from obtaining a more regular water supply. Grazing removs whole plants and gradually makes larger and larger holes in the lichen mats. Wind and water erode the humus, with only coarse gravel remaining. This diminishes the soil water storage capacity. Without grazing, lichens will gradually build a humus layer, which would improve the soil water storage capacity. In time vascular plants then would take the place of the lichens. I propose the hypothesis that by (over-grazing Rangifer improve their winter pastures by making conditions more favourable for lichens than for vascular plants.The fact that lichens are more scarce on habitats with more and regular precipitation, 1 in more oceanic climates, 2 on soils with more silt, and 3 on bird perches with thick peat due to regular fertilising, support this hypothesis.

  14. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    and other lichen species. PMID:27494030

  15. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    and other lichen species.

  16. Aspects of the ecology of mat-forming lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Crittenden

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Lichen species in the genera Cladonia (subgenus Cladina, Cetraria, Stereocaulon and Alectoria are important vegetation components on well-drained terrain and on elevated micro-sites in peatlands in boreal-Arctic regions. These lichens often form closed mats, the component thalli in which grow vertically upwards at the apices and die off in the older basal regions; they are therefore only loosely attached to the underlying soil. This growth habit is relatively unusual in lichens being found in <0.5% of known species. It might facilitate internal nutrienr recycling and higher growth rates and, together with the production of allelochemicals, it might underlie the considerable ecological success of mat-forming lichens; experiments to critically assess the importance of these processes are required. Mat-forming lichens can constitute in excess of 60% of the winter food intake of caribou and reindeer. Accordingly there is a pressing need for data on lichen growth rates, measured as mass increment, in order to help determine the carrying capacity of winter ranges for rhese herbivores and to better predict recovery rates following grazing. Trampling during the snow-free season fragments lichen thalli; mat-forming lichens regenerate very successfully from thallus fragments provided trampling does nor re-occur. Frequent recurrence of trampling creates disturbed habitats from which lichens will rapidly become eliminated consistent with J.P. Grime's CSR strategy theory. Such damage to lichen ground cover has occurred where reindeer or caribou are unable to migrate away from their winter range such as on small islands or where political boundaries have been fenced; it can also occur on summer range that contains a significant lichen component and on winter range where numbers of migrarory animals become excessive. Species of Stereocaulon, and other genera that contain cyanobacteria (most notably Peltigera and Nephroma, are among the principal agents of

  17. Monitoring air quality with lichens: A comparison between mapping in forest sites and in open areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policnik, Helena; Simoncic, Primoz; Batic, Franc

    2008-01-01

    Four different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping were used for the assessment of air quality in the region under the influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (Salek Valley, Slovenia). Three methods were based on the presence of different lichen species (VDI, EU and ICP-Forest), the fourth on a frequency and coverage assessment of different growth forms of epiphytic lichens, e.g. crustose, foliose and fruticose (SI). A comparison of the results from the assessment of air quality between forest sites (ICP-Forest, SI) and open areas (VDI, EU and SI), obtained by the different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping, is presented in the contribution. Data showed that lichen species richness is worse in forest sites in comparison with open areas. From the data obtained it can be concluded that epiphytic lichen mapping in open areas is a better method for the assessment of air pollution in a given area than mapping in forest sites. The species-based methods in open areas are more powerful and useful for air quality assessment in polluted research areas than the SI and ICP-Forest methods. - The mapping of epiphytic lichens in open areas is more suitable for air quality assessment than mapping in forest sites in the Salek Valley, Slovenia

  18. Monitoring H{sub 2}S air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy: The pitfall of using lichens as bioindicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loppi, Stefano, E-mail: loppi@unisi.i [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, 53100 Siena (Italy); Nascimbene, Juri, E-mail: junasc@libero.i [Department of Biology, University of Padova (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    This study showed that NH{sub 3} emitted from geothermal power plants affects the surrounding epiphytic lichen vegetation and diversity, confounding the interpretation of lichen diversity counts in terms of air pollution by H{sub 2}S. The presence of nitrophytic lichen species around geothermal installations, determined by NH{sub 3}, caused relatively high diversity values that were not related with the levels of air pollution by H{sub 2}S. It is recommended that in the presence of NH{sub 3} emission, nitrophytic species are excluded from the calculation of lichen diversity values. - In the presence of NH{sub 3} emission, nitrophytic species should be excluded from the calculation of lichen diversity values.

  19. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  20. Comparison of the air pollution biomonitoring ability of three Tillandsia species and the lichen Ramalina celastri in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Rodriguez, Judith H; Pignata, María L

    2009-01-01

    Bioaccumulation ability and response to air pollution sources were evaluated for Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz and Pav. f. capillaris, T. recurvata L., T. tricholepis Baker and the lichen Ramalina celastri (Spreng.) Krog. and Swinsc. Epiphyte samples collected from a non contaminated area in the province of Córdoba were transplanted to a control site and three areas categorised according to agricultural, urban and industrial (metallurgical and metal-mechanical) emission sources. Bioindicators were exposed for 3-, 6- and 9-month periods. A foliar damage index was established for Tillandsia and a pollution index for the lichen, and S, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations were determined. An order of efficiency for the species and conditions studied is proposed taking into account heavy metal accumulation: T. recurvata >T. tricholepis >R. celastri >T. capillaris. All species studied showed Mn to be related to agricultural activity and Fe to industries and soil particles, and Zn was related to urban and industrial sources. As far as physiological response is concerned, T. tricholepis and T. capillaris were more sensitive to agricultural activities, whereas T. recurvata was sensitive to urban and industrial sources, and only partially to agricultural sources. No relationship was found for R. celastri.

  1. Resolving genetic relationships in manna group of lichens from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As in many lichen-forming fungi, species of Aspicilia genus are widely distributed all over the world, but no reports exist about their phylogenetic relations based on molecular biological methods. In the current study the phylogenetic relations of some Aspicilia species mainly manna group of lichens were investigated.

  2. Lichens as biomonitors with special reference to Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipev, Nesho

    2002-01-01

    Lichens are effective biomonitors of metal deposition. Lichens are slow growing and assimilate metals at a rapid rate but release them at a low rate. Metal concentrations in lichen thalli have been shown to correlate with atmospheric levels. Lichens have been first used as bioaccumulative indicators in relation to point emission sources. Lichens have also been used to assess deposition patterns and heavy metal burdens for larger scale monitoring purposes. There are two problems to be kept in mind if lichens are to be effectively used as biomonitors. The first one is concerned with the chemical analyses. Results are more useful when background elemental levels are obtained. The choice of analytical method will depend on the purpose of the respective survey. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-ES) and epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) are among the most commonly used methods. The second problem arises from the variability of lichens. Sources of variability include intra-individual variation, intra-species variation and variation due to microhabitat, locality or edaphic factors. Apart from individual variation, many of these sources of variation can be overcome by careful and thoughtful sampling and analysis of the selected species. Lichens and mosses are the only vegetation in Antarctica. The absence of air pollution in Antarctica suggests that lichens can be used as biomonitors of pollution at small scales around research bases. However, the unpolluted Antarctic environment presents opportunity for baseline studies on heavy metal bioaccumulation. Bioaccumulation in Antarctic lichens can allow a larger (global) scale insight into the airborne heavy metal circulation and deposition. Both high precision analytical methods and biological studies will be needed. (author)

  3. Distribution patterns of terricolous and saxicolous lichens in extreme desert conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temina, M.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of biodiversity in stressful habitats is of great interest because it elucidates relationships between organisms and their environment, as well as revealing the mechanisms of their survival and adaptation to extreme conditions. Deserts represent such stressful habitats where harsh climate and limited resources greatly influence the formation of biota. In order to understand the link between microscale environmental variability in extreme arid conditions and lichen biodiversity patterns, we conducted the present study. For this purpose, the structure and distribution of lichen communities on soil and cobbles at six stations at "Evolution Canyon" III (EC III), Nahal Shaharut, in the extreme southern Negev, Israel, were examined. The opposite slopes of the canyon represented specific ecological niches characterized by sharply different microclimatic conditions. The following characteristics of lichen communities were studied: species richness, systematic diversity, biogeographical elements, frequencies and distribution of species, their morphological and anatomical characteristics, reproductive strategy, and ecological peculiarities. In the research site three environmental variables were evaluated: soil moisture, and temperatures of soil and cobbles. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis was used to study the influence of these ecological variables on the distribution of lichen species. The lichen diversity of EC III was very poor and comprised 12 species (3 cyanoliches on soil vs. 9 phycolichens on cobbles). Most of them belong to a specific group of arid endemic elements, adapted to survive in extreme arid conditions in the deserts of the Levant. The harsh desert conditions of the canyon negatively influence the reproductive ability of lichens. This influence is expressed in the decreased sizes of fruit bodies in some species, and the frequent occurrence of sterile specimens among lichens found in the canyon. A comparative analysis of structure

  4. Influence of sulphur dioxide on chlorophyll content and catalase activity in some chosen lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuziel, S

    1974-01-01

    The influence of SO/sub 2/ on changes in catalase activity and in chlorophyll content were investigated under laboratory conditions in several lichen species and in maize. In all the plants examined the chlorophyll content and catalase activity decreased after treatment with SO/sub 2/ as compared with that in the control plants.

  5. Lichens of neglected habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitē

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Situation of lichens of aquatic and transient habitats in Eastern and East-Central European lowlands is discussed basing on example of several selected species: Leptogium biatorinum, Sarcosagium campestre, Steinia geophana, Verrucaria aquatilis, V. hydrela, V. praetermissa, V. xyloxena. Both habitat types are generally very much neglected in the region and all species show large spatial gaps in recording, which makes it difficult to judge both about their true distribution limits and spreading dynamics. On the other hand, targeted search through the suitable habitats and abundance of such indicate that many of these lichens are probably not uncommon in the region.

  6. Lichens of fruit trees in the selected locations in Podlaskie Voivodeship [North-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matwiejuk Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the diversity of the lichen species on fruit trees (Malus sp., Pyrus sp., Prunus sp. and Cerasus sp. growing in orchards in selected villages and towns in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Fifty-six species of lichens were found. These were dominated by common lichens found on the bark of trees growing in built-up areas with prevailing heliophilous and nitrophilous species of the genera Physcia and Phaeophyscia. A richer lichen biota is characteristic of apple trees (52 species and pear trees (36. Lichens of the apple trees constitute 78% of the biota of this phorophyte growing in the fruit orchards in Poland. Of the recorded species, only two (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea hirta are covered by partial protection in Poland.

  7. Lichens in the Urban Environment within South-East of Western Siberia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichen species diversity and trend of their distribution were studied in two big cities and fi ve towns in south-east of Western Siberia. In total of 348 species from 46 families and 98 genera were found in all studied urban and suburban areas. All local checklists are characterized by high degree of the lichen species similarity between each other and smaller lists are included in bigger ones on to 64-100%. Epiphytic lichens were the largest group in all studied areas and almost half of them were occupied two and more substrates. Crustose life-form and mesophytes prevailed everywhere. Share of sensitive lichens exceeded percent of tolerant ones in big cities and was lower than tolerant ones in smaller towns. The sixteen species were the most tolerant, commonly present everywhere and have been recognized as the key species for urban lichen synusiae within south-east of Western Siberia. Five zones have been determined with IP-mapping (mapping on the base of index of air pollution tolerance in studied areas: IP=3-5 is a “normal zone”, IP=5-7 is a “moderate exposure zone”, IP=7-9 is a “mixed zone”, IP=9-10 is a “struggle zone”, and fi nally – lichen-free zone. The most studied urban areas had got quite extensive lichen-free zone (up to 35% of their areas.

  8. Lichen Monitoring Delineates Biodiversity on a Great Barrier Reef Coral Cay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Rogers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral islands around the world are threatened by changing climates. Rising seas, drought, and increased tropical storms are already impacting island ecosystems. We aim to better understand lichen community ecology of coral island forests. We used an epiphytic lichen community survey to gauge Pisonia (Pisonia grandis R.BR., which dominates forest conditions on Heron Island, Australia. Nine survey plots were sampled for lichen species presence and abundance, all tree diameters and species, GPS location, distance to forest-beach edge, and dominant forest type. Results found only six unique lichens and two lichen associates. A Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP test found statistically distinct lichen communities among forest types. The greatest group differences were between interior Pisonia and perimeter forest types. Ordinations were performed to further understand causes for distinctions in lichen communities. Significant explanatory gradients were distance to forest edge, tree density (shading, and Pisonia basal area. Each of these variables was negatively correlated with lichen diversity and abundance, suggesting that interior, successionally advanced, Pisonia forests support fewer lichens. Island edge and presumably younger forests—often those with greater tree diversity and sunlight penetration—supported the highest lichen diversity. Heron Island’s Pisonia-dominated forests support low lichen diversity which mirrors overall biodiversity patterns. Lichen biomonitoring may provide a valuable indicator for assessing island ecosystems for conservation purposes regionally.

  9. Effect of air pollution on epiphytic lichen vegetation and element contents of a lichen and pine needles at Valkeakoski, South Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksovirta, K; Olkkonen, H

    1979-01-01

    The macrolichen vegetation on Pinus sylvestris L. and the contents of S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe and Zn in the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and needles of Pinus sylvestris were investigated in relation to air pollution at 55 study stations in and around the industrial town of Valkeakoski, southern Finland. The air pollutants are emitted mainly by the wood pulp industry. The parameters of the lichen vegetation (occurrence of species, number of species, cover of the vegetation and the damage index) did not give a good picture of the distribution of air pollutants, because the environmental conditions were not exactly the same at the different study stations. The accumulation of the elements was more effective in the lichen than in pine needles and the lichen element contents agreed better with the pattern of the prevailing winds. The correlations between the contents of the different pollutant elements were also stronger in the lichen than in pine needles. The most reliable indices of pollutant substances originating from combustion of fuel oil and the wood pulp industry were the sulfur and vanadium contents of the lichen, while the calcium, titanium and iron concentrations of the lichen gave a good idea of the distribution of dust raised from the roads by traffic. 11 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in lichens under experimental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the accumulation from aqueous media of two long-lived radionuclides---/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs---by the thalluses of eight species of lichens of different ecological and morphological groups (soil bushy lichens and foliated forms; epiphytic bushy and foliated; epilytic foliated). Fhe efficiency of accumulation of radionuclides by the thalluses was determined from the accumulation coefficient (KN) (koehfitsient nakopleniya). There was a distinct difference in the radionuclide accumulation by the different species of lichens. Based on their radionuclide accumulation, the lichens were divided into three groups. It was shown that not only do different species of lichens differ in their accumulation of the same radionuclide, but also the thalluses of the same species are not the same in the sorption of different radionuclides. However, on an average, the bushy forms of lichens accumulated /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs more than the leafy types. The lichens studied may be arrangd according to their accumulation of /sup 90/Sr: epiphytes > soil types > epilytes, or their /sup 137/Cs accumulation: soil types > epilytes > epiphytes.

  11. Lichen Monitoring Delineates Biodiversity on a Great Barrier Reef Coral Cay

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Paul C.; Rogers, Roderick W.; Hedrich, Anne E.; Moss, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    Coral islands around the world are threatened by changing climates. Rising seas, drought, and increased tropical storms are already impacting island ecosystems. We aim to better understand lichen community ecology of coral island forests. We used an epiphytic lichen community survey to gauge Pisonia (Pisonia grandis R.BR.), which dominates forest conditions on Heron Island, Australia. Nine survey plots were sampled for lichen species presence and abundance, all tree diameters and species, GPS...

  12. Determination of trace elements in lichen samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Coccaro, D.M.B.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Marcelli, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as bioindicators of environmental pollution studies because of their ability to accumulate metals present in the atmosphere at very low concentrations. In this work, experimental conditions for collection and preparation of the lichen samples as well as the experimental procedure for neutron activation analysis were established in order to obtain reliable and useful data for environmental monitoring purposes. Lichen samples were collected from the barks of trees. They were first examined in a stereo microscope, cleaned and then they were washed with water, freeze-dried and ground for analysis. Out of the five species Usnea sp, Parmotrena tinctorum, Canoparmelia caroliniana, Parmotrema sanctiangeli and Canoparmelia texana analysed, the latter was chosen for this work since this species is very abundant on the Brazilian territory except for the coast. The samples and synthetic standards of elements were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor and the concentrations of the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, lanthanides, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, U, V and Zn were determined by using short and long irradiations. Results obtained in the washed and unwashed lichen samples showed that the cleaning with water can be used in order to eliminate adhering materials. Indeed, most of elements of interest for the environmental contamination accumulated by the lichens were not removed. The study of the influence of the age of the lichen indicated that its elemental concentrations increase with its age or with the length of exposure. Results obtained for lichens collected from four different trees in the same sampling area varied from about 3.4 to 50%. The homogeneity of the sample was checked by analyzing replicates. The precision and the accuracy of the method were evaluated by analyzing IAEA 336 Lichen and NIST 1752 Citrus Leaves. (author)

  13. Oral candidosis in lichen planus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Kieffer-Kristensen, L; Reibel, J

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, but other Candida species cause candidosis. Candida species display significant differences in their susceptibility to antimycotic drugs. Patients with symptomatic or erythematous oral lichen planus (OLP) commonly have...

  14. Biomonitoring with lichens on twigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsholm, René Larsen; Wolseley, Pat; Søchting, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    Two surveys of the lichen and bryophyte flora growing on oak twigs from a Welsh and a Danish locality were compared with additional data on bark pH and % nitrogen in thalli of Hypogymnia physodes. Despite differences in climate and lichen flora, both sites showed a shift in the lichen communities...... showing a loss of nitrophobes in all sites and the appearance of nitrophiles in pasture sites in 2003. This study demonstrates that lichens on twigs can be used as an early warning system to detect a response to changes in land management and nitrogen deposition....

  15. Monitoring H2S air pollution caused by the industrial exploitation of geothermal energy: the pitfall of using lichens as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppi, Stefano; Nascimbene, Juri

    2010-08-01

    This study showed that NH(3) emitted from geothermal power plants affects the surrounding epiphytic lichen vegetation and diversity, confounding the interpretation of lichen diversity counts in terms of air pollution by H(2)S. The presence of nitrophytic lichen species around geothermal installations, determined by NH(3), caused relatively high diversity values that were not related with the levels of air pollution by H(2)S. It is recommended that in the presence of NH(3) emission, nitrophytic species are excluded from the calculation of lichen diversity values. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Non destructive SXRF analysis of heavy elements in lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M.T.; Figueiredo, M.O.; Pereira da Silva, T.; Basto, M.J.; Chevallier, P.

    2000-01-01

    Various species incrusting granitic and calcareous rocks were collected at different places covering a large span of atmospheric conditions. They were chemically studied by synchrotron- induced X-ray fluorescence (SXRF), a nondestructive technique of outmost importance in the field, allowing for a future use of the same lichen fragments in further tests. This study proved that lichens - at least the saxicolous species - concentrate heavy elements recognized as strong pollutants, like lead and bromine, irrespective the environmental availability of these elements, either in the atmosphere or in the rock substrate, partially frustrating the use of saxicolous lichens as pollution monitors. (author)

  17. Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aptroot, A. [ABL Herbarium, G.v.d. Veenstraat 107, NL-3762 XK Soest (Netherlands)]. E-mail: andreaptroot@wanadoo.nl; Herk, C.M. van [Lichenologisch Onderzoeksbureau Nederland, Goudvink 47, NL-3766 WK Soest (Netherlands)]. E-mail: lonsoest@wxs.nl

    2007-03-15

    Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global warming. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up or open rural areas, as compared to forested regions. Both the distribution (southern) and ecology (warmth-loving) of the newly established or increasing species seem to be determined by global warming. Epiphytic temperate to boreo-montane species appear to be relatively unaffected. Vacant niches caused by other environmental changes are showing the most pronouced effects of global warming. Species most rapidly increasing in forests, although taxonomically unrelated, all contain Trentepohlia as phycobiont in addition to having a southern distribution. This suggests that in this habitat, Trentepohlia algae, rather than the different lichen symbioses, are affected by global warming. - Epiphytic and terricolous lichens in Western Europe respond to global warming through their Trentepohlia algae.

  18. Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptroot, A.; Herk, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global warming. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up or open rural areas, as compared to forested regions. Both the distribution (southern) and ecology (warmth-loving) of the newly established or increasing species seem to be determined by global warming. Epiphytic temperate to boreo-montane species appear to be relatively unaffected. Vacant niches caused by other environmental changes are showing the most pronouced effects of global warming. Species most rapidly increasing in forests, although taxonomically unrelated, all contain Trentepohlia as phycobiont in addition to having a southern distribution. This suggests that in this habitat, Trentepohlia algae, rather than the different lichen symbioses, are affected by global warming. - Epiphytic and terricolous lichens in Western Europe respond to global warming through their Trentepohlia algae

  19. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: Analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Maguas, C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal (CEBV), 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente (CERENA) Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Branquinho, C. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal (CEBV), 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Universidade Atlantica, Antiga Fabrica da Polvora de Barcarena, 2745-615 Barcarena (Portugal)], E-mail: cmbranquinho@fc.ul.pt

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors. - The interpretation of lichen-biodiversity data was improved by using analysis at different scales.

  20. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: Analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, P.; Augusto, S.; Maguas, C.; Pereira, M.J.; Soares, A.; Branquinho, C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors. - The interpretation of lichen-biodiversity data was improved by using analysis at different scales

  1. Improving the use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branquinho, C.; Catarino, F.; Brown, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    Improving the use of lichens as biomonitors of atmospheric metal pollution is the main objective of this work. For that a better insight into the availability and location of heavy metals in lichens subjected to polluted conditions both under laboratory and field conditions was attained. The data in this work supported the hypothesis that the absence of the lichen Ramalina fastigiata near a copper mine site, located in the south of Portugal, was related with toxic levels of Cu-dust near the centre of the mine. Lichen biodiversity, measured by the parameter number of lichen species, reflected the impact of the copper-mine dust emissions. The extent of the impact was more widespread towards cast, which appears to be correlated with the frequency of the winds. The chemical analysis of in-situ samples of R. fastigiata collected at different distances and in different directions from the mine showed that Cu, K and Mg were emitted from the centre of the mine site, confirming that major sources of atmospheric dust were located there. Total inhibition of PSII (photosystem II) photochemical reactions occurred in R. fastigiata both under field and controlled conditions, when intracellular Cu concentrations exceeded a threshold of ca. 2.0 μmol g -1 . No samples of this species were found under field conditions beyond the Cu threshold, suggesting that the absence of the lichen R. fastigiata might be used as an indicator of intracellular Cu concentrations above 2.0 μmol g -1 in the surroundings of the copper-mine. The fluorescence parameter F v /F m proved to be a good estimator of the survival capacity of R. fastigiata under field conditions and thus a useful parameter in determining the sensitivity of the lichens (photobiont) to Cu pollution. The intracellular location of Cu, K and Mg allowed to explain the physiological changes and the survival of the species in the surroundings of the copper-mine. (author)

  2. Lichens as indicators of the ecological conditions of the habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzak, J

    1968-01-01

    The susceptibility of lichens to changes in the urban environment make them good indicators of the intensity of air pollution. Studies covering a number of large and small towns, mostly in Europe and some over an extended time, explored the toxic influence of air pollution on 12 species on lichens. A comparison after 18 years with the lichen flora of Lublin, Poland found the lichen population impoverished. The toxic hypothesis, which blames increased coal consumption and automobile use, is inadequate to explain the condition. The drought hypothesis, which postulates that the occurrence and distribution of individual species is the result of a complex of numerous macro- and microclimatic, edaphic, geographical, historical, and other factors, gives a uniform view of the problem and stimulates investigations of the ecology of lichens in their natural habitat as well as in towns. 40 references, 12 figures, 3 tables.

  3. The accumulation of metals in lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to accumulate metal in the lichen communities has been used to identify the level of air pollution due road traffic. Several analyses have been conducted in the study, on tissue from lichens collected from six areas: the park of a town, various sites on the town’s freeway and on a county road segment with moderate traffic. The analyzed lichens were from the Parmelia spp. species which grow naturally on trees found in borderline lanes of motorways. Based on the degree of heavy metal accumulation such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe Mn, Pb, Ni and Zn in the Parmelia spp. lichens, a correlation has been made, with the road traffic. According to the metal bioaccumulation degree in lichens tissue, it has been established that the sources such as traffic from the outskirts of cities, from the perimeter of gas stations and of county roads continuously spread products which contain these elements, into the atmosphere. The fast information regarding the quality of the air in the environment allows the use of lichens as organism which can indicate environmental conditions and their modification by accumulating substances.

  4. Specific Vicariance of Two Primeval Lowland Forest Lichen Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m2 each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.

  5. Lichen flora of London: effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1967-01-01

    There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.

  6. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-10-30

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

  7. Forest Type and Tree Characteristics Determine the Vertical Distribution of Epiphytic Lichen Biomass in Subtropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic lichens are an important component in subtropical forests and contribute greatly to forest biodiversity and biomass. However, information on epiphytic lichens still remains scarce in forest conservation owing to the difficulty of accessing all canopy layers for direct observation. Here, epiphytic lichens were quantified on 73 whole trees in five forest types in Southwest China to clarify the vertical stratification of their biomass in subtropical forests. Lichen biomass was significantly influenced by forest type and host attributes, varying from 187.11 to 8.55 g∙tree−1 among forest types and from 289.81 to <0.01 g∙tree−1 among tree species. The vertical stratification of lichen biomass was also determined by forest type, which peaked at the top in primary Lithocarpus forest and middle-aged oak secondary forest and in the middle upper heights in other forests. Overall, the proportion of lichen biomass accounted for 73.17–100.00% of total lichen biomass on branches and 0.00–26.83% on trunks in five forests, and 64.53–100.00% and 0.00–35.47% on eight host species. Seven functional groups showed marked and various responses to tree height between and among forest types. This information improves our understanding of the distribution of epiphytic lichens in forest ecosystems and the promotion of forest management in subtropical China.

  8. Physical contact and carbon transfer between a lichen-forming Trebouxia alga and a novel Alphaproteobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Mieko; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Satta, Yoko; Terai, Yohey

    2017-05-01

    Recent progress in molecular techniques has begun to alter traditional recognition of lichens as symbiotic organisms comprised of a fungus and photosynthetic partners (green algae and/or cyanobacteria). Diverse organisms, especially various non-photosynthetic bacteria, are now indicated to be integral components of lichen symbiosis. Although lichen-associated bacteria are inferred to have functions that could support the symbiosis, little is known about their physical and nutritional interaction with fungi and algae. In the present study, we identified specific interaction between a lichen-forming alga and a novel bacterium. Trebouxia alga was isolated from a lichen, Usnea hakonensis, and kept as a strain for 8 years. Although no visible bacterial colonies were observed in this culture, high-throughput sequencing of DNA isolated from the culture revealed that the strain is composed of a Trebouxia alga and an Alphaproteobacterium species. In situ hybridization showed that bacterial cells were localized on the surface of the algal cells. Physiological assays revealed that the bacterium was able to use ribitol, glucose and mannitol, all of which are known to exist abundantly in lichens. It was resistant to three antibiotics. Bacteria closely related to this species were also identified in lichen specimens, indicating that U. hakonensis may commonly associate with this group of bacteria. These features of the novel bacterium suggest that it may be involved in carbon cycling of U. hakonensis as a member of lichen symbiosis and less likely to have become associated with the alga after isolation from a lichen.

  9. Growth of lichens and air pollution in the area of Saarbruecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, W

    1972-01-01

    Beside 20 saxicolous and earthy lichens 30 species of lichens growing on tree bark were identified in the town of Saarbruecken. The corticolous lichens Pertusaria coccodes, P. henrici, Rhinodina pyrina and Lepraria candelaris as well as the sulfurous lichen Lechidea lucida were found in the Saarland for the first time. In the explored area there is a desert of lichens (zone V) which is 18 km long and about 4 km wide. Next comes an inner fighting zone where the crustose species Lecanora conizaeoides and Lepraria aeruginosa are dominating. An almost undisturbed epiphytic growth of lichens (zone III to I) is restricted only to a few small refuges mostly of the tops of the surrounding hills. The foliose lichens Parmelia saxatilis and P. subrudecta which were growing well developed in some places of the urban area turned out to be remarkably resistent against SO/sub 2/. The otherwise frequent Hypogymnia physodes could be found only in poor initial stages. The frontier of the desert of lichens is correlating with a middle SO/sub 2/ air pollution of 0.06 to 0.09 mg SO/sub 2//m/sup 3/. After having examined the epiphytic vegetation these physically measured values, however, compared with those of other cities are supposed to be quite higher.

  10. The Conjugates of Phenolic Acids in Lichens of the Order Lecanorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. NIKOLAEVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (usually an ascomycete and a photobiont, which may be an alga and/or a cyanobacterium. Lichens dominate on about 6–8% of land surface, mainly in the habitats with severe climatic conditions. Lichenized fungi are among the pioneer vegetation on bare rock or soil. Mat-forming species contribute substantially to the soil cover in tundras and high mountain elevations. Lichens are rich in water-soluble compounds which can be leached-out the lichen thalli with atmospheric depositions. We have recently described the occurrence of water-soluble phenolics in lichens (Zagoskina et al 2013. These compounds can play important role in the ecosystem functioning and primary soil formation (weathering, humification. The aim of this work was to study qualitative composition of water-soluble phenolics in the lichen species widespread in the soil cover of tundra zone. The air-dried thalli of Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria islandica, C.nigricans, C.nivalis, Cladonia arbuscula and C.stellaris were homogenized to powder and used for the study. Lichens were collected in Khibiny mountains, Kola Peninsula in August 2013. Phenolic compounds were extracted by distilled water (1h, 30C and analyzed by TLC before and after the acid hydrolysis. It was found that all the lichens under the study contained the conjugates of phenol carboxylic acids. We have identified that non-phenolic part in some of these conjugates was represented by sugars and amino acids. The TLC of the hydrolizates of water extracts revealed occurrence of p-oxybenzoic acid in all of the species studied. The lichens Cetraria islandica, С.nigricans and Cladonia stellaris contained also vanillic acid. These phenolic acids are widespread in plant kingdom and are known as products of lignin decomposition in higher plants. The physiological role of water-soluble phenolics in lichens as well as their environmental role are need to be understood in future studies.

  11. Dissociation and metal-binding characteristics of yellow lichen substances suggest a relationship with site preferences of lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Willenbruch, Karen; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Many species of lichen-forming fungi contain yellow or orange extracellular pigments belonging to the dibenzofurans (usnic acid), anthraquinones (e.g. parietin) or pulvinic acid group. These pigments are all equally efficient light screens, leading us to question the potential ecological and evolutionary significance of diversity in yellow and orange lichen substances. Here the hypothesis is tested that the different pigments differ in metal-binding characteristics, which suggest that they may contribute to adaptation to sites differing in pH and metal availability. UV spectroscopy was used to study the dissociation and the pH dependence of the metal-binding behaviour of seven isolated lichen substances in methanol. Metals applied were selected macro- and micro-nutrients (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+)). All the pigments studied are strong to moderate acids with pK(a1) values between 2.8 and 4.5. Metal complexation is common in the lichen substances studied. Complexation takes place under acidic conditions with usnic acid, but under alkaline conditions with parietin and most compounds of the pulvinic acid group. The pulvinic acid derivative rhizocarpic acid forms metal complexes both in the acidic and the alkaline range. Metal complexation by lichen substances could be a prerequisite for lichen substance-mediated control of metal uptake. Assuming such an effect at pH values where the affinity of the metal for the lichen substance is intermediate would explain the strong preference of lichens with usnic or rhizocarpic acids to acidic substrata. Moreover, it would explain the preference of lichens with parietin and some lichens with compounds of the pulvinic acid group either for nutrient-rich substrata at low pH or for calcareous substrata.

  12. Preliminary assessment of terrestrial microalgae isolated from lichens as testing species for environmental monitoring: lichen phycobionts present high sensitivity to environmental micropollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; Moreno, H; Barreno, E; Catalá, M

    2014-01-01

    Bioassays constitute a tool for pollution analysis providing a holistic approach and high-quality indication of the toxicity. Microbioassays allow evaluating the toxicity of many samples, implying lower costs and enabling routine monitoring and pollution control. But tests conducted so far are limited to the use of a small number of taxa. Lichens are excellent bioindicators of pollution with great ecological significance. Studies show that the phycobiont is more sensitive to pollutants than the mycobiont. Phycobiont have features such as adaptation to anhydrobiosis and relatively rapid growth in vitro, making them suitable for microbioassays. Our aim is to determine the sensitivity of phycobionts to the pharmaceutical micropollutants carbamazepine and diclofenac as a preliminary step for the development of a toxicity microbioassay based on phycobionts. Optical dispersion and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of toxicity on two algal species showing that suspensions present cyclic and taxon specific patterns of aggregation. Trebouxia TR9 suspensions present a very high grade of aggregation while Asterochloris erici cells do not. Both micropollutants alter optical properties of the suspensions of both species. No significant alteration of chlorophyll autofluorescence by carbamazepine is observed. A. erici chlorophyll autofluorescence is extremely sensitive to diclofenac but the effect is not dependent on the drug concentration or on the time of exposure. Differently, TR9 only shows punctual chlorophyll alterations. Fluctuations in optical dispersion may indicate changes in the population structure of the species, including reproductive strategy. A. erici seems more sensitive to micropollutants, is better characterized and is available from commercial collections. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Epilithic lichens in rock communities on the territory of the Botanical Garden of PetrSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serapionova Olesya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity of epilithic lichens (54 species on the territory of the Botanical Garden of Petrozavodsk State University with different character of anthropogenic impact has been reported. Nine species of epilithic lichens are recorded as new for the studied territory and species Acarospora nitrophila, Lecanora sulphurea, Lecidea lithophila - as new for the biogeographical province of Karelia onegensis. The highest number of lichen species was found within area of observation deck “Devil's chair” where the greatest variety of microhabitats was presented.

  14. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in lichens in an alpine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machart, Peter; Hofmann, Werner; Türk, Roman; Steger, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    About 17 years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen samples were collected in an alpine region in Austria (Bad Gastein), which was heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations in selected lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cetraria cucullata, and Cladonia arbuscula) ranged from 100 to 1100 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, depending on lichen species and sampling site. Ecological half-lives for 137Cs in different lichen samples, obtained by comparison with earlier measurements of the same lichen species at the same site, ranged from 2 to 6 years, with average values between 3 and 4 years. Comparison with earlier studies indicated that ecological half-lives hardly changed during the last 10 years, suggesting that ecological clearance mechanisms (e.g. washout or soil transfer) did not vary substantially at the selected sampling area.

  15. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in lichens in an alpine region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machart, Peter; Hofmann, Werner; Tuerk, Roman; Steger, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    About 17 years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen samples were collected in an alpine region in Austria (Bad Gastein), which was heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Measured 137 Cs activity concentrations in selected lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cetraria cucullata, and Cladonia arbuscula) ranged from 100 to 1100 Bq kg -1 dry weight, depending on lichen species and sampling site. Ecological half-lives for 137 Cs in different lichen samples, obtained by comparison with earlier measurements of the same lichen species at the same site, ranged from 2 to 6 years, with average values between 3 and 4 years. Comparison with earlier studies indicated that ecological half-lives hardly changed during the last 10 years, suggesting that ecological clearance mechanisms (e.g. washout or soil transfer) did not vary substantially at the selected sampling area

  16. Lichen communities and species indicate climate thresholds in southeast and south-central Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather T. Root; Bruce. McCune; Sarah. Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Because of their unique physiology, lichen communities are highly sensitive to climatic conditions,making them ideal bioindicators for climate change. Southeast and south-central Alaska host diverse and abundant lichen communities and are faced with a more rapidly changing climate than many more southerly latitudes. We develop sensitive lichen-based indicators for...

  17. Isolation of symbionts and GC-MS analysis of lichens collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, a good number of lichen species have been recorded and so far not much work has been done to isolate or identify the symbionts. The utility of lichen comes from a range of secondary compounds produced by them. In view of this, two lichen samples, foliose (Parmalia reticulata Taylor) and fruticose Usnea ...

  18. Estimating Coextinction Risks from Epidemic Tree Death: Affiliate Lichen Communities among Diseased Host Tree Populations of Fraxinus excelsior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Mari T.; Thor, Göran

    2012-01-01

    At least 10% of the world’s tree species are threatened with extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated in tree threats. Coextinction and threats to affiliates as a consequence of the loss or decline of their host trees is a poorly understood phenomenon. Ash dieback is an emerging infectious disease causing severe dieback of common ash Fraxinus excelsior throughout Europe. We utilized available empirical data on affiliate epiphytic lichen diversity (174 species and 17,800 observations) among 20 ash dieback infected host tree populations of F. excelsior on the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea, Sweden. From this, we used structured scenario projections scaled with empirical data of ash dieback disease to generate probabilistic models for estimating local and regional lichen coextinction risks. Average coextinction probabilities (Ā) were 0.38 (95% CI ±0.09) for lichens occurring on F. excelsior and 0.14 (95% CI ±0.03) when considering lichen persistence on all tree species. Ā was strongly linked to local disease incidence levels and generally increasing with lichen host specificity to F. excelsior and decreasing population size. Coextinctions reduced affiliate community viability, with significant local reductions in species richness and shifts in lichen species composition. Affiliates were projected to become locally extirpated before their hosts, illuminating the need to also consider host tree declines. Traditionally managed open wooded meadows had the highest incidence of ash dieback disease and significantly higher proportions of affiliate species projected to go extinct, compared with unmanaged closed forests and semi-open grazed sites. Most cothreatened species were not previously red-listed, which suggest that tree epidemics cause many unforeseen threats to species. Our analysis shows that epidemic tree deaths represent an insidious, mostly overlooked, threat to sessile affiliate communities in forested environments. Current conservation and

  19. Analytical and statistical analysis of elemental composition of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvelo, S.; Baccala, N.; Bubach, D.; Arribere, M.A.; Riberio Guevara, S.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental composition of lichens from remote southern South America regions has been studied with analytical and statistical techniques to determine if the values obtained reflect species, growth forms or habitat characteristics. The enrichment factors are calculated discriminated by species and collection site and compared with data available in the literature. The elemental concentrations are standardized and compared for different species. The information was statistically processed, a cluster analysis was performed using the three first principal axes of the PCA; the three groups formed are presented. Their relationship with the species, collection sites and the lichen growth forms are interpreted. (author)

  20. Unraveling the Photoprotective Response of Lichenized and Free-Living Green Algae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta to Photochilling Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Míguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichens and free-living terrestrial algae are widespread across many habitats and develop successfully in ecosystems where a cold winter limits survival. With the goal of comparing photoprotective responses in free-living and lichenized algae, the physiological responses to chilling and photochilling conditions were studied in three lichens and their isolated algal photobionts together as well as in a fourth free-living algal species. We specifically addressed the following questions: (i Are there general patterns of acclimation in green algae under chilling and photochilling stresses? (ii Do free-living algae exhibit a similar pattern of responses as their lichenized counterparts? (iii Are these responses influenced by the selection pressure of environmental conditions or by the phylogenetic position of each species? To answer these questions, photosynthetic fluorescence measurements as well as pigment and low molecular weight carbohydrate pool analyses were performed under controlled laboratory conditions. In general, photochemical efficiency in all free-living algae decreased with increasing duration of the stress, while the majority of lichens maintained an unchanged photochemical activity. Nevertheless, these patterns cannot be generalized because the alga Trebouxia arboricola and the lichen Ramalina pollinaria (associated with Trebouxia photobionts both showed a similar decrease in photochemical efficiency. In contrast, in the couple Elliptochloris bilobata-Baeomyces rufus, only the algal partner exhibited a broad physiological performance under stress. This study also highlights the importance of the xanthophyll cycle in response to the studied lichens and algae to photochilling stress, while the accumulation of sugars was not related to cold acclimation, except in the alga E. bilobata. The differences in response patterns detected among species can be mainly explained by their geographic origin, although the phylogenetic position should

  1. Tropical urban lichens: observations from Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipman, H.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The known lichen diversity of Singapore, 296 species, is comparable with temperate lowland areas, but the taxa involved are different, even at high taxonomic levels: the commonest orders are Arthoniales and Graphidales instead of Lecanorales. Epiphytic species dominate, while saxicolous and

  2. Esophageal lichen planus

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Janine Pichler de; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen ...

  3. Esophageal lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Janine Pichler de; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen planus are rare in dermatologic literature. The esophageal lichen planus is little known and underdiagnosed, with a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis.

  4. The symbiotic playground of lichen thalli--a highly flexible photobiont association in rock-inhabiting lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia, Lucia; Vancurova, Lucie; Škaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej; Wedin, Mats; Grube, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The development of characteristic thallus structures in lichen-forming fungi requires the association with suitable photoautotrophic partners. Previous work suggests that fungi have a specific range of compatible photobionts and that selected algal strains are also correlated with the habitat conditions. We selected the rock-inhabiting crust lichen Protoparmeliopsis muralis, which exhibits high flexibility in algal associations. We present a geographically extended and detailed analysis of algal association patterns including thalli which host superficial algal colonies. We sampled 17 localities in Europe, and investigated the photobiont genotypic diversity within and between thalli and compared the diversity of intrathalline photobionts and externally associate algal communities between washed and unwashed thalli by single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses and ITS sequence data. The results show that (1) photobiont population within the lichen thalli is homogeneous; (2) multiple photobiont genotypes occur within single areoles and lobes of individual lichens; and (3) algal communities which superficially colonize the lichen thalli host taxa known as photobionts in unrelated lichens. Photobiont association patterns are extremely flexible in this ecologically versatile crust-forming lichen. We suggest that lichen surfaces represent a potential temporary niche for free-living stages of lichen photobionts, which could facilitate the establishment of further lichens in the proximal area. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Canaries in a coal mine: using lichens to measure nitrogen pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Linda Geiser; Sarah Jovan

    2011-01-01

    In Pacific Northwest forests, lichens provide essential winter forage for deer and elk and also nesting materials and habitat for rodents, birds, and invertebrates. Although lichens are often the first organisms to populate a landscape and many species can survive in the most barren environments, lichens with the greatest ecological value tend to be the most sensitive...

  6. Lichens as indicators of air pollution in a steal producing town in South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, F B

    1970-01-01

    The lichen flora of a given region depends upon a multiplicity of factors. Some factors act directly or indirectly upon the lichen thallus; in addition the lichen thallus is capable, to some extent at least, of exerting a modifying influence upon the macro- and micro-environment. The polluted centre of Port Talbot, a steel town, has a restricted number of Crustose and rather Depauperate species. This lichen desert is quite small possibly because either (a) the atmosphere is not heavily polluted, or (b) there is a rapid dilution of pollutants. With distance away from Port Talbot there is an increase in the number of lichen species and a change in the proportion of the various growth forms. Abutting the lichen desert is a zone in which parmelia sulcata, P. saxatilis, Cladonia coniocraea, and C. fimbriata are the most widely represented species. This is followed by a further zone dominated by USNEA comosa, U. florida, Cetraria glauca, and Cladonia impexa in particular. It must be noted that these zones are not clearly defined; there is a gradation in growth forms and a gradual change in the abundance of various species.

  7. Contrasting patterns in lichen diversity in the continental and maritime Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Mohan; Olech, Maria; Cannone, Nicoletta; Convey, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Systematic surveys of the lichen floras of Schirmacher Oasis (Queen Maud Land, continental Antarctic), Victoria Land (Ross Sector, continental Antarctic) and Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic) were compared to help infer the major factors influencing patterns of diversity and biogeography in the three areas. Biogeographic patterns were determined using a variety of multivariate statistical tools. A total of 54 lichen species were documented from Schirmacher Oasis (SO), 48 from Victoria Land (VL) and 244 from Admiralty Bay (AB). Of these, 21 species were common to all areas. Most lichens from the SO and VL areas were microlichens, the dominant genus being Buellia. In AB, in contrast, many macrolichens were also present and the dominant genus was Caloplaca. In SO and VL large areas lacked any visible lichen cover, even where the ground was snow-free in summer. Small-scale diversity patterns were present in AB, where the number of species and genera was greater close to the coast. Most species recorded were rare in the study areas in which they were present and endemic to Antarctica.

  8. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.; Bell, J.N.B.; James, P.W.; Chimonides, P.J.; Rumsey, F.J.; Tremper, A.; Purvis, O.W.

    2007-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality. - Transport-related pollutants and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution and abundance in London today

  9. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the lichens Physcia aipolia, Xanthoria parietina, Usnea florida, Usnea subfloridana and Melanohalea exasperata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Çobanoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanol and chloroform extracts of five lichen species, Melanohalea exasperata, Physcia aipolia, Usnea florida, U. subfloridana and Xanthoria parietina. Antimicrobial activity in culture assays of these foliose and fruticose lichen extracts were examined against two Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, two Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, and the yeast Candida albicans using the paper disc method through determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs. The obtained results indicated the existence of different levels of antibiotic substances in the chloroform and the methanol extracts of the examined lichen species. The chloroform extracts of Usnea subfloridana showed the highest activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa while the methanol extracts of this species were not active against these microorganisms. The chloroform extracts of the examined species exhibited more significant antimicrobial activity than the methanol extracts. None of the species were active against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of the lichen extracts indicated a moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans, except for Physcia aipolia, which was not active.

  10. Bryophyte and lichen indicators of air pollution in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, G T

    1970-01-01

    In the winters of 1968 and 1969 a survey was made of the growth and distribution of bryophyte and lichen species within communities on tree trunks, stone walls, nonmetallic roofs and soil in Christchurch, New Zealand. The survey was stimulated by European and Scandinavian work which has shown that high levels of urban and industrial air pollution have caused severe reductions in the distribution of normally-abundant cryptogams. The present survey has demonstrated that a similar, but at present less severe, reduction in bryophyte and lichen flora occurs in Christchurch. Removal of sensitive species through their inability to grow at even moderate levels of winter pollution is considered the most likely cause. An initial transplant experiment indicates that damage to sensitive mosses like Hypnum and Brachythecium may occur within 3 months of exposure to city air. Gilbert and others have shown that in northern England sensitive mosses and lichens begin to die when the average winter sulphur dioxide level reaches 50 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ of air. This relationship has been confirmed in Christchurch, a moderately polluted city. Numbers of species and the area covered by sensitive mosses, hepatics and lichens reduce sharply along a broad transect into the centre of Christchurch from the west. Further work should display the distribution patterns of sensitive species. However, the information reported here demonstrates the possibility of using changes in selected mosses and lichens to indicate the trends in winter sulphur dioxide pollution in the city. Many of the genera and species of bryophytes and lichens prominent in the English survey were also found to be common in Christchurch. Introduction on plants and building materials during colonial times is considered likely.

  11. Lichens of sub-Antarctic Heard Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Øvstedal, D.O.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A tota1 of 71 lichen species in 42 genera are listed for the island. Three species are described as new: “Arctomia” latispora Øvstedal, Fellhaneropsis subantarctica Øvstedal and Stereocaulon heardii Øvstedal. More than half of the species are restricted to the southern cold zone (Antarctica and

  12. Antarctic Epilithic Lichens as Niches for Black Meristematic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zucconi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species, collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes.

  13. Preliminary study on epiphytic lichens as an indicator of environmental quality in forests from around Bucharest Municipality (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana VICOL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The epiphytic lichens were investigated for three forests situated around Bucharest Municipality. The comparative historical background studies concerned with epiphytic lichens in relation to environmental conditions were related. Five variables close related with the distance was analysed within this study, as follow: (1 in close correlation with the distance, the taxonomic analysis reveals a major significance regarding the dominant roll of the genera with a low epiphytic lichens diversity, within the Andronache Forest, unlike Cernica and Pustnicul Forest where, the number of genera is do not significantly owing increasing species number; (2 regarding the substrate, epiphytic lichens species from all investigated forests prefer trees with a roughly rhytidoma. Trees sampled in a great deal belong to the Quercus genus with a roughly rhytidoma facilitating a good growing of epiphytic lichens species because keeps for a long periods of time a high degree of humidity; (3 the analysis of toxi-tolerance degree has shown how the sensitive epiphytic lichens species to pollution is increasing depending on the distance; (4 autsozological categories are marked in a great deal by a great distance from an urban Bucharest area. Thus, the number of rare and disappearing lichens species is increasing direct proportional depending on the distance from the Bucharest Municipality area to investigated forests due to improvement of the environmental quality; (5 from geographical distribution of lichens species point of view, take a place an increasing number of epiphytic lichens species which is close correlated with the distance from Bucharest Municipalityarea to investigated forests. In addition, a great importance was conferred the presence of rare and disappearing epiphytic lichensspecies nearest perturbation area of Bucharest Municipality (Andronache Forest. This fact is possible to occur owing to thedirection of prevailed winds. It was used of sensitivity

  14. Fungal specificity and selectivity for algae play a major role in determining lichen partnerships across diverse ecogeographic regions in the lichen-forming family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Altermann, Susanne; Divakar, Pradeep K; Alors, David; Esslinger, Theodore L; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Microbial symbionts are instrumental to the ecological and long-term evolutionary success of their hosts, and the central role of symbiotic interactions is increasingly recognized across the vast majority of life. Lichens provide an iconic group for investigating patterns in species interactions; however, relationships among lichen symbionts are often masked by uncertain species boundaries or an inability to reliably identify symbionts. The species-rich lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae provides a diverse group for assessing patterns of interactions of algal symbionts, and our study addresses patterns of lichen symbiont interactions at the largest geographic and taxonomic scales attempted to date. We analysed a total of 2356 algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences collected from lichens representing ten mycobiont genera in Parmeliaceae, two genera in Lecanoraceae and 26 cultured Trebouxia strains. Algal ITS sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs); we attempted to validate the evolutionary independence of a subset of the inferred OTUs using chloroplast and mitochondrial loci. We explored the patterns of symbiont interactions in these lichens based on ecogeographic distributions and mycobiont taxonomy. We found high levels of undescribed diversity in Trebouxia, broad distributions across distinct ecoregions for many photobiont OTUs and varying levels of mycobiont selectivity and specificity towards the photobiont. Based on these results, we conclude that fungal specificity and selectivity for algal partners play a major role in determining lichen partnerships, potentially superseding ecology, at least at the ecogeographic scale investigated here. To facilitate effective communication and consistency across future studies, we propose a provisional naming system for Trebouxia photobionts and provide representative sequences for each OTU circumscribed in this study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. On the dual nature of lichen-induced rock surface weathering in contrasting micro-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Gonçalves, João; Oliveira, Cláudia; Favero-Longo, Sergio E; Paz-Bermúdez, Graciela; Almeida, Rubim; Prieto, Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Contradictory evidence from biogeomorphological studies has increased the debate on the extent of lichen contribution to differential rock surface weathering in both natural and cultural settings. This study, undertaken in Côa Valley Archaeological Park, aimed at evaluating the effect of rock surface orientation on the weathering ability of dominant lichens. Hyphal penetration and oxalate formation at the lichen-rock interface were evaluated as proxies of physical and chemical weathering, respectively. A new protocol of pixel-based supervised image classification for the analysis of periodic acid-Schiff stained cross-sections of colonized schist revealed that hyphal spread of individual species was not influenced by surface orientation. However, hyphal spread was significantly higher in species dominant on northwest facing surfaces. An apparently opposite effect was noticed in terms of calcium oxalate accumulation at the lichen-rock interface; it was detected by Raman spectroscopy and complementary X-ray microdiffraction on southeast facing surfaces only. These results suggest that lichen-induced physical weathering may be most severe on northwest facing surfaces by means of an indirect effect of surface orientation on species abundance, and thus dependent on the species, whereas lichen-induced chemical weathering is apparently higher on southeast facing surfaces and dependent on micro-environmental conditions, giving only weak support to the hypothesis that lichens are responsible for the currently observed pattern of rock-art distribution in Côa Valley. Assumptions about the drivers of open-air rock-art distribution patterns elsewhere should also consider the micro-environmental controls of lichen-induced weathering, to avoid biased measures of lichen contribution to rock-art deterioration. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Lichenized fungi of a chestnut grove in Livari (Rumija, Montenegro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Helmut; Drescher, Anton; Stešević, Danijela; Bilovitz, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty taxa (59 species and 1 variety) of lichenized fungi are reported from a chestnut grove in Livari. The majority of them (55 species and 1 variety) occurred on Castanea sativa. The recently described Xylographa soralifera is new to the Balkan Peninsula. The lichenicolous fungus Monodictys epilepraria growing on Lepraria rigidula is new to Montenegro. The lichen mycota is compared with similar localities in Italy and Switzerland. The species composition in Livari is most similar to the Montieri site in Tuscany. PMID:26869743

  17. Fungal Diversity in Lichens: From Extremotolerance to Interactions with Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Muggia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lichen symbioses develop long-living thallus structures even in the harshest environments on Earth. These structures are also habitats for many other microscopic organisms, including other fungi, which vary in their specificity and interaction with the whole symbiotic system. This contribution reviews the recent progress regarding the understanding of the lichen-inhabiting fungi that are achieved by multiphasic approaches (culturing, microscopy, and sequencing. The lichen mycobiome comprises a more or less specific pool of species that can develop symptoms on their hosts, a generalist environmental pool, and a pool of transient species. Typically, the fungal classes Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Leotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Tremellomycetes predominate the associated fungal communities. While symptomatic lichenicolous fungi belong to lichen-forming lineages, many of the other fungi that are found have close relatives that are known from different ecological niches, including both plant and animal pathogens, and rock colonizers. A significant fraction of yet unnamed melanized (‘black’ fungi belong to the classes Chaethothyriomycetes and Dothideomycetes. These lineages tolerate the stressful conditions and harsh environments that affect their hosts, and therefore are interpreted as extremotolerant fungi. Some of these taxa can also form lichen-like associations with the algae of the lichen system when they are enforced to symbiosis by co-culturing assays.

  18. Lichens and allied fungi of two Regional Parks in Vilnius area (Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Motiejūnaitė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Regional Parks – Verkiai and Pavilniai are situated in Vilnius city area comprising territories both of the city itself and Vilnius district and are under strong anthropogenic influence. During the present study 172 species of lichens, lichenicolous and saprobic fungi were revealed in Verkiai RP and 92 species – in Pavilniai RP. Three lichen species – Absconditella pauxilla, Thelenella pertusariella (in Verkiai RP, Bacidia caligans (in Pavilniai RP and one saprobic fungus – Chaenothecopsis debilis (in Verkiai RP are reporded for the first time in Lithuania. Seven lichen species of Lithuanian Red Data Book were recorded, all of them only in Verkiai RP; this indicates less strong anthropogenic impact and better conditions for biodiversity in this Park.

  19. Lichen Sclerosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichen sclerosus Overview Lichen sclerosus (LIE-kun skluh-ROW-sus) is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that's thinner than normal. Lichen sclerosus can affect skin anywhere on your body. ...

  20. Role of lichens in weathering of granodiorite in the Sila uplands (Calabria, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Saporito, Natalina; La Russa, Mauro F.; Le Pera, Emilia; Macchione, Maria; Puntillo, Domenico; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino

    2012-12-01

    This paper explores the role of five recurrent epilithic lichen species (Aspicilia intermutans (Nyl.) Arnold, Xanthoparmelia pulla (Ach.) O. Blanco, A. Crespo, Elix, D. Hawksw. & Lumbsch, Rhizocarpon lecanorinum Anders, Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner and Lecanora bolcana (Pollini) Poelt), which encrust granodiorite spheroidal boulders exposed in the Sila uplands (Calabria, southern Italy), in weathering of plutonic rocks in a typical mountainous Mediterranean environment. A detailed investigation was carried out on the lichen-rock interface of each species, by comparing them mutually and with lichen-free granodiorite samples. For this purpose, the lichen species were sampled together with the encrusted rock surface for detailed mineral-petrographic analyses performed in thin and ultra-thin sections. Optical and scanning electron microscopy of these sections and of bulk samples permitted us to highlight the peculiar modes of physical and chemical attacks of lichen thalli and hyphae on and into the substratum for each species. Crack systems often parallel to the outer rock surface appear often intruded by hyphae, which cause rupture of primary minerals, with detachment and progressive incorporation of their fragments into the thallus. In particular, the species L. bolcana and T. atra revealed an unexpected, partly endolithic behavior, presumably enhanced by the presence of rock fractures earlier generated by other physical breakage processes already affecting the spheroidal boulders in the Sila mountains. Dissolution features often affect primary minerals (even quartz), that may show very peculiar patterns which are suggestive of a biologically-induced control. Various phyllosilicate clay minerals were identified using SEM-EDS microprobe analyses and FT-IR spectroscopy, which also enabled the identification of possible amorphous silica (or quartz micrograins), rhizocarpic acid and carotenoid at the encrusted granodiorite interface. In contrast, neither oxalic

  1. Dead trees and living lichens - a phenomenon of the novel decline of forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, V

    1986-01-11

    In several hundred publications the effect of sulfur dioxide on lichens has been very well documented. Now a somewhat one-sided analysis of the relation between the absence of lichens and high sulfur dioxide immission has caused considerable confusion in connection with that specific damage now noted in forests, all the more as lichens are often spoken of without taking into account the sensitivity of different species or the multitude of species. A further handicap to the use of lichens as biological indicators is also that the statistical methods adopted for the verification of immissions in towns cannot simply be taken over. There is need to take more into consideration the different ecophysiological conditions. Furthermore increased attention must be paid to pollutants whose effects on lichens are little known so far. Thus this concise overview on the effect of ozone, nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate may contribute to better understanding of the phenomenon of the presence and absence of lichens in declining forest areas.

  2. Cellular Responses of the Lichen Circinaria gyrosa in Mars-Like Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de la Torre Noetzel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are extremely resistant organisms that colonize harsh climatic areas, some of them defined as “Mars-analog sites.” There still remain many unsolved questions as to how lichens survive under such extreme conditions. Several studies have been performed to test the resistance of various lichen species under space and in simulated Mars-like conditions. The results led to the proposal that Circinaria gyrosa (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota is one of the most durable astrobiological model lichens. However, although C. gyrosa has been exposed to Mars-like environmental conditions while in a latent state, it has not been exposed in its physiologically active mode. We hypothesize that the astrobiological test system “Circinaria gyrosa,” could be able to be physiologically active and to survive under Mars-like conditions in a simulation chamber, based on previous studies performed at dessicated-dormant stage under simulated Mars-like conditions, that showed a complete recover of the PSII activity (Sánchez et al., 2012. Epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM showed that living algal cells were more abundant in samples exposed to niche conditions, which simulated the conditions in micro-fissures and micro-caves close to the surface that have limited scattered or time-dependent light exposure, than in samples exposed to full UV radiation. The medulla was not structurally affected, suggesting that the niche exposure conditions did not disturb the lichen thalli structure and morphology as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. In addition, changes in the lichen thalli chemical composition were determined by analytical pyrolysis. The chromatograms resulting from analytical pyrolysis at 500°C revealed that lichen samples exposed to niche conditions and full UV radiation consisted primarily of glycosidic compounds, lipids, and sterols, which are typical constituents of the cell walls. However, specific

  3. Cellular Responses of the Lichen Circinaria gyrosa in Mars-Like Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Miller, Ana Z; de la Rosa, José M; Pacelli, Claudia; Onofri, Silvano; García Sancho, Leopoldo; Cubero, Beatriz; Lorek, Andreas; Wolter, David; de Vera, Jean P

    2018-01-01

    Lichens are extremely resistant organisms that colonize harsh climatic areas, some of them defined as "Mars-analog sites." There still remain many unsolved questions as to how lichens survive under such extreme conditions. Several studies have been performed to test the resistance of various lichen species under space and in simulated Mars-like conditions. The results led to the proposal that Circinaria gyrosa (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota) is one of the most durable astrobiological model lichens. However, although C . gyrosa has been exposed to Mars-like environmental conditions while in a latent state, it has not been exposed in its physiologically active mode. We hypothesize that the astrobiological test system " Circinaria gyrosa ," could be able to be physiologically active and to survive under Mars-like conditions in a simulation chamber, based on previous studies performed at dessicated-dormant stage under simulated Mars-like conditions, that showed a complete recover of the PSII activity (Sánchez et al., 2012). Epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that living algal cells were more abundant in samples exposed to niche conditions, which simulated the conditions in micro-fissures and micro-caves close to the surface that have limited scattered or time-dependent light exposure, than in samples exposed to full UV radiation. The medulla was not structurally affected, suggesting that the niche exposure conditions did not disturb the lichen thalli structure and morphology as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). In addition, changes in the lichen thalli chemical composition were determined by analytical pyrolysis. The chromatograms resulting from analytical pyrolysis at 500°C revealed that lichen samples exposed to niche conditions and full UV radiation consisted primarily of glycosidic compounds, lipids, and sterols, which are typical constituents of the cell walls. However, specific differences could be

  4. Biomonitors of urban air pollution: Magnetic studies and SEM observations of corticolous foliose and microfoliose lichens and their suitability for magnetic monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro, Marcos A.E.; Lavornia, Juan M.; Chaparro, Mauro A.E.; Sinito, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the suitability of available lichen species as air pollution biomonitors and assessed their potential for magnetic monitoring in cities. Several lichens on tree bark were collected in urban and industrial sites from Tandil city, as well as control sites. The results showed that magnetite-like minerals were the main magnetic carriers in all sites and samples. However, the concentration varied between clean and polluted sites. In addition, magnetic-grain size-distribution showed clear differences between sites. Observations by scanning electron microscopy showed different particles in a variety of shapes and grain sizes; moreover, the presence of iron oxides and several toxic elements was detected by energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Although eleven lichen species were identified that appeared suitable for use as air-pollution monitors, three of them, Parmotrema pilosum, Punctelia hipoleucites and Dirinaria picta, occurred more frequently in the area, thus constituting appropriate species for future monitoring in the study area. - Highlights: ► Magnetite-like minerals are the main carriers in lichen samples. ► Magnetic concentration and grain sizes vary between polluted and control sites. ► Different pollution loads were classified from pcoorda and K-means clustering analysis. ► Parmotrema pilosum, Punctelia hipoleucites and Dirinaria picta appear to be suitable air pollution monitors. - Lichen species are airborne pollutant collectors that are well-distributed in some urban areas and allow effective magnetic monitoring at low cost in cities.

  5. Further new additions to the lichen mycota of Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohabe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the lichen exploration in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh several interesting lichen taxa were collected of which 10 species are reported here as new records for the state. The species includes Biatorella conspersa (Biatorellaceae, Caloplaca bassiae, C. poliotera (Teloschistaceae, Dimelaena tenuis (Physciaceae, Lecanora chlarotera, L. helva, L. interjecta, L. psuedistera (Lecanoraceae, Pertusaria melastomella (Pertusariaceae and Porina tetracerae (Porinaceae. These taxa / species have been enumerated along with their characteristic features and distributional notes.

  6. Lichen techniques of pollution assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hare, G

    1973-01-01

    Available techniques for determining air pollution by sulfur dioxide using lichens are described. An application of these methods - species distributions, zone mapping and analyses of total sulfur content - in the west central Scotland area, is briefly reported.

  7. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  8. Lichen Nitidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichen nitidus Overview Lichen nitidus (LIE-kun ni-TIE-dus) is a rare skin condition that usually appears as tiny, skin-colored, glistening bumps on the surface of your skin. Lichen nitidus results from abnormal inflammatory activity in skin ...

  9. Observations made in Belfast City, Northern Ireland, on lichens as indicators of atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenton, A F.G.

    1972-01-01

    Smoke, solids fall-out and SO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured at a number of stations in the Belfast area. Using the data available from these stations an investigation of the lichen flora was undertaken during May 1962. No lichens of any sort exist within half a mile to the south of the center of pollution. This lichen desert zone extends from one and a half to two miles on the northern, eastern, and western sides. From the known levels at these distances it is established that no lichen species will tolerate smoke and SO/sub 2/ concentrations in excess of 25-30 mg per 100 cubic meters, and 3.5 parts per 100 million respectively. Outside this lichen desert zone crustaceous lichens are the first to appear and in the Belfast area are represented by a single species, Leconora pityrea. This lichen remains the only one present for a distance of one and a half to two miles on the southern side and for up to four miles distant in the other directions. Foliaceous lichens only enter at distances greater than this from the main concentration. The smoke pollution level at which foleaceous species enter does not exceed 10 mg pr 100 cubic meters, and the SO/sub 2/ concentration is probably not in excess of 0.5 parts per 100 million. The use of lichens as indicators of pollution could be considerably extended as a cheap and positive method for preliminary investigations of areas of suspected pollution. 8 references.

  10. New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Knežević, Branka; Stešević, Danijela; Vitikainen, Orvo; Dragićević, Snežana; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 256 taxa of lichens (252 species) and 2 species of lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro is presented, including 58 taxa (57 species) new to Montenegro. The list is based on specimens kept in the lichen collections of the herbaria GZU, H, Podgorica, and in the private herbarium of Klaus Kalb, and on recent field work in various parts of the country. The genera Biatoridium, Carbonea, Cercidospora, Heppia, Hyperphyscia, Hypocenomyce, Leprocaulon, Lethariella, Megalospora, Orphniospora, Psorinia and Vahliella are reported from Montenegro for the first time. PMID:22102779

  11. How lichens impact on terrestrial community and ecosystem properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Johan; Wardle, David A

    2017-08-01

    understanding how the high intraspecific trait variation that characterizes many lichens impacts on community assembly processes and ecosystem functioning, how multiple species mixtures of lichens affect the key community- and ecosystem-level processes that they drive, the extent to which lichens in early succession influence vascular plant succession and ecosystem development in the longer term, and how global change drivers may impact on ecosystem functioning through altering the functional composition of lichen communities. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina

    2008-06-01

    The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragón valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g(-1) and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g(-1)), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs.

  13. Analysis of lichen species for atmospheric pollution biomonitoring in the Santo Andre municipality, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Alves, E.R.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for the determination of trace elements in Canoparmelia texana species collected in nonpolluted areas of Atlantic Forest and in six sites of Santo Andre Municipality, SP, Brazil. Concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cs, Co, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, and Zn were determined and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites

  14. Different Heavy Metal Accumulation Strategies of Epilithic Lichens Colonising Artificial Post-Smelting Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr; Kafel, Alina

    2016-02-01

    Lichens appear to be essential and effective colonisers of bare substrates including the extremely contaminated wastes of slag dumps. This study examines the metal accumulation capacity of epilithic lichens growing directly on the surface of artificial slag sinters. Four species representing different growth forms, i.e., crustose Candelariella aurella, Lecanora muralis, and Lecidea fuscoatra and fruticose Stereocaulon nanodes, were selected to evaluate the relationships between zinc, lead, cadmium, and nickel contents in their thalli and host substrates. Bioaccumulation factors of examined crustose lichens showed their propensity to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. Contrarily, concentrations of metals in fruticose thalli of S. nanodes were, as a rule, lower than in the corresponding substrates. This indicates that the growth form of thalli and degree of thallus adhesion to the substrate has a significant impact on metal concentrations in lichens colonising post-smelting wastes. Nonlinear regression models described by power functions show that at greater levels of Pb concentration in the substrate, the ability of C. aurella, L. muralis and L. fuscoatra to accumulate the metal experiences a relative decrease, whereas hyperbolic function describes a similar trend in relation to Ni content in S. nanodes. This phenomenon may be an important attribute of lichens that facilitates their colonisation of the surface of slag wastes.

  15. Characterization of the diversity of mycosporine-like amino acids in lichens from high altitude region of Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vertika; Kumari, Rupender; Patel, Davendra K; Upreti, Dalip K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are tolerant to a number of environmental variables including high-intensity solar radiations, which is mainly due to the presence of chemical substances in the thallus. Especially, cyanobacterial lichens synthesize a unique class of chemical substances known as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) the primary characteristic of which is strong ultraviolet (UV) absorption between 300 and 360 nm. In view of its UV-protecting potential, the applicability of mass spectral fragmentation using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis for the characterization of MAAs in lichen samples was explored. MAA compounds were characterized in four cyanobacteria-containing lichen species belonging to genus Peltigera, Stereocaulon and Lobaria. Among them, Peltigera and Lobaria are true cyanobacteria containing lichens (cyanolichens) while Stereocaulon is a tripartite lichen, as it contains both green algae (in the thallus) and cyanobacteria (in the cephalodia), collected from higher altitudes of Himalaya (Tungnath-Chopta in Garhwal Himalaya, 3432 m) from an exposed locality experiencing high light intensity. Mass spectral data of distinctive fragmentation pattern revealed that all the four species have good diversity of MAA compounds, especially Lobaria retigera was found to be enriched with highest diversity of oxo and imino MAAs. Overall, different numbers of oxo and imino MAA compounds were detected in the remaining lichen species. Good diversity of imino MAAs has ecological significance which is required to be investigated further. Moreover, the impressive diversity characterized in each lichen species suggests that lichens should be thoroughly studied for their MAAs contents.

  16. Can ammonia tolerance amongst lichen functional groups be explained by physiological responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzi, S; Cruz, C; Branquinho, C; Pinho, P; Leith, I D; Sheppard, L J

    2014-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) empirical critical levels for Europe were re-evaluated in 2009, based mainly on the ecological responses of lichen communities without acknowledging the physiological differences between oligotrophic and nitrophytic species. Here, we compare a nitrogen sensitive lichen (Evernia prunastri) with a nitrogen tolerant one (Xanthoria parietina), focussing on their physiological response (Fv/Fm) to short-term NH3 exposure and their frequency of occurrence along an NH3 field gradient. Both frequency and Fv/Fm of E. prunastri decreased abruptly above 3 μg m(-3) NH3 suggesting direct adverse effects of NH3 on its photosynthetic performance. By contrast, X. parietina increased its frequency with NH3, despite showing decreased capacity of photosystem II above 50 μg m(-3) NH3, suggesting that the ecological success of X. parietina at ammonia-rich sites might be related to indirect effects of increased nitrogen (NH3) availability. These results highlight the need to establish NH3 critical levels based on oligotrophic lichen species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  18. MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION OF EROSIVE ORAL LICHEN PLANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chumaeroh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus is a relatively common inflammatory disorder which may have cutaneous and or mucosal manifestation. The malignant potential of oral lichen planus is still debatable. Some authors are sceptical about the premalignant nature of the disease, while other investigators have reported that malignant transformations occur in 1-10% of the cases. The aim of this study is to report a case of erosive lichen plans which shows malignant transformation of histopathologic examination. A man of 39 years old visited the Dental Department or Kajradi's Hospital with pain symptoms of the palate, buccal and gingival mucosa on both sides for 6 months. The physical examination shows the white lesion with striae configuration and pain, red erosive area inside the palate extends to the buccal mucosa and the gingival mucosa. The suspect diagnosis is erosive lichen planus, but the histopathologic examination shows epidermoid carcinoma. It is concluded that erosive oral lichen planus has the potential to transform into epidermoid carcinoma.

  19. Can ammonia tolerance amongst lichen functional groups be explained by physiological responses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munzi, S.; Cruz, C.; Branquinho, C.; Pinho, P.; Leith, I.D.; Sheppard, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia (NH 3 ) empirical critical levels for Europe were re-evaluated in 2009, based mainly on the ecological responses of lichen communities without acknowledging the physiological differences between oligotrophic and nitrophytic species. Here, we compare a nitrogen sensitive lichen (Evernia prunastri) with a nitrogen tolerant one (Xanthoria parietina), focussing on their physiological response (Fv/Fm) to short-term NH 3 exposure and their frequency of occurrence along an NH 3 field gradient. Both frequency and Fv/Fm of E. prunastri decreased abruptly above 3 μg m −3 NH 3 suggesting direct adverse effects of NH 3 on its photosynthetic performance. By contrast, X. parietina increased its frequency with NH 3 , despite showing decreased capacity of photosystem II above 50 μg m −3 NH 3 , suggesting that the ecological success of X. parietina at ammonia-rich sites might be related to indirect effects of increased nitrogen (NH 3 ) availability. These results highlight the need to establish NH 3 critical levels based on oligotrophic lichen species. - Highlights: • Physiological response and ecological behavior were compared in two contrasting lichens. • NH 3 reduces Fv/Fm in both the N sensitive E. prunastri and the N tolerant X. parietina. • In the field frequency of occurrence correlated with NH 3 concentration. • NH 3 indirectly provides the nitrophytic X. parietina with ecological advantages. • Oligotrophs more accurately indicate increasing NH 3 concentrations than nitrophytes. - Physiological response to ammonia helps to explain lichen functional groups

  20. Up in the tree--the overlooked richness of bryophytes and lichens in tree crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Steffen; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Blaser, Stefan; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments.

  1. Use of lichens as indicator and test organism for atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E

    1969-01-01

    Some species of lichens are very specialized with regard to their substrata, while others grow on almost any substratum. The species that grow on the bark of trees are discussed. Not all kinds of bark are equally desirable to all epiphytic lichen species. Some species occur on bark with a fairly low pH (pH 3-4), while others occur on moderately acid to almost neutral bark (pH 4.5-6-7). Different ways of using lichens as indicators and test plants for atmospheric pollution have been tried. Individual species have served as indicators. In order to get an idea of the zonation around a source of damage, it is possible to use the number of species per tree or group of trees examined. This method is practicable only under certain special conditions. The comparison of the species gives a better indication of the degree and kind of atmospheric pollution than the epiphyte flora. De Sloover and LeBlanc have published a formula, with the aid of which an index of atmospheric purity (IAP) may be produced. This index may then be used in the cartographical representation of zones of air purity. Another formula is based on the degree of cover and poleotolerance in the individual species. Schoenbeck has developed Brodo's transplantation method and uses Hypogymnia physodes as a test organism for atmospheric pollution. The extent of the damage to the lichens is recorded on infra-red-sensitive film. The damaged areas are measured with a planimeter, by which means a numerical value is obtained for the extent of damage.

  2. Notes on the distribution of lichen biota of Podlasie. III. Nowosady village, Podlaskie province (north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kiercul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the biodiversity of lichen species in Nowosady village and surrounding areas. This work was conducted in 2014 (in August and biodiversity of lichen species growing on tree bark and bushes, on dead wood (anthropogenic origin, glacial erratics, concrete, mortared walls and other specific substrates like eternit roof slates has been assessed. The lichen species represented morphologically diverse forms: crustose (38%, foliose (38%, fruticose (13%, dimorphous (5%, placodial (3% and squamulose (3%. They belonged to different ecological types including epiphytes (27 species, epixyles (18 and epilithes (12. Out of 39 species identified in Nowosady village, five are included in the Polish red list of lichens: Bryoria fuscescens, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Ramalina farinacea and Ramalina fraxinea. Four taxons from the study area are under statutory protection of species. One species, Ramalina fraxinea is under full protection and 3 species (Bryoria fuscescens, Evernia prunastri and Hypogymnia tubulosa are under partial protection.

  3. Association of spiders and lichen on Robben Island, South Africa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mukherjee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a firstrecord of spider occurrence on Robben Island, South Africa. Some habitats were rich in lichens. As we know, lichens enhance wildlife habitat in less direct ways. The objective of the study was to examine the potential importance of lichens in enriching spider diversity and abundance. A total of 260 spiders (170 from lichens and 90 from bush were collected following the visual search method over one year. Seasonal trends in overall species richness and abundance indicated that the relative density of spiders was greater in lichens than in bushes. The result suggests that habitat structure, such as branch size and epiphytic lichen abundance, can be an explanation for the greater number of spiders in lichen-rich patches of the island.

  4. Effect of forest fragmentation on the epiphytic lichen cover of pine trunks on the example taiga town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigysh Irina Sergeevna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of epiphytic lichen cover on pine trunks depending on the area of natural pine forest in Kostomuksha (north Karelia were analysed. The town of Kostomuksha was built so that to provide the conservation of forest sites. 56 fragments with the area of 0.04 - 6.13 ha were studied. The average area of fragment is 0.62 ha, with 49 fragments (88% having the area less than 1 ha. Biodiversity and lichen cover were studied in the each fragment with using framework 10x20 cm. 1792 sample plots were made on 448 trees. The total lichens cover varies from 0 to 85%,averaging 10%. 25 species of lichens were found. The number of species in the sample plots varies from 0 to 9. Dominant species found are Hypogymnia physodes, Parmeliopsis ambigua, P. hyperopta, Imshaugia aleurites, Cladonia. Species Alectoria sarmentosa, Cladonia macilenta, Pseudevernia fufruraceae, Bryoria fremontii were less common. It was shown that the main parameters of lichen cover are closely related to the size of the area left in the city forest fragments. The maximum values of species diversity and cover of lichens were found in the fragments of more 1-2 hectares.

  5. Mapping of lichen frequencies as a tool in evaluating intensity of pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, M

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the intensity of air pollution by evaluating the frequency of lichen species growing on the trunks of trees. The lichens growing on the trunks of isolated trees in the surroundings of factories or other pollutants have been investigated. A ladder enclosing the panels is used to determine the frequency: the calculation is made electronically and permits statistical statements about the quantity of the lichens to be made. The numerical material evaluated consists of reproduceable data obtained by a standardized method that appears to be suitable for routine use. Pollution zones can be recognized by changes in frequency of the various sensitive species.

  6. Metabolomic Analysis of Two Parmotrema Lichens: P. robustum (Degel. Hale and P. andinum (Mull. Arg. Hale Using UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Torres-Benítez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria. Lichens belonging to the Parmeliaceae family comprise 2700 species of lichens, including the Parmotrema genus which is composed of 300 species. The metabolites of this genus include depsides, depsidones, phenolics, polysaccharides, lipids, diphenylethers and dibenzofurans, which are responsible for the biological activities reported including antidiabetic, antihelmintic, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimitotic, antitumoral, antifungal, and antioxidant enzyme inhibitory. Due to scarce knowledge of metabolomic profiles of Parmotrema species (P. andinum and P. robustum, a full metabolome study based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography- diode array detector-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ESI-Q-orbitrap MS was performed for a comprehensive characterization of their substances. From the methanolic extracts of these species, a total of 54 metabolites were identified for the first time using this hyphenated technique, including thirty compounds in P. andinum, and thirty-seven in P. robustum. Moreover, two compounds were not identified as known compounds, and could be new structures, according to our data. This report shows that this technique is effective and accurate for rapid chemical identification of lichen substances and the compounds identified could serve as chemotaxonomic markers to differentiate these ruffle lichens.

  7. Zosteriform Lichen Planus: case report of a rare variant of Lichen Planus

    OpenAIRE

    Kanthilatha Pai; Sathish Pai

    2013-01-01

    Since its original description by Devergie in 1854, several cases of linear lichen planus have been described in the literature, but there have been notably few cases of the more rare zosteriform lichen planus. Zosteriform lichen planus needs to be differentiated from linear lichen planus and other linear dermatoses. We present a case of Zosteriform Lichen planus for its rarity and briefly review literature.

  8. The lichens in the agricultural landscape of Podlasie, North East Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matwiejuk, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper carries information for diagnosis lichenobiota in the agricultural landscape of Poland NE. The research led to a better understanding of the problem of occurrence of lichens in the agricultural landscape. The functional groups of lichens, which were used to characterize lichen biota taking into account the morphological forms, frequency of occurrence and habitat requirements were determined. The basis for the specification of the more interesting taxa in the study area was to analyze the species composition of lichens in relation to the data on their previous records in rural areas, the degree of recognition in Poland NE and conservation status and threats in the country. (author)

  9. Fire, grazing history, lichen abundance, and winter distribution of caribou in Alaska's taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William B.; Dale, Bruce W.; Adams, Layne G.; McElwain, Darien E.; Joly, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s the Nelchina Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (NCH) began a dramatic shift to its current winter range, migrating at least an additional 100 km beyond its historic range. We evaluated the impacts of fire and grazing history on lichen abundance and subsequent use and distribution by the NCH. Historic (prior to 1990) and current (2002) winter ranges of the NCH had similar vascular vegetation, lichen cover (P = 0.491), and fire histories (P = 0.535), but the former range had significantly less forage lichen biomass as a result of grazing by caribou. Biomass of forage lichens was twice as great overall (P = 0.031) and 4 times greater in caribou selected sites on the current range than in the historic range, greatly increasing availability to caribou. Caribou on the current range selected for stands with >20% lichen cover (P lichen biomass and stands older than 80 yr postfire (P lichen cover and biomass seldom recovered sufficiently to attract caribou grazing until after ≥60 yr, and, as a group, primary forage lichen species did not reach maximum abundance until 180 yr postfire. Recovery following overgrazing can occur much more quickly because lichen cover, albeit mostly fragments, and organic substrates remain present. Our results provide benchmarks for wildlife managers assessing condition of caribou winter range and predicting effects of fires on lichen abundance and caribou distribution. Of our measurements of cover and biomass by species, densities and heights of trees, elevation, slope and aspect, only percentage cover by Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladina rangiferina, Flavocetraria cuculata, and lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis‐idaea) were necessary for predicting caribou use of winter range.

  10. Up in the tree--the overlooked richness of bryophytes and lichens in tree crowns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Boch

    Full Text Available Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments.

  11. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J.C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.; Bartz, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  12. Exploring functional contexts of symbiotic sustain within lichen-associated bacteria by comparative omics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Martin; Cernava, Tomislav; Soh, Jung; Fuchs, Stephan; Aschenbrenner, Ines; Lassek, Christian; Wegner, Uwe; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Sensen, Christoph W; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses represent a frequent and successful lifestyle on earth and lichens are one of their classic examples. Recently, bacterial communities were identified as stable, specific and structurally integrated partners of the lichen symbiosis, but their role has remained largely elusive in comparison to the well-known functions of the fungal and algal partners. We have explored the metabolic potentials of the microbiome using the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria as the model. Metagenomic and proteomic data were comparatively assessed and visualized by Voronoi treemaps. The study was complemented with molecular, microscopic and physiological assays. We have found that more than 800 bacterial species have the ability to contribute multiple aspects to the symbiotic system, including essential functions such as (i) nutrient supply, especially nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, (ii) resistance against biotic stress factors (that is, pathogen defense), (iii) resistance against abiotic factors, (iv) support of photosynthesis by provision of vitamin B12, (v) fungal and algal growth support by provision of hormones, (vi) detoxification of metabolites, and (vii) degradation of older parts of the lichen thallus. Our findings showed the potential of lichen-associated bacteria to interact with the fungal as well as algal partner to support health, growth and fitness of their hosts. We developed a model of the symbiosis depicting the functional multi-player network of the participants, and argue that the strategy of functional diversification in lichens supports the longevity and persistence of lichens under extreme and changing ecological conditions. PMID:25072413

  13. Assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens after glacier retreat in the European Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut; Dainese, Matteo; Bilovitz, Peter Othmar

    2017-06-01

    To assess the spatial-temporal dynamics of primary succession following deglaciation in soil-dwelling lichen communities. European Alps (Austria, Switzerland and Italy). Five glacier forelands subjected to relevant glacier retreat during the last century were investigated. In each glacier foreland, three successional stages were selected at increasing distance from the glacier, corresponding to a gradient of time since deglaciation between 25 and 160 years. In each successional stage, soil-dwelling lichens were surveyed within five 1 × 1 m plots. In addition to a classical ecological framework, based on species richness and composition, we applied a functional approach to better elucidate community assembly mechanisms. A positive relationship was found between species richness and time since deglaciation indicating that richer lichen communities can be found at increasing terrain ageing. This pattern was associated with compositional shifts, suggesting that different community assemblages can be found along the successional stages. The analysis of β-diversity revealed a significant nested pattern of species assemblages along the gradient (i.e. earlier successional stages hosted a subset of the species already established in older successional stages), while the turnover component was less relevant. Considering functional groups, we found contrasting patterns in relation to time since deglaciation: the incidence of species with a cyanobacterial photobiont and those reproducing by spores decreased, while that of species reproducing by vegetative propagules increased. This study reveals that community assembly patterns of soil-dwelling lichens in alpine glacier forelands are ruled by mechanisms of directional species accumulation and trait selection that involve a trade-off between different functional strategies. Functional traits that reflect the dispersal and adaptation capability of the species underpin the colonization success of soil-dwelling lichens in

  14. Notes on epilithic and epigeic lichens from granite and gneiss outcrops in mountains of Makedonia, Greece, with emphasis on northern species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    The epilithic and epigeic lichen flora of eight localities with granite and gneiss outcrops in the mountains of Makedonia, N Greece has been investigated. Of the 46 taxa reported, seven species are new to Greece, viz.: Brodoa oroarcti­ca, Candelariella coralliza, Cetraria ericetorum, Lecanora...

  15. Comments on the action of emissions on the lichen vegetation around Rudnany (Northeast Slovakia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisut, I

    1962-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes in the epiphytic, epigeal, and epipetrous lichen flora around an iron ore-processing plant emitting sulfur dioxide and mercury in Rudnany (Northeast Slovakia) were studied. Within a radius of 2550 m around the plant, the SO/sub 2/ concentrations ranged from 0.005 to 0.015 mg/l. Increases in both the number and abundance of the lichen species with increasing distance from the emission source were determined. Three different pollution zones around the industrial plant were distinguished on the basis of the lichenological study; in strongly exposed zones in which higher plants also were damaged, all lichen species but a few specimen of epipetric lichens were absent. In a second, moderately exposed zone where no damage to higher plants were visible, both epiphytic and epigeal species, as well as Cladonia sp. were present. Cladonia spp. and Baeomyces roseus were the dominant species in this zone. In a third, slightly polluted zone, normal development of epiphytic associations, and dominance of Xanthoria parietina, physcia grisea, Ph. orbicularis, Parmelia physodes, and P. sulcata were observed.

  16. Potential alteration of precipitation chemistry by epiphytic lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, G E; Reiners, W A; Heier, R K

    1976-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen growth is abundant on the boles and branches of balsam fir trees at high elevations in New Hampshire. These lichens absorb elements needed for growth from solutions flowing over their surfaces and from direct impaction of water droplets. This study describes how epiphytic lichens and fir needles altered the chemistry of simulated rain water solutions under laboratory conditions. Experiments showed: 1) lichens absorbed ammonium and nitrate from solution; the rate of uptake increased with increasing temperature of the solution, 2) lichens lost calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen to the solution, 3) lichen thalli also initially lost potassium, but in time, net movement was reversed back into the thallus, 4) cation movement increased with increasing temperature, and 5) fir needles responded in a manner similar to that of the lichens, but the amount of change was much less. From these results it seems that epiphytic lichens have potential ecological importance in altering the chemistry of throughfall and stemflow.

  17. The lichens of Marion and Prince Edward Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Øvstedal, D.O.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    A total of 100 lichen species are listed for the islands. Six species are described as new to science: Arctomia subantarctica Øvstedal, Arthothelium evanescens Øvstedal, Coccotrema stellata Øvstedal, Ramonia subantarctica Øvstedal, Thelocarpon subantarcticum Øvstedal and Verrucaria umbilicata

  18. Lichens as indicators of air pollution in a steel producing town in South Wales. [Cladonia, Parmelia, Usnea, Cetraria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyatt, F B

    1970-01-01

    The lichen flora of a given region depends upon a multiplicity of factors. Some factors act directly or indirectly upon the lichen thallus; in addition the lichen thallus is capable, to some extent at least, of exerting a modifying influence upon the macro- and micro-environment. The polluted centre of Port Talbot, a steel town, has a restricted number of crustose and rather depauperate species. This lichen desert is quite small possibly because either (a) the atmosphere is not heavily polluted, or (b) there is a rapid dilution of pollutants. With distance away from Port Talbot there is an increase in the number of lichen species and a change in the proportion of the various growth forms. Abutting the lichen desert is a zone in which Parmelia sulcata, P. saxatilis, Cladonia coniocraea, and C. fimbriata are the most widely represented species. This is followed by a further zone dominated by Usnea comosa, U. florida, Cetraria glauca, and Cladonia impexa in particular. It must be noted that these zones are not clearly defined; there is a gradation in growth forms and a gradual change in the abundance of various species.

  19. The Lichen-GIS Project, Teaching Students How to Use Bioindicator Species to Assess Environmental Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wagner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A content-driven biology course for preservice, K-8 teachers has been developed. This course uses the constructivist approach, where instructors engage students by organizing information around concept-based problems. To this end a semester-long inquiry-based project was introduced where students studied lichen populations on trees located on their campus to monitor air quality. Data were incorporated into a geographical information systems (GIS database to demonstrate how it can be used to map communities. Student teams counted the number of each lichen type within a grid placed on each tree trunk sampled and entered this information into a GIS database. The students constructed maps of lichen populations at each sample site and wrote abstracts about their research. Student performance was assessed by preparation of these abstracts as well as scores on pre- and posttests of key content measures. Students also completed a survey to determine whether the project aided in their comprehension as well as their interest in incorporating this activity into their own curricula. The students’ pre- and posttest results showed an eightfold improvement in the total score after the semester project. Additionally, correct responses to each individual content measure increased by at least 35%. Total scores for the abstract ranged from 12 to 20 points out of 20 total points possible (60% to 100% with a mean score of 15.8 points (78%. These results indicate that this exercise provided an excellent vehicle to teach students about lichens and their use as bioindicators and the application of geospatial technologies to map environmental data.

  20. Content of certain mineral components in the thallus of lichens and the bark of roadside trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Kuziel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The total N, P, Mg, Ca, K and Na contents were investigated in the thalli of several lichen species occurring on various trees, and in the bark and bark extracts from these trees. pH of the bark extracts was also determined. Wide differences were found in the content of the elements in point in the thalli of various lichen species on Acer platanoides and on the thalli of the same species on other trees. No relation was detected between the chemical composition of the bark and that of the lichen thalli occurring on it.

  1. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps. PMID:26877565

  2. Lichen flora around the Korean Antarctic Scientific Station, King George Island, Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Ahn, In-Young; Hong, Soon Gyu; Andreev, Mikhail; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Oh, Mi Jin; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2006-10-01

    As part of the long-term monitoring projects on Antarctic terrestrial vegetation in relation to global climate change, a lichen floristical survey was conducted around the Korean Antarctic Station (King Sejong Station), which is located on Barton Peninsula, King George Island, in January and February of 2006. Two hundred and twenty-five lichen specimens were collected and sixty-two lichen species in 38 genera were identified by morphological characteristics, chemical constituents, TLC analysis and ITS nucleotide sequence analysis.

  3. Changes in the lichen flora following air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E; Hallberg, I

    1969-01-01

    The lichen flora on tree trunks around a shale oil works in southern Sweden has been analyzed with regard to composition and distribution on two different occasions, in 1951/1953 and in 1967/1969. Changes in the distribution have been observed and are regarded as being due to the increase of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere which took place in the area up to 1966, and which resulted in the substrate becoming more and more acid. The changes consist partly of the continued disappearance from the investigated area of lichens which normally grow on moderately acid to nearly neutral substrate and partly in the new colonization of the investigated area by a group of species which normally grow on acid bark. After 1966 the biggest source of pollution was removed from the area and in the summer of 1967 some signs of recovery could be already observed with regard to certain species. This recovery took the form of strong lobe growth leading to a definite difference in appearance between the central and the peripheral parts of single lichens.

  4. Comparative use of lichens, mosses and tree bark to evaluate nitrogen deposition in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie H.; Pesch, Roland; Werner, Willy

    2014-01-01

    To compare three biomonitoring techniques for assessing nitrogen (N) pollution in Germany, 326 lichen, 153 moss and 187 bark samples were collected from 16 sites of the national N deposition monitoring network. The analysed ranges of N content of all investigated biomonitors (0.32%–4.69%) and the detected δ 15 N values (−15.2‰–1.5‰), made it possible to reveal species specific spatial patterns of N concentrations in biota to indicate atmospheric N deposition in Germany. The comparison with measured and modelled N deposition data shows that particularly lichens are able to reflect the local N deposition originating from agriculture. - Highlights: • We investigated N pollution with the help of bioindicators in Germany. • The N load was monitored with lichens, mosses and bark by tissue N content. • Main source of N pollution was revealed by tissue δ 15 N values. • Particularly the N content and δ 15 N in lichens reflected agriculture-related N deposition. - First nationwide comparison of lichens, mosses and tree bark to assess the N deposition in Germany by analysing N content and δ 15 N values

  5. Palmoplantar Lichen Planus: Dört olgu sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    Uçmak, Derya; Azizoğlu, Ruken; Harman, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Lichen planus is a benign, inflammatory and itchy dermatosis that is incurred by skin, skin extensions and mucosa. Lichen planus rarely show palmoplantar involvement. Since stratum corneum in palmoplantar lichen planus is extremely thick, lesions can be yellow colored instead of the purple colored papules that are classic lesions. Clinically, it might be confused with psoriasis, secondary syphilis, verruca vulgaris, hyperkeratotic eczema, palmoplantar keratodermas, hyperkeratotic type tinea p...

  6. Changes in the lichen flora influenced by the Bełchatów Industrial Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of our study, i.e.. before opening the Bełchatów brown coal mine and the power station 155 species of lichens were registered in the period 1970-1985. A preliminary estimation of the influence of the Bełchatów Industrial Region (BIR on the lichen flora has been performed. More than 1% of the lichen flora has entirely disappcared, about 43% of the species have shown partial devastation of their localities and numerous localities of more than 35% of taxa have been threatened.

  7. Does exogenous carbon extend the realized niche of canopy lichens? Evidence from sub-boreal forests in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jocelyn; Bengtson, Per; Fredeen, Arthur L; Coxson, Darwyn S; Prescott, Cindy E

    2013-05-01

    Foliose lichens with cyanobacterial bionts (bipartite and tripartite) form a distinct assemblage of epiphytes strongly associated with humid microclimatic conditions in inland British Columbia. Previous research showed that these cyano- and cephalolichen communities are disproportionately abundant and species-rich on conifer saplings beneath Populus compared to beneath other tree species. More revealing, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts were observed beneath Populus even in stands that did not otherwise support them. We experimentally test the hypothesis that this association is due to the interception of glucose-rich nectar that is exuded from Populus extra-floral nectaries (EFN). Using CO2 flux measurements and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis with experimental applications of 13C6-labeled glucose, we demonstrate that cyano- and cephalolichens have a strong respiratory response to glucose. Lichens treated with glucose had lower net photosynthesis and higher establishment rates than control thalli. Furthermore, lichens with cyanobacterial bionts rapidly incorporate exogenous 13C into lichen fatty acid tissues. A large proportion of the 13C taken up by the lichens was incorporated into fungal biomarkers, suggesting that the mycobiont absorbed and assimilated the majority of applied 13C6 glucose. Our observations suggest that both cyanolichens and cephalolichens may utilize an exogenous source of glucose, made available by poplar EFNs. The exogenous C may enable these lichens to become established by providing a source of C for fungal respiration despite drought-induced inactivity of the cyanobacterial partner. As such, the mycobiont may adopt an alternative nutritional strategy, using available exogenous carbon to extend its realized niche.

  8. Lecanora stanislai, a new, sterile, usnic acid containing lichen species from Eurasia and North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guzow-Krzemińska, B.; Łubek, A.; Malíček, Jiří; Tønsberg, T.; Oset, M.; Kukwa, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 329, č. 3 (2017), s. 201-211 ISSN 1179-3155 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : crustose lichens * biodiversity * Lecanorales * sorediate lichens * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016

  9. Up in the Tree – The Overlooked Richness of Bryophytes and Lichens in Tree Crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boch, Steffen; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Blaser, Stefan; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Assessing diversity is among the major tasks in ecology and conservation science. In ecological and conservation studies, epiphytic cryptogams are usually sampled up to accessible heights in forests. Thus, their diversity, especially of canopy specialists, likely is underestimated. If the proportion of those species differs among forest types, plot-based diversity assessments are biased and may result in misleading conservation recommendations. We sampled bryophytes and lichens in 30 forest plots of 20 m × 20 m in three German regions, considering all substrates, and including epiphytic litter fall. First, the sampling of epiphytic species was restricted to the lower 2 m of trees and shrubs. Then, on one representative tree per plot, we additionally recorded epiphytic species in the crown, using tree climbing techniques. Per tree, on average 54% of lichen and 20% of bryophyte species were overlooked if the crown was not been included. After sampling all substrates per plot, including the bark of all shrubs and trees, still 38% of the lichen and 4% of the bryophyte species were overlooked if the tree crown of the sampled tree was not included. The number of overlooked lichen species varied strongly among regions. Furthermore, the number of overlooked bryophyte and lichen species per plot was higher in European beech than in coniferous stands and increased with increasing diameter at breast height of the sampled tree. Thus, our results indicate a bias of comparative studies which might have led to misleading conservation recommendations of plot-based diversity assessments. PMID:24358373

  10. Experimental climate warming decreases photosynthetic efficiency of lichens in an arid South African ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphangwa, Khumbudzo Walter; Musil, Charles F; Raitt, Lincoln; Zedda, Luciana

    2012-05-01

    Elevated temperatures and diminished precipitation amounts accompanying climate warming in arid ecosystems are expected to have adverse effects on the photosynthesis of lichen species sensitive to elevated temperature and/or water limitation. This premise was tested by artificially elevating temperatures (increase 2.1-3.8°C) and reducing the amounts of fog and dew precipitation (decrease 30.1-31.9%), in an approximation of future climate warming scenarios, using transparent hexagonal open-top warming chambers placed around natural populations of four lichen species (Xanthoparmelia austroafricana, X. hyporhytida , Xanthoparmelia. sp., Xanthomaculina hottentotta) at a dry inland site and two lichen species (Teloschistes capensis and Ramalina sp.) at a humid coastal site in the arid South African Succulent Karoo Biome. Effective photosynthetic quantum yields ([Formula: see text]) were measured hourly throughout the day at monthly intervals in pre-hydrated lichens present in the open-top warming chambers and in controls which comprised demarcated plots of equivalent open-top warming chamber dimensions constructed from 5-cm-diameter mesh steel fencing. The cumulative effects of the elevated temperatures and diminished precipitation amounts in the open-top warming chambers resulted in significant decreases in lichen [Formula: see text]. The decreases were more pronounced in lichens from the dry inland site (decline 34.1-46.1%) than in those from the humid coastal site (decline 11.3-13.7%), most frequent and prominent in lichens at both sites during the dry summer season, and generally of greatest magnitude at or after the solar noon in all seasons. Based on these results, we conclude that climate warming interacting with reduced precipitation will negatively affect carbon balances in endemic lichens by increasing desiccation damage and reducing photosynthetic activity time, leading to increased incidences of mortality.

  11. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  12. Oral lichen planus preceding concomitant lichen planopilaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoopler, Eric T; Alfaris, Sausan; Alomar, Dalal; Alawi, Faizan

    2016-09-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorder with a wide array of clinical presentations. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is characterized clinically by striae, desquamation, and/or ulceration. Lichen planopilaris (LPP), a variant of LP, affects the scalp, resulting in perifollicular erythema and scarring of cutaneous surfaces accompanied by hair loss. The association between OLP and LPP has been reported previously with scant information on concomitant or sequential disease presentation. We describe a patient with concomitant OLP and LPP, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on OLP preceding the onset of LPP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. What influences heavy metals accumulation in arctic lichen Cetrariella delisei in Svalbard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węgrzyn, Michał; Wietrzyk, Paulina; Lisowska, Maja; Klimek, Beata; Nicia, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify variations in heavy metal concentrations in Cetrariella delisei along a transect from a High Arctic glacier forehead to the shoreline as well as determine the main environmental factors influencing the deposition of heavy metals in arctic lichens. The macrolichen Cetrariella delisei appears to be an interesting alternative to those lichen species used in the past (e.g. Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia sp.) for heavy metal biomonitoring purposes in the Arctic: it is widely distributed, easy to identify and reluctantly grazed by reindeer. Fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2012 in the Kaffiøyra Plain, Oskar II Land, NW Spitsbergen. C. delisei and soil samples were collected from 5 localities. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd were measured in each sample. A bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated for all the analyzed elements. The BAFs for Cu, Mn, and Ni showed a relatively low accumulation level in lichen thalli. On the other hand, the BAFs for Cr, Pb, and Zn, revealed an increased accumulation level in C. delisei. The Cd content in lichen is almost equal to its level in the soil. The statistical analyses covered three environmental factors: soil pH, substrate type and distance from the shoreline. The data were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test, canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test. The results show that distance from the shoreline had the greatest influence on the majority of the heavy metal concentrations in the lichen thalli and the soil. However, the level of Mn accumulated in the soil is determined by its source in the glacier. Moreover, the soil pH had the greatest effect on the Cd accumulated in the soil and the Mn accumulated in the lichen thalli.

  14. Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, Leonie; Sølhaug, Knut Asbjorn; Esseen, Per-Anders; Bilger, Wolfgang; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2014-06-01

    Pendulous lichens dominate canopies of boreal forests, with dark Bryoria species in the upper canopy vs. light Alectoria and Usnea species in lower canopy. These genera offer important ecosystem services such as winter forage for reindeer and caribou. The mechanism behind this niche separation is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that species-specific sunscreening fungal pigments protect underlying symbiotic algae differently against high light, and thus shape the vertical canopy gradient of epiphytes. Three pale species with the reflecting pigment usnic acid (Alectoria sarmentosa, Usnea dasypoga, U. longissima) and three with dark, absorbing melanins (Bryoria capillaris, B. fremontii, B. fuscescens) were compared. We subjected the lichens to desiccation stress with and without light, and assessed their performance with chlorophyll fluorescence. Desiccation alone only affected U. longissima. By contrast, light in combination with desiccation caused photoinhibitory damage in all species. Usnic lichens were significantly more susceptible to light during desiccation than melanic ones. Thus, melanin is a more efficient light-screening pigment than usnic acid. Thereby, the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in forest canopies is consistent with a shift in type and functioning of sunscreening pigments, from high-light-tolerant Bryoria in the upper to susceptible Alectoria and Usnea in the lower canopy.

  15. Lichens of the Holy Hill orthodox sanctuary in Grabarka (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matwiejuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Hill Grabarka is one of the most important orthodox sanctuaries in Poland. The sanctuary is situated in Podlasie region between Bug and Narew rivers. It grew in the shade of well developing (in the first centuries of the second millennium towns Mielnik and Drohiczyn. The most striking thing is that the church is surrounded by a forest of thousands of crosses brought by pilgrims. The study present 64 species of epiphytic, epixylic, epilythic and epigeic lichens. Among 64 lichen species 11 are considered to be threatened in Poland.

  16. Comparative demography of an epiphytic lichen: support for general life history patterns and solutions to common problems in demographic parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Robert K; Cutler, Kerry; Doak, Daniel F

    2012-09-01

    Lichens are major components in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet their population ecology is at best only poorly understood. Few studies have fully quantified the life history or demographic patterns of any lichen, with particularly little attention to epiphytic species. We conducted a 6-year demographic study of Vulpicida pinastri, an epiphytic foliose lichen, in south-central Alaska. After testing multiple size-structured functions to describe patterns in each V. pinastri demographic rate, we used the resulting estimates to construct a stochastic demographic model for the species. This model development led us to propose solutions to two general problems in construction of demographic models for many taxa: how to simply but accurately characterize highly skewed growth rates, and how to estimate recruitment rates that are exceptionally difficult to directly observe. Our results show that V. pinastri has rapid and variable growth and, for small individuals, low and variable survival, but that these traits are coupled with considerable longevity (e.g., >50 years mean future life span for a 4-cm(2) thallus) and little deviation of the stochastic population growth rate from the deterministic expectation. Comparisons of the demographic patterns we found with those of other lichen studies suggest that their relatively simple architecture may allow clearer generalities about growth patterns for lichens than for other taxa, and that the expected pattern of faster growth rates for epiphytic species is substantiated.

  17. Effects of acute NH3 air pollution on N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Grassi, Alice; Bačkor, Martin; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Lichens are sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) in the environment. However, in order to use them as reliable indicators in biomonitoring studies, it is necessary to establish unequivocally the occurrence of certain symptoms following the exposure to NH3 in the environment. In this paper, we simulated an episode of acute air pollution due to the release of NH3. The biological effects of acute air pollution by atmospheric NH3 have been investigated using N-sensitive (Flavoparmelia caperata) and N-tolerant (Xanthoria parietina) species. Lichen samples were exposed to ecologically relevant NH3 concentrations for 8 weeks, simulating three areas of impact: a control area (2 μg/m(3)), an area of intermediate impact (2-35 μg/m(3)) and an area of high impact (10-315 μg/m(3)), with a peak of pollution reached between the fourth and fifth week. Ammonia affected both the photobiont and the mycobiont in F. caperata, while in X. parietina only the photosynthetic performance of the photobiont was altered after exposure to the highest concentration. In the photobiont of F. caperata we recorded chlorophyll degradation as indicated by OD435/415 ratio, decrease of the photosynthetic performance (as reflected by the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry FV/FM and the performance index PIABS); in the mycobiont, ergosterol reduction, membrane lipid peroxidation (as reflected by the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), alteration (decrease) of the secondary metabolite usnic acid. No effects were detected on caperatic acid and dehydrogenase activity. In X. parietina, the only signal determined by NH3 was the alteration of FV/FM and the performance index PIABS. The results suggest that physiological parameters in N-sensitive lichens well reflect the effects of NH3 exposure and can be applied as early indicators in monitoring studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and floristics of moss- and lichen-dominated soil crusts in a patterned Callitris glaucophylla woodland in eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, David J.

    1999-05-01

    The distribution and abundance of soil crust lichens and bryophytes was examined in a patterned Callitris glaucophylla woodland in eastern Australia. Twenty-one lichen species and 26 bryophyte species were collected within thirty quadrats along a sequence of runoff, interception and runoff zones. Crust cover was significantly greatest in the interception zones (79.0 %), followed by the runoff zones (24.0 %), and lowest in the groved, runon zones (6.6 %). Lichens and bryophytes were distributed across all geomorphic zones, and, although there were significantly more moss species in the interception zones (mean = 9.1) compared with either the runoff (4.2) or runon (3.2) zones, the number of lichen species did not vary between zones. Ordination of a reduced data set of 32 species revealed a separation of taxa into distinct groups corresponding to the three geomorphic zones. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the 32 species and thirteen environmental variables revealed that the most important factors associated with the distribution of species were sheet and scarp erosion, soil stability and coherence, litter cover and crust cover. Surface cracking, microtopography and plant cover were of intermediate importance. The CCA biplot revealed that the timbered runon zones (groves) were dominated by `shade-tolerant' mosses Fissidens vittatus and Barbula hornschuchiana, whilst the heavily eroded runoff zones supported sparse populations of `erosion tolerant' lichens ( Endocarpon rogersii) and mosses (Bryum argenteum and Didymodon torquatus). Interception zones supported a rich suite of `crust forming' mosses and lichens capable of tolerating moderate inundation by overland flow. Two other groups of taxa were identified by this analysis: the `pioneer' group, comprising mainly nitrogen-fixing lichens which occupy the zone of active erosion at the lower edge of the groves, and the `opportunists' dominated by liverworts, occupying the shallow depressions or bays at the

  19. Antioxidant activity of lichen Cetraria aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Jovica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant properties of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. Antioxidant activity of the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of lichen was tested by different methods including determination of total phenolics content, determination of total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, ferrous ion chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The extracts of the lichen C. aculeata showed significant antioxidant activity. The methanol extract showed higher values for total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity compared to the ethyl acetate extract, while the ethyl acetate extract demonstrated better results for DPPH radical scavenging, inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation, chelating ability and hydroxyl radical scavenging than the methanol extract. This is the first report of the antioxidant properties of Cetraria aculeata growing in Serbia. The results of antioxidant activity indicate the application of this lichen as source of natural antioxidants that could be used as a possible food supplement, in the pharmaceutical industry and in the treatment of various diseases.

  20. Lichen elements as pollution indicators: evaluation of methods for large monitoring programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher

    2017-01-01

    Lichen element content is a reliable indicator for relative air pollution load in research and monitoring programmes requiring both efficiency and representation of many sites. We tested the value of costly rigorous field and handling protocols for sample element analysis using five lichen species. No relaxation of rigour was supported; four relaxed protocols generated...

  1. Vulval lichen planus-lichen sclerosus overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matthew; Hall, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Vulval lichen planus-lichen sclerosus overlap is an emerging observation. Few clinical reports exist with no reviews of literature. We present a focused update of this phenomenon and discuss a clinical case. We report a 63-year-old woman with a 20-year history of ulcerative vulvo-vaginitis, initially diagnosed as benign mucous membrane (cicatricial) pemphigoid. This led to prolonged treatment with oral corticosteroids with minimal improvement in symptoms. Subsequent complications of long-term use of systemic corticosteroid ensued. A clinico-pathological diagnosis of severe erosive lichen planus was made on clinical findings and on non-specific biopsy changes of ulceration and inflammation. Treatment with topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment twice daily led to dramatic improvement of ulceration, easing of discomfort and marked improvement in quality of life. Clinical examination revealed Wickham's striae on the labia majora supporting the diagnosis. Six years after commencement of topical clobetasol, white plaques were noticed on the labia majora, perineum and peri-anal region consistent with lichen sclerosus, confirmed by repeat vulval skin biopsy and on vulvectomy. This case highlights the challenge of diagnosis of extensive vulvo-vaginal ulceration and the necessity to re-examine a previous diagnosis if there is poor response to treatment.

  2. Metal homeostasis in Hypogymnia physodes is controlled by lichen substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus

    2008-05-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the lichen substances produced by the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes control the intracellular uptake of divalent transition metals. Incubating lichen thalli with and without their natural content of lichen substances with metal solutions showed that the lichen substances of H. physodes selectively inhibit the uptake of Cu(2+) and Mn(2+), but not of Fe(2+) and Zn(2+). Such behavior is ecologically beneficial, as ambient concentrations of Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) in precipitation and bark are known to limit the abundance of H. physodes, whereas limiting effects of Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) have never been found. This suggests that increasing the Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) tolerance stimulated the evolution of lichen substances in H. physodes. The depsidone physodalic acid is apparently most effective at reducing Cu(2+) and Mn(2+) uptake among the seven lichen substances produced by H. physodes. Probably lichen substances play a general role in the metal homeostasis of lichens.

  3. The Chernobyl accident: Can lichens be used to characterize a radiocesium contaminated range?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar Gaare

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Many of the lichen species that are important in the lichen dominated plant communities in the Norwegian mountains are important reindeer winter forage. They are also organisms that collect fall-out from the atmosphere. The Chernobyl accident brought, among other, radioactive Cesium, and from lichens this follow the food chain to reindeer and finally man. From region to region this fall-out was unevenly distributed and methods are needed to compare winter ranges and to monitor the developement of radioactive levels in the lichen carpet. Cornicularia divergens, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria nivalis, Cladina mitis, C. stellaris and Stereocaulon pa¬schale was collected in the Dovre mountains to compare species levels and to study collection methods. We found that from spot to spot there is a very large variation between samples, even within the same species. Because of this we are not able to show significant species differences. We found, however, that species from more or less snow free ridgetops, Cornicularia divergens, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria nivalis and Cladina mitis showed less variation and thus must be recommended as the best species for monitoring and comparison of ranges.Tsjernobyl-ulykken: Kan lav nyttes til karakterisering av et radioaktivt forurenset reinbeite?Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Mange av de lavarter som er viktige i lavdominerte plantesamfunn i de norske fjell er viktige som vinterfor for rein. Disse organismer samler også nedfall fra atmosfæren. Ulykken i Tsjernobyl brakte, blant annet, radioaktivt cesium, og fra lav følger dette næringskjeden til rein og endelig mennesket. Fra område til område var dette nedfallet ujevnt fordelt, og det kreves metoder for å sammenligne vinterområder og for å overvåke utviklingen av det radioaktive nivå i lavmattene. Cornicularia divergens, Alectoria ochroleuca, Cetraria nivalis, Cladina mitis, C. stellaris og Stereocaulon paschale ble samlet på Dovrefjell for

  4. Successful lichen translocation on disturbed gypsum areas: A test with adhesives to promote the recovery of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, M.; Ayerbe, J.; Casares, M.; Cañadas, E. M.; Lorite, J.

    2017-04-01

    The loss of biological soil crusts represents a challenge for the restoration of disturbed environments, specifically in particular substrates hosting unique lichen communities. However, the recovery of lichen species affected by mining is rarely addressed in restoration projects. Here, we evaluate the translocation of Diploschistes diacapsis, a representative species of gypsum lichen communities affected by quarrying. We tested how a selection of adhesives could improve thallus attachment to the substrate and affect lichen vitality (as CO2 exchange and fluorescence) in rainfall-simulation and field experiments. Treatments included: white glue, water, hydroseeding stabiliser, gum arabic, synthetic resin, and a control with no adhesive. Attachment differed only in the field, where white glue and water performed best. Adhesives altered CO2 exchange and fluorescence yield. Notably, wet spoils allowed thalli to bind to the substrate after drying, revealing as the most suitable option for translocation. The satisfactory results applying water on gypsum spoils are encouraging to test this methodology with other lichen species. Implementing these measures in restoration projects would be relatively easy and cost-effective. It would help not only to recover lichen species in the disturbed areas but also to take advantage of an extremely valuable biological material that otherwise would be lost.

  5. What Is Lichen Sclerosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Lichen Sclerosus Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Lichen Sclerosus Lichen sclerosus usually affects the skin of ...

  6. Influence of small towns on the lichen vegetation. Part VII. Discussion and general conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydzak, J

    1958-01-01

    The problem of poverty of lichen vegetation in large or industrial towns was raised in 1866. Since then several large European cities have been studied and there were described zones of gradual impoverishment of lichen flora from the outskirts to the centre of the town. The zones are: (1) Zone of normally developed flora at the outskirts of the town. (2) Struggle zone which is a more or less extensive area with scattered houses and which surrounds the crowded central quarters. In this zone scanty specimens of a few lichen species were found; their thalli were contracted, under-developed, as if fighting for life in unfavorable environmental conditions. (3) Lichen-free zone, lichen desert, which comprises the centre of the town and its industrial quarters; no lichens could be found there. The results of these investigations strengthened the belief that lichens are organisms very sensitive to the action of substances formed during coal combustion in town. Sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) was believed to be especially harmful to lichens, causing their death even in trace concentrations.

  7. Epiphytic lichen diversity and biomass in low-elevation forests of the eastern Washington Cascade range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Lehmkuhl

    2004-01-01

    cover types in the eastern Washington Cascade range. Cover types represented a temperature/moisture and stand structural complexity gradient. Lichen litterfall biomass increased with increasing stand complexity and moisture. Lichen litterfall biomass was 3.42 kg/ha in open pine stands, 7.51 kg/ha in young mixed-species stands, 8.55 kg/ha in mature mixed-species stands...

  8. Nutrient scavenging activity and antagonistic factors of non-photobiont lichen-associated bacteria: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, M Auður; Andrésson, Ólafur S; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are defined as the specific symbiotic structure comprising a fungus and a green alga and/or cyanobacterium. Up until recently, non-photobiont endothallic bacteria, while known to be present in large numbers, have generally been dismissed as functionally irrelevant cohabitants of the lichen thallus, or even environmental contaminants. Recent analyses of lichen metagenomes and innovative co-culture experiments have uncovered a functionally complex community that appears to contribute to a healthy lichen thallus in several ways. Lichen-associated bacteriomes are typically dominated by several lineages of Proteobacteria, some of which may be specific for lichen species. Recent work has implicated members of these lineages in several important ecophysiological roles. These include nutrient scavenging, including mobilization of iron and phosphate, nitrogen fixation, cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities, and oxidation of recalcitrant compounds, e.g. aromatics and aliphatics. Production of volatile organic compounds, conferring antibacterial and antifungal activity, has also been demonstrated for several lichen-associated isolates. In the present paper we review the nature of non-phototrophic endolichenic bacteria associated with lichens, and give insight into the current state of knowledge on their importance the lichen symbiotic association.

  9. Uranium series radionuclides, polonium-210 and lead-210, in the lichen-caribou-wolf food chain of the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.; Sheard, J.W.; Swanson, S.

    1994-01-01

    This report examines baseline concentrations and transfer of the uranium decay products polonium-210 and lead-210 in the lichen-caribou-wolf food chain at two locations in the Northwest Territories, Baker Lake and Snowdrift. At each location, concentrations of the two radionuclides were determined in the lichen species Cetraria nivalis and Cladina mitis, and several tissues from caribou and wolves. Baseline concentrations and transfer coefficients within the food chain were compared between the two locations. Lichen samples were also collected from Kasba Lake, a third hunting ground used by northern Saskatchewan hunters. The lichen species chosen were common forage for caribou. Both the predominant lichen species at each location and rumen contents were used to estimate the winter diet of caribou in the calculation of transfer coefficients. The results are relevant to environmental monitoring in areas of potential future uranium mining development and the transfer coefficients determined in the study may be used to estimate radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses in future environmental assessments

  10. Intrinsic factors of Peltigera lichens influence the structure of the associated soil bacterial microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Diego; Clavero-León, Claudia; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2016-11-01

    Definition of lichens has evolved from bi(tri)partite associations to multi-species symbioses, where bacteria would play essential roles. Besides, although soil bacterial communities are known to be affected by edaphic factors, when lichens grow upon them these could become less preponderant. We hypothesized that the structure of both the lichen microbiota and the microbiota in the soil underneath lichens is shaped by lichen intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, intrinsic factors corresponded to mycobiont and cyanobiont identities of Peltigera lichens, metabolite diversity and phenoloxidase activity and extrinsic factors involved the site of the forest where lichens grow. Likewise, the genetic and metabolic structure of the lichen and soil bacterial communities were analyzed by fingerprinting. Among the results, metabolite diversity was inversely related to the genetic structure of bacterial communities of lichens and soils, highlighting the far-reaching effect of these substances; while phenoloxidase activity was inversely related to the metabolic structure only of the lichen bacterial microbiota, presuming a more limited effect of the products of these enzymes. Soil bacterial microbiota was different depending on the site and, strikingly, according to the cyanobiont present in the lichen over them, which could indicate an influence of the photobiont metabolism on the availability of soil nutrients. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from various lichen taxa and specimens suitable for analysis of fungal and algal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sook-Young; Jang, Seol-Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Kim, Jung A; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-12-01

    Lichen studies, including biodiversity, phylogenetic relationships, and conservation concerns require definitive species identification, however many lichens can be challenging to identify at the species level. Molecular techniques have shown efficacy in discriminating among lichen taxa, however, obtaining genomic DNA from herbarium and fresh lichen thalli by conventional methods has been difficult, because lichens contain high proteins, polysaccharides, and other complex compounds in their cell walls. Here we report a rapid, easy, and inexpensive protocol for extracting PCR-quality DNA from various lichen species. This method involves the following two steps: first, cell breakage using a beadbeater; and second, extraction, isolation, and precipitation of genomic DNA. The procedure requires approximately 10 mg of lichen thalli and can be completed within 20 min. The obtained DNAs were of sufficient quality and quantity to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region from the fungal and algal lichen components, as well as to sequence the amplified products. In addition, 26 different lichen taxa were tested, resulting in successful PCR products. The results of this study validated the experimental protocols, and clearly demonstrated the efficacy and value of our KCl extraction method applied in the fungal and algal samples.

  12. Bullous lichen planus - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulou, Angeliki; Rallis, Efstathios

    2017-03-31

    Bullous lichen planus is a rare variant of lichen planus. It is characterized by vesicles or bullae, which usually develop in the context of pre-existing LP lesions. It is often misdiagnosed and should be differentiated from other subepidermal bullous diseases especially lichen planus pemphigoides. The diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and is confirmed by histopathology and immunofluoresence. The clinical features of bullous lichen planus include typical lichen planus lesions, accompanied by the formation of bullae on the affected or perilesional skin. This is evident on histology, with alteration of the dermo-epidermal junction and intrabasal bullae as a consequence of extensive inflammation. The histologic features in conjunction with the negative immunofluoresence indicate that bullous lichen planus is a form of "hyper-reactive lichen planus" rather than a distinct entity. There is no standard treatment of bullous lichen planus. Topical and systemic corticosteroids, dapsone and acitretin have been described as effective choices.

  13. Biogeography and ecology of Cetraria aculeata, a widely distributed lichen with a bipolar distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Printzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and historical biogeography of lichens have rarely been studied in a concerted effort, but both aspects have to be taken into consideration when explaining the distributional patterns of species. This review summarizes, partly preliminary, results from a series of studies on phylogeography, ecophysiology and symbiotic interactions of the lichen Cetraria aculeata. This species is not only widespread but also occupies a very wide ecological niche. Evidence suggests that Cetraria aculeata has evolved and diversified in the Northern Hemisphere and colonised the Southern Hemisphere from there. Genetic isolation of populations indicates the absence of ongoing long range dispersal and genetic exchange between geographically isolated populations. We observe a hitherto unrecognized genetic diversity that may indicate ecotypic differentiation and speciation processes. Mediterranean and Polar populations differ not only genetically, but also in ecophysiological properties. Ongoing common garden experiments will have to show whether genetically fixed adaptation or acclimation is responsible for these differences. The genetic structure of the photobiont is best explained by climatic differences between localities, but co-dispersal with the mycobiont plays an important role as well. Taken together, these results indicate that a photobiont switch in the past enabled C. aculeata to widen its ecological niche, with subsequent genetic isolation of populations. Photobiont switches may play a crucial role in speciation processes of lichens. A combination of ecophysiological and phylogeographic studies with experimental approaches is necessary to better understand the reaction of lichens to changing environmental conditions.

  14. Oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šehalić Meliha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 29 - year Lichen planus is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune skin disease, that is often manifested, except on the skin, in the oral cavity in a variety of clinical forms. The prevalence of the disease in the general population is about 1-2%. Etiopathogenesis is not still well understood. Histopathology, in addition to the basic methods, anamnesis and physical examination, is vital for proper diagnosis of oral lichen planus (OLP. Very diverse and loaded histological findings are common for all forms of oral lichen planus. We reported the case of oral lichen planus in a 49 years old male patient, who presented to the Dentistry clinic of Medical faculty of Priština with burning and itching symptoms and changes in the buccal mucosa. Histopathological analysis of biopsy tissue conformed clinical diagnosis of lichen planus. Due to the possibility for malignant transformation of lesions, the long-term follow-up of patients with this disease is of great importance.

  15. Metal homeostasis in Hypogymnia physodes is controlled by lichen substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the lichen substances produced by the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes control the intracellular uptake of divalent transition metals. Incubating lichen thalli with and without their natural content of lichen substances with metal solutions showed that the lichen substances of H. physodes selectively inhibit the uptake of Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ , but not of Fe 2+ and Zn 2+ . Such behavior is ecologically beneficial, as ambient concentrations of Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ in precipitation and bark are known to limit the abundance of H. physodes, whereas limiting effects of Fe 2+ or Zn 2+ have never been found. This suggests that increasing the Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ tolerance stimulated the evolution of lichen substances in H. physodes. The depsidone physodalic acid is apparently most effective at reducing Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ uptake among the seven lichen substances produced by H. physodes. Probably lichen substances play a general role in the metal homeostasis of lichens. - Lichen substances in Hypogymnia physodes specifically reduce the uptake of Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ , but not Fe 2+ or Zn 2+

  16. Diversity and ecology of lichens on churches in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrius, L.B.; Aptroot, A.; van Herk, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the results of an inventory of lichen species on the walls of 344 medieval and renaissance churches in the Netherlands. In total, 194 species were recorded, of which several are more or less confined to this habitat in the country. We found several regional differences in species

  17. The immunostimulating role of lichen polysaccharides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gajendra; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium, show promise as a potential source of immunomodulating compounds. It is well known that lichens produce an abundance of structurally diverse polysaccharides. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the immunostimulating properties of lichen polysaccharides. Published studies have shown that some lichen polysaccharides enhance production of nitrous oxide (NO) by macrophages and also alter the production levels of various proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-α/β) by macrophages and dendritic cells. Although there are only a limited number of studies examining the role of lichen polysaccharides, all results suggest that lichen polysaccharides can induce immunomodulatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a detailed evaluation of immunomodulatory capacity of lichen polysaccharides could provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Substrates of Peltigera Lichens as a Potential Source of Cyanobionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Catalina; Leiva, Diego; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2017-10-01

    Photobiont availability is one of the main factors determining the success of the lichenization process. Although multiple sources of photobionts have been proposed, there is no substantial evidence confirming that the substrates on which lichens grow are one of them. In this work, we obtained cyanobacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences from the substrates underlying 186 terricolous Peltigera cyanolichens from localities in Southern Chile and maritime Antarctica and compared them with the sequences of the cyanobionts of these lichens, in order to determine if cyanobacteria potentially available for lichenization were present in the substrates. A phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed that Nostoc phylotypes dominated the cyanobacterial communities of the substrates in all sites. Among them, an overlap was observed between the phylotypes of the lichen cyanobionts and those of the cyanobacteria present in their substrates, suggesting that they could be a possible source of lichen photobionts. Also, in most cases, higher Nostoc diversity was observed in the lichens than in the substrates from each site. A better understanding of cyanobacterial diversity in lichen substrates and their relatives in the lichens would bring insights into mycobiont selection and the distribution patterns of lichens, providing a background for hypothesis testing and theory development for future studies of the lichenization process.

  19. Atmospheric deposition inputs and effects on lichen chemistry and indicator species in the Columbia River Gorge, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenn, M.E.; Geiser, L.; Bachman, R.; Blubaugh, T.J.; Bytnerowicz, A.

    2007-01-01

    Topographic and meteorological conditions make the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) an 'exhaust pipe' for air pollutants generated by the Portland-Vancouver metropolis and Columbia Basin. We sampled fog, bulk precipitation, throughfall, airborne particulates, lichen thalli, and nitrophytic lichen distribution. Throughfall N and S deposition were high, 11.5-25.4 and 3.4-6.7 kg ha -1 over 4.5 months at all 9 and 4/9 sites, respectively. Deposition and lichen thallus N were highest at eastern- and western-most sites, implicating both agricultural and urban sources. Fog and precipitation pH were frequently as low as 3.7-5.0. Peak NO x , NH 3 , and SO 2 concentrations in the eastern CRG were low, suggesting enhanced N and S inputs were largely from particulate deposition. Lichens indicating nitrogen-enriched environments were abundant and lichen N and S concentrations were 2x higher in the CRG than surrounding national forests. The atmospheric deposition levels detected likely threaten Gorge ecosystems and cultural resources. - Nitrogen, sulfur and acidic deposition threaten natural and cultural resources in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area

  20. Contribution to the effects of air pollution on xerophyte lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, R; Fritsche, W

    1965-01-01

    Long-period investigations of the effects of gaseous air pollutants from a chemical plant on the respiration and thallus structure of three xerophyte lichens (Cladonia foliacea, Cladonia rangiformis, and Diploschistes bryophilus) are described. In a test series where the lichens were exposed to the polluted atmosphere in an urban area and near a chemical plant for over 12 months, Cladonia foliacea showed considerable decrease in the oxygen absorption, while the respiration of Cladonia rangiformis and Diploschistes bryophilus was affected slightly. The lichens, transferred from their natural site and exposed to emissions on the chemical plant premises for over 21 months, showed a negligible decrease in the oxygen absorption, nearly within the range of normal fluctuations. Microscopic investigations of the ashen gray lichens revealed severely damaged cellular structures and alga cells, as well as soot particles, especially in Diploschistes bryophilus. Remaining thalli showed, however, fairly active respiration, mostly due to the more-resistant lichen fungi. 7 references, 1 table.

  1. Massalongia olechiana (Massalongiaceae, Peltigerales), a new lichen spcies from the Antarctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Vagn; Søchting, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    A new species of lichenized ascomycete, Massalongia olechiana Alstrup et Søchting, sp. nov. (Massalongiaceae) is described from the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. The species is distinguished by laminal isidia and 5-7-septate ascospores. The relationships with the other species...

  2. Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Daniela I; Setterfield, Jane F

    2016-02-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a relatively common autoimmune T-cell-mediated disease of unknown aetiology affecting the mucous membranes, skin and nails. Its prevalence varies between 0.5 and 2.2% of the population in epidemiological studies with a peak incidence in the 30-60 years range and with a female predominance of 2:1. Mucosal lichen planus tends to follow a chronic course with acute exacerbations. Spontaneous remission of oral lichen planus (OLP) is uncommon, and indeed mucosal LP may become worse with time. In contrast, cutaneous lichen planus may follow a milder clinical course though some variants may be severe such as those affecting the palms and soles and the scalp and the genital tract in females (vulvovaginal gingival LP) where scarring leads to significant complications. It is important to identify those cases that may be drug induced or be associated with a contact allergic or irritant reaction (lichenoid reaction) or the rarer oral presentation of discoid lupus erythematosus. There is a very small risk of malignancy (approximately 1:200 patients/year) associated with oral lichen planus; thus patients should be informed that long term monitoring via their general dental practitioner is appropriate. This review will focus on the clinical presentation and management of oral lichen planus.

  3. Investigation of environmental contamination in lichens of Goekceada (Imbroz) Island in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, A.; Kaynak, G.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.; Ozturk, S.; Gundogdu, O.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to determine the type of environmental contamination in lichens in Goekceada Island in the Northern Aegean Sea in Turkey. We used two different lichen species Cladonia foliacea and Ramalina pollinaria. In the first part of the investigation, the beta activities of lichens have been measured by using a TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. The range of beta activity values was between 607 ± 30 and 308 ± 12 Bq/kg for C. foliacea lichens collected from around Tuz Lake and values for R. pollinaria lichens were found to be 740 ± 25 and 541 ± 17 Bq/kg. The second part of the study was concerned with the gamma spectra of the lichen samples measured by using HpGe detector. 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 40 K, 232 Th, 226 Ra radionuclides were found in C. foliacea collected from around Tepekoey and in R. pollinaria from around Tuz Lake. When these two types of lichens were compared, it was found that R. pollinaria contain more radionuclides. In order to compare and determine which of these lichens act as a better bioaccumulator, K, Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb metal content were determined by using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. It was found that C. foliacea collected more Mn and Sr when compared to R. pollinaria.

  4. Investigation of environmental contamination in lichens of Goekceada (Imbroz) Island in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, A.; Kaynak, G. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gurler, O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)], E-mail: ogurler@uludag.edu.tr; Yalcin, S. [Kastamonu University, Education Faculty, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey); Ozturk, S. [Biology Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [CNRP, Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); University of Kocaeli, Umuttepe Campus, 41100, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2009-02-15

    The main objective of the present study is to determine the type of environmental contamination in lichens in Goekceada Island in the Northern Aegean Sea in Turkey. We used two different lichen species Cladonia foliacea and Ramalina pollinaria. In the first part of the investigation, the beta activities of lichens have been measured by using a TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. The range of beta activity values was between 607 {+-} 30 and 308 {+-} 12 Bq/kg for C. foliacea lichens collected from around Tuz Lake and values for R. pollinaria lichens were found to be 740 {+-} 25 and 541 {+-} 17 Bq/kg. The second part of the study was concerned with the gamma spectra of the lichen samples measured by using HpGe detector. {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra radionuclides were found in C. foliacea collected from around Tepekoey and in R. pollinaria from around Tuz Lake. When these two types of lichens were compared, it was found that R. pollinaria contain more radionuclides. In order to compare and determine which of these lichens act as a better bioaccumulator, K, Mn, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb metal content were determined by using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. It was found that C. foliacea collected more Mn and Sr when compared to R. pollinaria.

  5. Vulvovaginal-gingival Lichen Planus: Association with Lichen Planopilaris and Stratified Epithelium-specific Antinuclear Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Malgorzata; Banka-Wrona, Agnieszka; Skrok, Anna; Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Solomon, Lynn W; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal-gingival lichen planus (VVG-LP) consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival lichen planus lesions. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of lesions in various anatomical locations in patients with VVG-LP. The study included 126 consecutive patients with lichen planus. Sixteen (12.7%) patients fulfilled the criteria of VVG-LP. In 12/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP scalp lesions were also observed. Stratified epithelium-specific antinuclear antibodies (SES-ANA) and anti-ΔNp.3α antibodies were detected in 10/16 (75%) patients with VVG-LP and in 15/110 (13.6%) patients with other forms of lichen planus (p lichen planopilaris. The new entity may be termed "vulvovaginal-gingival-pilar lichen planus" and our study indicates that SES-ANA is a marker of this type of lichen planus with extensive, severe and refractory-to-therapy involvement of the mucous membranes, skin and scalp.

  6. Investigations on carotenoids in lichens. XXXII. Carotenoids occurring in the thalli of lichens from Kenya (Equatorial Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cartenoids in nineteen species of lichens from Kenya (Equatorial Africa was studied by column and thinlayer chromatography. This investigations revealed the presence of the following carotenoids: neurosporene, α-carotene, β-carotene, rubixanthin, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, torularhodin, diatoxanthin, neoxanthin, echinenone, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, α-doradexanthin, astaxanthin, β-carotene epoxide, antheraxanthin, lutein epoxide, violaxanthin, mutatoxanthin, flavoxanthin, capsochrome, β-apo-8'-carotenal, β-apo-10'-carotenal and apo-12'-violaxanthal. Five of these, torularhodin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, capsochrome, β-apo-8'-carotenal and β-apo-10'-carotenal, are reported for the first time from lichens. The total carotenoid content of the material ranged from 15.88 (Pyxine cocoes to 135.44 µg g-1 dry weight (Telaschistes chrysophthalmus.

  7. A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam enumerating 26 species belonging to 15 genera and eight families are provided.  Four species viz., Bacidina apiahica, Byssoloma chlorinum, Calopadia fusca and Strigula nitidula are reported for the first time from Assam.  A number of rare species are present, including Aulaxina uniseptata, Calenia aspidota and Psorotheciopsis patellarioides. 

  8. Life at the limits: peculiar features of lichen symbiosis related to extreme environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, J.-P.; Horneck, G.; Rettberg, P.; Ott, S.

    A lichen is a symbiotic association formed by a mycobiont (fungi), a photobiont (algae) and/or a cyanobacteria. The special symbiotic contact and interaction between the bionts in a lichen is a prerequisite for maintainance of viability for each of them during influences by harsh environmental factors. In nature parameters like UV radiation, low or high temperatures and dryness may have a destructive impact on all life functions of an organism. But with lichens the evolution has created a peculiar symbiosis which enables a wide variety of lichen species to colonize habitats where their separate bionts would not be able to survive. The results of our investigations are demonstrating these aspects (de Vera et al. 2003, 2004).We have already investigated the viability of the entire lichen thallus, the embedded spores in lichen apothecia (fruiting bodies) as well as the isolated spores and isolated photobionts after exposure to most extreme conditions caused by simulated space parameters as extreme UV radiation and vacuum. The results presented here focuse on the survival capacity of the isolated photobionts from the two lichen species Xanthoria elegans and Fulgensia bracteata which are not protected by the fungal structure of the lichen thallus. They are based on examinations using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM), analysed by modern methods of the Image Tool Program and by culture experiments. In contrast to photobionts embedded in the entire lichen thallus the isolated photobionts are much more sensitve to the extreme conditions of UV radiation and vaccum: while 50 % of the bionts in an entire lichen thallus are able to cope with simulated extreme space conditions (UV-radiation: λ quad ≥ 160nm and vacuum: p = 10-5 Pa) during an exposure time of 2 weeks, the viability of the isolated photobiont cells was already decreasing after 2 hours of exposure. All photobiont cells were inactivated after longer exposure times of about 8 hours. Further more analysis

  9. Development of secondary woodland in oak wood pastures reduces the richness of rare epiphytic lichens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Paltto

    Full Text Available Wooded pastures with ancient trees were formerly abundant throughout Europe, but during the last century, grazing has largely been abandoned often resulting in dense forests. Ancient trees constitute habitat for many declining and threatened species, but the effects of secondary woodland on the biodiversity associated with these trees are largely unknown. We tested for difference in species richness, occurrence, and abundance of a set of nationally and regionally red-listed epiphytic lichens between ancient oaks located in secondary woodland and ancient oaks located in open conditions. We refined the test of the effect of secondary woodland by also including other explanatory variables. Species occurrence and abundance were modelled jointly using overdispersed zero-inflated Poisson models. The richness of the red-listed lichens on ancient oaks in secondary woodland was half of that compared with oaks growing in open conditions. The species-level analyses revealed that this was mainly the result of lower occupancy of two of the study species. The tree-level abundance of one species was also lower in secondary woodland. Potential explanations for this pattern are that the study lichens are adapted to desiccating conditions enhancing their population persistence by low competition or that open, windy conditions enhance their colonisation rate. This means that the development of secondary woodland is a threat to red-listed epiphytic lichens. We therefore suggest that woody vegetation is cleared and grazing resumed in abandoned oak pastures. Importantly, this will also benefit the vitality of the oaks.

  10. Tracking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lichens: It's all about the algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, Sofia; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Lichens, symbioses of fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria, have the remarkable ability to uptake and accumulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) from air, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but the mechanism of accumulation is still unknown. Understanding these mechanisms is critical to standardize the use of lichens as environmental bioindicators and to further integrate them in air monitoring networks. Through a series of experiments we show that gas phase PAHs easily cross lichen's surface and accumulate in the photosynthetic algal layer of lichens. Once accumulated, they remain in the algal layer and not within the fungus hyphae, or adhered to lichen's surface, as it was previously supposed to happen. Additionally, when lichens are washed, gas phase PAHs still remain in the algal layer. Our results reveal that lichens may be utilized as bioindicators of gas phase PAHs, overcoming current limitations of air monitoring. - Highlights: • Gas phase PAHs accumulate in the photosynthetic algal layer of lichens. • When lichens are washed by rain, gas phase PAHs remain in the algal layer. • Algae content may be a source of variability when interpreting PAH data in lichens. - Gas phase PAHs easily cross lichen's surface and accumulate in the photosynthetic algal layer of lichens.

  11. New higher taxa in the lichen family Graphidaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) based on a three-gene skeleton phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Thorsten Lumbsch; Ekaphan Kraichak; Sittiporn Parnmen; Eimy Rivas Plata; Andre Aptroot; Marcela E.S. Caceres; Damien Ertz; Shirley Cunha Feuerstein; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Bettina Staiger; Dries Van den Broeck; Robert. Lücking

    2014-01-01

    We provide an updated skeleton phylogeny of the lichenized family Graphidaceae (excluding subfamily Gomphilloideae), based on three loci (mtSSU, nuLSU, RPB2), to elucidate the position of four new genera, Aggregatorygma, Borinquenotrema, Corticorygma, and Paratopeliopsis, as well as the placement of the enigmatic species Diorygma erythrellum, Fissurina monilifera, and...

  12. Epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata as a sentinel for trace metal pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely spread lichen specie Flavoparmelia caperata is used in a biomonitoring study for atmospheric trace metal pollution in natural ecosystems in Southeastern Serbia. The concentration and distribution pattern of 21 metals in lichens were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The difference observed between metal deposition in peripheral and central parts of lichen thalli reflected air quality changes in the last and previous years. These findings were confirmed with principal component analysis. Our study demonstrated the accumulation of Ba, K, Mg, Na, Tl and Zn in peripheral parts of thalli, while As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Li, Ni, Pb and Se were concentrated in central parts of thalli.

  13. Hidden Genetic Diversity in an Asexually Reproducing Lichen Forming Fungal Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Del-Prado

    Full Text Available Asexual species with vegetative propagation of both symbiont partners (soredia in lichens may harbor lower species diversity because they may indeed represent evolutionary dead ends or clones. In this study we aim to critically examine species boundaries in the sorediate lichen forming fungi Parmotrema reticulatum-Parmotrema pseudoreticulatum complex applying coalescent-based approaches and other recently developed DNA-based methods. To this end, we gathered 180 samples from Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe, North and South America and generated sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS and DNA replication licensing factor MCM7 (MCM7. The dataset was analysed using different approaches such as traditional phylogeny-maximum likelihood and Bayesian-genetic distances, automatic barcode gap discovery and coalescent-based methods-PTP, GMYC, spedeSTEM and *Beast-in order to test congruence among results. Additionally, the divergence times were also estimated to elucidate diversification events. Delimitations inferred from the different analyses are comparable with only minor differences, and following a conservative approach we propose that the sampled specimens of the P. reticulatum-P. pseudoreticulatum complex belong to at least eight distinct species-level lineages. Seven are currently classified under P. reticulatum and one as P. pseudoreticulatum. In this work we discuss one of only few examples of cryptic species that have so far been found in sorediate reproducing lichen forming fungi. Additionally our estimates suggest a recent origin of the species complex-during the Miocene. Consequently, the wide distribution of several of the cryptic species has to be explained by intercontinental long-distance dispersal events.

  14. Radioactivity measurements in epiphytic lichens of Uludag Mountain in Western Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayseguel Kahraman; Goekay Kaynak; Gizem Akkaya; Orhan Guerler; Sezai Yalcin

    2013-01-01

    Activity concentrations of gross-β, naturally occurring 226 Ra, 232 Th, 210 Pb, 7 Be and anthropogenic 137 Cs in epiphytic lichens collected from Uludag Mountain are presented and discussed with the aim of evaluating potential usability of lichens as a biomonitor. The activity concentrations of gross-β, 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 210 Pb and 7 Be in the lichen samples were found to be in the range of 177-707, 4.05-94.26, 86-211, below detection limit (BDL)-19.2, BDL-14.0, 229-872, and 72.1-220.7 Bq kg -1 in dry weight, respectively. 137 Cs content in collected epiphytic lichens was in descending order: Parmelia sulcata > Lobaria pulmonaria > Pseudevernia furfuracea > Usnea filipendula. The best biomonitor for 137 Cs among the lichen species used in this study was determined as Parmelia sulcata. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated between 137 Cs and 40 K activity concentrations using a statistical package program (SPSS ver. 17.0) and a negative correlation value (R = -0,323, p = 0,222) was obtained. The highest 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations were found in Bogazova Yaylasi which has a geological structure including granitic rocks. It was found that 137 Cs and 7 Be activity concentrations in species demonstrated an inverse behaviour. The effect of mean annual precipitation and temperature on 7 Be activity concentration was determined using multi regression analysis. Also, correlations between the 137 Cs and 7 Be, and 40 K and 7 Be were investigated. (author)

  15. Oral Lichen Planus in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Das, Usha; JP, Beena

    2009-01-01

    Oral lichen planus which is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases in adults, it has been rarely described in children. There are very reports in the literature regarding oral lichen planus in children, here we report a case of intraoral lesions of lichen planus. Lichen planus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hyperkeratotic or erosive lesions of the oral mucosa in children.

  16. Neogene-dominated diversification in neotropical montane lichens: dating divergence events in the lichen-forming fungal genus Oropogon (Parmeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    Diversification in neotropical regions has been attributed to both Tertiary geological events and Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. However, the timing and processes driving speciation in these regions remain unexplored in many important groups. Here, we address the timing of diversification in the neotropical lichenized fungal genus Oropogon (Ascomycota) and assess traditional species boundaries. We analyzed sequence data from three loci to assess phenotypically circumscribed Oropogon species from the Oaxacan Highlands, Mexico. We provide a comparison of dated divergence estimates between concatenated gene trees and a calibrated multilocus species-tree using substitution rates for two DNA regions. We also compare estimates from a data set excluding ambiguously aligned regions and a data set including the hyper-variable regions in two ribosomal markers. Phylogenetic reconstructions were characterized by well-supported monophyletic clades corresponding to traditionally circumscribed species, with the exception of a single taxon. Divergence estimates indicate that most diversification of the sampled Oropogon species occurred throughout the Oligocene and Miocene, although diversification of a single closely related clade appears to have occurred during the late Pliocene and into the Pleistocene. Divergence estimates calculated from a data set with ambiguously aligned regions removed were much more recent than those from the full data set. Overall, our analyses place the majority of divergence events of Oropogon species from the Oaxacan Highlands within the Neogene and provide strong evidence that climatic changes during the Pleistocene were not a major factor driving speciation in the lichenized genus Oropogon in neotropical highlands.

  17. Air pollution in relation to lichens and fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, P J.W.

    1970-01-01

    The ecology and survival of lichens and fungi can be drastically influenced by atmospheric pollution, particularly by SO/sub 2/. The extent of any damage will depend upon many factors of which the principal ones are type of pollutant, concentration and duration of exposure, inherent resistance of the organism affected and nature of substrate. Humidity, surface water, growth rate and shelter are also of considerable importance. SO/sub 2/ toxicity and pH effect are not independent factors because they are critical to each other. The evidence produced above would suggest that the phycobiont is the first component of lichens to be seriously affected and that the fungus in some way exposes the phycobiont to pollutant damage. Gilbert (1968) has concluded from the limited information available that the more sensitive species of lichens and bryophytes are considerably more susceptible to SO/sub 2/ pollution than are the fungi. It would appear, therefore, that photosynthetic ability is associated with sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ damage.

  18. Learning Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The lichen is an ideal subject for student study because it is omnipresent in school yards, easily collected and observed year-round, a pioneer of evolution on land, and a bioindicator of air pollution. After doing fieldwork on this unusual composite organism as an apprentice with a team of lichenologists, Sarah Thorne developed Learning Lichens.…

  19. Speciation of Hg in lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereb, Vesna; Horvat, Milena

    2002-01-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as a suitable tool for monitoring the relative levels of atmospheric pollutants. Lichens have neither roots, a waxy cuticle nor stomata: hence, for mineral nutrition they are largely dependent on wet and dry deposition from the atmosphere. Moreover, lichens are perennial and can accumulate elements over long periods of time. Therefore, concentrations of elements in lichens represent the average levels of elements in the atmosphere for a long period of time. The epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes is a good bioindicator of air pollution with total mercury (THg). In addition, it contains small amounts of methylmercury (MeHg + ). The first aim of our work was to test analytical techniques for determination of MeHg in lichens taken from different locations in Idrija and reference locations

  20. Oxidoreductases and cellulases in lichens: possible roles in lichen biology and soil organic matter turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Richard P; Zavarzina, Anna G; Liers, Christiane

    2013-06-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations of a fungus (usually an Ascomycete) with green algae and/or a cyanobacterium. They dominate on 8 % of the world's land surface, mainly in Arctic and Antarctic regions, tundra, high mountain elevations and as components of dryland crusts. In many ecosystems, lichens are the pioneers on the bare rock or soil following disturbance, presumably because of their tolerance to desiccation and high temperature. Lichens have long been recognized as agents of mineral weathering and fine-earth stabilization. Being dominant biomass producers in extreme environments they contribute to primary accumulation of soil organic matter. However, biochemical role of lichens in soil processes is unknown. Our recent research has demonstrated that Peltigeralean lichens contain redox enzymes which in free-living fungi participate in lignocellulose degradation and humification. Thus lichen enzymes may catalyse formation and degradation of soil organic matter, particularly in high-stress communities dominated by lower plants. In the present review we synthesize recently published data on lichen phenol oxidases, peroxidases, and cellulases and discuss their possible roles in lichen physiology and soil organic matter transformations. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lichens of the Mahabaleshwar Panchgani Ecosensitive zone (MPESZ, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Pandit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mahabaleshwar Panchgani Ecosensitive Zone located in the Northern Western Ghats of India is well known for its rich biodiversity. Rocky plateaus of laterite are a prominent feature of this region along with a mosaic landscape of forest and shrub-savannah vegetation. A checklist of 129 lichen species reported from this region has been compiled based upon primary and secondary data. They are categorized as per forms and substrates. The need for further studies and protection of this rich lichen diversity is emphasized.

  2. Terricolous alpine lichens are sensitive to both load and concentration of applied nitrogen and have potential as bioindicators of nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, Andrea J.; Fisher, Julia M.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of applied nitrogen (N) concentration and load on thallus chemistry and growth of five terricolous alpine lichen species was investigated in a three-month N addition study. Thallus N content was influenced by both concentration and load; but the relative importance of these parameters varied between species. Growth was most affected by concentration. Thresholds for effects observed in this study support a low critical load for terricolous lichen communities ( -1 y -1 ) and suggest that concentrations of N currently encountered in UK cloudwater may have detrimental effects on the growth of sensitive species. The significance of N concentration effects on sensitive species also highlights the need to avoid artificially high concentrations when designing N addition experiments. Given the sensitivity of some species to extremely low loads and concentrations of N we suggest that terricolous lichens have potential as indicators of deposition and impact in northern and alpine ecosystems. - Terricolous lichen species' N content responds to both applied N concentration and load while applied N concentration has greatest effects on growth.

  3. Terricolous alpine lichens are sensitive to both load and concentration of applied nitrogen and have potential as bioindicators of nitrogen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Andrea J., E-mail: a.britton@macaulay.ac.u [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Fisher, Julia M. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The influence of applied nitrogen (N) concentration and load on thallus chemistry and growth of five terricolous alpine lichen species was investigated in a three-month N addition study. Thallus N content was influenced by both concentration and load; but the relative importance of these parameters varied between species. Growth was most affected by concentration. Thresholds for effects observed in this study support a low critical load for terricolous lichen communities (<7.5 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}) and suggest that concentrations of N currently encountered in UK cloudwater may have detrimental effects on the growth of sensitive species. The significance of N concentration effects on sensitive species also highlights the need to avoid artificially high concentrations when designing N addition experiments. Given the sensitivity of some species to extremely low loads and concentrations of N we suggest that terricolous lichens have potential as indicators of deposition and impact in northern and alpine ecosystems. - Terricolous lichen species' N content responds to both applied N concentration and load while applied N concentration has greatest effects on growth.

  4. Chemical element concentrations in four lichens on a transect entering Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    A three factor transect study was conducted to test the hypothesis that chemical elements from air emissions in the vicinity of International Falls, Minnesota could not be detected in lichens along a 24 km transect reaching into Voyageurs National Park. It was hypothesized that element concentrations in lichens would decline exponentially downwind and would reach background values at a distance before the park boundary. Four species (Cladina rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Hypogymnia physodes, and Parmelia sulcata) were sampled at ten sites for 3 years and 17 chemical elements were measured. The most notable result was a curvilinear geographic trend for many elements, which decreased from International Falls and then increased towards the park. This trend was significant for many anthropogenic elements, including S, Hg, Cd, and Cr, and for all four species. This type of distribution pattern has been observed in Hypogymnia physodes in other studies downwind of a steel mill and an oil refinery. Cladina, a ground-dwelling lichen, generally had lower tissue concentrations of the elements than the three epiphytic species. Tissue concentrations over the 3 years of sampling declined an average of 12%. Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that lichen tissue element concentrations in the vicinity of International Falls may be related to local air emissions, and that an exponential decline of element concentrations downwind of the sources does not apply to this situation.

  5. Air pollution and urban climate in the Rhine--Westphalian industrial area and their influence on lichen growth on trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domroes, M

    1966-01-01

    Lichens on tree boles were examined on 25,114 trees along streets and areas in the central part of the Ruhr District and related to air pollution concentrations. The lichens were studied with regard to physiognomy, density, and exposition, and in relation to bark characteristics of tree species. Lichens were classified into the following areas: Lichen desert, transitional zone, or area of normal distribution. The lichens were sensitive to air pollution, especially sulfur dioxide emissions. The damaging influence of the town climate, especially aridity, was taken into consideration. Lichens were missing in all areas with a high degree of air pollution. These were areas of high density housing and of lower humidity than open country. Areas which had lower housing density and lower humidity also had increased lichen damage. Lichens were missing in the immediate neighborhood of factories or industrial areas outside towns. Lichen growth was reduced along busy roads.

  6. Erosive lichen planus: a therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Williams; Giesen, Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refractory. Knowledge of the treatment options for erosive lichen planus is insufficient. Further research is required to clarify their effectiveness, ideally adopting an evidence-based methodology.

  7. Application of the autoradiography method for study of the Semipalatinsk test site's lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdarkhanova, G.S.; Poltavtseva, V.P.

    2003-01-01

    The preliminary results of the Semipalatinsk test site's lichens study with help of the autoradiography method are presented. The lichens selected in 1999 on the experimental sites situated in two areas (20 km southerly from Kurchatov town and on of the Degelen mountain south side) have served as the examined objects. Radiation background of the lichens dwelling areas make up 15-17 and 300 μR/h respectively. For receiving of autoradiograms the FT-41MD film with two-side emulsion layer was used. Exposition time is 48 and 744 hours. From visual analysis of photographic image with this autoradiogram one can draw the conclusion about uniform distribution of the radionuclides. Received results testify about the necessity for continuance of the researches in this direction with expansion lichen species content and geography of their scattering

  8. Effects of ammonia from livestock farming on lichen photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoli, Luca [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Pirintsos, Stergios Arg.; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos [Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Pisani, Tommaso [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Navakoudis, Eleni [Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Loppi, Stefano, E-mail: loppi@unisi.i [Department of Environmental Science ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, via Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated if atmospheric ammonia (NH{sub 3}) pollution around a sheep farm influences the photosynthetic performance of the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea. Thalli of both species were transplanted for up to 30 days in a semi-arid region (Crete, Greece), at sites with concentrations of atmospheric ammonia of ca. 60 mug/m{sup 3} (at a sheep farm), ca. 15 mug/m{sup 3} (60 m from the sheep farm) and ca. 2 mug/m{sup 3} (a remote area 5 km away). Lichen photosynthesis was analysed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence emission to identify targets of ammonia pollution. The results indicated that the photosystem II of the two lichens exposed to NH{sub 3} is susceptible to this pollutant in the gas-phase. The parameter PI{sub ABS}, a global index of photosynthetic performance that combines in a single expression the three functional steps of the photosynthetic activity (light absorption, excitation energy trapping, and conversion of excitation energy to electron transport) was much more sensitive to NH{sub 3} than the F{sub V}/F{sub M} ratio, one of the most commonly used stress indicators. - Ammonia from livestock farming affects lichen photosynthesis.

  9. Lichen specific thallus mass and secondary compounds change across a retrogressive fire-driven chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Johan; Sandling, Aron; Wardle, David A

    2012-01-01

    In the long-term absence of major disturbances ecosystems enter a state of retrogression, which involves declining soil fertility and consequently a reduction in decomposition rates. Recent studies have looked at how plant traits such as specific leaf mass and amounts of secondary compounds respond to declining soil fertility during retrogression, but there are no comparable studies for lichen traits despite increasing recognition of the role that lichens can play in ecosystem processes. We studied a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. We used this system to explore how specific thallus mass (STM) and carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) change in three common epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia phsyodes, Melanohalea olivacea and Parmelia sulcata) as soil fertility declines during this retrogression. We found that STMs of lichens increased sharply during retrogression, and for all species soil N to P ratio (which increased during retrogression) was a strong predictor of STM. When expressed per unit area, medullary CBSCs in all species and cortical CBSCs in P. sulcata increased during retrogression. Meanwhile, when expressed per unit mass, only cortical CBSCs in H. physodes responded to retrogression, and in the opposite direction. Given that lichen functional traits are likely to be important in driving ecological processes that drive nutrient and carbon cycling in the way that plant functional traits are, the changes that they undergo during retrogression could potentially be significant for the functioning of the ecosystem.

  10. Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Markus, E-mail: mhauck@gwdg.d [Department of Plant Ecology, Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Goettingen, Untere Karspuele 2, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Since lichens lack roots and take up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, these organisms respond more sensitively to changes in atmospheric purity than vascular plants. After centuries where effects of sulphur dioxide and acidity were in the focus of research on atmospheric chemistry and lichens, recently the globally increased levels of ammonia and nitrate increasingly affect lichen vegetation and gave rise to intense research on the tolerance of lichens to nitrogen pollution. The present paper discusses the main findings on the uptake of ammonia and nitrate in the lichen symbiosis and to the tolerance of lichens to eutrophication. Ammonia and nitrate are both efficiently taken up under ambient conditions. The tolerance to high nitrogen levels depends, among others, on the capability of the photobiont to provide sufficient amounts of carbon skeletons for ammonia assimilation. Lowly productive lichens are apparently predisposed to be sensitive to excess nitrogen. - Eutrophication has become a global threat for lichen diversity.

  11. Physiological and chemical response of lichens transplanted in and around an industrial area of south Italy: relationship with the lichen diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Pisani, Tommaso; Guttová, Anna; Sardella, Giovanni; Loppi, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. has been exposed for 3 months in and around an industrial area of Mediterranean Italy for monitoring physiological (photosynthetic efficiency, membrane lipids peroxidation and cell membrane integrity) and chemical (bioaccumulation of the heavy metals Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) effects and investigate the consistency with the environmental quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens (index of lichen diversity (ILD)). The results showed that thalli transplanted close to the industrial area exhibited early stress symptoms, as revealed by the increase in electrical conductivity indicating a damage endured by lichen cell membranes. The electrical conductivity was inversely correlated with the diversity of epiphytic lichens recorded at the same sites. The ILD negatively correlated also with membrane lipid peroxidation and the rate of accumulation of Pb, V and Zn. Reciprocal correlations found among trace elements pinpointed vehicular traffic and metal processing in the industrial area as main sources. The damage endured by cell membranes was the best physiological indicator consistent with the air quality status depicted by the diversity of epiphytic lichens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of herbaceous-plant pararetrovirus in lichen herbarium samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrzik, K; Koloniuk, I; Sarkisová, T; Číhal, L

    2016-06-01

    Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) - a plant pararetrovirus that naturally causes diseases in Brassicaceae and Solanaceae plant hosts worldwide - has been detected by PCR for the first time in herbarium samples of Usnea sp. lichens. The virus's presence in these lichens did not result in any micro- or macromorphological changes, and the herbarium records were classified as representative for the distinct species. Sequence analyses classified all the detected viruses into one lineage of CaMV isolates. We have shown here that herbarium samples could be a good source for virus study, especially where a longer time span is involved.

  13. Fungal farmers or algal escorts: lichen adaptation from the algal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Deduke, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    lichens in the genus Lepraria. Altitude has been suggested to influence species distributions in a wide range of taxonomic groups. This is one of the first studies to illustrate an ecological guild, mainly for exposure to rainfall (ombrophiles and ombrophobes), with green algal lichens. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Determination of natural radionuclides in lichen samples of Carnoparmelia Texana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Marcos M.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2009-01-01

    Lichen plays an important role in studies of environmental pollution. It can be used for the evaluation of air contaminants, including heavy metals and radionuclides. The main objective of this study is to verify the possibility of using the lichen species Canoparmelia Texana for the assessment of natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series in air in the vicinity of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) installations. IPEN has as major activity to perform research in the field of the nuclear fuel cycle, and therefore deals with natural radionuclides of the U and Th series. The content of 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 210 Po and 232 Th in lichen samples were determined by alpha spectrometry after a radiochemical separation. Ra isotopes and 210 Pb were determined by gross alpha and beta counting after a radiochemical separation and measurement on a low background gas flow proportional detector. The results obtained for 238 U varied from 2.4 ± 0.4 Bq kg -1 to 6.6 ± 0.1 Bq kg -1 and from 4.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 to 12.1 ± 2.6 Bq kg -1 , for 232 Th. For 226 Ra varied from 13 ± 1 Bq kg -1 to 38 ± 2 Bq kg -1 and from 200 ± 13 Bq kg -1 to 351 ± 12 Bqkg -1 for 228 Ra. The results obtained were compared with data obtained for the same radionuclides in lichen samples in an area affected by TENORM industry and can be considered as background for this lichen species. It can be concluded that the control of atmospheric discharges of IPEN facilities has been effective along the years, giving no evidence of radiological environmental impact. (author)

  15. Adaptations of lichens to conditions in tropical forests of South-East Asia and their taxonomic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolseley, P.A.; Hawksworth, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Lichens are fungi with a specialized nutritional mode involving algae, or cyanobacteria, or both. Classification is based on the fungal partner, and around 13 500 species are known. The association is ancient, and the first ascomycete fungi with fruit bodies may have been lichenized. Adaptations to

  16. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation on lichens and lichen-forming fungi and algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbisch, F.H.

    1977-06-01

    Initial literature reports indicated that lichens were highly resistant to gamma radiation. A series of experiments were undertaken to determine why lichens were so resistant. In experiments with Cladonia mitis, C. sylvatica, C. verticillata, Parmelia sulcata and P. subaurifera, using both acute and chronic radiation, it was found that these lichens were not highly resistant to gamma radiation. The lichens appeared to be resistant as long as they were in a dormant condition. But, when allowed to pass through a period which was suitable for growth, radiation damage was quickly manifested. Radiation damage was seen in various ways, including the change of thallus color, disintegration of phycobiant chloroplastids, coalescing of fungal hyphae, reduced CO 2 uptake, and reduction in thallus tensile strength

  18. Uses of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for lichen as bio indicators of environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribere, M.; Guevara, S.R.; Calvelo, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three species of epiphytic lichens were sampled at NW Patagonia, Argentina, from urban and peripherical forest area environments Sixty lichen samples were analysed individually by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The elements present in the samples were determined by parametric methods at the Neutron Activation Laboratory at Centro Atomico Bariloche, Argentina. All concentration values were normalized to Al concentration. The average normalized concentrations for each element, discriminated by species and environment, are presented in this work. (author). 11 refs, 6 tabs

  19. Which Specialized Metabolites Does the Native Subantarctic Gastropod Notodiscus hookeri Extract from the Consumption of the Lichens Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadea, Alice; Le Pogam, Pierre; Biver, Grichka; Boustie, Joël; Le Lamer, Anne-Cécile; Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Charrier, Maryvonne

    2017-03-08

    Notodiscus hookeri is the only representative of terrestrial gastropods on Possession Island and exclusively feeds on lichens. The known toxicity of various lichen metabolites to plant-eating invertebrates led us to propose that N. hookeri evolved means to protect itself from their adverse effects. To validate this assumption, the current study focused on the consumption of two lichen species: Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata . A controlled feeding experiment was designed to understand how the snail copes with the unpalatable and/or toxic compounds produced by these lichen species. The occurrence of two snail ecophenotypes, represented by a mineral shell and an organic shell, led to address the question of a metabolic response specific to the phenotype. Snails were fed for two months with one of these lichens and the chemical profiles of biological samples of N. hookeri (i.e., crop, digestive gland, intestine, and feces) were established by HPLC-DAD-MS and compared to that of the lichens. N. hookeri appears as a generalist lichen feeder able to consume toxic metabolite-containing lichens, independently of the ecophenotype. The digestive gland did not sequester lichen metabolites. The snail metabolism might be based on four non-exclusive processes according to the concerned metabolites (avoidance, passive transport, hydrolysis, and excretion).

  20. Which Specialized Metabolites Does the Native Subantarctic Gastropod Notodiscus hookeri Extract from the Consumption of the Lichens Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Gadea

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Notodiscus hookeri is the only representative of terrestrial gastropods on Possession Island and exclusively feeds on lichens. The known toxicity of various lichen metabolites to plant-eating invertebrates led us to propose that N. hookeri evolved means to protect itself from their adverse effects. To validate this assumption, the current study focused on the consumption of two lichen species: Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata. A controlled feeding experiment was designed to understand how the snail copes with the unpalatable and/or toxic compounds produced by these lichen species. The occurrence of two snail ecophenotypes, represented by a mineral shell and an organic shell, led to address the question of a metabolic response specific to the phenotype. Snails were fed for two months with one of these lichens and the chemical profiles of biological samples of N. hookeri (i.e., crop, digestive gland, intestine, and feces were established by HPLC-DAD-MS and compared to that of the lichens. N. hookeri appears as a generalist lichen feeder able to consume toxic metabolite-containing lichens, independently of the ecophenotype. The digestive gland did not sequester lichen metabolites. The snail metabolism might be based on four non-exclusive processes according to the concerned metabolites (avoidance, passive transport, hydrolysis, and excretion.

  1. Treatment of Lichen Planus with Propranalol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pavithran

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental observation of early cure of lichen planus in a female patient who received propranalol for the treatment of associated hyperthyroidism made us to try this drug in 20 patients with lichen planus. The cutaneous lesions responded very well to the treatment in 909′o of the cases. The mucous membrane lesions responded only partially and slowly. Another group of 20 patients with lichen planus who received only oral pheniramine maleate showed persistence of skin lesions even after 3 months. There were no serious side effects -with propranalol, though one patient with an atopic background, developed bronchial asthma for the first time at the age of 21. The excellent therapeutic response to propranalol-a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, in these patients indicates further study.

  2. Atmospheric pollution biomonitoring of the Sao Paulo metropolitan region using epiphytic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuga, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    also observed that samples from PECB and PEI were separated from groups and subgroups formed by the samples from the metropolitan region. This result indicates the preservation of PECB and PEI areas considered non-polluted. The lichens collected in the PEI presented, in general, lower concentrations of the elements than those from the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo in regards to those elements related to anthropogenic actions. The distribution maps of element concentrations allowed identification of sites in the metropolitan region that present higher elemental concentrations. Furthermore the distribution maps also showed that the pollution in the metropolitan region presents different profiles due to many sources and different pollutant emissions. The probable sources of elements determined in lichens from the metropolitan region are industrial, vehicular and soil. Results obtained indicate that the C. texana species can be used as a passive biomonitor of element pollution in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. This species is abundant in both polluted and non-polluted areas and thus allows to distinguish regions with distinct levels of pollution. (author)

  3. Experimental reproduction of tumbleweed shield lichen (Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa) poisoning in a domestic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Montgomery, Donald L; Ingram, James T; Siemion, Roger; Raisbeck, Merl F

    2008-11-01

    Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, commonly called tumbleweed lichen, is found throughout the Rocky Mountain region. This particular species of lichen was incriminated in the poisoning of cattle and sheep in Wyoming during the 1930s. More than 70 years elapsed before another case was reported. There is virtually no information in the veterinary literature regarding toxicity of this lichen. This report describes X. chlorochroa poisoning in domestic sheep fed lichen collected from different locales and at different times of the year. Affected animals voided red urine and displayed incoordination. A transient spike in serum creatine kinase activity occurred in all ewes during the course of the feeding trial. Histologically, necrosis of a few individual appendicular skeletal myocytes was observed in 1 ewe, but grossly discernible myonecrosis was absent. The severity of clinical signs varied depending on the location and/or time of year the lichen was collected, indicating that toxicity of the lichen may be influenced by environmental conditions. Results demonstrate that domestic sheep are a useful model for further investigation of X. chlorochroa intoxication. The current study should act as a starting point for elucidating the pathogenesis of X. chlorochroa poisoning and aid in the development of a diagnostic assay to confirm lichen poisoning.

  4. Epiphytic lichen diversity in central European oak forests: Assessment of the effects of natural environmental factors and human influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, David; Peksa, Ondrej; Vesela, Jana

    2010-01-01

    We investigated lichen diversity in temperate oak forests using standardized protocols. Forty-eight sites were sampled in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The effects of natural environmental predictors and human influences on lichen diversity (lichen diversity value, species richness) were analysed by means of correlation tests. We found that lichen diversity responded differently to environmental predictors between two regions with different human impact. In the industrial region, air pollution was the strongest factor. In the agricultural to highly forested regions, lichen diversity was strongly influenced by forest age and forest fragmentation. We found that several natural factors can in some cases obscure the effect of human influences. Thus, factors of naturality gradient must be considered (both statistically and interpretively) when studying human impact on lichen diversity. - We detected the different responses of lichens to ecological predictors in polluted and unpolluted areas.

  5. Molecular sizes of lichen ice nucleation sites determined by gamma radiation inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, T.L.; Ruscetti, T.

    1992-01-01

    It has previously been shown that some species of lichen fungi contain proteinaceous ice nuclei which are active at temperatures as warm as −2 °C. This experiment was undertaken to determine the molecular sizes of ice nuclei in the lichen fungus Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca and to compare them to bacterial ice nuclei from Pseudomonas syringae. Gamma radiation inactivation analysis was used to determine molecular weights. Radiation inactivation analysis is based on target theory, which states that the likelihood of a molecule being inactivated by gamma rays increases as its size increases. Three different sources of ice nuclei from the lichen R. chrysoleuca were tested: field-collected lichens, extract of lichen fungus, and a pure culture of the fungus R. chrysoleuca. P. syringae strain Cit7 was used as a source of bacterial ice nuclei. Samples were lyophilized, irradiated with gamma doses ranging from 0 to 10.4 Mrads, and then tested for ice nucleation activity using a droplet-freezing assay. Data for all four types of samples were in rough agreement; sizes of nucleation sites increased logarithmically with increasing temperatures of ice nucleation activity. Molecular weights of nucleation sites active between −3 and −4 °C from the bacteria and from the field-collected lichens were approximately 1.0 × 10 6 Da. Nuclei from the lichen fungus and in the lichen extract appeared to be slightly smaller but followed the same log-normal pattern with temperature of ice nucleation activity. The data for both the bacterial and lichen ice nuclei are in agreement with ice nucleation theory which states that the size of ice nucleation sites increases logarithmically as the temperature of nucleation increases linearly. This suggests that although some differences exist between bacterial and lichen ice nucleation sites, their molecular sizes are quite similar

  6. Erosive Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauskar, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous condition with a myriad of clinical manifestations. There are 3 forms of lichen planus that effect the vulva: papulosquamous, hypertrophic, and erosive. Erosive lichen planus can progress to vulvar scaring, vaginal stenosis, and squamous cell carcinoma; these long-term sequelae cause sexual distress, depression, and decreased quality of life for patients. Diagnosis is often delayed because of patient embarrassment or clinician misdiagnosis. Early recognition and treatment is essential to decreasing the morbidity of this condition. Multimodal treatment, along with a multidisciplinary approach, will improve outcomes and further clinical advances in studying this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lichens as biomonitors for radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, J.E.; Wolterbeek, B.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Caesium-137 resulting from the Chernobyl accident was monitored in lichens in The Netherlands. Caesium-137 activity in Parmelia sulcata ranged from 550 to 6100 (average 2500) Bq kg -1 dry weight. The similarity between the lichen data (geographical 137 Cs activity gradients and radioactivity values) and data of wet and dry deposition, indicate the validity of lichen monitoring of atmospheric 137 Cs. The ratio between the 137 Cs activity per unit lichen dry weight (kg) of Parmelia sulcata and the 137 Cs activity deposited per unit surface area (m 2 ) was approximately one. Measurements of 137 Cs accumulation in Xanthoria parietina show that the activity concentration could be expressed both on a dry weight and on a contour surface area basis. The determination of the biological half-life of 137 Cs in lichens was shown to be subject to sources of error such as growth and non-atmospheric/indirect 137 Cs influxes. (Author)

  8. Lichens as biomonitor and INAA as analytical technique: a very effective formula for trace elements atmospheric pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, L.; Rizzio, E.; Giaveri, G.; Brandone, A.; Gallorini, M.; Salvini, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, a preliminary investigation employing epiphytic lichens and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was carried out to evaluate the trace elements (TE) distribution in different areas of an Alpine region in north Italy characterized by the presence of many wool industrial settlements. Air particulate matter and soils samples were collected and analyzed for the determination of more than 25 TE. These results gave information on the actual concentrations in ng/m3 of the TE in the air and allowed the determination of their Enrichment Factors (EFs) calculated from the analysis of the soils and normalized using the concentration of scandium as reference natural element. In the same site, different epiphytic lichens and surrounding soils samples were collected too and, following the same procedure, analyzed for the determination of the trace elements and for the calculation of the corresponding EFs. The comparison between the EFs obtained from the air particulate and the lichens made it possible the verifying if both series of samples (air particulate and lichens) could give similar EFs values for those elements considered of anthropic origin; obtaining information about the bioaccumulation ability of the different lichen species for these pollutant elements; selecting the lichen species that could be used as monitors for the area under investigation

  9. EPR Spectroscopy in Environmental Lichen-Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, P. V.; Nguyet, Le Thi Bich; Zhuravleva, S. E.; Trukhan, E. M.

    2017-09-01

    The paramagnetic properties of lichens were investigated using EPR spectroscopy and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. as a case study. It was found that the concentration of paramagnetic centers in lichen thalli increased as the air-pollution level increased. Possible formation mechanisms of the paramagnetic centers in lichens were discussed. The efficiency of using EPR spectroscopy to study lichens as environmental quality indicators was demonstrated.

  10. Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus with Cutaneous Distribution Simulating Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez Vázquez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus (LS et atrophicus is a disease of unknown etiology, although hereditary, endocrine, and autoimmune factors are known to be involved. While the anal and genital regions are predominantly affected, only 2.5% of patients present with extragenital lesions, particularly of the trunk, neck, and upper limbs. The possible relationship between lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and both lichen planus (LP and localized scleroderma (morphea has not been clearly established, although in a number of cases, several of these conditions have been found simultaneously. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman with LS lesions affecting the neck, upper back, wrist and dorsum of the feet. The unusual character of this presentation is pointed out, along with its clinical similarity to LP.

  11. Lichens and mosses as monitors of industrial activity associated with uranium mining in Northern Ontario, Canada. Pt. 1. Field procedures, chemical analysis and inter-species comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boileau, L J.R.; Beckett, P J; Lavoie, P; Richardson, D H.S. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry); Nieboer, E [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1982-07-01

    A modified X-ray fluorescence spectrometry technique allowed the detection of uranium in cryptograms with a detection limit of 0.5 to 1 ..mu..g U g/sup -1/ of plant material. The levels of five elements (Ti, Fe, Ni, Pb and U) in 109 lichen and 98 moss samples collected around two uranium mining communities in northeastern Ontario, Canada, are reported. Similar metal accumulation tendencies were observed for the pair of lichens, Cladonia rangiferina and C. mitis, and for the moss pair, Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum spp. This interchangeability, combined with favourable availability, made the above species the most useful biological monitors. Inter-elemental content comparisons employing Pearson's linear correlation statistic indicated a strong positive association among the pairs iron/titanium, and uranium/lead. Somewhat weaker positive correlations were observed in the individual comparisons of uranium levels with iron, or titanium, or nickel content. The associations between elements in mosses and lichens were in excellent agreement with the grouping based on the composition of the local uranium ores and tailings.

  12. Lichens and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, J H

    1964-09-01

    The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.

  13. The lichen and bryophyte vegetation of Cuverville Island, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, C; Aptroot, A; van Zanten, B

    1998-01-01

    In the Antarctic summer of 1993 the vegetation of Cuverville Island, a small island near the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, was mapped and described. Eleven different plant communities of algae, lichens, bryophytes and spermatophytes have been distinguished. The 51 species Vary from endemic

  14. Mistletoes and epiphytic lichens contribute to litter input in Nothofagus antarctica forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Rosina; Pastur, Guillermo Martínez; Lencinas, María Vanessa; Peri, Pablo Luis

    2015-10-01

    Litter input is one of the key components that define nutrient cycling in forests and the majority of studies only consider the tree components of litterfall. However, epiphytic species can play a crucial role in litter input throughout the growing season. This work evaluates changes in litter production by mistletoe (Misodendrum sp.) and epiphytic lichen (Usnea sp.), related to crown cover in mature unmanaged, second-growth and managed (thinned for silvopastoral use) forests in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). We used plastic traps to collect litterfall biomass from trees, lichens and mistletoes on a monthly basis over three consecutive years. Tree litter was considerable during autumn (March to May), which is typical of Nothofagus deciduous species in the Southern hemisphere. In contrast, peak litterfall from mistletoes and lichens occurred during spring and summer seasons. Tree litter (1954-3398 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was correlated with crown cover gradient being highest in second-growth forests and lowest in thinned sites. While litter input from mistletoes did not vary among forest types (307-333 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1), lichen litter (11-40 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was higher in unmanaged and thinned mature forests despite differences in tree crown cover. Contrary to what we expected, the management practices investigated here did not affect the biomass of canopy communities compared to unmanaged mature forests. Mistletoes and lichens significantly increased the spatial (forest type) and temporal complexity (extended period of falling) of litterfall in Nothofagus antarctica forests. This study provides a starting point to understand the ecological relevance of canopy communities in the Patagonian forests of southern Argentina.

  15. A clinicopathological study of cutaneous lichen planus

    OpenAIRE

    Parihar, Asmita; Sharma, Sonal; Bhattacharya, Sambit Nath; Singh, Usha Rani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, mucous membranes and nails. We studied the clinicopathological profile of lichen planus in Indian population. Methods: A total of 145 cases of histologically diagnosed lichen planus samples were included. Clinical features like age, sex, type of lichen planus, location were recorded in the case record form. Histological features of lichen planus were studied. Results: Out of 145 cases, major...

  16. A Case of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-Inversus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkız Uyar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus pigmentosus is a rare subtype of lichen planus. Because of its rarity, we present the case of a patient diagnosed as lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus based on clinical and histopatological findings, which clinical appearance did not resemble lichen planus at initial examination.

  17. Air-biomonitoring by transplanted lichens in the Negev Desert, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, Jacob [Department of Plant Sciences and Institute for Nature Conservation Research, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2001-07-01

    The present report summarizes tow time periods of study: 1) August 1997 - April 1998, 2) May 1999 - November 1999. 1) In August 1997 thalli of the lichen Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory were collected in the Negev Desert and transplanted with their substrate, flintstones, to 24 biomonitoring sites in the Negev Desert. In April 1998 the lichens were retrieved and their elemental content was determined by ICP-AES. In addition, we examined physiological parameters as presented in report no.1. 2) In May 1999 thalli of the lichen were collected in the control site and transferred together with the substrate to 10 biomonitoring sites in the Negev. These thalli were retrieved in November 1999. We examined: a) the electric conductivity, indicative of cell membrane integrity; b) the production of ethylene indicative of stress; c) the chloropkyll a fluorescence as a means to monitor aspects of photosystem II (PSII) activities in the lichen. Final results of the first period experiment show that lichens exposed to air contaminants at a site of toxic waste deposition, accumulated large amounts of Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. Preliminary results of the second period of exposure show that physiological parameters, indicative of lichen-viability, detected stress in thalli retrieved from sites in and around the Ramat Hovav Industrial Area in the Negev. (author)

  18. Air-biomonitoring by transplanted lichens in the Negev Desert, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    The present report summarizes tow time periods of study: 1) August 1997 - April 1998, 2) May 1999 - November 1999. 1) In August 1997 thalli of the lichen Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory were collected in the Negev Desert and transplanted with their substrate, flintstones, to 24 biomonitoring sites in the Negev Desert. In April 1998 the lichens were retrieved and their elemental content was determined by ICP-AES. In addition, we examined physiological parameters as presented in report no.1. 2) In May 1999 thalli of the lichen were collected in the control site and transferred together with the substrate to 10 biomonitoring sites in the Negev. These thalli were retrieved in November 1999. We examined: a) the electric conductivity, indicative of cell membrane integrity; b) the production of ethylene indicative of stress; c) the chloropkyll a fluorescence as a means to monitor aspects of photosystem II (PSII) activities in the lichen. Final results of the first period experiment show that lichens exposed to air contaminants at a site of toxic waste deposition, accumulated large amounts of Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. Preliminary results of the second period of exposure show that physiological parameters, indicative of lichen-viability, detected stress in thalli retrieved from sites in and around the Ramat Hovav Industrial Area in the Negev. (author)

  19. VCAM1 and ICAM1 expression in oral lichen planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Shafaee, Shahryar; Bijani, Ali; Bagheri, Soodabeh

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are vascular adhesion molecules that their receptors are located on endothelial cells and leukocytes. The aim of this study is the immunohistochemical evaluation of VCAM1 and ICAM1 in oral lichen planus and to compare these two markers with normal mucosa for evaluation of angiogenesis. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 70 paraffined blocks of oral lichen planus and 30 normal mucosa samples taken from around the lesions. Samples were stained with H & E and then with Immunohistochemistry using monoclonal mouse anti human VCAM1 (CD106), & monoclonal mouse anti human ICAM1(CD54) for confirmation of diagnosis. Slides were evaluated under light microscope and VCAM1 and ICAM1 positive cells (endothelial cells and leukocytes) were counted. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon and Chi-Square and poral lichen planus according to the percentage of stained cells (p=0.000& p=0.000, Mann-Whitney test). Thirty cases of oral normal mucosa associated with lichen planus showed that the VCAM1 has increased significantly in comparison to normal mucosa (plichen planus and normal mucosa, showed a significantly difference (plichen planus was not observed (p>0.05). Regarding the results, it seems that high expression of VCAM1 and ICAM1 is related to oral lichen planus. PMID:24551788

  20. Understanding Microbial Multi-Species Symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Ines A.; Cernava, Tomislav; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are commonly recognized as a symbiotic association of a fungus and a chlorophyll containing partner, either green algae or cyanobacteria, or both. The fungus provides a suitable habitat for the partner, which provides photosynthetically fixed carbon as energy source for the system. The evolutionary result of the self-sustaining partnership is a unique joint structure, the lichen thallus, which is indispensable for fungal sexual reproduction. The classical view of a dual symbiosis has been challenged by recent microbiome research, which revealed host-specific bacterial microbiomes. The recent results about bacterial associations with lichens symbioses corroborate their notion as a multi-species symbiosis. Multi-omics approaches have provided evidence for functional contribution by the bacterial microbiome to the entire lichen meta-organism while various abiotic and biotic factors can additionally influence the bacterial community structure. Results of current research also suggest that neighboring ecological niches influence the composition of the lichen bacterial microbiome. Specificity and functions are here reviewed based on these recent findings, converging to a holistic view of bacterial roles in lichens. Finally we propose that the lichen thallus has also evolved to function as a smart harvester of bacterial symbionts. We suggest that lichens represent an ideal model to study multi-species symbiosis, using the recently available omics tools and other cutting edge methods. PMID:26925047

  1. Characterization and speciation of mercury in mosses and lichens from the high-altitude Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun-Juan; Liu, Cheng-Bin; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Fu, Jian-Jie; Yang, Rui-Qiang; Shi, Jian-Bo; Cai, Yong; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2017-06-01

    The accumulation and species of mercury (Hg) in mosses and lichens collected from high-altitude Tibetan Plateau were studied. The altitudes of the sampling sites spanned from 1983 to 5147 m, and a total of 130 mosses and 52 lichens were analyzed. The total mercury (THg) contents in mosses and lichens were in the ranges of 13.1-273.0 and 20.2-345.9 ng/g, respectively. The average ratios of methylmercury (MeHg) in THg in mosses and lichens were 2.4 % (0.3-11.1 %) and 2.7 % (0.4-9.6 %), respectively, which were higher than those values reported in other regions. The contents of THg in both mosses and lichens were not correlated with the THg in soils (p > 0.05). The lipid contents displayed a significantly positive correlation with concentrations of MeHg in mosses (r = 0.461, p Tibetan Plateau.

  2. Cyanobacteria produce a high variety of hepatotoxic peptides in lichen symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Fewer, David P.; Jokela, Jouni; Wahlsten, Matti; Sivonen, Kaarina; Rikkinen, Jouko

    2012-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria. Microcystins are potent toxins that are responsible for the poisoning of both humans and animals. These toxins are mainly associated with aquatic cyanobacterial blooms, but here we show that the cyanobacterial symbionts of terrestrial lichens from all over the world commonly produce microcystins. We screened 803 lichen specimens from five different continents for cyanobacterial toxins by amplifying a part of the gene cluster encoding the enzyme complex responsible for microcystin production and detecting toxins directly from lichen thalli. We found either the biosynthetic genes for making microcystins or the toxin itself in 12% of all analyzed lichen specimens. A plethora of different microcystins was found with over 50 chemical variants, and many of the variants detected have only rarely been reported from free-living cyanobacteria. In addition, high amounts of nodularin, up to 60 μg g−1, were detected from some lichen thalli. This microcystin analog and potent hepatotoxin has previously been known only from the aquatic bloom-forming genus Nodularia. Our results demonstrate that the production of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins in lichen symbiosis is a global phenomenon and occurs in many different lichen lineages. The very high genetic diversity of the mcyE gene and the chemical diversity of microcystins suggest that lichen symbioses may have been an important environment for diversification of these cyanobacteria. PMID:22451908

  3. Extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelavathy Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis with anogenital and extragenital presentations. Extragenital lichen sclerosus is most common on the neck, shoulders and upper trunk. Linear lesions are uncommon in LSA. We report a case of linear extragenital LSA involving forehead and scalp, along with grouped white papules of LSA in the right side of the back in a postmenopausal woman. The patient showed atypical clinical presentation of LSA in face which clinically mimicked ′en coup de sabre′ as seen in morphea, but other clinical features suggested the diagnosis of LSA and the histopathological findings confirmed it.

  4. Lichens as biological indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, H S

    1981-09-15

    Lichens, a symbiotic association of an alga and a fungus, have been used for some years as 'bioindicators', to detect environmental pollution. For this, their property of reacting to certain pollutants with characteristic changes of growth is exploired. With this biological method, continual, sufficiently sensitive measurements over wide areas can often be carried out more simply than with expensive, complicated technical equipment, which requires servicing, as well. This article describes the various possibilities of using lichens as bioindicators, and reviews the methods currently in use for measuring air pollution by means of lichens.

  5. New and rare findings of lignicolous lichen species for the Southern Siberia from the Baikal nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Urbanavichene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on field trips between 2009–2014, rare and noteworthy lichens from the Baikal Nature Reserve (Baikal nature reserve, Khamar-Daban ridge are described. These are mostly lignicolous lichens growing on wood and bark of Abies sibirica and Pinus sibirica, such as Absconditella lignicola, Strangospora moriformis, Trapeliopsis gelatinosa, T. viridescens. Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa is new for Siberia, Lepraria jackii – new for South Siberia.

  6. Homocysteine and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, N; Samir, N; Megahed, H; Farid, E

    2014-11-01

    Chronic inflammation was found to play an important role in the development of cardiovascular risk factors. Homocysteine (Hcy) and fibrinogen have been identified as a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lichen planus is assumed to be closely related to dyslipidaemia. Several cytokines involved in lichen planus pathogenesis, could explain its association with dyslipidaemia. Also chronic inflammation with lichen planus has been suggested as a component of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to detect a panel of cardiovascular risk factors in patients of lichen planus. This study was done on 40 patients of lichen planus and 40 healthy controls. All patients and controls were subjected to clinical examination. Serum levels of homocysteine, fibrinogen and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA). Metabolic syndrome parameters including anthropometric measures, lipid profiles, blood sugar and blood pressure were studied. Patients with lichen planus showed significant association with metabolic syndrome parameters than controls (P lichen planus patients than controls (P lichen planus were found to have higher makers of both metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in relation to controls most probably due to long standing inflammation. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. Toxicity of Diclofenac in the Fern Azolla filiculoides and the Lichen Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Paoli, Luca; Vichi, Marco; Bačkor, Martin; Bačkorová, Miriam; Loppi, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of toxicity, expressed as damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, in the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides and the lichen Xanthoria parietina following treatments with diclofenac at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/L) and different exposure times (24, 48, 72 and 240 h). Measurements of photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll degradation indicated dose- and time-dependent toxicity, since significant differences with control samples as well as among treatments, emerged mainly for the highest concentration (100 mg/L) and the longest time (240 h). In addition, also the mycobiont of the lichen X. parietina showed similar toxic effects, expressed as ergosterol content. The absence of relevant alterations at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg/L) suggested a very limited susceptibility of these species to environmentally relevant levels of this pharmaceutical.

  8. Additions and corrections to the lichen mycobiota of the subantarctic Prince Edward Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Øvstedal, D.O.; Gremmen, N.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen species are reported as new to the subantarctic Prince Edward Islands (47 degrees S, 38 degrees E). Of these 12 are added to the known lichens of Prince Edward Island, and four are added to the Marion Island species list. Two species are new to science, viz. Gyalecta azorellae Ovstedal, with

  9. Fungal-associated NO is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress during rehydration in lichen symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reig-Armiñana Jose

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are normally produced in respiratory and photosynthetic electron chains and their production is enhanced during desiccation/rehydration. Nitric oxide (NO is a ubiquitous and multifaceted molecule involved in cell signaling and abiotic stress. Lichens are poikilohydrous organisms that can survive continuous cycles of desiccation and rehydration. Although the production of ROS and NO was recently demonstrated during lichen rehydration, the functions of these compounds are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of NO during rehydration of the lichen Ramalina farinacea (L. Ach., its isolated photobiont partner Trebouxia sp. and Asterochloris erici (Ahmadjian Skaloud et Peksa (SAG 32.85 = UTEX 911. Results Rehydration of R. farinacea caused the release of ROS and NO evidenced by the fluorescent probes DCFH2-DA and DAN respectively. However, a minimum in lipid peroxidation (MDA was observed 2 h post-rehydration. The inhibition of NO in lichen thalli with c-PTIO resulted in increases in both ROS production and lipid peroxidation, which now peaked at 3 h, together with decreases in chlorophyll autofluorescence and algal photobleaching upon confocal laser incidence. Trebouxia sp. photobionts generate peaks of NO-endproducts in suspension and show high rates of photobleaching and ROS production under NO inhibition which also caused a significant decrease in photosynthetic activity of A. erici axenic cultures, probably due to the higher levels of photo-oxidative stress. Conclusions Mycobiont derived NO has an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress and in the photo-oxidative protection of photobionts in lichen thalli. The results point to the importance of NO in the early stages of lichen rehydration.

  10. Chemical changes of minerals trapped in the lichen Trapelia involuta. Implication for lichen effect on mobility of uranium and toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Takeshi; Murakami, Takashi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate development of minerals trapped in a lichen, we examined the lichen Trapelia involuta growing directly on secondary uranyl minerals and U-enriched Fe oxide and hydroxide minerals. Sericite and other minerals in the underlying rock are trapped in the lichen T. involuta during its biological growth and chemically changed by lichen activities. The presence of chemically changed sericite accompanied by an Fe-bearing mineral in the lichen suggests that dissolution of sericite is promoted mainly by polysaccharides excreted by the lichen. Oxalic acid or lichen acids absent in the medulla may not play an important role in the dissolution. Our results suggest that lichens on metal-rich surface affect the mobility of uranium and other toxic metals through dissolution followed by trap of minerals from the underlying rock. (author)

  11. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2015-01-01

    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3’-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action. PMID:26371759

  12. Lichen elemental content bioindicators for air quality in upper Midwest, USA: A model for large-scale monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Sarah Jovan; Michael C. Amacher

    2017-01-01

    Our development of lichen elemental bioindicators for a United States of America (USA) national monitoring program is a useful model for other large-scale programs. Concentrations of 20 elements were measured, validated, and analyzed for 203 samples of five common lichen species. Collections were made by trained non-specialists near 75 permanent plots and an expert...

  13. Treatment modalities of palmoplantar lichen planus: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feily, Amir; Yaghoobi, Reza; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-12-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is a localized and uncommon variant of lichen planus which is mostly resistant to treatment. Our purpose was to discuss all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate evidence regarding all treatment modalities proposed and tested for palmoplantar lichen planus in the literature. Two major databases (PubMed, Google scholar) were searched. The review included all case reports, letters and original articles reporting any treatment for palmoplantar lichen planus but not treatment used in the other type of lichen planus, generalized lichen planus or other type of palmoplantar dermatoses. We have gone over more than 50 articles. There are many drugs that have been used in the treatment of lichen planus and generalized lichen planus but the palmoplantar type is a rare variety of lichen planus. That is why we could not find any clinical trial on the subject and just case reports have been described in this manuscript. In spite of plentiful investigations carried out on lichen planus, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treatment of palmoplantar lichen planus.

  14. Assessment of air quality in Mangabeiras' Park, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using epiphytic lichens as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Camila de O.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Maia, Elene C.P.

    2009-01-01

    Biomonitoring has been used as an alternative method to study the air pollution in several countries. The lichen, or lichenized fungi, is one of the most efficient on air pollution biomonitoring among the biomonitors. However, in Brazil, systematic use of lichens as biomonitors of environmental pollution is quite rare. In order to make an assessment of the air quality of the Mangabeiras' Park, this study was conducted by measuring the concentration of elements accumulated in the lichen thallus. This park, located in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), is the greatest green area in the city, and an apparent region of non polluted air. During the development of the study, epiphytic lichens of several species were collected using a steel stainless knife, taking samples of similar sizes from 1.5 m from the soil. The lichens selection was based on morphological similarities, such as color and type of the thallus. The elemental concentration determination was carried out applying the neutron activation technique, k 0 -standardization method, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor located at CDTN/CNEN. The lichen samples presented expressive concentrations of Ba, Fe, K, Na and Zn. However, the presence of other characteristic soil elements from the region, such as As, Th and U, suggests the influence of the mining activity area, located in the surroundings. (author)

  15. A Case of Childhood Lichen Aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Byung Yoon; Park, Kyung Chan; Youn, Sang Woong

    2009-01-01

    Lichen aureus is a rare type of chronic pigmented purpuric dermatosis. The eruptions consist of discrete or confluent golden to brownish lichenoid macules and papules, and are usually asymptomatic. Lichen aureus commonly occurs in young adults, but less frequently in children. We report the first case of multiple lichen aureus occurring in a Korean child.

  16. Salivary proteomics in lichen planus: A relationship with pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M M; Florezi, G P; Nico, Mms; de Paula, F; Paula, F M; Lourenço, S V

    2018-01-30

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic, T-cell-mediated, inflammatory disease that affects the oral cavity. The oral lichen planus pathogenesis is still unclear, however, the main evidence is that the mechanisms of activation of different T lymphocyte pathway induce apoptosis with an increase in Th1 and Th17 subtypes cells, triggered by the release of cytokines. This study analysed saliva proteomics to identify protein markers that might be involved in the pathogenesis and development of the disease. Proteins differentially expressed by oral lichen planus and healthy controls were screened using mass spectrometry; the proteins found in oral lichen planus were subjected to bioinformatics analysis, including gene ontology and string networks analysis. The multiplex analysis validation allowed the correlation between the proteins identified and the involved cytokines in Th17 response. One hundred and eight proteins were identified in oral lichen planus, of which 17 proteins showed a high interaction between them and indicated an association with the disease. Expression of these proteins was correlated with the triggering of cytokines, more specifically the Th17 cells. Proteins, such as S100A8, S100A9, haptoglobin, can trigger cytokines and might be associated with a pathological function and antioxidant activities in oral lichen planus. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lichens as indicators of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biarzov, L.

    1993-01-01

    Samples of lichens were investigated, collected in 1987 in the Eastern Urals and in 1988 in the vicinity of Chernobyl. Data are given on the size of thalli of epiphytic lichens from trunks of pine in the Chernobyl area, and on the beta activity in epiphytic lichens in the birch forests of the Urals 30 years after the Kyshtym accident, as well as concentrations of 40 K, 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce in lichen thalli and the bark of pine tree, taken at 5 locations in the vicinity of Chernobyl 1000 days after the accident. Also given are cross-ratios of radioactivity of 106 Ru, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 144 Ce in lichen thalli and in the bark of pine trees. The results indicate that the activity of radionuclides in lichen thalli make a fairly reliable indicator of relative differences between the investigated areas in terms of the level of surface contamination and qualitative composition of the involved radionuclides. (J.B.) 4 tabs., 15 refs

  18. Response of the nitrogen-fixing lichen Lobaria pulmonaria to phosphorus, molybdenum, and vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jade A; Pett-Ridge, Julie; Perakis, Steven S.; Allen, Jessica L; McCune, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing lichens (cyanolichens) are an important source of nitrogen (N) in Pacific Northwest forests, but limitation of lichen growth by elements essential for N fixation is poorly understood. To investigate how nutrient limitation may affect cyanolichen growth rates, we fertilized a tripartite cyanobacterial lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria) and a green algal non-nitrogen fixing lichen (Usnea longissima) with the micronutrients molybdenum (Mo) and vanadium (V), both known cofactors for enzymes involved in N fixation, and the macronutrient phosphorus (P). We then grew treated lichens in the field for one year in western Oregon, USA. Lichen growth was very rapid for both species and did not differ across treatments, despite a previous demonstration of P-limitation in L. pulmonaria at a nearby location. To reconcile these disparate findings, we analyzed P, Mo, and V concentrations, natural abundance δ15N isotopes, %N and change in thallus N in Lobaria pulmonaria from both growth experiments. Nitrogen levels in deposition and in lichens could not explain the large difference in growth or P limitation observed between the two studies. Instead, we provide evidence that local differences in P availability may have caused site-specific responses of Lobaria to P fertilization. In the previous experiment, Lobaria had low background levels of P, and treatment with P more than doubled growth. In contrast, Lobaria from the current experiment had much higher background P concentrations, similar to P-treated lichens in the previous experiment, consistent with the idea that ambient variation in P availability influences the degree of P limitation in cyanolichens. We conclude that insufficient P, Mo, and V did not limit the growth of either cyanolichens or chlorolichens at the site of the current experiment. Our findings point to the need to understand landscape-scale variation in P availability to cyanolichens, and its effect on spatial patterns of cyanolichen nutrient

  19. Experimental strain analysis of Clarens Sandstone colonised by endolithic lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wessels

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Endolithic lichens occur commonly on Clarens Sandstone in South Africa, where they significantly contribute to the weathering of sandstone by means of mechanical and chemical weathering processes. This preliminary investigation reports on the success- ful use of strain gauges in detecting strain differences between sandstone without epilithic lichens and sandstone colonised by the euendolithic lichen Lecidea aff. sarcogynoides Korb. Mechanical weathering, expressed as strain changes, in Clarens Sandstone was studied during the transition from relatively dry winter to wet summer conditions. Daily weathering of sandstone due to thermal expansion and contraction of colonised and uncolonised sandstone could be shown. Our results show that liquid water in sandstone enhances the mechanical weathering of uncolonised Clarens Sandstone while water in the gaseous phase enhances mechanical weathering of sandstone by euendolithic lichens.

  20. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  1. Lichen microalgae are sensitive to environmental concentrations of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traba, Helena Moreno; Domínguez-Morueco, Noelia; Barreno, Eva; Catalá, Myriam

    2017-04-03

    The identification of new organisms for environmental toxicology bioassays is currently a priority, since these tools are strongly limited by the ecological relevance of taxa used to study global change. Lichens are sensitive bioindicators of air quality and their microalgae are an untapped source for new low-cost miniaturized bioassays with ecological importance. In order to increase the availability of a wider range of taxa for bioassays, the sensitivity of two symbiotic lichen microalgae, Asterochloris erici and Trebouxia sp. TR9, to atrazine was evaluated. To achieve this goal, axenic cultures of these phycobionts in suspension were exposed to a range of environmental concentrations of the herbicide atrazine, a common water pollutant. Optical density and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of ecotoxicity and ecophysiology on cell suspensions. Results show that lichen microalgae show high sensitivity to very low doses of atrazine, being higher in Asterochloris erici than in Trebouxia sp. TR9. We conclude that environmental concentrations of atrazine could modify population dynamics probably through a shift in reproduction strategies of these organisms. This seminal work is a breakthrough in the use of lichen microalgae in the assessment of micropollution effects on biodiversity.

  2. Secondary metabolism in the lichen symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcott, Mark J; Ackerley, David F; Knight, Allison; Keyzers, Robert A; Owen, Jeremy G

    2018-03-05

    Lichens, which are defined by a core symbiosis between a mycobiont (fungal partner) and a photobiont (photoautotrophic partner), are in fact complex assemblages of microorganisms that constitute a largely untapped source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Historically, compounds isolated from lichens have predominantly been those produced by the dominant fungal partner, and these continue to be of great interest for their unique chemistry and biotechnological potential. In recent years it has become apparent that many photobionts and lichen-associated bacteria also produce a range of potentially valuable molecules. There is evidence to suggest that the unique nature of the symbiosis has played a substantial role in shaping many aspects of lichen chemistry, for example driving bacteria to produce metabolites that do not bring them direct benefit but are useful to the lichen as a whole. This is most evident in studies of cyanobacterial photobionts, which produce compounds that differ from free living cyanobacteria and are unique to symbiotic organisms. The roles that these and other lichen-derived molecules may play in communication and maintaining the symbiosis are poorly understood at present. Nonetheless, advances in genomics, mass spectrometry and other analytical technologies are continuing to illuminate the wealth of biological and chemical diversity present within the lichen holobiome. Implementation of novel biodiscovery strategies such as metagenomic screening, coupled with synthetic biology approaches to reconstitute, re-engineer and heterologously express lichen-derived biosynthetic gene clusters in a cultivable host, offer a promising means for tapping into this hitherto inaccessible wealth of natural products.

  3. A CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF LICHEN PLANUS

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. Madhu Babu; P. Padmaja; M. Roopa Shree

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lichen planus is an idiopathic subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of the skin, mucous membranes, and nails. We studied the clinicopathological profile of 50 cases of Lichen planus in Osmania General Hospital from September 2010-April 2012. METHODS A total of 50 cases Lichen planus attending DVL OPD at OGH were studied. Clinical features like age, sex, type of Lichen planus, location were recorded in the case record form. Histological features of Lichen planus...

  4. Influence of a range of extreme environmental factors on tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa thallus viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina, Insarova; Dyakov, Max; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Shtaer, Oksana

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of at least two genetic different partners: a heterotrophic fungus (mycobiont) and a phototrophic alga or cyanobacterium (photobiont). Lichens are ubiquitous at global scale. These symbiotic organisms represent the dominant type of “vegetation” at 8 - 10% of land (Larson, 1987). Abiotic stress’ resistance is notable for lichens among all eukaryotes. Lichens are often called “extremophiles” for their ability to acclimate the most severe environmental conditions. These features allow regarding lichens as a group of organisms which is potentially able to keep viability under open space conditions and to survive within Mars-like atmosphere types. The research presented was carried out in the network of spacecraft Bion-1 experiments involving the investigation of physiological and ultrastructural changes in biological objects survivable under open space conditions. Similar researches were already conducted on bipartite lichen species. The most attention was paid to the influence of UV and other space radiation types on lichen viability in those works. Thus we have taken tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa as a main research object and temperature fluctuations from extremely high to extremely low values in accordance to solar and umbral orbit sides - for the main extreme environmental factors. These factors were the less studied in previous works. During the research the influence of incubation under anaerobic conditions, multi-time effects of high and low temperatures and their interchange on respiratory metabolism, photosynthetic apparatus condition and the ultrastructure of P. aphthosa thalli was assessed. The data obtained demonstrate that activity either mycobiont or photobiont in tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa keep near unchanged under influence of all stress factors explored on dry thalli.

  5. [Edge effect on lichen's distribution and chlorophyll content, in fragments of Polylepis quadrijuga (Rosaceae) in Páramo de la Rusia (Boyacá-Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Herrera, Karen; Ramos Montaño, Carolina

    2016-12-01

    The ecosystems fragmentation is one of the anthropic phenomena with highest impact at global level and the edge effect causes that only the fragments interior conserve their original biotic and abiotic characteristics. Lichens are organisms especially susceptible to environmental variability, what could be useful for bio-indication of edge effect. In this work, we evaluated the edge effect in two fragments of Polylepis quadrijuga in the Páramo de la Rusia (Boyacá-Colombia) to determine if there is an edge effect on distribution of lichens associated to P. quadrijuga and their chlorophyll content. We used three transects of 70 m across the matrix-edge-interior gradient in each fragment. We chose nine phorophytes per transect to measure the environmental variables: photosynthetically active radiation, relative humidity and air temperature, and the biological variables: richness and cover per species. Besides, we employed the species that were present in all the three zones of the gradient to quantify the content of chlorophylls a and b, and determine if there are changes in the ratio of chlorophylls a/b that could suggest physiological plasticity as a response to the edge effect. Our results showed that fragment 2 had a higher edge exposition because of its high relation perimeter/area, allowing to an environmental homogenization and lose of biodiversity in relation with fragment 1. Overall, we found 55 differentially distributed species in relation with the fragments and the matrix-edge-interior gradient. The interior of fragment 1 was the most conserved zone, harboring a composition different in more than 40 % to the composition of any other zone. We classified the lichens according with their habits: gelatinous, fruticose, crusty or foliose, but we did not find any relationship between the habit distribution and the edge effect. Six species of wide distribution showed changes in the chlorophyll content along the matrix-edge-interior gradient, what is an evidence

  6. Survival, persistence, and regeneration of the reindeer lichens, Cladina stellaris, C. rangiferina, and C. mitis following clearcut logging and forest fire in northwestern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth T. Webb

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The responses of the reindeer lichens (Cladina stellaris, C. rangiferina, and C. mitis to logging and fire were compared in lichen-rich forest stands in northwestern Ontario. In the summer of 1992, reindeer lichen cover, in total and by species, was visually estimated and detailed notes were taken on reindeer lichen conditions, modes of reproduction, and substrate use on 34 undisturbed, burned, or logged sites. While virtually no reindeer lichens survived forest fire, much of the reindeer lichen cover remained after logging. Reindeer lichen cover increased with time since fire. Total reindeer lichen cover was not correlated with time since logging. Fragment growth was found to be an important mode of reproduction on logged sites, and occurred with greater frequency on logged sites than on burned sites. Colonization of organic substrates by reindeer lichens was observed on both logged and burned sites.

  7. The present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides content in mosses, lichens and needles of Siberia areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakhovenko, V.D.; Sukhorukov, F.V.; Shcherbov, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate the present-day level of long-living artificial radionuclides activity in lichen-moss cover and needles in the Siberia region. During the expeditionary activities (1995-2004) the Lichen cover mosses and needles were sampled in the Ust'-Ordinsky and Aginsky Buryatsky autonomous regions, Altai area, Republic of Altai, Novosibirsk Region, the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous region. The identical species of lichen, mosses. needles were collected from Siberia (lichens - Cladonia, Evernia, Usnea, Parmeli; mosses - Polytrichum, Hylocomium, Pleurozium, Sphagnum; needles - Pinaceae). It was collected 6 and more lichen species from each of 18 sample sites, more than 3 Moss species from 7 sample sites, and in place of coniferous trees joint growth (a pine, a cedar, a fir, a fur-tree and a larch). The needles were selected from all trees and thus were divided into one-year-old and many-year old. The samples were analyzed in the Laboratory of Trace Elements Geochemistry and Ecogeochemistry of the UIGGM, Novosibirsk, using special sample preparation and analysis techniques. The content of 137 Cs were determined by gamma-spectrometry (analyst Stepin A.S.), 90 Sr by beta-radiometry with a radiochemical sample preparation (analyst Makeover I.V.). The data reported are evidence that a present-day level of radioactive contamination in moss-lichen cover and needles of Siberia areas corresponds to this of global background, expect for northern area of Siberia (YNAD) for which hyperactivity are determined for the each of three components. Radiocesium concentration in one-year old needles reflects a level of atmospheric intake only for accidents, for other cases the condition of current needles reflects basically radionuclide level established as the result of dynamic balance between root intake and annual biogenic abscission of needles. (author)

  8. Xanthones of Lichen Source: A 2016 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pogam, Pierre; Boustie, Joël

    2016-03-02

    An update of xanthones encountered in lichens is proposed as more than 20 new xanthones have been described since the publication of the compendium of lichen metabolites by Huneck and Yoshimura in 1996. The last decades witnessed major advances regarding the elucidation of biosynthetic schemes leading to these fascinating compounds, accounting for the unique substitution patterns of a very vast majority of lichen xanthones. Besides a comprehensive analysis of the structures of xanthones described in lichens, their bioactivities and the emerging analytical strategies used to pinpoint them within lichens are presented here together with physico-chemical properties (including NMR data) as reported since 1996.

  9. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in moss and lichen in eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čučulović Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of radionuclides determination in moss (Homolothecium sp., Hypnum Cupressiforme sp., and Brachythecium sp. and lichen (Cladonia sp. sampled in the region of Eastern Serbia during 1996-2010. The activities in moss are in the range of 100-500 Bq/kg d. w. for 40K, and 5-50 Bq/kg d. w. for 226Ra and 232Th, while the “soil-to-moss” transfer factors are 0.45 for 40K, 3 for 226Ra, and 0.3 for 232Th. The spatial distribution of the 137Cs activities is highly non-uniform; some values reach 500 Bq/kg d. w., with less than 10% of the samples, mainly the ones taken prior to 2000, with the activity above 1000 Bq/kg d. w. The variations in the content of natural radionuclides among the moss species are not significant. The frequency pattern of the activities of natural radionuclides in lichen is similar to the one in moss, but the activities in lichen are to some extent lower. The mean activity of 137Cs in lichen is below 400 Bq/kg d. w. The mean activities of 7Be in moss and lichen sampled in 2006 and 2008 are in the range of 41-122 Bq/kg d. w., with pronounced variations between the sampling sites.

  10. Epiphytic lichens of apple orchards in Poland, Slovakia, and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Zarabska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the study of epiphytic lichens in 30 apple orchards from Poland, Slovakia and Italy the list of 74 taxa was prepared. The most common are the meso- to xerophytic and heliophilous species. The highest number of taxa was observed in Slovak orchards. Moreover, lichens shared with at least one other country were also noted mainly in Slovakia. Bark of apple trees seems to create favourable habitats for Bacidia rubella, which together with Strangospora pinicola were valuable founds in Polish orchards. In Slovak orchards, special attention should be paid to Acrocordia gemmata, Melanelixia glabra and Usnea hirta. Among interesting records in Italian orchards, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Ph. kairamoi can be mentioned.

  11. Lichen ecology and diversity of a sagebrush steppe in Oregon: 1977 to the present

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lichen checklist is presented of 141 species from the Lawrence Memorial Grassland Preserve and nearby lands in Wasco County, Oregon, based on collections made in the 1970s and 1990s. Collections include epiphytic, lignicolous, saxicolous, muscicolous and terricolous species. To evaluate differenc...

  12. Diversity and distribution of lichen-associated fungi in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xin-Li; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities associated with seven lichen species in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Lichen-associated fungal communities showed high diversity, with a total of 42,259 reads belonging to 370 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 294 belonged to Ascomycota, 54 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Zygomycota, and 20 to unknown fungi. Leotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were the major classes, whereas the dominant orders were Helotiales, Capnodiales, and Chaetothyriales. Interestingly, most fungal OTUs were closely related to fungi from various habitats (e.g., soil, rock, plant tissues) in the Arctic, Antarctic and alpine regions, which suggests that living in association with lichen thalli may be a transient stage of life cycle for these fungi and that long-distance dispersal may be important to the fungi in the Arctic. In addition, host-related factors shaped the lichen-associated fungal communities in this region. Taken together, these results suggest that lichens thalli act as reservoirs of diverse fungi from various niches, which may improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic. PMID:26463847

  13. Diversity and distribution of lichen-associated fungi in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xin-Li; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan

    2015-10-14

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities associated with seven lichen species in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Lichen-associated fungal communities showed high diversity, with a total of 42,259 reads belonging to 370 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 294 belonged to Ascomycota, 54 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Zygomycota, and 20 to unknown fungi. Leotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were the major classes, whereas the dominant orders were Helotiales, Capnodiales, and Chaetothyriales. Interestingly, most fungal OTUs were closely related to fungi from various habitats (e.g., soil, rock, plant tissues) in the Arctic, Antarctic and alpine regions, which suggests that living in association with lichen thalli may be a transient stage of life cycle for these fungi and that long-distance dispersal may be important to the fungi in the Arctic. In addition, host-related factors shaped the lichen-associated fungal communities in this region. Taken together, these results suggest that lichens thalli act as reservoirs of diverse fungi from various niches, which may improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic.

  14. Concurrent Presentation of Erythrodermic Lichen Planus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Coincidence or Malignant Transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Neema M; Bhat, Ramesh; Rao, Shwetha B

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely. A 40 year old female patient presented with a 1 year history of developing multiple, itchy, pigmented lesions over both lower legs which gradually spread to involve the whole body. A few tense bullae were seen on the extremities. An erythematous fleshy lesion was seen on the upper aspect of the left buttock. Skin biopsy from a plaque on the right forearm showed features suggestive of lichen planus. Skin biopsy of a bullae showed a sub epidermal bulla filled with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed no immunoreactants along the basement membrane zone. A diagnosis of erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lichen planus was made. Biopsy of fleshy lesion of left buttock revealed a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lesions and secondary squamous cell carcinoma; these occurences in a single patient is extremely rare and has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge.

  15. The lichen flora of declining coniferous trees in the northern Black Forest: Ecological studies aiming at a differentiated assessment of air pollution effects and epidemic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliemeroth, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    For the forest region of Klosterreichenbach, a map of the state of the lichen flora has been drawn up, based on investigations of lichens on trees in different states of decline and of various age categories, and covering various species of trees, growing in areas showing the typical signs of the novel types of forest damage, and in areas subjected to pollutant emissions of a nearby, heavily polluting emission source. In the close-in area of this emission source, forest decline has been found to be strongly correlated with a heavily depleted lichen flora. Beyond the area affected by the emission source, the degree of decline of the trees has been found to increase with tree hight and age, but the quality and quantity data taken of lichen flora on these trees showed an improving trend, which however is superimposed by climatic and biological factors. The final analysis of the data indicates that the novel types of forest damage can no longer be explained by air pollution alone. (VHE) With many figs. and tabs [de

  16. Canopy, snow, and lichens on woodland caribou range in southeastern Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available I examined the relationships among snow cover (api, lichen abundance, and canopy composition on the range of the Aikens Lake population of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern Manitoba. Percent cover of forage lichens (Cladina spp. was positively correlated with maximum total thickness and with maximum vertical hardness of api. Mixed communities of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides, spruce (Picea spp., and balsam fir (Abies balsamea showed the most favourable nival conditions for caribou but had low lichen abundance; those dominated by jack pine (Pinus banksiana were the converse. The results suggest an energetic compromise for woodland caribou when foraging for terrestrial lichens. During winter, caribou exhibited significant selection for jack pine communities whereas mixed communities were avoided.

  17. Evaluation of serum Malondialdehyde level in patients with oral lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mehdipour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malondialdehyde (MDA is a useful determinant to show high level of lipid peroxidation which lead to impaired cell function. Previous studies have mentioned there is a relationship between high oxidative stress and low anti-oxidant activity in patients with oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum level of Malondialdehyde as an indicator of oxidative stress in patients with oral lichen planus which is a chronic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Materials & Methods: This descriptive-comparative study evaluated the oxidative stress status on twenty patients with oral lichen planus and 20 control healthy individuals based on serum level of Malondialdehyde. Results: The mean serum Malondialdehyde levels in oral lichen planus patients and control individuals were 2.9 (±2 and 2.4 (±1.3 µg/ml, respectively, indicating no significant difference (P=0.6. Conclusion: According to the results, role of Malondialdehyde in cellular damage and pathogenesis of oral lichen planus was not proved.

  18. Lichens as pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, F

    1970-01-01

    Although lichens are generally considered to be of little use to man, their sensitivity to air pollution makes them good biological indicators. The author describes how this feature can help to establish relative degrees of air pollution. He notes areas where lichens are reduced in number and vigor, and some in which they have disappeared altogether. He challenges the idea that dryness is responsible, since they have also disappeared from damp woodland areas. Experimental work supports the view that sulfur dioxide is the major factor rather than smoke, although there is no definitive proof. Lichen damage correlates best with mean winter levels of air pollution by SO/sub 2/. 16 references, 1 figure.

  19. Polyextremotolerant black fungi: oligotrophism, adaptive potential and a link to lichen symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cene eGostinčar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Black meristematic fungi can survive high doses of radiation and are resistant to desiccation. These adaptations help them to colonize harsh oligotrophic habitats, e.g. on the surface and subsurface of rocks. One of their most characteristic stress-resistance mechanisms is the accumulation of melanin in the cell walls. This, production of other protective molecules and a plastic morphology further contribute to ecological flexibility of black fungi. Increased growth rates of some species after exposure to ionizing radiation even suggest yet unknown mechanisms of energy production. Other unusual metabolic strategies may include harvesting UV or visible light or gaining energy by forming facultative lichen-like associations with algae or cyanobacteria. The latter is not entirely surprising, since certain black fungal lineages are phylogenetically related to clades of lichen-forming fungi. Similar to black fungi, lichen-forming fungi are adapted to growth on exposed surfaces with low availability of nutrients. They also efficiently use protective molecules to tolerate frequent periods of extreme stress. Traits shared by both groups of fungi may have been important in facilitating the evolution and radiation of lichen-symbioses.

  20. Lichens in the Churchyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis

    2010-01-01

    The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in…

  1. Lichen planus hypertrophicus of the vulva - a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Anupa Mary; Kaimal, Sowmya

    2017-09-01

    Vulvovaginal lichen planus is a type of chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the vulva, usually seen as a part of widespread lichen planus. The common clinical types of vulval lichen planus include papulosquamous, erosive and pigmented types. Hypertrophic lichen planus of the vulva is a rare entity. We report a case of hypertrophic lichen planus of the vulva which clinically simulated genital warts.

  2. Interleukin-6 and neopterin levels in the serum and saliva of patients with Lichen planus and oral Lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Haq, Ayman; Kusnierz-Cabala, Beata; Darczuk, Dagmara; Sobuta, Eliza; Dumnicka, Paulina; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Lichen planus together with its oral variant is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the skin and the mucosa of unclear aetiology and with an unpredictable course that still poses a major problem in terms of diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and neopterin in saliva and serum of patients with lichen planus (including reticular and erosive form of oral lichen planus) and to compare them with the concentrations observed in healthy controls. The study material comprised serum and saliva samples from 56 patients diagnosed with lichen planus and 56 healthy volunteers. The ELISA test was used to measure concentrations of IL-6 and neopterin in the serum and saliva of the study participants. The concentrations of IL-6 in saliva and serum of patients with lichen planus were significantly higher than in controls (P = 0.0002; P oral lichen planus had significantly higher IL-6 concentrations in their saliva compared to patients with reticular form of disease (P = 0.01). The concentrations of neopterin were significantly higher in the serum but not in saliva of lichen planus patients vs. controls (P lichen planus as well as the salivary concentrations of IL-6. The differences observed in IL-6 levels in patients with erosive-atrophic forms of oral lichen planus may indicate a substantial role played by the cytokine in the disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Lichens as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: A comparison with soil, air and pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, Sofia; Maguas, Cristina; Matos, Joao; Pereira, Maria Joao; Branquinho, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate lichens as biomonitors of PAH atmospheric deposition; for that, an inter-comparison between the PAH profile and concentrations intercepted in lichens with those of air, soil and pine needles was performed. The study was conducted in a petro-industrial area and the results showed that PAH profiles in lichens were similar to those of the air and pine needles, but completely different from those of soils. Lichens accumulated higher PAH concentrations when compared to the other environmental compartments and its concentrations were significantly and linearly correlated with concentrations of PAHs in soil; we showed that a translation of the lichen PAHs concentrations into regulatory standards is possible, fulfilling one of the most important requirements of using lichens as biomonitors. With lichens we were then able to characterize the air PAHs profile of urban, petro-industrial and background areas. - Lichen PAH concentrations can identify geographic areas that may be out of compliance with regulatory standards.

  4. Relationship between atmospheric ammonia concentration and nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2014-01-01

    From April 2006 to April 2007, the geographical and seasonal variation in nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa) and atmospheric ammonia concentrations were measured at five heathland sites. The seasonal variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was small, even though...... there was a large seasonal variation in the air concentration of ammonia. A sizable local variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was found even at the scale of a few kilometres. The nitrogen content in the lichen showed a high correlation to the yearly mean value of the measured ammonia concentration...

  5. Photosynthesis of green algal soil crust lichens from arid lands in southern Utah, USA: Role of water content on light and temperature responses of CO2 exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Otto L.; Belnap, Jayne; Meyer, Angelika

    1997-01-01

    Biotic soil crusts are a worldwide phenomenon in arid and semi-arid landscapes. Metabolic activity of the poikilohydric organisms found in these crusts is dominated by quick and drastic changes in moisture availability and long periods of drought. Under controlled conditions, we studied the role of water content on photosynthetic and respiratory CO2 exchange of three green algal soil crust lichens from a desert site in southern Utah (USA): Diploschistes diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch, Psora cerebriformis W. Weber, and Squamarina lentigera (Weber) Poelt.Photosynthetic metabolism is activated by extremely small amounts of moisture; lower compensation values for net photosynthesis (NP) are reached between 0.05 and 0.27 mm of precipitation equivalent. Thus, the lichens can use very low degrees of hydration for carbon gain. Maximal NP occurs between 0.39 and 0.94 mm precipitation equivalent, and area-related rates equal 2.6–5.2 μmol CO2 m−2s−1. All three tested species show ‘sun plant’ features, including high light requirements for CO2 exchange compensation and for NP saturation.Diploschistes diacapsis maintains high rates of NP at full water saturation. In contrast, suprasaturated thalli of the other two species show a strong depression in NP which can be removed or reduced by increased external CO2 concentration. Consequently, this depression is most probably caused by increased thallus diffusive resistances due to pathway blockage by water. This depression will greatly limit carbon gain of these species in the field after heavy rain. It occurs at all temperatures of ecological relevance and also under conditions of low light. However, maximum water holding capacity of P. cerebriformis and S. lentigera is higher than that of D. diacapsis. This could mean that periods of hydration favorable for metabolic activity for those two species last longer than those of D. diacapsis. This might compensate for their lower rates of NP during suprasaturation. Thus, two

  6. High acidity tolerance in lichens with fumarprotocetraric, perlatolic or thamnolic acids is correlated with low pKa1 values of these lichen substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid as well as the depsides perlatolic and thamnolic acids are lichen secondary metabolites. Their first dissociation constants (pK a1 ) in methanol were determined to be 2.7 for perlatolic acid and 2.8 for fumarprotocetraric and thamnolic acids by UV spectroscopy. Lower pK a1 values are, so far, not known from lichen substances. Several lichens producing at least one of these compounds are known for their outstanding tolerance to acidic air pollution. This is demonstrated by evaluating published pH preferences for central European lichens. The low pK a1 values suggest that strong dissociation of the studied lichen substances is a prerequisite for the occurrence of lichens with these compounds on very acidic substrata, as protonated lichen substances of different chemical groups, but not their conjugated bases, are known to shuttle protons into the cytoplasm and thereby apparently damage lichens. - Depsides and depsidones with low pK a1 values occur in highly acidity-tolerant lichens.

  7. Deteriorating effects of lichen and microbial colonization of carbonate building rocks in the Romanesque churches of Segovia (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Asuncion de los; Camara, Beatriz; Garcia del Cura, Ma Angeles; Rico, Victor J.; Galvan, Virginia; Ascaso, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the deterioration effects of lichens and other lithobionts in a temperate mesothermal climate were explored. We examined samples of dolostone and limestone rocks with visible signs of biodeterioration taken from the exterior wall surfaces of four Romanesque churches in Segovia (Spain): San Lorenzo, San Martin, San Millan and La Vera Cruz. Biofilms developing on the lithic substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The most common lichen species found in the samples were recorded. Fungal cultures were then obtained from these carbonate rocks and characterized by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS). Through scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron mode, fungi (lichenized and non-lichenized) were observed as the most frequent microorganisms occurring at sites showing signs of biodeterioration. The colonization process was especially conditioned by the porosity characteristics of the stone used in these buildings. While in dolostones, microorganisms mainly occupied spaces comprising the rock's intercrystalline porosity, in bioclastic dolomitized limestones, fungal colonization seemed to be more associated with moldic porosity. Microbial biofilms make close contact with the substrate, and thus probably cause significant deterioration of the underlying materials. We describe the different processes of stone alteration induced by fungal colonization and discuss the implications of these processes for the design of treatments to prevent biodeterioration

  8. Change in atmospheric deposition during last half century and its impact on lichen community structure in Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Upreti, Dalip Kumar

    2016-08-09

    Climatic fluctuations largely affects species turnover and cause major shifts of terrestrial ecosystem. In the present study the five decade old herbarium specimens of lichens were compared with recent collection from Darjeeling district with respect to elements, PAHs accumulation and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) to explore the changes in climatic conditions and its impact on lichen flora. The δ(13)C has increased in recent specimens which is in contrast to the assumption that anthropogenic emission leads to δ(13)C depletion in air and increased carbon discrimination in flora. Study clearly demonstrated an increase in anthropogenic pollution and drastic decrease in precipitation while temperature showed abrupt changes during the past five decades resulting in significant change in lichen community structure. The Usneoid and Pertusorioid communities increased, while Physcioid and Cyanophycean decreased, drastically. Lobarian abolished from the study area, however, Calcicoid has been introduced in the recent past. Probably, post-industrial revolution, the abrupt changes in the environment has influenced CO2 diffusion and/C fixation of (lower) plants either as an adaptation strategy or due to toxicity of pollutants. Thus, the short term studies (≤5 decades) might reflect recent micro-environmental condition and lichen community structure can be used as model to study the global climate change.

  9. Change in atmospheric deposition during last half century and its impact on lichen community structure in Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Upreti, Dalip Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Climatic fluctuations largely affects species turnover and cause major shifts of terrestrial ecosystem. In the present study the five decade old herbarium specimens of lichens were compared with recent collection from Darjeeling district with respect to elements, PAHs accumulation and carbon isotope composition (δ13C) to explore the changes in climatic conditions and its impact on lichen flora. The δ13C has increased in recent specimens which is in contrast to the assumption that anthropogenic emission leads to δ13C depletion in air and increased carbon discrimination in flora. Study clearly demonstrated an increase in anthropogenic pollution and drastic decrease in precipitation while temperature showed abrupt changes during the past five decades resulting in significant change in lichen community structure. The Usneoid and Pertusorioid communities increased, while Physcioid and Cyanophycean decreased, drastically. Lobarian abolished from the study area, however, Calcicoid has been introduced in the recent past. Probably, post-industrial revolution, the abrupt changes in the environment has influenced CO2 diffusion and/C fixation of (lower) plants either as an adaptation strategy or due to toxicity of pollutants. Thus, the short term studies (≤5 decades) might reflect recent micro-environmental condition and lichen community structure can be used as model to study the global climate change.

  10. Deteriorating effects of lichen and microbial colonization of carbonate building rocks in the Romanesque churches of Segovia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Asuncion de los [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: arios@ccma.csic.es; Camara, Beatriz [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia del Cura, Ma Angeles [Instituto de Geologia Economica CSIC-UCM, Laboratorio de Petrologia Aplicada, Unidad Asociada CSIC-UA, Alicante (Spain); Rico, Victor J. [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Galvan, Virginia [Facultad Patrimonio Cultural, Universidad SEK, Convento de Santa Cruz la Real, 40003 Segovia (Spain); Ascaso, Carmen [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, the deterioration effects of lichens and other lithobionts in a temperate mesothermal climate were explored. We examined samples of dolostone and limestone rocks with visible signs of biodeterioration taken from the exterior wall surfaces of four Romanesque churches in Segovia (Spain): San Lorenzo, San Martin, San Millan and La Vera Cruz. Biofilms developing on the lithic substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The most common lichen species found in the samples were recorded. Fungal cultures were then obtained from these carbonate rocks and characterized by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS). Through scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron mode, fungi (lichenized and non-lichenized) were observed as the most frequent microorganisms occurring at sites showing signs of biodeterioration. The colonization process was especially conditioned by the porosity characteristics of the stone used in these buildings. While in dolostones, microorganisms mainly occupied spaces comprising the rock's intercrystalline porosity, in bioclastic dolomitized limestones, fungal colonization seemed to be more associated with moldic porosity. Microbial biofilms make close contact with the substrate, and thus probably cause significant deterioration of the underlying materials. We describe the different processes of stone alteration induced by fungal colonization and discuss the implications of these processes for the design of treatments to prevent biodeterioration.

  11. Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Shirzad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group, referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student’s ttest. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43±183.95 μM; P < 0.0001, and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA (0.49 ± 0.30 μM was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM (P < 0.0001. TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P < 0.0001, r = −0.48. Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

  12. Salivary total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in patients with erosive oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Atena; Pouramir, Mahdi; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Jenabian, Niloofar; Bijani, Ali; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group) and 30 age-and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group), referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student' t-test. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM) was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43 ± 183.95 μM; P & 0.0001), and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA) (0.49 ± 0.30 μM) was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM) (P & 0.0001). TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P & 0.0001, r = -0.48). Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

  13. Chapter 6 - Links between land cover and lichen species richness at large scales in forested ecosystems across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Randall S. Morin; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt Riitters; Sarah Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Lichen community composition is well known for exhibiting response to air pollution, and to macroenvironmental and microenvironmental variables. Lichens are useful indicators of air quality impact, forest health, and forest ecosystem integrity across the United States (McCune 2000, reviews in Nimis and others 2002, USDA Forest Service 2007).

  14. Biomonitoring of 210Po and 210Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, Emel; Ugur, Aysun; Ozden, Banu; Sac, Mueslim Murat; Camgoez, Berkay

    2011-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for 210 Po and 210 Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 ± 7-593 ± 21 and 97 ± 5-364 ± 13 Bq kg -1 , for mosses the ranges for 210 Po and 210 Pb are 124 ± 5-1125 ± 38 and 113 ± 4-490 ± 17 Bq kg -1 , respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more 210 Po and 210 Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. 210 Po concentrations were found higher than 210 Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: → Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. → The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. → Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. → Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  15. Oral lichen planus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Katpar, S.; Ali, A.

    2007-01-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous dermatological disorder, with intraoral manifestation. Skin lesions prevail with oral mucosal lesions. Prevalence of lichen planus, as an oral pre-malignant lesion, is 1-2 % population. Lateral border, dorsal tongue, gingiva, hard palate and vermilion border are common sites and lesions appear as reticular, plaque-like and papular intraoral types. Skin presents with pururitic, polygonal papules. Atrophic and erosive are the known intraoral pre-malignant types. A case report is presented, which responded well to steroid therapy. (author)

  16. Lichen planus pigmetosus-like ashy dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tripodi Cutrì

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ashy dermatosis, also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans, is an idiopathic dermal melanosis of unknown etiology. We here describe an unusual case of 63-year-old Caucasian male with ashy dermatosis and skin lesion of lichen pigmentosus-like. No treatment was tried because the lesions were totally asymptomatic. After a control, three months later, all lesions had cleared up. This case is of interest because it proves the existence of ashy dermatosis with clinical aspect lichen planus pigmentosus-like. This is the first case in the literature of lichen planus pigmentosuslike ashy dermatosis confirming the view that ashy dermatosis is a variant of lichen planus without the typically band-like infiltrate and Max Joseph spaces.

  17. LICHEN STRIATUS – CASE REPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Caius Solovan; Cristina Birsan; Anca E. Chiriac; Liliana Foia; Anca Chiriac; Piotr Brzeziński

    2013-01-01

    Lichen striatus is an acquired linear inflammatory dermatosis, not frequently reported, with a peculiar clinical aspect, most often described in adults, with a poor response to treatment. We described 4 cases of lichen striatus diagnosed over an 8-month period of time.

  18. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jayasri Krupaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment.

  19. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  20. Assessment of atmospheric pollution of chemical elements by epiphytic lichen analysis at the Campus of the Sao Paulo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Rosiana Rocho

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution has been a frequent topic of research, due to the effects that it can cause on the health of living organisms, environment and climate. In order to identify pollution sources and their effects, biomonitoring has been studied due to its low cost and possibility of sampling in wide geographic areas. In this study for passive biomonitoring of air pollution levels at the Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira (CUASO), University of Sao Paulo campus, epiphytic lichens of Canoparmelia texana species were used. The lichens collected from tree barks at different sampling sites in the CUASO were cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Lichen samples were analyzed by X - ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). For XRFS, cylindrical pellets of samples were prepared to determine As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Rb, S, Sr and Zn. For NAA, lichen sample aliquots along with synthetic elemental standards were irradiated both for short and long periods at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The induced activities were measured by a gamma ray spectrometer to determine As, Br, Ca Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, V and Zn. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials (MRCs). Their results of relative errors and standard deviations were below 15% for most of the elements. The standardized difference or En score values were lower than |1| indicating satisfactory results. Replicate analyses of a lichen sample by XRFS and NAA, indicated good homogeneity of the sample for the elements determined. The lichen results showed that the mean concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se and U were higher in samples from CUASO than those from regions considered unpolluted. For Fe, K, La, S, V and Zn, they were of the same order of magnitude. The correlation study between the elements showed high correlation (r > 0.7) for elements

  1. LICHEN STRIATUS – CASE REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caius Solovan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lichen striatus is an acquired linear inflammatory dermatosis, not frequently reported, with a peculiar clinical aspect, most often described in adults, with a poor response to treatment. We described 4 cases of lichen striatus diagnosed over an 8-month period of time.

  2. Radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory, and antimicrobial potential of a cultured Himalayan lichen Cetrelia olivetorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savale, Swapnil Anil; Pol, Chaitrali Satish; Khare, Roshni; Verma, Neeraj; Gaikwad, Subhash; Mandal, Bapi; Behera, Bhaskar C

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are source of natural bioactive compounds which are traditionally used to cure a variety of ailments. The objective of this study is to assess free radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory (PEPI), and antimicrobial potential of a high altitude lichen species Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb (Parmeliaceae). Lichen C. olivetorum has been cultured in vitro, and optimized culture conditions were implemented in bioreactor to obtain high quantity of biomass for the study of radical scavenging, PEPI, and antimicrobial activities. Radical scavenging activity of methanol extract of Cetrelia olivetorum (MECO) was tested at 100 µg/mL, PEPI activity at 25 and 50 µg/mL, and antimicrobial activity at 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL conc. All the biological activities of natural thallus extract and its derived culture extract were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3% glucose and 100 ppb indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supported biomass growth at flask level and yielded 5.095 g biomass in bioreactor. MECO of both the cultured and the natural lichen exhibited half inhibiting concentration (IC50) for radical scavenging activities in the range of 50-60 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard antioxidants was found to be in the range of 12-29 µg/mL. The IC50 value of lichen extract for PEPI activity was 144-288 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor, Z-pro-prolinal, was 57.73 µg/mL. As far as the antimicrobial activity of MECO is concerned, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of lichen extracts against tested microorganisms was obtained in the range of 50-104 µg/mL and found to be more effective than commercially available standard erythromycin. Murashige and Skoog medium containing IBA was found to be suitable for maximum biomass production of C. olivetorum under bioreactor conditions. The cultured lichen biomass extract also showed

  3. High acidity tolerance in lichens with fumarprotocetraric, perlatolic or thamnolic acids is correlated with low pKa1 values of these lichen substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    The depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid as well as the depsides perlatolic and thamnolic acids are lichen secondary metabolites. Their first dissociation constants (pK(a1)) in methanol were determined to be 2.7 for perlatolic acid and 2.8 for fumarprotocetraric and thamnolic acids by UV spectroscopy. Lower pK(a1) values are, so far, not known from lichen substances. Several lichens producing at least one of these compounds are known for their outstanding tolerance to acidic air pollution. This is demonstrated by evaluating published pH preferences for central European lichens. The low pK(a1) values suggest that strong dissociation of the studied lichen substances is a prerequisite for the occurrence of lichens with these compounds on very acidic substrata, as protonated lichen substances of different chemical groups, but not their conjugated bases, are known to shuttle protons into the cytoplasm and thereby apparently damage lichens.

  4. Effects of bryophyte and lichen cover on permafrost soil temperature at large scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Porada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bryophyte and lichen cover on the forest floor at high latitudes exerts an insulating effect on the ground. In this way, the cover decreases mean annual soil temperature and can protect permafrost soil. Climate change, however, may change bryophyte and lichen cover, with effects on the permafrost state and related carbon balance. It is, therefore, crucial to predict how the bryophyte and lichen cover will react to environmental change at the global scale. To date, current global land surface models contain only empirical representations of the bryophyte and lichen cover, which makes it impractical to predict the future state and function of bryophytes and lichens. For this reason, we integrate a process-based model of bryophyte and lichen growth into the global land surface model JSBACH (Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg. The model simulates bryophyte and lichen cover on upland sites. Wetlands are not included. We take into account the dynamic nature of the thermal properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover and their relation to environmental factors. Subsequently, we compare simulations with and without bryophyte and lichen cover to quantify the insulating effect of the organisms on the soil. We find an average cooling effect of the bryophyte and lichen cover of 2.7 K on temperature in the topsoil for the region north of 50° N under the current climate. Locally, a cooling of up to 5.7 K may be reached. Moreover, we show that using a simple, empirical representation of the bryophyte and lichen cover without dynamic properties only results in an average cooling of around 0.5 K. This suggests that (a bryophytes and lichens have a significant impact on soil temperature in high-latitude ecosystems and (b a process-based description of their thermal properties is necessary for a realistic representation of the cooling effect. The advanced land surface scheme, including a dynamic bryophyte and lichen model, will

  5. [Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Tommaso; Küffer, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Dynamic concept of oral lichen planus. The diagnosis easy at early stages may become difficult in ancient lichen planus. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of the skin, skin appendages and mucous membranes, which frequently affects the oral mucosa. Its aetiology still remains unknown, and currently accepted pathogenesis is that of an autoimmune cell-mediated disease. To the contrary of skin lichen planus, oral lichen planus is a long-term chronic disease with dynamic evolution, in which progressive and profound changes of the clinical and histopathological aspects occur over time and under the influence of various exogenous factors. By convention, in the history of the oral lichen planus four successive stages can be distinguished without well-defined boundaries between them. These stages can be defined as an initial phase; a long intermediate phase with alternating periods of activity and quiescence, which has a gradually increasing risk of malignant transformation; a late stage which activity is traditionally diminished; and a post-lichen cicatricial stage with an absent or negligible and undetectable activity, often undiagnosed because clinically unrecognized; in this stage, the lesion does not respond to usual treatments, but retains the same risk of malignant transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Do lichens have "memory" of their native nitrogen environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzi, Silvana; Loppi, Stefano; Cruz, Cristina; Branquinho, Cristina

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to deepen the knowledge about intraspecific mechanisms regulating nitrogen tolerance in lichens to wet nitrogen deposition. Thalli of the nitrophilous lichen Xanthoria parietina were collected from environments with different nitrogen availabilities and immersed in 80 mL of ammonium sulphate (NH₄)₂SO₄ solutions with distinct concentrations (0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.25 M) for 5 h per day during 3 days in a week. After each soaking event, lichens were air dried. After each treatment, maximal PSII efficiency, localization of ammonium ions, concentrations of K+ and Mg²+ and thalli buffer capacity were determined. Our results show that lichens are marked by their native nitrogen environment, since there were important differences between the physiological responses of X. parietina thalli previously grown in an area with high nitrogen deposition (nitrogen emissions of ca. 13,000 t/year) and those previously grown in an unpolluted area (nitrogen emissions of ca. 500 t/year). Greater N availability seems to enable X. parietina to cope better with the effects of nitrogen pollution.

  7. Salivary oxidative status in patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darczuk, D; Krzysciak, W; Vyhouskaya, P; Kesek, B; Galecka-Wanatowicz, D; Lipska, W; Kaczmarzyk, T; Gluch-Lutwin, M; Mordyl, B; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, M

    2016-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases, including oral lichen planus. Therefore, determining the salivary markers of oxidative stress is an excellent alternative approach to diagnosing oral cavity diseases. The objective of our study was to provide preliminary validation and determination of the salivary markers of oxidative stress in both patients with reticular and erosive forms of oral lichen planus as well as in healthy individuals without any oral lesions. In total, 62 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) were enrolled in the study, including 31 with the reticular form of lichen planus (44.63 ± 11.05 years) and 31 with erosive forms (40.43 ± 10.05 years), who had never been treated for their disease. The control group comprised 30 individuals without any oral lesions (42.12 ± 12.22 years). We determined the saliva levels in glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The mean saliva levels of GSH and TAC were significantly lower (P < 0.01) in OLP patients compared to the control group. The mean levels of salivary TBARS were higher in both OLP groups (reticular and erosive) compared to the control group (P = 0.01). The lower saliva levels of GSH and TAC in patients with OLP indicate that free radicals and the resulting oxidative damage may play an important role in the pathogenesis of OLP lesions. In conclusion, monitoring the oxidant-antioxidant status of saliva may serve as an efficient and less intrusive marker for determining stages of disease development in patients with OLP.

  8. The influence of tree age and microhabitat quality on the occurrence of crustose lichens associated with old oaks

    OpenAIRE

    Ranius, Thomas; Johansson, Per; Berg, Niclas; Niklasson, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Questions: How do tree age, microhabitat characteristics and epiphytic competitors affect the occurrence of crustose lichens associated with old oaks? How do microhabitat characteristics and microclimate affect the cover of competitors (bryophytes and macrolichens)? How do microhabitat characteristics cor¬relate with microclimatic variables? Location: Southeast Sweden. Methods: Eight crustose lichen species were surveyed on 165 Quercus robur trees, 17-478 years old, at three study sit...

  9. Survey of elemental concentrations in lichen samples collected from Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Horimoto, L.K.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Coccaro, D.M.B.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    Samples of the lichen Canoparmelia texana collected in seven different sites of Sao Paulo State and one site of the Parana State were analysed by neutron activation analysis in order to obtain information on the air quality in these regions and also to select a region of interest for the evaluation of baseline level of elements in lichen species. Concentrations of the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, Th, U, V, Zn and lanthanides were determined and a preliminary comparisons was made between the results obtained for samples collected in different sites. (author)

  10. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Himalayan Lichen Fungus Lobaria pindarensis (Lobariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Devkota

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the rare, Himalayan, endemic haploid lichen fungus, Lobaria pindarensis, to study its population subdivision and the species' response to forest disturbance and fragmentation. Methods and Results: We developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data and assessed them in 109 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 11 with an average of 6.9. Nei's unbiased gene diversity, averaged over loci, ranged from 0.514 to 0.685 in the three populations studied. The cross-amplification success with related species (L. chinensis, L. gyrophorica, L. isidiophora, L. orientalis, L. pulmonaria, L. spathulata, and Lobaria sp. was generally high and decreased with decreasing relationship to L. pindarensis. Conclusions: The new markers will allow the study of genetic diversity and differentiation within L. pindarensis across its distribution. Moreover, they will enable us to study the effects of forest management on the genetic population structure of this tree-colonizing lichen and to carry out population genetic studies of related species in East Asia.

  11. Comparative study of cell alterations in oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma of the mouth mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Rosa, Luiz Eduardo Blumer

    2009-01-01

    Currently, much is discussed regarding the pre-malignant nature of mouth mucosa lichen planus. The present study aims at analyzing the alterations found in the epithelial cells present in the oral cavity lichen planus, comparing them to those found in epidermoid carcinoma. Histological cross-sections of oral lichen planus and epidermoid carcinoma, dyed by hematoxylineosin, were analyzed through light microscopy. The most frequently found alterations in oral lichen planus were: an increase in the nucleus/cytoplasm relation (93.33%), nucleus membrane thickness (86.67%) and bi-nucleus or multinucleous (86.67%). The Student t test (alpha=5%) revealed a statistically significant difference between the average number of cell alterations in oral lichen planus (5.87+/-1.57) and in epidermoid carcinoma (7.60+/-1.81). As to the types of alterations, the chi-squared test also revealed statistically significant differences among the lesions assessed in relation to the following cell alterations: nuclear excess chromatism, atypical mitoses, cellular pleomorphism and abnormal cell differentiation (poral lichen planus, the results obtained in this study show that the alterations present in oral lichen planus differ considerably from those seen in epidermoid carcinoma, thus showing how distinct these two diseases are.

  12. The use of autecological and environmental parameters for establishing the status of lichen vegetation in a baseline study for a long-term monitoring survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, S.; Asta, J.; Seaward, M.R.D.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 the ecological characteristics of the epiphytic species (83 lichens and two algae) of an urban area (Grenoble, France) were determined. Seven autecological indices were used to characterize the lichen ecology: illumination index, humidity index, pH of bark, nutrient status of substratum, ecological index of IAP and frequency. Six clusters (A1-A6) were defined using cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Seven environmental parameters characterizing the stations and the lichen releves were also used: elevation, parameters of artificiality (urbanization, traffic and local land use), IAP, and the percentage of nitrophytic and acidophytic species. Six clusters (B1-B6) were defined using cluster analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Four clusters (C1-C4) were finally defined using an empirical integrated method combining the autecological and environmental parameters. This final clustering which established the status of the lichen vegetation in 1997 can be reliably used as a baseline study to effectively monitor environmental changes in this urban area. - Ecological clustering which establishes the status of lichen vegetation can be reliably used as a baseline study to monitor environmental changes

  13. Infrared and ultraviolet laser removal of crustose lichens on dolomite heritage stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, Mikel; Oujja, Mohamed [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR), CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ascaso, Carmen; Ríos, Asunción de los; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio [Museo Nacional de Ciencia Naturales (MNCN), CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Souza-Egipsy, Virginia [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias (ICA), CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Wierzchos, Jacek; Speranza, Mariela [Museo Nacional de Ciencia Naturales (MNCN), CSIC, Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Cañamares, Maria Vega [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (ICEM), CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Castillejo, Marta, E-mail: marta.castillejo@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR), CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Laser irradiation at 1064 nm (IR) or 355 nm (UV) partially removes epilithic lichens on dolostone. • Irradiation in a sequential, dual IR–UV mode efficiently eliminates lichen thalli. • Dual IR–UV irradiation mode induces severe damage on endolithic colonizers of dolostone. - Abstract: Laser removal of biodeteriogen layers warrants detailed studies due to the advantages it brings with respect to mechanical elimination or the use of biocides. We have investigated elimination of biological crusts on dolomite stones from heritage sites in central Spain. The samples were colonized by epilithic crustose lichens of different species, such as Caloplaca sp. and Verrucaria nigrescens. A comparative study was carried out by applying infrared (1064 nm) and ultraviolet (355 nm) nanosecond laser pulses and sequences pulses of the two wavelengths using a Q-switched Nd:YAG system. To detect anatomical and ultrastructural damage to the lichens, and to assess possible morphological and chemical changes on the underlying stone induced by laser irradiation, we used stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. The optimal conditions for removal of the colonization crust, while ensuring preservation of the lithic substrate, were obtained for dual infrared-ultraviolet sequential irradiation.

  14. Air biomonitoring by transplanted lichens in the Negev Desert, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, J [Department of Plant Sciences and Institute for Nature Conservation Research, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    1999-07-01

    Thalli of the lichen Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory were collected in the Negev Desert in August 1997 and transplanted with their substrate, flintstones, to 24 bio-monitoring sites in the Negev Desert. An assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities was made by measurements of the concentration of mineral elements in the lichen and by an examination of its physiological status. After a transplantation period of nine months, the lichens were retrieved in April 1998 and the concentration of 22 mineral elements in the thallus was determined by ICP-AES. In addition we examined the following parameters determining the status of the lichen: 1. Electric conductivity indicative of cell membrane integrity; 2. Spectral reflectance response of the thallus expressed as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) indicative of greenness and health of the thallus; 3. Production of ethylene indicative of stress, 4. Chlorophyll a fluorescence as a means to monitor aspects of photosystem II (PSII) activities in the lichen. Preliminary results show that lichens exposed to air contaminants at a site of toxic waste deposition contain high concentrations of Ca, Cu, Pb and Mn and significant low K concentrations due to leakage of this element from injured cell membranes. Conductivity measurements performed to test the integrity of cell membranes corroborated this assumption. NDVI values indicating damage to chlorophyll were relative low in lichens retrieved from sites near Beer Sheba. The stress-ethylene production was the highest in one site near Beer Sheba. The maximum quantum yield of PSII expressed as fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm was low in two sites in the Ramat Hovav Industrial Area. (author)

  15. Air biomonitoring by transplanted lichens in the Negev Desert, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garty, J.

    1999-01-01

    Thalli of the lichen Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory were collected in the Negev Desert in August 1997 and transplanted with their substrate, flintstones, to 24 bio-monitoring sites in the Negev Desert. An assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities was made by measurements of the concentration of mineral elements in the lichen and by an examination of its physiological status. After a transplantation period of nine months, the lichens were retrieved in April 1998 and the concentration of 22 mineral elements in the thallus was determined by ICP-AES. In addition we examined the following parameters determining the status of the lichen: 1. Electric conductivity indicative of cell membrane integrity; 2. Spectral reflectance response of the thallus expressed as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) indicative of greenness and health of the thallus; 3. Production of ethylene indicative of stress, 4. Chlorophyll a fluorescence as a means to monitor aspects of photosystem II (PSII) activities in the lichen. Preliminary results show that lichens exposed to air contaminants at a site of toxic waste deposition contain high concentrations of Ca, Cu, Pb and Mn and significant low K concentrations due to leakage of this element from injured cell membranes. Conductivity measurements performed to test the integrity of cell membranes corroborated this assumption. NDVI values indicating damage to chlorophyll were relative low in lichens retrieved from sites near Beer Sheba. The stress-ethylene production was the highest in one site near Beer Sheba. The maximum quantum yield of PSII expressed as fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm was low in two sites in the Ramat Hovav Industrial Area. (author)

  16. Lecanora stanislai, a new, sterile, usnic acid containing lichen species from Eurasia and North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guzow-Krzemińska, B.; Łubek, A.; Malíček, Jiří; Tonsberg, T.; Oset, M.; Kukwa, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 329, č. 3 (2017), s. 201-211 ISSN 1179-3155 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : biodiversity * crustose lichens * Lecanorales Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016

  17. HPLC-MS Analysis of Lichen-Derived Metabolites in the Life Stages of Crambidia cephalica (Grote & Robinson).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy J; Wagner, David L; Cooper, Bruce R; McCarty, Megan E; Zaspel, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae: Arctiini) are notable for their specialized associations with hosts that produce toxic secondary compounds, and are thus an ideal study system for understanding insect-plant interactions and the evolution of antipredatory defense. Likewise, their sister lineage (Arctiinae: Lithosiini) has been documented feeding on algae and lichens, and is known to sequester lichen-derived secondary compounds from the larval to adult stages. Prevalence of lichenivory in this early radiation (ca. 3000 species) may provide clues to the phylogenetic basis for storied chemical sequestration within all tiger moths. Despite the evolutionary significance of this trait, we lack a basic understanding of the extent of lichenivory among lithosiines, and the distribution of sequestered chemicals among life stages. The dynamics of chemical sequestration throughout the lifecycle for the lichen moth Crambidia cephalica were investigated by testing the hypothesis that lichen-derived metabolites are unequally distributed among life stages, and that laboratory-reared C. cephalica have less metabolite diversity than wild-caught individuals. Crambidia cephalica was reared on Physcia, and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Several putative lichen-derived metabolites were detected across three life stages, i.e., larval, pupal, and adult, and differences among life stages and lichen host were observed. These results provide evidence that multiple lichen-derived metabolites are sequestered by C. cephalica; some metabolites are retained through adulthood, and others are lost or modified in earlier life stages. The presence of differing lichen-derived metabolites across life stages may indicate functional properties of the metabolites for C. cephalica with regards to chemical protection from antagonists, and other physiological processes.

  18. Level of zinc in the Belgian calamine-bearing lichens: Stereocaulon nanodes Tuck f tyroliense (nyl. ) M. Lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maquinay, A; Lamb, I M; Lambinon, J; Ramaut, J L

    1961-01-01

    It has been shown that Stereocaulon nanodes, a lichen species native to Belgian calamine-bearing soils takes up zinc and in some cases accumulates it in the thallus. This lichen, growing on a substrate slag with 700 p.p.m. of zinc may contain up to 3300 p.p.m. This abnormally high content as compared with the usual plant tolerance for this element does not seem to disturb its metabolism. 3 references, 4 tables.

  19. Antigenic similarities and differences between symbiotic and cultured phycobionts from the lichen, Xanthoria parietina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubrick, P.; Galun, M.; Ben-Yaacov, M.; Frensdorff, A.

    1982-01-01

    Lichen phycobionts are known to undergo a series of morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes as a result of lichenization. A number of modifications in the cell wall of lichen algae have also been described. Using the phycobiont of Xanthoria parietina as a study organism. The authors have shown that concanavalin A bound to the cell wall of lichen algae cultured in vitro, but not to the same algae in the symbiotic form (freshly isolated from the lichen). They have also isolated a crude protein fraction from the lichen, a component(s) of which bound to the cell wall of cultured, but not freshly isolated algae. Binding was correlated to cytochemical features present only on the cell wall of cultured algae. With the aid of a newly-developed solid-phase radioimmunoassay, the authors show that there are also detectable antigenic differences, as well as similarities, between freshly isolated and cultured phycobionts from X. parietina. (Auth.)

  20. Antigenic similarities and differences between symbiotic and cultured phycobionts from the lichen, Xanthoria parietina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubrick, P; Galun, M [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Botany; Ben-Yaacov, M; Frensdorff, A [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Microbiology

    1982-04-01

    Lichen phycobionts are known to undergo a series of morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes as a result of lichenization. A number of modifications in the cell wall of lichen algae have also been described. Using the phycobiont of Xanthoria parietina as a study organism. The authors have shown that concanavalin A bound to the cell wall of lichen algae cultured in vitro, but not to the same algae in the symbiotic form (freshly isolated from the lichen). They have also isolated a crude protein fraction from the lichen, a component(s) of which bound to the cell wall of cultured, but not freshly isolated algae. Binding was correlated to cytochemical features present only on the cell wall of cultured algae. With the aid of a newly-developed solid-phase radioimmunoassay, the authors show that there are also detectable antigenic differences, as well as similarities, between freshly isolated and cultured phycobionts from X. parietina.

  1. Upregulation of angiogenesis in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hassiny, A; Friedlander, L T; Parachuru, V P B; Seo, B; Hussaini, H M; Rich, A M

    2018-02-01

    As angiogenesis is fundamental to the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders, this study investigated the expression of various vascular markers in oral lichen planus and non-specific oral mucosal inflammatory tissues. Archival specimens of oral lichen planus (n = 15) and inflamed tissues (n = 13) were stained using immunohistochemistry with antibodies to CD34, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and vasohibin. Nine representative sites at the epithelial-connective tissue junction and through the fibrous connective tissue were selected, and automated analysis techniques were used to determine the extent of positivity expressed as the percentage of positive cells. Significance was denoted when P lichen planus samples compared with inflamed controls. A higher level of CD34 was observed in the deeper parts of the connective tissue of Oral lichen planus (OLP) (P = .04), whereas VEGF and VEGFR2 expressions were higher all through the tissues (respectively, P lichen planus in all sites evaluated (P oral lichen planus compared with inflamed controls, with increased expression of pro-angiogenic factors and decreased anti-angiogenic expression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Linear lichen planus in children - Case report*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Marcia Raquel; Vidal, Marcela de Lima; Resende, Manuela Oliveira; Teixeira, Márcia Almeida Galvão; Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria de Morais; de Alencar, Eliane Ruth Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus is an uncommon disease in children, and only 2 to 3% of affected patients are under twenty years of age. This dermatosis may appear in several clinical forms, which vary according to the morphology and distribution of lesions. In less than 0.2% of all lichen planus cases, the lesions are distributed along the lines of Blaschko, and is a variant called linear lichen planus. This is a case report of a patient aged two years and eight months, who presented keratotic violaceous papules, affecting the abdomen, buttocks and right thigh, distributed along the lines of Blaschko. Histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of linear lichen planus. PMID:24346902

  3. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene

    2008-01-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  4. Accelerated evolutionary rates in tropical and oceanic parmelioid lichens (Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Oscar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of nucleotide substitutions is not constant across the Tree of Life, and departures from a molecular clock have been commonly reported. Within parmelioid lichens, the largest group of macrolichens, large discrepancies in branch lengths between clades were found in previous studies. Using an extended taxon sampling, we test for presence of significant rate discrepancies within and between these clades and test our a priori hypothesis that such rate discrepancies may be explained by shifts in moisture regime or other environmental conditions. Results In this paper, the first statistical evidence for accelerated evolutionary rate in lichenized ascomycetes is presented. Our results give clear evidence for a faster rate of evolution in two Hypotrachyna clades that includes species occurring in tropical and oceanic habitats in comparison with clades consisting of species occurring in semi-arid and temperate habitats. Further we explore potential links between evolutionary rates and shifts in habitat by comparing alternative Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models. Conclusion Although there was only weak support for a shift at the base of a second tropical clade, where the observed nucleotide substitution rate is high, overall support for a shift in environmental conditions at cladogenesis is very strong. This suggests that speciation in some lichen clades has proceeded by dispersal into a novel environment, followed by radiation within that environment. We found moderate support for a shift in moisture regime at the base of one tropical clade and a clade occurring in semi-arid regions and a shift in minimum temperature at the base of a boreal-temperate clade.

  5. Variations of sulfur isotope ratios in a single lichen thallus: A potential historical archive for sulfur pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Misuk, E-mail: yun@cc.umanitoba.c [Department of Earth Sciences and Environmental Science Program, Memorial University, St. John' s, NL, A1B 3X5 (Canada); Wadleigh, Moire A. [Department of Earth Sciences and Environmental Science Program, Memorial University, St. John' s, NL, A1B 3X5 (Canada); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Utilizing the analytical capability to measure S isotope ratios of small quantities of S in biological material without any chemical pretreatment, the variation of {delta}{sup 34}S within a lichen thallus was investigated using old and young segments of fruticose lichen thalli (Alectoria sarmentosa) from an oil refinery area in Come-By-Chance and two coastal areas, Newfoundland, Canada. Old segments of lichen samples from the oil refinery area showed significantly higher {delta}{sup 34}S values (1.0-2.5 per mille) than their corresponding young segments. Lichen samples from two coastal areas showed no noticeable differences in {delta}{sup 34}S values between old and young segments. These results demonstrate that lichen thalli record temporal changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric S and hence constitute a historical archive of atmospheric S pollution. - Lichen thalli record temporal changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric S and hence constitute a suitable historical archive for biomonitoring.

  6. Variations of sulfur isotope ratios in a single lichen thallus: A potential historical archive for sulfur pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Misuk; Wadleigh, Moire A.; Mayer, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the analytical capability to measure S isotope ratios of small quantities of S in biological material without any chemical pretreatment, the variation of δ 34 S within a lichen thallus was investigated using old and young segments of fruticose lichen thalli (Alectoria sarmentosa) from an oil refinery area in Come-By-Chance and two coastal areas, Newfoundland, Canada. Old segments of lichen samples from the oil refinery area showed significantly higher δ 34 S values (1.0-2.5 per mille ) than their corresponding young segments. Lichen samples from two coastal areas showed no noticeable differences in δ 34 S values between old and young segments. These results demonstrate that lichen thalli record temporal changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric S and hence constitute a historical archive of atmospheric S pollution. - Lichen thalli record temporal changes in the isotopic composition of atmospheric S and hence constitute a suitable historical archive for biomonitoring.

  7. Lichen planus remission is associated with a decrease of human herpes virus type 7 protein expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Henry J. C.; Teunissen, Marcel B. M.; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Picavet, Daisy; Cornelissen, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The cause of lichen planus is still unknown. Previously we showed human herpes virus 7 (HHV-7) DNA and proteins in lesional lichen planus skin, and significantly less in non-lesional lichen planus, psoriasis or healthy skin. Remarkably, lesional lichen planus skin was infiltrated with plasmacytoid

  8. Frequency of Genital Involvement in Women with Oral Lichen Planus in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davarmanesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lichen Planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of immunological basis and unknown etiology. women with oral lichen planus may have concomitant manifestations in vulvovaginal areas. Objective. To determine the frequency and risk factors of genital involvement in a group of Iranian women affected by oral lichen planus. Methods. Thirty-six women with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus were evaluated for demographic, historical, and clinical parameters of the oral disease. All the patients were referred for careful vulvovaginal examination, as well as histopathological assessment upon clinical indication. Results. Nineteen patients complained from genital symptoms but the number of women with the final diagnosis of genital lichen planus (=2 was too small to show any correlation with the parameters evaluated. Conclusion. In spite of low genital involvement possibly due to inadequate patient population, lack of follow-up visits, and contribution of genetic or ethnic factors, for conservative patient care, women with the oral lichen planus in particular those having some relevant genital symptoms, should preferably be referred for careful vulvovaginal examination. Multicenter cohort studies on women of different geographical regions or ethnicities who have genital lichen planus alone or in combination with other common sites are encouraged.

  9. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality in Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munzi, S.; Ravera, S.; Caneva, G.

    2007-01-01

    A synthesis of the studies on lichen diversity carried out in Rome over the period 1982-2003 is presented. In this work, the Lichen Diversity (LD) method has been applied. Besides air pollution, the most important variable affecting the epiphytic lichen flora of Rome, currently updated to 102 taxa, is the influence of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Significant changes in the lichen flora have been noted over the past 20 years, with the lowest diversity now being found in the urban centre and in the eastern and southern sectors, while the 'lichen desert' area has decreased in parallel with decreasing concentrations of CO, NO x and SO 2. - Studies over the past 20 years have characterized the lichen diversity in the city of Rome

  10. Biomonitoring of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, Emel, E-mail: emel.sert@mail.ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ugur, Aysun, E-mail: aysun.ugur@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozden, Banu, E-mail: banu.ozden@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Sac, Mueslim Murat, E-mail: muslum.murat.sac@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Camgoez, Berkay, E-mail: berkay.camgoz@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 {+-} 7-593 {+-} 21 and 97 {+-} 5-364 {+-} 13 Bq kg{sup -1}, for mosses the ranges for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb are 124 {+-} 5-1125 {+-} 38 and 113 {+-} 4-490 {+-} 17 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. {sup 210}Po concentrations were found higher than {sup 210}Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: > Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. > The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. > Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. > Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  11. Effect of different levels of air pollution on photosynthetic activity of some lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Niewiadomska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four lichen species: Hypogymnia physodes, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Parmelia saxatilis, and Platismatia glauca were collected from two sites (S. Poland with a different air pollution level: "Kamienica valley" (less polluted and "Kopa" (more polluted. The thalli were compared with respect to their: net photosynthetic rate (PN, fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fm, Fm/Fo, chlorophyll a+b content, and phaeophytinization quotient (O.D.435/O.D.415. PN intensity, chlorophyll a+b and O.D.435/O.D.415 were reduced only in Pa furfuracea collected from Kopa, which is in agreement with the Hawksworth-Rose scale of sensitivity of lichens to air pollution. Fluorescence parameters were significantly lowered in all lichens coming from the more polluted site (except of Fv/Fm and Fm/F0 in P. saxatilis. Parameters based on chlorophyll fluorescence measurements enable to reveal the very early signs of decreased photosynthetical capacity of the thalli, caused by air pollution, before changes in the other photosynthetic parameters become mesurable.

  12. Influence of air pollution on the fruiticulous and foliaceous lichen flora around the shale oil works at Kvarntorp in the province of Naerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E

    1958-01-01

    During the blockade years in the beginning of the 1940's was founded a government-owned shale oil works at Kvarntorp, approximately six miles east of Kumla in Naerke. Even the first few years the smoke gases from the works caused great damage to the surrounding forest and fields, and the State Institute for Plant Preservation was soon involved in the problem. In 1948 the Institute performed the first investigations, which were followed by others, among them the years 1949 and 1953. During these investigations the Chief of the Botanical Department of the Institute, began to observe that the lichens apparently reacted to the smoke gases. It occurred to him to suggest an examination of the lichen vegetation, and his idea was that perhaps some lichen species could serve as an indicator of the effect of the smoke gases. As distinguished from leaves and needle-foliage the lichens remain in place a very long number of years and are therefore subjected to influence during a longer period of time. Two questions consequently had to be answered: (1) Is the lichen vegetation damaged by the smoke gases. (2) Can a suitable indicator of air pollutants among the lichens be found. If so, it should be a common and easily identified species. The present work will only give a partial answer to this question. 79 references, 9 figures.

  13. High acidity tolerance in lichens with fumarprotocetraric, perlatolic or thamnolic acids is correlated with low pK{sub a1} values of these lichen substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, Markus, E-mail: mhauck@gwdg.d [Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, Dept. Plant Ecology, University of Goettingen, Untere Karspuele 2, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany); Juergens, Sascha-Rene [Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, Dept. Plant Ecology, University of Goettingen, Untere Karspuele 2, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany); Huneck, Siegfried [Fliederweg 34a, D-06179 Langenbogen, Saalkreis (Germany); Leuschner, Christoph [Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, Dept. Plant Ecology, University of Goettingen, Untere Karspuele 2, D-37073 Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid as well as the depsides perlatolic and thamnolic acids are lichen secondary metabolites. Their first dissociation constants (pK{sub a1}) in methanol were determined to be 2.7 for perlatolic acid and 2.8 for fumarprotocetraric and thamnolic acids by UV spectroscopy. Lower pK{sub a1} values are, so far, not known from lichen substances. Several lichens producing at least one of these compounds are known for their outstanding tolerance to acidic air pollution. This is demonstrated by evaluating published pH preferences for central European lichens. The low pK{sub a1} values suggest that strong dissociation of the studied lichen substances is a prerequisite for the occurrence of lichens with these compounds on very acidic substrata, as protonated lichen substances of different chemical groups, but not their conjugated bases, are known to shuttle protons into the cytoplasm and thereby apparently damage lichens. - Depsides and depsidones with low pK{sub a1} values occur in highly acidity-tolerant lichens.

  14. New records of Lichen-forming Fungi from Kenya | Kirika | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity of tropical lichen-forming fungi, especially crustose lichens is currently poorly known. Since lichens are important bioindicators of air pollution, forest health, and climate change, we addressed the lichen diversity in Kenya. Our study focused on the diversity of lichen-forming fungi in the Mount Kenya montane forests ...

  15. Level and origin of {sup 129}I and {sup 137}Cs in lichen samples (Cladonia alpestris) in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Guzman, J.M., E-mail: jm_gomez@us.e [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Unit, Avd. Tomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de Cartuja, Seville 41092 (Spain); Lopez-Gutierrez, J.M. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Unit, Avd. Tomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de Cartuja, Seville 41092 (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, University of Seville, C. Virgen de Africa 7, Seville 41011 (Spain); Holm, E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini Naearingspark 13, P.O. Box 55, 1332 Osteras (Norway); Pinto-Gomez, A.R. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Unit, Avd. Tomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de Cartuja, Seville 41092 (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Lichen is a symbiosis between algae and fungi. They have for decades been used as bioindicators for atmospheric deposition of heavy metals, organic compounds and radioactive elements. Especially the species Cladonia alpestris and Cladonia rangiferina are important for the food chain lichen-reindeer-man. The concentration of {sup 129}I was determined in lichen samples (Cladonia alpestris) contaminated by fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests explosions and the Chernobyl accident. The samples were collected at Lake Rogen District (62.3{sup o}N, 12.4{sup o}E) in central Sweden in the periods 1961-1975 and 1987-1998, and analysed with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at CNA (Seville) to study its distribution in different layers. Data on the {sup 137}Cs activity measured previously were also included in this study. The {sup 129}I concentration ranged from (0.95 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup 8} at g{sup -1} in 1961 in the uppermost layer to (14.2 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup 8} at g{sup -1} in 1987 in deepest layer. The {sup 129}I/{sup 137}Cs atom ratio ranged between 0.12 and 0.27 for lichen samples collected in the period 1961-1975, indicating weapons tests fallout. For lichen samples collected between 1987 and 1998 the behaviour of {sup 137}Cs concentrations reflected Chernobyl fallout. The concentrations of the two radionuclides followed each other quite well in the profile, reflecting the same origin for both. From the point of view of the spatial distribution in the lichen, it appears that {sup 129}I was predominantly accumulated in the lowest layer, the opposite to {sup 137}Cs for which the highest amounts were detected systematically in the topmost layer of lichen. This vertical distribution is important for radioecology because lichen is the initial link in the food chain lichen-reindeer-man, and reindeer only graze the upper parts of lichen carpets. - Research highlights: {yields} This work shows the results for {sup 129}I in lichens collected in 1961-1975 and 1987

  16. VEGFR-3 Expression in Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari Saravi, Zahra; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Sharbatdaran, Majid; Bijani, Ali; Mozaffari, Fatemeh; Aminishakib, Pouyan

    2017-02-01

    Background and objective: Given the postulated the role of inflammation and possible contribution of lymphangiogenesis in oral lichen planus, this study aimed to assess any associated presence of VEGFR-3. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 52 formalin fixed and paraffin embedded blocks of oral lichen planus (pathological diagnosis based on Modified WHO criteria), comprising 25 of erosive and 27 of reticular type, along with 60 samples of normal mucosa (with minimal inflammation from clinical and histopathological aspects) obtained at crown lengthening surgery. Four micron sections were cut from paraffin blocks and stained with H and E for confirmation of diagnosis and by immunohistochemistry with primary antibodies against VEGFR-3. Negative controls were provided by omission of primary antibody and placenta was considered as a positive control. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-wallis tests and P lichen planus specimens and 5% of those from normal mucosa (poral lichen planus than in normal mucosa (poral lichen planus (p=0.262) and the average number of stained vessels (p=0.092) demonstrated no significant difference according to the type. Conclusion: It appears that VEGFR-3 expression might be involved in the pathogenesis of the oral lichen planus through increasing lymphatic vessels and lymphangiogenesis. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. Unexpected associated microalgal diversity in the lichen Ramalina farinacea is uncovered by pyrosequencing analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moya

    Full Text Available The current literature reveals that the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgal taxa in lichens is more common than previously thought, and additional complexity is supported by the coexistence of bacteria and basidiomycete yeasts in lichen thalli. This replaces the old paradigm that lichen symbiosis occurs between a fungus and a single photobiont. The lichen Ramalina farinacea has proven to be a suitable model to study the multiplicity of microalgae in lichen thalli due to the constant coexistence of Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii in long-distance populations. To date, studies involving phycobiont diversity within entire thalli are based on Sanger sequencing, but this method seems to underestimate the diversity. Here, we aim to analyze both the microalgal diversity and its community structure in a single thallus of the lichen R. farinacea by applying a 454 pyrosequencing approach coupled with a careful ad hoc-performed protocol for lichen sample processing prior to DNA extraction. To ascertain the reliability of the pyrosequencing results and the applied bioinformatics pipeline results, the thalli were divided into three sections (apical, middle and basal zones, and a mock community sample was used. The developed methodology allowed 40448 filtered algal reads to be obtained from a single lichen thallus, which encompassed 31 OTUs representative of different microalgae genera. In addition to corroborating the coexistence of the two Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii taxa in the same thallus, this study showed a much higher microalgal diversity associated with the lichen. Along the thallus ramifications, we also detected variations in phycobiont distribution that might correlate with different microenvironmental conditions. These results highlight R. farinacea as a suitable material for studying microalgal diversity and further strengthen the concept of lichens as multispecies microecosystems. Future analyses will be relevant to

  18. Antioxidant activity, total phenols and flavonoids of lichens from Venezuelan Andes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Plaza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context:The biological potential of lichens has been documented through their use in traditional medicine. Secondary lichen metabolites exert a wide variety of biological actions, including their use as antioxidants. Aims:To evaluate the antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids of four lichen fungal taxa collected in Mérida (Venezuela, and statistically evaluate the correlation between the antioxidant activity and the amount of phenols and flavonoids in the samples. Methods: Extracts were prepared with water, ethanol and dichloromethane from Cladonia aff. rappii, Cora aff. glabrata, Peltigera laciniata and Thamnolia vermicularis. The antioxidant capacity assessment was determined using DPPH• radical method and reducing power, with ascorbic acid as control. Total phenols were determined by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid. Total flavonoids were estimated according to the modified Dowd method, using quercetin as standard. Results:The ethanolic extracts of the tested lichens showed the highest scavenging activity and reducing power compared to water and dichloromethane extracts at 4 mg/mL. The highest antiradical power value was found in ethanolic extract of Peltigera laciniata (2.28 mL/mgand the lowest in dichloromethane extract of Cora aff. glabrata (0.30 mL/mg. The correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was moderate. The flavonoids content of ethanolic extracts was highly significant but negative (p < 0.05. There was good correlation in dichloromethane extracts. The ethanolic extract of P. laciniata exhibited the highest antiradical activity despite showing the lowest flavonoid content. Conclusions: The ethanolic extracts of lichens tested showed to have the higher antioxidant activity and may be used as natural sources of new antioxidants.

  19. Elemental analysis of lichen bioaccumulators before exposure as transplants in air pollution monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Cercasov, V.

    2003-01-01

    Lichen transplants from relatively unpolluted sites are successfully used as heavy metal bioaccumulators for long-term air pollution monitoring. Significant element accumulations are generally revealed after 6 to 12 months of exposure. The main objective of this interdisciplinary research is to get a low-price survey of the air pollution level in some critical areas of Romania by nuclear and atomic analytical methods, based on the element accumulating property of transplanted lichens. The lichen species Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea collected from the Prealps, northeast Italy, have been selected for this study. Experimental setup for standardized lichen exposure needs special plastic frames ('little traps': 15 · 15 · 1.5 cm, with 1cm 2 mesh) which are fixed horizontally on stainless steel posts at about 1.5 m above the ground. Prior to exposure, the lichen material is cleansed of some vegetal impurities and then shortly washed using de-ionised water. The initial (zero-level) contents of lichens were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA) methods. INAA was carried out at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest (IFIN) and while EDXRFA at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart. The investigated elements were: As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, V and Zn. From among them, Cd, Co and Sb can be determined only by INAA and ICP-MS, Pb only by EDXRFA and PIXE, and S only by EDXRFA. A statistical intercomparison of the results allowed a good quality control of the used analytical methods for these specific matrices. This work was supported in part by European Commission Center of Excellence Project ICA1-CT-2000-70023: IDRANAP (Inter-Disciplinary Research and Applications based on Nuclear and Atomic Physics), Work Package 2 (Air pollution monitoring by sampling airborne particulate matter combined with lichen bioaccumulator exposure

  20. Cutaneous lichen planus: A systematic review of treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim

    2015-06-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available.

  1. Physiological responses of lichens to factorial fumigations with nitric acid and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Riddell; P.E. Padgett; T. Nash

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3), two important air pollutants, on six lichen species with different morphological, ecological, and biological characteristics. The treatment chambers were set up in a factorial design consisting of control chambers, chambers fumigated with HNO

  2. Neutron activation analysis of lichens for atmospheric pollution study in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko; Marcelli, Marcelo P.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the elements accumulated in samples of Canoparmelia texana, a specie of lichen, collected in regions with different levels of pollution: Intervales State Park, an area considered non polluted that belongs to Atlantic Forest ecosystem and distinct sites in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo city. The results obtained in the analysis showed that samples collected in the clean area indicated lower concentrations of elements than those obtained for samples from metropolitan region. The concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn were obtained at μg g -1 levels and the elements As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc, Se and U at ng g -1 levels. Cluster analysis was applied to classify into distinct groups the sites using the element concentrations in these samples. The accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by IAEA 336 Lichen reference material analysis and the data given for this material were in agreement with certified values with relative standard deviations lower than 11,4%. (author)

  3. Lichen planus following tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengard, Heather C; Wheat, Chikoti M; Tilson, Matthew P; Cuda, Jonathan D

    2018-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory dermatosis with a prevalence of approximately 1%. Recent meta-analyses show that patients with hepatitis C virus have a 2.5- to 4.5-fold increased risk of developing lichen planus. Lichen planus has also followed vaccinations and has specifically been attributed to the hepatitis B vaccine, the influenza vaccine, and the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. We describe a case of lichen planus in a hepatitis C virus-infected African American male occurring in temporal association with the administration of the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine. The patient's presentation was clinically consistent with lichen planus and confirmed by biopsy. It is likely that many cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus have gone unpublished or unrecognized. In areas with high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection, we may expect to see more cases of vaccine-induced lichen planus especially in light of the updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination recommendations. This case serves to educate healthcare providers about vaccine-induced lichen planus and, in particular, the need to counsel hepatitis C virus-infected patients about a potential risk of developing lichen planus following vaccination. We also reflect on current theories suggesting the T-cell-mediated pathogenesis of lichen planus and the role that hepatitis C virus and toxoid or protein vaccines may play in initiating the disease.

  4. Lichen ecology of the Scunthorpe heathlands. I. Mineral accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaward, M R.D.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation into the distributional and ecological characteristics of the terricolous lichen flora of the Scunthorpe heathlands is described. The Risby Warren area was especially studied, because there is a noticeable terricolous lichen desert and distinctive zonation of lichen communities, each of which incorporates Peltigera rufescens. Peltigera rufescens appeared to be quite tolerant of air pollution in this region, and occurred in sufficient quantities for periodic sampling; this proved valuable for determination of the sulfur, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and nickel content of the thalli along a 780 m transect. Frequency assessments, together with these element determinations, revealed sharp qualitative and quantitative improvements in the lichen flora with increasing distance from the pollution sources. The stable lichen pattern, together with the mineral accumulation measurements, was indicative of a pollution dome effect operating to a distance of approximately 3 km. Within 100 to 200 m of this critical distance, lichen material had a pronounced metallic accumulation; the latter was compared with urban and herbarium material. The possible use of lichens for the sampling of ambient environmental conditions is discussed.

  5. Lichen biogeochemical and spatial dynamics in canopies of Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. M.; Martin, J.; Olson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Forest canopies have been shown to contain complex ecosystem level processes but much of this work is from the tropics or the charismatic tall trees of Oceana and the Pacific Northwestern US. However, many of the processes can occur in other species of trees that are not as tall, as old, nor as surrounded by biological diversity. Such an occurrence is within the lichen diversity and coverage of Eastern white pines (Pinus strobus) in the Lake States region of the US. We used arborist techniques to scale, survey, and document the lichen abundance in three large and regionally old trees (diameter at breast height 70-80+cm, 30m in height, and 100 to 115 years old). These trees represent the first generation of second growth forests to reclaim the landscape following the massive cutover period in the region from 1880s to the 1910s. We surveyed the stem in framed quadrats in the four cardinal directions at every 2 meters, as well as various branch locations, and used digital photographs and image analysis software to quantify coverage. Lichen coverage ranged from 0% to over 50% and increased with height indicating: (1) possible light limitations or bark suitability limitations near the ground, and (2) that conditions, not time, may be more important for lichen abundance. Lastly, because lichens can fix atmospheric nitrogen and absorb substantial amounts of water, we scaled the coverage of lichen to determine the total nitrogen pool and water holding capacity in the footprint of these large trees. The vertical structure of these large trees helps add to these biogeochemical pools and may be an important consideration for management and restoration efforts aimed at slowing nutrient and water loss from upland forests.

  6. Secondary metabolites of lichens in the snow zone of the Sierra Nevada in Mérida-Venezuela and their role in the absorption of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Fernández, J.A.; Balza Quintero, A.; Marcano, V.; Rojas, P.A.; Dávila Vera, D.; Peña Contreras, Z.; Mendoza Briceño, R.V.; Palacios Prü, E.

    2008-01-01

    Photochemical analyses of secondary compounds in lichens from the Venezuelan Andean snow zone were carried out in order to know the absorbance capacity of UV radiation at the UVA, UVB and UVC ranges and to determine its probable UV protective function. Spectrophotometric (UV) and fine layer chromatographic techniques (TLC) were utilized to separate and identify the compounds. UV radiation values were obtained from the Red Bioclimática del Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada de Mérida which constitutes a program supported by the University of Los Andes, Venezuela. Results indicated the existence of 22 species of lichens at the snow zone; 55% of these species showed a strong resistance to UVC radiation, 95% to UVB radiation, whereas the 100% revealed a strong resistance to UVA radiation. The substances that have the highest resistance to UVA and UVB radiation are characterized by having ester bonds among phenolic units depsids and constitute the most abundant products in lichens, whereas the substances having both ester and ether bonds among the two phenolic units depsidones revealed a higher capacity to absorb UVC radiation that could indicate a primitive origin [es

  7. POTENSI LICHEN SEBAGAI SUMBER BAHAN OBAT: SUATU KAJIAN PUSTAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIS SEPTIANA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichen is a plant with many benefits. Its abundant existence in an area may indicate that air pollution levels are still low. Besides as indicator of air quality, lichen is also used as traditional medicine. Until present time, application of lichens for arthritis, constipation, chemotherapy, external wound, microbial infection, worm and infestation are still done in some countries. It is due to active chemical compounds contain in lichen that has activities as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoa, analgesic and antipyretic, and anthelmintic. With its potential and efforts to provide sustainable materials, lichen has good prospect to be developed become modern medicine.

  8. Multiple, Distinct Intercontinental Lineages but Isolation of Australian Populations in a Cosmopolitan Lichen-Forming Fungal Taxon, Psora decipiens (Psoraceae, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Leavitt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple drivers shape the spatial distribution of species, including dispersal capacity, niche incumbency, climate variability, orographic barriers, and plate tectonics. However, biogeographic patterns of fungi commonly do not fit conventional expectations based on studies of animals and plants. Fungi, in general, are known to occur across exceedingly broad, intercontinental distributions, including some important components of biological soil crust communities (BSCs. However, molecular data often reveal unexpected biogeographic patterns in lichenized fungal species that are assumed to have cosmopolitan distributions. The lichen-forming fungal species Psora decipiens is found on all continents, except Antarctica and occurs in BSCs across diverse habitats, ranging from hot, arid deserts to alpine habitats. In order to better understand factors that shape population structure in cosmopolitan lichen-forming fungal species, we investigated biogeographic patterns in the cosmopolitan taxon P. decipiens, along with the closely related taxa P. crenata and P. saviczii. We generated a multi-locus sequence dataset based on a worldwide sampling of these taxa in order to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and explore phylogeographic patterns. Both P. crenata and P. decipiens were not recovered as monophyletic; and P. saviczii specimens were recovered as a monophyletic clade closely related to a number of lineages comprised of specimens representing P. decipiens. Striking phylogeographic patterns were observed for P. crenata, with populations from distinct geographic regions belonging to well-separated, monophyletic lineages. South African populations of P. crenata were further divided into well-supported sub-clades. While well-supported phylogenetic substructure was also observed for the nominal taxon P. decipiens, nearly all lineages were comprised of specimens collected from intercontinental populations. However, all Australian specimens representing

  9. Note on the distribution of some lichenized and lichenicolous fungi of the Tatra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Flakus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New data about the occurrence of 25 species of rare lichens and 3 lichenicolous fungi in the Tatra National Park (Western Carpathians are provided. Of these species, Fellhaneropsis vezdae is recorded for the first time from the whole Tatra Mts. and Vezdaea stipitata is new to the Polish Tatra Mts. The distribution of the species in the Tatra National Park is indicated.

  10. Adaptive differentiation coincides with local bioclimatic conditions along an elevational cline in populations of a lichen-forming fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Grande, Francesco; Sharma, Rahul; Meiser, Anjuli; Rolshausen, Gregor; Büdel, Burkhard; Mishra, Bagdevi; Thines, Marco; Otte, Jürgen; Pfenninger, Markus; Schmitt, Imke

    2017-03-31

    Many fungal species occur across a variety of habitats. Particularly lichens, fungi forming symbioses with photosynthetic partners, have evolved remarkable tolerances for environmental extremes. Despite their ecological importance and ubiquity, little is known about the genetic basis of adaption in lichen populations. Here we studied patterns of genome-wide differentiation in the lichen-forming fungus Lasallia pustulata along an altitudinal gradient in the Mediterranean region. We resequenced six populations as pools and identified highly differentiated genomic regions. We then detected gene-environment correlations while controlling for shared population history and pooled sequencing bias, and performed ecophysiological experiments to assess fitness differences of individuals from different environments. We detected two strongly differentiated genetic clusters linked to Mediterranean and temperate-oceanic climate, and an admixture zone, which coincided with the transition between the two bioclimates. High altitude individuals showed ecophysiological adaptations to wetter and more shaded conditions. Highly differentiated genome regions contained a number of genes associated with stress response, local environmental adaptation, and sexual reproduction. Taken together our results provide evidence for a complex interplay between demographic history and spatially varying selection acting on a number of key biological processes, suggesting a scenario of ecological speciation.

  11. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ (Eastern Alps, Vorarlberg, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    A list of 100 lichen species and 4 lichenicolous fungi from the valley ‘Ochsental’ is presented. Lecidea laboriosa is new to Austria. Lecanora swartzii, Orphniospora moriopsis, Protothelenella corrosa and the lichenicolous fungus Cercidospora stereocaulorum are new to the province of Vorarlberg. PMID:26869748

  12. The legacy of logging--estimating arboreal lichen occurrence in a boreal multiple-use landscape on a two century scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkotte, Tim; Moen, Jon; Lämås, Tomas; Helle, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In northern Sweden, the availability of arboreal lichens (Bryoria fuscescens, Alectoria sarmentosa) as winter grazing resources is an important element in reindeer husbandry. With the industrialization of forestry, forests rich in arboreal lichens have diminished considerably. Here, we analyze how forestry has impacted lichen availability from the 1920's to the present day and model its future development assuming different forest management scenarios.We recorded the current occurrence of B. fuscescens in 144 sampling plots, stratified by forest age class and dominant tree species in a 26,600 ha boreal forest landscape that is used for both reindeer herding and forestry. Lichen abundance was visually estimated in four classes: none, sparse, moderate and abundant. A binary logistic model using forest age as the independent variable was developed to predict the probability of lichens being present. Using this model, we found that lichens were present in stands that are at least 63 years old. Because of the relative paucity of stands rich in arboreal lichens, it was not possible to reliably determine how age affects the variation in abundance of older forest stands. The historical development of forests where arboreal lichens could potentially occur was studied using historic forestry records dating back 80 years. Between 1926 and the present day, forestry has reduced the cover of forests older than 60 years from 84% to 34%. The likely future spatial coverage of these stands over the next 120 years was estimated for two different management scenarios and an unmanaged reference scenario, using the Heureka strategic planning program. Under both the "business as usual" scenario and that involving more intensive forestry, continued decreases in lichen availability are projected. Our results emphasize the importance of alternative forestry practices, such as prolonged rotation periods, to increase the availability of arboreal lichens as a grazing resource for reindeer.

  13. The legacy of logging--estimating arboreal lichen occurrence in a boreal multiple-use landscape on a two century scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Horstkotte

    Full Text Available In northern Sweden, the availability of arboreal lichens (Bryoria fuscescens, Alectoria sarmentosa as winter grazing resources is an important element in reindeer husbandry. With the industrialization of forestry, forests rich in arboreal lichens have diminished considerably. Here, we analyze how forestry has impacted lichen availability from the 1920's to the present day and model its future development assuming different forest management scenarios.We recorded the current occurrence of B. fuscescens in 144 sampling plots, stratified by forest age class and dominant tree species in a 26,600 ha boreal forest landscape that is used for both reindeer herding and forestry. Lichen abundance was visually estimated in four classes: none, sparse, moderate and abundant. A binary logistic model using forest age as the independent variable was developed to predict the probability of lichens being present. Using this model, we found that lichens were present in stands that are at least 63 years old. Because of the relative paucity of stands rich in arboreal lichens, it was not possible to reliably determine how age affects the variation in abundance of older forest stands. The historical development of forests where arboreal lichens could potentially occur was studied using historic forestry records dating back 80 years. Between 1926 and the present day, forestry has reduced the cover of forests older than 60 years from 84% to 34%. The likely future spatial coverage of these stands over the next 120 years was estimated for two different management scenarios and an unmanaged reference scenario, using the Heureka strategic planning program. Under both the "business as usual" scenario and that involving more intensive forestry, continued decreases in lichen availability are projected. Our results emphasize the importance of alternative forestry practices, such as prolonged rotation periods, to increase the availability of arboreal lichens as a grazing

  14. The Legacy of Logging—Estimating Arboreal Lichen Occurrence in a Boreal Multiple-Use Landscape on a Two Century Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkotte, Tim; Moen, Jon; Lämås, Tomas; Helle, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In northern Sweden, the availability of arboreal lichens (Bryoria fuscescens, Alectoria sarmentosa) as winter grazing resources is an important element in reindeer husbandry. With the industrialization of forestry, forests rich in arboreal lichens have diminished considerably. Here, we analyze how forestry has impacted lichen availability from the 1920's to the present day and model its future development assuming different forest management scenarios. We recorded the current occurrence of B. fuscescens in 144 sampling plots, stratified by forest age class and dominant tree species in a 26,600 ha boreal forest landscape that is used for both reindeer herding and forestry. Lichen abundance was visually estimated in four classes: none, sparse, moderate and abundant. A binary logistic model using forest age as the independent variable was developed to predict the probability of lichens being present. Using this model, we found that lichens were present in stands that are at least 63 years old. Because of the relative paucity of stands rich in arboreal lichens, it was not possible to reliably determine how age affects the variation in abundance of older forest stands. The historical development of forests where arboreal lichens could potentially occur was studied using historic forestry records dating back 80 years. Between 1926 and the present day, forestry has reduced the cover of forests older than 60 years from 84% to 34%. The likely future spatial coverage of these stands over the next 120 years was estimated for two different management scenarios and an unmanaged reference scenario, using the Heureka strategic planning program. Under both the “business as usual” scenario and that involving more intensive forestry, continued decreases in lichen availability are projected. Our results emphasize the importance of alternative forestry practices, such as prolonged rotation periods, to increase the availability of arboreal lichens as a grazing resource for reindeer

  15. The lichens: general considerations. Role as pollution biological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivaux, E.

    1998-01-01

    After having recalled the morphology and the different classification of lichens, the author presents the main lichenous substances, in particular the depsides and the depsidones. A detailed study on the role of lichens as pollution biological indicators is given. (O.M.)

  16. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  17. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  18. Morphological effects on the water balance of Antarctic foliose and fruticose lichens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, A.H.L.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Francke, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Uptake and loss of water by six lichen species from the Argentine Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, were studied in their natural habitat and in laboratory studies. Under field conditions, during a period of rain, uptake of moisture ranged from 15% d w h(-1) for Usnea antarctica to almost 90% for

  19. Coexistent vitiligo and actinic lichen planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khalil

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of vitiligo who subsequently developed the lesions of lichen planus is described. Both types of lesions occurred on sun exposed areas, aggravated on photochemotherapy and showed improvement on para aminobenzoic acid cream application with avoidance of sun exposure. The possibility of common aetiological background is discussed.

  20. Epiphytic lichens as sentinels for heavy metal pollution at forest ecosystems (central Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loppi, Stefano; Pirintsos, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Epiphytic lichens were useful as an early warning system for changes in forest ecosystems. - The results of a study using epiphytic lichens (Parmelia caperata) as sentinels for heavy metal deposition at six selected forest ecosystems of central Italy are reported. The woods investigated are characterized by holm oak (Quercus ilex), turkey oak (Quercus cerris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) and represent the typical forest ecosystems of central Italy at low, medium and high elevations, respectively. The results showed that levels of heavy metals in lichens were relatively low and consequently no risk of heavy metal air pollution is expected for the six forest ecosystems investigated. However, for two of them there are indications of a potential risk: the beech forest of Vallombrosa showed signs of contamination by Pb as a consequence of vehicle traffic due to the rather high touristic pressure in the area, and the holm oak forest of Cala Violina showed transboundary pollution by Mn, Cr and Ni originating from the steel industry in Piombino. Epiphytic lichens proved to be very effective as an early warning system to detect signs of a changing environment at forest ecosystems

  1. Usnea Lichen community biomass estimationon volcanic mesas, James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohuslavová, O.; Šmilauer, P.; Elster, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 10 (2012), 1563-1572 ISSN 0722-4060 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 934; GA MŠk ME 945; GA ČR GA206/05/0253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Lichen biomass estimation * Usnea species * Maritime Antarctica Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.006, year: 2012

  2. Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Species of the Genus Usnea by UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Salgado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi with microalgae and/or cyanobacteria, which are considered among the slowest growing organisms, with strong tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. There are about 400 genera and 1600 species of lichens and those belonging to the Usnea genus comprise about 360 of these species. Usnea lichens have been used since ancient times as dyes, cosmetics, preservatives, deodorants and folk medicines. The phytochemistry of the Usnea genus includes more than 60 compounds which belong to the following classes: depsides, depsidones, depsones, lactones, quinones, phenolics, polysaccharides, fatty acids and dibenzofurans. Due to scarce knowledge of metabolomic profiles of Usnea species (U. barbata, U. antarctica, U. rubicunda and U. subfloridana, a study based on UHPLC-ESI-OT-MS-MS was performed for a comprehensive characterization of their secondary metabolites. From the methanolic extracts of these species a total of 73 metabolites were identified for the first time using this hyphenated technique, including 34 compounds in U. barbata, 21 in U. antarctica, 38 in U. rubicunda and 37 in U. subfloridana. Besides, a total of 13 metabolites were not identified and reported so far, and could be new according to our data analysis. This study showed that this hyphenated technique is rapid, effective and accurate for phytochemical identification of lichen metabolites and the data collected could be useful for chemotaxonomic studies.

  3. Glacial refugia and the prediction of future habitat coverage of the South American lichen species Ochrolechia austroamericana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukwa, Martin; Kolanowska, Marta

    2016-12-08

    The biogeographic history of lichenized fungi remains unrevealed because those organisms rarely fossilize due to their delicate, often tiny and quickly rotting thalli. Also the ecology and factors limiting occurrence of numerous taxa, especially those restricted in their distribution to tropical areas are poorly recognized. The aim of this study was to determine localization of glacial refugia of South American Ochrolechia austroamericana and to estimate the future changes in the coverage of its habitats using ecological niche modeling tools. The general glacial potential range of the studied species was wider than it is nowadays and its niches coverage decreased by almost 25% since last glacial maximum. The refugial areas were covered by cool and dry grasslands and scrubs and suitable niches in South America were located near the glacier limit. According to our analyses the further climate changes will not significantly influence the distribution of the suitable niches of O. austroamericana.

  4. Contribution to the knowledge of the lichen biota of Bolivia. 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flakus Adam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new records of 135 lichen taxa in Bolivia. Two species, Myriotrema laeviusculum (Nyl. Hale and Graphis tenoriensis Chaves & Lücking, are new for the Southern Hemisphere; two, Cladonia uncialis (L. Weber ex F. H. Wigg. and Thelocarpon laureri (Flot. Nyl., are new for South America; and 27 species are new for Bolivia: Acanthotrema brasilianum (Hale Frisch, Bulbothrix laevigatula (Nyl. Hale, B. leprieurii Aubel, Canoparmelia salacinifera (Hale Hale, Catolechia wahlenbergii (Flot. ex Ach. Körb., Chapsa alborosella (Nyl. Frisch, Coccocarpia dissecta Swinscow & Krog, Graphis apertoinspersa Rivas Plata & Lücking, G. cinerea Fée, G. globosa (Fée Spreng., G. haleana R. C. Harris, G. marginata Raddi, G. pilarensis Cáceres & Lücking, G. striatula (Ach. Spreng., Hemithecium oryzaeforme (Fée Staiger, Hypotrachyna protochlorina Sipman, Elix & T. H. Nash, H. sinuosella Elix, T. H. Nash & Sipman, H. tariensis Elix, Parmeliella isidiopannosa Jørg., Parmotrema conferendum Hale, P. enteroxanthum Hale, P. laciniellum (Ferraro & Elix Blanco et al., P. pilosum (Stizenb. Krog & Swinscow, P. recipiendum (Nyl. Hale, P. ruptum (Lynge Hale ex DePriest & Hale, Pyxine pungens Zahlbr. and Xanthoparmelia substenophylloides Hale. Notes on distribution are provided for the species. Bulbothrix goebelii (Zenker Hale is excluded from the list of Bolivian lichens; the record is referred to B. laevigatula.

  5. Lichens as indicators for immission load in the urban region of Frankfurt/M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschbaum, U; Klee, R; Steubing, L

    1971-01-01

    The plotting of a map showing the natural lichen growth on trees has been undertaken in Frankfurt, and, in addition, the degree of air pollution has also been tested by means of Parmelia physodes planted at different measuring points. The city center is characterized by a complete absence of lichen which shows that the air in this zone is very unhealthy. In contrast to this, the middle and outer pollution control zones are to be considered as a residential district offering better hygienic conditions. The limits of the zone completely devoid of lichen is characterized in Frankfurt by an average SO/sub 2/ load of 0.11 mg SO/sub 2//m/sup 3/, and by a high dust concentration. 20 references.

  6. Trace Element Concentrations in Tree Leaves and Lichen Collected Along a Metal Pollution Gradient Near Olkusz (Southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Marta; Klimek, Beata

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the metal pollution in the vicinity of the Bukowno smelter near Olkusz in southern Poland. Birch and oak leaves, pine needles and a lichen Hypogymnia physodes, overgrowing pine bark were collected at stands at different distances from the smelter and analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) content. Concentrations of metals in the lichen were usually higher than in the tree leaves/needles and decreased with distance from the smelter, apart from the Cu content. The strongest correlation was noticed between Cd and Pb concentrations, which indicates a common pollution source (the smelter). Our results show that birch leaves can be potentially useful as a bioindicator of Zn air pollution since this species was shown to accumulate high amounts of zinc, related to environmental pollution with that metal, in their leaves.

  7. Lichen flora particular features of Degelen mountain massif in location of underground nuclear explosion carrying out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdarkhanova, G.S.; Andreeva, E.I.; Tuleubaev, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    The 25 kinds of dominant lichens of the Degelen mountain massif of the former Semipalatinsk test site are studied. It is defined, that complex of ecological factors have influence on spreading of lichen flora ceno-population. Lichens heterogeneousness in ability to radionuclides accumulation is determining of variety its anatomic-morphologic structure and physiological activity as well as physico-chemical properties of soils in places of its inhabited place. It is determined, that lichens are able to exist within limits of exposure dose capacity 18-3000 μR/h and under radioactivity by α-radiation 233-426 Bq/kg, by β-radiation 7000-15000 Bq/kg and Cs 137 150-620 Bq/kg. The largest accumulating ability have Parmelia scortea (570 Bq/kg), Parmelia fraudans (620 Bq/kg), Parmelia cetrata (470 Bq/kg), Parmelia conspersa (340 Bq/kg). Cesium-137 in lichens in 2-8 times higher than maximum permissible dose. Complete relation is showed between lichens and inhabitated substrates created conditions for determination of radiation situation by precise characteristics of lichen flora

  8. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams. X. The genus Everniastrum Hale and related taxa (Lichenes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipman, H.J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Colombian representatives of the lichen family Parmeliaceae with linear lobes and marginal cilia have been revised. A key is given and morphology, chemistry and distribution are treated of 12 species in three genera: Cetrariastrum Sipm. gen. nov, with C. andense (Kärnef.) Sipm. comb. nov., C.

  9. Lichen-based critical loads for atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Western Oregon and Washington Forests, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, Linda H., E-mail: lgeiser@fs.fed.u [US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region Air Resource Management Program, Siuslaw National Forest, PO Box 1148, Corvallis, OR 97339 (United States); Jovan, Sarah E. [US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 620 SW Main St, Suite 400, Portland, OR 97205 (United States); Glavich, Doug A. [US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region Air Resource Management Program, Siuslaw National Forest, PO Box 1148, Corvallis, OR 97339 (United States); Porter, Matthew K. [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Critical loads (CLs) define maximum atmospheric deposition levels apparently preventative of ecosystem harm. We present first nitrogen CLs for northwestern North America's maritime forests. Using multiple linear regression, we related epiphytic-macrolichen community composition to: 1) wet deposition from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, 2) wet, dry, and total N deposition from the Communities Multi-Scale Air Quality model, and 3) ambient particulate N from Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Sensitive species declines of 20-40% were associated with CLs of 1-4 and 3-9 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in wet and total deposition. CLs increased with precipitation across the landscape, presumably from dilution or leaching of depositional N. Tight linear correlation between lichen and IMPROVE data suggests a simple screening tool for CL exceedance in US Class I areas. The total N model replicated several US and European lichen CLs and may therefore be helpful in estimating other temperate-forest lichen CLs. - Lichen-based critical loads for N deposition in western Oregon and Washington forests ranged from 3 to 9 kg ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}, increasing with mean annual precipitation.

  10. Fruticose lichen transplant technique for air pollution experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppi, M

    1976-01-01

    Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouz. and Vezta lichens were transplanted into small plastic containers and placed in the area surrounding a chemical factory and in built-up areas in Oulu, Northern Finland. The changes occasioned in the lichens by the effects of air pollution were determined under the microscope, by photography, by measuring their net assimilation rate (URAS-2), chlorophyll content, pH and electrical conductivity, and by various chemical analyses. The results obtained from two autumn series of experiments are presented here. The lichens reacted fairly sharply to pollutants in the air, in a manner reflecting the qualitative differences between the town environment and the fertilizer factory as sources of pollution. The technique described here is compared with transplants of corticolous lichens. It seems that fruticose lichens may be successfully used as pollution indicators provided that the exposure period is short; only a few months.

  11. Verrucous Lichen Planus: A Rare Presentation of a Common Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audhya, Moutusi; Varughese, Jenny S.; Nakhwa, Yuti C.

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic papulosquamous dermatoses in which both skin and mucosae are involved. There are various morphological forms of lichen planus. Hypertrophic lichen planus is one of the rare clinical variants. Herein, we report a very unusual presentation of hypertrophic lichen planus. A similar presentation has not been reported in literature yet, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:25386324

  12. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Lichen-Forming Fungi of Bryoria Section Implexae (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nadyeina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The locally rare, haploid, lichen-forming fungi Bryoria capillaris, B. fuscescens, and B. implexa are associated with boreal forests and belong to Bryoria sect. Implexae. Recent phylogenetic studies consider them to be conspecific. Microsatellite loci were developed to study population structure in Bryoria sect. Implexae and its response to ecosystem disturbances. Methods and Results: We developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data assessed in 82 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13 with an average of 4.6. Nei's unbiased gene diversity, averaged over loci, ranged from 0.38 to 0.52. The markers amplified with all three species, except for markers Bi05, Bi15, and Bi18. Conclusions: The new markers will allow the study of population subdivision, levels of gene introgression, and levels of clonal spread of Bryoria sect. Implexae. They will also facilitate an understanding of the effects of forest disturbance on genetic diversity of these lichen species.

  13. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Flores, Alejandro; Hagen, Live H; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Wright, André-Denis G; Pope, Phillip B; Sundset, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4), or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3). Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa) were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads), with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences). Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001) and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027), were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively). UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-Flichen-fed reindeer.

  14. Segmental lichen aureus: a report of two cases treated with methylprednisolone aceponate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, John; Glassman, Steven; Modi, Deepak; Grayson, Wayne

    2011-05-01

    Two cases of segmental lichen aureus with a response to topical 0.1% methylprednisolone aceponate ointment are reported. A 9-year-old child and a 23-year-old man showed complete resolution of their lesions following treatment with the latter after 7 months and 4 months, respectively. Lichen aureus is a rare form of the pigmented purpuric dermatoses characterized by golden-brown and lichenoid macules and papules, most often on the lower extremities. Segmental presentations have seldom been described. Histology showed a lichenoid infiltrate with extravasation of red blood cells and haemosiderin deposition. The aetiology is unclear and treatment is disappointing. We report an uncommon segmental presentation of lichen aureus with resolution of the lesions after treatment with a topical corticosteroid. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2010 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  15. Estimation of the annual primary production of the lichen Cetrariella delisei in a glacier foreland in the High Arctic, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Masaki; Nakatsubo, Takayuki; Kanda, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The fruticose lichen Cetrariella delisei is among the dominant lichen species in the deglaciated High Arctic areas of Svalbard. As part of a study of carbon cycling in the High Arctic, we aimed to estimate the primary production of lichen in a deglaciated area in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79° N), by examining the effects of abiotic factors on the net photosynthesis (Pn) and dark respiration (R) rates of C. delisei. Experiments were conducted in the snow-free season of 2000 using an open-fl ow gas...

  16. Italian balustrade at Cliveden hosts Italian lichens?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Powell, M.; Vondrák, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 110 (2012), s. 11-14 ISSN 0300-4562 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : diaspore transport * lichen colonization * Mediterranean lichen s Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF A ROBUST LICHEN INDEX FOR THE DECONVOLUTION OF LICHEN AND ROCK MIXTURES USING PATTERN SEARCH ALGORITHM (CASE STUDY: GREENLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salehi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are the dominant autotrophs of polar and subpolar ecosystems commonly encrust the rock outcrops. Spectral mixing of lichens and bare rock can shift diagnostic spectral features of materials of interest thus leading to misinterpretation and false positives if mapping is done based on perfect spectral matching methodologies. Therefore, the ability to distinguish the lichen coverage from rock and decomposing a mixed pixel into a collection of pure reflectance spectra, can improve the applicability of hyperspectral methods for mineral exploration. The objective of this study is to propose a robust lichen index that can be used to estimate lichen coverage, regardless of the mineral composition of the underlying rocks. The performance of three index structures of ratio, normalized ratio and subtraction have been investigated using synthetic linear mixtures of pure rock and lichen spectra with prescribed mixing ratios. Laboratory spectroscopic data are obtained from lichen covered samples collected from Karrat, Liverpool Land, and Sisimiut regions in Greenland. The spectra are then resampled to Hyperspectral Mapper (HyMAP resolution, in order to further investigate the functionality of the indices for the airborne platform. In both resolutions, a Pattern Search (PS algorithm is used to identify the optimal band wavelengths and bandwidths for the lichen index. The results of our band optimization procedure revealed that the ratio between R894-1246 and R1110 explains most of the variability in the hyperspectral data at the original laboratory resolution (R2=0.769. However, the normalized index incorporating R1106-1121 and R904-1251 yields the best results for the HyMAP resolution (R2=0.765.

  18. Can partial‐cut harvesting be used to manage terrestrial lichen habitat? A review of recent evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Stevenson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that partial-cut harvesting techniques can be used to alter successional trajectories in pine- and spruce-lichen woodlands, allowing forest managers to extend the period of reindeer lichen growth in mid- to late seral boreal forest stands. In Quebec, a fully replicated partial-cutting trial found that terrestrial lichen abundance remained at least as high in the partial cut as in the clearcuts or unlogged stands, and that the partial cut appeared to be on a trajectory to have even more terrestrial lichen due to sustained higher growth rates. In Alberta, a retrospective study found higher terrestrial lichen abundance in an early horse-logged partial cut than in undisturbed adjacent old forests or in clearcuts. Follow-up studies of partial-cut harvesting trials in British Columbia found that group selection plots 10 years after harvesting had lichen cover equivalent to that of undisturbed forest. In contrast, studies on lichen woodlands that have been defoliated by mountain pine beetle showed a major decline in reindeer lichen cover and a corresponding increase in vascular plant cover, similar to the results of previous studies on clear-cut logging impacts. Taken together these studies provide qualified support for the hypothesis that partial-cut harvesting can be used to enhance, or at least maintain, terrestrial lichen mats used as forage by caribou.

  19. Response of epiphytic lichen communities to decreasing ammonia air concentrations in a moderately polluted area of The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparrius, Laurens B.

    2007-01-01

    Decreasing local ammonia air concentrations in a moderately polluted area in The Netherlands were accompanied by a rapid increase in nitrogen-sensitive species (acidophytes) and a decline of nitrogen-tolerant macrolichens (nitrophytes). This paper presents data on the relationship between nitrophyte abundance and species abundance for three ecological groups of epiphytic lichens: nitrophytes (positively correlated with ammonia), acidophytes (negatively correlated) and neutrophytes (which have an optimum at medium concentrations) and suggests ammonia dependent optimum curves for these groups. In this study neutrophytes were found to die-off massively at sites with a decrease of the ammonia air concentration over the period 1996-2003. - Lichens can be used to detect both increasing and decreasing ammonia air concentrations

  20. Perturbation vectors to evaluate air quality using lichens and bromeliads: a Brazilian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monna, F; Marques, A N; Guillon, R; Losno, R; Couette, S; Navarro, N; Dongarra, G; Tamburo, E; Varrica, D; Chateau, C; Nepomuceno, F O

    2017-10-17

    Samples of one lichen species, Parmotrema crinitum, and one bromeliad species, Tillandsia usneoides, were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, at four sites differently affected by anthropogenic pollution. The concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, lanthanum, lead, sulfur, titanium, zinc, and zirconium were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The environmental diagnosis was established by examining compositional changes via perturbation vectors, an underused family of methods designed to circumvent the problem of closure in any compositional dataset. The perturbation vectors between the reference site and the other three sites were similar for both species, although body concentration levels were different. At each site, perturbation vectors between lichens and bromeliads were approximately the same, whatever the local pollution level. It should thus be possible to combine these organisms, though physiologically different, for air quality surveys, after making all results comparable with appropriate correction. The use of perturbation vectors seems particularly suitable for assessing pollution level by biomonitoring, and for many frequently met situations in environmental geochemistry, where elemental ratios are more relevant than absolute concentrations.

  1. In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2013-07-01

    The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  2. Lichen secondary metabolites affect growth of Physcomitrella patens by allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, Michal; Antreich, Sebastian J; Bačkor, Martin; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Lang, Ingeborg

    2017-05-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites can function as allelochemicals and affect the development and growth of neighboring bryophytes, fungi, vascular plants, microorganisms, and even other lichens. Lichen overgrowth on bryophytes is frequently observed in nature even though mosses grow faster than lichens, but there is still little information on the interactions between lichens and bryophytes.In the present study, we used extracts from six lichen thalli containing secondary metabolites like usnic acid, protocetraric acid, atranorin, lecanoric acid, nortistic acid, and thamnolic acid. To observe the influence of these metabolites on bryophytes, the moss Physcomitrella patens was cultivated for 5 weeks under laboratory conditions and treated with lichen extracts. Toxicity of natural mixtures of secondary metabolites was tested at three selected doses (0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 %). When the mixture contained substantial amounts of usnic acid, we observed growth inhibition of protonemata and reduced development of gametophores. Significant differences in cell lengths and widths were also noticed. Furthermore, usnic acid had a strong effect on cell division in protonemata suggesting a strong impact on the early stages of bryophyte development by allelochemicals contained in the lichen secondary metabolites.Biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites were confirmed in several studies such as antiviral, antibacterial, antitumor, antiherbivore, antioxidant, antipyretic, and analgetic action or photoprotection. This work aimed to expand the knowledge on allelopathic effects on bryophyte growth.

  3. Hydrology in Lichens: How Biological Architecture is Used to Regulate Water Access to Support Drought Resilience and Nutrient Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Veldhuis, M. C.; Dismukes, G. C.; Ananyev, G.

    2017-12-01

    Lichens are Nature's masters at controlling water and air flux within a symbiotic organism comprised of an algal photobiont and its fungal host. Here we investigated the equilibrium partitioning and kinetic transport of water between the symbionts in the lichen flavoparmelia species. Lichens have developed a unique strategy to recover after deep dehydration, that otherwise would kill the majority of free living phototrophs. By measuring both kinetics of water content and chlorophyll fluorescence emission (indicative of algal charge separation and water oxidation) during dehydration, we identified 3 distinct temporal stages and mapped these to physical zones by confocal microscopy using a combination of hydro-philic/-phobic dyes. Below a critical level of water content, controlled by the greater hydrophilicity of fungal tissues, algal photosynthesis rapidly turns off. We show that the distinct stages in dehydration mirror the 3D architecture of lichen tissue (the thallus). We provide evidence that control of water distribution is achieved by capillary forces within ordered zones of physical space possessing different hydro-phobic/-philic characteristics. This strategy ensures that photosynthetic capacity is protected from and can quickly recover after desiccation. The fungal host controls the onset and extent of photosynthesis in the enslaved alga, presumably to ensure transport of algal derived sugars and oxygen (O2) to the fungal host only when sufficient water exists for transport. Lichen architecture provides Nature's solution to gas-water transport that is self-regulated by humidity. It offers novel lessons for designing practical devices such as fuel cell membranes and dialysis membranes. Supported by the US Dept of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Physical Biosciences Division.

  4. Assessment of bioaccumulation of REEs by plant species in a mining area by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain Md Anawar; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Nuno Canha; Isabel Dionisio; Ho Manh Dung; Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Native plant species, lichens and tailings, sampled from a copper-sulphide mining area located in southern-eastern Portugal, were analysed by neutron activation analysis (INAA) for determination of rare earth elements (REEs). Values of ΣREEs and individual REEs concentration of tailing samples are higher than those of natural background concentrations. The higher values of REEs are found in modern slags and the mixture of oxidized gossan and sulphide disseminated country rocks when compared with the alluvial sediments contaminated by mine tailings. The total concentrations of light REEs are higher than those of heavy REEs in all tailing samples. Distribution patterns of PAAS-normalized REEs in mine tailings show slightly LREE enriched and flat HREE pattern with negative Eu anomaly. Lichens accumulated higher concentration of lanthanides than vascular plants. The elevated levels of REEs in lichen, native plant species and tailing samples reflect the contamination of REEs in Sao Domingos mining area. The Carlina corymbosa, Erica australis and Lavandula luisierra accumulated the higher amounts of La, Ce and other REEs than the other plant species grown in this mining area. (author)

  5. The response of epiphytic lichens to air pollution and subsets of ecological predictors: A case study from the Italian Prealps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofolini, Fabiana; Giordani, Paolo; Gottardini, Elena; Modenesi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the response of epiphytic lichens to air pollution, against the background of other ecological predictors in a prealpine heterogeneous area, using Non-Parametric Multiplicative Regression (NPMR). The best NPMR model for total lichen diversity according to N environmental predictors at tree level has a cross R 2 = 0.709. It includes 10 variables, belonging to three different subsets of factors: two pollution-related factors (distance in meters from the road and from the cement factory); four stand-related (habitat, heat index, LAI and elevation) and four substrate-related factors (inclination, circumference and texture and tree species). Considering separately the effects of each subset on lichen diversity, substrate- and stand-related factors produce good models with similar cross R 2 (0.490 and 0.500, respectively), whereas pollution-related factors produce a model with a lower cross R 2 (0.340). Hence, we provide information to investigate the applicability of lichen biomonitoring to complex heterogeneous areas where standardized protocols are not reliable. - We detect the response of lichens to air pollution, against the background of other ecological predictors

  6. Acitretin for the management of generalized cutaneous lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirnia, Aria; Cohen, Philip R

    2014-09-16

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease that affects the skin, the oral mucosa, or both. Generalized cutaneous lichen planus may pose a therapeutic challenge for clinicians if the condition persists or flares after topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. Acitretin, a systemic retinoid, can be considered a potential second-line treatment for patients with generalized cutaneous lichen planus. Herein, we describe a postmenopausal woman with generalized cutaneous lichen planus who was successfully treated with acitretin. A 58-year-old woman presented with generalized cutaneous lichen planus involving her upper and lower extremities as well as her lower back. After failing corticosteroid therapy, she was started on acitretin 20 mg/day, which was later increased to 30 mg/day. To review the literature on the use of acitretin in cutaneous lichen planus, we used the PubMed search engine and searched for the terms "acitretin" and "cutaneous lichen planus." Our patient had complete resolution of pruritus within one week of initiating acitretin 20 mg/day. After an increase in dose to 30 mg/day, the cutaneous lesions completely resolved over a 3-month period. There was no recurrence of disease as acitretin was tapered and discontinued. Generalized cutaneous lichen planus may pose a therapeutic challenge for the symptomatic relief of skin lesions. Topical and systemic corticosteroids are first-line treatments. In patients who fail corticosteroids, relapse after corticosteroid therapy, or have contraindications to corticosteroids, acitretin may be considered a potential second-line therapy.

  7. Global estimate of lichen and bryophyte contributions to forest precipitation interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John; Porada, Philipp; Kleidon, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Interception of precipitation by forest canopies plays an important role in its partitioning to evaporation, transpiration and runoff. Field observations show arboreal lichens and bryophytes can substantially enhance forests' precipitation storage and evaporation. However, representations of canopy interception in global land surface models currently ignore arboreal lichen and bryophyte contributions. This study uses the lichen and bryophyte model (LiBry) to provide the first process-based modelling approach estimating these organisms' contributions to canopy water storage and evaporation. The global mean value of forest water storage capacity increased significantly from 0.87 mm to 1.33 mm by the inclusion of arboreal poikilohydric organisms. Global forest canopy evaporation of intercepted precipitation was also greatly enhanced by 44%. Ratio of total versus bare canopy global evaporation exceeded 2 in many forested regions. This altered global patterns in canopy water storage, evaporation, and ultimately the proportion of rainfall evaporated. A sensitivity analysis was also performed. Results indicate rainfall interception is of larger magnitude than previously reported by global land surface modelling work because of the important role of lichen and bryophytes in rainfall interception.

  8. Multifocal lichen sclerosus. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hadas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lichen sclerosus (LS is a chronic, inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology affecting skin and mucous membranes. It was first described in 1887 by Darier. Lichen sclerosus usually begins as a single or multiple plaques (rarely as lichenoid papules gradually transforming into porcelain-white atrophic lesions. Depending on localization, it may manifest with itching, pain or a burning sensation and often may cause sexual dysfunction. Objective. Presentation of an LS case that posed diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a patient with clinical diagnosis of lichen planus hypertrophicus on the skin of forearms and hands which demonstrated histopathological features of LS. Additionally, the presence of LS lesions was found on the skin of the eyelid and penis. Conclusions . Our case seems to be interesting because of the differences between clinical and histopathological findings and multiple localization of lesions.

  9. The organic air pollutant cumene hydroperoxide interferes with NO antioxidant role in rehydrating lichen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalá, M.; Gasulla, F.; Pradas del Real, A.E.; García-Breijo, F.; Reig-Armiñana, J.; Barreno, E.

    2013-01-01

    Organic pollutants effects on lichens have not been addressed. Rehydration is critical for lichens, a burst of free radicals involving NO occurs. Repeated dehydrations with organic pollutants could increase oxidative damage. Our aim is to learn the effects of cumene hydroperoxide (CP) during lichen rehydration using Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach., its photobiont Trebouxia spp. and Asterochloris erici. Confocal imaging shows intracellular ROS and NO production within myco and phycobionts, being the chloroplast the main source of free radicals. CP increases ROS, NO and lipid peroxidation and reduces chlorophyll autofluorescence, although photosynthesis remains unaffected. Concomitant NO inhibition provokes a generalized increase of ROS and a decrease in photosynthesis. Our results suggest that CP induces a compensatory hormetic response in Ramalina farinacea that could reduce the lichen's antioxidant resources after repeated desiccation-rehydration cycles. NO is important in the protection from CP. -- Highlights: •Organic pollutants could be involved in lichen decline but effects are unknown. •Cumene hydroperoxide induces a compensatory response in rehydration (hormesis). •Cumene hydroperoxide induces a delayed lipid peroxidation. •NO is involved in rehydration oxidative stress regulation under cumene hydroperoxide. •Symbionts display specific responses probably involving communication along time. -- The organic air pollutant cumene hydroperoxide induces oxidative membrane damage in the lichen Ramalina farinacea during rehydration. Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in lichen response

  10. Lichens as indicators of tritium and radiocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, Olivier; Kirchner, Gerald; Pigree, Gilbert; Porstendorfer, Justin

    2004-01-01

    Lichens were collected in France in the surroundings of a military nuclear facility in Burgundy, near the la Hague reprocessing plant and in an area away from any direct source of contamination. Organically bound tritium (OBT) has been analysed on 18 samples and radiocarbon on 11. It appeared that on the most contaminated spots, the OBT activity in lichens was higher than the background by a factor of 1000 and was still a factor 10-100 at a distance of 20 km from the source. Radiocarbon from la Hague could be traced by lichens. The slow metabolism of lichens makes them suitable for the follow-up of 3 H and 14 C, which have been incorporated by photosynthesis

  11. Rumen and Cecum Microbiomes in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus Are Changed in Response to a Lichen Diet and May Affect Enteric Methane Emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salgado-Flores

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus are large Holarctic herbivores whose heterogeneous diet has led to the development of a unique gastrointestinal microbiota, essential for the digestion of arctic flora, which may include a large proportion of lichens during winter. Lichens are rich in plant secondary metabolites, which may affect members of the gut microbial consortium, such as the methane-producing methanogenic archaea. Little is known about the effect of lichen consumption on the rumen and cecum microbiotas and how this may affect methanogenesis in reindeer. Here, we examined the effects of dietary lichens on the reindeer gut microbiota, especially methanogens. Samples from the rumen and cecum were collected from two groups of reindeer, fed either lichens (Ld: n = 4, or a standard pelleted feed (Pd: n = 3. Microbial densities (methanogens, bacteria and protozoa were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and methanogen and bacterial diversities were determined by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. In general, the density of methanogens were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the intake of lichens. Methanobrevibacter constituted the main archaeal genus (>95% of reads, with Mbr. thaueri CW as the dominant species in both groups of reindeer. Bacteria belonging to the uncharacterized Ruminococcaceae and the genus Prevotella were the dominant phylotypes in the rumen and cecum, in both diets (ranging between 16-38% total sequences. Bacteria belonging to the genus Ruminococcus (3.5% to 0.6%; p = 0.001 and uncharacterized phylotypes within the order Bacteroidales (8.4% to 1.3%; p = 0.027, were significantly decreased in the rumen of lichen-fed reindeer, but not in the cecum (p = 0.2 and p = 0.087, respectively. UniFrac-based analyses showed archaeal and bacterial libraries were significantly different between diets, in both the cecum and the rumen (vegan::Adonis: pseudo-F<0.05. Based upon previous literature, we suggest that the

  12. Carbon-Water-Nitrogen relationships between lichens and the atmosphere: Tools to understand metabolism and ecosystem change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Máguas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the close linking between the biosphere and atmosphere, there are clear impacts of changes in climate, atmospheric deposition of nutrients/pollutants and land use (Global Changes on the terrestrial biosphere. Lichens, with a direct dependence on atmospheric conditions, are much more affected by their immediate microclimate than by the ecosystem’s prevailing macroclimate. In contrast to higher plants, poikilohydric organisms have different mechanisms of water and CO2 exchange. The application of stable isotopes to the understanding of the mechanisms that are fundamental to lichen gas exchange and water uptake is a promising tool for the evaluation of lichen response to environmental changes. Indeed, lichens have been shown to be influenced by a large number of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors, serving as ecological indicators. Thus, we may use these organisms to model the impact of key global change drivers, such as nitrogen deposition and biodiversity changes, at local scale. Particularly useful is the application of the Lichen Diversity Value (LDV in order to evaluate the impact of global drivers. Moreover, it has been shown that these indices, associated with main photobiont types, green-algae (LDVch or cyanobacteria (LDVcyh, and/or nitrophilous versus oligotrophic species, were good candidates as ecological indicators. Besides mapping with high spatial resolution the effects of climate alterations, lichen functional groups could also be used as an early-warning system in order to detect the first effects of climate change in ecosystems before sudden shifts occur on other components that may be less sensitive. Clearly, lichens possess the adequate traits to be used as powerful indicators of complex interactions between atmosphere and biosphere, and thus can generate potentially interesting models for global change drivers.

  13. Dermoscopic findings in extragenital lichen sclerosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jędrowiak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus (LS, also known as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown aetiology. It has both genital and extragenital presentations, nevertheless genital forms significantly outnumber extragenital LS. Dermoscopy is noninvasive diagnostic tool traditionally employed in pigmented lesions, however its usefulness in inflammatory skin conditions is becoming continuously more meaningful. Although the clinical diagnosis of fully developed LS rarely causes difficulties, unusual presentations require differentiation from the diseases such as lichen planus, morphea, extramammary Paget disease, SCC and others. In these cases histopathology contributes to the diagnosis. Studies on the use of dermoscopy in LS are sparse, nevertheless some dermoscopic features of LS has been described.

  14. Dermoscopic findings in extragenital lichen sclerosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jędrowiak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lichen sclerosus (LS, also known as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown aetiology. It has both genital and extragenital presentations, nevertheless genital forms significantly outnumber extragenital LS. Dermoscopy is noninvasive diagnostic tool traditionally employed in pigmented lesions, however its usefulness in inflammatory skin conditions is becoming continuously more meaningful. Although the clinical diagnosis of fully developed LS rarely causes difficulties, unusual presentations require differentiation from the diseases such as lichen planus, morphea, extramammary Paget disease, SCC and others. In these cases histopathology contributes to the diagnosis. Studies on the use of dermoscopy in LS are sparse, nevertheless some dermoscopic features of LS has been described.

  15. A New Method of Environmental Assessment and Monitoring of Cu, Zn, As, and Pb Pollution in Surface Soil Using Terricolous Fruticose Lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sueoka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Levels of trace element pollution in surface soil can be estimated using soil analyses and leaching tests. These methods may reveal different results due to the effect of soil properties, such as grain size and mineral composition, on elemental availability. Therefore, this study advocates an alternative method for monitoring and assessment of trace element pollution in surface soil using terricolous fruticose lichens. Lichens growing at abandoned mine sites and unpolluted areas in southwest Japan and their substrata were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to clarify the relationships between Cu, Zn, As, and Pb concentrations in lichens and soils, including their absorption properties. Concentrations of these elements in the lichens were positively correlated with those in the soils regardless of lichen species, location, habitat, or conditions of soils. The analyzed lichens had neither competitive nor antagonistic properties in their elemental absorption, which made them good biomonitors of trace element pollution in surface soil. The distribution maps of average Cu, Zn, As, and Pb concentrations at each sampling region detected almost all of the Cu, Zn, and As pollution of the soils. Therefore, lichens could be used in practical applications to monitor Cu, Zn, and As pollution in surface soils.

  16. Estimation of lichen biomass with emphasis on reindeer winter pastures at Hardangervidda, S Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Arvid Odland; Sylvi M. Sandvik; Dag K. Bjerketvedt; Linn L. Myrvold

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of lichen abundance is important for management of reindeer populations. We measured dry lichen biomass in 876 micro plots (16.5 cm × 16.5 cm) systematically sampled within 219 vegetation plots (2 m × 2 m) from 7 different areas in S Norway. Lichen biomass was quantified as: (a) dry weight in g m-2, (b) lichen height in cm, (c) lichen cover, and (d) lichen volume (lichen height × lichen cover). Lichen biomass decreased with increasing precipitation and increasing altitude. On l...

  17. Clinico-pathological study to evaluate oral lichen planus for the establishment of clinical and histopathological diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Santhosh; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions affecting the oral cavity show similar clinico-pathological features creating a diagnostic dilemma. Hence, the aim of the present study was to establish a clinical and histopathological correlation in the diagnosis of oral lichen planus, based on the modified WHO diagnostic criteria of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions proposed by Van der Meij and Van der Waal in 2003. In the present study, 100 cases of oral lichen planus were clinically and histopathologically analyzed. Out of the 100 cases, 50 were prospective and 50 were retrospective cases. Prospective cases were collected based on the clinical diagnosis of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesion. Retrospective cases were collected based on the histopathological diagnosis of oral lichen planus. Both the clinical and histopathological analyses were performed based on a proposal for a set of modified diagnostic criteria of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesion. A final diagnosis of oral lichen planus was made only after the correlation of the clinical diagnosis with the histopathological diagnosis. The interobserver agreement among three observers for both prospective and retrospective cases in the final diagnosis of oral lichen planus was found to be "good" to "very good" indicating high reproducibility. However, the final diagnoses of true oral lichen planus after clinico-pathological correlation in prospective and retrospective study groups appeared to be 38.0% and 54.0% respectively. The results of the present study revealed mild to moderate clinico-pathological correlation in the final diagnosis of oral lichen planus for the prospective and retrospective study groups respectively.

  18. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  19. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of air pollution by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, G; Rose, F

    1973-01-01

    Epiphytic lichens show specific differential responses to sulfur dioxide in the air, and it has been possible to construct a scale of SO/sub 2/ pollution based upon lichen communities present upon trees. Maps of pollution zones have now been prepared for England, Wales and Northern France. It has proved possible to correlate these zones with mean winter levels of sulfur dioxide measured instrumentally. Laboratory studies indicate the essential validity of this approach. An interesting correlation between air pollution and topography can be demonstrated in much of south-east England.

  20. Learning about Lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Danny

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)

  1. Optimal defense: snails avoid reproductive parts of the lichen Lobaria scrobiculata due to internal defense allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn; Gauslaa, Yngvar

    2010-10-01

    The optimal defense theory (ODT) deals with defensive compounds improving fitness of a particular organism. It predicts that these compounds are allocated in proportion to the risk for a specific plant tissue being attacked and this tissue's value for plant fitness. As the benefit of defense cannot easily be measured in plants, the empirical evidence for ODT is limited. However, lichens are unique in the sense that their carbon-based secondary compounds can nondestructively be removed or reduced in concentration by acetone rinsing. By using such an extraction protocol, which is lethal to plants, we have tested the ODT by studying lichens instead of plants as photosynthetically active organisms. Prior to acetone rinsing, we found five times higher concentration of meta-scrobiculin in the reproductive parts (soralia) of Lobaria scrobiculata compared to somatic parts of this foliose epiphytic lichen species. At this stage, the lichen-feeding snail Cochlodina laminata avoided the soralia. However, after removal of secondary compounds, the snail instead preferred the soralia. In this way, we have successfully shown that grazing pattern inversely reflects the partitioning of the secondary compounds that have a documented deterring effect. Thus our study provides strong and novel evidence for the ODT.

  2. Changes in forage lichen biomass after insect outbreaks and fuel reduction treatment in the Blue Mountains, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce McCune; Sarah Jovan; Amanda. Hardman

    2008-01-01

    Forage lichens are pendulous, hairlike species eaten by a wide range of mammals. Our overall goal was to estimate losses of Bryoria, a genus of ecologically important forage species, in forests subjected to disease and fuel reduction treatments at Starkey Experimental Forest in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. Specific objectives were to...

  3. Potential of Lichen Compounds as Antidiabetic Agents with Antioxidative Properties: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Veranja

    2017-01-01

    The advancement in the knowledge of potent antioxidants has uncovered the way for greater insight in the treatment of diabetic complications. Lichens are a rich resource of novel bioactive compounds and their antioxidant potential is well documented. Herein we review the antidiabetic potential of lichens which have received considerable attention, in the recent past. We have correlated the antidiabetic and the antioxidant potential of lichen compounds. The study shows a good accordance between antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of lichens and points out the need to look into gathering the scarce and scattered data on biological activities for effective utilization. The review establishes that the lichen extracts, especially of Parmotrema sp. and Ramalina sp. have shown promising potential in both antidiabetic and antioxidant assays. Ubiquitous compounds, namely, zeorin, methylorsellinate, methyl-β-orcinol carboxylate, methyl haematommate, lecanoric acid, salazinic acid, sekikaic acid, usnic acid, gyrophoric acid, and lobaric acid have shown promising potential in both antidiabetic as well as antioxidant assays highlighting their potential for effective treatment of diabetic mellitus and its associated complications. The available compilation of this data provides the future perspectives and highlight the need for further studies of this potent herbal source to harvest more beneficial therapeutic antidiabetic drugs. PMID:28491237

  4. Hepatitis C virus infections in oral lichen planus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaizari, N A; Al-Maweri, S A; Al-Shamiri, H M; Tarakji, B; Shugaa-Addin, B

    2016-09-01

    A role for hepatitis C virus in oral lichen planus has been postulated. This systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing epidemiological studies was conducted to determine if there is a correlation between oral lichen planus and hepatitis C virus infection. We examined the association between hepatitis C virus and oral lichen planus by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies that examined the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies in the serum of cases and controls. We searched PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library databases from 2005 to January 2015. Associations were measured using random-effect odds ratios (ORs) combined with 95% confidence intervals. Nineteen eligible studies, encompassing 1807 cases of OLP and 2519 controls, were retrieved and included in this review. The summary estimate OR for all studies was 6.07 (95% CI: 2.73-13.48), showing a statistically significant difference in the proportion of HCV seropositivity among oral lichen planus patients, compared with controls and substantial heterogeneity between studies (I(2) = 65%) as a result of a variety of geographical distributions. The association of hepatitis C virus infection with oral lichen planus emphasizes the importance of hepatitis C virus screening in oral lichen planus patients. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  5. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been se