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Sample records for levels significantly reduced

  1. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium supplementation may decrease circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the available trials are heterogenous. This study expands and critically reappraises the knowledge on this topic. METHODS: A literature search identified...... 3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...... and LT4-untreated. Heterogeneity was estimated using I(2), and quality of evidence was assessed per outcome, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: In LT4-treated populations, the selenium group had significantly lower TPOAb levels after...

  2. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  3. A Recombinant Multi-Stage Vaccine against Paratuberculosis Significantly Reduces Bacterial Level in Tissues without Interference in Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, C.

    , PPDj-specific IFN-γ responses or positive PPDa or PPDb skin tests developed in vaccinees. Antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses were developed against FET11 antigens, however. At necropsy 8 or 12 months of age, relative Map burden was determined in a number of gut tissues by quantitative IS900...... PCR and revealed significantly reduced levels of Map and reduced histopathology. Diagnostic tests for antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses, used as surrogates of infection, corroborated the observed vaccine efficacy: Five of seven non‐vaccinated calves seroconverted in ID Screen......-γ assay responses from 40 to 52 weeks compared to non-vaccinated calves. These results indicate the FET11 vaccine can be used to accelerate eradication of paratuberculosis while surveillance or test-and-manage control programs for tuberculosis and Johne’s disease remain in place. Funded by EMIDA ERA...

  4. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Weight loss significantly reduces serum lipocalin-2 levels in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiou, Ekaterini; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Katsikis, Ilias; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kalaitzakis, Emmanuil; Delkos, Dimitrios; Vosnakis, Christos; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 levels are elevated in obese patients. We assessed serum lipocalin-2 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the effects of weight loss or metformin on these levels. Forty-seven overweight/obese patients with PCOS [body mass index (BMI) >27 kg/m(2)] were instructed to follow a low-calorie diet, to exercise and were given orlistat or sibutramine for 6 months. Twenty-five normal weight patients with PCOS (BMI weight and 25 overweight/obese healthy female volunteers comprised the control groups. Serum lipocalin-2 levels did not differ between overweight/obese patients with PCOS and overweight/obese controls (p = 0.258), or between normal weight patients with PCOS and normal weight controls (p = 0.878). Lipocalin-2 levels were higher in overweight/obese patients with PCOS than in normal weight patients with PCOS (p weight loss resulted in a fall in lipocalin-2 levels (p weight patients with PCOS, treatment with metformin did not affect lipocalin-2 levels (p = 0.484). In conclusion, PCOS per se is not associated with elevated lipocalin-2 levels. Weight loss induces a significant reduction in lipocalin-2 levels in overweight/obese patients with PCOS.

  6. Is Systemic Operation Design Capable of Reducing Significantly Bias in Operational Level Planning Caused by Military Organizational Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-25

    drape shallow ‘rival’ ideas across them. At best this constitutes a waste of time and at worse a new source of poor judgments. Nor is such...quoted in 1 (UK) Armoured Division Draft Future Divisional Headquarters Structure Review ref G3/3800 dated 19 Jul 05. APPENDIX II – Structuring...and divisional level (HQ 1 UK Armoured Division) through to the operational and strategic interface (Project ROBERTS 2).64 Functions in a Deployed

  7. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sucralfate significantly reduces ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrelts, J C; Godley, P J; Peterie, J D; Gerlach, E H; Yakshe, C C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy subjects utilizing a randomized, crossover design. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was reduced from 8.8 to 1.1 micrograms.h/ml by sucralfate (P less than 0.005). Similarly, the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum was reduced from 2.0 to 0.2 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.005). We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentr...

  9. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  11. Quilting after mastectomy significantly reduces seroma formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce or prevent seroma formation among mastectomy patients ... of this prospective study is to evaluate the effect of surgical quilting ... Seroma was more common in smokers (p=0.003) and was not decreased by the .... explain its aetiology.

  12. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  13. Online Hemodiafiltration Reduces Bisphenol A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Borja; Bosch, Ricardo J; Fiallos, Ruth A; Sánchez-Heras, Marta; Olea-Herrero, Nuria; López-Aparicio, Pilar; Muñóz-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Alvarsan, Miguel Angel; De Arriba, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    Several uremic toxins have been identified and related to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Bisphenol A (BPA) accumulates in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) in reducing BPA levels. Thirty stable hemodialysis patients were selected to participate in this paired study. During three periods of 3 weeks each, patients were switched from high-flux hemodialysis (HF-HD) to OL-HDF, and back to HF-HD. BPA levels were measured in the last session of each period (pre- and post-dialysis) using ELISA and HPLC. Twenty-two patients (mean age 73 ± 14 years; 86.4% males) were included. Measurements of BPA levels by HPLC and ELISA assays showed a weak but significant correlation (r = 0.218, P = 0.012). BPA levels decreased in the OL-HDF period of hemodialysis, in contrast to the HF-HD period when they remained stable (P = 0.002). In conclusion, OL-HDF reduced BPA levels in dialysis patients. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  14. Significance of high level test data in piping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.L.; Bitner, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980's the piping technical community in the U.S. initiated a series of research activities aimed at reducing the conservatism inherent in nuclear piping design. One of these activities was directed at the application of the ASME Code rules to the design of piping subjected to dynamic loads. This paper surveys the test data obtained from three groups in the U.S. and none in the U.K., and correlates the findings as they relate to the failure modes of piping subjected to seismic loads. The failure modes experienced as the result of testing at dynamic loads significantly in excess of anticipated loads specified for any of the ASME Code service levels are discussed. A recommendation is presented for modifying the Code piping rules to reduce the conservatism inherent in seismic design

  15. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Timescales for detecting a significant acceleration in sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Ivan D; Wahl, Thomas; Rohling, Eelco J; Price, René M; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B; Calafat, Francisco M; Dangendorf, Sönke

    2014-04-14

    There is observational evidence that global sea level is rising and there is concern that the rate of rise will increase, significantly threatening coastal communities. However, considerable debate remains as to whether the rate of sea level rise is currently increasing and, if so, by how much. Here we provide new insights into sea level accelerations by applying the main methods that have been used previously to search for accelerations in historical data, to identify the timings (with uncertainties) at which accelerations might first be recognized in a statistically significant manner (if not apparent already) in sea level records that we have artificially extended to 2100. We find that the most important approach to earliest possible detection of a significant sea level acceleration lies in improved understanding (and subsequent removal) of interannual to multidecadal variability in sea level records.

  17. Next-generation nozzle check valve significantly reduces operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roorda, O. [SMX International, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Check valves perform an important function in preventing reverse flow and protecting plant and mechanical equipment. However, the variety of different types of valves and extreme differences in performance even within one type can change maintenance requirements and life cycle costs, amounting to millions of dollars over the typical 15-year design life of piping components. A next-generation non-slam nozzle check valve which prevents return flow has greatly reduced operating costs by protecting the mechanical equipment in a piping system. This article described the check valve varieties such as the swing check valve, a dual-plate check valve, and nozzle check valves. Advancements in optimized design of a non-slam nozzle check valve were also discussed, with particular reference to computer flow modelling such as computational fluid dynamics; computer stress modelling such as finite element analysis; and flow testing (using rapid prototype development and flow loop testing), both to improve dynamic performance and reduce hydraulic losses. The benefits of maximized dynamic performance and minimized pressure loss from the new designed valve were also outlined. It was concluded that this latest non-slam nozzle check valve design has potential applications in natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and oil pipelines, including subsea applications, as well as refineries, and petrochemical plants among others, and is suitable for horizontal and vertical installation. The result of this next-generation nozzle check valve design is not only superior performance, and effective protection of mechanical equipment but also minimized life cycle costs. 1 fig.

  18. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  19. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekis, Nejc; Mc Entee, Mark F.; Stegnar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p ≤ 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p ≤ 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p ≤ 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p ≤ 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p ≤ 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p ≤ 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  20. Significance levels for studies with correlated test statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianxin; Levinson, Douglas F; Whittemore, Alice S

    2008-07-01

    When testing large numbers of null hypotheses, one needs to assess the evidence against the global null hypothesis that none of the hypotheses is false. Such evidence typically is based on the test statistic of the largest magnitude, whose statistical significance is evaluated by permuting the sample units to simulate its null distribution. Efron (2007) has noted that correlation among the test statistics can induce substantial interstudy variation in the shapes of their histograms, which may cause misleading tail counts. Here, we show that permutation-based estimates of the overall significance level also can be misleading when the test statistics are correlated. We propose that such estimates be conditioned on a simple measure of the spread of the observed histogram, and we provide a method for obtaining conditional significance levels. We justify this conditioning using the conditionality principle described by Cox and Hinkley (1974). Application of the method to gene expression data illustrates the circumstances when conditional significance levels are needed.

  1. Clinical significance of determination of serum C-peptide levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu; Wang Xiaoji

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical meanings of changes of serum C-peptide levels and insulin/C-peptide ratio. Methods: Serum insulin and C-peptide levels were determined with RIA in 171 patients with DM-2 of all ages (31-50, n= 50, 51-60, n=60, over 60, n=61) and 50 patients with renal insufficiency. The insulin/C-peptide ratio were calculated. Results: The serum C-peptide and insulin levels in patients with renal insufficiency were significantly higher than those in diabetics of all age groups and the insulin/C-peptide ratio were significantly lower than those in diabetics (P 0.05), but the serum C-peptide levels increased as the age of patients increased with decrease of insulin/C-peptide ratio (P<0.01). Conclusion: Abnormal changes of C-peptide levels and insulin/C-peptide ratio in diabetics (the age-factor corrected) might reflect renal dysfunction. (authors)

  2. Clinical significance of the VEGF level in urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Abhishek, Amar; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and micro-vessel density (MVD) with urinary bladder tumor and its stage. The study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2012. The study included screening of 122 patients at elevated risk for bladder cancer, of which 35 patients were finally enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of urine cytology, radiological investigation (ultrasound KUB, and CT-scan) and histopathology. Thirty-five normal cancer-free individuals were enrolled as controls. Human VEGF levels were measured using an enzyme linked immunoassay and protein content (pg/mg protein) by Lowry method. SPSS for Windows version 10.0.7 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis of the data. Mean urine VEGF level in the cases was significantly higher in comparison to the control group. There was a direct correlation between VEGF level and tumor stage. Mean urine VEGF values were minimum in the control group (22.75 ± 15.41 pg/mg creatinine) and maximum in stage IV patients (180.15 ± 75.93 pg/mg creatinine). Tissue VEGF levels also showed a similar trend of increase with increase in stage. Urine VEGF level also showed a correlation with tissue VEGF level. Similarly, MVD showed a significant increase with increase in tumor stage. A correlation between bladder cancer and MVD and VEGF suggest that the latter can serve as markers for therapeutic guidance. This is the first study from India on clinical and pathological correlation among urine VEGF, tumor tissue VEGF levels, and Micro Vessel Density (MVD) in urinary bladder cancer patients.

  3. Manipulating the Alpha Level Cannot Cure Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trafimow

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = 0.05 to p = 0.005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significance testing altogether. There are alternatives that address study design and sample size much more directly than significance testing does; but none of the statistical tools should be taken as the new magic method giving clear-cut mechanical answers. Inference should not be based on single studies at all, but on cumulative evidence from multiple independent studies. When evaluating the strength of the evidence, we should consider, for example, auxiliary assumptions, the strength of the experimental design, and implications for applications. To boil all this down to a binary decision based on a p-value threshold of 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, or anything else, is not acceptable.

  4. Antistreptolysin O titer in health and disease: levels and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa Amal Kotby

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Over diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (ARF based on a raised antistreptolysin O titer (ASOT is not uncommon in endemic areas. In this study, 660 children (aged 9.2 ±1.7 years were recruited consecutively and classified as: G1 (control group, n=200 healthy children, G2 (n=20 with ARF 1st attack, G3 (n=40 with recurrent ARF, G4 (n=100 with rheumatic heart disease (RHD on long acting penicillin (LAP, G5 (n=100 with acute follicular tonsillitis, and G6 (n=200 healthy children with history of repeated follicular tonsillitis more than three times a year. Serum ASOT was measured by latex agglutination. Upper limit of normal (ULN ASOT (80th percentile was 400 IU in G1, 200 IU in G4, and 1600 IU in G6. Significantly high levels were seen in ARF 1st attack when compared to groups 1 and 5 (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively. ASOT was significantly high in children over ten years of age, during winter and in those with acute rheumatic carditis. ASOT showed significant direct correlation with the number of attacks of tonsillitis (P<0.05. Egyptian children have high ULN ASOT reaching 400 IU. This has to be taken into consideration when interpreting its values in suspected ARF. A rise in ASOT is less prominent in recurrent ARF compared to 1st attack, and acute and recurrent tonsillitis. Basal levels of ASOT increase with age but the pattern of increase during infection is not age dependent

  5. Manipulating the alpha level cannot cure significance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trafimow, David; Amrhein, Valentin; Areshenkoff, Corson N.; Barrera-Causil, Carlos J.; Beh, Eric J.; Bilgiç, Yusuf K.; Bono, Roser; Bradley, Michael T.; Briggs, William M.; Cepeda-Freyre, Héctor A.; Chaigneau, Sergio E.; Ciocca, Daniel R.; Correa, Juan C.; Cousineau, Denis; de Boer, Michiel R.; Dhar, Subhra S.; Dolgov, Igor; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Grendar, Marian; Grice, James W.; Guerrero-Gimenez, Martin E.; Gutiérrez, Andrés; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Jaffe, Klaus; Janyan, Armina; Karimnezhad, Ali; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Kosugi, Koji; Lachmair, Martin; Ledesma, Rubén D.; Limongi, Roberto; Liuzza, Marco T.; Lombardo, Rosaria; Marks, Michael J.; Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Nalborczyk, Ladislas; Nguyen, Hung T.; Ospina, Raydonal; Perezgonzalez, Jose D.; Pfister, Roland; Rahona, Juan J.; Rodríguez-Medina, David A.; Romão, Xavier; Ruiz-Fernández, Susana; Suarez, Isabel; Tegethoff, Marion; Tejo, Mauricio; van de Schoot, Rens; Vankov, Ivan I.; Velasco-Forero, Santiago

    2018-01-01

    We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = 0.05 to p = 0.005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are

  6. Electron microscopy at reduced levels of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, I.A.M.

    1975-05-01

    Specimen damage by electron radiation is one of the factors that limits high resolution electron microscopy of biological specimens. A method was developed to record images of periodic objects at a reduced electron exposure in order to preserve high resolution structural detail. The resulting image would tend to be a statistically noisy one, as the electron exposure is reduced to lower and lower values. Reconstruction of a statistically defined image from such data is possible by spatial averaging of the electron signals from a large number of identical unit cells. (U.S.)

  7. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Method of reducing radon levels in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajdarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khajdarov, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentration can be reduced by using polymeric compositions which fill pores inside building materials and decrease the coefficient of permeation of radon atoms and water molecules in building materials (concrete, gypsum, etc.). Polymeric silico-organic compounds were investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, 222 Rn, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment with chemicals was examined. The effect of the cement and sand types, preliminary treatment with various chemicals, type of the polymeric silico-organic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between the preparation of chemicals and the treatment of concrete (ageing of chemicals), time between the treatment of concrete and testing (ageing of treated concrete) were examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spraying. The experiments gave evidence that the chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing the coefficient of gas permeability in 200 - 400 times. Treatment of the floor, walls and ceiling of the basement of 5 buildings reduced the radon concentration in the premises of the first floor from 400-600 Bq/m 3 to the background value of 17-20 Bq/m 3

  9. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2011-07-26

    A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  11. Pharmacological kynurenine 3-monooxygenase enzyme inhibition significantly reduces neuropathic pain in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the kynurenine pathway in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of this system in neuropathic pain requires further extensive research. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the role of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo), an enzyme that is important in this pathway, in a rat model of neuropathy after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. For the first time, we demonstrated that the injury-induced increase in the Kmo mRNA levels in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was reduced by chronic administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline and that this effect paralleled a decrease in the intensity of neuropathy. Further, minocycline administration alleviated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of Kmo mRNA expression in microglial cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated that not only indirect inhibition of Kmo using minocycline but also direct inhibition using Kmo inhibitors (Ro61-6048 and JM6) decreased neuropathic pain intensity on the third and the seventh days after CCI. Chronic Ro61-6048 administration diminished the protein levels of IBA-1, IL-6, IL-1beta and NOS2 in the spinal cord and/or the DRG. Both Kmo inhibitors potentiated the analgesic properties of morphine. In summary, our data suggest that in neuropathic pain model, inhibiting Kmo function significantly reduces pain symptoms and enhances the effectiveness of morphine. The results of our studies show that the kynurenine pathway is an important mediator of neuropathic pain pathology and indicate that Kmo represents a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    counterparts (mean difference [95% CI]: 486 [334-638]; Padditives appearing on the product label ingredient list, did not significantly differ between the two groups. Potassium additives are frequently added to sodium-reduced MPPs in amounts that significantly contribute to the potassium load for patients with impaired renal handling of potassium caused by chronic kidney disease and certain medications. Patients requiring potassium restriction should be counseled to be cautious regarding the potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs and encouraged to make food choices accordingly. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A pilot weight reduction program over one year significantly reduced DNA strand breaks in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: A sustainable lifestyle change under supervision including physical activity and diet quality over a period of one year was not only responsible to reduce body weight and BMI but also led to significant reduction in all parameters of the comet assay. These results underline the importance of body weight reduction and highlight the positive changes in DNA stability.

  14. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  15. The significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme activities: clinical, biochemical and radiological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordekar, S R; Guthrie, P; Bonham, J R; Olpin, S E; Hargreaves, I; Baxter, P S

    2006-03-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are an important group of neurometabolic disorders in children with varied clinical presentations and diagnosis that can be difficult to confirm. To report the significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme (RCE) activity in muscle biopsy samples from children. Retrospective odds ratio was used to compare clinical and biochemical features, DNA studies, neuroimaging, and muscle biopsies in 18 children with and 48 without reduced RCE activity. Children with reduced RCE activity were significantly more likely to have consanguineous parents, to present with acute encephalopathy and lactic acidaemia and/or within the first year of life; to have an axonal neuropathy, CSF lactate >4 mmol/l; and/or to have signal change in the basal ganglia. There were positive associations with a maternal family history of possible mitochondrial cytopathy; a presentation with failure to thrive and lactic acidaemia, ragged red fibres, reduced fibroblast fatty acid oxidation and with an abnormal allopurinol loading test. There was no association with ophthalmic abnormalities, deafness, epilepsy or myopathy. The association of these clinical, biochemical and radiological features with reduced RCE activity suggests a possible causative link.

  16. Use of segregation techniques to reduce stored low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Viana, R.; Vianna Mariano, N.; Antonio do Amaral, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the use of segregation techniques in reducing the stored Low Level Waste on Intermediate Waste Repository 1, at Angra Nuclear Power Plant Site, from 1701 to 425 drums of compacted waste. (author)

  17. Reduced CSF hypocretin-1 levels are associated with cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barloese, Mads; Jennum, Poul; Lund, Nunu; Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-09-01

    Cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating disorder characterized by unilateral, severe pain attacks with accompanying autonomic symptoms, often waking the patient from sleep. As it exhibits strong chronobiological traits and genetic studies have suggested a link with the hypocretin (HCRT) system, the objective of this study was to investigate HCRT-1 in CH patients. Cerebrospinal fluid HCRT-1 concentration was measured in 12 chronic and 14 episodic CH patients during an active bout, and in 27 healthy controls. The patients were well characterized and clinical features compared to the HCRT concentration. We found significantly lower HCRT levels both in chronic (p = 0.0221) and episodic CH (p = 0.0005) patients compared with controls. No significant relationship was found with other clinical features. This is the first report of significantly reduced HCRT concentrations in CH patients. We speculate that decreased HCRT may reflect insufficient antinociceptive activity of the hypothalamus. The mechanism of the antinociceptive effect of HCRT is not known and requires further investigation. This study supports the hypothesis of a connection between arousal regulation and CH. © International Headache Society 2014.

  18. Strategy for reducing ozone levels in the northeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the northeast USA, ozone episodes are frequent during the summer; most of these episodes last 3-4 days. The duration and frequency of these episodes is mainly determined by weather conditions. The persistence of ozone episodes in the region is explained by the fact that emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)) are like those of other regions of the USA affected by acute ozone problems. The population density, industry, and use of automobiles are other factors contributing to the difficulty of maintaining acceptable ozone levels. The ozone problem is especially severe in the New York metropolitan area and most of New Jersey. Strategies for combating ozone precursors have relied entirely on reducing emissions of VOCs, while little has been done to reduce NOx, except for automobile emissions. The Clean Air Act of 1990 provides for significant reductions of NOx and VOC from mobile sources and insists on VOC emissions reductions from stationary sources. In California, stricter emission standards for VOC and NOx have been implemented for new vehicles, requiring wider use of low- or zero-emission vehicles. The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) organization, formed by the state agencies responsible for air quality, is aiding the northeast states to evaluate the advantages of adopting California standards for vehicles. Twelve northeast states propose to adopt the Californian low-emission vehicle program and are examining other options such as reformulated gasolines, improved maintenance and verification programs, and measures to reduce the number of miles travelled. 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Male circumcision significantly reduces prevalence and load of genital anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M; Hungate, Bruce A; Tobian, Aaron A R; Serwadda, David; Ravel, Jacques; Lester, Richard; Kigozi, Godfrey; Aziz, Maliha; Galiwango, Ronald M; Nalugoda, Fred; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L; Wawer, Maria J; Keim, Paul; Gray, Ronald H; Price, Lance B

    2013-04-16

    Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. We compared the coronal sulcus microbiota of men from a group of uncircumcised controls (n = 77) and from a circumcised intervention group (n = 79) at enrollment and year 1 follow-up in a randomized circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. We characterized microbiota using16S rRNA gene-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing, log response ratio (LRR), Bayesian classification, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA). At baseline, men in both study arms had comparable coronal sulcus microbiota; however, by year 1, circumcision decreased the total bacterial load and reduced microbiota biodiversity. Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men. While aerobic bacterial taxa also increased postcircumcision, these gains were minor. The reduction in anaerobes may partly account for the effects of circumcision on reduced HIV acquisition. The bacterial changes identified in this study may play an important role in the HIV risk reduction conferred by male circumcision. Decreasing the load of specific anaerobes could reduce HIV target cell recruitment to the foreskin. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of male circumcision could help to identify new intervention strategies for decreasing HIV transmission, applicable to populations with high HIV prevalence where male circumcision is culturally less acceptable.

  20. Defibrillator charging before rhythm analysis significantly reduces hands-off time during resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. K.; Folkestad, L.; Brabrand, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to reduce hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation as increased hands-off time leads to higher mortality. METHODS: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005 and ERC 2010 guidelines were compared with an alternative sequence (ALT). Pulseless ventricular...... physicians were included. All had prior experience in advanced life support. Chest compressions were shorter interrupted using ALT (mean, 6.7 vs 13.0 seconds). Analyzing data for ventricular tachycardia scenarios only, hands-off time was shorter using ALT (mean, 7.1 vs 18.2 seconds). In ERC 2010 vs ALT, 12...... physicians were included. Two physicians had not prior experience in advanced life support. Hands-off time was reduced using ALT (mean, 3.9 vs 5.6 seconds). Looking solely at ventricular tachycardia scenarios, hands-off time was shortened using ALT (mean, 4.5 vs 7.6 seconds). No significant reduction...

  1. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Four-phonon scattering significantly reduces intrinsic thermal conductivity of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianli; Lindsay, Lucas; Ruan, Xiulin

    2017-10-01

    For decades, the three-phonon scattering process has been considered to govern thermal transport in solids, while the role of higher-order four-phonon scattering has been persistently unclear and so ignored. However, recent quantitative calculations of three-phonon scattering have often shown a significant overestimation of thermal conductivity as compared to experimental values. In this Rapid Communication we show that four-phonon scattering is generally important in solids and can remedy such discrepancies. For silicon and diamond, the predicted thermal conductivity is reduced by 30% at 1000 K after including four-phonon scattering, bringing predictions in excellent agreement with measurements. For the projected ultrahigh-thermal conductivity material, zinc-blende BAs, a competitor of diamond as a heat sink material, four-phonon scattering is found to be strikingly strong as three-phonon processes have an extremely limited phase space for scattering. The four-phonon scattering reduces the predicted thermal conductivity from 2200 to 1400 W/m K at room temperature. The reduction at 1000 K is 60%. We also find that optical phonon scattering rates are largely affected, being important in applications such as phonon bottlenecks in equilibrating electronic excitations. Recognizing that four-phonon scattering is expensive to calculate, in the end we provide some guidelines on how to quickly assess the significance of four-phonon scattering, based on energy surface anharmonicity and the scattering phase space. Our work clears the decades-long fundamental question of the significance of higher-order scattering, and points out ways to improve thermoelectrics, thermal barrier coatings, nuclear materials, and radiative heat transfer.

  3. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Timson, K.; Shield, G.; Rogers, S.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m -3 , have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  4. REDUCED HEATING LEVEL DURING THE END-OF-YEAR CLOSURE

    CERN Document Server

    ST/CV - ST/FM Groups

    2002-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 19 December 2002 at the latest (tel. 74195 or 72201). ST/CV - ST/FM Groups

  5. REDUCED HEATING LEVEL DURING THE END-OF-YEAR CLOSURE

    CERN Multimedia

    ST/CV - ST/TFM Groupes

    2001-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 20 December 2001 at the latest (tel.74195 or 72201).

  6. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 18 December 2003 at the latest (tel. 74195 or 72201). ST/CV - ST/FM Groups

  7. Effect of electrolyzed reduced water on malondialdehyde levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and neutrophil cells in Wistar rats suffering from aggressive periodontitis. Methods: Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans before being divided into a control group and a treatment ...

  8. Inulin significantly improves serum magnesium levels in proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M W; de Baaij, J H F; Broekman, M; Bisseling, T M; Haarhuis, B; Tan, A; Te Morsche, R; Hoenderop, J G J; Bindels, R J M; Drenth, J P H

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are among the most widely prescribed drugs to treat gastric acid-related disorders. PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia, a defect in intestinal absorption of Mg(2+) , can be a severe side effect of chronic PPI use. To restore serum Mg(2+) concentrations in PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia patients by dietary supplementation with inulin fibres. Eleven patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia and 10 controls were treated with inulin (20 g/day). Each trial consisted of two cycles of 14-day inulin treatment followed by a washout period of 14 days. Patients continued to use their PPI. Serum Mg(2+) levels served as the primary endpoint. Inulin significantly enhanced serum Mg(2+) levels from 0.60 to 0.68 mmol/L in PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia patients, and from 0.84 to 0.93 mmol/L in controls. As a consequence 24 h urinary Mg(2+) excretion was significantly increased in patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia (0.3-2.2 mmol/day). Symptoms related to hypomagnesaemia, including muscle cramps and paraesthesia, were reduced during intervention with inulin. Inulin increases serum Mg(2+) concentrations under PPI maintenance in patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  10. Nano-CL-20/HMX Cocrystal Explosive for Significantly Reduced Mechanical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying method was used to prepare cocrystals of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX. Raw materials and cocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Impact and friction sensitivity of cocrystals were tested and analyzed. Results show that, after preparation by spray drying method, microparticles were spherical in shape and 0.5–5 µm in size. Particles formed aggregates of numerous tiny plate-like cocrystals, whereas CL-20/HMX cocrystals had thicknesses of below 100 nm. Cocrystals were formed by C–H⋯O bonding between –NO2 (CL-20 and –CH2– (HMX. Nanococrystal explosives exhibited drop height of 47.3 cm, and friction demonstrated explosion probability of 64%. Compared with raw HMX, cocrystals displayed significantly reduced mechanical sensitivity.

  11. Implementation of standardized follow-up care significantly reduces peritonitis in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Alicia M; Richardson, Troy; Lawlor, John; Stuart, Jayne; Newland, Jason; McAfee, Nancy; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-06-01

    The Standardizing Care to improve Outcomes in Pediatric End stage renal disease (SCOPE) Collaborative aims to reduce peritonitis rates in pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by increasing implementation of standardized care practices. To assess this, monthly care bundle compliance and annualized monthly peritonitis rates were evaluated from 24 SCOPE centers that were participating at collaborative launch and that provided peritonitis rates for the 13 months prior to launch. Changes in bundle compliance were assessed using either a logistic regression model or a generalized linear mixed model. Changes in average annualized peritonitis rates over time were illustrated using the latter model. In the first 36 months of the collaborative, 644 patients with 7977 follow-up encounters were included. The likelihood of compliance with follow-up care practices increased significantly (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.10, 1.19). Mean monthly peritonitis rates significantly decreased from 0.63 episodes per patient year (95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.92) prelaunch to 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.31, 0.57) at 36 months postlaunch. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that as mean follow-up compliance increased, peritonitis rates decreased, reaching statistical significance at 80% at which point the prelaunch rate was 42% higher than the rate in the months following achievement of 80% compliance. In its first 3 years, the SCOPE Collaborative has increased the implementation of standardized follow-up care and demonstrated a significant reduction in average monthly peritonitis rates. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduces xerostomia compared with conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Petra M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J. M.D.; Roesink, Judith M.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a severe complication after radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer, as the salivary glands are in close proximity with the primary tumor. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) offers theoretical advantages for normal tissue sparing. A Phase II study was conducted to determine the value of IMRT for salivary output preservation compared with conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 56 patients with oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively evaluated. Of these, 30 patients were treated with IMRT and 26 with CRT. Stimulated parotid salivary flow was measured before, 6 weeks, and 6 months after treatment. A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate <25% of the preradiotherapy flow rate. Results: The mean dose to the parotid glands was 48.1 Gy (SD 14 Gy) for CRT and 33.7 Gy (SD 10 Gy) for IMRT (p < 0.005). The mean parotid flow ratio 6 weeks and 6 months after treatment was respectively 41% and 64% for IMRT and respectively 11% and 18% for CRT. As a result, 6 weeks after treatment, the number of parotid flow complications was significantly lower after IMRT (55%) than after CRT (87%) (p = 0.002). The number of complications 6 months after treatment was 56% for IMRT and 81% for CRT (p = 0.04). Conclusions: IMRT significantly reduces the number of parotid flow complications for patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  13. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  14. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  15. Significantly reduced c-axis thermal diffusivity of graphene-based papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Xie, Yangsu; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jingchao; Wang, Xinwei

    2018-06-01

    Owing to their very high thermal conductivity as well as large surface-to-volume ratio, graphene-based films/papers have been proposed as promising candidates of lightweight thermal interface materials and lateral heat spreaders. In this work, we study the cross-plane (c-axis) thermal conductivity (k c ) and diffusivity (α c ) of two typical graphene-based papers, which are partially reduced graphene paper (PRGP) and graphene oxide paper (GOP), and compare their thermal properties with highly-reduced graphene paper and graphite. The determined α c of PRGP varies from (1.02 ± 0.09) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.31 ± 0.18) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12 K. This low α c is mainly attributed to the strong phonon scattering at the grain boundaries and defect centers due to the small grain sizes and high-level defects. For GOP, α c varies from (1.52 ± 0.05) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.28 ± 0.08) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12.5 K. The cross-plane thermal transport of GOP is attributed to the high density of functional groups between carbon layers which provide weak thermal transport tunnels across the layers in the absence of direct energy coupling among layers. This work sheds light on the understanding and optimizing of nanostructure of graphene-based paper-like materials for desired thermal performance.

  16. Clinical significance of determination serum sex hormones levels in patients with secondary amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum sex hormones levels in patients with secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum levels of E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL and P were detected with RIA in 33 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 30 controls. Results: In the patients, the serum E 2 levels were significantly lower and FSH, LH, PRL and P levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 , FSH, LH, PRL and P levels is of help for assessment of severity of secondary amenorrhea as well as outcome prediction. (authors)

  17. The prognostic significance of whole blood global and specific DNA methylation levels in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour S Al-Moundhri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epigenetics, particularly DNA methylation, has recently been elucidated as important in gastric cancer (GC initiation and progression. We investigated the clinical and prognostic importance of whole blood global and site-specific DNA methylation in GC. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 105 Omani GC patients at diagnosis. DNA methylation was quantified by pyrosequencing of global DNA and specific gene promoter regions at 5 CpG sites for CDH1, 7 CpG sites for p16, 4 CpG sites for p53, and 3 CpG sites for RUNX3. DNA methylation levels in patients were categorized into low, medium, and high tertiles. Associations between methylation level category and clinicopathological features were evaluated using χ(2 tests. Survival analyses were carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test. A backward conditional Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify independent predictors of survival. RESULTS: Older GC patients had increased methylation levels at specific CpG sites within the CDH1, p53, and RUNX-3 promoters. Male gender was significantly associated with reduced global and increased site-specific DNA methylation levels in CDH1, p16, and p53 promoters. Global DNA low methylation level was associated with better survival on univariate analysis. Patients with high and medium methylation vs. low methylation levels across p16 promoter CpG sites, site 2 in particular, had better survival. Multivariate analysis showed that global DNA hypermethylation was a significant independent predictor of worse survival (hazard ratio (HR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.8; p = 0.02 and high methylation mean values across p16 promoter sites 1-7 were associated with better survival with HR of 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.8; p = 0.02 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of global and site-specific DNA methylation in peripheral blood by pyrosequencing provides quantitative DNA methylation values that may serve as important

  18. Using lytic bacteriophages to eliminate or significantly reduce contamination of food by foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Bacteriophages (also called 'phages') are viruses that kill bacteria. They are arguably the oldest (3 billion years old, by some estimates) and most ubiquitous (total number estimated to be 10(30) -10(32) ) known organisms on Earth. Phages play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist, and they are part of the normal microflora of all fresh, unprocessed foods. Interest in various practical applications of bacteriophages has been gaining momentum recently, with perhaps the most attention focused on using them to improve food safety. That approach, called 'phage biocontrol', typically includes three main types of applications: (i) using phages to treat domesticated livestock in order to reduce their intestinal colonization with, and shedding of, specific bacterial pathogens; (ii) treatments for decontaminating inanimate surfaces in food-processing facilities and other food establishments, so that foods processed on those surfaces are not cross-contaminated with the targeted pathogens; and (iii) post-harvest treatments involving direct applications of phages onto the harvested foods. This mini-review primarily focuses on the last type of intervention, which has been gaining the most momentum recently. Indeed, the results of recent studies dealing with improving food safety, and several recent regulatory approvals of various commercial phage preparations developed for post-harvest food safety applications, strongly support the idea that lytic phages may provide a safe, environmentally-friendly, and effective approach for significantly reducing contamination of various foods with foodborne bacterial pathogens. However, some important technical and nontechnical problems may need to be addressed before phage biocontrol protocols can become an integral part of routine food safety intervention strategies implemented by food industries in the USA. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Clinical significance of determination of serum BGP levels in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Liping; Zhang Chunyan; Wang Linglong; Yu Yuefang; Zhu Weijie; Cai Ao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum BGP levels in patients with Graves' disease. Methods: Serum BOP levels as well as T 3 , T 4 , FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH, TGA, TMA levels were determined with RIA in 158 patients with Graves' disease and 145 controls. Results: The serum BGP levels in patients with Graves' disease were significantly higher than those in controls (P 3 , T 4 , FT 3 , FT 4 levels, but not with TSH, TGA, TMA. Conclusion: Serum BGP levels is a useful marker for monitoring bone metabolism in patients with Graves' disease. (authors)

  20. Reduced total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Schieffer

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD results in increased oxidative stress that damages the colonic microenvironment. Low levels of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC. We identified a retrospective case-control population (n = 6,649 from a single tertiary care center, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSU and a validation cohort (n = 1,996 from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCU. Cases were age- and sex-matched to controls (PSU: CD n = 254, UC n = 187; VCU: CD n = 233, UC n = 124. Total serum bilirubin levels were obtained from de-identified medical records and segregated into quartiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed on each quartile of total serum bilirubin compared to the last quartile (highest bilirubin levels to determine the association of total serum bilirubin with UC. Similar to CD patients, UC patients demonstrated reduced levels of total serum bilirubin compared to controls at PSU and VCU. The lowest quartile of total serum bilirubin was independently associated with UC for the PSU (OR: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.09-3.63] and VCU cohorts (OR: 6.07 [95% CI: 3.01-12.75]. Lower levels of the antioxidant bilirubin may reduce the capability of UC patients to remove reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in intestinal injury. Therapeutics that reduce oxidative stress may be beneficial for these patients.

  1. Reducing Indoor Noise Levels Using People's Perception on Greenery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediastika, Christina E.; Binarti, Floriberta

    2013-12-01

    Employees working in cubicles of open-plan offices in Indonesia were studied in regard to their perception on the ability of indoor greenery to reduce noise levels. Sansevieria trifasciata and Scindapsus sp were used. Each was placed in the cubicle and noise levels were measured without plants, with Sansevieria, and with Scindapsus in place. The meters showed very insignificant difference. However, responses to surveys indicated a perception of lower noise in the presence of greenery. This seemed to be supported by prior knowledge and preconception and may be useful in creating a "quieter" indoor environment.

  2. Intriguing model significantly reduces boarding of psychiatric patients, need for inpatient hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As new approaches to the care of psychiatric emergencies emerge, one solution is gaining particular traction. Under the Alameda model, which has been put into practice in Alameda County, CA, patients who are brought to regional EDs with emergency psychiatric issues are quickly transferred to a designated emergency psychiatric facility as soon as they are medically stabilized. This alleviates boarding problems in area EDs while also quickly connecting patients with specialized care. With data in hand on the model's effectiveness, developers believe the approach could alleviate boarding problems in other communities as well. The model is funded by through a billing code established by California's Medicaid program for crisis stabilization services. Currently, only 22% of the patients brought to the emergency psychiatric facility ultimately need to be hospitalized; the other 78% are able to go home or to an alternative situation. In a 30-day study of the model, involving five community hospitals in Alameda County, CA, researchers found that ED boarding times were as much as 80% lower than comparable ED averages, and that patients were stabilized at least 75% of the time, significantly reducing the need for inpatient hospitalization.

  3. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gouda Goudra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m 2 that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. Results: A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Conclusion: Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  4. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Penugonda, Lakshmi C; Speck, Rebecca M; Sinha, Ashish C

    2014-01-01

    Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2) that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  5. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Document Server

    ST Department

    2007-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperatures have to be maintained to let us know by 14 December 2007 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  6. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 16 December 2004 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch.). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  7. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Document Server

    TS/CV-TS/FM Group

    2004-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 16 December 2004 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch.).

  8. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Document Server

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 12 December 2008 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail mailto:fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  9. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 14 December 2007 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail mailto:fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  10. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature has to be maintained to let us know by 15 December 2006 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  11. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 15 December 2006 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  12. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    TS/CV Group

    2005-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperatures have to be maintained to let us know by 16 December 2005 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). Groups TS/CV and TS/FM

  13. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Fuman; Hou Ying; Feng Kun; Zhu Wei; Yang Yuzhi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between levels of serum leptin and levels of blood sugar, lipid as well as degree of obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Methods: Serum leptin levels were determined with RIA in 42 patients with DM2 and 38 controls. Results: The serum leptin levels in DM2 patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.001) and were positively correlated with serum INS, TC, TG, LDL-C levels as well as BMI. Conclusion: High level of serum leptin was associated with obesity, high blood lipid levels and insulin resistance (IR). (authors)

  14. Clinical significance of determination of serum cortisol and insulin levels in neonates with asphyxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yingfei; Chen Linxing; Chen Sihong; Zhang Jinchi; Huang Hua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of serum cortisol and insulin levels in neonates with asphyxia. Methods: Serum cortisol levels were determined with CLIA and serum insulin levels with RIA in 38 neonates with asphyxia (mild degree 20, advanced 18) and 30 controls. Results: 1) In mild cases, serum insulin levels were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01) and serum cortisol levels were very significantly higher (p<0.001). 2) In advanced cases, both serum insulin and cortisol levels were very significantly higher than those in the controls (p<0.001). Conclusion: Hypoxia in the neonates with asphyxia is a very severe stress and will induce hypersecretion of cortisol and hyperglycemia which is detrimental to the patients. However hypersecretion of insulin will result in hypoglycemia, which is also very damaging. Physicians in charge should be aware of these possibilities and deal with them appropriately

  15. [Phytosterols: another way to reduce LDL cholesterol levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzur, Rafael; Cohen, Hofit; Kamari, Yehuda; Harats, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Phytosterols are sterols found naturally in various oils from plants. Phytosterols compete with cholesterol for a place in the mixed micelles, needed for cholesterol absorption by the small intestine. As a result, cholesterol absorption, either from food or from bile salts is lowered by about 50%, leading to a towering of about 10% of blood cholesterol level, despite an increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. This reduction is achieved when phytosterols are given both as monotherapy, and in addition to statin therapy. The average Western diet contains about 400-800 mg of phytosterols per day, while the dose needed for lowering the blood cholesterol level is about 2-3 grams per day. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing blood cholesterol, they should be given either as phytosterol-enriched food or as supplements. The reduction in the level of LDL-choLesterol achieved with phytosterols may reduce the risk of coronary disease by about 25%. Hence, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of phytosterols, as part of a balanced diet, for towering blood cholesterol levels.

  16. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  17. Clinical significance of changes of plasma ET and NPY levels after treatment in patients with AMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jinbao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of plasma ET and NPY levels in patients with AMI. Methods: Plasma ET and NPY levels were dynamically determined in 36 patients with AMI right after establishment of diagnosis and 8h, 24h, 4ph, 72h, 7d, 14d later. Levels in 35 healthy individuals were taken as control. Results: Before treatment was initiated, the levels of Et and Np in patients with AMI were significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.01). After one week of treatment, the levels dropped toward normal. Conclusion: Dynamic measurement of plasma ET and NPY levels in patients with AMI is of clinical importance. (authors)

  18. Clinical significance of serum neuropeptide Y levels changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuanhong; Pan Jiongwei; Cao Zhuo; Ji Naijun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of serum neuropeptide Y level changes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: The serum neuropeptide Y levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 40 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and 30 patients without COPD. Results: Mean serum neuropeptide Y level in patients with COPD was significantly higher than that in patients without COPD (130.36 ± 20.58 pg/ml vs 86.62 ± 13.02 pg/ml; t=10.201, p<0.01). Moreover, the levels in patients of the different stages (I, II, III) of COPD were significantly different from one another (F=20.334, p<0.01). Conclusion: the serum neuropeptide Y levels increased significantly in patients with COPD and were correlated to the different disease stages

  19. Clinical significance of changes of serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in subjects of different age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lihua; Zhang Jin; Han Cuihua; Ouyang Qiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum BGP levels in different age-groups. Methods: Serum BGP levels were determined with RIA in 306 subjects of different age-groups. Results: The serum BGP levels were highest in subjects of the pre-adolescent group (age5-15, n=60, vs other groups, all P 50, n=80, P<0.001). Levels in the middle age group were the lowest and were significantly lower than those in the old age group (P<0.001). No sex related differences were observed in the pre-adolescent and middle age groups, but in the youth group, serum BGP levels were significantly higher in the males than those in the females (P<0.05). However, in the old age group, the reverse was true i.e. values being significantly higher in the females (vs males, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum BGP levels varied greatly among the different age groups. (authors)

  20. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  1. Clinical significance of serum leptin levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Ying; Du Fuman; Teng Haikun; Yang Yuzhi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the levels of serum leptin in patients with graves' disease. Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured with IRMA in 51 patients with hyperthyroidism as well as 46 hypothyroid and 50 euthyroid subjects as controls. Serum TSH, free T 3 and free T 4 (FT 3 and FT 4 ) were also measured. Body fat percentage (% Fat) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated. Results: Serum leptin levels were significantly lower in patients with graves' disease (male 2.05 ± 1.54μg/L, female 7.47±5. 08 μg/L), than those in hypothyroid and euthyroid subjects. Levels in hypothyroid patients were significantly higher than those in controls, however, excluding the body fat factor, there were no obvious difference. Serum leptin levels in all the 3 groups were significantly positively correlated with BMI. The levels were negatively correlated with FT 3 , FT 4 levels and positively correlated with TSH levels but both were not significant. Serum leptin levels were 2-3 times higher in women than in men among all 3 groups. Conclusion: Thyroid functional status affected serum leptin levels indirectly through the amount of body fat. (authors)

  2. Clinical significance of determination of serum VEGF and CEA levels in patients with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaohui; Song Shaobai; Zheng Wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the applicability of combined determination of serum VEGF and CEA levels in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer as well as the relationship between VEGF level and stage of the disease. Methods: Serum VEGF (with ELISA) and CEA (with RIA) levels serum were detected in 28 patients with colorectal cancer of various stages and 29 controls. Results: The diagnostic positive rate was 53.6% (15/28), 39.3% (11/28), 71.4% (20/28) with CEA, VEGF and combined test for colorectal cancer, respectively. The serum VEGF levels in patients with advance colorectal cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with earlier stages diseases and controls, VEGF levels were positively correlated with CEA levels (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined detection of the levels of serum VEGF and CEA could improve significantly the diagnostic positive rate in patients with colorectal cancer. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of changes of serum leptin and insulin levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhaojun; Zhang Lahong; Gao Ying; Ren Xiaohua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the serum leptin, insulin levels and development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: Serum leptin and insulin levels (with RIA) were determined in 34 patients with PCOS and 30 controls. Results: The serum leptin and insulin levels in the 34 PCOS patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0. 01), and those in obese patients (n=22) were significantly higher than those in non-obese ones (n=12) too(P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of serum leptin and insulin levels were closely related to the development of PCOS and leptin might be used as a diagnostic indicator for PCOS. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of measurements of serum IL-6 levels in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Cuihua; Luo Nanping; Zhang Daojie; Wei Hong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6 levels in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: Serum IL-6 levels were determined with RIA in 35 patients with coronary heart disease, 20 patients with essential hypertension, 28 patients with cerebral infarction and 30 controls. Results: Serum IL-6 levels in patients with coronary heart disease and cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IL-6 levels changes could reflect the severity of the inflammatory process and would be helpful in clinical assessment. (authors)

  5. Elderly with proximal hip fracture present significantly lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Teodoro Ezequiel Guerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels, a serum marker of vitamin D3, between patients with and without proximal hip fracture. METHODS: This was a case-control study in which serum samples of 25(OHD were obtained from 110 proximal hip fracture inpatients and 231 control patients without fractures, all over 60 years of age. Levels of 25(OHD lower than or equal to 20 ng/mL were considered deficient; from 21 ng/mL to 29 ng/mL, insufficient; and above 30 ng/mL, sufficient. Sex, age, and ethnicity were considered for association with the study groups and 25(OHD levels. RESULTS: Patients with proximal hip fracture had significantly lower serum 25(OHD levels (21.07 ng/mL than controls (28.59 ng/mL; p = 0.000. Among patients with proximal hip fracture, 54.5% had deficient 25(OHD levels, 27.2% had insufficient levels, and only 18.2% had sufficient levels. In the control group, 30.3% of patients had deficient 25(OHD levels, 30.7% had insufficient levels, and 38.9% had sufficient levels. Female patients had decreased serum 25(OHD levels both in the fracture group and in the control group (19.50 ng/mL vs. 26.94 ng/mL; p = 0.000 when compared with male patients with and without fracture (25.67 ng/mL vs. 33.74 ng/mL; p = 0.017. Regarding age, there was a significant association between 25(OHD levels and risk of fracture only for the age groups 71-75 years and above 80 years. CONCLUSION: Patients with proximal hip fracture had significantly decreased serum 25(OHD levels when compared with the control group. Female patients had significantly lower serum 25(OHD levels in both groups.

  6. Clinical significance of changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in infants with bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Gu Ling; Zhang Yanjun; Xin Haiyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in infants (2-24months) with bronchiolitis. Methods: Plasma levels of CGRP and VIP were determined with RIA in 31 infants with bronchiolitis both during acute infection and convalescence as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma CGRP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly higher than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). Levels of CGRP dropped during convalescence, but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The reverse was true for the plasma VIP levels. The plasma VIP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly lower than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). During convalescence, the plasma VIP levels rose but remained significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There were dynamic changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in the course of infant bronchiolitis and the two peptides played opposite roles. (authors)

  7. Clinical Significances of Serum Vitamin B12, Folate and Ferritin Levels in Patients with Malignant Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monn, Youn Sung; Soung, In Whan; Kim, Sam Yong; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Bok Hee

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the clinical significances of the serum vitamin B 12 , folate and ferritin levels in patients with malignant tumors, the levels were measured in 10 normal control subjects, 70 patients with malignant tumors, 7 patients with liver cirrhosis and 25 patients with other benign diseases. The results are as follows: 1) In normal control subjects, mean serum values for vitamin B 12 , folate and ferritin level were 588.80±131.58 pg/ml, 5.59±1.52 ng/ml and 89.22±42.78 ng/ml retrospectively. 2) There was no significant difference in serum levels between patients with benign diseases and normal control subjects. 3) The serum vitamin B 12 and ferritin levels in patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than in normal control, and the serum folate levels in these patients were lower than in normal control subjects. 4) The serum vitamin B 12 and ferritin levels in patients with malignant tumors were significantly higher than in normal control subjects, and the serum folate levels in these patients were significantly lower than in normal control subjects. The above results suggest that the serum vitamin B 12 and ferritin may be useful as tumor markers in patients with malignant tumors.

  8. Reducing potentially preventable complications at the multi hospital level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyz Anne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the continuation of a program to constrain health care costs by limiting inpatient hospital programs among the hospitals of Syracuse, New York. Through a community demonstration project, it identified components of individual hospital programs for reduction of complications and their impact on the frequency and rates of these outcomes. Findings This study involved the implementation of interventions by three hospitals using the Potentially Preventable Complications System developed by 3M™ Health Information Systems. The program is noteworthy because it included competing hospitals in the same community working together to reduce adverse patient outcomes and related costs. The study data identified statistically significant reductions in the frequency of high and low volume complications during the three year period at two of the hospitals. At both of these hospitals, aggregate complication rates also declined. At these hospitals, the differences between actual complication rates and severity adjusted complication rates were also reduced. At the third hospital, specific and aggregate complication rates remained the same or increased slightly. Differences between these rates and those of severity adjusted comparison population also remained the same or increased. Conclusions Results of the study suggested that, in one community health care system, the progress of reducing complications involved different experiences. At two hospitals with relatively higher rates at the beginning of the study, management by administrative and clinical staff outside quality assurance produced significant reductions in complication rates, while at a hospital with lower rates, management by quality assurance staff had little effect on reducing the rate of PPCs.

  9. Significance of changes of serum NSE and CEA levels in patients with pneumonia and malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hengguo; Luo Nanping; Wang Ruishan; Bai Lu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of serum NSE and CEA levels in patients with pneumonia and malignant tumors. Methods: Serum NSE (with RIA) and CEA (with ECLIA) levels in patients with pneumonia or various kinds of malignant tumors (altogether 140 patients) and 32 controls. Results: Serum NSE and CEA levels were significantly higher in patients with lung cancer, gastric cancer, renal cancer, brain tumor and pneumonia than those in the controls (P<0.05,P <0. 05 ,P <0. 01, P<0.01, P<0.01). Positive rate of serum NSE highest in patients with pneumonia, followed successively by renal cancer, brain tumor and lung cancer. NSE levels were positively correlated with CEA levels (r=0.29, P<0.05). Conclusion: As a tumor marker, NSE has important clinical significance in the diagnoses of malignant tumor and pneumonia. (authors)

  10. Clinical significance of changes of serum gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema or chronic urticaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xianghong; Jiang Xiaoling; Chen Wei; Wang Jinglin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum levels of gastrin in patients with chronic eczema or chronic urticaria. Methods: Serum gastrin levels were, 37 patients with chromic urticaria and 43 controls. Results: Serum gastrin levels in patients with chronic exzema (102.95 ± 27.33 ng/L) and patients with chronic urticaria (109.87 ± 33.64 ng/L) were both significantly higher than those in controls (61.72 ± 20.38 ng/L, both P<0.01). Difference between the levels in the two patients groups was not significant. Conclusion: The high gastrin levels in those patients might reflect the presence of helicobacter pylori infections; eradication of which might be helpful for treatment of these chronic dermatologic disorders. (authors)

  11. Clinical significance of changes of serum TBA, CG, HA levels in neonate with parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Weiliang; Zhou Jiongying; Zhang Xiaoyi; Lv Weihua; Ma Yunbao; He Qizhi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum levels of TBA, CG, HA in neonate with parenteral nutrition. Methods: Serum total bile acid (TBA, with biochemistry) and CG, HA (with RIA) contents were measured in 52 neonates (full-term 32, preterm 20) with parenteral nutrition and 28 neonates (full-term 16, preterm 12) without parenteral nutrition (as controls). Results: Before parenteral nutrition,the serum TBA, CG and HA levels in full-term neonates were not significantly different from those in the controls (P>0.05). After parenteral nutrition,serum levels were significantly higher than those before parenteral nutrition (P<0.01). The levels in pre-term neonates were significantly higher after parenteral nutrition than those in full-term neonates (P<0.05). Conclusion: Long term parenteral nutrition might be harmful to hepatic and gall bladder function in neonates especially in premature ones. (authors)

  12. Reducing pesticide level in wine by selective filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine Pesticide residues, even when below grape regulatory limit, are a concern for consumers and have an impact on the export potential of wine in certain markets. A consortium of European SMEs (www.adfimax.com has developed a product that reduces the level of mycotoxins and pesticides in wine while keeping all other wine parameter identical. The product is derived from renewable vegetable fiber. The production process includes both activation and micronisation. The usage recommendation is to substitute only the pre-coat, typically perlite, by the product at 1 or 1.5 kg⋅m−2 without changing the other layer (body feed typically kieselguhr. This paper describes the results of numerous industrial trials that were performed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Spain. The impact of the product on the wine oenological characteristics was evaluated for different wine (white, red and rosé in different countries and for different grape variety (including Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot and Gamay. Results showed a reduction of the test wine pesticide level of 50% to 60% for all pesticides compared to the blank. Level of pesticide analyzed in the cake where extremely high at a level of a 1,000 times greater than the filtered wine showing the ability of the product to selectively capture the pesticides molecules.

  13. Soil nitrate reducing processes drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, M.; Morley, N.; Baggs, E.M.; Daniell, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium\\ud (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for\\ud the loss of nitrate (NO−\\ud 3 ) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O).\\ud A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and\\ud moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms\\ud responsible for the ...

  14. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  15. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3−) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N2O production from soils. PMID:23264770

  16. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eleanore Giles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3-¬ and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O. A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub cm areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location and potential for N2O production from soils.

  17. Soil nitrate reducing processes - drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Daniell, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O(2) concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N(2)O production from soils.

  18. Significance of changes of serum TPOAb and TRAb levels in patients with Graves' disease (GD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongshu Xu Ruiji; Wang Guohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of serum TPOAb and TRAb levels in patients with Graves' dis- ease (GD). Methods: Serum TPOAb (with RIA) and TRAb (with RRA) levels were determined in 27 patients with Graves' disease, before treatment 10 patients with Graves' disease clinically cured and 35 controls. Results: The serum levels and positive rates of TPOAb and TRAb in patients with Graves' disease before treatment were significantly higher than those in the patients with Graves' disease clinically cured and controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: TPOAb and TRAb were involved in the pathogenesis of Graves' dis- ease and could be used as diagnostic and treatment indicators. (authors)

  19. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with hepatic cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and development of hepatic cirrhosis as well as the diagnostic value of plasma Hcy determination. Method: Plasma Hcy levels were measured with ELISA in: (1) 64 patients with post-hepatitis cirrhosis (2) 42 patients with various types of hepatitis but no cirrhosis and (3) 60 controls. Results: The plasma levels of Hcy in patients with cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.01). The plasma Hcy levels in cirrhotic patients were well correlated with the levels of other hepatic fibrosis markers such as hyaluronic acid and laminin (r=0.87 and r=0.88 respectively, P<0.01), but were not correlated with cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL levels. Conclusion: Plasma Hcy levels was markedly elevated in cirrhotic patients and might be taken as a diagnostic marker. (authors)

  20. Significance of post-operative changes of serum IL-18 levels in patients with renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Falian; Xu Jun; Ke Bingshen; Du Xiumin; Yin Qiuxia; Hu Chengjin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of post-operative changes of serum IL-18 levels in patients after renal transplantation. Methods: Serum IL-18 levels were detected with ELISA in 33 patients with renal transplantation before operation and repeated again on d5, d10 and d20 post-operatively as well as in 35 controls. Results: Pre-operatively, serum IL-18 levels in patients for upcoming renal transplantation were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). After operation, the IL-18 levels on d5 and d10 in patients with acute rejection were not significantly changed from those pre-operatively but were markedly increased on d20 (vs pre-operative, d5, d10; all P<0.01). In the patients without rejection, levels in d5 were significantly higher than those pre-operatively, but dropped to approaching pre-operative values on d10 and d20. On d20, levels of serum IL-18 in patients with rejection were very significantly higher than those in stable patients (P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum IL-18 is a useful marker for identifying acute rejection. (authors)

  1. A new coating material for reducing indoor radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo, W.; Tokonami, S.; Ichitsubo, H.; Yamada, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In order to mitigate indoor radon level, a new fast-setting, solvent-free, polyurethane-based coating material was developed. The permeability of radon gas in the new material was estimated with a simple radon permeation test system set up in this study. It was found that the permeation velocity depended on the thickness of the coating material, and a thickness of 2.0 mm of the coating material seems sufficient for preventing radon permeation. The permeability of radon in the coating material was estimated to be (2.2± 0.8)x10 -10 m 2 ·s -1 for a thickness of about 1.0 mm. The value is much lower than those reported for membrane materials and caulking compounds. For its performance test, the coating material was used in an existing room with high radon level. By spraying a thickness of 1.5 mm of the material, the indoor radon level reduced by about 80%

  2. Phytase in broiler diets with reduced nonphytate phosphorus levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the inclusion of phytase in diets with reduced nonphytate phosphorus (NPP levels in relation to the performance and carcass yield of broilers and litter characteristics. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement – two phytase levels (0 and 25U/kg and three NPP levels (100, 85 and 70% of the requirement, in a total of six treatments with fi ve replicates. The reduction of the NPP to 70% of the requirement decreased the weight gain and feed intake and increased the feed:gain ratio. Phytase inclusion increased the weight gain and the feed intake at 21 days. The NPP x phytase interaction was signifi cant with regard to the weight gain at 42 days. The reduction of NPP to 70% diminished the feed intake at 42 days and increased the liver and heart relative weight. Nitrogen content was lower in the litter of broilers fed diets with phytase and decreased phosphorus content, due to the NPP reduction in the diets. It was concluded that diets with 85% of NPP, supplemented with 25U/kg of phytase, can be used with no negative effect on performance or carcass and litter characteristics.

  3. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  4. Determination of serum insulinlike growth factor II levels in coronary heart disease patient and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bifu; Ji Naijun; Mei Yibin; Wang Chengyao; Zhao Junfei; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying; Li Jiangao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes and clinical significance of serum insulinlike growth factor II (IGF II) levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Methods: The serum IGF II levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 68 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 30 controls with only mild non-cardiac diseases. Results: Compared with the controls, the serum IGF II level in CHD patients were increased significantly (0.66 ± 0.13 μg/L vs 0.51 ± 0.11 μg/L; t = 5.506, p 0.05). Level in patients dies in hospital (n = 9) were much higher than those in patients recovered (n = 59) (t = 2.402, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF II levels seems to be related to the seriousness of CHD; the actual mechanism remains to be defined

  5. Clinical significance of changes of serum lipoprotein (a) levels in patients with cerebral vascular accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qian; Chen Xinghua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes of serum lipoprotein (a) levels and development of stroke. Methods: Lipoprotein (a) levels were determined with ELISA in 100 patients with stroke and 60 controls. Results: The serum LP (a) levels in patients with stroke complicated with diabetes were also significantly higher than those in patients with stroke but without diabetes (P<0.01). Conclusion: The levels of serum LP(a) was a relatively independent risk factor, and it could be of some prognostic value. (authors)

  6. High level waste (HLW) steam reducing station evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannon, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Existing pressure equipment in High Level Waste does not have a documented technical baseline. Based on preliminary reviews, the existing equipment seems to be based on system required capacity instead of system capability. A planned approach to establish a technical baseline began September 1992 and used the Works Management System preventive maintenance schedule. Several issues with relief valves being undersized on steam reducing stations created a need to determine the risk of maintaining the steam in service. An Action Plan was developed to evaluate relief valves that did not have technical baselines and provided a path forward for continued operation. Based on Action Plan WER-HLE-931042, the steam systems will remain in service while the designs are being developed and implemented

  7. Significance of serum endostatin levels in patients with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qunxin; Ling Chunhua; Ji Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the serum level of endostatin and the clinical pathophysiological characteristics in patients with primary lung cancer. Methods: The serum levels of endostatin were detected in 48 patients with primary lung cancer and 50 patients with benign pulmonary diseases by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results: Serum endostatin level in patients with primary lung cancer was significantly higher than it in patients with benign pulmonary diseases (P<0.01). It was higher in adenocarcinoma group than that in squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma group (P<0.05). The level of serum endostatin in lung cancer with TNM stage III + IV was higher than that in patients in stage I + II (P<0.01). And it was also higher in patients suffering from lung cancer with metastasis than that in patients with no metastasis (P<0.05). However, there was not a significant relation between serum endostatin level the location of the tumor and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Serum endostatin level in expressed higher in patients with primary lung cancer. There is significant relationship between serum endostatin level, histological classification, TNM stage and metastasis of lung cancer. (authors)

  8. Clinical significance of the changes of plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhiqiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: Plasma cortisol levels were measured with RIA at 24:00 and 8:00 right after admission in 68 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage and the tests were repeated in 61 patients one week later 40 controls entered this study. Results: The plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in the patients than the corresponding readings in controls (P<0.001) with obliteration of the normal diurnal rhythm of secretion. The increase of the cortisol levels was positively correlated with the severity of the disease. As the condition of the patients improved, the cortisol levels dropped gradually. Conclusion: The plasma cortisol levels in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage were closely related to the severity of the disease and were of prognostic value. (authors)

  9. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  10. Serum endocan level and its prognostic significance in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk Ates

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endocan, known as endothelial cell specific molecule (ESM, is a novel endothelial dysfunction marker. The aim of this study is to examine the plasma endocan level and its prognostic significance in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Methods: A total of 84 patients were enrolled the study. Plasma endocan level was measured by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELİSA kit. Ethical approval and informed consent were attained. Results: At the time of diagnosis, 33 patients had stage 4 disease. The median plasma endocan level was 619.9 (min 259.9–2813.2 ng/L and its level was significantly higher in metastatic breast cancer group compared to non–metastatic breast cancer group. According to molecular sub-type of breast cancer, there is not statistical difference in plasma endocan level, but its level was higher in patients with Her-2 amplified and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC. Median follow-up time is 11 (1-30 months. Event free survival (EFS was 15 months in patients with plasma endocan level lower than 620, while it was 4 months in patients with serum endocan level greater than 620 (p = 0.016. There was no difference between groups in terms of hypertension, age, Lymphovascular invasion (LVI, extra capsular extension (ECE, body mass index (BMI and White blood cells (WBC, platelet count and plasma endocan level. Conclusion: Plasma endocan levels higher than non metastatic breast cancer. Patients with high plasma endocan levels are short EFS. Further studies would be useful to assess endocan level as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Keywords: Endothelial cell specific molecule, Breast cancer, Prognosis

  11. New method of reducing radon levels in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radon is a naturally occurring gas seeping into homes and underground structures (buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, etc.) from the surrounding soil through walls, floor, etc. and emanating from construction materials such as concrete, granite, etc. The level of radon is especially great in regions with the heightened content of uranium in soil and water and with geological breaks of the earth's crust. Concentrations of uranium higher than 10 g per ton of soil have been found in 14 percent of territory of Uzbekistan. As a result, for instance, concentration of radon 10-100 times exceeds the regulation level in 14 percent of premises in Tashkent, 41 percent of premises in Almalik town and 44 percent in Yangiabad town. The purpose of this work was creating a method to reduce concentration of radon gas in buildings and underground structures. We suppose that the most effective technique is a treatment of walls, floors, etc. of basement and underground structures by special chemicals which seal micropores inside the construction materials. Sealing the pores stops radon diffusion and in addition, it blocks another radon pathway - water migration and emanation from concrete, gypsum or other construction materials. In the paper polymeric silico organic compounds are investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, Rn 222, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment by chemicals has been examined. Influence of types of cement and sand, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric silico organic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of concrete (aging of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (aging of treated concrete) have been examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spray. Experiments have shown that chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing

  12. Novel technique of reducing radon levels in living premises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radon is a naturally occurring gas seeping into homes and underground structures (buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, etc.) from the surrounding soil through walls, floor, etc. and emanating from construction materials such as concrete, granite, etc. The level of radon is especially great in regions with the higher content of uranium in soil and water and with geological breaks of the Earth's crust. Concentrations of uranium higher than 10 g per ton of soil have been found in 14% of territory of Uzbekistan. As a result, for instance, concentration of radon 10-100 times exceeds the regulation level in 14% of premises in Tashkent, 41% of premises in Almalik town and 44% in Yangiabad town. The purpose of this work was creating a method to reduce concentration of radon gas in buildings and underground structures. We suppose that the most effective technique is a treatment of walls, floors, etc. of basement and underground structures by special chemicals which seal micropores inside the construction materials. Sealing the pores stops radon diffusion and, in addition, it blocks another radon pathway - water migration and emanation from concrete, gypsum or other construction materials. In the paper polymeric silicoorganic compounds are investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, Rn-222, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment by chemicals has been examined. Influence of types of cement and sand, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric silicoorganic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of concrete (ageing of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (ageing of treated concrete) have been examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spray. Experiments have shown that chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing the coefficient of gas

  13. Population characteristics may reduce the levels of individual call identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Delgado

    Full Text Available Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo, we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1 similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2 high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other's vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network.

  14. IGF-1 levels are significantly correlated with patient-reported measures of sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszak, A W; Liu, J S; Vij, A; Mohamed, O; Sathyamoorthy, K; Lipshultz, L I; Khera, M

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) supplementation may help to preserve erectile function. We assessed whether serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, a surrogate for GH levels, correlate with sexual function scores in 65 men who completed the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaires, and had serum IGF-1 and testosterone levels determined. Median±s.d. IGF-1 level, SHIM and EPIC scores were 235.0±86.4, 19.5±8.7 and 56.4±28.3 mg ml(-1), respectively. IGF-1 levels and total SHIM score correlate significantly (r=0.31, P=0.02), as do IGF-1 levels and all individual SHIM question scores, and IGF-1 levels and the sexual domain of the EPIC questionnaire (r=0.30, P=0.02). No correlation was observed between IGF-1 levels and Gleason score, IGF-1 and testosterone level or SHIM score and testosterone level. These data support a potential role for the GH axis in erectile function.

  15. The Evolution of Polymer Composition during PHA Accumulation: The Significance of Reducing Equivalents

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    Liliana Montano-Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile fatty acids, which were applied as single carbon sources, as mixtures, or in series, using a fed-batch feed-on-demand controlled bioprocess. A dynamic trend in active biomass growth as well as polymer composition was observed. The observations were consistent over replicate accumulations. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was used to investigate metabolic activity through time. It was concluded that carbon flux, and consequently copolymer composition, could be linked with how reducing equivalents are generated.

  16. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  17. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Serum CD73 and apelin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy and the clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Qiang Du

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the serum ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) and apelin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the clinical significance.Methods:A total of 108 patients with type 2 diabetes treated in our hospital between April 2013 and February 2016 were collected and divided into non-diabetic retinopathy (NDR) group (n=51), background diabetic retinopathy (BDR) group (n=40) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) group (n=17) based on the results of fundus fluorescence angiography. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine CD73 and apelin level immediately after admission; thiobarbituric acid method and xanthine oxidase method were used to determine the serum levels of oxidative stress indicators; ELISA method was used to determine the levels of angiogenesis indexes and inflammatory factors; Pearson test was used to analyze the correlation of serum CD73 and apelin levels with the illness-related indexes in patients with DR.Results:Serum CD73 and apelin levels of BDR group and PDR group were significantly higher than those of NDR group, and serum CD73 and apelin levels of PDR group were significantly higher than those of BDR group; serum malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiogenin-2 (Ang-2) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) levels of BDR group and PDR group were significantly higher than those of NDR group while total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were lower than those of NDR group, and the changes in above indexes of PDR group were more significant; Pearson test showed that serum CD73 and apelin levels in patients with DR were directly correlated with the levels of illness-related indexes.Conclusion:CD73 and apelin expression are abnormally high in patients with

  19. Serum CD73 and apelin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy and the clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Du

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the serum ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73 and apelin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR and the clinical significance. Methods: A total of 108 patients with type 2 diabetes treated in our hospital between April 2013 and February 2016 were collected and divided into non-diabetic retinopathy (NDR group (n=51, background diabetic retinopathy (BDR group (n=40 and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group (n=17 based on the results of fundus fluorescence angiography. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine CD73 and apelin level immediately after admission; thiobarbituric acid method and xanthine oxidase method were used to determine the serum levels of oxidative stress indicators; ELISA method was used to determine the levels of angiogenesis indexes and inflammatory factors; Pearson test was used to analyze the correlation of serum CD73 and apelin levels with the illness-related indexes in patients with DR. Results: Serum CD73 and apelin levels of BDR group and PDR group were significantly higher than those of NDR group, and serum CD73 and apelin levels of PDR group were significantly higher than those of BDR group; serum malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, interleukin-2 (IL-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-毩 (TNF- 毩, hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, angiogenin-2 (Ang-2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1毩 (HIF-1毩 levels of BDR group and PDR group were significantly higher than those of NDR group while total antioxidant capacity (TAOC, superoxide dismutase (SOD and interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels were lower than those of NDR group, and the changes in above indexes of PDR group were more significant; Pearson test showed that serum CD73 and apelin levels in patients with DR were directly correlated with the levels of illness-related indexes. Conclusion: CD73 and apelin expression are abnormally high in

  20. Dissociating speech perception and comprehension at reduced levels of awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew H.; Coleman, Martin R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Rodd, Jennifer M.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Matta, Basil F.; Owen, Adrian M.; Menon, David K.

    2007-01-01

    We used functional MRI and the anesthetic agent propofol to assess the relationship among neural responses to speech, successful comprehension, and conscious awareness. Volunteers were scanned while listening to sentences containing ambiguous words, matched sentences without ambiguous words, and signal-correlated noise (SCN). During three scanning sessions, participants were nonsedated (awake), lightly sedated (a slowed response to conversation), and deeply sedated (no conversational response, rousable by loud command). Bilateral temporal-lobe responses for sentences compared with signal-correlated noise were observed at all three levels of sedation, although prefrontal and premotor responses to speech were absent at the deepest level of sedation. Additional inferior frontal and posterior temporal responses to ambiguous sentences provide a neural correlate of semantic processes critical for comprehending sentences containing ambiguous words. However, this additional response was absent during light sedation, suggesting a marked impairment of sentence comprehension. A significant decline in postscan recognition memory for sentences also suggests that sedation impaired encoding of sentences into memory, with left inferior frontal and temporal lobe responses during light sedation predicting subsequent recognition memory. These findings suggest a graded degradation of cognitive function in response to sedation such that “higher-level” semantic and mnemonic processes can be impaired at relatively low levels of sedation, whereas perceptual processing of speech remains resilient even during deep sedation. These results have important implications for understanding the relationship between speech comprehension and awareness in the healthy brain in patients receiving sedation and in patients with disorders of consciousness. PMID:17938125

  1. Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Marsh, Terence L.; Tiedje, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

  2. Significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities as revealed by a combined massively parallel sequencing-indicator species approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M

    2010-10-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

  3. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CYTOKINES SERUM LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH CHICKEN POX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Zheleznikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-10 were tested in ELISA in 74 children with different courses of chicken pox. Moderate severity course of chicken pox was accompanied by significant increase of IL-1β, IL-8, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-10 levels, but severe course of infection was associated with cytokine response reduction. Manifestation of varicella-zoster virus encephalitis was accompanied by the rise of IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and IL-10 levels during the second week of disease. 

  4. Clinical significance of determination of serum thyroid hormones levels in patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Feihua; Xu Haifeng; Zhou Runsuo; Sun Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of determination of serum thyroid hormones levels in patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis. Methods: Serum thyroid hormones (T 3 , T 4 , rT 3 , sTSH) levels in 98 patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis and 53 controls were measured with RIA. Results: Serum levels of T 3 was significantly higher in patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis than those in controls (P 4 , rT 3 , sTSH levels were not much different (P>0.05). Conclusion: Changes of serum T 3 levels in patients with critical illness were closely related to the severity of the disease process and were useful for outcome prediction. (authors)

  5. Serum leptin level and its significance in chronic renal failure hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; You Yuping; Chen Weizhen; Mo Congjian

    2003-01-01

    To study serum leptin level in chronic renal failure (CRF) hemodialysis patients and the relationship between serum leptin level and residue renal function, body composition, and indices of malnutrition, 31 end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients and 38 healthy people were enrolled. Serum leptin levels were detected by radioimmunoassay. BMI, %Fat and LBM were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis device. Alb, Chol, Hgb, BUN, SCr and Ccr of the patients were also examined. Results showed that Serum leptin level in end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients was markedly higher than that in healthy controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Hyperleptinemia existed in end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients and might cause the loss of LBM. The leptin level was not correlated with residue renal function, but it could reflect the fat content. However, serum leptin did not play a significant role in protein malnutrition in end-stage CRF hemodialysis patients

  6. Clinical Significance of Serum Thyroglobulin Levels in Patients with Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Ki; Lee, Myung Sik; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Bo Youn; Kim, Byung Kook; Koh, Chang Soon

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of assay of serum thyroglobulin(Tg) in monitoring the course of the thyroid cancer or its response to treatment, serum thyroglobulin levels were measured in 41 patients with thyroid cancer who visited Seoul National University Hospital from August, 1981 to August, 1982. The results were as follows: 1) Serum Tg levels 1-3 months after thyroidectomy was 31±23 ng/ml(mean±S.D.) in 14 patients without metastasis, 66±41 ng/ml in 21 patients with regional metastasis and 176±59 ng/ml in 6 patients with distant metastasis and there were significant differences among three groups(p 131 I treatment were 134±62 ng/ml and 67±52 ng/ml respectively. 3) In the follow-up measurement of serum Tg levels every 3 months for about 1 year, almost all serum Tg levels were below 60 ng/ml in 12 patients without distant metastasis and serum Tg levels were elevated above 60 ng/ml in 5 of 6 patients with distant metastasis. 4) In 6 patients with distant metastasis, serum Tg levels were elevated in 5 patients and 131 I Whole body scan showed definite metastatic evidence in 3 patients and suspicious evidence in 1 patient. From above results, we concluded that serum Tg level is very useful as an indicator of recurrence or metastasis in patients with thyroid cancer after operation.

  7. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  8. The prognostic significance of preoperative serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels in endometrial carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Emre E.; Yavuz, Ayse F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the associations between serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels and prognostic factors in patients with endometrial carcinomas. Additionally, we investigated the clinical utility of serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels in the selection of low-risk patients with endometrioid type, tumor size <2 cm, myometrial invasion ≤50%, and histological grade 1-2. Methods: Ninety-six patients, who were surgically staged at Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey, between 2007 and 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical, and surgical characteristics were retrieved from the patients’ hospital records. A p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Fifteen patients had advanced (≥Stage II) disease, 14 patients had Type 2 histology, 20 patients had Grade 3 tumors, 23 patients had lymphovascular space invasion, and 10 patients had positive lymph node involvement. Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced (≥Stage II) disease, Type 2 histology, Grade 3 tumors, lymp°hovascular space invasion, and positive lymph node involvement (p<0.05). Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were also significantly correlated with tumor size (p=0.006). Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were significantly lower (95% confidence interval: 0.57−0.79; p=0.03) in low-risk patients compared to other endometrial carcinoma patients. A cutoff of 25.0 IU/mL was used to identify high-risk patients with a specificity of 100%. Conclusion: Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels significantly correlated with prognostic factors and were a useful diagnostic tool for endometrial carcinomas. PMID:29114696

  9. The prognostic significance of preoperative serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels in endometrial carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre E. Tas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the associations between serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels and prognostic factors in patients with endometrial carcinomas. Additionally, we investigated the clinical utility of serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels in the selection of low-risk patients with endometrioid type, tumor size less than 2 cm, myometrial invasion ≤50%, and histological grade 1-2. Methods: Ninety-six patients, who were surgically staged at Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara, Turkey, between 2007 and 2016, were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical, and surgical characteristics were retrieved from the patients’ hospital records. A p less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Fifteen patients had advanced (≥Stage II disease, 14 patients had Type 2 histology, 20 patients had Grade 3 tumors, 23 patients had lymphovascular space invasion, and 10 patients had positive lymph node involvement. Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced (≥Stage II disease, Type 2 histology, Grade 3 tumors, lymphovascular space invasion, and positive lymph node involvement (p less than 0.05. Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were also significantly correlated with tumor size (p=0.006. Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels were significantly lower (95% confidence interval: 0.57−0.79; p=0.03 in low-risk patients compared to other endometrial carcinoma patients. A cutoff of 25.0 IU/mL was used to identify high-risk patients with a specificity of 100%. Conclusion: Serum cancer antigen 15-3 levels significantly correlated with prognostic factors and were a useful diagnostic tool for endometrial carcinomas.

  10. Significant association between parathyroid hormone and uric acid level in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin KY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kok-Yong Chin,1 Soelaiman Ima Nirwana,1 Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah21Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaBackground: Previous reports of patients undergoing parathyroidectomy and of patients receiving teriparatide as antiosteoporotic treatment have suggested a plausible relationship between parathyroid hormone (PTH and uric acid. However, similar data at population level were lacking. The current study aimed to determine the relationship between PTH and uric acid in a group of apparently healthy Malaysian men.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 380 Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and above, residing in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their body anthropometry was measured, and their fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The relationship between PTH and uric acid was analyzed using regression analysis.Results: Increased serum PTH level was significantly associated with increased serum uric acid level (β=0.165; P=0.001. Increased PTH level was also significantly associated with the condition of hyperuricemia in the study population (odds ratio [OR], 1.045; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.017–1.075; P=0.002. All analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, vitamin D, total calcium, inorganic phosphate, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels.Conclusion: There is a significant positive relationship between PTH level and uric acid level in Malaysian men. This relationship and its clinical significance should be further investigated in a larger longitudinal study. Keywords: hyperuricemia, Asian, cross-sectional study, uric acid, urate

  11. Thrombolysis significantly reduces transient myocardial ischaemia following first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate whether thrombolysis affects residual myocardial ischaemia, we prospectively performed a predischarge maximal exercise test and early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST segment monitoring in 123 consecutive men surviving a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Seventy......-four patients fulfilled our criteria for thrombolysis, but only the last 35 patients included received thrombolytic therapy. As thrombolysis was not available in our Department at the start of the study, the first 39 patients included were conservatively treated (controls). No significant differences...... in baseline clinical characteristics were found between the two groups. In-hospital atrial fibrillation and digoxin therapy was more prevalent in controls (P less than 0.05). During exercise, thrombolysed patients reached a higher maximal work capacity compared with controls: 160 +/- 41 vs 139 +/- 34 W (P...

  12. A case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma which was significantly reduced in size by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakami, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kouji; Tanikawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization classified gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) into three types: NET grade (G) 1, NET G2 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). NECs are associated with a very poor prognosis. The patient was an 84-year-old female who was initially diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscope with type 3 advanced gastric cancer with stenosis of the gastric cardia. Her overall status and performance status did not allow for operations or intensive chemotherapy. Palliative radiotherapy was performed and resulted in a significant reduction in the size of the tumor as well as the improvement of the obstructive symptoms. She died 9 months after radiotherapy. An autopsy provided a definitive diagnosis of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was pathologically-confirmed. Palliative radiotherapy may be a useful treatment option for providing symptom relief, especially for old patients with unresectable advanced gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma. (author)

  13. Potential prognostic significance of decreased serum levels of TRAIL after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since soluble TRAIL exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities both in vitro and in animal models, this study was designed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of TRAIL and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Levels of TRAIL were measured by ELISA in serial serum samples obtained from 60 patients admitted for AMI, both during hospitalization and in a follow-up of 12 months, as well as in 60 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of TRAIL were significantly decreased in patients with AMI at baseline (within 24 hours from admission, compared with healthy controls, and showed a significant inverse correlation with a series of negative prognostic markers, such as CK, CK-MB and BNP. TRAIL serum levels progressively increased at discharge, but normalized only at 6-12 months after AMI. Of note, low TRAIL levels at the patient discharge were associated with increased incidence of cardiac death and heart failure in the 12-month follow-up, even after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk parameters (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97]; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the number of patients studied was limited, our findings indicate for the first time that circulating TRAIL might represent an important predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of conventional risk markers.

  14. Significance of determination of insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun; Li Runhao; Yan Songqin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the insulin (INS), glucagon (GLUC) and cortisol (COR) levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood for appropriate gestational age (AGA) neonates and to explore the correlation among the body weight of AGA neonates and body mass index (BMI) of pregnant woman, serum INS, GLUC, COR levels of maternal as well as umbilical cord blood. Methods: Neonates fell into lower-than-normal body weight group ( group A n=9) and higher-than-normal body weight group (group B n =17); serum INS, GLUC and COR levels were measured with radioimmunoassay in 26 pairs of mothers and neonates with uneventful delivery. Results: The body weight of neonate was positively correlated with the BMI of pregnant women, the BMI of pregnant women in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (P<0.05). The maternal serum GLUC and COR levels were significantly higher than those in cord blood (P<0.05, P<0.01). Cord blood COR contents in group B were significantly higher than those in group A (P<0.01), the reverse was true for GLUC (P<0.05). Conclusion: Fetal growth is closely related to the BMI of pregnant women and serum INS, GLUC and COR levels indicating that maternal nutritional condition would directly affect the birth weight of the neonates. (authors)

  15. Prognostic significance of CA 125 and TPS levels after 3 chemotherapy courses in ovarian cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, A; Favier, J; Burges, A; Hasholzner, U; de Bruijn, HWA; Dobler-Girdziunaite, D; Dombi, VH; Fink, D; Giai, M; McGing, P; Harlozinska, A; Kainz, C; Markowska, J; Molina, R; Sturgeon, C; Bowman, A; Einarsson, R

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the prognostic significance of and predictive value for survival of CA 125 and TPS levels after three chemotherapy courses in ovarian cancer patients. Methods. We analyzed in a prospective multicenter study the 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) in ovarian carcinoma patients.

  16. Ad libitum Mediterranean and Low Fat Diets both Significantly Reduce Hepatic Steatosis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Sherriff, Jill L; Ching, Helena L; Jeffrey, Garry P; Buckley, Rachel F; Tibballs, Jonathan; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Garas, George; Adams, Leon A

    2018-05-05

    Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF). Hepatic steatosis was determined via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). From a total of 56 subjects enrolled, 49 subjects completed the intervention and 48 were included for analysis. During the intervention, subjects on the MD had significantly higher total and monounsaturated fat but lower carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared to LF subjects (pfat reduction between the groups (p=0.32), with mean (SD) relative reductions of 25.0% (±25.3%) in LF and 32.4% (±25.5%) in MD. Liver enzymes also improved significantly in both groups. Weight loss was minimal and not different between groups [-1.6 (±2.1)kg in LF vs -2.1 (±2.5)kg in MD, (p=0.52)]. Within-group improvements in the Framingham risk score, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and HbA1c were observed in the MD (all pvs. 64%, p=0.048). Ad libitum low fat and Mediterranean diets both improve hepatic steatosis to a similar degree. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Clinical significance of reduced cerebral metabolism in multiple sclerosis. A combined PET and MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiayan; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondo, Susumu; Okamoto, Koichi; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has provided major insights into the disease's natural history, and many studies have focussed on possible correlations between MRI findings and the clinical manifestations of MS. In contrast, there are few reports on possible relationships between functional imaging data and cognitive function. The present study assessed the relationship between clinical presentation and combined anatomical and functional imaging data in MS. Twenty patients with definite MS underwent MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO 2 ). The relationships between these neuroimaging findings and clinical data, including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Mini-mental status scale, Hasegawa Dementia Scale and relapse time, were evaluated with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. A general reduction in rCBF and rCMRO 2 in the gray and white matter were found in the MS patients. EDSS was correlated with the number and size of the lesions on MRI and was negatively correlated with rCMRO 2 . A correlation between the decrease in rCMRO 2 and the level of cognitive impairment was also found. The severity of cerebral hypometabolism was also related to the number of relapses. Morphological and functional findings obtained by MRI and PET are closely related to the clinical status in MS. Our results suggest that measurement of cerebral metabolism in MS has the potential to be an objective marker for monitoring disease activity and to provide prognostic information. (author)

  18. Measurement of serum leptin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome with hyperandrogenemia and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yande; Zhang Zhiping; Lu Gen; Luo Beilei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum leptin concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with hyperandrogenemia (HA) and its relationship with testosterone (T) level and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 53 patients with PCOS, in which 36 cases were of the in non-obesity group and 17 cases in obese group. 30 non-obese cases and 20 obese cases without PCOS served as controls. Results: The levels of leptin in PCOS with HA in obese and non-obese group were significantly higher than those in control group (all p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between serum leptin levels and testosterone levels in both groups (r = 0.51, p < 0.01 and r = 0.58, p < 0.01). No correlation existed between serum leptin levels and body mass index (BMI) in PCOS patients of non-obese group but there was positive correlation in obesity group (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). Conclusion: High serum leptin levels is one of the characteristic in PCOS patients. The HA in PCOS patients is related to serum leptin levels and heavyweight or obese patients have the phenomenon of leptin resistance

  19. Sound levels in a neonatal intensive care unit significantly exceeded recommendations, especially inside incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Johanna; de Suremain, Aurelie; Berne Audeoud, Frederique; Ego, Anne; Debillon, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    This study measured sound levels in a 2008 built French neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and compared them to the 2007 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations. The ultimate aim was to identify factors that could influence noise levels. The study measured sound in 17 single or double rooms in the NICU. Two dosimeters were installed in each room, one inside and one outside the incubators, and these conducted measurements over a 24-hour period. The noise metrics measured were the equivalent continuous sound level (L eq ), the maximum noise level (L max ) and the noise level exceeded for 10% of the measurement period (L 10 ). The mean L eq , L 10 and L max were 60.4, 62.1 and 89.1 decibels (dBA), which exceeded the recommended levels of 45, 50 and 65 dBA (p care was correlated to an increased noise level, except for a postconceptional age below 32 weeks. The sound levels significantly exceeded the AAP recommendations, particularly inside incubators. A multipronged strategy is required to improve the sound environment and protect the neonates' sensory development. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prognostic Significance of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Level in Osteosarcoma: A Meta-Analysis of Published Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yong Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP is commonly elevated in osteosarcoma patients. A number of studies have investigated the prognostic role of SALP level in patients with osteosarcoma but yielded inconsistent results. Method. Systematic computerized searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for relevant original articles. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs and relative risks (RRs with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to assess the prognostic value of SALP level. Results. Finally, 21 studies comprising 3228 patients were included. Overall, the pooled HRs of SALP suggested that elevated level had an unfavorable impact on osteosarcoma patients’ overall survival (OS (HR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.61–2.06; p<0.001 and event-free survival (EFS (HR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.61–2.42; p<0.001. Combined RRs of SALP indicated that elevated level was associated with presence of metastasis at diagnosis (RR = 5.55; 95% CI: 1.61–9.49; p=0.006. No significantly different results were obtained after stratified by variables of age range, cancer stage, sample size, and geographic region. Conclusion. This meta-analysis demonstrated that high SALP level is significantly associated with poor OS or EFS rate and presence of metastasis at diagnosis. SALP level is a convenient and effective biomarker of prognosis for osteosarcoma.

  1. Prognostic Significance of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Level in Osteosarcoma: A Meta-Analysis of Published Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Yong; Sun, Ling-Ling; Li, Heng-Yuan; Ye, Zhao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) is commonly elevated in osteosarcoma patients. A number of studies have investigated the prognostic role of SALP level in patients with osteosarcoma but yielded inconsistent results. Systematic computerized searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for relevant original articles. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and relative risks (RRs) with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the prognostic value of SALP level. Finally, 21 studies comprising 3228 patients were included. Overall, the pooled HRs of SALP suggested that elevated level had an unfavorable impact on osteosarcoma patients' overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.61-2.06; p SALP indicated that elevated level was associated with presence of metastasis at diagnosis (RR = 5.55; 95% CI: 1.61-9.49; p = 0.006). No significantly different results were obtained after stratified by variables of age range, cancer stage, sample size, and geographic region. This meta-analysis demonstrated that high SALP level is significantly associated with poor OS or EFS rate and presence of metastasis at diagnosis. SALP level is a convenient and effective biomarker of prognosis for osteosarcoma.

  2. The significance of monitoring sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiuwei; Xu Peizhen; Yu Bin; Zhou Hong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of monitoring serum sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation. Methods: Twenty-five patients with stage IV recurrent endometriosis after one or two times of conservative surgeries underwent radical surgery. Their ovarian tissue fragments were transplanted to greater omentum. Serum follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E 2 ) levels were measured monthly since fourth month post-operatively. After E 2 was increased, based body temperature was measured and vaginal hormone cytology was examined weekly for maturation index (MI) to assess the ovulatory phase and luteal phase in those with viable ovarian tissues. Serum levels of FSH, LH and E 2 in ovulatory phase and luteal phase were determined 20 women with viable ovarian tissues for three cycles as well as in 20 normal sexually mature women and 20 operative menopausal women. Results: There were 12 cases who had increasing of E 2 at four months post operatively and 8 cases more at six months. The other 5 cases with low serum E 2 levels and high FSH and LH levels at 12 months were designated as failures. The survival rate of transplanted ovarian tissue was 80.0%. There were no significant differences of the serum FSH, LH and E 2 levels in ovulatory phase and luteal phase between women with viable grafted ovarian tissues and normal sexually mature women. Conclusion: Monitoring of sex hormones is a good means to assess the viability of the transplanted ovarian tissue fragments

  3. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  5. Circulatory nucleosome levels are significantly increased in early and late-onset preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao Yan; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann, Renate; Tofa, Kashefa Carelse; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe

    2005-08-01

    Elevations in circulatory DNA, as measured by real-time PCR, have been observed in pregnancies with manifest preeclampsia. Recent reports have indicated that circulatory nucleosome levels are elevated in the periphery of cancer patients. We have now examined whether circulatory nucleosome levels are similarly elevated in cases with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma samples were prepared from 17 cases with early onset preeclampsia (34 weeks gestation) with 10 matched normotensive controls. Levels of circulatory nucleosomes were quantified by commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay). The level of circulatory nucleosomes was significantly elevated in both study preeclampsia groups, compared to the matched normotensive control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001, respectively). Our data suggests that preeclampsia is associated with the elevated presence of circulatory nucleosomes, and that this phenomenon occurs in both early- and late-onset forms of the disorder. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Walking with a four wheeled walker (rollator) significantly reduces EMG lower-limb muscle activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica, Zorica; Romkes, Jacqueline; Tal, Amir; Maguire, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of four-wheeled- walker(rollator)walking on lower-limb muscle activity and trunk-sway in healthy subjects. In this cross-sectional design electromyographic (EMG) data was collected in six lower-limb muscle groups and trunk-sway was measured as peak-to-peak angular displacement of the centre-of-mass (level L2/3) in the sagittal and frontal-planes using the SwayStar balance system. 19 subjects walked at self-selected speed firstly without a rollator then in randomised order 1. with rollator 2. with rollator with increased weight-bearing. Rollator-walking caused statistically significant reductions in EMG activity in lower-limb muscle groups and effect-sizes were medium to large. Increased weight-bearing increased the effect. Trunk-sway in the sagittal and frontal-planes showed no statistically significant difference between conditions. Rollator-walking reduces lower-limb muscle activity but trunk-sway remains unchanged as stability is likely gained through forces generated by the upper-limbs. Short-term stability is gained but the long-term effect is unclear and requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  8. A Note on Comparing the Power of Test Statistics at Low Significance Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nathan; Elston, Robert

    2011-01-01

    It is an obvious fact that the power of a test statistic is dependent upon the significance (alpha) level at which the test is performed. It is perhaps a less obvious fact that the relative performance of two statistics in terms of power is also a function of the alpha level. Through numerous personal discussions, we have noted that even some competent statisticians have the mistaken intuition that relative power comparisons at traditional levels such as α = 0.05 will be roughly similar to relative power comparisons at very low levels, such as the level α = 5 × 10 -8 , which is commonly used in genome-wide association studies. In this brief note, we demonstrate that this notion is in fact quite wrong, especially with respect to comparing tests with differing degrees of freedom. In fact, at very low alpha levels the cost of additional degrees of freedom is often comparatively low. Thus we recommend that statisticians exercise caution when interpreting the results of power comparison studies which use alpha levels that will not be used in practice.

  9. Plasma PCSK9 levels are significantly modified by statins and fibrates in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbikay Majambu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin-like 9 (PCSK9 is a secreted glycoprotein that is transcriptionally regulated by cholesterol status. It modulates levels of circulating low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC by negatively regulating low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR levels. PCSK9 variants that result in 'gain of function' have been linked to autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia, while significant protection from coronary artery disease has been documented in individuals who carry 'loss of function' PCSK9 variants. PCSK9 circulates in human plasma, and we previously reported that plasma PCSK9 is positively correlated with total cholesterol and LDLC in men. Results Herein, we report the effects of two lipid-modulating therapies, namely statins and fibrates, on PCSK9 plasma levels in human subjects. We also document their effects on endogenous PCSK9 and LDLR expression in a human hepatocyte cell line, HepG2, using immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses. Changes in plasma PCSK9 following fenofibrate or gemfibrozil treatments (fibric acid derivatives were inversely correlated with changes in LDLC levels (r = -0.558, p = 0.013. Atorvastatin administration (HMGCoA reductase inhibitor significantly increased plasma PCSK9 (7.40%, p = 0.033 and these changes were inversely correlated with changes in LDLC levels (r = -0.393, p = 0.012. Immunoblot analyses of endogenous PCSK9 and LDLR expression by HepG2 cells in response to statins and fibrates showed that LDLR is more upregulated than PCSK9 by simvastatin (2.6× vs 1.5×, respectively at 10 μM, while fenofibrate did not induce changes in either. Conclusion These results suggest that in vivo (1 statins directly increase PCSK9 expression while (2 fibrates affect PCSK9 expression indirectly through its modulation of cholesterol levels and (3 that these therapies could be improved by combination with a PCSK9 inhibitor, constituting a novel hypercholesterolemic therapy

  10. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  11. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical significance of changes of serum APN, plasma VEGF, Hcy and urine albumin levels in patients with DM2 nephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuejin; Zhang Xinfang; Hu Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Explore type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and complicating with kidney disease patients homocysteine (Hcy), adiponectin (APN), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and urine albumin change relations. Methods: A normal controls and no complications of diabetes groups, combined with nephropathy. A comparison were measured of serum APN, plasma VEGF, Hcy and urine albumin level among. Results: Two groups of patients with diabetes fasting blood glucose level were no significant difference. Also there is no difference of BUN and Cr in three groups urine albumin in diabetic-nephropathy albumin increased significantly (P<0.01), than without complications group. Three groups of Hcy concentrations were significantly higher than that of normal control group (P<0.01), serum APN, plasma VEGF level obviously lower than normal control group, which increased in patients with nephropathy increased or reduced more apparently no complications group also have obvious difference (P<0.01). Conclusion: In patients with diabetes in two groups, plasma Hcy and urine albumin were significantly higher APN, and VEGF decreased significantly. In patients with nephropathy manifested more apparently, but renal damage did not enter decompensated period, clinically necessary for people with diabetes testing serum APN, plasma VEGF, Hcy and urine Albumin level, promptly intervention to prevent or relieve the further development of diabetes. (authors)

  13. Clinical significance of determination of serum TRAb levels in patients with relapsing graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Chunlei; Zhou Jiaqiang; Li Wenpeng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum TRAb levels in patients with relapsing Graves' disease. Methods: Serum TRAb (with RRA) and several other thyroid-related hormones (TT 4 , TT 3 , TSH, FT 3 , with CLIA) were determined in the following subjects: 1. 25 cases of relapsing Graves' disease after previous successful treatment; 2. 18 cases of recently diagnosed Graves' disease; 3. 31 cases of successfully treated Graves' disease; 4. 15 cases of simple goiter; 5. 10 cases of nodular goiter; 6. 18 cases of hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto disease. Results: Positive rate of TRAb was 76.00% in patients with relapsing Graves' disease and 77.78% in recently diagnosed Graves' disease cases, both being significantly higher than that in all the other sets of patients studied (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum TRAb levels was helpful for the diagnosis of relapse in Graves' disease

  14. Clinical significance of determination of serum TRAb levels in patients with thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lijian; Tang Bing; Yang Chunying; Lin Jun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical Significance of determination of serum thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) levels in patients with thyroid diseases, especially in patients with Graves' disease. Methods: Serum TRAb levels were determined with radio-receptor assay (RRA) in 302 patients with various thyroid diseases and 52 controls. Results: In patients with Graves' disease before treatment (n=62) the positive rate of TRAb was 86.3%. In patients with Graves' diseases improved after treatment (n=60), the positive rate was 74.5%; in those clinically cured (n=68) the positive rate was 32.1%. In 58 patients with Graves' disease who relapsed after apparently cure, the positive rate of TRAb rose to 90.3 %. However, there were no positive TRAb cases in 23 patients with simple goiter and 31 patients with benign thyroid adenomas. Also, there were no positive TRAb cases in the controls. Conclusion: TRAb levels correspond well with the severity of Graves' disease. (authors)

  15. Significant gender difference in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2014-01-01

    children (21%) had levels below detection limit of assay. Baseline levels of FGF21 showed positive correlation with triglycerides, but no significant correlations were found between FGF21-concentration and body mass index (BMI), DXA-derived fat percentage, LDL- HDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, leptin......INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic factor with effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, and shown to be elevated in diseases related to metabolic syndrome. Due to the increasing frequency of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population, and as FGF21 studies...... in children are limited, we investigated baseline serum levels of FGF21 in healthy children during an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A total of 179 children and adolescents from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study were included. An OGTT with glucose and insulin measurements, a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  16. Clinical significance of suboptimal hormonal levels in men with prostate cancer treated with LHRH agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Jun; Morales, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    We examined the serum levels of testosterone (T) (total and bioavailable) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in men receiving treatment with luteinizing hormone releasing-hormone (LHRH) agonists for metastatic prostate cancer. In doing this, we want to determine the efficacy of these agents in lowering T levels and whether a possible relationship exists between PSA values, as a surrogate measure of tumour activity, and hormone levels. This was a single centre prospective study of patients on LHRH agonists. Of all the 100 eligible patients, 31 did not qualify (10 were receiving their first injection, 13 were on intermittent hormonal therapy, 7 refused to enter the trial and 1 patient's blood sample was lost). Therefore in total, 69 patients were included in the final analysis. Each patient had their blood sample drawn immediately before the administration of a LHRH agonist. The new proposed criteria of values are more commonly found in patients with suboptimal levels of testosterone receiving LHRH analogs, but the clinical importance of this finding has not been established. There is no significant difference with respect to hormonal levels reached among patients on a variety of LHRH agonists. Total testosterone determinations should be considered in patients on LHRH agonist therapy, particularly when the PSA values begin to rise since it may lead to further beneficial hormonal manipulation.

  17. Clinical Significance of Plasma CEA Levels in the Patients with Cervical Carcinoma during Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Sung Beom; Kim, Joo Young; Choi, Myung Sun; Rha, Joong Yeol; Lee, Min Jae [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-12-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been studied in the field of gynecologic malignancy to determine whether it can be used as a tumor marker for early detection of recurrence or evaluation of therapeutic results. From January 1985 through December 1989, a total of 239 cervical cancer patients were entered for an analysis of plasma CEA level in the group with cervical cancer compared to the control group consisting of 65 normal healthy women and 18 women with benign gynecologic disease. Plasma CEA levels appear to be directly related with the tumor extension and as stages advance, the incidence of patients with abnormal plasma CEA levels is increased. Also, there seems to be a little higher incidence of abnormal CEA levels in patients with adenocarcinomas or adenosquamous carcinoma but not statistically significant because of small number of patients. When the patients developed recurrence, plasma CEA levels are markedly elevated in the majority, particularly in patients with hepatic metastases. In conclusion, serial plasma CEA checks could be used to detect recurrence during follow-up after treatment of cervical cancer.

  18. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON....... The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting...... for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers....

  19. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  20. Clinical significance of bone metabolic parameters and serum thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jinhua; Wang Yaping; Sun Junming; Hua Wenjing

    2002-01-01

    To study the changes in bone metabolic parameters and serum thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroidism, seventy patients with hyperthyroidism and sixty healthy controls were investigated by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serum ICTP, chemiluminescent immunoassay for BAP and serum thyroid hormone and meanwhile bone mineral density was measured. The results showed that the levels of serum BAP, ICTP and thyroid hormone in patients with hyperthyroidism were dramatically higher than those in control group (all P<0.01), BMD was significantly decreased in the study group (P<0.01). The correlation analysis showed that both BAP and ICTP were negatively correlated with BMD (all P<0.05). The results from this investigation indicated that increased bone turnover is significantly associated with an increased thyroid hormone in patients with hyperthyroidism, and bone resorption is greater than formation resulting in a bone mass loss. Measurement of serum BAP and ICTP levels may be of help to judge the severity of bone metabolism, study the state of an illness in hyperthyroidism

  1. Effect of electrolyzed reduced water on malondialdehyde levels and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) on .... dehydrated and cleared with alcohol. ... assay tubes were incubated at a temperature of ... oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent .... Oxidative Medicine and.

  2. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGES OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH THORACOABDOMINAL INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, E P; Ponomarev, S V; Shilyaeva, Ye V; Bel'skih, Ye A; Gritsan, A I

    2016-07-01

    Background Currently, one of the causes of high morbidity and mortality is injuries. Predict the outcome of injuries - it is an important task of the treating physician. Trauma is a stress factor so to predict the outcome, you can use markers of stress, the most accessible ofwhich is blood glucose. to reveal the dynamics of the relationship between blood glucose levels and the outlook for the life ofpatients with thoracoabdominal injuries. A retrospective analysis of medical records of hospitalized patients were divided into two groups, depending on the outlook for the life of (favorable or unfavorable), and each of the groups - into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of signs of intoxication at admission. The subgroups were calculated and compared the mean blood glucose levels at different hours of hospital treatment. It was found that the average blood glucose levels at various hours of hospital stay were significantly higher in patients with poor outcome. The most noticeable was the difference in the first days of hospital treatment. Signs of intoxication was associated with lower values of glucose and a tendency to hypoglycaemia. In addition, among patients with high blood glucose ( 8 mg / dL) was observed over deaths in the first day of hospital stay. High blood glucose levels ( 8,0 mmol / L) in the first day of hospital treatment is a predictor ofpoor outcome in patients with thoracoabdominal injuries.

  3. Multi-level significance of vulnerability indicators. Case study: Eastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanga, I. C.; Grozavu, A.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment aims, most frequently, to emphasize internal fragility of a system comparing to a reference standard, to similar systems or in relation to a given hazard. Internal fragility, either biophysical or structural, may affect the capacity to predict, to prepare for, to cope with or to recover from a disaster. Thus, vulnerability is linked to resilience and adaptive capacity. From local level to global one, vulnerability factors and corresponding indicators are different and their significance must be tested and validated in a well-structured conceptual and methodological framework. In this paper, the authors aim to show the real vulnerability of rural settlements in Eastern Romania in a multi-level approach. The research area, Tutova Hills, counts about 3421 sq.km and more than 200.000 inhabitants in 421 villages characterized by deficient accessibility, lack of endowments, subsistential agriculture, high pressure on natural environment (especially on forest and soil resources), poverty and aging process of population. Factors that could influence the vulnerability of these rural settlements have been inventoried and assigned into groups through a cluster analysis: habitat and technical urban facilities, infrastructure, economical, social and demographical indicators, environment quality, management of emergency situations etc. Firstly, the main difficulty was to convert qualitative variable in quantitative indicators and to standardize all values to make possible mathematical and statistical processing of data. Secondly, the great variability of vulnerability factors, their different measuring units and their high amplitude of variation require different method of standardization in order to obtain values between zero (minimum vulnerability) and one (maximum vulnerability). Final vulnerability indicators were selected and integrated in a general scheme, according to their significance resulted from an appropriate factor analysis: linear and

  4. Method of administration of PROMIS scales did not significantly impact score level, reliability, or validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the impact of the method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Two nonoverlapping parallel forms each containing eight items from......, no significant mode differences were found and all confidence intervals were within the prespecified minimal important difference of 0.2 standard deviation. Parallel-forms reliabilities were very high (ICC = 0.85-0.93). Only one across-mode ICC was significantly lower than the same-mode ICC. Tests of validity...... questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and convergent/discriminant validity. RESULTS: In difference score analyses...

  5. Significance of changes of serum osteocalcin levels in healthy subjects and patients with metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liren; Dai Yaozong; Liang Minwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of serum osteocalcin changes in healthy subjects and pathological conditions. Methods: The levels of S-BGP were measured with RIA in 270 normal subjects of different age groups (every 10 yrs as an age group), 60 patients with carebrovascular disease (CVD) and 85 patients with metabolic bone disease. Results: (1) The mean value of S-BGP in umbilical blood was 19.3 +- 16.8 μg/L (n = 89), in 3 day sold newborn infant was 7.4 +- 2.3 μg/L (n = 22), in healthy subjects (from 11 to 60 yrs, average age 39 yrs) was 5.2 +- 1.35 μg/L (n = 100), 5.3 +- 1.4 μg/L (n = 47) in males and 5.1 +- 1.34 μg/L (n = 53) in females. In old healthy subjects the mean value was 3.9 +- 1.48 μg/L (n = 30). The level of S-BGP was negatively correlated with the age significantly (r = -0.383, P < 0.001). (2) The mean levels of S-BGP in 85 patients with metabolic bone disease were: 21.7 +- 20.46 μg/L in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 55, age from 21 to 60 yrs, average 37 yrs), being significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.01); 2.6 +- 0.99 μg/L in patients with NIDDM (n 30, from 60 to 79 yrs, average age 69 yrs), being significantly higher than in the old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). (3) In 60 patients with CVD (from 60 to 80 yrs, average age 66 yrs) the mean valve was 2.2 +- 1.1 μg/L in cerebral infarction (n = 30) and 2.5 +- 1.2 μg/L in cerebral hemorrhage (n = 30), both significantly higher than in old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Conclusion: RIA of S-BGP is an important means for detecting changes of bone metabolism in normal and pathological condition

  6. Significance of determination of serum cytidine deaminase (CD) levels for diagnosis of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chuangqing; Jang Xiaogong; He Yunnan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of measurement of serum cytidine deaminase (CD) levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Serum levels of CD were detected with spectrophotometry, in 33 patients with active RA and 60 controls. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and CRP content were also determined in both groups. Results: The ser- um CD contents in patients with active RA(14.80 ± 2.11U/ml) were significantly higher than those in controls(4.86±1.86 U/ml,P<0.01). The CRP contents (51.46 ± 20.43mg/L) and ESR readings(85.03 ± 27.6mm/h) in the patients were also significantly higher than those in the controls(3.40 ± 2.21mg/L and 13.04 ± 4.89mm/h respectively, all P<0.01). In the patients, the serum CD contents were linearly positively correlated with the ESR contents and CRP readings (r=0.6324 and 0.8013 respectively, P <0.01). Conclusion: Serum CD is an early biochemical marker for diagnosis of active rheumatoid arthritis and is also of prognostic value. (authors)

  7. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  8. Ventilation cost impact of reduced radon-daughter working levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Published information on costs of radon-daughter control in uranium mines was analyzed to develop estimates of the cost per ton for any level of radiation exposure control. All data were converted to 1967 cost of living index to provide a common analysis base. Results of the analysis show that the cost per ton increases exponentially as the radiation level is lowered. A linear relationship with the cost of living index is assumed, and equations and graphs are provided to estimate control cost per ton for any exposure control level and cost of living index

  9. Radon levels reduced through venting of house foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivborg, P.; Johansson, I.; Strindehag, O.

    1981-01-01

    It has been confirmed that the radon emanation from the ground poses a more importent radiation hazard than the radon contained in the building material. In this article a simple system for ventilation of the gases produced under the foundation of a small houses is described. This ventilation system reduced the radondaughters concentration in a house by a factor of ten. (L.E.)

  10. Significant progress towards development of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebe, M.; Henry, T.L.; Corpstein, P.

    1996-01-01

    Development of disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste is a complicated legal, regulatory and public sector process. Development of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to support generators in Illinois and Kentucky is well under way. Significant progress has been made to re-engineer the siting development process capitalizing on prior lessons learned and a recommitment from Illinois state leadership assuring the future success of the program. Comparisons of why this new process will succeed are the major focus of this paper. Specific changes in approach from the previous process including changes in the Illinois Management Act (Management Act), creation of the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Task Group (Task Group), new roles for the Illinois State Geologic Survey and Illinois State Water Survey (Scientific Surveys) and the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS), a new contractor reliance approach and increased confidence on the open-quote science close-quote are the major contrasts between the previous process and the new process currently underway

  11. Significance of the carboxyhemoglobin level for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Yanagawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: At low concentrations, carbon monoxide (CO can confer cyto and tissue-protective effects, such as endogenous Heme oxygenase 1 expression, which has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiapoptotic effects. The level of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood is an indicator of the endogenous production of CO and inhaled CO. Aim of study: To investigate the significance of the value of carboxyhemoglobin for out-of-hospital (OH cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA. Materials and Methods: This study involved a medical chart review of cases treated from January to December 2005. The inclusion criteria included a patient who was transported to this department due to an OH CPA. The exclusion criteria included a patient who did not undergo blood gas analysis on arrival and who experienced CPA due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their final outcome of either survival or non-survival. Results: There was no significant difference associated with the sex, age, frequency of witness collapse, bystander cardiopulmonary arrest, electrocardiogram at scene, cause of CPA, value of PCO 2 , HCO3 - , and methemoglobin. The frequency of OH return of spontaneous circulation and the value of pH, PO 2 , base excess, and carboxyhemoglobin in the survival group were greater than those values in the non-survival group. There were no subjects whose carboxyhemoglobin level was 0% on arrival in the survival groups. Conclusion: There appeared to be an association between higher carboxyhemoglobin levels and survival in comparison with non-survival patients.

  12. GUAVA JUICE REDUCES CHOLESTEROL LEVEL FOR ELDERLY WITH HYPERTENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah.; Effendi, Fery

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  13. Guava Juice Reduces Cholesterol Level for Elderly with Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Afitasari, Dian Rahma; Yusuf, Ah; Effendi, Fery

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertensive disease is closely related to high cholesterol level, which may act as one of causes of death in elderly. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of guava juice on the reduction of cholesterol level of hypertensive elderly at Community Health Center, Pacar Keling, Surabaya. Method: Quasy–experimental was used in this study. Sample comprised of 14 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was guava juice and the dependent vari...

  14. Serum C-reactive protein and thioredoxin levels in subjects with mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishimura Eiji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a newly recognized high-risk condition for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and previous studies reported the changes in inflammation and oxidative stress in advanced stages of CKD. We compared the levels of serum biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress between subjects with normal and mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Methods The subjects were 182 participants of a health check-up program including those with normal (≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2, N = 79 and mildly reduced eGFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2, N = 103 which was calculated based on serum creatinine, age and sex. We excluded those with reduced eGFR 2. No one had proteinuria. We measured serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and thioredoxin (TRX as the markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, respectively. Results As compared with subjects with normal eGFR, those with mildly reduced eGFR had increased levels of both CRP and TRX. Also, eGFR was inversely correlated with these biomarkers. The associations of eGFR with these biomarkers remained significant after adjustment for age and sex. When adjustment was done for eight possible confounders, CRP showed significant association with systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and non-HDL-C, whereas TRX was associated with sex significantly, and with eGFR and systolic blood pressure at borderline significance. Conclusions We showed the increased levels of CRP and TRX in subjects with mildly reduced eGFR. The eGFR-CRP link and the eGFR-TRX link appeared to be mediated, at least partly, by the alterations in blood pressure and plasma lipids in these subjects.

  15. Sleep Disrupts High-Level Speech Parsing Despite Significant Basic Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makov, Shiri; Sharon, Omer; Ding, Nai; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Nir, Yuval; Zion Golumbic, Elana

    2017-08-09

    The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed using noninvasive brain recordings that have thus far only been tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that allows monitoring the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech online. Speech sequences were compiled with syllables, words, phrases, and sentences occurring at fixed time intervals such that different linguistic levels correspond to distinct frequencies. This enabled us to distinguish their neural signatures in brain activity. We compared the neural tracking of intelligible versus unintelligible (scrambled and foreign) speech across states of wakefulness and sleep using high-density EEG in humans. We found that neural tracking of stimulus acoustics was comparable across wakefulness and sleep and similar across all conditions regardless of speech intelligibility. In contrast, neural tracking of higher-order linguistic constructs (words, phrases, and sentences) was only observed for intelligible speech during wakefulness and could not be detected at all during nonrapid eye movement or rapid eye movement sleep. These results suggest that, whereas low-level auditory processing is relatively preserved during sleep, higher-level hierarchical linguistic parsing is severely disrupted, thereby revealing the capacity and limits of language processing during sleep. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the persistence of some sensory processing during sleep, it is unclear whether high-level cognitive processes such as speech

  16. Clinical significance of plasma lysophosphatidic acid levels in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: We first performed a hospital-based, case-control study involving 123 ovarian cancer patients and 101 benign ovarian tumor patients, and then conducted a meta-analysis with 19 case-control studies to assess the correlation between ovarian cancer and plasma LPA levels. Results: The case-control study results demonstrated that ovarian cancer patients have increased LPA and cancer antigen (CA-125 levels compared to patients with benign ovarian tumor (LPA: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 5.28 ± 1.52 vs 1.82 ± 0.77 μmol/L; CA-125: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 87.17 ± 45.81 vs. 14.03 ± 10.14 U/mL, which showed statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05. LPA with advanced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rate of diagnosis excelled CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (both P < 0.05. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (LPA: 0.983; CA-125: 0.910 were statistically significant compared with the reference (both P < 0.001 and the difference of the areas of ROC curve between LPA and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. The meta-analysis results suggested that plasma LPA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues than in benign tissues (standardized mean difference (SMD =2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61-3.11, P < 0.001 and normal tissues (SMD = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.77-2.87, P < 0.001. Conclusion: LPA shows greater value in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer compared to CA-125 and may be employed as a biological index to diagnose ovarian cancer.

  17. The observation of leptin levels in pregnant women newborn and newborn's weight and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Gengbiao; Xiao Jin; Shi Xin; Chen Xuehong

    2002-01-01

    To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension

  18. Derivation of a No-Significant-Risk-Level (NSRL) for diethanolamine (DEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingxuan; Amacher, David E; Whittaker, Margaret H

    2014-02-01

    Diethanolamine (DEA) has been listed on the State of California's Proposition 65 List. This listing is based in part on tumors reported in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-year dermal carcinogenicity study in mice which found clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in B6C3F₁ mice based on increased incidences of liver neoplasms in both sexes, and increased incidences of renal tubule neoplasms in males. Although considerable controversy exists on the relevance of the NTP study to humans, industries are obligated to comply with the Proposition 65 labeling requirement and drinking water discharge prohibition, unless they are able to demonstrate that DEA levels in their products are below a specific No Significant Risk Level (NSRL). The State of California has not published an NSRL for DEA. In this article, a NSRL of 5.6 μg/day and a life-stage-adjusted NSRL(adj) of 1.4 μg/day are derived from the NTP carcinogenicity study using a benchmark dose modeling method based on the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in female mice, in accordance with the guidelines of California EPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maintaining reduced noise levels in a resource-constrained neonatal intensive care unit by operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A; Denzil, S B; Linda, R; Josephine, P K; Nagapoornima, M; Suman Rao, P N; Swarna Rekha, A

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of operant conditioning in sustaining reduced noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Quasi-experimental study on quality of care. Level III NICU of a teaching hospital in south India. 26 staff employed in the NICU. (7 Doctors, 13 Nursing staff and 6 Nursing assistants). Operant conditioning of staff activity for 6 months. This method involves positive and negative reinforcement to condition the staff to modify noise generating activities. Comparing noise levels in decibel: A weighted [dB (A)] before conditioning with levels at 18 and 24 months after conditioning. Decibel: A weighted accounts for noise that is audible to human ears. Operant conditioning for 6 months sustains the reduced noise levels to within 62 dB in ventilator room 95% CI: 60.4 - 62.2 and isolation room (95% CI: 55.8 - 61.5). In the preterm room, noise can be maintained within 52 dB (95% CI: 50.8 - 52.6). This effect is statistically significant in all the rooms at 18 months (P = 0.001). At 24 months post conditioning there is a significant rebound of noise levels by 8.6, 6.7 and 9.9 dB in the ventilator, isolation and preterm room, respectively (P =0.001). Operant conditioning for 6 months was effective in sustaining reduced noise levels. At 18 months post conditioning, the noise levels were maintained within 62 dB (A), 60 dB (A) and 52 dB (A) in the ventilator, isolation and pre-term room, respectively. Conditioning needs to be repeated at 12 months in the ventilator room and at 18 months in the other rooms.

  20. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality...... at advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...... of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...

  1. Reduced expression levels of PTEN are associated with decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yang; Zhang, Yanjun; Nan, Kejun; Liang, Xuan

    2017-05-01

    The clinical resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been linked to EGFR T790M resistance mutations or MET amplifications. Additional mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI drug resistance remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that icotinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HCC827 cells; the cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were also significantly downregulated. To investigate the effect of PTEN expression levels on the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib, PTEN expression was silenced using a PTEN-specific small interfering RNA. The current study identified that the downregulation of PTEN expression levels may promote cellular proliferation in addition to decreasing the apoptosis of HCC827 cells, and may reduce the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. These results suggested that reduced PTEN expression levels were associated with the decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. Furthermore, PTEN expression levels may be a useful marker for predicting icotinib resistance and elucidating the resistance mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

  2. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  3. QMix® irrigant reduces lipopolysacharide (LPS levels in an in vitro model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiela Longhi GRÜNDLING

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe presence of endotoxin inside the root canal has been associated with periapical inflammation, bone resorption and symptomatic conditions.Objectives To determine, in vitro, the effect of QMix® and other three root canal irrigants in reducing the endotoxin content in root canals.Material and Methods Root canals of single-rooted teeth were prepared. Samples were detoxified with Co-60 irradiation and inoculated with E. coli LPS (24 h, at 37°C. After that period, samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the irrigation solution tested: QMix®, 17% EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. LPS quantification was determined by Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL assay. The initial counting of endotoxins for all samples, and the determination of LPS levels in non-contaminated teeth and in contaminated teeth exposed only to non-pyrogenic water, were used as controls.Results QMix® reduced LPS levels, with a median value of 1.11 endotoxins units (EU/mL (p<0.001. NaOCl (25.50 EU/mL, chlorhexidine (44.10 EU/mL and positive control group (26.80 EU/mL samples had similar results. Higher levels were found with EDTA (176.00 EU/mL when compared to positive control (p<0.001. There was no significant difference among EDTA, NaOCl and CHX groups. Negative control group (0.005 EU/mL had statistically significant lower levels of endotoxins when compared to all test groups (p<0.001.Conclusion QMix® decreased LPS levels when compared to the other groups (p<0.001. 3% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 17% EDTA were not able to significantly reduce the root canal endotoxins load.

  4. The significance level and repeatability for isotope-temperature coefficient of precipitation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dongsheng; Wang Jinglan

    2003-01-01

    The good linear relationship with significance level α = 0.01 exists between isotope in precipitation and surface air temperature with multi-year average in 32 stations of China, and the yearly δD-temperature coefficient = 3.1‰/1℃ and the yearly δ 18 O-temperature coefficient = 0.36‰/1℃, and its determination coefficient R 2 = 0.67 and 0.64 respectively. So the isotope-temperature coefficient with yearly average can serve as the temperature yearly measure. But the monthly average isotope-temperature coefficient in each station is variable according to both of space and time, and its repeatability is determined by the meteorological regimes. According to the monthly isotope-temperature coefficient (B) and the coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and its α, all of China can be zoned the following three belts: (1) In the North Belt, B>O, R 2 ≈ 0.3-0.65, α = 0.01, the relation between monthly isotope in precipitation and surface air temperature (RMIT) belongs to a direct correlation and is closer in 99% probability; (2) In the South Belt, B

  5. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  6. A significant causal association between C-reactive protein levels and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Inoshita, Masatoshi; Numata, Shusuke; Tajima, Atsushi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Umehara, Hidehiro; Nakataki, Masahito; Ikeda, Masashi; Maruyama, Souichiro; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Shimodera, Shinji; Hashimoto, Ryota; Imoto, Issei; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies have shown elevated blood CRP levels in schizophrenia compared with controls, and one population-based prospective study has reported that elevated plasma CRP levels were associated with late- and very-late-onset schizophrenia. Furthermore, several clinical studies have reported the efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs on the symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. However, whether elevated CRP levels are causally related to schizophrenia is not still established be...

  7. Lime and Phosphate Amendment Can Significantly Reduce Uptake of Cd and Pb by Field-Grown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongbo Xiao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils are suffering from increasing heavy metal pollution, among which, paddy soil polluted by heavy metals is frequently reported and has elicited great public concern. In this study, we carried out field experiments on paddy soil around a Pb-Zn mine to study amelioration effects of four soil amendments on uptake of Cd and Pb by rice, and to make recommendations for paddy soil heavy metal remediation, particularly for combined pollution of Cd and Pb. The results showed that all the four treatments can significantly reduce the Cd and Pb content in the late rice grain compared with the early rice, among which, the combination amendment of lime and phosphate had the best remediation effects where rice grain Cd content was reduced by 85% and 61%, respectively, for the late rice and the early rice, and by 30% in the late rice grain for Pb. The high reduction effects under the Ca + P treatment might be attributed to increase of soil pH from 5.5 to 6.7. We also found that influence of the Ca + P treatment on rice production was insignificant, while the available Cd and Pb content in soil was reduced by 16.5% and 11.7%, respectively.

  8. Clinical significance of preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyung A; Roh, Mee Sook; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Suee; Han, Jin-Yeong; Kim, Kyeong Hee; Goh, Ri Young; Choi, Hong Jo; Park, Ki Jae

    2010-01-01

    .09 pg/mL), and CRP (0.51 mg/dL) by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, we noted that high VEGF levels tended to reduce overall survival (p = 0.053), but not significantly. However, IL-6 and CRP demonstrated no significance with regard to disease free survival (p = 0.531, p = 0.701, respectively) and overall survival (p = 0.563, p = 0.572, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that VEGF (p = 0.032), CEA (p = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.002), and TNM stage (p = 0.025) were independently associated with overall survival. Preoperative serum VEGF and CRP level increased in colorectal cancer patients. High VEGF level has been proposed as a poor prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer

  9. Modulation of Extreme Flood Levels by Impoundment Significantly Offset by Floodplain Loss Downstream of the Three Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Darby, Stephen E.; Gao, Shu; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Weiguo

    2018-04-01

    River flooding—the world's most significant natural hazard—is likely to increase under anthropogenic climate change. Most large rivers have been regulated by damming, but the extent to which these impoundments can mitigate extreme flooding remains uncertain. Here the catastrophic 2016 flood on the Changjiang River is first analyzed to assess the effects of both the Changjiang's reservoir cascade and the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world's largest hydraulic engineering project on downstream flood discharge and water levels. We show that the Changjiang's reservoir cascade impounded over 30.0 × 103 m3/s of flow at the peak of the flood on 25 July 2016, preventing the occurrence of what would otherwise have been the second largest flood ever recorded in the reach downstream of the TGD. Half of this flood water storage was retained by the TGD alone, meaning that impoundment by the TGD reduced peak water levels at the Datong hydrometric station (on 25 July) by 1.47 m, compared to pre-TGD conditions. However, downstream morphological changes, in particular, extensive erosion of the natural floodplain, offset this reduction in water level by 0.22 m, so that the full beneficial impact of floodwater retention by the TGD was not fully realized. Our results highlight how morphological adjustments downstream of large dams may inhibit their full potential to mitigate extreme flood risk.

  10. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (approximately 35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8 ± 5.2 years (mean age 52.7 ± 10.3 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls eating Western diets (WD). In a subgroup of 10 CR and 10 WD volunteers, we also measured trabecular bone (TB) microarchitecture of the distal radius using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the CR volunteers had significantly lower body mass index than the WD volunteers (18.9 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 2.2 kg m(-2) ; P = 0.0001). BMD of the lumbar spine (0.870 ± 0.11 vs. 1.138 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) and hip (0.806 ± 0.12 vs. 1.047 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) was also lower in the CR than in the WD group. Serum C-terminal telopeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentration were similar between groups, while serum C-reactive protein (0.19 ± 0.26 vs. 1.46 ± 1.56 mg L(-1) , P = 0.0001) was lower in the CR group. Trabecular bone microarchitecture parameters such as the erosion index (0.916 ± 0.087 vs. 0.877 ± 0.088; P = 0.739) and surface-to-curve ratio (10.3 ± 1.4 vs. 12.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.440) were not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that markedly reduced BMD is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in middle-aged men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

  11. Prognostic significance of serum lactate dehydrogenase levels in Ewing's sarcoma: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suoyuan; Yang, Qing; Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhuoying; Zuo, Dongqing; Cai, Zhengdong; Hua, Yingqi

    2016-12-01

    A number of studies have investigated the role of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma, although these have yielded inconsistent and inconclusive results. Therefore, the present study aimed to systematically review the published studies and conduct a meta-analysis to assess its prognostic value more precisely. Cohort studies assessing the prognostic role of LDH levels in patients with Ewing's sarcoma were included. A pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of overall survival (OS) or 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was used to assess the prognostic role of the levels of serum LDH. Nine studies published between 1980 and 2014, with a total of 1,412 patients with Ewing's sarcoma, were included. Six studies, with a total of 644 patients, used OS as the primary endpoint and four studies, with 795 patients, used 5-year DFS. Overall, the pooled HR evaluating high LDH levels was 2.90 (95% CI: 2.09-4.04) for OS and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.93-2.98) for 5-year DFS. This meta-analysis demonstrates that high levels of serum LDH are associated with lower OS and 5-year DFS rates in patients with Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, serum LDH levels are an effective biomarker of Ewing's sarcoma prognosis.

  12. Reduced expression of circRNA hsa_circ_0003159 in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengqian; Chen, Ruoyu; Li, Tianwen; Xiao, Bingxiu

    2018-03-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a crucial role in the occurrence of several diseases including cancers. However, little is known about circRNAs' diagnostic values for gastric cancer, one of the worldwide most common diseases of mortality. The hsa_circ_0003159 levels in 108 paired gastric cancer tissues and adjacent non-tumorous tissues from surgical patients with gastric cancer were first detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels in gastric cancer tissues and the clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were analyzed. Finally, its diagnostic value was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic curve. Compared with paired adjacent non-tumorous tissues, hsa_circ_0003159 expression was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues. What is more, we found that hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels were significantly negatively associated with gender, distal metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. All of the results suggest that hsa_circ_0003159 may be a potential cancer marker of patients with gastric cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prognostic significance of hemoglobin level in patients with congestive heart failure and normal ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Padmini; Gandhi, Siddharth; Sharma, Sanjay; Umakanthan, Branavan; Pai, Ramdas G

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have shown low hemoglobin (Hb) to have an adverse effect on survival in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF); but its effect on survival in patients with CHF and normal EF is not known. This study sought to determine whether low Hb has an effect on survival in patients with both CHF and normal EF. Detailed chart reviews were performed by medical residents on 2,246 patients (48% with normal EF) with a discharge diagnosis of CHF in a large tertiary care hospital from 1990 to 1999. The CHF diagnosis was validated using the Framingham criteria. Mortality data were obtained from the National Death Index. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, low Hb (< 12 gm/dl) compared with normal hemoglobin was associated with a lower 5-year survival in patients with CHF and both normal (38 vs. 50%, p = 0.0008) and reduced (35 vs. 48%, p = 0.0009) EF. Using the Cox regression model, low Hb was an independent predictor of mortality after adjusting for age, gender, renal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and EF in both groups of patients. Low Hb has an independent adverse effect on survival in patients with CHF and both normal and reduced EF in both groups of patients.

  14. Fluid-fluid level on MR image: significance in Musculoskeletal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Wook; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency, number and signal intensity of fluid-fluid levels of musculoskeletal diseases on MR images, and to determine the usefulness of this information for the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases. MR images revealed fluid-fluid levels in the following diseases : giant cell tumor(6), telangiectatic osteosarcoma(4), aneurysmal bone cyst(3), synovial sarcoma(3), chondroblastoma(2), soft tissue tuberculous abscess(2), hematoma(2), hemangioma (1), neurilemmoma(1), metastasis(1), malignant fibrous histiocytoma(1), bursitis(1), pyogenic abscess(1), and epidermoid inclusion cyst(1). Fourteen benign tumors and ten malignant, three abscesses, and the epidermoid inclusion cyst showed only one fluid-fluid level in a unilocular cyst. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensities of fluid varied, but on T2-weighted images, superior layers were in most cases more hyperintense than inferior layers. Because fluid-fluid layers are a nonspecific finding, it is difficult to specifically diagnose each disease according to the number of fluid-fluid levels or signal intensity of fluid. In spite of the nonspecificity of fluid-fluid levels, they were frequently seen in cases of giant cell tumor, telangiectatic osteosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cycle, and synovial sarcoma. Nontumorous diseases such abscesses and hematomas also demonstrated this finding. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  15. Fluid-fluid level on MR image: significance in Musculoskeletal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won; Han, Sang Wook; Kang, Heung Sik

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency, number and signal intensity of fluid-fluid levels of musculoskeletal diseases on MR images, and to determine the usefulness of this information for the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases. MR images revealed fluid-fluid levels in the following diseases : giant cell tumor(6), telangiectatic osteosarcoma(4), aneurysmal bone cyst(3), synovial sarcoma(3), chondroblastoma(2), soft tissue tuberculous abscess(2), hematoma(2), hemangioma (1), neurilemmoma(1), metastasis(1), malignant fibrous histiocytoma(1), bursitis(1), pyogenic abscess(1), and epidermoid inclusion cyst(1). Fourteen benign tumors and ten malignant, three abscesses, and the epidermoid inclusion cyst showed only one fluid-fluid level in a unilocular cyst. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensities of fluid varied, but on T2-weighted images, superior layers were in most cases more hyperintense than inferior layers. Because fluid-fluid layers are a nonspecific finding, it is difficult to specifically diagnose each disease according to the number of fluid-fluid levels or signal intensity of fluid. In spite of the nonspecificity of fluid-fluid levels, they were frequently seen in cases of giant cell tumor, telangiectatic osteosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cycle, and synovial sarcoma. Nontumorous diseases such abscesses and hematomas also demonstrated this finding. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  16. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum CA125, VEGF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yan; Zhou Dongxia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum CA125, VEGF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum CA125 (with RIA) and VEGF (with ELISA) levels were determined in 36 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum CA125, VEGF levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). After 3 months of treatment, the levels dropped markedly, but still remained significantly higher(P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum levels of CA125 and VEGF were closely related to the disease process in patients with ehdometriosis. (authors)

  17. Potent corticosteroid cream (mometasone furoate) significantly reduces acute radiation dermatitis: results from a double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis

  18. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  19. Optimization of a blanching process to reduce the furan level of potato crisps without increasing their oil uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariotti, Salomé; Granby, Kit

    , the objective of this work was to reduce the level of furan in crisps without increasing their oil uptake. To accomplish this purpose a central composite design was used to study the effect of blanching time and temperature on the reduction of reducing sugars, one of furan precursors, in potato slices. After...... levels of both reducing sugar and furan, crisps pre-treated under these conditions presented a significant increasing in their oil content. On the other hand, blanching at temperature of 65° for 10 min was a 30% more efficient (30 %) in the extraction of reducing sugars compared to blanching at lower...

  20. Clinical significance of sCD86 levels in patients with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nahla Hamed

    2011-06-12

    Jun 12, 2011 ... The aim: The present study was to assess levels of sCD86 in de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients and to ..... script and mCD86 protein; thus both cell types provide a po- tential source of .... tryptophan catabolism in vivo.

  1. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  2. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ning

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum visfatin and adiponectin levels in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: Serum visfatin (with ELISA) and serum adiponectin (with RIA) levels were determined in 41 cases of DM2 without nephropathy, 32 cases of DN and 35 controls. Results: Serum visfatin levels in the diabetic patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01). Serum visfatin levels were significantly negatively correlated with those of serum adiponectin (r=-0.4108, P<0.05). The levels of serum adiponectin in patients with DN is higher than those in patients with DM2 but without nephropathy. Conclusion: The development of type 2 diabetic nephropathy might be related to the levels of visfatin and adipone. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL levels in male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianquan; Zhou Minglian; He Haoming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL levels in male patients with infertility. Methods: Serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL (with RIA) were measured in 36 male patients with infertility and 35 male controls. Results: Serum T level was significantly lower in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum TNF-α, FSH and PRL levels were significantly higher in the patients (P<0.01). Serum TNF-α level was negatively correlated with T level in the patients (r=-0.5184, P<0.01) and positively correlated with FSH, PRL levels (r=0.6184, 0.5925, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL levels were significantly changed in male with infertility and determination of which might useful for prognosis and treatment clinically. (authors)

  4. Prognosis of cerebral ischemia, significance of CSF-lactate-level and computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, O.

    1982-01-01

    In patients (n = 120) with supratentorial ischemic cerebral infarction CSF lactate was determined and a CT was carried out on the 1st, 3rd and 7th day after the stroke. On the 3rd and 7th day the comparative investigation revealed a close correlation between the measure of the ischemic edema and the level of CSF-lactate. Thus the lactate-concentration can be regarded as a measure for the spread of the edema after cerebral infarction. Already on the 3rd day CT- and CSF-lactate results allow a relatively reliable prediction for the course of the stroke. An edema grade III in CT and a CSF-lactate concentration more than 4 mmol/l were prognostically critical. On the other hand good chances of survival were indicated by a CSF lactate level under 2.5 mmol/l and an edema grade I. (orig.) [de

  5. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles: Are They Significant at Different Levels of Vocabulary Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostampour, Mohammad; Niroomand, Seyyedeh Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The…

  6. Level of headaches after surgical aneurysm clipping decreases significantly faster compared to endovascular coiled patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Petridis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In incidental aneurysms, endovascular treatment can lead to post-procedural headaches. We studied the difference of surgical clipping vs. endovascular coiling in concern to post-procedural headaches in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Sixtyseven patients with aneurysmal subarachnoidal haemorrhage were treated in our department from September 1st 2015 - September 1st 2016. 43 Patients were included in the study and the rest was excluded because of late recovery or highgrade subarachnoid bleedings. Twenty-two were surgical treated and twenty-one were interventionally treated. We compared the post-procedural headaches at the time points of 24 h, 21 days, and 3 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (VAS for pain. After surgical clipping the headache score decreased for 8.8 points in the VAS, whereas the endovascular treated population showed a decrease of headaches of 3.3 points. This difference was highly statistical significant and remained significant even after 3 weeks where the pain score for the surgically treated patients was 0.68 and for the endovascular treated 1.8. After 3 months the pain was less than 1 for both groups with surgically treated patients scoring 0.1 and endovascular treated patients 0.9 (not significant. Clipping is relieving the headaches of patients with aneurysm rupture faster and more effective than endovascular coiling. This effect stays significant for at least 3 weeks and plays a crucial role in stress relieve during the acute and subacute ICU care of such patients.

  7. Clinical significance of elevated serum aminotransferases levels in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafees, M.; Ditta, A.; Jafferi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C is a common and important cause of chronic liver disease that often remains asymptomatic and most of the times discovered incidentally by routine serologic or biochemical testing. Aminotransferases (AST and ALT) reflect alterations in liver function/inflammation in liver diseases. The current study was conducted to examine the utilization and limitations of these biochemical markers in subjects with asymptomatic HCV infection. Aims and Objectives: To find out how many subjects with asymptomatic HCV infection have normal or elevated serum AST and ALT levels. Subjects and Methods: Study Design: Cross sectional. Study Duration: Seven months from November 2008 to July 2009. Study Universe: Services Hospital, Lahore. Study Population: This study included 413 subjects attending the outpatient departments of hospital with minor complaints. The random population of subjects was referred to the clinical laboratory of Services Hospital, Lahore for LFTs, HBsAg and anti-HCV screening from OPD department of the hospital. A total of 413 persons of all ages were analyzed during this study. There were 263 subjects who were sero - positive for anti-HCV (141 females, 122 males; median age 35 +- 11.34 years) and 150 in the control group (80 of them were females and 70 males with median age 32 +- 12.97 years) were sero-negative for both HBsAg and anti - HCV. Subjects Selection Criteria: In this study, only anti - HCV sero - positive subjects were included who was sero - negative for HBsAg or dual infection (both HBsAg and anti - HCV) and not on anti - viral therapy. Control group was sero - negative for both - HBsAg and anti - HCV antibodies. Data Collection: We assayed levels of serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and screened blood for HBsAg and anti-HCV. ELISA technique was used for viral hepatitis markers. Results: Out of 263 subjects tested positive for anti-HCV antibodies in their blood, 90.76 % and 87.45 % had elevated AST and ALT levels (ALT = 40 U

  8. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  9. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O 2 for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  10. Reducing surgical levels by paraspinal mapping and diffusion tensor imaging techniques in lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Biao; Wan, Qi; Xu, Qi-Feng; Chen, Yi; Bai, Bo

    2016-04-25

    Correlating symptoms and physical examination findings with surgical levels based on common imaging results is not reliable. In patients who have no concordance between radiological and clinical symptoms, the surgical levels determined by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurogenic examination (NE) may lead to a more extensive surgery and significant complications. We aimed to confirm that whether the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and paraspinal mapping (PM) techniques can further prevent the occurrence of false positives with conventional MRI, distinguish which are clinically relevant from levels of cauda equina and/or nerve root lesions based on MRI, and determine and reduce the decompression levels of lumbar spinal stenosis than MRI + NE, while ensuring or improving surgical outcomes. We compared the data between patients who underwent MRI + (PM or DTI) and patients who underwent conventional MRI + NE to determine levels of decompression for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Outcome measures were assessed at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. One hundred fourteen patients (59 in the control group, 54 in the experimental group) underwent decompression. The levels of decompression determined by MRI + (PM or DTI) in the experimental group were significantly less than that determined by MRI + NE in the control group (p = 0.000). The surgical time, blood loss, and surgical transfusion were significantly less in the experimental group (p = 0.001, p = 0.011, p = 0.001, respectively). There were no differences in improvement of the visual analog scale back and leg pain (VAS-BP, VAS-LP) scores and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after operation between the experimental and control groups. MRI + (PM or DTI) showed clear benefits in determining decompression levels of lumbar spinal stenosis than MRI + NE. In patients with lumbar spinal

  11. Addition of Garlic Extract in Ration to Reduce Cholesterol Level of Broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, M. M. D.; Pantaya, D.; Agus, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of garlic extract (GE) in reducing cholesterol level of broiler chicken by analyzing cholesterol level of broiler chicken blood. Two hundred one day broiler age were used in this study for 35 days. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatments, each treatment consist of five replications and each repetition consist of ten chickens. This research is used completely randomized design, such as: T0: 0% EBP, T1: 2%, T2: 4% and T3: 6%. Furthermore, at age 35 days each chicken was taken blood to be analyzed cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calculated the ratio of LDL and HDL levels. The data obtained were analyzed using software from Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0). The results of significant analysis continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Addition of GE from the 2% level decreases (P <0.05) of LDL and total cholesterol, and increases HDL and HDL-LDL ratio. The conclusions is obtained garlic extract plays an important role in lowering cholesterol levels of broiler meat.

  12. Treatment with liraglutide may improve markers of CVD reflected by reduced levels of apoB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrechtsen, L.; Lundgren, J.; Wewer Albrechtsen, N. J.; Mahendran, Y.; Iepsen, E. W.; Finocchietto, P.; Jonsson, A. E.; Madsbad, S.; Holst, J. J.; Vestergaard, H.; Hansen, T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Dislipidaemia and increased levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in individuals with obesity are risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and weight maintenance with and without liraglutide treatment on plasma lipid profiles and apoB. Methods Fifty‐eight individuals with obesity (body mass index 34.5 ± 3.0 kg/m2 [mean ± SD]) were included in this study. After 8 weeks on a very low‐calorie diet (800 kcal/day), participants were randomized to weight maintenance with meal replacements with or without liraglutide (1.2 mg daily) for 1 year. Plasma samples from before and after weight loss and after 1 year of weight maintenance were subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance‐based lipidomics analysis. Results After an 8‐week low‐calorie diet, study participants lost 12.0 ± 2.9 kg (mean ± SD) of their body weight, which was reflected in their lipid profiles (80 out of 124 lipids changed significantly), including reduced levels of apoB, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein and very low‐density lipoprotein subclasses. After 1 year of maintained weight loss, the majority of the lipids had returned to pre‐weight loss levels even though weight loss was successfully maintained in both groups. Interestingly, apoB levels remained low in the liraglutide treated group (apoB change: 0.03 ± 0.02 mmol/L, p = 0.4) in contrast to an increase in the control group (apoB change: 0.06 ± 0.07 mmol/L, p = 0.02). Conclusion An 8‐week low‐calorie diet, in individuals with obesity, reduced plasma levels of lipids and the atherogenic marker apoB. After 1 year of weight maintenance, only study participants treated with liraglutide maintained reduced levels of apoB, despite similar body weight maintenance. Treatment with liraglutide may therefore reduce apoB levels and thus reflect lower

  13. Treatment with liraglutide may improve markers of CVD reflected by reduced levels of apoB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrechtsen, L; Lundgren, J; Wewer Albrechtsen, N J; Mahendran, Y; Iepsen, E W; Finocchietto, P; Jonsson, A E; Madsbad, S; Holst, J J; Vestergaard, H; Hansen, T; Torekov, S S

    2017-12-01

    Dislipidaemia and increased levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in individuals with obesity are risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and weight maintenance with and without liraglutide treatment on plasma lipid profiles and apoB. Fifty-eight individuals with obesity (body mass index 34.5 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 [mean ± SD]) were included in this study. After 8 weeks on a very low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day), participants were randomized to weight maintenance with meal replacements with or without liraglutide (1.2 mg daily) for 1 year. Plasma samples from before and after weight loss and after 1 year of weight maintenance were subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance-based lipidomics analysis. After an 8-week low-calorie diet, study participants lost 12.0 ± 2.9 kg (mean ± SD) of their body weight, which was reflected in their lipid profiles (80 out of 124 lipids changed significantly), including reduced levels of apoB, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein subclasses. After 1 year of maintained weight loss, the majority of the lipids had returned to pre-weight loss levels even though weight loss was successfully maintained in both groups. Interestingly, apoB levels remained low in the liraglutide treated group (apoB change: 0.03 ± 0.02 mmol/L, p = 0.4) in contrast to an increase in the control group (apoB change: 0.06 ± 0.07 mmol/L, p = 0.02). An 8-week low-calorie diet, in individuals with obesity, reduced plasma levels of lipids and the atherogenic marker apoB. After 1 year of weight maintenance, only study participants treated with liraglutide maintained reduced levels of apoB, despite similar body weight maintenance. Treatment with liraglutide may therefore reduce apoB levels and thus reflect lower CVD risk. Including apoB measurements in clinical practice when

  14. Clinical significance of determination of serum IGF-I and SIL-2R levels in patients with prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zaigao; Lv Yuliang; Li Jiacheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of serum IGF-I and SIL-2R levels in patients with prostatic cancer. Methods: Serum IGF-I levels (with RIA) and SIL-2R levels (with ELISA) were measured in 31 patients with prostatic cancer and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of IGF-I and SIL-2R in the 31 patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), serum IGF-I and SIL-2R levels were mutually positively correlated (r=0.6182, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum IGF-I and SIL-2R were useful markers for prostatic cancer. (authors)

  15. Clinical significance of determination of plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels in patients with Alzheimer diseases (AD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Hua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels in patients with Alzheimer diseases. Methods: Plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels were determined with RIA in 31 patients with Alzheimer diseases and 30 controls. Results: The plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels were mutually positively correlated (r=0.4895, 0.6014, P<0.01). Conclusion: Detection of plasma ET and serum NSE, NPY levels was helpful for the prediction of treatment effieacy in patients with Alzheimer diseases. (authors)

  16. Clinical significance of determination of serum SA, CEA and CRP levels in patients with colo-rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jie; Hu Junyan; Sun Shuming; Cheng Benkun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical usefulness of determination of serum SA, CEA and CRP levels in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: Serum SA (with colorimetry), CEA (with CLIA) and CRP (with ILIA) levels were measured in 120 patients with colo-rectal cancer. Results: (1) Serum SA, CEA and CRP levels increased significantly as the disease stage advanced from Duke A through Duke D. (2) As the malignancy of the growth advanced from well-differentiated to anaplastic, the serum SA and CRP levels increased significantly while the reverse was true for serum CEA levels. (3) In 68 post-operative patients followed 1-5 years, the serum levels of SA, CEA and CRP were significantly higher in the patients with recurrence (n=29) than those in patients without recurrence (n=39) (P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum SA CEA and CRP levels were closely related to the disease process in patients with colo-rectal cancer. (authors)

  17. Interim Policy Determination Related to NSR/PSD Significance Level for ODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. [Evaluation of Significant Autobiographical Memories Scale: Design and structural validation at an exploratory level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolich, María; Azzollini, Susana

    2016-11-01

    Personal memories are multimodal cognitive representations. Nowadays, psychometric instruments which aim to assess signifcant memories phenomenological features are scarce. Consequently, the Evaluation of Signifcant Autobiographical Memories Scale was constructed and structural validated at an exploratory level. A total of 404 individuals from Buenos Aires city (Argentina) participated in the research. Initially, an expert judgment and a pilot study administration were carried out. Next, a homogeneity and a principal components analysis were implemented. To assess the scale reliability, Cronbach's alphas coefficients were analyzed. The fnal version has 30 Likert response items gathered in 8 dimensions. Satisfactory psychometric proprieties were obtained - internal consistency of .892 and a total explained variance of 65.78%. The scale provides two main scores regarding the total quantity and intensity of the phenomenological components as well as a partial score per each dimension. It is stated that the test will prove to be useful in the research feld as well as in the clinical area.

  19. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-01-01

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75±1.55 μm versus after supplementation: 70.25±1.31 μm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels

  20. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-08-28

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75{+-}1.55 {mu}m versus after supplementation: 70.25{+-}1.31 {mu}m; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels.

  1. Reduced Levels of Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid Are Associated with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Chinedu J.; Saville, William J. A.; Reed, Stephen M.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J.; Stich, Roger W.

    2002-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a disease of horses that is primarily associated with infection with the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona. Infection with this parasite alone is not sufficient to induce the disease, and the mechanism of neuropathogenesis associated with EPM has not been reported. Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a neurotransmitter, a vasodilator, and an immune effector and is produced in response to several parasitic protozoa. The purpose of this work was to determine if the concentration of NO metabolites (NOx−) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is correlated with the development of EPM. CSF NOx− levels were measured before and after transport-stressed, acclimated, or dexamethasone-treated horses (n = 3 per group) were experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. CSF NOx− levels were also compared between horses that were diagnosed with EPM after natural infection with S. neurona and horses that did not have clinical signs of disease or that showed no evidence of infection with the parasite (n = 105). Among the experimentally infected animals, the mean CSF NOx− levels of the transport-stressed group, which had the most severe clinical signs, was reduced after infection, while these values were found to increase after infection in the remaining groups that had less severe signs of EPM. Under natural conditions, horses with EPM (n = 65) had a lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than clinically normal horses with antibodies (Abs) against S. neurona (n = 15) in CSF, and horses that developed ataxia (n = 81) had a significantly lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than horses that did not have neurologic signs (n = 24). In conclusion, lower CSF NOx− levels were associated with clinical EPM, suggesting that measurement of CSF NOx− levels could improve the accuracy of diagnostic tests that are based upon detection of S. neurona-specific Abs in CSF alone and that reduced NO levels could be causatively related to the development

  2. Calculating the true level of predictors significance when carrying out the procedure of regression equation specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Moiseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a new randomization method that yields unbiased adjustments of p-values for linear regression models predictors by incorporating the number of potential explanatory variables, their variance-covariance matrix and its uncertainty, based on the number of observations. This adjustment helps to control type I errors in scientific studies, significantly decreasing the number of publications that report false relations to be authentic ones. Comparative analysis with such existing methods as Bonferroni correction and Shehata and White adjustments explicitly shows their imperfections, especially in case when the number of observations and the number of potential explanatory variables are approximately equal. Also during the comparative analysis it was shown that when the variance-covariance matrix of a set of potential predictors is diagonal, i.e. the data are independent, the proposed simple correction is the best and easiest way to implement the method to obtain unbiased corrections of traditional p-values. However, in the case of the presence of strongly correlated data, a simple correction overestimates the true pvalues, which can lead to type II errors. It was also found that the corrected p-values depend on the number of observations, the number of potential explanatory variables and the sample variance-covariance matrix. For example, if there are only two potential explanatory variables competing for one position in the regression model, then if they are weakly correlated, the corrected p-value will be lower than when the number of observations is smaller and vice versa; if the data are highly correlated, the case with a larger number of observations will show a lower corrected p-value. With increasing correlation, all corrections, regardless of the number of observations, tend to the original p-value. This phenomenon is easy to explain: as correlation coefficient tends to one, two variables almost linearly depend on each

  3. Different histopathological subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma show significantly different levels of FDG uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Loft, Annika; Hansen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    ) patients, 20.8 g/ml in 11 mixed cellularity (MC) patients, and 19.5 g/ml in four patients with unclassified classical HL (CHL-NOS), (ANOVA, p = 0.011). Out of 780 sites (600 lymph node regions plus 180 organs), 208 sites were found to be affected with HL. Mean SUV(max) was 8.3 g/ml in the 12 sites with NLP......, 11.2 g/ml in the 147 sites affected with NS, 14.6 g/ml in the 36 sites with MC, and 13.1 g/ml in the 13 sites with CHL-NOS (ANOVA, p = 0.002). There is a significant difference in FDG/glucose uptake between the different histopathological subtypes of HL....

  4. Rosiglitazone Reduces Plasma Levels of Inflammatory and Hemostatic Biomarkers and Improves Global Endothelial Function in Habitual Heavy Smokers Without Diabetes Mellitus or Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chih Chen

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Rosiglitazone significantly reduces plasma levels of inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers, and restores global endothelial dysfunction, independently from insulin sensitization, in healthy smokers.

  5. Cerebral Embolic Protection During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Significantly Reduces Death and Stroke Compared With Unprotected Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Otto, Markus; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral embolic protection on stroke-free survival in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Imaging data on cerebral embolic protection devices have demonstrated a significant reduction in number and volume of cerebral lesions. A total of 802 consecutive patients were enrolled. The Sentinel cerebral embolic protection device (Claret Medical Inc., Santa Rosa, California) was used in 34.9% (n = 280) of consecutive patients. In 65.1% (n = 522) of patients TAVR was performed in the identical setting except without cerebral embolic protection. Neurological follow-up was done within 7 days post-procedure. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or all-stroke according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria within 7 days. Propensity score matching was performed to account for possible confounders. Both filters of the device were successfully positioned in 280 of 305 (91.8%) consecutive patients. With use of cerebral embolic protection rate of disabling and nondisabling stroke was significantly reduced from 4.6% to 1.4% (p = 0.03; odds ratio: 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.10 to 0.93) in the propensity-matched population (n = 560). The primary endpoint occurred significantly less frequently, with 2.1% (n = 6 of 280) in the protected group compared with 6.8% (n = 19 of 280) in the control group (p = 0.01; odds ratio: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.77). In multivariable analysis Society of Thoracic Surgeons score for mortality (p = 0.02) and TAVR without protection (p = 0.02) were independent predictors for the primary endpoint. In patients undergoing TAVR use of a cerebral embolic protection device demonstrated a significant higher rate of stroke-free survival compared with unprotected TAVR. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for a Significant Level of Extrinsic Anisotropy Due to Heterogeneities in the Mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, C.; Bodin, T.; Ricard, Y. R.; Capdeville, Y.; Debayle, E.; Montagner, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy are used as a proxy for lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of anisotropic minerals in the Earth's mantle. In this way, it provides important constraints on the geometry of mantle deformation. However, in addition to LPO, small-scale heterogeneities that cannot be resolved by long-period seismic waves may also produce anisotropy. The observed (i.e. apparent) anisotropy is then a combination of an intrinsic and an extrinsic component. Assuming the Earth's mantle exhibits petrological inhomogeneities at all scales, tomographic models built from long-period seismic waves may thus display extrinsic anisotropy. Here, we investigate the relation between the amplitude of seismic heterogeneities and the level of induced S-wave radial anisotropy as seen by long-period seismic waves. We generate some simple 1D and 2D isotropic models that exhibit a power spectrum of heterogeneities as what is expected for the Earth's mantle, i.e. varying as 1/k, with k the wavenumber of these heterogeneities. The 1D toy models correspond to simple layered media. In the 2D case, our models depict marble-cake patterns in which an anomaly in S-wave velocity has been advected within convective cells. The long-wavelength equivalents of these models are computed using upscaling relations that link properties of a rapidly varying elastic medium to properties of the effective, i.e. apparent, medium as seen by long-period waves. The resulting homogenized media exhibit extrinsic anisotropy and represent what would be observed in tomography. In the 1D case, we analytically show that the level of anisotropy increases with the square of the amplitude of heterogeneities. This relation is numerically verified for both 1D and 2D media. In addition, we predict that 10 % of chemical heterogeneities in 2D marble-cake models can induce more than 3.9 % of extrinsic radial S-wave anisotropy. We thus predict that a non-negligible part of the observed anisotropy in tomographic

  7. Clinical significance of measurement of serum insulin-like growth factor II and adrenomedulion levels in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bifu; Ji Naijun; Mei Yibin; Wang Chengyao; Chen Donghai; Li Fuyuan; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum levels of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) and adrenomedullin (ADM) in patients with essential hypertension. Methods: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were measured in 62 cases of hypertension and 40 controls with RIA. Results: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were significantly bigger in hypertensive patients than those in the controls (t = 4.454, p < 0.01; t = 3.992, p < 0.01). The serum IGF II level was significantly positively correlated to the serum ADM levels (r = 0.379, p < 0.05) and both were significantly positively correlated to the mean arterial pressure (r = 0.346, r = 0.353, p < 0.05) but not with BMI. Serum ADM levels increased gradually as the disease progressed from stage I to stage III (p < 0.05) with levels in stage III markedly higher than those in stage I (p < 0.01). In EH patients with heart and/or brain and/or renal complications the serum ADM levels were significantly higher than those in EH patients without complications (t = 2.050, p < 0.05). Such differences did not exist in the case of IGF II. Conclusion: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were increased markedly in hypertensive patients. These two factors were mutually positively correlated and both were positively correlated to mean arterial pressure. ADM levels increased gradually as the disease progressing but IGF II levels remained stable

  8. Age of the last glaciation of Vestfold Hills and significance for sea level change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, D.B.; Colhoun, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Vestfold Hills form the second largest deglaciated oasis area in East Antarctica. The last time that the oasis was submerged by the East Antarctic ice sheet as it extended onto the continental shelf has been termed the ''Vestfold Glaciation'' (Adamson and Pickard 1986). To date the Vestfold Glaciation has been assumed to correlate with the late Wisconsin Glaciation on the basis of Holocene radiocarbon dates obtained from marine deposits in the inlets and from derived sediments ice-proximal to the margin of the Sorsdal Glacier (Adamson and Pickard 1986; Fitsimons and Dormack 1993). Radiocarbon dating of shell fragments from Vestfold till deposits distributed throughout the southern and seaward parts of the oasis have given assays from 31.1 to .43.7k yr BP. If the assays represent true ages of the time of growth of the marine shells then it would appear that the Vestfold Glaciation ice expansion onto the continental shelf post-dates 31 k yr and the glaciation is equivalent to the late Wisconsin. Similarly, if the range of assays represents true ages then the fiords must have been occupied by the sea during late middle Wisconsin time, presumably when the continental margin was isostatically depressed below present level. There is, however, the possibility that the assays are minimal, and being derived into till from older marine deposits they could have true greater and mixed ages. This alternative is being explored

  9. Incense, sparklers and cigarettes are significant contributors to indoor benzene and particle levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Tirler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The increased use of incense, magic candles and other flameless products often produces indoor pollutants that may represent a health risk for humans. Today, in fact, incense and air fresheners are used inside homes as well as in public places including stores, shopping malls and places of worship. As a source of indoor contamination, the impact of smoke, incense and sparklers on human health cannot be ignored. Aim. In the present work, we report the results of an emission study regarding particles (PM10 and particle number concentration, PNC and benzene, produced by various incense sticks and sparklers. Results and discussion.The results obtained for benzene, PM10 and PNC, showed a strong negative influence on air quality when these products were used indoors. Various incense sticks gave completely different benzene results: from a small increase of the benzene concentration in the air, just slightly above the background levels of ambient air, to very high concentrations, of more than 200 µg/m³ of benzene in the test room after the incense sticks had been tested.

  10. Incense, sparklers and cigarettes are significant contributors to indoor benzene and particle levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirler, Werner; Settimo, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of incense, magic candles and other flameless products often produces indoor pollutants that may represent a health risk for humans. Today, in fact, incense and air fresheners are used inside homes as well as in public places including stores, shopping malls and places of worship. As a source of indoor contamination, the impact of smoke, incense and sparklers on human health cannot be ignored. In the present work, we report the results of an emission study regarding particles (PM10 and particle number concentration, PNC) and benzene, produced by various incense sticks and sparklers. The results obtained for benzene, PM10 and PNC, showed a strong negative influence on air quality when these products were used indoors. Various incense sticks gave completely different benzene results: from a small increase of the benzene concentration in the air, just slightly above the background levels of ambient air, to very high concentrations, of more than 200 µg/m of benzene in the test room after the incense sticks had been tested.

  11. Dermal application of nitric oxide releasing acidified nitrite-containing liniments significantly reduces blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Volkmar, Christine M; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Fritsch, Thomas; van Faassen, Ernst E; Mürtz, Manfred; Grieb, Gerrit; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Hemmrich, Karsten; Windolf, Joachim; Suschek, Christoph V

    2012-02-15

    Vascular ischemic diseases, hypertension, and other systemic hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO but also its active derivates like nitrite or nitroso compounds are important effector and signal molecules with vasodilating properties. Our previous findings point to a therapeutical potential of cutaneous administration of NO in the treatment of systemic hemodynamic disorders. Unfortunately, no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics and biological responses of dermal application of nitric oxide in humans in vivo. The aim of the study was to close this gap and to explore the therapeutical potential of dermal nitric oxide application. We characterized with human skin in vitro and in vivo the capacity of NO, applied in a NO-releasing acidified form of nitrite-containing liniments, to penetrate the epidermis and to influence local as well as systemic hemodynamic parameters. We found that dermal application of NO led to a very rapid and significant transepidermal translocation of NO into the underlying tissue. Depending on the size of treated skin area, this translocation manifests itself through a significant systemic increase of the NO derivates nitrite and nitroso compounds, respectively. In parallel, this translocation was accompanied by an increased systemic vasodilatation and blood flow as well as reduced blood pressure. We here give evidence that in humans dermal application of NO has a therapeutic potential for systemic hemodynamic disorders that might arise from local or systemic insufficient availability of NO or its bio-active NO derivates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Significant change of local atomic configurations at surface of reduced activation Eurofer steels induced by hydrogenation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greculeasa, S.G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, A.; Stanciu, A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Lungu, G.A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C.P. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Engineering of Eurofer slab properties by hydrogenation treatments. • Hydrogenation modifies significantly the local atomic configurations at the surface. • Hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the very surface. • Approaching binomial atomic distribution by hydrogenation in the next surface 100 nm. - Abstract: Reduced-activation steels such as Eurofer alloys are candidates for supporting plasma facing components in tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactors. In order to investigate the impact of hydrogen/deuterium insertion in their crystalline lattice, annealing treatments in hydrogen atmosphere have been applied on Eurofer slabs. The resulting samples have been analyzed with respect to local structure and atomic configuration both before and after successive annealing treatments, by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The corroborated data point out for a bcc type structure of the non-hydrogenated alloy, with an average alloy composition approaching Fe{sub 0.9}Cr{sub 0.1} along a depth of about 100 nm. EDS elemental maps do not indicate surface inhomogeneities in concentration whereas the Mössbauer spectra prove significant deviations from a homogeneous alloying. The hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the surface layer and decreases their oxidation, with considerable influence on the surface properties of the steel. The hydrogenation treatment is therefore proposed as a potential alternative for a convenient engineering of the surface of different Fe-Cr based alloys.

  13. Lower Squalene Epoxidase and Higher Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Protein Levels Are Involved in Reduced Serum Cholesterol Levels in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michihara, Akihiro; Mido, Mayuko; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Yurika

    2015-01-01

    A lower serum cholesterol level was recently shown to be one of the causes of stroke in an epidemiological study. Spontaneously hypertensive rats stroke-prone (SHRSP) have lower serum cholesterol levels than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the lower serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP, we determined whether the amounts of cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes or the receptor and transporter involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux in the liver were altered in SHRSP. When the mRNA levels of seven cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase and squalene epoxidase (SQE) levels in the liver of SHRSP were significantly lower than those in WKY. SQE protein levels were significantly reduced in tissues other than the brain of SHRSP. No significant differences were observed in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (uptake of serum LDL-cholesterol) or ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (efflux of cholesterol from the liver/formation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) protein levels in the liver and testis between SHRSP and WKY, whereas scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SRB1: uptake of serum HDL-cholesterol) protein levels were higher in the livers of SHRSP. These results indicated that the lower protein levels of SQE and higher protein levels of SRB1 in the liver were involved in the reduced serum cholesterol levels in SHRSP.

  14. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TSGF and plasma VEGF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shaohong; Tian Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum TSGF and plasma VEGF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum TSGF levels were determined with ELISA mad plasma VEGF levels with biochemistry in 31 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum TSGF and plasma VEGF levels in patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Development of endometriosis were closely related to the plasma levels of VEGF and serum TSGF levels. (authors)

  15. Clinical significance of determination of serum IL-1β, TNF-α levels in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dong; Zhang Xiaolei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels were measured with RIA in 42 patients with periodontitis and 35 controls. Results: Serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Serum IL-1β level was positively correlated with TNF-α level (r=0.4182, P<0.01). Conclusion: Increase of serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels in patients with periodontitis was closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease. (authors)

  16. Clinical significance of changes of serum TGF-β1, CTGF and SS levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To esplore the clinical significance of serum TGF-β 1 , CTGF and SS levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: Serum TGF-β 1 , SS (with RIA) serum CTGF (with ELISA) levels were measured in 38 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 35 normal healthy controls. Results: Serum TGF-β 1 , CTGF and SS levels were remarkably higher than those in controls (P 1 levels were positively correlated with CTGF and SS levels (r=0.6134, 0.4916, P 1 , CTGF and SS levels may help to recognize the pathogenesis and prediction in chronic hepatitis C. (authors)

  17. Carboxyhemoglobin levels as a predictor of risk for significant hyperbilirubinemia in African-American DAT(+) infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzman, D L; Gatien, E; Ajayi, S; Wong, R J

    2016-05-01

    To compare the degree of hemolysis in a group of direct antiglobulin test (DAT) positive (pos) African-American (AA) infants as measured by carboxyhemoglobin corrected (COHbc) for carbon monoxide in ambient air to a similar group of DAT negative (neg) ABO incompatible infants and a group without blood group incompatibility. To determine if COHbc is a better predictor of significant hyperbilirubinemia than DAT status. A prospective study of 180 AA infants from the Well-Baby Nursery of an inner city community hospital, all of whose mothers were type O pos. Infants (60) were ABO incompatible DAT pos, 60 were ABO incompatible DAT neg and 60 were type O(+). Blood for COHbc was drawn at the time of the infants' initial bilirubin and the infants' precise percentile on the Bhutani nomogram was calculated. Mean COHbc of type O(+) infants was 0.76±0.21 and 0.78±0.24% for ABO incompatible DAT neg infants (P=0.63). Mean CoHbc for the ABO incompatible DAT pos infants was 1.03±0.41% (P0.90% (area under the curve(AUC) 0.8113). This was similar to the AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curve using any titer strength of DAT pos as a cutoff (0.7960). Although not greatly superior to the titer strength of DAT pos, COHbc is useful in determining if the etiology of severe hyperbilirubinemia is a hemolytic process.

  18. Optical trapping of nanoparticles with significantly reduced laser powers by using counter-propagating beams (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenglong; LeBrun, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNP) have wide applications ranging from nanoscale heating to cancer therapy and biological sensing. Optical trapping of GNPs as small as 18 nm has been successfully achieved with laser power as high as 855 mW, but such high powers can damage trapped particles (particularly biological systems) as well heat the fluid, thereby destabilizing the trap. In this article, we show that counter propagating beams (CPB) can successfully trap GNP with laser powers reduced by a factor of 50 compared to that with a single beam. The trapping position of a GNP inside a counter-propagating trap can be easily modulated by either changing the relative power or position of the two beams. Furthermore, we find that under our conditions while a single-beam most stably traps a single particle, the counter-propagating beam can more easily trap multiple particles. This (CPB) trap is compatible with the feedback control system we recently demonstrated to increase the trapping lifetimes of nanoparticles by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, we believe that the future development of advanced trapping techniques combining counter-propagating traps together with control systems should significantly extend the capabilities of optical manipulation of nanoparticles for prototyping and testing 3D nanodevices and bio-sensing.

  19. Umbiflow: Improving primary-level ante-natal care whilst reducing secondary-level patient load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wallis, J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal & Child Health status (infant deaths before age 1 per 1000 live births) 0 20 40 60 80 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 South Africa 2000-2011 Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio Achieve universal... Progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 on maternal and child mortality: an updated systematic analysis The Lancet Volume 378, Issue 9797 2011 1139 - 1165 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61337-8 South African View : DOH Budget Vote...

  20. Clinical significance of detection of plasma β-amyloid protein (β-AP) levels in patients with senile dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Binwei; Xu Shangao; Lu Zhifeng; Wang Weihua; Mao Xiaohua; Zhou Chaohua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of determination of plasma β-AP levels in the diagnosis and monitoring of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Plasma β-AP levels were weasured with RIA in 43 patients with AD and 58 controls, as well as in 8 AD patients after a course of cerebrolysin treatment. Results: The plasma β-AP levels in the AD patients were significance higher those in controls (P<0.01). The plasma β-AP levels were especially higher in the severe eases, however, the plasma β-AP levels in some late AD patients dropped again, even lower than those in the controls. The plasma β-AP levels in the 8 AD patients decreased significantly after treatment with cerebrolysin. Conclusion: The plasma β-AP is a biochemical maker of AD. Dynamic examnation of plasma β-AP levels is valuable in assessing the progression and prognosis of the disease. (authors)

  1. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum leptin and E2 levels in females children with simple obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hua; Qian Mingzhu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum leptin and E 2 levels in females children with simple obesity. Methods: Serum levels of leptin and E 2 were detected with RIA in 32 females children with simple obesity and 35 controls. Results: In the children with simple obesity the serum leptin and E 2 levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 levels is of help for judgement of severity of obesity as well as outcome prediction in female children. (authors)

  2. Clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were determined with RIA in 55 elderly patients with chronic bronchial asthma and 35 controls. Results: Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal high serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were important pathophysiologic features in chronic bronchial asthma. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of changes of serum gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels after treatment in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuexian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum Gas, Interleukin-6(IL-6) and Interleukin-10(IL-10) levels in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 (with RIA) levels were determined in 61 patients with peptic ulcer both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the patients with peptic ulcer than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were closely related to the diseases process of peptic ulcer and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  4. Postoperative Stiffness Requiring Manipulation Under Anesthesia Is Significantly Reduced After Simultaneous Versus Staged Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John P; Monazzam, Shafagh; Miles, Troy; Danielsen, Beate; White, Richard H

    2017-12-20

    adjust for relevant risk factors, the 90-day odds ratio (OR) of undergoing manipulation after simultaneous bilateral TKA was significantly lower than that for unilateral TKA (OR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.86) and staged bilateral TKA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.90). Similarly, at 180 days, the odds of undergoing manipulation were significantly lower after simultaneous bilateral TKA than after both unilateral TKA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.84) and staged bilateral TKA (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.93). The frequency of manipulation was significantly associated with younger age, fewer comorbidities, black race, and the absence of obesity. Although the ORs were small (close to 1), simultaneous bilateral TKA had a significantly decreased rate of stiffness requiring manipulation under anesthesia at 90 days and 180 days after knee replacement compared with that after staged bilateral TKA and unilateral TKA. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Lacosamide reduces HDAC levels in the brain and improves memory: Potential for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Shraddha R; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Jagdale, Priti G; Adkar, Prafulla P; Waghmare, Arun B; Ambavade, Prashant D

    2015-07-01

    Lacosamide, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. Some HDAC inhibitors have been proven effective for the treatment of memory disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of lacosamide on memory and brain HDAC levels. The effect on memory was evaluated in animals with scopolamine-induced amnesia using the elevated plus maze, object recognition test, and radial arm maze. The levels of acetylcholinesterase and HDAC in the cerebral cortex were evaluated. Lacosamide at doses of 10 and 30mg/kg significantly reduced the transfer latency in the elevated plus maze. Lacosamide at a dose of 30mg/kg significantly increased the time spent with a familiar object in the object recognition test at the 24h interval and decreased the time spent in the baited arm. Moreover, at this dose, the number of errors in the radial arm maze at 3 and 24h intervals was minimized and a reduction in the level of HDAC1, but not acetylcholinesterase, was observed in the cerebral cortex. These effects of lacosamide are equivalent to those of piracetam at a dose of 300mg/kg. These results suggest that lacosamide at a 30mg/kg dose improves disrupted memory, possibly by inhibiting HDAC, and could be used to treat amnesic symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical lterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550mA (450–600) vs. 650mA (500–711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. There was 27% effective radiation dose reduction in the ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29mSv (2.84–6.02) vs. 5.84mSv (3.88–8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. Although ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93±10.22 vs. 37.63±18.79 (mean ±standard deviation), respectively, P<001), it did not affect the signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio or the diagnostic quality of CCTA. Application of ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality.

  7. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-06-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550 mA (450-600) vs. 650 mA (500-711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29 mSv (2.84-6.02) vs. 5.84 mSv (3.88-8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93 ± 10.22 vs. 37.63 ± 18.79 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, P ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  8. Clinical significance of measurement of serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan Deqi; Du Liang; Yang Sixue; Qin Yong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Serum TNF-α (with R/A) and NO/NOS (with bio-chemistry) levels were determined in 41 patients with schizophrenia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results:Before treatment the serum NOS, TNF-α levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.01 ). After six weeks treatment, the levels in patients, though dropped markedly, remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels were closely related to the diseases process of schizophrenia and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  9. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  10. Clinical significance of determination of blood gastro-intestinal hormones levels in small for gestational age newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Lijun; Chen Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of plasma motilin, plasma somatostatin and serum gastrin levels after beginning oral feeding in 68 small for gestational age neonates (pre-term 36, full-term 32). Methods: Blood levels of somatostatin (SS), motilin and gastrin were determined with RIA before beginning of oral feeding and on 7 th day after birth in 68 small for gestational age neonates and 30 controls. Results: The blood levels of motilin and gastrin before feeding and on 7 th day in the small for gestational age neonates were significantly lower than those in the controls, while the SS levels were significantly higher. The serum levels of the hormones rose gradually after birth and on 7 th day were all significantly higher than those before feeding respectively (P th day levels were positively correlated with gestational age, original levels before feeding and early feeding. For gastrin, the levels were also positively correlated with the amount of feeding. In this study, early oral feeding was practiced in all the neonates without any adverse effect. Conclusion: Although the blood levels of gastro-intestinal hormones were lower in small for gestational age newborns, early oral feeding was practiced in all the neonates with no adverse effect observed and more rapid elevation of the hormone levels. Therefore, early oral feeding should be encouraged. (authors)

  11. Clinical significance of changes of serum vascular endothelial growth factor level before and after radiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jingping; Sun Zhiqiang; Ni Xinchu; Wang Jian; Li Yi; Hu Lijun; Li Dongqing; Sun Suping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes and clinical value of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level before, during and after radiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Methods: The sera of 67 esophageal carcinoma patients and 30 healthy control cases were collected. The VEGF level in serum samples were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The relations among VEGF level changes,clinical stages and radiotherapy effect were analyzed. Results: The VEGF levels of patients with esophagus cancer before, during and after radiotherapy were significantly higher than those in control group (F=11.65, P<0.01). The VEGF level after radiotherapy was significant lower than that before radiotherapy (F=10.72, P<0.01). The average VEGF level of patients with T 3 and T 4 was significantly higher than that of control group (F=14.10, P<0.01). The average VEGF level of patients with N 1 and N 2 was significantly higher than that of control group (F=8.64, P<0.01). In 62 patients,the serum VEGF level increased in 21 cases but decreased in 41 cases after radiotherapy. With difference in radiotherapy efficiency of 61.90% and 90.24%, respectively (χ 2 =6.08, P<0.05). The average VEGF level during and after radiotherapy for 50 cases of CR + PR were significantly lower than that before radiotherapy (F=7.98, P<0.01). Conclusions: Monitoring the serum VEGF level of patients with esophagus cancer can help evaluate the radiosensitivity, which has a significance in predicting the prognosis of radiotherapy. (authors)

  12. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  13. [Pulsatilla decoction inhibits vulvovaginal Candida albicans proliferation and reduces inflammatory cytokine levels in vulvovaginal candidiasis mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Zhang, Mengxiang; Shi, Gaoxiang; Xu, Zhiqing; Wu, Daqiang; Shao, Jing; Wang, Tianming; Wang, Changzhong

    2016-02-01

    To explore the possible regulatory effect of Pulsatilla decoction on Th17 cells and inflammatory cytokines of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) mice. Seventy-two female Kunming mice were randomly assigned into six groups: a blank control group, a VVC model group, a fluconazole group and three Pulsatilla decoction groups (dose levels: 22.5, 15.0 and 7.5 g/kg, respectively). The VVC mouse models were established by vaginal inoculation with Candida albicans (C. albicans) in female mice in pseudoestrus state caused by estradiol injection. After 7-day treatment on VVC mice, the vaginal C. albicans burden was assessed using dilution spread plate method; the vaginal C. albicans morphology was observed by Gram staining method; the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, IL-21 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in sera were detected by ELISA. The content of the transcription factor retinoid related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) in vaginal tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The VVC mouse models were successfully developed. After treatment, the vaginal C. albicans burden of the fluconazole group and 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group dropped significantly compared with that of the VVC model group. Gram staining showed that the VVC mice had lots of C. albicans hyphae in vaginal discharge, that 7.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group remained the mycelia-phase C. albicans, and that 15.0 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group had the majority of yeast-phase C. albicans and a few of mycelia-phase, while no hyphae and only very few of yeast-phase C. albicans were observed in 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group and fluconazole group. After 7-day treatment, compared with the model group, the levels of IL-6, IL- 17, IL-21 and TNF-α in the sera of the fluconazole group, 15.0 and 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction groups were reduced significantly and the levels of RORγt in the vaginal tissues of the fluconazole group, 15.0 and 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction groups also decreased

  14. Scoping studies to reduce ICPP high-level radioactive waste volumes for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, D.A.; Berreth, J.R.; Chipman, N.A.; Cole, H.S.; Geczi, L.S.; Kerr, W.B.; Staples, B.A.

    1985-08-01

    This report presents the results of scoping studies carried out to determine the feasibility of the following candidate options to reduce high-level waste volume: (1) low-fluoride, low-volume glass, (2) glass-ceramic and ceramic, (3) Modified Zirflex, (4) inerts removal by neutralization, and (5) modified Fluorinel processes. The results of the scoping studies show that the glass-ceramic/ceramic waste forms and neutralization process with potential HLW volume reductions ranging from 60 to 80% appear feasible, based on laboratory-scale tests. The presently used Fluorinel process modified by reducing HF usage also appears to be feasible and could result in up to a 10% potential volume reduction. If the current process start-up tests verify the practicality, reduced HF usage will be implemented. The low-volume glass and Modified Zirflex processes may also be feasible, based on laboratory tests, but would require significantly more process development and/or modifications and could result in only a 20 to 30% potential volume reduction. Based on these scoping studies, it is recommended that (1) the glass-ceramic/ceramic and neutralization processes be developed further, (2) reduced HF use for the Modified Fluorinel process be implemented as soon as practical and other options reducing chemical usage for criticality control be evaluated, (3) basic development for the glass process be continued as a back-up technology, and (4) laboratory-scale radioactive fuel dissolution testing for the Modified Zirflex process be completed with further process development discontinued unless needed in the future

  15. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum APN, BNP and ANF levels after treatment in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Hengsong; Hu Min; Gao Xinchun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes on serum APN, BNP and ANF levels after treatment in patients with heart failure. Methods: Serum BNP, ANF(with RIA) serum APN (with ELISA) levels were determined in 30 patients with heart failure both before and after treatment as well as in 35 normal controls. Results: Before treatment, serum APN level was significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01), but serum BNP, ANF levels were apparently higher (P<0.01). After 1 month of treatment, the levels dropped markedly, but still remained obviously higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum APN, BNP and ANF levels were closely related to the process of heart failure and were of clinical value of monitoring therapeutic effect and prognosis. (authors)

  16. Clinical significance of measurement of serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wanqin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) and NO (with bio-chemistry) levels were determined in 37 patients with schizophrenia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL-8 levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). While the serum NO levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). After six weeks' treatment, the levels of IL-6, IL-8 in the patients, though dropped markedly still remained significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in controls. The serum NO levels, though markedly increased after treatment, were still remained significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were closely related to the diseases process of schizophrenia and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  17. Clinical significance of determination of serum TNF-α, VEGF and TSGF levels after treatment in patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingqiu; Xu Yanli

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance changes of serum TNF-α, VEGF and TSGF levels after treatment in patients with aplastic Anemia. Methods: Serum TNF-α(with RIA), VEGF(with ELISA) and TSGF(with biochemistry) levels were determined in 33 patients with aplastic anemia both before and after treatment and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum TNF-α, TSGF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), but serum VEGF levels were significantly lower in the patients (P<0.01). Serum TNF-α, TSGF levels were negatively correlated with levels of VEGF(r=-0.5192, -0.6018, P<0.01). After a course of treatment, the serum TNF-α, VEGF and TSGF levels, though corrected markedly, remained significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum TNF-α, VEGF and TSGF levels after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with aplastic anemia. (authors)

  18. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TGF-β1 levels and t-cell subset distribution type in patients with gastric ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yiqin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum TGF-β 1 levels and T-cell subset distribution type in patients with gastric ulcer. Methods: Serum TGF-β 1 levels were measured with RIA and T-cell subset distribution type was studied with monoclonal antibody technique in 32 patients with gastric ulcer and 35 controls. Results: In the patients,the serum TGF-β 1 levels and CD8 percentage were significantly higher than those in controls (P 1 levels were significantly negatively correlated with CD4 percentage and CD4/CD8 ratio, but significantly positively correlated with CD8 percentage. Conclusion: Serum TGF-β 1 may inhibit cellular immunity, which may be one of the causes of reduced cellular immuno-function in patients with gastric ulcer. (authors)

  19. Clinical significance of serum and urinary HER2/neu protein levels in primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Arikan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare serum and urinary HER2/neu levels between healthy control group and patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Additionally, we evaluated relationship of HER2/neu levels with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression. Materials and Methods: Fourty-four patients with primary non-muscle invasive bladder tumors (Group 2 and 40 healthy control group (Group 1 were included the study. Blood and urinary samples were collected from all patients and HER2/neu levels were measured by ELISA method. Blood and urinary HER2/neu levels and additionally, ratio of urinary HER2/neu levels to urinary creatinine levels were recorded. Demographic data and tumor characteristics were recorded. Results: Mean serum HER2/neu levels were similar between two groups and statistically significant difference wasn't observed. Urinary HER2/neu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than group 1. Ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinine was significantly higher in group 2 than group 1, (p=0,021. Serum and urinary HER2/ neu levels were not associated with tumor stage, grade, recurrence and progression while ratio of urinary HER2/neu to urinary creatinin levels were significantly higher in high-grade tumors. HER2/neu, the sensitivity of the test was found to be 20.5%, and the specificity was 97.5%, also for the urinary HER2/neu/urinary creatinine ratio, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 31.8% and 87.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Urinary HER2/neu and ratio of urinary creatinine urine were significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer compared to healthy subjects. Large series and controlled studies are needed for use as a tumor marker.

  20. Clinical significance of determination of plasma NPY levels and serum lipid profile in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fujuan; Shen Airong; Yang Yongqing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma NPY levels and serum lipid profile in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. Methods: Plasma NPY levels (with RIA) and serum lipid profile (with biochemistry) were determined in (1) 48 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage (2) 46 patients with acute cerebral infarction and (3) controls.Results Plasma NPY levels in both patients with cerebral hemorrhage and patients with cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: NPY played important roles in the development and pathogenesis of cerebral vascular accidents. Lipid profile changes was the basic etiological factor. (authors)

  1. Levels and clinical significance of serum IGF-II in patients with five kinds of malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Falian; Xu Jun; Du Xiumin; Ke Bingkun; Yang Daoli

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the levels and clinical significance of serum IGF-II in patients with malignant tumor. Methods: Levels of serum IGF-II were detected in patients with gastric cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, ovarian carcinoma and endometrial carcinoma by radioimmunoassay, levels in patients with hepatic cirrhosis, uterine myoma and normal controls were also determined for comparison. Results: The levels of serum IGF-II in patients with gastric cancer, lung cancer and liver cancer were significantly higher than those in normal controls (p 0.05). Conclusion: The determination of serum IGF-II has no clinical significance in patients with endometrial carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma and uterine myoma but it could be useful to judge the severity and evaluate the prognosis in patients with gastric cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer and cirrhosis

  2. Clinical significance of determination of serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF levels in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Donglin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF levels were measured with RIA in 32 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma and 30 controls. Results: Serum levels of TNF, IL-8 and GM-CSF were very significantly higher in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma than those in controls (P<0.01). After one week treatment, the levels dropped considerably but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the diseases. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin and AsAb, EmAb levels in infertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jian; Zhou Minglian; Sun Gang; He Haoming

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, AsAb, and EmAb levels in infertile women. Methods: Serum leptin (with RIA) and AsAb, EmAb (with ELISA) levels were detected in 32 infertile women and 35 controls. Results: Serum leptin levels in infertile women were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01). Serum AsAb and EmAb were both positive in 25 of the 32 infertile women (78.1%) and EmAb (one of two Abs) was positive in the rest 7 women (21.9%). These positive rates were also significantly higher than the respective ones in the controls (both P<0.01). Conclusion: Lower serum leptin level with highly positive AsAb and EmAb might be the chief cause of infertility in women. (authors)

  4. Oxidation of naturally reduced uranium in aquifer sediments by dissolved oxygen and its potential significance to uranium plume persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Smith, R. L.; Bohlke, J. K.; Jemison, N.; Xiang, H.; Repert, D. A.; Yuan, X.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. Such reduced zones are usually heterogeneously dispersed in these aquifers and characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon, reduced mineral phases, and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases found in association with these reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Four field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO, wherein groundwater associated with the naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in such field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Dissolved Fe(II) concentrations decreased to the detection limit, but increases in sulfate could not be detected due to high background concentrations. Changes in nitrogen species concentrations were variable. The results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS), rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table

  5. Clinical significance of changes of plasma TNF-α and CRP levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoyang; Xiao Changqing; He Yunnan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of serum TNF-α and CRP levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods: Serum TNF-α (with RIA) and CRP (with scatter velocity turbidimetry) levels were determined in 50 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 62 controls. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α and CRP in patients with acute cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.01). Moreover, the levels were positively correlated with the size of the infarction (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of serum TNF-α and CRP levels during acute stage of cerebral infarction were closely related the clinical progression of the disease process. (authors)

  6. Clinical significance of changes of serum NSE, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in patients with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuhong; Zhang Yujuan; Zhou Xiujuan; Shan Huali

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum NSE, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Methods: Serum NSE (with ELISA) and TNF-α, IL-6 (with RIA) levels were measured in 30 neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and 30 controls. Results: Serum NSE, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy than those in controls (P<0.01). Serum NSE levels were positively correlated with those of TNF-α, IL-6 (r=0.5812, 0.6014, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum NSE, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were closely related to the diseases process of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. (authors)

  7. Clinical significance of changes of serum levels of SIL-2R and CEA in patients with lung cancer after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui Zhilian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum levels of SIL-2R and CEA after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Serum levels of SIL-2R (with ELISA) and CEA (with RIA) were measured in 31 patients with lung cancer both before and after chemotherapy as well as in 35 cantrols. Results: Before chemotherapy, both serum SIL-2R and CEA levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05), but the serum SIL-2R levels in the patients remained significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum SIL-2R and CEA levels after chemotherapy might be helpful for predicting the treatment outcomes in patients with lung cancer. (author)

  8. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TNF and SA levels after treatment in patients with gonorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Chengwu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum TNF and sialic acid (SA) levels after treatment in patients with gonorrhea. Methods: Serum TNF (with RIA) and SA (with spectrophotometer ) levels were measured both before and after treatment in 42 patients with gonorrhea as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum levels of TNF and SA were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Changes of serum levels of TNF and SA could reflect the severity of infection in patients with gonorrhea. (authors)

  9. A new system to reduce formaldehyde levels improves safety conditions during gross veterinary anatomy learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Víctor; Llombart, Cristina; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Ysern, Pere; Calero, Sebastián; Fígols, Enric; Ruberte, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Dissection is a very useful method of learning veterinary anatomy. However, formaldehyde, which is widely used to preserve cadavers, is an irritant, and it has recently been classified as a carcinogen. In 1997, the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo [National Institute of Workplace Security and Hygiene] found that the levels of formaldehyde in our dissection room were above the threshold limit values. Unfortunately, no optimal substitute for formaldehyde is currently available. Therefore, we designed a new ventilation system that combines slow propulsion of fresh air from above the dissection table and rapid aspiration of polluted air from the perimeter. Formaldehyde measurements performed in 2004, after the introduction of this new system into our dissection laboratory, showed a dramatic reduction (about tenfold, or 0.03 ppm). A suitable propelling/aspirating air system successfully reduces the concentration of formaldehyde in the dissection room, significantly improving safety conditions for students, instructors, and technical staff during gross anatomy learning.

  10. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Sophia E.; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G.; Konty, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Methods: Using the New…

  11. Serum ox-LDL Level is Reduced with the Extent of Stenosis in Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Najafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL lipoproteins are proposed as important modified particles triggering pro-inflammatory events through receptor-mediated pathways. We evaluated the circulating ox-LDL level on the concept that the chronic immune events may affect ox-LDL clearance as the vessel stenosis develops in coronary arteries. One hundred sixty five subjects underwent coronary angiography and then, subdivided into four subgroups controls (n=85; SVD, 2VD and 3VD (n=80. The serum ox-LDL level and other biochemical parameters were measured using ELISA method and routine laboratory techniques, respectively. The serum ox-LDL level in the control group (4.81±1.41 mU/mg was significantly higher than patients (4.28±1.73 mU/mg, P<0.05. The ox-LDL/LDL ratio was conversely reduced with the extent of stenosis as compared with the controls (P<0.05. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the ox-LDL/LDL ratio between the 2VD and 3VD patients. We suggested the atherosclerosis process increases the total clearing capacities of the circulating ox-LDL particles.

  12. [Changes in serum YKL-40 level and humoral immune function and their significance in children with recurrent pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Yin; Peng, Shao; Zhang, Ting

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the changes in serum YKL-40 level and humoral immune function and their significance in children with recurrent pneumonia. Blood samples were collected from 30 children with recurrent pneumonia (recurrent pneumonia group), 30 children with acute pneumonia (acute pneumonia group), and 30 healthy children (control group). Serum YKL-40 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlation between serum YKL-40 level and laboratory indices related to humoral immune function was analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the diagnostic value of serum YKL-40 level for recurrent pneumonia. The recurrent pneumonia group had a significantly higher serum YKL-40 level than the acute pneumonia and control groups (Ppneumonia group had a significantly higher serum YKL-40 level than the control group (Ppneumonia group were significantly lower than in the acute pneumonia group (Ppneumonia was 0.958 (95%CI: 0.921-0.994). Humoral immune function is low in children with recurrent pneumonia. Serum YKL-40 may be involved in the occurrence of recurrent pneumonia and can be used as a reference index for diagnosing recurrent pneumonia.

  13. Study on the clinical significance of determination of serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Naijun; Mei Yibeng; Fan Bifu; Chen Donghai; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying; Tong Lijun; Li Fuyuan; Pan Jiongwei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of the changes of serum BNP levels in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods: Serum BNP levels in 88 patients with HF(NYHA II-IV), 20 patients with compensated cardiac function (NYHA I) and 30 controls were determined with RIA. Results: The serum BNP levels in patients with HF (264±63.9 pmol/L) were significantly higher than those in patients with compensated cardiac function (NYHA I, 11.6±4.7 pmol/L, t=2.133, p 0.05). As the cardiac function deteriorated from NYHA II to NYHA IV, the BNP levels increased consecutively with significant differences from each other (F=2.595, p<0.05). BNP levels in patients with acute left heart failure were significantly higher than those in patients with chronic heart failure (t=2.268, p<0.05) and fell promptly at relief of the attack (p<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum BNP levels in patients with HF was helpful to the study of the severity and prognosis of the disease

  14. Macrocyclic peptides decrease c-Myc protein levels and reduce prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Hanold, Laura E; Thayele Purayil, Hamsa; Gisemba, Solomon A; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Aldrich, Jane V

    2017-08-03

    The oncoprotein c-Myc is often overexpressed in cancer cells, and the stability of this protein has major significance in deciding the fate of a cell. Thus, targeting c-Myc levels is an attractive approach for developing therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. In this study, we report the anti-cancer activity of the macrocyclic peptides [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-D-Trp]) and the natural product CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-Trp]). [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 reduced c-Myc protein levels in prostate cancer cells and decreased cell proliferation with IC 50 values ranging from 2.0 to 16 µM in multiple PC cell lines. [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 induced early and late apoptosis in PC-3 cells following 48 hours treatment, and growth arrest in the G2 cell cycle phase following both 24 and 48 hours treatment. Down regulation of c-Myc in PC-3 cells resulted in loss of sensitivity to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment, while overexpression of c-Myc in HEK-293 cells imparted sensitivity of these cells to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment. This macrocyclic tetrapeptide also regulated PP2A by reducing the levels of its phosphorylated form which regulates the stability of cellular c-Myc protein. Thus [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 represents a new lead compound for the potential development of an effective treatment of prostate cancer.

  15. Clinical significance of determination of serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Yu Fan; Zhao Changxin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods: Serum HA, PCIII and ADA levels were detected with RIA in 42 cases with chronic hepatitis C and 35 controls. Results: The levels of serum HA, PC III and ADA in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Serum HA, PC m and ADA levels were positive correlated (r=0.6178, 0.6211, P<0.01). Conclusion: The results suggested the serum HA, PC m and ADA levels can reflect the degree of hepatic injury in the patients with cirrhosis, detection of serum HA, PC m and ADA levels is helpful in estimating the status of the disease. (authors)

  16. Diagnostic accuracy at several reduced radiation dose levels for CT imaging in the diagnosis of appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun; Jude, Matilda; Zaragoza, Edward; Lee, Margaret; Patel, Maitraya; Poon, Cheryce; Douek, Michael; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Doepke, Laura; McNitt-Gray, Shawn; Cagnon, Chris; DeMarco, John; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: While several studies have investigated the tradeoffs between radiation dose and image quality (noise) in CT imaging, the purpose of this study was to take this analysis a step further by investigating the tradeoffs between patient radiation dose (including organ dose) and diagnostic accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis using CT. Methods: This study was IRB approved and utilized data from 20 patients who underwent clinical CT exams for indications of appendicitis. Medical record review established true diagnosis of appendicitis, with 10 positives and 10 negatives. A validated software tool used raw projection data from each scan to create simulated images at lower dose levels (70%, 50%, 30%, 20% of original). An observer study was performed with 6 radiologists reviewing each case at each dose level in random order over several sessions. Readers assessed image quality and provided confidence in their diagnosis of appendicitis, each on a 5 point scale. Liver doses at each case and each dose level were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation based methods. Results: Overall diagnostic accuracy varies across dose levels: 92%, 93%, 91%, 90% and 90% across the 100%, 70%, 50%, 30% and 20% dose levels respectively. And it is 93%, 95%, 88%, 90% and 90% across the 13.5-22mGy, 9.6-13.5mGy, 6.4-9.6mGy, 4-6.4mGy, and 2-4mGy liver dose ranges respectively. Only 4 out of 600 observations were rated "unacceptable" for image quality. Conclusion: The results from this pilot study indicate that the diagnostic accuracy does not change dramatically even at significantly reduced radiation dose.

  17. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  18. Clinical significance of determination of plasma leptin, NPY and serum Hcy levels in patients with chronic renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhifeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between progress of disease and blood levels of leptin, NPY, Hcy in patients with chronic renal diseases. Methods: Plasma leptin, NPY (with RIA) and serum Hcy (with CLIA) were determined in (1) 32 patients with chronic pyelonephritis (2) 28 patients with dibetic nephropathy (3) 30 patients with chronic renal failure and (4) 30 controls. Results: Blood levels of leptin, NPY and Hcy were slightly higher in patients with chronic pyelonephritis than those in controls but without significance (P>0.05). In patients with diabetic nephropathy, the plasma leptin and serum Hcy levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). In patients with chronic renal failure,the blood levels of NPY (P<0.05) and leptin, Hcy (P<0.01) were all significantly higher than those in controls. Conclusion: Blood levels of these three parameters especially leptin and Hcy, were increased in patients with chronic renal diseases and the increase was most significant in advanced cases. (authors)

  19. [Clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide level before and after treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Xiang, Xue-Rong; Wang, Chun; Ye, Guo; Fan, Xiao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    To explore the clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after treatment, and to detect the calcitonin gene-related peptide content in human venous blood. Thirty healthy controls and thirty patients with mild, moderate, severe periodontitis were enrolled from August 2014 to June 2015.CGRP level in the patients' peripheral blood was detected by ELISA. Three months after periodontal treatment, CGRP level in mild, moderate, severe periodontitis patients' peripheral blood was re-examined by ELISA. Then the correlation between calcitonin gene-related peptide and inflammation of chronic periodontitis was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software package. The content of CGRP in healthy controls was significantly higher than that in patients with periodontitis. With the aggravation of periodontal inflammation, blood level of CGRP decreased gradually, and the lowest was in patients with severe periodontitis (Pperiodontal treatment, CGRP content was significantly higher compared with that before treatment (Pperiodontitis (P>0.05). The level of CGRP in venous blood decreased with the increasing severity of chronic periodontitis, and CGRP was negatively correlated with the degree of inflammation of chronic periodontitis. CGRP may be involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis. CGRP content in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis after treatment was significantly increased, CGRP may be used as the basis for clinical detection of chronic periodontitis.

  20. The clinical significance of perioperative serum IL-10 level changes in patients with benign and malignant pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Falian; Xu Jun; Du Xiumin; Lu Zhaotong; Fu Qiang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of perioperative changes of serum IL-10 level in patients with benign and malignant pulmonary diseases. Methods: Serum IL-10 levels in patients with benign (n=17) and malignant (n=25) pulmonary diseases were measured before and 1, 3, 7, 14 days after operation with RIA. Values in 82 controls were also taken. Results: The preoperative levels of serum IL-10 in patients with lung cancer were significantly higher than those in other groups (p 0.05); The levels of serum IL-10 in 36.4% of all the patients with lung cancer on day 14 were higher than the upper limit of the normal value. In patients with benign lung diseases, perioperative changes were slight and non-significant. Conclusion: Serum IL-10 level is a reliable parameter for distinguishing benign lung disease from malignant ones. Defining preoperative and postoperative changes of serum IL-10 levels might be of prognostic value in patients with lung cancer

  1. Hypothesis Tests for Bernoulli Experiments: Ordering the Sample Space by Bayes Factors and Using Adaptive Significance Levels for Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. de B. Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to find the relation between the adaptive significance level presented here and the sample size. We statisticians know of the inconsistency, or paradox, in the current classical tests of significance that are based on p-value statistics that are compared to the canonical significance levels (10%, 5%, and 1%: “Raise the sample to reject the null hypothesis” is the recommendation of some ill-advised scientists! This paper will show that it is possible to eliminate this problem of significance tests. We present here the beginning of a larger research project. The intention is to extend its use to more complex applications such as survival analysis, reliability tests, and other areas. The main tools used here are the Bayes factor and the extended Neyman–Pearson Lemma.

  2. ClusterSignificance: A bioconductor package facilitating statistical analysis of class cluster separations in dimensionality reduced data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serviss, Jason T.; Gådin, Jesper R.; Eriksson, Per

    2017-01-01

    , e.g. genes in a specific pathway, alone can separate samples into these established classes. Despite this, the evaluation of class separations is often subjective and performed via visualization. Here we present the ClusterSignificance package; a set of tools designed to assess the statistical...... significance of class separations downstream of dimensionality reduction algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate the design and utility of the ClusterSignificance package and utilize it to determine the importance of long non-coding RNA expression in the identity of multiple hematological malignancies....

  3. Clinical significance of determination of serum MMP9 and P III P levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Cuiying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of determination of serum matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP 9 ) and type III pro-collagen peptide (PIIIP) levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. Methods: Serum MMP 9 (with ELISA) and PIIIP(with RIA) levels were determined in 46 patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis and 30 controls. Results: Serum MMP 9 and PIIIP levels in patients with pulmonary interstitial fibrosis were significantly higher than those in controls (P 9 and PIIIP might be used as clinical diagnostic markers for pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqing; Li Yusheng; Wang Lin; Chu Kaiqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  5. Systematic review of effect of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeks Jonathan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to provide a systematic review of the effectiveness of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We searched published papers using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, CINAHL, BNI, CAB ABSTRACTS, IBSS, Web of Science, LILACS and African Index Medicus from inception or at least 1982 to June 2006; searched unpublished works using National Research Register website, metaRegister and the WHO International Trial Registry portal. We hand searched major references. Selection criteria were maternity or childbearing age women, comparative study designs with concurrent controls, community-level interventions and maternal death as an outcome. We carried out study selection, data abstraction and quality assessment independently in duplicate. Results We found five cluster randomised controlled trials (RCT and eight cohort studies of community-level interventions. We summarised results as odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals (CI, combined using the Peto method for meta-analysis. Two high quality cluster RCTs, aimed at improving perinatal care practices, showed a reduction in maternal mortality reaching statistical significance (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.98. Three equivalence RCTs of minimal goal-oriented versus usual antenatal care showed no difference in maternal mortality (1.09, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.25. The cohort studies were of low quality and did not contribute further evidence. Conclusion Community-level interventions of improved perinatal care practices can bring about a reduction in maternal mortality. This challenges the view that investment in such interventions is not worthwhile. Programmes to improve maternal mortality should be evaluated using randomised controlled techniques to generate further evidence.

  6. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  7. Integrated Blanket Supplementary Feeding Program Reduces Levels of Stunting in Yenangyaung, Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aung, Thet; Baik, Diane

    2014-01-01

    were seen in the underweight and wasting levels. However, significant improvements in the median height-for-age z-score (HAZ) were found in levels of stunting on Day-1 (-2.37 SD, n = 381) vs. 6-month follow-up (-1.99 SD, n = 314)(Z = -7.683, p<0.0001). Unfortunately, there were significant increases in the levels of stunting on Day-1 (-2.37 SD, n = 381) vs. 1-Year follow-up (-2.70 SD, n = 242)(Z = -2.21, p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: An integrated blanket supplementary feeding program could possibly reduce levels of stunting in just 6-months, but continued monitoring is required of the children even if the children are discharged from the program to ensure their rehabilitation is sustained at home. The increase in levels of stunting at 1-Year follow-up may have been due to the fact that many of the rehabilitated children were discharged and not followed up for the study. Thus, further research is needed to assess the effects of integrated blanket supplementary feeding programs on reducing levels of stunting. (author)

  8. Unit Roots in Economic and Financial Time Series: A Re-Evaluation at the Decision-Based Significance Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H. Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-evaluates key past results of unit root tests, emphasizing that the use of a conventional level of significance is not in general optimal due to the test having low power. The decision-based significance levels for popular unit root tests, chosen using the line of enlightened judgement under a symmetric loss function, are found to be much higher than conventional ones. We also propose simple calibration rules for the decision-based significance levels for a range of unit root tests. At the decision-based significance levels, many time series in Nelson and Plosser’s (1982 (extended data set are judged to be trend-stationary, including real income variables, employment variables and money stock. We also find that nearly all real exchange rates covered in Elliott and Pesavento’s (2006 study are stationary; and that most of the real interest rates covered in Rapach and Weber’s (2004 study are stationary. In addition, using a specific loss function, the U.S. nominal interest rate is found to be stationary under economically sensible values of relative loss and prior belief for the null hypothesis.

  9. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes

  10. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  11. Change and significance of serum inflammatory factors, NSE, S100 protein and stress hormone levels in patients with craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Feng Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the change and significance of serum inflammatory factors, neuron specific enolase (NSE, S100 protein and stress hormone levels in patients with brain diseases. Methods: A total of 115 patients with craniocerebral injury were selected as the observation group, according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, they were divided into light-sized group (n=38, middle-sized group (n=40 and severe-sized group (n=37, at the same time the other 120 healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The levels of serum inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and procalcitonin (PCT], neuron specific enolase (NSE, S100 protein and the stress hormone cortisol [(COR, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, β-endorphin (β-EP] of both groups were compared. Results: The levels of TNF-α, PCT, NSE, S100, COR, ACTH and β-EP in the observation group were (145.73±19.24 ng/L, (2.41±0.64 ng/mL, (38.11±12.28 ng/mL, (0.87±0.32 μg/L, (818.87±121.14 nmol/L, (107.38±13.94 ng/L, (126.74±39.04 ng/mL, which were significantly higher than control group, the difference was statistically significant; Comparison of indexes among the observation group, NF-α, PCT, NSE, S100, COR, ACTH and β-EP levels in the middle-sized group and severe-sized group were significantly higher than those in the light-sized group, and the levels in the severe-sized group were significantly higher than those of the middle-sized group, the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The levels of Serum inflammatory factors, NSE, S100 protein and stress hormone were significantly increased in patients with craniocerebral injury, the level was related to the degree of traumatic brain injury, which could be used as an important indicator to assess the severity of the disease.

  12. Clinical significance of changes of plasma ET, NO, THcy and cystatin C levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qiuyue

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between development of illness and changes of plasma endothelin (ET) nitric oxide (NO), total homocysteine (THcy) and Cystatin C (Cyst C) levels in patients with pregnancy induced Hypertension. Methods: Plasma levels of ET, THcy (with RIA), NO (with chemical Greiss method) and Cyst C (with particle enhanced) immunoneph-elometric assay (PETIA) in 32 patients with PIH, 35 non-pregnant women and 35 normal pregnant women. Results: The plasma ET, NO levels were significantly higher in 35 normal pregnant women than those in the healthy non-pregnantwomen (all P 0.05). Plasma ET levels and THcy, Cyst C levels were mutually positivety correlated (r=0.6097, 0.7213, all P<0.01), while the plasma ET levels and NO levels were negatively correlated (r=0.5812, P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of changes of plasma ET, NO, THcy and Cyst C levels in patients with Pregnancy induced Hypertension were helpful for disease mechanism elucidation and outcome prediction. (authors)

  13. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Daping; Cheng Guanghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury of different severity. Methods: 107 patients with traumatic brain injury were divided into three group on the basis of GCS: mild group (n=25, GCS>12), moderate group (n=33, GCS9-12) and severe group (n=49, GCS3-8). The plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in these patients and 30 controls were determined with RIA. Results: 1) The plasma ET-1 levels in patients with traumatic brain injury were signilieantly higher than those in controls, the more severe the illness, the higher the ET-1 levels. 2)The plasma CGRP levels in patients of mild and moderate brain injury were found significantly higher than those in controls, while no significant differences were found between those in severe and control group. 3)The more severe the illness was, the lower CGRP/ET-1 ratio were found. Conclusion: The changes of plasma levels of ET-1 and CGRP and the CGRP/ET-1 ratio in the patients with traumatic brain injury were correlated with the severity of the illness, and might be of prognostic value. (authors)

  14. Sebum and Hydration Levels in Specific Regions of Human Face Significantly Predict the Nature and Diversity of Facial Skin Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P

    2016-10-27

    The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum.

  15. Serum Copper Level Significantly Influences Platelet Count, Lymphocyte Count and Mean Cell Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okocha Chide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in serum micro nutrients levels affect a number of critically important metabolic processes; these could potentially influence blood counts and ultimately disease presentation in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Objectives To evaluate the influence of serum micro-nutrients levels; zinc, copper, selenium and magnesium on blood counts in steady state SCA patients. Methods A cross sectional study that involved 28 steady state adult SCA subjects. Seven milliliters (mls of blood was collected; 3 mls was for hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood count determination while 4 mls was for measurement of serum micro nutrients levels, by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Correlation between serum micro-nutrient levels and blood counts was done by the Pearson’s linear regression. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board and each participant gave informed consent. All data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Results There was a significant correlation between serum copper levels and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, platelet and lymphocyte counts (r = 0.418; P = 0.02, r = -0.376; P = 0.04 and r = -0.383; P = 0.04, respectively. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of other micro nutrients (selenium, zinc and magnesium and blood counts. Conclusions Copper influences blood count in SCA patients probably by inducing red cell haemolysis, oxidant tissue damage and stimulating the immune system.

  16. Significance of changes of levels of plasma proBNP1-76 in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guizhong; Xu Hua; Cao Jun; Jiang Wei; Pang Yongzheng; Tang Chaoshu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of the changes levels of plasma proBNP 1-76 in patients with COPD and chronic pulmonary heart disease. Methods: Plasma proBNP 1-76 levels were determined with radioimmunoassay in patients with CHPD (n=23), COPD (n=24) and 32 controls. Results: The concentrations of plasma proBNP 1-76 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly increased (vs controls, p 1-76 (r=0.541, p 1-76 , right inferior pulmonary artery diameter, right ventricle out flow tract diameter and right ventricle anterior wall thickness in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease were increased significantly (vs COPD patients and controls, p 1-76 (r=0.477, p 1-76 is an early marker of right ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dysfunction, measurement of which is useful in the management of patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease in daily practice

  17. Long-term use of hydroxychloroquine reduces antiphospholipid antibodies levels in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuri, Entela; Taraborelli, Mara; Andreoli, Laura; Tonello, Marta; Gerosa, Maria; Calligaro, Antonia; Argolini, Lorenza Maria; Kumar, Rajesh; Pengo, Vittorio; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ruffatti, Amelia; Tincani, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was suggested to play a role in lowering antiphospholipid antibody titers and preventing thrombotic recurrences in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, but few data are available in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS). In this retrospective, propensity score-matched cohort study, we evaluated the impact of HCQ on aPL titers and the incidence of thrombotic events in 57 exposed patients compared to 57 not exposed patients. These were matched for sex/type of disease onset/follow-up duration, age at the beginning of the follow-up ±10 years and initial date of the follow-up ±5 years. At baseline, no significant differences in demographical, clinical and serological features were observed between the two groups except for positive anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibodies (21 % in HCQ exposed vs 0 % in HCQ not exposed, P = 0.001). Both the levels of IgG anti-cardiolipin and IgG/IgM anti-β2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) were significantly reduced at end of follow-up compared to the baseline in HCQ-exposed patients, while there were no differences in the other group. Moreover, anti-β2GPI IgG titers were significantly decreased when the end of follow-up was compared between the two groups (P < 0.002). Among patients with a history of thrombosis, the annual incidence of recurrence was 1.16 % in HCQ exposed and 1.71 % in not exposed patients, with a significant reduction in the incidence of arterial events (0 vs 1.14 %). This study shows a strong reduction in aPL titers together with an apparent decrease in the incidence of arterial thrombosis recurrence in PAPS patients treated with HCQ.

  18. α-Syntrophin stabilizes catalase to reduce endogenous reactive oxygen species levels during myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Yun; Choi, Su Jin; Heo, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hwan Myung; Kim, Hye Sun

    2017-07-01

    α-Syntrophin is a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that interacts with various intracellular signaling proteins in muscle cells. The α-syntrophin knock-down C2 cell line (SNKD), established by infecting lentivirus particles with α-syntrophin shRNA, is characterized by a defect in terminal differentiation and increase in cell death. Since myoblast differentiation is accompanied by intensive mitochondrial biogenesis, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also increased during myogenesis. Two-photon microscopy imaging showed that excessive intracellular ROS accumulated during the differentiation of SNKD cells as compared with control cells. The formation of 4-hydroxynonenal adduct, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation during oxidative stress, significantly increased in differentiated SNKD myotubes and was dramatically reduced by epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a well-known ROS scavenger. Among antioxidant enzymes, catalase was significantly decreased during differentiation of SNKD cells without changes at the mRNA level. Of interest was the finding that the degradation of catalase was rescued by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, in the SNKD cells. This study demonstrates a novel function of α-syntrophin. This protein plays an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress from endogenously generated ROS during myoblast differentiation by modulating the protein stability of catalase. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Clinical significance of the dynamic changes of serum IGF-1 levels in patients with acute cerebro-vascular accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yujuan; Liu Xueyuan; Bian Weihong; Du Xinlu; Yang Hongyan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dynamic changes of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident. Methods: Serum IGF-1 levels were determined with RIA in 40 patients with cerebral infarction, 20 patients with lacunar infarcts and 40 patients with cerebral haemorrhage within 3days after onset and on d14 as well as in 30 controls. Results: The serum IGF-1 levels in patients with cerebral vascular accidents were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum levels of IGF-1 dropped markedly during the acute stage after cerebrovascular accident and the magnitude might reflect the severity of the event, IGF-1 might be capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier after cerebrovascular accident and providing some protection against nerve injury, this fact might be of potential clinical applicability. (authors)

  20. Clinical significance of changes of serum Hcy and IGF-I levels after treatment in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuezhou

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of serum Hcy and IGF-I levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods: Serum IGF-I (with RIA), Hcy (with ELISA)levels were measured in 32 patients with acute cerebral infarction both before and after treatment as well as in 35 normal controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum Hcy level was remarkably higher than that in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The level of Hcy increased and IGF-I decreased in the patients with acute cerebral infarction which closely to the severity of acute cerebral infarction and may be taken as a sensitive biochemical indicator for predicting pathogenesis and progress of ACI. (authors)

  1. Prognostic Significance of Pre-treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Schneidinger, Cora; Kölbl, Heinz; Bodner, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a prognostic parameter in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pre-treatment CRP levels were analyzed to determine potential associations with clinicopathological parameters and to assess prognostic value in 46 patients with sole adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. The mean (±SD) pre-treatment serum CRP level was 5.82 (7.21) mg/l. Serum CRP concentration significantly correlated positively with age at diagnosis (p=0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0026), recurrent disease (p=0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.0002). In multivariate Cox regression models with age, FIGO stage, histological grade and lymph node status, elevated CRP and cancer antigen 125 levels were associated with shortened survival (pcervix. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Bile Gastritis Following Laparoscopic Single Anastomosis Gastric Bypass: Pilot Study to Assess Significance of Bilirubin Level in Gastric Aspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenouda, Michael M; Harb, Shady ElGhazaly; Mikhail, Sameh A A; Mokhtar, Sherif M; Osman, Ayman M A; Wassef, Arsany T S; Rizkallah, Nayer N H; Milad, Nader M; Anis, Shady E; Nabil, Tamer Mohamed; Zaki, Nader Sh; Halepian, Antoine

    2018-02-01

    Laparoscopic single anastomosis gastric bypass (SAGB) is increasingly performed for morbidly obese patients. This pilot study aims primarily at evaluating the incidence of bile gastritis after SAGB. The occurrence of reflux oesophagitis and reflux symptoms were also assessed. This study included 20 patients having no reflux symptoms. All patients underwent a SAGB as a primary bariatric procedure by a single surgeon. Patients included consented to have an upper GI endoscopy done at 6 months postoperatively. Gastric aspirate was sent for bilirubin level assessment. Gastric and esophageal biopsies were submitted for histopathology and campylobacter-like organism (CLO) test. In our study, the rate of bile gastritis was 30%. In 18 patients, the level of bilirubin in gastric aspirate seems to be related to the degree of mucosal inflammation. The remaining two patients had microscopic moderate to severe gastritis with normal aspirate bilirubin level. Two patients with bilirubin level in aspirate more than 20 mg/dl had severe oesophagitis, gastritis with erosions, and metaplasia. Relationship between bilirubin level and histopathological findings of gastric biopsy examination was statistically significant with a P value of 0.001. The incidence of bile gastritis in this cohort is higher than reported in the literature, and this may be worrying. The correlation between endoscopic findings and patients' symptoms is poor. Bilirubin level and pH in aspirate might be useful tools to confirm alkaline reflux. Its level might help to choose candidates for revision surgery after SAGB. This needs further validation with larger sample size.

  3. Clinical significance and correlation of the level change of plasma lysophosphatidic acid in patients before and during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liang; Li Hong; Zhu Shengjie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of radiotherapy on the level of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in different patients. Methods: Three groups of patients (metastatic brain tumor group, non-brain tumor group and primary brain tumor group) were given external irradiation (by linear accelerator). LPA level, white blood cell count and platelet count in the blood plasma were evaluated pre-irradiation and after irradiation with 40 Gy and 60 Gy respectively. Results: The LPA level decreased gradually as irradiation doses increase in metastatic brain tumor group non-brain tumor group (after irradiation with 60 Gy 0.05), and neoplasm volume changed little. White blood cell count and platelet count gradually decreased with the increasing irradiation doses in metastatic brain tumor group and primary brain tumor group, but there was no significant correlation to LPA level. However, there was a negative correlation to LPA level in non-brain tumor group (r=-0.285 and r=-0.237, both P<0.05 ). Conclusions: There is a negative correlation between radiotherapy dose and LPA level in metastatic brain tumor patients and non-brain tumor patients. LPA level could be used as a predictor of the effect of the radiotherapy in tumor treatment. (authors)

  4. Correction of the significance level when attempting multiple transformations of an explanatory variable in generalized linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In statistical modeling, finding the most favorable coding for an exploratory quantitative variable involves many tests. This process involves multiple testing problems and requires the correction of the significance level. Methods For each coding, a test on the nullity of the coefficient associated with the new coded variable is computed. The selected coding corresponds to that associated with the largest statistical test (or equivalently the smallest pvalue). In the context of the Generalized Linear Model, Liquet and Commenges (Stat Probability Lett,71:33–38,2005) proposed an asymptotic correction of the significance level. This procedure, based on the score test, has been developed for dichotomous and Box-Cox transformations. In this paper, we suggest the use of resampling methods to estimate the significance level for categorical transformations with more than two levels and, by definition those that involve more than one parameter in the model. The categorical transformation is a more flexible way to explore the unknown shape of the effect between an explanatory and a dependent variable. Results The simulations we ran in this study showed good performances of the proposed methods. These methods were illustrated using the data from a study of the relationship between cholesterol and dementia. Conclusion The algorithms were implemented using R, and the associated CPMCGLM R package is available on the CRAN. PMID:23758852

  5. Tigecycline reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha level and inhospital mortality in spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Saekhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcome of patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SSICH is unsatisfactory. Inflammatory response secondary to brain injury as well as those resulted from surgical procedure were considered responsible of this outcome. This study was intended to elucidate the anti-inflammatory activity of tigecycline by measuring TNF-α level and its neuroprotective effect as represented by inhospital mortality rate.Methods: Patients with SSICH who were prepared for hematoma evacuation were randomized to receive either tigecycline (n=35 or fosfomycine (n=37 as prophylactic antibiotic. TNF-α level was measured in all subjects before surgery and postoperatively on day-1 and day-7. A repeated brain CT Scan was performed on postoperative day-7. The Glasgow outcome scale (GOS and length of stay (LOS were recorded at the time of hospital discharge. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Chi square test. Relative clinical effectiveness was measured by calculating the number needed to treat (NNT.Results: There was a significant difference regarding the proportion of subject who had  reduced TNF-α level on postoperative day-7 between the groups receiving tigecycline and fosfomycine (62% vs 29%, p=0.022. Decrease brain edema on CT control (86% vs 80%, p=0.580. Tigecycline administration showed a tendency of better clinical effectiveness in lowering inhospital mortality (17% vs 35%; p=0.083; OR=0.49; NNT=5 and worse clinical outcome / GOS ≤ 2 (20% vs 38% ; p=0.096; OR=0.41; NNT=6. LOS ≥ 15 hari ( 40% vs 27%; p=0.243; OR=1.81; NNT=8.Conclusion: Tigecycline showed anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. These activities were associated with improved clinical outcome in patients with SSICH after hematoma evacuation.

  6. Significant Changes in Plasma Alpha-Synuclein and Beta-Synuclein Levels in Male Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Sriwimol

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein and beta-synuclein (β-synuclein are presynaptic proteins playing important roles in neuronal plasticity and synaptic vesicle regulation. To evaluate the association of these two proteins and autism spectrum disorder (ASD, we investigated the plasma α-synuclein and β-synuclein levels in 39 male children with ASD (2 subgroups: 25 autism and 14 pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS comparing with 29 sex- and age-matched controls by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. We first determined the levels of these two proteins in the ASD subgroups and found that there were no significant differences in both plasma α-synuclein and β-synuclein levels in the autism and PDD-NOS groups. Thus, we could combine the 2 subgroups into one ASD group. Interestingly, the mean plasma α-synuclein level was significantly lower (P<0.001 in the ASD children (10.82±6.46 ng/mL than in the controls (29.47±18.62 ng/mL, while the mean plasma β-synuclein level in the ASD children (1344.19±160.26 ng/mL was significantly higher (P<0.05 than in the controls (1219.16±177.10 ng/mL. This is the first study examining the associations between α-synuclein and β-synuclein and male ASD patients. We found that alterations in the plasma α-synuclein and β-synuclein levels might be implicated in the association between synaptic abnormalities and ASD pathogenesis.

  7. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....

  8. [Effect of treatment with diet on reducing levels of sex hormones in perimenopausal women with overweight and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokieć, Katarzyna; Błońska, Aleksandra; Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, fight against obesity is a big challenge for the developed countries. Perimenopausal women are especially prone to becoming overweight and obese. This is due to changes in hormone levels and alterations in the sex hormones synthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of sex hormones in overweight and obese women during menopause following the three month period of reducing diet. The study involved women aged 55±4,75 years. Group I - 33 overweight women (BMI 28,06±1,00 kg/m(2)). Group II - 32 obese women (BMI 34,22±3,79 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric measurements, body composition tested with Bodystat QuadScan 4000 analyzer and levels of sex hormones in the blood was determined before and after the three-months of reducing diet in both groups. Statistical data analysis was performed. After three-months of reducing diet it was noticed that levels of BMI, body fat, FSH, DHEA-S and androstenedione were decreased in a statistically significant manner. A significant increase in estradiol levels after reduction of visceral adipose tissue in both groups, overweight and obese women, was observed. However, only in the group of obese women, a decrease in BMI correlated with a significant increase in estradiol levels. Application of appropriate reducing diet in perimenopausal overweight and obese women has positive impact on visceral adipose tissue distribution and causes an increase in sex hormones levels. Perimenopausal overweight and obese women should pursue weight reduction to improve their chances of contracting cardiovascular diseases. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  9. Clinical significance of determination of plasma endothelin (ET) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aimin; Jin Ying; Zhou Xiu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the plasma levels of endothelin (ET) and homocysteine (Hcy) in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Plasma ET (with RIA) and Hcy( with electrochemiluminescence) contents were determined in 32 DM2 patients without nephropathy, 35 DM2 patients with nephropathy and 30 controls. Results: Endothelin and homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy than those in patients without nephropathy and controls (P<0.05- 0.01). Conclusion: Endothelin and homocysteine were involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, and determination of which were of diagnostic and prognostic value in clinical practice. (authors)

  10. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Wind Erosion Caused by Land Use Changes Significantly Reduces Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Carbon Sequestration Potentials in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Chi, Y. G.; Wang, J.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Wind erosion exerts a fundamental influence on the biotic and abiotic processes associated with ecosystem carbon (C) cycle. However, how wind erosion under different land use scenarios will affect ecosystem C balance and its capacity for future C sequestration are poorly quantified. Here, we established an experiment in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, and simulated different intensity of land uses: control, 50% of aboveground vegetation removal (50R), 100% vegetation removal (100R) and tillage (TI). We monitored lateral and vertical carbon flux components and soil characteristics from 2013 to 2016. Our study reveals three key findings relating to the driving factors, the magnitude and consequence of wind erosion on ecosystem C balance: (1) Frequency of heavy wind exerts a fundamental control over the severity of soil erosion, and its interaction with precipitation and vegetation characteristics explained 69% variation in erosion intensity. (2) With increases in land use intensity, the lateral C flux induced by wind erosion increased rapidly, equivalent to 33%, 86%, 111% and 183% of the net ecosystem exchange of the control site under control, 50R, 100R and TI sites, respectively. (3) After three years' treatment, erosion induced decrease in fine fractions led to 31%, 43%, 85% of permanent loss of C sequestration potential in the surface 5cm soil for 50R, 100R and TI sites. Overall, our study demonstrates that lateral C flux associated with wind erosion is too large to be ignored. The loss of C-enriched fine particles not only reduces current ecosystem C content, but also results in irreversible loss of future soil C sequestration potential. The dynamic soil characteristics need be considered when projecting future ecosystem C balance in aeolian landscape. We also propose that to maintain the sustainability of grassland ecosystems, land managers should focus on implementing appropriate land use rather than rely on subsequent managements on degraded soils.

  12. The Clinical Significance of Serum Beta{sub 2}-microglobulin Levels in Patients with Various Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Suk Won; Cho, Tae Bong; Choe, Jung Ho; Kim, So Yon; Cho, Min Koo; Lee, Gwon Jun [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-09-15

    To evaluate the significance of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin in patients with various liver diseases, serum {sub 2} m levels were measured in 44 cases of normal controls, 32 cases of asymptomatic HBsAg carriers and 134 patients with various liver diseases, by radioimmunoassay using Phadebas Beta{sub 2}-micro test kits. The following results were obtained: I) The mean level of serum beta{sub 2} m was 1 39+-0.25 mg/l(Mean+-S.D.) in normal controls (1.39+-0.23 mg/l in 24 males, 1.38+-0,27 mg/l in 20 females). 2) The serum levels of beta{sub 2} in patients with various liver diseases and asymptomatic HBsAg carriers were as follows; 1.40+-0.27 mg/l in asymptomatic HBsAg carriers, 2.42+-0.377 mg/l in 45 patients with acute viral hepatitis, 2.10+-0.26 mg/l in 46 patients with chronic persistent hepatitis, 2.60+-0.34 mg/l in 23 patients with chronic active hepatitis, and 2.60+-0.49 mg/l in 20 patients with liver cirrhosis. Serum beta{sub 2}m levels of each disease group were significantly higher than that of normal controls(p<0.001). 3) There was significant correlation between the levels of serum beta{sub 2}m and the degrees of lymphocytic infiltration in patients with chronic active hepatitis(p<0.001). 4) Significant correlations were observed between the levels of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin and serum alanine aminotransferase(r=0.68, p<0.05) and bilirubin(r=0.63, p<0.05) in 15 patients with acute viral hepatitis. In conclusion, the serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin levels were increased in patients with various liver diseases, and it may serve as a new index of liver disease activity.

  13. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chakravarty, Sujay [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam, Node, Kokilamedu (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2017-02-01

    side effect of AuNRs by modifying capping. • Polymer-coated AuNRs safe for in vitro assays, but hamper protein functioning. • PEG-AuNRs reduced toxicity to lymphocyte cells and lesser effect on IgG. • Highlights importance of neutral PEGylated particles for theranostic applications.

  14. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    side effect of AuNRs by modifying capping. • Polymer-coated AuNRs safe for in vitro assays, but hamper protein functioning. • PEG-AuNRs reduced toxicity to lymphocyte cells and lesser effect on IgG. • Highlights importance of neutral PEGylated particles for theranostic applications.

  15. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  16. Clinical significance of the changes of serum IL-8 and IL-12 levels in pediatric patients with anaphylactoid purpura (AP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Zhenming; Liu Xia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of IL-8 and IL-12 in the pathogenesis of anaphylactoid purpura (AP) and anaphylactoid purpura nephritis (APN). Methods: Serum IL-8 (with RIA) and IL-12 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 32 pediatric patients with anaphylactoid purpura (AP), 11 pediatric patients with anaphylactoid purpura nephritis (APN) and 15 controls. Results: During acute stage, serum IL-8 and IL-12 levels in both the AP and APN patients were significantly higher than those in controls and remained higher during convalescence. IL-8 and IL-12 levels were mutually positively correlated in acute stage. Conclusion: IL-8 and IL-12 participated in the pathogenesis of AP and APN. Theoretically, antagonist to those cytokines might be of clinical benefits. (authors)

  17. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xuefang; Xu, Qingxian; Zheng, Yi; Qian, Lei; Lin, Bin

    To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v) in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5) for 2h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0) for 3h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Guan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. Methods The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. Results The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940 and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 for 2 h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0 for 3 h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24 h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. Conclusion These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health.

  19. Phthalates might interfere with testicular function by reducing testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Li, Sih-Syuan; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Pan, Hsien-An; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Do phthalates create a male reproductive hormone imbalance by down-regulating the secretion of testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3)? Our study suggests that exposure to phthalates is related to a reduction in the secretion of testosterone and INSL3 in adult males. There is evidence that exposure to phthalates, an abundant group of industrial plasticizers, negatively affects testosterone biosynthesis, but little is known about the mechanism in men. The hypothesis that exposure to phthalates reduces the levels of testosterone and INSL3, a marker of Leydig cell function, is underexplored. This case-control study of 176 men ran from 2010 to 2012. Infertile men were recruited through infertility clinics in Taiwan, fertile men were recruited from childbirth preparation classes and all were categorized based on the World Health Organization definition of infertility and by the diagnoses of obstetricians. Urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were measured, along with serum levels of FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin and Inhibin B. Androgen status indices including free testosterone (fT) and the free androgen index (FAI) were calculated. The circulating INSL3 level was evaluated using a radioimmunoassay. Non-parametric analyses, trend tests and linear regression models were used. Urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate were significantly higher in infertile than in fertile men. Serum Inhibin B, the Inhibin B : FSH ratio, the TT : LH ratio and INSL3 were significantly lower in infertile men. In multiple regression models controlled for potential confounders, there is an inverse association between urinary levels of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), MEHP, MEHP% and serum TT (P = 0.001, 0.007, 0.042 and 0.012, respectively). The inverse associations were also found between urinary levels of MiBP, monobenzyl

  20. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerau, Kerstin; Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G.; Gauche, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: → Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. → Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. → On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  1. Expectations contribute to reduced pain levels during prayer in highly religious participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Vase, Lene; Skewes, Joshua Charles; Terkelsen, Astrid Juhl; Hansen, John; Geertz, Armin W; Roepstorff, Andreas; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2013-08-01

    Although the use of prayer as a religious coping strategy is widespread and often claimed to have positive effects on physical disorders including pain, it has never been tested in a controlled experimental setting whether prayer has a pain relieving effect. Religious beliefs and practices are complex phenomena and the use of prayer may be mediated by general psychological factors known to be related to the pain experience, such as expectations, desire for pain relief, and anxiety. Twenty religious and twenty non-religious healthy volunteers were exposed to painful electrical stimulation during internal prayer to God, a secular contrast condition, and a pain-only control condition. Subjects rated expected pain intensity levels, desire for pain relief, and anxiety before each trial and pain intensity and pain unpleasantness immediately after on mechanical visual analogue scales. Autonomic and cardiovascular measures provided continuous non-invasive objective means for assessing the potential analgesic effects of prayer. Prayer reduced pain intensity by 34 % and pain unpleasantness by 38 % for religious participants, but not for non-religious participants. For religious participants, expectancy and desire predicted 56-64 % of the variance in pain intensity scores, but for non-religious participants, only expectancy was significantly predictive of pain intensity (65-73 %). Conversely, prayer-induced reduction in pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were not followed by autonomic and cardiovascular changes.

  2. Levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in patients with coronary heart diseases and clinic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lingyan; Cai Gaojun; Zhang Wenwei; Wang Wenzhi; Sun Wenwei; Yan Weiqun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and occurance, development of cardiovascular diseases, and lipids. Methods: 75 patients with coronary disease were divided into acute myocardial infarction (n=32), unstable angina pectoris (n=22) and stable angina pectoris (n=21) groups, and 60 subjects without coronary diseases were used as controls. The serum PAPP-A, IL-6, IL-10, lipids were measured in all patients and controls by different methods of enzymatically amplified two-step sandwith- type immunoassay, double antibody radio-immunoassay, ABC-HRP, auto biochemistic analytist. Results: (1) The level of PAPP-A in acute coronary syndrome (ACS, including acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris) patients was significantly higher than that in stable angina pectoris patients and controls (P<0.05). (2) There were significantly associations between PAPP-A and serum totle cholesterol, ApoA1/ApoB (r=0.348, 0.420, P<0.05). (3) The levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in coronary heart disease patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05), and the variations among acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, stable angina pectoris patients were significantly (P<0.05). There were significantly associations between PAPP-A, IL-6 and IL-10 (Spearman r 0.446, 0.523, P<0.05). Conclusion: PAPP-A is significantly associated with occurance and development of coronary heart disease, probablely as a marker of unstable plaque in coronary heart disease. (authors)

  3. [Change of Plasma Interleukin-17 Level in Patients with Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma and Its Clinical Significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chun-Xiang; Ma, Ji-Cheng; Nan, Zheng; Li, Ye; He, Wen-Cai; Pan, Xian-Ying

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of interleukin-17 (IL-17) level in patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma(ENKTL). Eighty patients with nasal ENKTL who received radiotherapy, chemotherapy or radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy from January 2011 to January 2012 were enrolled in the study. Eighty healthy volunteers were selected as the controls (control group). About 5 ml of peripheral blood was collected from all patients and controls. IL-17 level was determined by ELISA. The age, sex, ECOG score, B symptoms, LDH level, lymph node involvment, Ann Arbor stage, IPI, KPI, peripheral blood lymphocyte and lymph node metastasis, number of lymphocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood were recorded. All patients were followed up for 3 year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The average IL-17 level in patients with ENKTL was 6.48 pg/ml and the average concentration of IL-17 in control group was 0.56 pg/ml (PKPI, lymphocyte count and monocyte cell count. The sensitivity and specificity of IL-17 were 74.5% and 73.7% respectively, and the optimal threshold was 3.49 pg/ml and AUC was 0.799 (95% CI: 0.688-0.909) (P<0.01). The PFS and OS were longer in the patients with IL-17≤3.49 pg/ml and longer in the patients without lymph node involvement and Ann Arbor I. Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors of PFS and OS in patients with ENKTL were plasma IL-17 levels and age (P<0.05). ENKTL patients with different clinical characteristics have different levels of IL-17, the different level of IL-17 has different effects on prognosis of patients with ENKTL.

  4. Post-exposure vaccination with multi-stage vaccine significantly reduce map level in tissues without interference in diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    A new (Fet11) vaccine against paratuberculosis based on recombinant antigens from acute and latent stages of Map infection was developed to be used without interference with diagnostic tests for bovine TB and Johne’s disease. Calves were orally inoculated with 2x10E10 live Map in their third week...... of life and randomly assigned to four groups of seven calves each. One group was left unvaccinated, while other calves were post-exposure vaccinated with either a whole-cell vaccine at 16 weeks, or Fet11 vaccine at 3 and 7, or 16 and 20 weeks of age, respectively. Antibody responses were measured by ID...... Screen® ELISA and individual vaccine protein ELISAs along with FACS and IFN-γ responses to PPDj and to individual vaccine proteins. At termination 8 or 12 months of age, Map burden in a number of gut tissues was determined by quantitative IS900 PCR and histopathology. Fet11 vaccination of calves at 16...

  5. Clinicopathological significance of p16, cyclin D1, Rb and MIB-1 levels in skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-qi Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the expression of p16, cyclin D1, retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb and MIB-1 in skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma tissues, and to determine the clinicopathological significance of the above indexes in these diseases. Methods: A total of 100 skull base chordoma, 30 chondrosarcoma, and 20 normal cartilage tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of p16, cyclinD1, Rb and MIB-1 proteins were assessed for potential correlation with the clinicopathological features. Results: As compared to normal cartilage specimen (control, there was decreased expression of p16, and increased expression of cyclin D1, Rb and MIB-1 proteins, in both skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma specimens. MIB-1 LI levels were significantly increased in skull base chordoma specimens with negative expression of p16, and positive expression of cyclin D1 and Rb (P  0.05. However, p16 and MIB-1 levels correlated with the intradural invasion, and expression of p16, Rb and MIB-1 correlated with the number of tumor foci (P < 0.05. Further, the expression of p16 and MIB-1 appeared to correlate with the prognosis of patients with skull base chordoma. Conclusions: The abnormal expression of p16, cyclin D1 and Rb proteins might be associated with the tumorigenesis of skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma. Keywords: p16, Cyclin D1, Rb, MIB-1, Skull base chordoma, Skull base chondrosarcoma

  6. Use of significance thresholds to integrate cumulative effects into project-level socio-economic impact assessment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Chris; Zeeg, Taylor; Angus, David; Usborne, Anna; Mutrie, Erin

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding critique of project-level environmental assessment is that it is weak at addressing cumulative effects, and because of this many argue that cumulative effects are best managed at a regional scale. However, in the absence of regional management it is important that project-level assessment supports cumulative effects management as best as possible. In this paper we present case study socio-economic impact assessments of liquefied natural gas development on Aboriginal groups on Canada's west coast. The case studies use an analytical structure modified from typical Canadian practice including unambiguous and non-arbitrary significance thresholds grounded in stakeholder values to focus baselines, impact assessment, and significance determination on cumulative effects. This approach is found to be more capable of informing decision-makers on cumulative effects as well as more rigorous and transparent than typical assessments. Much of this approach is not conceptually new, but at least in western Canada such an approach is not typically used or meaningfully implemented by practitioners. As such, the case studies serve to illustrate how practice can bolster project-level assessment. - Highlights: •Typical project assessment is weak with respect to cumulative effects. •Modified analysis structure and thresholds enable a focus on cumulative effects. •Clear, value-based thresholds make analysis rigorous, transparent, and democratic.

  7. Clinical significance of changes of serum true insulin and proinsulin levels in relations of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiaoping; Huang Huijian; Huang Haibo; Wu Yan; He Haoming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the degree of insulin resistance and β-cell secretory function impairment in close (1st degree) relations of patients with type 2 diabetes (DMII). Methods: Serum true insulin (TI), pro-insulin (PI), immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels at fasting and after oral 75g glucose loading were determined in: 1) patients with DM 2, n=65 2)relations of DM 2 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), n=34 3) relations of DM 2 patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), n=66 and 4) controls, n=48. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β cell secretory indices were calculated from the data. Results: Fasting serum PI levels were significantly higher in DM 2 patients, relations with IGT and NGT than those in the controls (t=2.38, t=2.16, t=1.95, P 1 C percentages were significantly higher in DM 2 patients and IGT, NGT groups than those in controls (t=3.67, t=2.45, t=1.97, P 1 C percentage, fasting TI and IRI levels. Conclusion: Insulin resistance was already obvious in those relations of DM 2 patients with normal glucose tolerance and β-cell secretory function impairment was also present. Early intervention in these subjects might be beneficial. (authors)

  8. Reduced heme levels underlie the exponential growth defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Brennan

    Full Text Available The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step.

  9. Potential Causes of Significant Inventory Differences at Bulk Handling Facilities and the Importance of Inventory Difference Action Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Alan; O’Hagan, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Accountancy for nuclear material can be split into two categories. Firstly, where possible, accountancy should be in terms of items that can be transferred as discrete packages and their contents fixed at the time of their creation. All items must remain accounted for at all times, and a single missing item is considered significant. Secondly, where nuclear material is unconstrained, for example in a reprocessing plant where it can change form, there is an uncertainty that relates to the amount of material present in any location. Cumulatively, these uncertainties can be summed and provide a context for any estimate of material in a process. Any apparent loss or gain between what has been physically measured within a facility during its physical inventory take and what is reported within its nuclear material accounts is known as an inventory difference. The cumulative measurement uncertainties can be used to set an action level for the inventory difference so that if an inventory difference is observed outside of such action levels, the difference is classified as significant and an investigation to find the root cause(s) is required. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential causes of significant inventory differences and to provide a framework within which an inventory difference investigation can be carried out.

  10. Is there a threshold level of maternal education sufficient to reduce child undernutrition? Evidence from Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoka, Donald; Masibo, Peninah Kinya

    2015-08-22

    Maternal education is strongly associated with young child nutrition outcomes. However, the threshold of the level of maternal education that reduces the level of undernutrition in children is not well established. This paper investigates the level of threshold of maternal education that influences child nutrition outcomes using Demographic and Health Survey data from Malawi (2010), Tanzania (2009-10) and Zimbabwe (2005-06). The total number of children (weighted sample) was 4,563 in Malawi; 4,821 children in Tanzania; and 3,473 children in Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Surveys. Using three measures of child nutritional status: stunting, wasting and underweight, we employ a survey logistic regression to analyse the influence of various levels of maternal education on child nutrition outcomes. In Malawi, 45% of the children were stunted, 42% in Tanzania and 33% in Zimbabwe. There were 12% children underweight in Malawi and Zimbabwe and 16% in Tanzania.The level of wasting was 6% of children in Malawi, 5% in Tanzania and 4% in Zimbabwe. Stunting was significantly (p values educational level in all the three countries. Higher levels of maternal education reduced the odds of child stunting, underweight and wasting in the three countries. The maternal threshold for stunting is more than ten years of schooling. Wasting and underweight have lower threshold levels. These results imply that the free primary education in the three African countries may not be sufficient and policies to keep girls in school beyond primary school hold more promise of addressing child undernutrition.

  11. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  12. Relationship between serum levels of oxidation and inflammatory factors in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between serum levels of oxidation and inflammatory factors in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy and its clinical significance. METHODS: Totally 54 cases of patients with diabetic retinopathy was selected as subjects, including 31 patients with diabetes and non-proliferative retinopathy(NPDR groupand 23 patients with diabetes and proliferative retinopathy(PDR group. Another 30 cases of diabetes patients without DR(DM groupand 30 normal people(NC groupwas selected as control. The level of fasting blood glucose(FPG, 2h postprandial blood glucose(2hPG, glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c, serum malondialdehyde(MDAand heme oxygenase -1(HO-1, tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-αand interleukin-6(IL-6and C reactive protein(CRPwas detected, and variance test detect the difference between 4 groups, and SNK-Q was used to multiple comparison. Pearson correlation analysis was used to compare the correlation between oxidation markers(MDA and Ho-1and the level of inflammatory factors(TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP. COX multivariate analysis was used to investigate the risk and protective factors of diabetic retinopathy. RESULTS: The levels of FPG, 2hPG, HbA1c, MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in DM group, PDR group and NPDR group were significantly higher than that in NC group(PPPPPPPPCONCLUSION: Oxidative stress is closely related to the expression of inflammatory factors in serum of patients with diabetes mellitus, and is an important risk factor of DR, and related indicators can be used as markers for DR diagnosis.

  13. Development of free statistical software enabling researchers to calculate confidence levels, clinical significance curves and risk-benefit contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Mukherjee, R.K.; Gebski, V.J.

    2003-01-01

    Confidence levels, clinical significance curves, and risk-benefit contours are tools improving analysis of clinical studies and minimizing misinterpretation of published results, however no software has been available for their calculation. The objective was to develop software to help clinicians utilize these tools. Excel 2000 spreadsheets were designed using only built-in functions, without macros. The workbook was protected and encrypted so that users can modify only input cells. The workbook has 4 spreadsheets for use in studies comparing two patient groups. Sheet 1 comprises instructions and graphic examples for use. Sheet 2 allows the user to input the main study results (e.g. survival rates) into a 2-by-2 table. Confidence intervals (95%), p-value and the confidence level for Treatment A being better than Treatment B are automatically generated. An additional input cell allows the user to determine the confidence associated with a specified level of benefit. For example if the user wishes to know the confidence that Treatment A is at least 10% better than B, 10% is entered. Sheet 2 automatically displays clinical significance curves, graphically illustrating confidence levels for all possible benefits of one treatment over the other. Sheet 3 allows input of toxicity data, and calculates the confidence that one treatment is more toxic than the other. It also determines the confidence that the relative toxicity of the most effective arm does not exceed user-defined tolerability. Sheet 4 automatically calculates risk-benefit contours, displaying the confidence associated with a specified scenario of minimum benefit and maximum risk of one treatment arm over the other. The spreadsheet is freely downloadable at www.ontumor.com/professional/statistics.htm A simple, self-explanatory, freely available spreadsheet calculator was developed using Excel 2000. The incorporated decision-making tools can be used for data analysis and improve the reporting of results of any

  14. Restricted cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls is associated with a reduced average pectin esterification level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Paul; McCann, Maureen C; Roberts, Keith

    2007-06-17

    Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA) mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1) from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth.

  15. High levels of vitamin D in relation to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dao-min; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ai-guo; Chu, Zhao-xue; Wu, Qing; Li, Hui; Ge, Jin-fang; Dong, Yi; Zhu, Peng

    2015-08-30

    There is growing evidence on the novel role of vitamin D in reducing inflammation. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that vitamin D is inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia, and high levels of vitamin D may be linked to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated CRP. Ninety-three patients with schizophrenia and 93 family-matched controls were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Plasma concentrations of CRP and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured using commercial kits. Information about demographic characteristics and clinic data were obtained by interviews or medical records. Mean levels of CRP and 25(OH)D were 43.3% higher and 26.7% lower for patients compared to controls, respectively. 25(OH)D were inversely associated with CRP in the patients, but not in the controls. The proportions of patients significantly increased with increasing quartiles of CRP, while significantly decreased with increasing quartiles of 25(OH)D. Among individuals with high CRP, participants with high 25(OH)D have significantly lower proportion (adjusted OR =0.217, 95% CI 0.063, 0.751) of schizophrenia compared to those with low 25(OH)D. The evidence suggested that high levels of vitamin D may be linked to reduced risk of schizophrenia with elevated CRP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral Magnesium Treatment Reduces Anemia and Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, A O; Adewoye, E O

    2016-07-26

    Magnesium has been reported to improve glucose utilization in diabetes mellitus. However, information on its effects on anemic and inflammatory markers in diabetes mellitus is limited. This study investigated the effect of oral magnesium (Mg) treatment on some markers of anemia and inflammation in 25 male Wistar rats. Rats (200 ± 15 g) were randomly divided into five groups (n = 5). Group 1 was control (received orally 0.2 mL distilled water daily), group 2 (Diabetic Untreated), group 3 (Diabetic Mg treated-100 mg/kg bw), group 4 (Diabetic Mg treated-250 mg/kg bw), group 5 (Diabetic Insulin treated-1 IU/kg bw). Diabetes was induced with a single dose of alloxan (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)). All treatments were done for 14 days. Anemic and inflammatory markers were investigated on blood samples obtained from each animal using standard laboratory methods. Significant increase (p DMg 100 (5.86 ± 0.74 × 10 9 /L) and DMg 250 (5.06 ± 0.78 × 10 9 /L). Hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cell (RBC) count was decreased (p DMg 100, and DI rats. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly increased (p DMg 100, DMg 250, and DI groups. Fibrinogen level was increased (p DMg 100 (0.30 ± 0.03 g/dL), DMg 250 (0.22 ± 0.04 g/dL), and DI (0.36 ± 0.02 g/dL) rats were comparable to control (0.26 ± 0.02 g/dL). Total protein, albumin, and globulin levels were decreased in DU rats compared to normal control, DMg 100, DMg 250, and DI rats. In conclusion, anemia and increased hematologic and metabolic inflammatory markers may be associated with untreated diabetes mellitus. Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with magnesium improved the anemic state and reduced hematologic and metabolic inflammatory markers.

  17. Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funamoto M

    2016-08-01

    and hemoglobin A1c and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels after treatment were similar for the two groups. However, the percent change in the AT-LDL level was significantly (P=0.020 lower in the Theracurmin® group compared with the placebo group.Conclusion: Theracurmin® reduced levels of atherosclerotic AT-LDL, which may lead to the prevention of future cardiovascular events in mild COPD subjects. Keywords: curcumin, AT-LDL, COPD, atherosclerosis

  18. Oxidative stress reduces levels of dysbindin-1A via its PEST domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Mei-Yi Alicia; Lo, Yew-Long; Talbot, Konrad; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species has been proposed as an etiological factor in schizophrenia. The present study tests the hypothesis that oxidative stress can affect levels of dysbindin-1A, encoded by Dtnbp1, a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, via its PEST domain. In vitro studies on SH-SY5Y cells indicate that oxidative stress triggers proteasomal degradation of dysbindin-1A, and that this requires interactions with its PEST domain, which may be a TRIM32 target. We specifically found (a) that oxidative stress induced in SH-SY5Y cells by 500 µM hydrogen peroxide reduced levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but did not reduce levels of that protein lacking its PEST domain and (b) that levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but not dysbindin-1 lacking its PEST domain, were higher in cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oxidative stress thus emerges as the first known cellular factor regulating dysbindin-1 isoforms with PEST domains. These findings are consistent with the previously noted fact that phosphorylation of PEST domains often marks proteins for proteasomal degradation, and raises the possibility that treatments reducing oxidative stress in the brain, especially during development, may lower schizophrenia risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Prognostic Significance of Pretreatment Serum CEA Levels in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Including 14651 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Yang, Li; Hu, Bing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Hong; Tang, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is commonly used as a serum tumor marker in clinical practice; however, its prognostic value for gastric cancer patients remains uncertain. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of CEA and investigate CEA as a tumor marker. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and other databases were searched for potentially eligible studies. Forty-one studies reporting the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum CEA expression in gastric cancer patients were selected. Data on 14651 eligible patients were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Based on the data extracted from the available literature, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for an adverse prognosis were estimated for gastric cancer patients with elevated pretreatment serum levels of CEA (CEA+) relative to patients with normal pretreatment CEA levels (CEA-). Results The CEA+ patients had a significantly poorer prognosis than the CEA- patients in terms of overall survival (OS: HR 1.716, 95% CI 1.594 - 1.848, P 0.05). In the pooled analyses of multivariate-adjusted HRs, the results suggested that pretreatment serum CEA may be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (OS: HR 1.681, 95% CI 1.425 - 1.982; DSS: HR 1.900, 95% CI 1.441 - 2.505; DFS: HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.935 - 3.436). Conclusion/Significance The meta-analysis based on the available literature supported the association of elevated pretreatment serum CEA levels with a poor prognosis for gastric cancer and a nearly doubled risk of mortality in gastric cancer patients. CEA may be an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients and may aid in determining appropriate treatment which may preferentially benefit the CEA+ patients. PMID:25879931

  20. From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction among vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who mildly or significantly reduce their meat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2014-01-01

    This study explores vegetarians' and semi-vegetarians' motives for reducing their meat intake. Participants are categorized as vegetarians (remove all meat from their diet); semi-vegetarians (significantly reduce meat intake: at least three days a week); or light semi-vegetarians (mildly reduce meat intake: once or twice a week). Most differences appear between vegetarians and both groups of semi-vegetarians. Animal-rights and ecological concerns, together with taste preferences, predict vegetarianism, while an increase in health motives increases the odds of being semi-vegetarian. Even within each group, subgroups with different motives appear, and it is recommended that future researchers pay more attention to these differences.

  1. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis reduces versican and fibronectin levels in trabecular meshwork cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Keller

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (HA is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM and is synthesized by three HA synthases (HAS. Similarities between the HAS2 knockout mouse and the hdf mutant mouse, which has a mutation in the versican gene, suggest that HA and versican expression may be linked. In this study, the relationship between HA synthesis and levels of versican, fibronectin and several other ECM components in trabecular meshwork cells from the anterior segment of the eye was investigated. HA synthesis was inhibited using 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU, or reduced by RNAi silencing of each individual HAS gene. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated a reduction in mRNA and protein levels of versican and fibronectin. Hyaluronidase treatment also reduced versican and fibronectin levels. These effects could not be reversed by addition of excess glucose or glucosamine or exogenous HA to the culture medium. CD44, tenascin C and fibrillin-1 mRNA levels were reduced by 4MU treatment, but SPARC and CSPG6 mRNA levels were unaffected. Immunostaining of trabecular meshwork tissue after exposure to 4MU showed an altered localization pattern of HA-binding protein, versican and fibronectin. Reduction of versican by RNAi silencing did not affect HA concentration as assessed by ELISA. Together, these data imply that HA concentration affects synthesis of certain ECM components. Since precise regulation of the trabecular meshwork ECM composition and organization is required to maintain the aqueous humor outflow resistance and intraocular pressure homeostasis in the eye, coordinated coupling of HA levels and several of its ECM binding partners should facilitate this process.

  2. Modulation of GDP-fucose level for generating proteins with reduced rate of fucosylation (WO2010141855).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taupin, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The application (WO2010141855) is in the field of glycobiology, and involves the control of the rate of fucosylation of proteins by exogenous factors. It aims at controlling the rate of protein fucosylation with inhibitors (drugs or nucleic acid antagonists) of enzymes involved in the synthesis of GDP-fucose. Mammalian cell lines were cultured in the presence of inhibitors, for example, siRNA. The rates of GDP-fucose in cells and during protein fucosylation were characterized. The level of protein fucosylation decreases rapidly in response to a decrease in GDP-fucose level. The relationship between the rate of fucosylation of proteins and the level of GDP-fucose in a cell is non-linear. Reduction in the rate of protein fucosylation can be achieved with a minimal reduction of the level of GDP-fucose in cells. The paradigm may be used to synthesize proteins and antibodies, with a reduced rate of fucosylation. The application claims that the use of drugs or nucleic acid antagonists that inhibit the enzymes involved in GDP-fucose biosynthesis optimizes the level of GDP-fucose present in cells, and reduces the rate of fucosylation of glycoproteins.

  3. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Jonah [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Strassburg, Bernardo [Center for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cattaneo, Andrea [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540-1644 (United States); Lubowski, Ruben [Environmental Defense Fund, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC (United States); Bruner, Aaron; Rice, Richard; Boltz, Frederick [Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Creed, Anna; Ashton, Ralph, E-mail: jbusch@conservation.or [Terrestrial Carbon Group, 900 17th Street NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized partial equilibrium model (the open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet; OSIRIS). The model explicitly incorporates national incentives to participate in an international REDD mechanism as well as international leakage of deforestation emissions. Our results show that a REDD mechanism can provide cost-efficient climate change mitigation benefits under a broad range of reference level designs. We find that the most effective reference level designs balance incentives to reduce historically high deforestation emissions with incentives to maintain historically low deforestation emissions. Estimates of emission reductions under REDD depend critically on the degree to which demand for tropical frontier agriculture generates leakage. This underscores the potential importance to REDD of complementary strategies to supply agricultural needs outside of the forest frontier.

  4. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jonah; Strassburg, Bernardo; Cattaneo, Andrea; Lubowski, Ruben; Bruner, Aaron; Rice, Richard; Boltz, Frederick; Creed, Anna; Ashton, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized partial equilibrium model (the open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet; OSIRIS). The model explicitly incorporates national incentives to participate in an international REDD mechanism as well as international leakage of deforestation emissions. Our results show that a REDD mechanism can provide cost-efficient climate change mitigation benefits under a broad range of reference level designs. We find that the most effective reference level designs balance incentives to reduce historically high deforestation emissions with incentives to maintain historically low deforestation emissions. Estimates of emission reductions under REDD depend critically on the degree to which demand for tropical frontier agriculture generates leakage. This underscores the potential importance to REDD of complementary strategies to supply agricultural needs outside of the forest frontier.

  5. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  6. A Component-Reduced Zero-Voltage Switching Three-Level DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Pang, Ying; Wang, Huai

    2016-01-01

    The basic Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS) three-level DC-DC converter has one clamping capacitor to realize the ZVS of the switches, and two clamping diodes to clamp the voltage of the clamping capacitor. In order to reduce the reverse recovery loss of the diode as well as its cost, this paper...... proposes to remove one of the clamping diodes in basic ZVS three-level DC-DC converter. With less components, the proposed converter can still have a stable clamping capacitor voltage, which is clamped at half of the dc link voltage. Moreover, the ZVS performance will be influenced by removing the clamping...

  7. Treatment with liraglutide may improve markers of CVD reflected by reduced levels of apoB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Lundgren, J; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dislipidaemia and increased levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in individuals with obesity are risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and weight maintenance with and without liraglutide treatment ......B, despite similar body weight maintenance. Treatment with liraglutide may therefore reduce apoB levels and thus reflect lower CVD risk. Including apoB measurements in clinical practice when monitoring patients with dislipidemia or CVD might prove to be useful....

  8. Maintaining the Feasibility of Hard Real–Time Systems with a Reduced Number of Priority Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Muhammad Bilal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When there is a mismatch between the cardinality of a periodic task set and the priority levels supported by the underlying hardware systems, multiple tasks are grouped into one class so as to maintain a specific level of confidence in their accuracy. However, such a transformation is achieved at the expense of the loss of schedulability of the original task set. We further investigate the aforementioned problem and report the following contributions: (i a novel technique for mapping unlimited priority tasks into a reduced number of classes that do not violate the schedulability of the original task set and (ii an efficient feasibility test that eliminates insufficient points during the feasibility analysis. The theoretical correctness of both contributions is checked through formal verifications. Moreover, the experimental results reveal the superiority of our work over the existing feasibility tests by reducing the number of scheduling points that are needed otherwise.

  9. Calcitriol Reduces Albuminuria and Urinary Angiotensinogen Level in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, O; Usalan, C; Tarakcioglu, M; Coban, S

    2018-06-01

    Although nonhuman animal models have strongly suggested that vitamin D suppresses the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and albuminuria, human data are largely lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] level and albuminuria and urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) level in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). We also planned to investigate the effect of calcitriol treatment on albuminuria and UAGT level in these patients. A total of 124 nondiabetic RTRs participated in this study. UAGT level was positively correlated with the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) in all patients (r = 0.855; P level (P = .02) were significantly higher in RTRs with low 25-(OH)D than in RTRs with normal 25-(OH)D level. RTRs with low 25-(OH)D level were randomized to receive either 0.25 μg/d calcitriol (n = 40) or placebo (n = 40). All of the parameters were assessed again 12 months later in both groups. The mean UACR (P = .014) and UAGT/UCr level (P = .012) were significantly lower in the calcitriol group than in the placebo group at the end of the study. Low 25-(OH)D status may be related to the elevation in albuminuria and UAGT, and calcitriol may have a beneficial effect on albuminuria through the inhibition of intrarenal RAS in RTRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reducing uranium and thorium level in Zircon: effect of heat treatment on rate of leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2002-01-01

    Considerable amount of uranium and thorium are found in Malaysian zircon and the level is much higher than the minimum value adopted by many importing countries. Selective leaching had been applied as an important technique to reduce these elements. An initial study was carried out using hydrochloric acid leaching system but the result was not favourable. The rate of uranium and thorium leached can be further improved by introducing a heat pretreatment process prior to leaching (Author)

  11. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA, an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1% or vehicle (distillated water during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure. Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant.

  12. Reducing surgical levels by paraspinal mapping and diffusion tensor imaging techniques in lumbar spinal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hua-Biao; Wan, Qi; Xu, Qi-Feng; Chen, Yi; Bai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Correlating symptoms and physical examination findings with surgical levels based on common imaging results is not reliable. In patients who have no concordance between radiological and clinical symptoms, the surgical levels determined by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurogenic examination (NE) may lead to a more extensive surgery and significant complications. We aimed to confirm that whether the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and paraspinal mapping (PM...

  13. Trauma Quality Improvement: Reducing Triage Errors by Automating the Level Assignment Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonko, David P; O Neill, Dillon C; Dennis, Bradley M; Smith, Melissa; Gray, Jeffrey; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2018-04-12

    Trauma patients are triaged by the severity of their injury or need for intervention while en route to the trauma center according to trauma activation protocols that are institution specific. Significant research has been aimed at improving these protocols in order to optimize patient outcomes while striving for efficiency in care. However, it is known that patients are often undertriaged or overtriaged because protocol adherence remains imperfect. The goal of this quality improvement (QI) project was to improve this adherence, and thereby reduce the triage error. It was conducted as part of the formal undergraduate medical education curriculum at this institution. A QI team was assembled and baseline data were collected, then 2 Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were implemented sequentially. During the first cycle, a novel web tool was developed and implemented in order to automate the level assignment process (it takes EMS-provided data and automatically determines the level); the tool was based on the existing trauma activation protocol. The second PDSA cycle focused on improving triage accuracy in isolated, less than 10% total body surface area burns, which we identified to be a point of common error. Traumas were reviewed and tabulated at the end of each PDSA cycle, and triage accuracy was followed with a run chart. This study was performed at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Medical School, which has a large level 1 trauma center covering over 75,000 square miles, and which sees urban, suburban, and rural trauma. The baseline assessment period and each PDSA cycle lasted 2 weeks. During this time, all activated, adult, direct traumas were reviewed. There were 180 patients during the baseline period, 189 after the first test of change, and 150 after the second test of change. All were included in analysis. Of 180 patients, 30 were inappropriately triaged during baseline analysis (3 undertriaged and 27 overtriaged) versus 16 of 189 (3 undertriaged and 13

  14. Hydrogen gas alleviates oxygen toxicity by reducing hydroxyl radical levels in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Yu

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy through breathing oxygen at the pressure of above 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA is useful for varieties of clinical conditions, especially hypoxic-ischemic diseases. Because of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, breathing oxygen gas at high pressures can cause oxygen toxicity in the central nervous system, leading to multiple neurological dysfunction, which limits the use of HBO therapy. Studies have shown that Hydrogen gas (H2 can diminish oxidative stress and effectively reduce active ROS associated with diseases. However, the effect of H2 on ROS generated from HBO therapy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 on ROS during HBO therapy using PC12 cells. PC12 cells cultured in medium were exposed to oxygen gas or mixed oxygen gas and H2 at 1 ATA or 5 ATA. Cells viability and oxidation products and ROS were determined. The data showed that H2 promoted the cell viability and inhibited the damage in the cell and mitochondria membrane, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation, and selectively decreased the levels of •OH but not disturbing the levels of O2•-, H2O2, or NO• in PC12 cells during HBO therapy. These results indicated that H2 effectively reduced •OH, protected cells against oxygen toxicity resulting from HBO therapy, and had no effect on other ROS. Our data supported that H2 could be potentially used as an antioxidant during HBO therapy.

  15. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds. PMID:27265722

  16. Elite level rhythmic gymnasts have significantly more and stronger pain than peers of similar age: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Manuel; Jeremian, Lusine; Graf, Alexandra; Kandelhart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) unites aesthetic, ballet-like motion, and all aspects of gymnastics. To reach elite level, girls begin at early age the intensive training. To date it is unclear if such demanding training influences the incidence and intensity of painful overuse injuries. The purpose of this study is to analyze anatomical painful regions and pain intensity in elite level rhythmic gymnasts (elRG) and compare results with an age-matched control group (CG). This prospective field study was carried out at the European Championship in RG 2013 (218 participating athletes, Vienna, Austria). Volunteering athletes were interviewed according to a preformed questionnaire. As CG secondary school pupils without any competitive sports experience were analyzed accordingly. Overall, 243 young females (144 elRG/66 % of all participants and 99 CG) were observed. ElRGs were significantly (s.) smaller, lighter, and had s. stronger pain (p < 0.001). A total of 72 % of athletes reported to have at least one painful body region compared with 52 % of CG (p < 0.001). ElRG had nearly three times more serious injuries than the CG. In all 23 % off all elRG reported to have had no access to professional medical care. ElRGs were s. more frequently (25 vs 9 %) affected at the lumbar spine and the ankle joint (17.4 vs 7 %). To our knowledge, this trial analyzes the largest cohort of elRG to date. Hence, it is clearly alluded that intensive training in RG is a significant factor causing more and stronger pain than in a CG.

  17. Do the levels of selected metals differ significantly between the roots of carious and non-carious teeth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, Piotr; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Malara, Beata

    2006-01-01

    Since the metals deposited in teeth during formation and mineralization processes are to a large extent retained, human teeth receive a considerable attention as the indicators of the heavy metal exposure. The use of permanent teeth is limited because the extraction of healthy permanent teeth just for this purpose is hardly acceptable. As the issue of the loss of elements from a carious lesion in the coronal part of a tooth remains controversial, the valuable material could only be the root of carious and fractured permanent teeth. However, to ensure the validity of the results, it should be ascertained that the levels of certain toxic and essential elements do not differ significantly between the roots of non-carious and carious teeth, and therefore this is the aim of this project. The levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium were determined in the roots of 344 permanent teeth (189 carious and 155 caries-free teeth) from the residents of Ruda Slaska, Poland, aged 18 to 34. No statistically significant difference between the concentration of these metals in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth was found. This finding applies to both the general population and after the grouping by donor's gender and tooth type. The concentration of lead, iron, calcium and manganese in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth exhibited dependence upon tooth type, as well as the concentration of potassium in the roots of carious teeth. Since the mineral composition of the roots of permanent teeth is similar for the non-carious, as well as the carious teeth, they can be indiscriminately selected for the tests required by a research project, as they will produce the comparable results. However, in the case of lead, iron, calcium, potassium and manganese, the comparison should be made after grouping by tooth type

  18. Aloe vera extract reduces 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and improves total antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Christijanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by lack of insulin production in the pancreas or by insulin resistance, the disease being characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Hyperglycemia in diabetes could lead to oxidative stress due to the rise in 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG levels and the decrease in levels of total antioxidant status (TAS. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect Aloe vera extract on 8-oxo-dG level and total antioxidant status in diabetic rat testis.   Methods This was an experimental laboratory study with 20 rat samples which were divided into 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups. Diabetes was induced in the rats by streptozotocin (STZ at 65 mg/kgBW. The diabetic rats were then treated for 28 days with Aloe vera extract at 0 mg (P0, 200 mg rind (P1, 200 mg pulp (P2, respectively. The level of 8 -oxo-dG was measured by ELISA and total antioxidant status with 2,2' -azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Least Significant Difference Advanced Test at P<0.05.   Results 8-Oxo-dG levels were significantly different between the control group and both P0 and P2, but not between the control group and P1. Among the treatment groups the 8-oxo-dG levels were significantly different. Mean total antioxidant status was significantly different between control and treatment groups, and also between treatment groups (p<0.05.   Conclusions Aloe vera extract reduced free radicals (level of 8-oxo-dG and increased the total antioxidant status in diabetic rat testis.

  19. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis, the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use.

  20. Prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma fibrinogen level in patients with digestive system tumors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Ren, Qian; Bai, Suyang; Wang, Yuping; Zhou, Yongning

    2018-06-01

    High pretreatment levels of plasma fibrinogen have been widely reported to be a potential predictor of prognosis in digestive system tumors; however, the conclusions are not consistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the prognostic roles of high pretreatment plasma fibrinogen levels in digestive system tumors. We searched for eligible studies in the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science electronic databases for publications from the database inception to 1 September 2017. The endpoints of interest included overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence-free survival. We investigated the relationship between fibrinogenemia and overall survival in colorectal cancer (10 studies), gastric cancer (6), pancreatic cancer (6), hepatocellular carcinoma (7), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (10); the pooled results indicated that fibrinogenemia was significantly related to a worse overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52, 1.97; P digestive system tumors, indicating that it could be a useful prognostic marker in these types of tumors.

  1. Influence of affective significance on different levels of processing using pupil dilation in an analogical reasoning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Heekeren, Hauke R; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of cognition and emotion in decision making, using an analogical reasoning task. In this task, two word pairs were presented simultaneously. Each word pair could be characterized by an associative conceptual relation (object, actor, or location relation) as well as an emotional relation (negative, neutral, or positive valence). Both types of relations were equally task-relevant: Participants had to identify both types of relations, to compare them, and to decide whether or not the word pairs were analogous, i.e., corresponding in both conceptual and emotional relations. Behavioral data showed that emotional relations were identified preferentially and faster than conceptual relations. Pupil dilations reflected the descending difficulty of the conditions and were greatest in amplitude when both conceptual and emotional correspondence was shown, intermediate when only one type of relation (either the emotional or the conceptual) corresponded, and least when neither correspondence existed. Additionally, a negative valence of the word material slowed down response times and increased pupil dilation relative to positive and neutral items. In summary, pupil and response time data together support recent (neurobiological) models concerning the interaction of emotion and cognition by showing that affective significance leads to a processing advantage at a cognitively lower level of information processing (here, identification or retrieval of relations from long-term memory) but can also distract people from higher level cognitive processes (here, from the controlled comparison of retrieved relations). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  3. Human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Taiwan displayed significantly higher levels of antimicrobial resistance than those from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpdahl, Mia; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Li, Ishien; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a major zoonotic pathogen with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. This pathogen can disseminate across borders and spread far distances via the food trade and international travel. In this study, we compared the genotypes and antimicrobial resistance of 378 S. Typhimurium isolates collected in Taiwan and Denmark between 2009 and 2010. Genotyping revealed that many S. Typhimurium strains were concurrently circulating in Taiwan, Denmark and other countries in 2009 and 2010. When compared to the isolates collected from Denmark, the isolates from Taiwan displayed a significantly higher level of resistance to 11 of the 12 tested antimicrobials. Seven genetic clusters (A-G) were designated for the isolates. A high percentage of the isolates in genetic clusters C, F and G were multidrug-resistant. Of the isolates in cluster C, 79.2% were ASSuT-resistant, characterized by resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. In cluster F, 84.1% of the isolates were ACSSuT-resistant (resistant to ASSuT and chloramphenicol). Cluster G was unique to Taiwan and characterized in most isolates by the absence of three VNTRs (ST20, ST30 and STTR6) as well as a variety of multidrug resistance profiles. This cluster exhibited very high to extremely high levels of resistance to several first-line drugs, and among the seven clusters, it displayed the highest levels of resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. The high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in S. Typhimurium from Taiwan highlights the necessity to strictly regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture and human health care sectors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblasts after alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. mFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  5. Population-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Fred; Tyner, Elizabeth; Lorenc, Theo; Petticrew, Mark; Lock, Karen

    2013-10-01

    To analyse available review-level evidence on the effectiveness of population-level interventions in non-clinical settings to reduce alcohol consumption or related health or social harm. Health, social policy and specialist review databases between 2002 and 2012 were searched for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of population-level alcohol interventions on consumption or alcohol-related health or social outcomes. Data were extracted on review research aim, inclusion criteria, outcome indicators, results, conclusions and limitations. Reviews were quality-assessed using AMSTAR criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted overall and by policy area. Fifty-two reviews were included from ten policy areas. There is good evidence for policies and interventions to limit alcohol sale availability, to reduce drink-driving, to increase alcohol price or taxation. There is mixed evidence for family- and community-level interventions, school-based interventions, and interventions in the alcohol server setting and the mass media. There is weak evidence for workplace interventions and for interventions targeting illicit alcohol sales. There is evidence of the ineffectiveness of interventions in higher education settings. There is a pattern of support from the evidence base for regulatory or statutory enforcement interventions over local non-regulatory approaches targeting specific population groups. © 2013.

  6. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irundika H K Dias

    Full Text Available The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. - by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidised glutathione (GSSG ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC, and modifier (GCLM subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. - production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  7. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Irundika H K; Chapple, Ian L C; Milward, Mike; Grant, Melissa M; Hill, Eric; Brown, James; Griffiths, Helen R

    2013-01-01

    The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN) to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. -) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC), and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. -) production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  8. Fenofibrate Administration Reduces Alcohol and Saccharin Intake in Rats: Possible Effects at Peripheral and Central Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rivera-Meza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the administration of fenofibrate to high-drinker UChB rats markedly reduces voluntary ethanol intake. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα agonist, which induces the proliferation of peroxisomes in the liver, leading to increases in catalase levels that result in acetaldehyde accumulation at aversive levels in the blood when animals consume ethanol. In these new studies, we aimed to investigate if the effect of fenofibrate on ethanol intake is produced exclusively in the liver (increasing catalase and systemic levels of acetaldehyde or there might be additional effects at central level. High drinker rats (UChB were allowed to voluntary drink 10% ethanol for 2 months. Afterward, a daily dose of fenofibrate (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day or vehicle (as control was administered orally for 14 days. Voluntary ethanol intake was recorded daily. After that time, animals were deprived of ethanol access for 24 h and administered with an oral dose of ethanol (1 g/kg for acetaldehyde determination in blood. Fenofibrate reduced ethanol voluntary intake by 60%, in chronically drinking rats, at the three doses tested. Acetaldehyde in the blood rose up to between 80 μM and 100 μM. Considering the reduction of ethanol consumption, blood acetaldehyde levels and body weight evolution, the better results were obtained at a dose of 50 mg fenofibrate/kg/day. This dose of fenofibrate also reduced the voluntary intake of 0.2% saccharin by 35% and increased catalase levels 2.5-fold in the liver but showed no effects on catalase levels in the brain. To further study if fenofibrate administration changes the motivational properties of ethanol, a conditioned-place preference experiment was carried out. Animals treated with fenofibrate (50 mg/kg/day did not develop ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP.In an additional experiment, chronically ethanol-drinking rats underwent two cycles of ethanol

  9. Enzyme Supplementation of Broiler Feeds with Reduced Mineral and Energy Levels

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    JO Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted with the purpose of evaluating enzyme blends on the performance, carcass traits, and bone mineralization of broilers. In total, 928 one-day-old Cobb 500 male chicks of were used. A completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 29 birds each was adopted. The evaluated treatments were: 1- Positive Control (PC, feed containing the nutritional recommendations of the genetic company's manual; 2- Negative Control (NC, feed with reductions of 75 kcal/kg AME and 0.10 and 0.12 percent points of phosphorus and calcium, respectively; 3 - NC + enzyme blend (amylase + b-glucanase, xylanase, and phytase; 250 g/t of feed and 4 - NC + enzyme complex (phytase, amylase, xylanase, glucanase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease; 200 g/t of feed. Birds fed the diet with reduced nutrient levels (NC presented the worst performance (p0.05 carcass or parts yields. The broilers fed the reduced-nutrient and energy diet presented lower (p<0.05 tibial ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents that the other treatments. The use of enzyme combinations improved the performance of broilers fed diets with reduced nutrient and energy levels.

  10. Significance and prognostic value of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis in Chinese rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Li, Jing-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2016-02-28

    To determine the significance of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese rectal cancer patients, after those with known hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were excluded. A cohort of 469 patients, who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathological diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma, were recruited. They included 231 patients with LNM (49.3%) and 238 patients without LNM. Follow-up for these patients was taken through to December 31, 2012. The baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration was (median/inter-quartile range) 2.30/1.60-3.42 μmol/L. Univariate analysis showed that compared with patients without LNM, the patients with LNM had an increased level of direct bilirubin (2.50/1.70-3.42 vs 2.10/1.40-3.42, P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis showed that direct bilirubin was independently associated with LNM (OR = 1.602; 95%CI: 1.098-2.338, P = 0.015). Moreover, we found that: (1) serum direct bilirubin differs between male and female patients; a higher concentration was associated with poor tumor classification; (2) as the baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration increased, the percentage of patients with LNM increased; and (3) serum direct bilirubin was associated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients and higher values indicated poor prognosis. Higher serum direct bilirubin concentration was associated with the increased risk of LNM and poor prognosis in our rectal cancers.

  11. Restricted cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls is associated with a reduced average pectin esterification level

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    Derbyshire Paul

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. Results We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE% limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1 from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Conclusion Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth.

  12. Snack intake is reduced using an implicit, high-level construal cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Priming a high level construal has been shown to enhance self-control and reduce preference for indulgent food. Subtle visual cues have been shown to enhance the effects of a priming procedure. The current study therefore examined the combined impact of construal level and a visual cue reminder on the consumption of energy-dense snacks. A student and community-based adult sample with a wide age and body mass index (BMI) range (N = 176) were randomly assigned to a high or low construal condition in which a novel symbol was embedded. Afterward participants completed a taste test of ad libitum snack foods in the presence or absence of the symbol. The high (vs. the low) construal level prime successfully generated more abstract responses (p snacks in the presence of a visual cue-reminder. This may be a practical technique for reducing overeating and has the potential to be extended to other unhealthy behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Low levels of copper reduce the reproductive success of a mobile invertebrate predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Man; Johnston, Emma L

    2007-09-01

    Marine organisms that occur in urbanised bays can be exposed to low-level chronic pollution that results in sublethal changes to behavior or reproduction. The effects of low levels of copper on the reproductive success of a mobile invertebrate were assessed. Free living flatworms are common predators of bivalves and barnacles. Flatworms (Stylochus pygmaeus) were exposed to low levels of copper ranging from 0 to 25 microg L(-1) in the presence and absence of their barnacle prey (Balanus variegatus). Flatworms laid fewer egg batches when exposed to copper and the hatching success of the eggs was also reduced. Exposure to 25 microg L(-1) copper for 10 d reduced the reproductive success of flatworms by up to 80%. Results were consistent regardless of the presence or absence of prey (barnacles). Barnacles were only moderately affected by copper but exhibited major avoidance behavior (feeding inhibition) in the presence of flatworm predators. This is the first ecotoxicological study on marine flatworms. Experiments are required to quantify the effects of flatworm predator populations on sessile invertebrate community structure in the field.

  14. Global 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Levels Are Profoundly Reduced in Multiple Genitourinary Malignancies.

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    Enrico Munari

    Full Text Available Solid tumors are characterized by a plethora of epigenetic changes. In particular, patterns methylation of cytosines at the 5-position (5mC in the context of CpGs are frequently altered in tumors. Recent evidence suggests that 5mC can get converted to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC in an enzymatic process involving ten eleven translocation (TET protein family members, and this process appears to be important in facilitating plasticity of cytosine methylation. Here we evaluated the global levels of 5hmC using a validated immunohistochemical staining method in a large series of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n = 111, urothelial cell carcinoma (n = 55 and testicular germ cell tumors (n = 84 and matched adjacent benign tissues. Whereas tumor-adjacent benign tissues were mostly characterized by high levels of 5hmC, renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cell carcinoma showed dramatically reduced staining for 5hmC. 5hmC levels were low in both primary tumors and metastases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and showed no association with disease outcomes. In normal testis, robust 5hmC staining was only observed in stroma and Sertoli cells. Seminoma showed greatly reduced 5hmC immunolabeling, whereas differentiated teratoma, embryonal and yolk sack tumors exhibited high 5hmC levels. The substantial tumor specific loss of 5hmC, particularly in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cell carcinoma, suggests that alterations in pathways involved in establishing and maintaining 5hmC levels might be very common in cancer and could potentially be exploited for diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Bitter gourd reduces elevated fasting plasma glucose levels in an intervention study among prediabetics in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawinkel, Michael B; Ludwig, Christine; Swai, Mark E; Yang, Ray-Yu; Chun, Kwok Pan; Habicht, Sandra D

    2018-04-24

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus have become major health issues even in non-industrialized countries. As access to clinical management is often poor, dietary interventions and alternative medicines are required. For bitter gourd, Momordica charantia L., antidiabetic properties have been claimed. The main objective of the intervention study was to assess antidiabetic effects of daily bitter gourd consumption of 2.5g powder over the course of eight weeks among prediabetic individuals. In a randomized placebo-controlled single blinded clinical trial, 52 individuals with prediabetes were studied after consuming a bitter gourd or a cucumber juice. For reducing the impact of between subject differences in the study population, a crossover design was chosen with eight weeks for each study period and four weeks washout in between. Fasting plasma glucose was chosen as the primary outcome variable. Comparing the different exposures, the CROS analysis (t=-2.23, p=0.031, r=0.326) revealed a significant difference in the change of FPG of 0.31mmol/L (5.6mg/dL) with a trend (R 2 =0,42387). The number of 44 finally complete data sets achieved a power of 0.82, with a medium-to-large effect size (Cohen's d 0.62). The effect was also proven by a general linear mixed model (estimate 0.31; SE: 0.12; p: 0.01; 95%CI: 0.08; 0.54). Not all participants responded, but the higher the initial blood glucose levels were, the more pronounced the effect was. No serious adverse effects were observed. Bitter gourd supplementation appeared to have benefits in lowering elevated fasting plasma glucose in prediabetes. The findings should be replicated in other intervention studies to further investigate glucose lowering effects and the opportunity to use bitter gourd for dietary self-management, especially in places where access to professional medical care is not easily assured. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Significance of appetite hormone ghrelin and obestatin levels in the assessment of the severity of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat, Burhan Hakan; Ayten, Refik; Aydın, Süleyman; Girgin, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ziya; Ilhan, Yavuz Selim; Yur, Mesut; Catak, Zekiye

    2014-06-01

    Due to risk of morbidity and mortality, various tests and scoring systems used in the assessment of the diagnosis and severity of acute pancreatitis disease are gaining more importance every day. Most of the current scoring systems, validated by various parameters, have a sophisticated and complex structure. Research is ongoing to establish a method to diagnose the disease and determine the severity by using different and simple parameters. In this trial, we aimed to investigate the role of the orexigenic "ghrelin" and anorexigenic "obestatin" hormones, if any, on the diagnosis and assessment of the severity of acute pancreatitis. A total of 30 patients hospitalized between September 2009 and September 2010 with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) and 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the trial with a prospective and randomized design. The patients were classified in two groups, mild (Ranson ≤3 and / or Apache II ≤8) and severe (Ranson >3 and/or Apache II >8) cases, as per the Ranson and Apache-II criteria; the ghrelin and obestatin levels in blood samples obtained from the patients were measured using the ELISA method. Twenty-two of the 30 patients (73%) were regarded as mild pancreatitis cases, while 8 cases (27%) were diagnosed as severe pancreatitis. Comparison of the mild and severe pancreatitis groups did not reveal a statistical difference between the two groups in terms of acylated and de-acylated ghrelin values on presentation and following the initiation of oral feeding. Similarly, no significant difference was found in the comparison of the patient and the control groups in terms of acylated and de-acylated ghrelin values on presentation (p=0.863). On the other hand, acylated and de-acylated ghrelin values after initiation of oral feeding were observed to be higher in the patient group (p=0.001, p=0.000). Comparison of these two groups revealed a significant difference in obestatin values, both on presentation and after initiation of oral

  17. Use of a scald additive to reduce levels of Salmonella typhimurium during poultry processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, S R; Townsend, J C; Bilgili, S F

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a scald additive, RP scald, to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) levels on inoculated poultry carcasses. The RP scald (contains sodium hydroxide) in a 1% solution has a pH of 11.0, which may reduce bacteria levels on carcasses. In this study, 600 broilers (Ross 708 straight run, 6 wk of age) with 300 broilers in each of 2 experimental trials were divided into 4 scald treatments (inoculated with ST) and 2 noninoculated groups. The treatment groups included 4 scald treatments (n = 50 per experimental group per trial): soft scald (SS; 50 degrees C for 90 s), soft scald with 1.0% added RP scald (SSRP), hard scald (56.6 degrees C for 45 s; HS), and hard scald with 1.0% added RP scald. The noninoculated groups (n = 50 per group per trial) are represented by SS0 and HS0. After defeathering, carcass rinses were collected for ST detection. Results indicated that inoculated broilers from hard scald with 1.0% added RP scald had the lowest Salmonella recovery, whereas carcasses from the SS treatment with no RP additive had the highest ST recovery. In trial 1, the SSRP was more effective in reducing ST than HS alone; however, this trend was not consistent. In trial 2, HS alone was more effective in ST reduction than SSRP. Within each scald temperature, the addition of RP scald increased ST reduction; therefore, RP scald may be effective in reducing ST on broiler carcasses in poultry scalder applications, particularly when hard scald temperatures are used.

  18. Potential to reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide through reducing sulphur levels in heavy and light fuel oils - a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, M.; Bellamy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Background information on the sulphur levels in light fuel oil (used in residential heating) and heavy fuel oil (used as industrial fuel oil) is provided. In addition to the description of sulphur levels in light and heavy fuel oils, the report also provides a summary of regulatory limits in Canada and elsewhere, and a description of the emission benefits of decreasing sulphur in fuels. 4 refs., 10 tabs., 12 figs

  19. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

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    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  20. Acetate supplementation reduces microglia activation and brain interleukin-1β levels in a rat model of Lyme neuroborreliosis

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    Brissette Catherine A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have found that acetate supplementation significantly reduces neuroglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in a rat model of neuroinflammation induced with lipopolysaccharide. To test if the anti-inflammatory effect of acetate supplementation is specific to a TLR4-mediated injury, we measured markers of neuroglia activation in rats subjected to B. burgdorferi-induced neuroborreliosis that is mediated in large part by a TLR2-type mechanism. Methods In this study, rats were subjected to Lyme neuroborreliosis following an intravenous infusion of B. burgdorferi (B31-MI-16. Acetate supplementation was induced using glyceryl triacetate (6g/kg by oral gavage. Immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and western blot analyses were used to measure bacterial invasion into the brain, neuroglial activation, and brain and circulating levels of interleukin 1β. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by a Tukey’s post hoc tests or using a Student’s t test assuming unequal variances when appropriate. Results We found that acetate supplementation significantly reduced microglia activation by 2-fold as determined by immunohistochemical and western blot analysis. Further, acetate supplementation also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β by 2-fold as compared to controls. On the other hand, the inoculation of rats with B. burgdorferi had no effect on astroglial activation as determined by immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis despite significant increases in circulation levels of antigen toward B. burgdorferi and presence of the bacteria in the central nervous system. Conclusions These results suggest that microglial activation is an essential component to neuroborreliosis and that acetate supplementation may be an effective treatment to reduce injury phenotype and possibly injury progression in Lyme neuroborreliosis.

  1. Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy Reduces Saliva Adipokine and Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Erkan; Işıl Saygun, N; Serdar, Muhittin A; Umut Bengi, V; Kantarcı, Alpdoğan

    2016-08-01

    Adipokines enhance the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play a role in extracellular matrix degeneration. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of some adipokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs in the saliva of patients with periodontitis and healthy individuals and to evaluate the changes after non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT). Of 32 individuals included in the study, 17 had periodontitis and 15 had healthy gingiva. Saliva samples were obtained from all individuals. In patients with periodontitis, samples were recollected 3 and 6 months after NSPT. Visfatin, chemerin, progranulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, MMP-8, and MMP-13 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In patients with periodontitis, all of the parameters measured in the saliva were higher than those of healthy individuals. At 3 months, visfatin, progranulin, IL-8, and MMP-8 levels were significantly decreased compared with baseline values. The levels of other biochemical parameters, chemerin and IL-1β, were significantly decreased compared with baseline values at 6 months, and the levels became similar to those in healthy individuals. In the periodontitis group, positive correlations were found among visfatin and IL-8 (r = 0.909, P periodontal tissue in periodontitis by stimulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs.

  2. Reduced utility of serum IGF-1 levels in predicting retinopathy of prematurity reflects maternal ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Ashwin; Patel, Himanshu I; Karim, Shah M; Lock, Helen; Perry, Leslie; Bunce, Catey; Kempley, Steve; Sinha, Ajay K

    2016-04-01

    To validate known risk factors and identify a threshold level for serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in an ethnically diverse population at a tertiary neonatal unit, 2011-2013. A prospective cohort masked study was conducted. Serum IGF-1 levels at 31, 32 and 33 weeks were measured and risk factor data collected including gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), absolute weight gain (AWG) and maternal ethnicity. The eventual ROP outcome was divided into two groups: minimal ROP (Stages 0 and 1) and severe ROP (Stage 2 or worse including Type 1 ROP). 36 patients were recruited: 14 had minimal ROP and 22 severe ROP. Significant differences between the groups were found in GA, BW, AWG and IGF-1 at 32 and 33 weeks. There was minimal rise in IGF-1 in Stage 2 patients and/or black patients (p=0.0013) between 32 and 33 weeks but no pragmatic threshold level of IGF-1 that could distinguish between minimal or severe ROP. There were significant differences in GA, BW, AWG and IGF-1 at 32 and 33 weeks between those babies with severe ROP and those with minimal ROP. However, there was no threshold level of IGF-1 at a time point between 31 and 33 weeks that can be used to exclude a large proportion of babies from screening. We also found ethnic differences in IGF-1 levels with infants born to black mothers having significantly lower IGF-1 levels at 32 and 33 weeks gestation. The determination of ROP risk using IGF-1 is a race-specific phenomenon. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S.; Craig, Zelieann R.; Hernandez-Ochoa, Isabel; Paulose, Tessie; Leslie, Traci C.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor that affects adult rodent females by causing reduced fertility, persistent estrus, and ovarian atrophy. Since MXC is also known to target antral follicles, the major producer of sex steroids in the ovary, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that MXC decreases estradiol (E 2 ) levels by altering steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in the antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mouse ovaries and cultured with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or MXC. Follicle growth was measured every 24 h for 96 h. In addition, sex steroid hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes as well as the E 2 metabolic enzyme Cyp1b1 were measured using qPCR. The results indicate that MXC decreased E 2 , testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone (P 4 ) levels compared to DMSO. In addition, MXC decreased expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (Cyp17a1), 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), steroid acute regulatory protein (Star), and increased expression of Cyp1b1 enzyme levels. Thus, these data suggest that MXC decreases steroidogenic enzyme levels, increases metabolic enzyme expression and this in turn leads to decreased sex steroid hormone levels. - Highlights: → MXC inhibits steroidogenesis → MXC inhibits steroidogenic enzymes → MXC induces metabolic enzymes

  4. Reducing failures rate within the project documentation using Building Information Modelling, especially Level of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prušková Kristýna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper´s focus is on differences between traditional modelling in 2D software and modelling within the BIM technology. Research uncovers failures connected to the traditional way of designing and construction of project documentation. There are revealed and shown mismatches within the project documentation. Solution within the Building information modelling Technology is outlined. As a reference, there is used experience with design of specific building in both ways of construction of project documentation: in the way of traditional modelling and in the way when using BIM technology, especially using Level of Development. Output of this paper is pointing to benefits of using advanced technology in building design, thus Building Information Modelling, especially Level of Development, which leads to reducing failures rate within the project documentation.

  5. Significance of cytochrome P450 system responses and levels of bile fluorescent aromatic compounds in marine wildlife following oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.F.; Anderson, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among cytochrome P450 induction in marine wildlife species, levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC) in their bile, the chemical composition of the inducing compounds, the significance of the exposure pathway, and any resulting injury, as a consequence of exposure to crude oil following a spill, are reviewed. Fish collected after oil spills often show increases in cytochrome P450 system activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), that are correlated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the oil. There is also some evidence for increases in bile FAC and induction of cytochrome P450 in marine birds and mammals after oil spills. However, when observed, increases in these exposure indicators are transitory and generally decrease to background levels within one year after the exposure. Laboratory studies have shown induction of cytochrome P450 systems occurs after exposure of fish to crude oil in water, sediment or food. Most of the PAH found in crude oil (dominantly 2- and 3-ring PAH) are not strong inducers of cytochrome P450. Exposure to the 4-ring chrysenes or the photooxidized products of the PAH may account for the cytochrome P450 responses in fish collected from oil-spill sites. The contribution of non-spill background PAH, particularly combustion-derived (pyrogenic) PAH, to bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses can be confounding and needs to be considered when evaluating oil spill effects. The ubiquity of pyrogenic PAH makes it important to fully characterize all sources of PAH, including PAH from natural resources, e.g. retene, in oil spill studies. In addition, such parameters as species, sex, age, ambient temperature and season need to be taken into account. While increases in fish bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses, can together, be sensitive general indicators of PAH exposure after an oil spill, there is little unequivocal evidence to suggest a linkage to

  6. Higher levels of depression are associated with reduced global bias in visual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fockert, Jan W; Cooper, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Negative moods have been associated with a tendency to prioritise local details in visual processing. The current study investigated the relation between depression and visual processing using the Navon task, a standard task of local and global processing. In the Navon task, global stimuli are presented that are made up of many local parts, and the participants are instructed to report the identity of either a global or a local target shape. Participants with a low self-reported level of depression showed evidence of the expected global processing bias, and were significantly faster at responding to the global, compared with the local level. By contrast, no such difference was observed in participants with high levels of depression. The reduction of the global bias associated with high levels of depression was only observed in the overall speed of responses to global (versus local) targets, and not in the level of interference produced by the global (versus local) distractors. These results are in line with recent findings of a dissociation between local/global processing bias and interference from local/global distractors, and support the claim that depression is associated with a reduction in the tendency to prioritise global-level processing.

  7. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Podojil, G.; McCollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-11-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept of enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbit is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  8. Nmdmc overexpression extends Drosophila lifespan and reduces levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Suyeun; Jang, Yeogil; Paik, Donggi; Lee, Eunil; Park, Joong-Jean

    2015-01-01

    NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (NMDMC) is a bifunctional enzyme involved in folate-dependent metabolism and highly expressed in rapidly proliferating cells. However, Nmdmc physiological roles remain unveiled. We found that ubiquitous Nmdmc overexpression enhanced Drosophila lifespan and stress resistance. Interestingly, Nmdmc overexpression in the fat body was sufficient to increase lifespan and tolerance against oxidative stress. In addition, these conditions coincided with significant decreases in the levels of mitochondrial ROS and Hsp22 as well as with a significant increase in the copy number of mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest that Nmdmc overexpression should be beneficial for mitochondrial homeostasis and increasing lifespan. - Highlights: • Ubiquitous Nmdmc overexpression enhanced lifespan and stress tolerance. • Nmdmc overexpression in the fat body extended longevity. • Fat body-specific Nmdmc overexpression increased oxidative stress resistance. • Nmdmc overexpression decreased Hsp22 transcript levels and ROS. • Nmdmc overexpression increased mitochondrial DNA copy number.

  9. Nmdmc overexpression extends Drosophila lifespan and reduces levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Suyeun [Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yeogil; Paik, Donggi [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Korea University, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eunil, E-mail: eunil@korea.ac.kr [Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong-Jean, E-mail: parkjj@korea.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Korea University, 73 Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-02

    NAD-dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (NMDMC) is a bifunctional enzyme involved in folate-dependent metabolism and highly expressed in rapidly proliferating cells. However, Nmdmc physiological roles remain unveiled. We found that ubiquitous Nmdmc overexpression enhanced Drosophila lifespan and stress resistance. Interestingly, Nmdmc overexpression in the fat body was sufficient to increase lifespan and tolerance against oxidative stress. In addition, these conditions coincided with significant decreases in the levels of mitochondrial ROS and Hsp22 as well as with a significant increase in the copy number of mitochondrial DNA. These results suggest that Nmdmc overexpression should be beneficial for mitochondrial homeostasis and increasing lifespan. - Highlights: • Ubiquitous Nmdmc overexpression enhanced lifespan and stress tolerance. • Nmdmc overexpression in the fat body extended longevity. • Fat body-specific Nmdmc overexpression increased oxidative stress resistance. • Nmdmc overexpression decreased Hsp22 transcript levels and ROS. • Nmdmc overexpression increased mitochondrial DNA copy number.

  10. Conservation Below The Species Level: Suitable Evolutionarily Significant Units Among Mountain Vipers (The Montivipera Raddei Complex) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Roozbeh; Kaboli, Mohammad; Arnal, Véronique; Nazarizadeh, Masoud; Asadi, Atefeh; Salmanian, Amin; Ahmadi, Mohsen; Montgelard, Claudine

    2018-02-01

    Northern and western mountains of Iran are among the most important biodiversity and endemism hot spots for reptiles in the Middle East. Among herpetofauna, the montivipers represent an emblematic and fragmented endemic group for which estimating their level of genetic differentiation and defining conservation priorities is urgently needed. Here, we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic study on the Montivipera raddei species group comprising all five known taxa, among which three are endemic to Iran. Based on two mitochondrial genes, phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed three major lineages each presenting very contrasting distribution area. The Iranian montivipers are highly structured in clades showing low genetic diversity and corresponding to high altitude summits. Molecular dating revealed the role of Quaternary paleo-climatic oscillations and altitudinal movements of montivipers in shaping genetic diversity and differentiation of these sky-island taxa. In addition, the best scenario of historical biogeography allowed identifying three possible refugial areas in Iran most likely arising by vicariance. Based on our mitochondrial results and pending additional data, we recognize three candidate species among the Montivipera raddei complex: M. raddei, M.latifii and M. kuhrangica that are coherent with their geographical distribution. We propose that the most appropriate Evolutionary Significant Units for conservation of the montivipers are represented by thirteen units among which six are recognized as high priority. Finally, we suggest some recommendations to the IUCN as well as to the Iranian conservation policies with respect to conservation prioritization. © The American Genetic Association 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Reduced interhemispheric interaction in non-autistic individuals with normal but high levels of autism traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Natalie; Lindell, Annukka K

    2013-11-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show superior performance for tasks requiring detail-focused processing. Atypical neural connectivity and reduced interhemispheric communication are posited to underlie this cognitive advantage. Given recent conceptualization of autism as a continuum, we sought to investigate whether people with normal but high levels of autism like traits (AQ) also exhibit reduced hemispheric interaction. Sixty right-handed participants completed the AQ questionnaire (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, & Clubley, 2001) and a lateralised letter matching task that assessed unilateral and bilateral performance in response to simple (physical) and complex (identity) matches. Whereas people with low self-rated AQ scores showed a bilateral advantage for the more complex task, indicating normal interhemispheric interaction, people in the high AQ group failed to show a bilateral gain for the computationally demanding stimuli. This finding of disrupted interhemispheric interaction converges with a dimensional conceptualisation of ASD, suggesting that the structural anomalies of ASD extend to non-autistic individuals with high levels of autism traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultraviolet-ozone treatment reduces levels of disease-associated prion protein and prion infectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.J.; Gilbert, P.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by novel infectious agents referred to as prions. Prions appear to be composed primarily, if not exclusively, of a misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein. TSE infectivity is remarkably stable and can resist many aggressive decontamination procedures, increasing human, livestock and wildlife exposure to TSEs. Findings. We tested the hypothesis that UV-ozone treatment reduces levels of the pathogenic prion protein and inactivates the infectious agent. We found that UV-ozone treatment decreased the carbon and prion protein content in infected brain homogenate to levels undetectable by dry-ashing carbon analysis or immunoblotting, respectively. After 8 weeks of ashing, UV-ozone treatment reduced the infectious titer of treated material by a factor of at least 105. A small amount of infectivity, however, persisted despite UV-ozone treatment. When bound to either montmorillonite clay or quartz surfaces, PrPTSE was still susceptible to degradation by UV-ozone. Conclusion. Our findings strongly suggest that UV-ozone treatment can degrade pathogenic prion protein and inactivate prions, even when the agent is associated with surfaces. Using larger UV-ozone doses or combining UV-ozone treatment with other decontaminant methods may allow the sterilization of TSE-contaminated materials. ?? 2009 Aiken et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  13. Estradiol replacement enhances fear memory formation, impairs extinction and reduces COMT expression levels in the hippocampus of ovariectomized female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Carmel M; Liu, Dan; Ade, Catherine; Schrader, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Females experience depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders at approximately twice the rate of males, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain undefined. The effect of sex hormones on neural substrates presents a possible mechanism. We investigated the effect of ovariectomy at two ages, before puberty and in adulthood, and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement administered chronically in drinking water on anxiety level, fear memory formation, and extinction. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that estradiol replacement would impair fear memory formation and enhance extinction rate. Females, age 4 weeks and 10 weeks, were divided randomly into 4 groups; sham surgery, OVX, OVX+low E2 (200nM), and OVX+high E2 (1000nM). Chronic treatment with high levels of E2 significantly increased anxiety levels measured in the elevated plus maze. In both age groups, high levels of E2 significantly increased contextual fear memory but had no effect on cued fear memory. In addition, high E2 decreased the rate of extinction in both ages. Finally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is important for regulation of catecholamine levels, which play a role in fear memory formation and extinction. COMT expression in the hippocampus was significantly reduced by high E2 replacement, implying increased catecholamine levels in the hippocampus of high E2 mice. These results suggest that estradiol enhanced fear memory formation, and inhibited fear memory extinction, possibly stabilizing the fear memory in female mice. This study has implications for a neurobiological mechanism for PTSD and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Higher glucose levels associated with lower memory and reduced hippocampal microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerti, Lucia; Witte, A Veronica; Winkler, Angela; Grittner, Ulrike; Rujescu, Dan; Flöel, Agnes

    2013-11-12

    For this cross-sectional study, we aimed to elucidate whether higher glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose levels exert a negative impact on memory performance and hippocampal volume and microstructure in a cohort of healthy, older, nondiabetic individuals without dementia. In 141 individuals (72 women, mean age 63.1 years ± 6.9 SD), memory was tested using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Peripheral levels of fasting HbA1c, glucose, and insulin and 3-tesla MRI scans were acquired to assess hippocampal volume and microstructure, as indicated by gray matter barrier density. Linear regression and simple mediation models were calculated to examine associations among memory, glucose metabolism, and hippocampal parameters. Lower HbA1c and glucose levels were significantly associated with better scores in delayed recall, learning ability, and memory consolidation. In multiple regression models, HbA1c remained strongly associated with memory performance. Moreover, mediation analyses indicated that beneficial effects of lower HbA1c on memory are in part mediated by hippocampal volume and microstructure. Our results indicate that even in the absence of manifest type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance, chronically higher blood glucose levels exert a negative influence on cognition, possibly mediated by structural changes in learning-relevant brain areas. Therefore, strategies aimed at lowering glucose levels even in the normal range may beneficially influence cognition in the older population, a hypothesis to be examined in future interventional trials.

  15. Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson's disease: association with motor severity and levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yuan, Yongsheng; Tong, Qing; Jiang, Siming; Xu, Qinrong; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the level of taurine in plasma, and its association with the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) and chronic levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasma taurine level was measured in treated PD (tPD), untreated PD (ntPD) and control groups. Motor symptoms and NMS were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Longtime exposure to levodopa was indicated by its approximate cumulative dosage. The plasma taurine levels of PD patients were decreased when compared with controls and negatively associated with motor severity but not NMS. Moreover, tPD patients exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine than ntPD patients. Interestingly, plasma taurine levels negatively correlated with cumulative levodopa dosage in tPD. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between taurine and levodopa remained significant. Our study supports that taurine may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and the disturbances caused by chronic levodopa administration.

  16. (Pre-) calibration of a Reduced Complexity Model of the Antarctic Contribution to Sea-level Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, K. L.; Guan, Y.; Shaffer, G.; Forest, C. E.; Keller, K.

    2015-12-01

    (Pre-) calibration of a Reduced Complexity Model of the Antarctic Contribution to Sea-level ChangesKelsey L. Ruckert1*, Yawen Guan2, Chris E. Forest1,3,7, Gary Shaffer 4,5,6, and Klaus Keller1,7,81 Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA 2 Department of Statistics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA 3 Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA 4 GAIA_Antarctica, University of Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile 5 Center for Advanced Studies in Arid Zones, La Serena, Chile 6 Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark 7 Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA 8 Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA * Corresponding author. E-mail klr324@psu.eduUnderstanding and projecting future sea-level changes poses nontrivial challenges. Sea-level changes are driven primarily by changes in the density of seawater as well as changes in the size of glaciers and ice sheets. Previous studies have demonstrated that a key source of uncertainties surrounding sea-level projections is the response of the Antarctic ice sheet to warming temperatures. Here we calibrate a previously published and relatively simple model of the Antarctic ice sheet over a hindcast period from the last interglacial period to the present. We apply and compare a range of (pre-) calibration methods, including a Bayesian approach that accounts for heteroskedasticity. We compare the model hindcasts and projections for different levels of model complexity and calibration methods. We compare the projections with the upper bounds from previous studies and find our projections have a narrower range in 2100. Furthermore we discuss the implications for the design of climate risk management strategies.

  17. Experimental increase in baseline corticosterone level reduces oxidative damage and enhances innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC hormones are significant regulators of homeostasis. The physiological effects of GCs critically depend on the time of exposure (short vs. long as well as on their circulating levels (baseline vs. stress-induced. Previous experiments, in which chronic and high elevation of GC levels was induced, indicate that GCs impair both the activity of the immune system and the oxidative balance. Nonetheless, our knowledge on how mildly elevated GC levels, a situation much more common in nature, might influence homeostasis is limited. Therefore, we studied whether an increase in GC level within the baseline range suppresses or enhances condition (body mass, hematocrit and coccidian infestation and physiological state (humoral innate immune system activity and oxidative balance. We implanted captive house sparrows Passer domesticus with either 60 days release corticosterone (CORT or control pellets. CORT-treated birds had elevated baseline CORT levels one week after the implantation, but following this CORT returned to its pre-treatment level and the experimental groups had similar CORT levels one and two months following the implantation. The mass of tail feathers grown during the initial phase of treatment was smaller in treated than in control birds. CORT implantation had a transient negative effect on body mass and hematocrit, but both of these traits resumed the pre-treatment values by one month post-treatment. CORT treatment lowered oxidative damage to lipids (malondialdehyde and enhanced constitutive innate immunity at one week and one month post-implantation. Our findings suggest that a relatively short-term (i.e. few days elevation of baseline CORT might have a positive and stimulatory effect on animal physiology.

  18. An anthocyanin/polyphenolic-rich fruit juice reduces oxidative DNA damage and increases glutathione level in healthy probands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Tamara; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Stockis, Jean-Pierre; Kulling, Sabine; Rüfer, Corinna; Johannes, Christian; Janzowski, Christine

    2006-04-01

    Oxidative cell damage is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes and other diseases. Uptake of fruit juice with especially high content of antioxidant flavonoids/polyphenols, might reduce oxidative cell damage. Therefore, an intervention study was performed with a red mixed berry juice [trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity (TEAC): 19.1 mmol/L trolox] and a corresponding polyphenol-depleted juice (polyphenols largely removed, TEAC 2.4 mmol/L trolox), serving as control. After a 3-week run-in period, 18 male probands daily consumed 700 mL juice, and 9 consumed control juice, in a 4-week intervention, followed by a 3-week wash-out. Samples were collected weekly to analyze DNA damage (comet assay), lipid peroxidation (plasma malondialdehyde: HPLC/fluorescence; urinary isoprostanes: GC-MS), blood glutathione (photometrically), DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (ELISA) and plasma carotenoid/alpha-tocopherol levels (HPLC-DAD). During intervention with the fruit juice, a decrease of oxidative DNA damage (p<5x10(-4)) and an increase of reduced glutathione (p<5x10(-4)) and of glutathione status (p<0.05) were observed, which returned to the run-in levels in the subsequent wash-out phase. The other biomarkers were not significantly modulated by the juice supplement. Intervention with the control juice did not result in reduction of oxidative damage. In conclusion, the fruit juice clearly reduces oxidative cell damage in healthy probands.

  19. Maintain levels of nicotine but reduce other smoke constituents: a formula for ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.C.; Young, J.C.; Rickert, W.S.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-two volunteers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes with ''high'' nicotine yields (0.8 to 1.2 mg) per day participated in an 8-week study designed to test the hypothesis that smoking cigarettes with a constant level of nicotine but reduced deliveries of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide leads to a decrease in smoke absorption. All subjects smoked their usual high-nicotine brand for the first 3 weeks (P1), and the absorption of smoke constituents was determined from levels of thiocyanate and cotinine in saliva and serum, levels of carbon monoxide in expired air, and levels of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. During the final 5 weeks (P2), the treatment group (16 subjects) switched to the ''light'' version of their usual brands (similar yields of nicotine but with reduced yields of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide); the control group (6 subjects) smoked their usual brands for the duration of the study. Average levels of cotinine for the subjects who switched during P2 were not significantly different from those of the control group as was expected. Slight reductions were noted in average expired-air carbon monoxide levels, blood carboxyhemoglobin, and saliva thiocyanate, but these reductions were smaller than anticipated based on brand characteristics. The results suggest that the ratio of smoke constituents is different when individuals, rather than machines, smoke cigarettes. Yields determined under subject-defined conditions are necessary in order to properly evaluate the role of nicotine in the design of ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes.

  20. Exposure to organic solvents used in dry cleaning reduces low and high level visual function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Astrid Jiménez Barbosa

    Full Text Available To investigate whether exposure to occupational levels of organic solvents in the dry cleaning industry is associated with neurotoxic symptoms and visual deficits in the perception of basic visual features such as luminance contrast and colour, higher level processing of global motion and form (Experiment 1, and cognitive function as measured in a visual search task (Experiment 2.The Q16 neurotoxic questionnaire, a commonly used measure of neurotoxicity (by the World Health Organization, was administered to assess the neurotoxic status of a group of 33 dry cleaners exposed to occupational levels of organic solvents (OS and 35 age-matched non dry-cleaners who had never worked in the dry cleaning industry. In Experiment 1, to assess visual function, contrast sensitivity, colour/hue discrimination (Munsell Hue 100 test, global motion and form thresholds were assessed using computerised psychophysical tests. Sensitivity to global motion or form structure was quantified by varying the pattern coherence of global dot motion (GDM and Glass pattern (oriented dot pairs respectively (i.e., the percentage of dots/dot pairs that contribute to the perception of global structure. In Experiment 2, a letter visual-search task was used to measure reaction times (as a function of the number of elements: 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 100 in both parallel and serial search conditions.Dry cleaners exposed to organic solvents had significantly higher scores on the Q16 compared to non dry-cleaners indicating that dry cleaners experienced more neurotoxic symptoms on average. The contrast sensitivity function for dry cleaners was significantly lower at all spatial frequencies relative to non dry-cleaners, which is consistent with previous studies. Poorer colour discrimination performance was also noted in dry cleaners than non dry-cleaners, particularly along the blue/yellow axis. In a new finding, we report that global form and motion thresholds for dry cleaners were also

  1. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegler Jason

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame, and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45 min rest + 60 min self-paced intense exercise differing only in their fluid intake: 1 carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C; 2 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA; 3 water (W; and 4 aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A. Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43% between pre-exercise and 30 min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone.

  2. Ivermectin reduces motor coordination, serum testosterone, and central neurotransmitter levels but does not affect sexual motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N; Sandini, T M; Reis-Silva, T M; Navas-Suáresz, P; Auada, A V V; Lebrun, I; Flório, J C; Bernardi, M M; Spinosa, H S

    2017-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a macrocyclic lactone used for the treatment of parasitic infections and widely used in veterinary medicine as endectocide. In mammals, evidence indicates that IVM interacts with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride channels. GABAergic system is involved in the manifestation of sexual behavior. We previously found that IVM at therapeutic doses did not alter sexual behavior in male rats, but at a higher dose, the appetitive phase of sexual behavior was impaired. Thus, we investigated whether the reduction of sexual behavior that was previously observed was a consequence of motor or motivational deficits that are induced by IVM. Data showed significant decrease in striatal dopaminergic system activity and lower testosterone levels but no effects on sexual motivation or penile erection. These findings suggest IVM may activate the GABAergic system and reduce testosterone levels, resulting in a reduction of motor coordination as consequence of the inhibition of striatal dopamine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Higher levels of serum lycopene are associated with reduced mortality in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Meza, Jane L; Soliman, Ghada A; Islam, K M Monirul; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of mortality. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation may play an important role in the high mortality of individuals with metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have suggested that lycopene intake might be related to the reduced oxidative stress and decreased inflammation. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the hypothesis that lycopene is associated with mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome. A total of 2499 participants 20 years and older with metabolic syndrome were divided into 3 groups based on their serum concentration of lycopene using the tertile rank method. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from years 2001 to 2006 was linked to the mortality file for mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011, to determine the mortality rate and hazard ratios (HR) for the 3 serum lycopene concentration groups. The mean survival time was significantly higher in the group with the highest serum lycopene concentration (120.6 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 118.8-122.3) and the medium group (116.3 months; 95% CI, 115.2-117.4), compared with the group with lowest serum lycopene concentration (107.4 months; 95% CI, 106.5-108.3). After adjusting for possible confounding factors, participants in the highest (HR, 0.61; P = .0113) and in the second highest (HR, 0.67; P = .0497) serum lycopene concentration groups showed significantly lower HRs of mortality when compared with participants in the lower serum lycopene concentration. The data suggest that higher serum lycopene concentration has a significant association with the reduced risk of mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intake of Mung Bean Protein Isolate Reduces Plasma Triglyceride Level in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Tachibana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Mung bean is well known as a starch source, but the physiological effects of mung bean protein have received little attention. In this study, we isolated mung bean protein from de-starched mung bean solutions, and investigated its influence on lipid metabolism. Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of the lipid metabolism by consumption of mung bean protein isolate (MPIMethods: Diets containing either mung bean protein isolate (MPI or casein were fed to normal rats for 28 days.Results: Both groups ate the same amount of food, but the plasma triglyceride level, relative liver weight and liver lipid contents (cholesterol and triglyceride pool in the MPI group were significantly lower than in the casein group. In the MPI group, the expression of sterol regulatory-element binding factor 1 (SREBF1 mRNA in the liver was significantly different when compared with the casein group. The significantly lower levels of insulin and free fatty acids in the MPI-fed rats may be due to the regulation of genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver.Conclusions: These results suggest that MPI may improve the plasma lipid profile by normalizing insulin sensitivity.Keywords: mung bean, Vigna radiata L., 8S globulin, triglyceride, β-conglycinin, 7S globulin, insulin sensitivity, SREBF1

  5. Rutin improves spatial memory in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice by reducing Aβ oligomer level and attenuating oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Xin; Wang, Shao-Wei; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Su, Ya-Jing; Wang, Teng; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Zhang, He; Wang, Yu-Jiong; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Aβ aggregation is closely associated with neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuronal inflammation. The soluble Aβ oligomers are believed to be the most neurotoxic form among all forms of Aβ aggregates. We have previously reported a polyphenol compound rutin that could inhibit Aβ aggregation and cytotoxicity, attenuate oxidative stress, and decrease the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. In the current study, we investigated the effect of rutin on APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Results demonstrated that orally administered rutin significantly attenuated memory deficits in AD transgenic mice, decreased oligomeric Aβ level, increased super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, reduced GSSG and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, downregulated microgliosis and astrocytosis, and decreased interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in the brain. These results indicated that rutin is a promising agent for AD treatment because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and reducing Aβ oligomer activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Victoria, M.; Maté-Sánchez-Val, M.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

  7. The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Victoria, M.; Maté-Sánchez-Val, M.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.

    2017-09-01

    Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

  8. Ebola Virus Disease Is Characterized by Poor Activation and Reduced Levels of Circulating CD16+ Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Anja; Ruibal, Paula; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rottstegge, Monika; Wozniak, David M; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Thorenz, Anja; Weller, Romy; Kerber, Romy; Idoyaga, Juliana; Magassouba, N'Faly; Gabriel, Martin; Günther, Stephan; Oestereich, Lisa; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-10-15

    A number of previous studies have identified antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as key targets of Ebola virus (EBOV), but the role of APCs in human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is not known. We have evaluated the phenotype and kinetics of monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs) in peripheral blood of patients for whom EVD was diagnosed by the European Mobile Laboratory in Guinea. Acute EVD was characterized by reduced levels of circulating nonclassical CD16 + monocytes with a poor activation profile. In survivors, CD16 + monocytes were activated during recovery, coincident with viral clearance, suggesting an important role of this cell subset in EVD pathophysiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Dual Z-Source Inverter With Three-Level Reduced Common-Mode Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a dual Z-source inverter that can be used with either a single dc source or two isolated dc sources. Unlike traditional inverters, the integration of a properly designed Z-source network and semiconductor switches to the proposed dual inverter allows buck......-boost power conversion to be performed over a wide modulation range, with three-level output waveforms generated. The connection of an additional transformer to the inverter ac output also allows all generic wye-or delta-connected loads with three-wire or four-wire configuration to be supplied by the inverter....... Modulationwise, the dual inverter can be controlled using a carefully designed carrier-based pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) scheme that will always ensure balanced voltage boosting of the Z-source network while simultaneously achieving reduced common-mode switching. Because of the omission of dead-time delays...

  10. Using electrochemical separation to reduce the volume of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Gay, E.C.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed an electrochemical separation technique called electrorefining that will treat a variety of metallic spent nuclear fuel and reduce the volume of high-level nuclear waste that requires disposal. As part of that effort, ANL has developed a high throughput electrorefiner (HTER) that has a transport rate approximately three times faster than electrorefiners previously developed at ANL. This higher rate is due to the higher electrode surface area, a shorter transport path, and more efficient mixing, which leads to smaller boundary layers about the electrodes. This higher throughput makes electrorefining an attractive option in treating Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels. Experiments have been done to characterize the HTER, and a simulant metallic fuel has been successfully treated. The HTER design and experimental results is discussed

  11. A study of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Wang Yan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Xue

    2005-01-01

    Using Model 1027 continuous radon monitor, a test of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space was done. Four different types of ventilation, i.e. by air pump (P), by air intake blower (B), by air pump and air intake blower simultaneously (PBS), and by air pump and air intake blower in turn (PBT), were examined. The authors found that efficiency of PBS is the highest among these ventilation type. Having ventilated the underground space with PBS for 1, 2 or 3 hours in three different days, and having observed the radon concentration change in the following 24 hours, the authors can conclude that it is safe for people to stay there during the eight working hours if the underground space is ventilated for 2 hours everyday in the morning. (authors)

  12. Two-level modulation scheme to reduce latency for optical mobile fronthaul networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jiun-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2016-10-31

    A system using optical two-level orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) - amplitude-shift-keying (ASK) modulation is proposed and demonstrated to reduce the processing latency for the optical mobile fronthaul networks. At the proposed remote-radio-head (RRH), the high data rate OFDM signal does not need to be processed, but is directly launched into a high speed photodiode (HSPD) and subsequently emitted by an antenna. Only a low bandwidth PD is needed to recover the low data rate ASK control signal. Hence, it is simple and provides low-latency. Furthermore, transporting the proposed system over the already deployed optical-distribution-networks (ODNs) of passive-optical-networks (PONs) is also demonstrated with 256 ODN split-ratios.

  13. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  14. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  15. An obesity drug sibutramine reduces brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner Ertugrul, D; Yavuz, B; Okhan Akin, K; Arif Yalcin, A; Ata, N; Kucukazman, M; Algul, B; Dal, K; Sinan Deveci, O; Tutal, E

    2010-03-01

    Sibutramine is a selective inhibitor of the reuptake of monoamines. Plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) appear to be inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) in subjects with and without heart failure for reasons that remain unexplained. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of sibutramine treatment on BNP levels in severely obese patients. Fifty-two severely obese female patients with BMI > 40 kg/m(2) were included to this study. The women were recommended to follow a weight-reducing daily diet of 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. During the treatment period, all patients were to receive 15 mg of sibutramine once a day. Blood chemistry tests were performed before the onset of the medication and after 12 weeks of treatment. None of the subjects was withdrawn from the study because of the adverse effects of sibutramine. Body weight (108.8 +/- 13.3 kg vs. 101.7 +/- 15.6 kg, p sibutramine treatment. Total cholesterol (5.19 +/- 0.90 mmol/l vs. 4.82 +/- 1.05 mmol/l respectively; p sibutramine treatment. Further randomised studies are needed to be conducted to clarify the relationship between sibutramine and BNP.

  16. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  17. Variations of insulin resistance and associated hormone levels in elderly and middle-aged male persons and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Liankun; Yan Daochun; Chen Xiumei; Liu Peng; Zhang Aihua

    2005-01-01

    To study the relationship between age and insulin resistance and the variation of associated hormones in elderly and middle-aged males, blood levels of LH, FSH, T, SHBG, TSH, INS were determined by RIA, FBG by GPO, IR by HOMA in 268 healthy male persons aged 41 to 60 years and in 80 normal control male persions of 35 to 40 years old. The results showed that levels of IR, LH, FSH, SHBG were increasing and T, TSH were decreasing along with the increase of age except for TSH. Therefore, analyzing these changes could evaluate the conditions of elderly and middle-aged males. (authors)

  18. [SNACK HIGH WHEY PROTEIN IMPROVES THE LEVEL OF SATIETY AND REDUCES APPETITE HEALTHY WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Nadia; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Urdaneta, Andrés; Artigas, Carlos; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    the nutritional content and energy density of foods is related to greater control of appetite, satiety and reducing food intake. the randomized crossover study included 20 healthy women, aged 20 and 30 years with a BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2 and who completed that included 3 day trial comparing 8 hours 130 kcal snacks consumed afternoon: yoghurt with added whey protein (PSL), biscuits and chocolate. Participants consumed a standardized menu; snack was consumed 3 hours after lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were evaluated during the afternoon until dinner voluntary intake ad libitum. They repeat the same snack 3 times. consumption of yogurt with PSL led to a further reduction of appetite in the afternoon in front of the snack of chocolate and biscuits (p snack, yogurt there was a significant reduction in caloric intake compared to other snacks (p snacks with less energy density and rich in protein (yogurt with PSL) improve the control of appetite, satiety and reduces food intake in healthy women later. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced levels of SCD1 accentuate palmitate-induced stress in insulin-producing β-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovsepyan Meri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 is an ER resident enzyme introducing a double-bond in saturated fatty acids. Global knockout of SCD1 in mouse increases fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity which makes the animal resistant to diet-induced obesity. Inhibition of SCD1 has therefore been proposed as a potential therapy of the metabolic syndrome. Much of the work has focused on insulin target tissue and very little is known about how reduced levels of SCD1 would affect the insulin-producing β-cell, however. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate how reduced levels of SCD1 affect the β-cell. Results Insulin-secreting MIN6 cells with reduced levels of SCD1 were established by siRNA mediated knockdown. When fatty acid oxidation was measured, no difference between cells with reduced levels of SCD1 and mock-transfected cells were found. Also, reducing levels of SCD1 did not affect insulin secretion in response to glucose. To investigate how SCD1 knockdown affected cellular mechanisms, differentially regulated proteins were identified by a proteomic approach. Cells with reduced levels of SCD1 had higher levels of ER chaperones and components of the proteasome. The higher amounts did not protect the β-cell from palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Instead, rise in levels of p-eIF2α and CHOP after palmitate exposure was 2-fold higher in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Accordingly, apoptosis rose to higher levels after exposure to palmitate in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Conclusions In conclusion, reduced levels of SCD1 augment palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis in the β-cell, which is an important caveat when considering targeting this enzyme as a treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  20. Higher levels of spontaneous breathing reduce lung injury in experimental moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nadja C; Güldner, Andreas; Beda, Alessandro; Rentzsch, Ines; Uhlig, Christopher; Dittrich, Susanne; Spieth, Peter M; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Kasper, Michael; Koch, Thea; Richter, Torsten; Rocco, Patricia R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effects of different levels of spontaneous breathing during biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation on lung function and injury in an experimental model of moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multiple-arm randomized experimental study. University hospital research facility. Thirty-six juvenile pigs. Pigs were anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage. Biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation was conducted using the airway pressure release ventilation mode with an inspiratory/expiratory ratio of 1:1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four levels of spontaneous breath in total minute ventilation (n = 9 per group, 6 hr each): 1) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, 0%; 2) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 0-30%; 3) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 30-60%, and 4) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 60%. The inspiratory effort measured by the esophageal pressure time product increased proportionally to the amount of spontaneous breath and was accompanied by improvements in oxygenation and respiratory system elastance. Compared with biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation of 0%, biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation more than 60% resulted in lowest venous admixture, as well as peak and mean airway and transpulmonary pressures, redistributed ventilation to dependent lung regions, reduced the cumulative diffuse alveolar damage score across lungs (median [interquartile range], 11 [3-40] vs 18 [2-69]; p ventilation more than 0-30% and more than 30-60% showed a less consistent pattern of improvement in lung function, inflammation, and damage compared with biphasic positive airway

  1. Automated concept-level information extraction to reduce the need for custom software and rules development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Nguyen, Thien M; Goryachev, Sergey; Fiore, Louis D

    2011-01-01

    Despite at least 40 years of promising empirical performance, very few clinical natural language processing (NLP) or information extraction systems currently contribute to medical science or care. The authors address this gap by reducing the need for custom software and rules development with a graphical user interface-driven, highly generalizable approach to concept-level retrieval. A 'learn by example' approach combines features derived from open-source NLP pipelines with open-source machine learning classifiers to automatically and iteratively evaluate top-performing configurations. The Fourth i2b2/VA Shared Task Challenge's concept extraction task provided the data sets and metrics used to evaluate performance. Top F-measure scores for each of the tasks were medical problems (0.83), treatments (0.82), and tests (0.83). Recall lagged precision in all experiments. Precision was near or above 0.90 in all tasks. Discussion With no customization for the tasks and less than 5 min of end-user time to configure and launch each experiment, the average F-measure was 0.83, one point behind the mean F-measure of the 22 entrants in the competition. Strong precision scores indicate the potential of applying the approach for more specific clinical information extraction tasks. There was not one best configuration, supporting an iterative approach to model creation. Acceptable levels of performance can be achieved using fully automated and generalizable approaches to concept-level information extraction. The described implementation and related documentation is available for download.

  2. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels after treatment in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Xudong; Ren Hong; Xie Chuntao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels after treatment in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Serum levels of IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA) and IFN-γ (with ELISA) were measured both before and after treatment in 37 patients with psoriasis and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-2 levels in patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum TNF-α and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher (P<0.01). After treatment for 3 months, the levels though markedly corrected, were still significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: The levels of serum IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ increased significantly in patients with psoriasis especially in those advanced cases. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of determination of serum insulin-like growth factor II levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of the changes of serum insulinlike growth factor II (IGF-II) levels in patients with chronic obstruive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: The serum IGF-II levels was determined with radioimmunoassay in 60 patients with COPD and 30 controls. Results: The serum IGF-II levels in patients with COPD were significantly higher than those in controls (0.65 ± 0.22μg/L vs 0.51±0.18μg/L, P<0.01). There were no significant differences among the levels in patients of different stages (stages I, II, III). Levels of IGF-II were significantly higher in patients succumbed to the dis- ease than those in patients recoverd (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II levels were significantly increased in patients with COPD, especially in those succumbed. (authors)

  4. Undernutrition among adults in India: the significance of individual-level and contextual factors impacting on the likelihood of underweight across sub-populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Donato, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the extent to which individual-level as well as macro-level contextual factors influence the likelihood of underweight across adult sub-populations in India. Population-based cross-sectional survey included in India's National Health Family Survey conducted in 2005-06. We disaggregated into eight sub-populations. Multistage nationally representative household survey covering 99 % of India's population. The survey covered 124 385 females aged 15-49 years and 74 369 males aged 15-54 years. A social gradient in underweight exists in India. Even after allowing for wealth status, differences in the predicted probability of underweight persisted based upon rurality, age/maturity and gender. We found individual-level education lowered the likelihood of underweight for males, but no statistical association for females. Paradoxically, rural young (15-24 years) females from more educated villages had a higher likelihood of underweight relative to those in less educated villages; but for rural mature (>24 years) females the opposite was the case. Christians had a significantly lower likelihood of underweight relative to other socio-religious groups (OR=0·53-0·80). Higher state-level inequality increased the likelihood of underweight across most population groups, while neighbourhood inequality exhibited a similar relationship for the rural young population subgroups only. Individual states/neighbourhoods accounted for 5-9 % of the variation in the prediction of underweight. We found that rural young females represent a particularly highly vulnerable sub-population. Economic growth alone is unlikely to reduce the burden of malnutrition in India; accordingly, policy makers need to address the broader social determinants that contribute to higher underweight prevalence in specific demographic subgroups.

  5. Pre-storage centrifugation conditions have significant impact on measured microRNA levels in biobanked EDTA plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Helle Glud; Houlind, Kim; Madsen, Jonna Skov

    2016-01-01

    in platelets this may partly be explained by residual platelets in the plasma samples used. When collecting fresh plasma samples, it is possible to produce cell-free/platelet-poor plasma by centrifugation. In this study, we systematically investigated whether biobanked EDTA plasma samples could be processed...... to be suitable for miRNA analysis. Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from ten healthy volunteers and centrifuged to produce platelet-poor-plasma (PPP) and standard biobank plasma. After one week at -80 °C the biobanked EDTA plasma was re-centrifuged by different steps to remove residual...... platelets. Using RT-qPCR the levels of 14 miRNAs in the different plasma preparations were compared to that of PPP. Results: We were able to remove residual platelets from biobanked EDTA plasma by re-centrifugation of the thawed samples. Nevertheless, for most of the investigated miRNAs, the miRNA level...

  6. Regional groundwater chemical characteristics of Aqishan pre-selected site for high level radioactive waste repository and its hydrogeological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Dong Jiannan; Liu Shufen; Zhou Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Aqishan area located in Xinjiang Uygur Automonous Region is one of the main preselected site of disposal repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in our country. Groundwater chemical feature is one of the most important consideration factors in the siting and site evaluation for high-level radioactive waste repository, From 2012 to 2013, the regional field hydrogeochemical investigation was carried out in study area and more than 30 groundwater samples were collected. According to the measurement data, the groundwater chemical features for different subareas are discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the location of discharge area of groundwater in Aqishan area was estimated according to the chemical features of different subareas. (authors)

  7. Differences in self-regulatory skills among talented athletes: the significance of competitive level and type of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Research has shown that talented athletes outscore their mainstream peers on the basis of self-regulation. Although valuable, this does not tell us more about the distinction between good athletes and the best, which is a prerequisite in talent development. Therefore, we examined the self-regulatory skills of 222 male and female talented athletes aged 12-16 years as a function of competitive sport level (junior international or junior national athletes) and type of sport (individual or team sports). Multivariate analyses of covariance in combination with a discriminant function analysis revealed that "reflection" distinguishes between athletes at the highest levels of excellence. Furthermore, athletes playing individual sports had higher scores on "planning" and "effort" than team sport athletes, highlighting the importance of differences between types of sport. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of reflection as a self-regulatory skill. Reflection facilitates the development of sport-specific characteristics, which may vary by type of sport. This means that an advanced sense of reflection may help talented athletes to acquire desirable characteristics during their "talent" years to ultimately reach adult elite levels of competition.

  8. In middle-aged and old obese patients, training intervention reduces leptin level: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Rostás

    Full Text Available Leptin is one of the major adipokines in obesity that indicates the severity of fat accumulation. It is also an important etiological factor of consequent cardiometabolic and autoimmune disorders. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce leptin resistance and hyperleptinemia. Hyperleptinemia, on the other hand, may promote the development of age-related abnormalities. While major weight loss has been demonstrated to ameliorate hyperleptinemia, obese people show a poor tendency to achieve lasting success in this field. The question arises whether training intervention per se is able to reduce the level of this adipokine.We aimed to review the literature on the effects of training intervention on peripheral leptin level in obesity during aging, in order to evaluate the independent efficacy of this method. In the studies that were included in our analysis, changes of adiponectin levels (when present were also evaluated.3481 records were identified through searching of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library Database. Altogether 19 articles were suitable for analyses.Empirical research papers were eligible provided that they reported data of middle-aged or older (above 45 years of age overweight or obese (body mass index above 25 individuals and included physical training intervention or at least fitness status of groups together with corresponding blood leptin values.We used random effect models in each of the meta-analyses calculating with the DerSimonian and Laird weighting methods. I-squared indicator and Q test were performed to assess heterogeneity. To assess publication bias Egger's test was applied. In case of significant publication bias, the Duval and Tweedie's trim and fill algorithm was used.Training intervention leads to a decrease in leptin level of middle-aged or older, overweight or obese male and female groups, even without major weight loss, indicated by unchanged serum adiponectin levels. Resistance training

  9. Estimation of deltamethrin residues in cow's and goat's environment and trials to reduce its level in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halla E. K. El Bahgy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to estimate deltamethrin residues in cow's and goat's environment over a certain period of time post-application, to identify the role of both feed and water as a source of pesticides, and to conduct some trials to reduce their levels in milk. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 water and feed samples (40 of each and 120 milk samples (80 cow's milk and 40 goat's milk were collected. Fresh milk samples were collected directly from the udder as well as from feed and water before application and 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 15th, 21st, and 35th days after insecticide application. Results: Deltamethrin residues were detected after its application in both water and feed at different levels up to the first 3 days and in all cow's and goat's milk samples at 35th day. The highest levels were detected in milk samples at the 2nd day then at the 7th day followed at the 15th day after application as such levels were above the maximum residual limits. By microwaving the polluted cow's milk samples, deltamethrin residues were not detected without influencing the chemical composition of the milk. However, on freezing of milk, the deltamethrin residues reached 12.6±3.24 μg/L in association with a significant decline in the concentration of fat. Conclusion: Microwaving of milk is an effective method to decline deltamethrin concentration in milk.

  10. Protocol: a multi-level intervention program to reduce stress in 9-1-1 telecommunicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meischke, Hendrika; Lilly, Michelle; Beaton, Randal; Calhoun, Rebecca; Tu, Ann; Stangenes, Scott; Painter, Ian; Revere, Debra; Baseman, Janet

    2018-05-02

    Nationwide, emergency response systems depend on 9-1-1 telecommunicators to prioritize, triage, and dispatch assistance to those in distress. 9-1-1 call center telecommunicators (TCs) are challenged by acute and chronic workplace stressors: tense interactions with citizen callers in crisis; overtime; shift-work; ever-changing technologies; and negative work culture, including co-worker conflict. This workforce is also subject to routine exposures to secondary traumatization while handling calls involving emergency situations and while making time urgent, high stake decisions over the phone. Our study aims to test the effectiveness of a multi-part intervention to reduce stress in 9-1-1 TCs through an online mindfulness training and a toolkit containing workplace stressor reduction resources. The study employs a randomized controlled trial design with three data collection points. The multi-part intervention includes an individual-level online mindfulness training and a call center-level organizational stress reduction toolkit. 160 TCs will be recruited from 9-1-1 call centers, complete a baseline survey at enrollment, and are randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. Intervention group participants will start a 7-week online mindfulness training developed in-house and tailored to 9-1-1 TCs and their call center environment; control participants will be "waitlisted" and start the training after the study period ends. Following the intervention group's completion of the mindfulness training, all participants complete a second survey. Next, the online toolkit with call-center wide stress reduction resources is made available to managers of all participating call centers. After 3 months, a third survey will be completed by all participants. The primary outcome is 9-1-1 TCs' self-reported symptoms of stress at three time points as measured by the C-SOSI (Calgary Symptoms of Stress Inventory). Secondary outcomes will include: perceptions of social work

  11. Major features of immunesenescence, including reduced thymic output, are ameliorated by high levels of physical activity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Niharika Arora; Pollock, Ross D; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen; Lord, Janet M

    2018-04-01

    It is widely accepted that aging is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system including thymic atrophy and increased frequency of senescent T cells, leading to immune compromise. However, physical activity, which influences immunity but declines dramatically with age, is not considered in this literature. We assessed immune profiles in 125 adults (55-79 years) who had maintained a high level of physical activity (cycling) for much of their adult lives, 75 age-matched older adults and 55 young adults not involved in regular exercise. The frequency of naïve T cells and recent thymic emigrants (RTE) were both higher in cyclists compared with inactive elders, and RTE frequency in cyclists was no different to young adults. Compared with their less active counterparts, the cyclists had significantly higher serum levels of the thymoprotective cytokine IL-7 and lower IL-6, which promotes thymic atrophy. Cyclists also showed additional evidence of reduced immunesenescence, namely lower Th17 polarization and higher B regulatory cell frequency than inactive elders. Physical activity did not protect against all aspects of immunesenescence: CD28 -ve CD57 +ve senescent CD8 T-cell frequency did not differ between cyclists and inactive elders. We conclude that many features of immunesenescence may be driven by reduced physical activity with age. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Communication impairments in mice lacking Shank1: reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Wöhr

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior with restricted interests. Candidate genes for autism include the SHANK gene family, as mutations in SHANK2 and SHANK3 have been detected in several autistic individuals. SHANK genes code for a family of scaffolding proteins located in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. To test the hypothesis that a mutation in SHANK1 contributes to the symptoms of autism, we evaluated Shank1(-/- null mutant mice for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to autism, focusing on social communication. Ultrasonic vocalizations and the deposition of scent marks appear to be two major modes of mouse communication. Our findings revealed evidence for low levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marks in Shank1(-/- mice as compared to wildtype Shank1(+/+ littermate controls. Shank1(-/- pups emitted fewer vocalizations than Shank1(+/+ pups when isolated from mother and littermates. In adulthood, genotype affected scent marking behavior in the presence of female urinary pheromones. Adult Shank1(-/- males deposited fewer scent marks in proximity to female urine than Shank1(+/+ males. Call emission in response to female urinary pheromones also differed between genotypes. Shank1(+/+ mice changed their calling pattern dependent on previous female interactions, while Shank1(-/- mice were unaffected, indicating a failure of Shank1(-/- males to learn from a social experience. The reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior in Shank1(-/- mice are consistent with a phenotype relevant to social communication deficits in autism.

  13. Communication Impairments in Mice Lacking Shank1: Reduced Levels of Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Scent Marking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Markus; Roullet, Florence I.; Hung, Albert Y.; Sheng, Morgan; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior with restricted interests. Candidate genes for autism include the SHANK gene family, as mutations in SHANK2 and SHANK3 have been detected in several autistic individuals. SHANK genes code for a family of scaffolding proteins located in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. To test the hypothesis that a mutation in SHANK1 contributes to the symptoms of autism, we evaluated Shank1 −/− null mutant mice for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to autism, focusing on social communication. Ultrasonic vocalizations and the deposition of scent marks appear to be two major modes of mouse communication. Our findings revealed evidence for low levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marks in Shank1 −/− mice as compared to wildtype Shank1 +/+ littermate controls. Shank1 −/− pups emitted fewer vocalizations than Shank1+/+ pups when isolated from mother and littermates. In adulthood, genotype affected scent marking behavior in the presence of female urinary pheromones. Adult Shank1 −/− males deposited fewer scent marks in proximity to female urine than Shank1+/+ males. Call emission in response to female urinary pheromones also differed between genotypes. Shank1+/+ mice changed their calling pattern dependent on previous female interactions, while Shank1 −/− mice were unaffected, indicating a failure of Shank1 −/− males to learn from a social experience. The reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior in Shank1 −/− mice are consistent with a phenotype relevant to social communication deficits in autism. PMID:21695253

  14. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma leptin and serum NPY levels after hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhengping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum NPY levels after hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods: Plasma leptin and serum NPY levels were measured with RIA both before and after hemodialysis in 31 patients with chronic renal failure as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before hemodialysis,plasma leptin and serum NPY levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). After hemodialysis for 1 week the levels, though dropped markedly, still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: The levels of leptin and NPY were significantly increased in patients with chronic renal failare. Hemodialysis could increase, the clearance rate of leptin and NPY and partially correct the levels with important clinical value. (authors)

  15. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with children nephrotic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with children nephrotic syndrome. Methods: Plasma leptin (with RIA) serum IL-6, IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with children nephrotic syndrome both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment,the plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels were significantly higher than those in controls(P <0.01). After treatment for 3 months, the levels in patients though dropped markedly remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Plasma leptin levels were positively correlated with IL-6, IL-18 levels (r=0.6138, 0.5784, P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with children nephrotic syndrome. (authors)

  16. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Weiqun; Zhao Yushan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods: Plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels were determined with RIA in 32 patients with acute cerebral infarction both before and after treatment and 30 controls. Results: Before treatment plasma NPY levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the controls, while plasma CGRP and serum IGF-I levels were lower than those in controls (P<0.01). After treatment, plasma NPY levels decreased significantly (vs before treatment P<0.05), and plasma CGRP and serum IGF-I levels increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels were closely related to the disease process in patients with acute cerebral infarction, determination of which was of important clinical values. (authors)

  17. Clinical significance of determination of plasma ET and serum folic acid, vitamin B12 levels in patients with alzheimer diseases (AD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hongchao; Wang Jun; Jiang Jiandong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma endothelin(ET) and folic acid and Vitamin B 12 (VitB 12 ) levels in patients with Alzheimer diseases. Methods: Plasma levels of ET was determined with RIA and serum levels of Folic acid. VitaminB 12 were measured by automated chemiluminescence system in 41 patients with Alzheimer disease and 35 controls. Results: The plasma ET levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 12 levels were significantly lower (P 12 levels were mutually negatively correlated (r=-0.6018, -0.7124, P 12 levels was helpful for the prediction of treatment efficacy in patients with Alzheimer disease. (authors)

  18. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C; Lowen, Steven B; Trksak, George H; Maclean, Robert R; Lukas, Scott E

    2011-08-15

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABA(A) receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 min after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem's modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABA(A) receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prefrontal electrical stimulation in nondepressed reduces levels of reported negative affects from daily stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide H Austin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Negative emotional responses to the daily life stresses have cumulative effects which, in turn, impose wide-ranging negative constraints on emotional well being and neurocognitive performance (Kalueff et al, 2007, Charles et al, 2013, Nadler et al, 2010. Crucial cognitive functions such as memory and problem solving, as well more short term emotional responses (e.g., anticipation of- and response to- monetary rewards or losses are influenced by mood. The negative impact of these behavioural responses is felt at the individual level, but it also imposes major economic burden on modern healthcare systems. Although much research have been undertaken to understand the underlying mechanisms of depressed mood and design efficient treatment pathways, comparatively little was done to characterize mood modulations that remain within the boundaries of a healthy mental functioning. In one placebo-controlled experiments, we applied daily prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS at five points in time, and found reliable improvements on self-reported mood evaluation. We replicated this finding in an independent double-blinded placebo-controlled experiment and showed that stimulation over a shorter period of time (3 days is sufficient to create detectable mood improvements. Taken together, our data show that repeated bilateral prefrontal tDCS can reduce psychological distress in nondepressed individuals.

  20. Zolpidem reduces the blood oxygen level-dependent signal during visual system stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Lowen, Steven B.; Trksak, George H.; MacLean, Robert R.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting imidazopyridine hypnotic that binds at the benzodiazepine binding site on specific GABAA receptors to enhance fast inhibitory neurotransmission. The behavioral and receptor pharmacology of zolpidem has been studied extensively, but little is known about its neuronal substrates in vivo. In the present within-subject, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) at 3 Tesla was used to assess the effects of zolpidem within the brain. Healthy participants (n=12) were scanned 60 minutes after acute oral administration of zolpidem (0, 5, 10, or 20 mg), and changes in BOLD signal were measured in the visual cortex during presentation of a flashing checkerboard. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored continuously throughout the session. Zolpidem (10 and 20 mg) reduced the robust visual system activation produced by presentation of this stimulus, but had no effects on physiological activity during the fMRI scan. Zolpidem’s modulation of the BOLD signal within the visual cortex is consistent with the abundant distribution of GABAA receptors localized in this region, as well as previous studies showing a relationship between increased GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and a reduction in BOLD activation. PMID:21640782

  1. Quantitative correlation between promoter methylation and messenger RNA levels of the reduced folate carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheradpour Albert

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methotrexate (MTX uptake is mediated by the reduced folate carrier (RFC. Defective drug uptake in association with decreased RFC expression is a common mechanism of MTX resistance in many tumor types. Heavy promoter methylation was previously identified as a basis for the complete silencing of RFC in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, its role and prevalence in RFC transcription regulation are, however, not widely studied. Methods In the current study, RFC promoter methylation was assessed using methylation specific PCR in a panel of malignant cell lines (n = 8, including MDA-MB-231, and M805, a MTX resistant cell line directly established from the specimen of a patient with malignant fibrohistocytoma, whom received multiple doses of MTX. A quantitative approach of real-time PCR for measuring the extent of RFC promoter methylation was developed, and was validated by direct bisulfite genomic sequencing. RFC mRNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and were related to the extent of promoter methylation in these cell lines. Results A partial promoter methylation and RFC mRNA down-regulation were observed in M805. Using the quantitative approach, a reverse correlation (correlation coefficient = -0.59, p Conclusion This study further suggests that promoter methylation is a potential basis for MTX resistance. The quantitative correlation identified in this study implies that promoter methylation is possibly a mechanism involved in the fine regulation of RFC transcription.

  2. Reduced genetic distance and high replication levels increase the RNA recombination rate of hepatitis delta virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chi; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Iang, Shan-Bei; Chao, Mei

    2015-01-02

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication is carried out by host RNA polymerases. Since homologous inter-genotypic RNA recombination is known to occur in HDV, possibly via a replication-dependent process, we hypothesized that the degree of sequence homology and the replication level should be related to the recombination frequency in cells co-expressing two HDV sequences. To confirm this, we separately co-transfected cells with three different pairs of HDV genomic RNAs and analyzed the obtained recombinants by RT-PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing analyses. The sequence divergence between the clones ranged from 24% to less than 0.1%, and the difference in replication levels was as high as 100-fold. As expected, significant differences were observed in the recombination frequencies, which ranged from 0.5% to 47.5%. Furthermore, varying the relative amounts of parental RNA altered the dominant recombinant species produced, suggesting that template switching occurs frequently during the synthesis of genomic HDV RNA. Taken together, these data suggest that during the host RNA polymerase-driven RNA recombination of HDV, both inter- and intra-genotypic recombination events are important in shaping the genetic diversity of HDV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced GABA levels correlate with cognitive impairment in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

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    Cao, Guanmei; Gao, Fei; Gong, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Zhao, Bin [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan (China); Edden, Richard A.E. [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kennedy Krieger Institute, FM Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, Hao [Air Force General Hospital PLA, Beijing (China); Chen, Weibo [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai (China); Liu, Xiaohui [Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Neurology, Jinan (China)

    2018-03-15

    To investigate if brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are abnormal compared with healthy controls, and their relationship to cognitive function in RRMS. Twenty-eight RRMS patients and twenty-six healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3-T to detect GABA signals from posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left hippocampus using the 'MEGAPoint Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence' (MEGA-PRESS) technique. All subjects also underwent a cognitive assessment. In RRMS patients, GABA+ were lower in the PCC (p = 0.036) and left hippocampus (p = 0.039) compared with controls, decreased GABA+ in the PCC and left hippocampus were associated with specific cognitive functions (r = -0.452, p = 0.016 and r = 0.451, p = 0.016 respectively); GABA+ in the mPFC were not significantly decreased or related to any cognitive scores (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates that abnormalities of the GABAergic system may be present in the pathogenesis of RRMS and suggests a potential link between regional GABA levels and cognitive impairment in patients with RRMS. (orig.)

  4. Reduced levels of S-nitrosothiols in plasma of patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Devi; Abraham, David; Black, Carol M; Denton, Christopher P; Bruckdorfer, K Richard

    2014-12-01

    S-Nitrosothiols (RSNOs) are bioactive forms of nitric oxide which are involved in cell signalling and redox regulation of vascular function. Circulating S-nitrosothiols are predominantly in the form of S-nitrosoalbumin. In this study plasma concentrations of S-nitrosothiols were measured in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) where NO metabolism is known to be abnormal. Venous blood was collected from 16 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), 45 with systemic sclerosis (SSc) (34 patients had limited SSc (IcSSc) and 11 diffuse cutaneous disease (dcSSc)). Twenty six healthy subjects were used as controls. Plasma S-nitrosothiol concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence. The measurements were related to the extent of biological age, capillary/skin scores and disease duration. Plasma RSNO levels in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and in those with SSc was significantly lower compared to the concentrations in control subjects. In SSc, plasma S-nitrosothiols were often below the level of detection (1nM). Low S-nitrosothiol concentrations were observed in the blood of patients with SSc and patients with RP indicating a profound disturbance of nitric oxide metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced GABA levels correlate with cognitive impairment in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guanmei; Gao, Fei; Gong, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Zhao, Bin; Edden, Richard A.E.; Li, Hao; Chen, Weibo; Liu, Xiaohui

    2018-01-01

    To investigate if brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are abnormal compared with healthy controls, and their relationship to cognitive function in RRMS. Twenty-eight RRMS patients and twenty-six healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3-T to detect GABA signals from posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left hippocampus using the 'MEGAPoint Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence' (MEGA-PRESS) technique. All subjects also underwent a cognitive assessment. In RRMS patients, GABA+ were lower in the PCC (p = 0.036) and left hippocampus (p = 0.039) compared with controls, decreased GABA+ in the PCC and left hippocampus were associated with specific cognitive functions (r = -0.452, p = 0.016 and r = 0.451, p = 0.016 respectively); GABA+ in the mPFC were not significantly decreased or related to any cognitive scores (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates that abnormalities of the GABAergic system may be present in the pathogenesis of RRMS and suggests a potential link between regional GABA levels and cognitive impairment in patients with RRMS. (orig.)

  6. Intra-articular laser treatment plus Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) significantly reduces pain in many patients who had failed prior PRP treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromos, Chadwick C.; Finkle, Susan; Dawes, Alexander; Dizon, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: In our practice Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections effectively reduce pain in most but not all arthritic patients. However, for patients who fail PRP treatment, no good alternative currently exists except total joint replacement surgery. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the surface of the skin has not been helpful for arthritis patients in our experience. However, we hypothesized that intra-articular laser treatment would be an effective augmentation to PRP injection and would increase its efficacy in patients who had failed prior PRP injection alone. METHODS: We offered Intra-articular Low Level Laser Therapy (IAL) treatment in conjunction with repeat PRP injection to patients who had received no benefit from PRP injection alone at our center. They were the treatment group. They were not charged for PRP or IAL. They also served as a historical control group since they had all had failed PRP treatment alone. 28 patients (30 joints) accepted treatment after informed consent. 22 knees, 4 hips, 2 shoulder glenohumeral joints and 1 first carpo-metacarpal (1st CMC) joint were treated RESULTS: All patients were followed up at 1 month and no adverse events were seen from the treatment. At 6 months post treatment 46% of patients had good outcomes, and at 1 year 17% still showed improvement after treatment. 11 patients failed treatment and went on to joint replacement. DISCUSSION: A single treatment of IAL with PRP salvaged 46% of patients who had failed PRP treatment alone, allowing avoidance of surgery and good pain control.

  7. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum CA153, CA125 and TSGF levels after operation in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun; Wang Zhaoxin; Wang Yan; Wang Rui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes serum CA153, CA125 and TSGF levels after operation in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Serum CA153, CA125 and TSGF (with RIA) and serum TSGF levels (with biochemistry method) were measured in 36 patients with breast cancer both before and after operation as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before operation, serum levels of serum CA153, CA125 and TSGF in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P < 0.01 ). One month after operation, all the levels were approaching normal. Six months later, the levels in the patients without recurrence remained normal, however, the levels in the 4 patients with recurrence returned to those before operation again. Conclusion: Changes of serum CA153, CA125 and TSGF levels are closely related to the tumor burden and if levels were high after operation, may indicate the presence of recurrence. (authors)

  9. The beneficial effects of exercise on cartilage are lost in mice with reduced levels of ECSOD in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Kathryn M; Sherk, Vanessa D; Carpenter, R Dana; Weaver, Michael; Crapo, Silvia; Gally, Fabienne; Chatham, Lillian S; Goldstrohm, David A; Crapo, James D; Kohrt, Wendy M; Bowler, Russell P; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Regan, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-15

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with increased mechanical damage to joint cartilage. We have previously found that extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) is decreased in OA joint fluid and cartilage, suggesting oxidant damage may play a role in OA. We explored the effect of forced running as a surrogate for mechanical damage in a transgenic mouse with reduced ECSOD tissue binding. Transgenic mice heterozygous (Het) for the human ECSOD R213G polymorphism and 129-SvEv (wild-type, WT) mice were exposed to forced running on a treadmill for 45 min/day, 5 days/wk, over 8 wk. At the end of the running protocol, knee joint tissue was obtained for histology, immunohistochemistry, and protein analysis. Sedentary Het and WT mice were maintained for comparison. Whole tibias were studied for bone morphometry, finite element analysis, and mechanical testing. Forced running improved joint histology in WT mice. However, when ECSOD levels were reduced, this beneficial effect with running was lost. Het ECSOD runner mice had significantly worse histology scores compared with WT runner mice. Runner mice for both strains had increased bone strength in response to the running protocol, while Het mice showed evidence of a less robust bone structure in both runners and untrained mice. Reduced levels of ECSOD in cartilage produced joint damage when joints were stressed by forced running. The bone tissues responded to increased loading with hypertrophy, regardless of mouse strain. We conclude that ECSOD plays an important role in protecting cartilage from damage caused by mechanical loading. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Serum AMH levels in healthy women from BRCA1/2 mutated families: are they reduced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Derks-Smeets, Inge A P; Bos, Anna M E; Oosterwijk, Jan C; van Golde, Ron J; de Die-Smulders, Christine E; van der Kolk, Lizet E; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; Velthuizen, Maria E; Hoek, Annemieke; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Laven, Joop S E; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Broekmans, Frank J M

    2016-11-01

    Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a compromised ovarian reserve compared to proven non-carriers, based on serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels? BRCA1/2 mutation carriers do not show a lower serum AMH level in comparison to proven non-carriers, after adjustment for potential confounders. It has been suggested that the BRCA genes play a role in the process of ovarian reserve depletion, although previous studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the association between serum AMH levels and BRCA mutation status. Hence, it is yet unclear whether BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may indeed be at risk of a reduced reproductive lifespan. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was performed between January 2012 and February 2015 in 255 women. We needed to include 120 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 120 proven non-carriers to demonstrate a difference in AMH levels of 0.40 µg/l (SD ± 0.12 µg/l, two-sided alpha-error 0.05, power 80%). Healthy women aged 18-45 years who were referred to the Clinical Genetics Department and applied for predictive BRCA1/2 testing because of a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were asked to participate. A cross-sectional assessment was performed by measuring serum AMH levels and filling out a questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for age, current smoking and current hormonal contraceptive use were performed on log-transformed serum AMH levels. Out of 823 potentially eligible women, 421 (51.2%) were willing to participate, and of those, 166 (39%) did not meet our inclusion criteria. Two hundred and fifty-five women were available for analyses; 124 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 131 proven non-carriers. The median [range] AMH level in carriers was 1.90 µg/l [0.11-19.00] compared to 1.80 µg/l [0.11-10.00] in non-carriers (P = 0.34). Adjusted linear regression analysis revealed no reduction in AMH level in the carriers (relative change = 0.98 (95%CI, 0.77-1.22); P = 0.76). Participants

  11. Gestational or acute restraint in adulthood reduces levels of 5α-reduced testosterone metabolites in the hippocampus and produces behavioral inhibition of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia A Walf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stressors, during early life or adulthood, can alter steroid-sensitive behaviors, such as exploration, anxiety, and/or cognitive processes. We investigated if exposure to acute stressors in adulthood may alter behavioral and neuroendocrine responses of male rats that were exposed to gestational stress or not. We hypothesized that rats exposed to gestational and acute stress may show behavioral inhibition, increased corticosterone, and altered androgen levels in the hippocampus. Subjects were adult, male offspring of rat dams that were restrained daily on gestational days 14-20, or did not experience this manipulation. Immediately before testing, rats were restraint-stressed for 20 minutes or not. During week 1, rats were tested in a battery of tasks, including the open field, elevated plus maze, social interaction, tailflick, pawlick, and defensive burying tasks. During week 2, rats were trained and tested 24 hours later in the inhibitory avoidance task. Plasma corticosterone and androgen levels, and hippocampal androgen levels, were measured in all subjects. Gestational and acute restraint stress increased plasma levels of corticosterone, and reduced levels of testosterone’s 5α-reduced metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 3α-androstanediol, but not the aromatized metabolite, estradiol, in plasma or the hippocampus. Gestational and acute restraint stress reduced central entries made in the open field, and latencies to enter the shock-associated side of the inhibitory avoidance chamber during testing. Gestational stress reduced time spent interacting with a conspecific. These data suggest that gestational and acute restraint stress can have actions to produce behavioral inhibition coincident with increased corticosterone and decreased 5α-reduced androgens of adult male rats. Thus, gestational stress altered neural circuits involved in the neuroendocrine response to acute stress in early adulthood.

  12. [The physiologic significance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and changes in its erythrocyte levels in an experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béder, I; Orgonásová, M; Brozman, B; Horecký, J; Mataseje, A

    1990-05-01

    The regulatory effect of 2,3-DPG on oxygen transport and binding to hemoglobin was analyzed. Under conditions of substitution hemodilution by isooncotic 3.4% Rheodextran (Spofa), changes in the content of 2,3-DPG in arterial and venous blood were enzymatically determined over several days. Reference values of 2,3-DPG were obtained in the studied series of dogs (2.05 +/- 0.74 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 in whole blood 4.69 +/- 1.52 x 10(-6) mol.g-1 of erythrocyte volume, and 13.39 +/- 2.82 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 of hemoglobin). In anesthetized animals the content of 2,3-DPG in arterial blood was significantly higher (6.28 +/- 0.84 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 of erythrocyte volume) than in venous blood (6.01 +/- 0.80 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 of erythrocyte volume). At substitution hemodilution the 2,3-DPG content in erythrocytes of venous blood decreased from 5.46 +/- 0.67 to 4.97 +/- 1.31 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 of erythrocyte volume. The subsequent increase to 6.04 +/- 0.71 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 of erythrocyte volume was achieved by nonlinear increase over the following days, at persisting low hemoglobin content in blood.

  13. Clinical significance of determination of serum L-2, SL-2R and TNF-α levels in patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum L-2, SL-2R and TNF-α were significantly higher -α levels in patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis. Methods: Serum L-2, TNF 2R (with ELISA) levels in 42 patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis were measured, and 35 controls. Results: Serum levels of SL-2R and TNF-α were significantly higher in patients with diabetic-2 nephrosis than those in controls (P < 0.01), but serum L-2 levels were significantly lower in the patients (P < 0.01). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of diabetic-2 nephrosis and monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful to the management of the diseases. (authors)

  14. Clinical significance of determination of changes of plasma ET and serum TNF-α, CA19-9 levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Ying; Wang Hongliu; Feng Yuhua; Qian Junnan; Xia Xinghuan; Li Qiong; He Haoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET and serum TNF-α, CA19-9 levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Plasma ET and Serum TNF-α, CA19-9 levels were detected with RIA in 38 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the plasma ET and serum TNF-α, CA19-9 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). There were significantly positive correlation between the levels of plasma ET and serum TNF-α, CA19-9 levels (r=0.6118, 0.6014, P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of plasma ET and serum TNF-α, CA19-9 levels in clinically useful in the management of patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  15. Clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels after one month of comprehensive treatment in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured with RIA in 48 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum levels of IL-6, TNF- α in the patients were significantly higher and IL-2 levels were significantly lower than those in the controls (both P 0.05). However, the IL-2 levels were still significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There was disturbance of immuno-modulation in patients with periodontitis as expressed by the changes of cytokines levels in the course of the disease. (authors)

  16. Clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum T, E2, FSH, LH, PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wen; Wang Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum T, E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS). Methods: Plasma leptin (with RIA), serum T, E 2 , FSH, LH, PRL (with ECLIA) levels were detected in 31 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) as well as in 35 controls. Results: The plasma leptin and serum T, LH, PRL levels in the patients with PCOS were significantly higher than those in controls (P 2 , FSH levels were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05). Plasma leptin levels were positively correlated with those of serum T, LH, PRL (r=0.5784, 0.5411, 0.6082, P<0.01). Conclusion: Development of PCOS was closely related to the plasma leptin and serum T, LH, PRL levels. (authors)

  17. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Tao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods: Serum IGF-II (with RIA) and NO (with Biochemical method) levels were measured in 42 elderly patients with chronic bronchitis both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment in the patients the serum IGF-II levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), while the NO levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). After two weeks of treatment, the levels though dropped markedly, lemained higher than those in controls (P<0. 05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II and NO levels changes could reflect the disease status as well as the progress of diseases. (authors)

  18. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma Hcy and ET levels after treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Feng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma Hcy and ET levels in patients with AMI after treatment. Methods: Plasma Hcy and ET levels were measured with RIA in 33 patients with acute myocardial infarction both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Plasma Hcy and ET levels were significantly higher in the AMI patients than those in the controls before treatment and the levels were mutually positively correlated (P 0.05), but plasma ET levels, though dropped markedly remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of plasma Hcy and ET levels after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (authors)

  19. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Congjiang; Li Fen; Zhang Lei; Liu Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 levels were determined with RIA and IL-18 levels with ELISA in 32 patients with chronic renal diseases both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum IL -6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). After 6 months of treatment, the levels though dropped markedly remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Levels of serum IL-6, IL- 8, IL-10 and IL-18 increased significantly in patients with chronic renal diseases, especially in those advanced cases. (authors)

  20. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α, IL-6 levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Gu Ling; Zhang Yanjun; Huang Rongchong; Lu Yan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of the detection of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Methods: The serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were determined with RIA in 176 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and 30 controls. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in patients with CHF were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The levels increased along with the increase of severity of cardiac failure. The levels in patients with cardiac function of any grade were significantly different from those in patients with another grade of cardiac function. Conclusion: Immunological activation and myocardial inflammation exist in CHF patients. The increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-6 can trigger the onset and development of CHF. (authors)

  1. Reduced Serum Level of Interleukin-10 is Associated with Cerebral Infarction: A Case-Control and Meta-Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifei; Yang, Haiqing; Diao, Zengyan; Li, Yi; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2016-05-01

    IL-10 expression limits inflammation and restricts the size of CNS damage from stroke. In this study, we examined the correlation between cerebral infarction (CI) and serum levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) using a combination of case-control study and meta-analysis of published data, with an aim of understanding the relevance of serum IL-10 levels to CI development. This study enrolled a total of 169 CI patients admitted to the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University between May 2011 and November 2014. During the same period, a group of 145 individuals were recruited at the same hospital as healthy controls after thorough physical examination. Serum IL-10 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SPSS 19.0 (IBM, 2010, Chicago, IL, USA) and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) software were used for data analysis. Serum levels of IL-10 (pg/mL) were significantly lower in CI patients when compared to healthy controls (15.36 ± 3.21 vs. 21.64 ± 5.17, t = 13.12, P 0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicated that, with the exception of triglyceride (TG) and uric acid (UA) levels (both P > 0.05), the other seven parameters, including fasting blood glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), creatinine (Cr), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), strongly correlated with CI development (all P analysis of pooled data from nine case-control studies revealed an inverse correlation between the serum IL-10 levels and CI (SMD = 1.797, 95% CI 0.785~2.810, P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis based on country showed that low serum levels of IL-10 may be the major risk factor for CI in Croatia (SMD = 2.961, 95% CI 2.480~3.443, P analysis based on ethnicity showed that IL-10 serum levels and CI displayed negative relationship in Asians (SMD = 2.522, 95% CI 0.468~4.576, P = 0.016) but not in Caucasians (P > 0.05). Our study provided convincing evidence that the patients

  2. Metformin reduces serum CA199 levels in type 2 diabetes Chinese patients with time-effect and gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Hou, Wolin; Liu, Fang; Yin, Jun; Lu, Wei; Li, Ming; Zheng, Taishan; Lu, Fengdi; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to clarify the influence of metformin on serum carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) levels and its associated factors in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In total, 1,253 T2DM patients were enrolled, including a non-metformin group (n = 616), a short-term metformin group (at least 1 week to 2 years; n=325), and a long-term metformin group (≥ 2 years; n = 312). Their clinical and biochemical characteristics were collected and compared. After 1 year, the biochemical parameters were re-examined in 296 patients. Sex hormones were determined, and associations between CA199 and other variables were assessed. At baseline, the incidence of abnormal CA199 levels was 14.7%, 8.9%, and 4.7% in the non-metformin, short-term metformin, and long-term metformin groups, respectively. CA199 levels in females were significantly higher than in males (P non-metformin controls vs. 17.62 ± 10.87 U/mL in the short-term group vs. 10.54 ± 8.14 U/mL in the long-term group; P = 0.000). The correlation and multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that glycosylated hemoglobin, metformin, gender, total cholesterol, and follicle-stimulating hormone were independent impact factors on CA199 concentrations (all P Binary logistic regression revealed that the risk of abnormal CA199 concentrations of the total population with short-term metformin or long-term metformin treatment decreased 11% (odds ratio = 0.89; P = 0.001) and 30% (odds ratio = 0.70; P = 0.000), respectively, at baseline. After a 1-year follow-up, the incidence of high CA199 level decreased in both the short-term and the long-term metformin group compared with that of controls (P < 0.05). The extent of CA199 decrease in the long-term metformin group was the greatest (-17% vs. -4.9% in the short-term group vs. 3% in controls, P = 0.000), and the group's risk of high blood CA199 level was reduced 67% (odds ratio = 0.33; P = 0.023). The reduction in women was more apparent than that in men

  3. The clinical significance of follow up SCC levels in patients with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Min; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Lee, Kyoung Bok; Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Ju Ree; Sohn, Seung Chang

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the clinical usefulness of a follow-up examination using serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) for the early detection of recurrence in patients treated for cervical squamous cell carcinoma. 20 patients who were treated for recurrent cervical squamous cell carcinoma between 1997 and 1998, who had experienced a complete remission after radiotherapy and who underwent an SCC test around the time when recurrence was detected, were included in this study. The levels of SCC were measured from the serum of the patients by immunoassay and values less than 2 ng/mL were regarded as normal. The sensitivity of the SCC test for use in the detection of recurrence, the association between the SCC values and the recurrence patterns and the tumor size and stage, and the temporal relation between the SCC increment and recurrence detection were evaluated. The SCC values were above normal in 17 out of 20 patients, so the sensitivity of the SCC test for the detection of recurrence was 85%, and the mean and median of the SCC values were 15.2 and 9.5 ng/mL, respectively. No differences were observed in the SCC values according to the recurrence sites. For 11 patients, the SCC values were measured over a pero id of 6 months before recurrence was detected, and the mean and median values were 13.6 and 3.6 ng/mL, respectively. The SCC values of 7 patients were higher than the normal range, and the SCC values of the other 4 patients were normal but 3 among them were above 1.5 ng/mL. At the time of diagnosis, the SCC valuess were measured for 16 of the 20 recurrent patients, and the SCC values of the patients with a bulky tumor (≥ 4 cm) or who were in stage IIb or III were higher than those of the patients with a non-bulky tumor or who were in stage Ib or IIa. The SCC test is thought to be useful for the early detection of recurrence during the follow up period in patients treated for cervical squamous cell carcinoma. When an effective salvage treatment is developed in

  4. Emotional Freedom Techniques for Reducing Anxiety and Cortisol Level in Pregnant Adolescent Primiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardjan Mardjan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anxiety during pregnancy in  primiparous mother will be a hard burden because of the immature both psycologic and reproductive organs which can increase the risk of maternal mortality, infant mortality, prolonged childbirth, LBW, postpartum depression, etc. An effort to minimize the anxiety is the implementation of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques during the third trimester.  This research purposed to assess the effectiveness of EFT to decrease anxiety in facing childbirth. This research used the quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test method of treatment and control. The treatment was done during the third trimester, started and followed for 3 months ie month 7th, 8th, 9th. The EFT was implemented every month then continued independently by the mother, until before childbirth process. The research instrument used TMAS (Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and cortisol blood test. The subjects were 38 respondents consisted of 19 interventions and 19 controls. Result with paired t-test, TMAS1,2,3, each stage got significant difference, pre and post blood cortisol level p = 0.0001. Linear regression analysis on TMAS p = 0.001 and R² = 0.57, whereas blood cortisol level p = 0.004 and R² = 0.43. This analysis proved EFT contributed significantly 57% to lower anxiety levels and 43% to lower blood cortisol level, indirectly affected the readiness to face childbirth process.                                                            ABSTRAK         Kecemasan selama kehamilan pada ibu primipara akan memberatkan kondisi bayi dalam kandungan karena secara psikologis kejiwaannya belum siap dan organ reproduksi belum sempurna yang dapat meningkatkan risiko dalam persalinan dan merupakan salah satu faktor penyebab kematian ibu, bayi, partus lama, BBLR, depresi postpartum, dll. Upaya meminimalisasi kecemasan ini dilakukan dengan metode EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques selama trimester

  5. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  6. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail

  7. Acute low-level alcohol consumption reduces phase locking of event-related oscillations in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-07-14

    Event-related oscillations (EROs) are rhythmic changes that are evoked by a sensory and/or cognitive stimulus that can influence the dynamics of the EEG. EROs are defined by the decomposition of the EEG signal into magnitude (energy) and phase information and can be elicited in both humans and animals. EROs have been linked to several relevant genes associated with ethanol dependence phenotypes in humans and are altered in selectively bred alcohol-preferring rats. However, pharmacological studies are only beginning to emerge investigating the impact low intoxicating doses of ethanol can have on event-related neural oscillations. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of low levels of voluntary consumption of ethanol, in rats, on phase locking of EROs in order to give further insight into the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol on the brain. To this end, we allow rats to self-administer unsweetened 20% ethanol over 15 intermittent sessions. This method results in a stable low-dose consumption of ethanol. Using an auditory event-related potential "oddball" paradigm, we investigated the effects of alcohol on the phase variability of EROs from electrodes implanted into the frontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and amygdala. We found that intermittent ethanol self-administration was sufficient to produce a significant reduction in overall intraregional synchrony across all targeted regions. These data suggest that phase locking of EROs within brain regions known to be impacted by alcohol may represent a sensitive biomarker of low levels of alcohol intoxication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reducing Ambulance Diversion at Hospital and Regional Levels: Systemic Review of Insights from Simulation Models

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, M. Kit; Meng, Lesley J.; Mercer, Mary P.; Pines, Jesse M.; Owens, Douglas K.; Zaric, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Optimal solutions for reducing diversion without worsening emergency department (ED) crowding are unclear. We performed a systematic review of published simulation studies to identify: 1) the tradeoff between ambulance diversion and ED wait times; 2) the predicted impact of patient flow interventions on reducing diversion; and 3) the optimal regional strategy for reducing diversion. Methods: Data Sources: Systematic review of articles using MEDLINE, Inspec, Scopus. Additional st...

  9. Clinical significance of determination of plasma Leptin and serum Hcy, S100B and NSE levels in patients with alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Huanzhi; Lu Meng

    2011-01-01

    To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serun Hcy, S100B and NSE levels in patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD). The plasma leptin and serum NSE levels in 32 AD patients and 30 controls were determined by using RIA, and the serum Hcy and S100B levels were measured by using CLIA. The results showed that the plasma leptin and serun Hcy, S100B and NSE levels in AD patients were significantly higher than these in controls (P<0.01). The plasma leptin levels in AD patients was mutually positively correlated with serum Hcy, S100B and NSE levels (r=0.5982, 0.4762, 0.6014, P<0.01). The detection of plasma leptin and serum Hcy, S100B and NSE levels may be helpful for the prediction of treatment efficiency in patients with Alzheimer disease. (authors)

  10. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum NSE, SIL-2R and TNF levels in patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zongxian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To detect the changes of serum NSE, SIL-2R and TNF levels in the 33 patients with lung cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods: Serum NSE, SIL-2R and TNF levels were determined with RIA and SIL-2R levels with ELISA in 33 lung cancer patients both before and after chemotherapy (n=28) as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, serum NSE, SIL-2R and TNF levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). After chemotherapy, in 20 cases without recurrence at 6 months, the levels were much lower but still significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.05 ). However, in the 8 patients with recurrence, the levels increased again to approaching those before chemotherapy. Conclusion: Serum levels of NSE, SIL-2R and TNF might be useful for diagnosis and predicting therapeutic effects after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. (authors)

  11. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels after chemotherapy in patients with lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Men; Duo Huanzhi; Luo Guorong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2 and SIL-2R levels after chemotherapy in 36 patients with lung carcinoma. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 36 patients with lung carcinoma both before and after chemotherapy as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, those patients without recurrence (n=20) had their IL-2 and SIL-2R levels returned to normal but in those with recurrences (n=12) the levels were about the same as before. Conclusion: Cytokines IL-2 and SIL-2R levels changes could reflect the immunostatus of the patient as well as the progress of disease and could be of prognostic value. (authors)

  12. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-Ⅱ, L-6 levels after treatment in patients with child bronchopneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Hongxia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-Ⅱ, L-6 levels after treatment in patients with child bronchopneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-Ⅱ, L-6 levels were determined with RIA in 40 patients with child bronchopneumonia both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IGF-Ⅱ, L-6 levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination serum IGF-Ⅱ, L-6 levels in patients with child bronchopneumonia was important for diagnosis and outcome prediction. (authors)

  13. Clinical significance of combined determination of the changes of the serum ADA, HA and PIIIP levels in patients with hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of the changes of serum ADA, HA and PIIIP levels in patients with hepatitis B. Methods: Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) (with biochemistry) and HA PIIIP (with RIA) levels were determined in 102 patients with hepatitis B of various stages and 35 controls. Results: Serum ADA, HA and PIIIP levels in patients with hepatitis B were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). Particularly in patients with cirrhosis (n=13) (P<0.001). Conclusion: The serum ADA, HA and PIIIP levels were closely related to the diseases process of hepatitis B and were of great clinical values. (authors)

  14. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II, NO levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huajiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-II (with RIA) and NO (with Biochemical method) levels were measured in 38 pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients the serum IGF-II, and NO levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II and NO levels changes could reflect the disease status of the patients as well as the progress of diseases. (authors)

  15. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Zhang Shumin; Zhou Dongxia; Wang Enbo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6 (with RIA) and IL-18, IL-1β (with ELISA) levels were determined in 38 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL- 18 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL- 1β levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  16. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Xuefeng; Li Linlin; Shao Jun; Yao Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-2 and TNF-α (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were determined in 42 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum SIL-2R and TNF-α levels in patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Development of endometriosis were closely related to the serum levels of IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α. (authors)

  17. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum NO, NOS and GM-CSF levels after treatment in children with bronchopneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongmei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum NO, NOS and GM-CSF levels after treatment in children with bronchopneumonia. Methods: Serum GM-CSF levels were determined with RIA, and serum NO, NOS levels were determined with biochemical methods both before and after treatment in 48 children with bronehopneumonia as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum concentrations of NO, NOS and GM-CSF in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum NO, NOS and GM-CSF levels were useful for assessment of therapeutic efficacy. (authors)