Sample records for levels indicating sympathetic

  1. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Barber, Sarah J.; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V.; Mather, Mara


    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: 1) Immediate handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, 2) Residual handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip 15 min prior to encoding, or 3) No handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10 minutes after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal

  2. Float level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, M.Kh.; Laptev, A.G.; Pashkov, V.A.


    Specially developed level indicator is suggested with differential to-transformer converter of the float motion, operating in line with a movable electronic block, intended for indicating the level of the dissociating nitrogen tetroxide liquid phase. On the basis of the indicator elements the device is realized to measure the time of calibrated volume fillino. in by liquid nitrogen tetroxide in steady state operation of the experimental bench-marks [ru

  3. Water level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Michio; Araki, Hidefumi.


    A difference of pressure between a standard pressure conduit in communication with a gas phase of a reactor pressure vessel and a water level pressure conduit in communication with a liquid phase of the pressure vessel is detected by a pressure difference gage. A communication pipe and a standard level vessel are disposed between the pressure vessel and the standard pressure conduit, and a standard liquid surface on the side of the standard pressure conduit is formed in the standard level vessel. A gas releaser is disposed to the gas phase portion of the standard level vessel. The gas releaser equipment is constituted by a porous material, a permeation membrane and a gas exhaustion hole. The gas phase of the standard level vessel is divided by a partition plate into a first gas phase being in contact with a connection portion with the communication pipe and a second gas phase in contact with the gas releaser. A gas flow channel hole and a condensate descending hole are disposed to the partition plate. Since incondensible gases accumulated to the standard level vessel are effectively exhausted, the incondensible gases are prevented from being dissolved into liquid. (I.N.)

  4. Influence of exercise modality on cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic indices during post-exercise recovery. (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M


    This study investigated indirect measures of post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation (using heart-rate-variability, HRV) and sympathetic withdrawal (using systolic-time-intervals, STI) following upper- and lower-body exercise. Randomized, counter-balanced, crossover. 13 males (age 26.4±4.7years) performed maximal arm-cranking (MAX-ARM) and leg-cycling (MAX-LEG). Subsequently, participants undertook separate 8-min bouts of submaximal HR-matched exercise of each mode (ARM and LEG). HRV (including natural-logarithm of root-mean-square-of-successive-differences, Ln-RMSSD) and STI (including pre-ejection-period, PEP) were assessed throughout 10-min seated recovery. Peak-HR was higher (p=0.001) during MAX-LEG (182±7beatsmin -1 ) compared with MAX-ARM (171±12beatsmin -1 ), while HR (preflecting sympathetic withdrawal). Exercise modality appears to influence post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal in an intensity-dependent manner. These results highlight the need for test standardization and may be relevant to multi-discipline athletes and in clinical applications with varying modes of exercise testing. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sympathetic rhythms and nervous integration. (United States)

    Gilbey, Michael P


    1. The present review focuses on some of the processes producing rhythms in sympathetic nerves influencing cardiovascular functions and considers their potential relevance to nervous integration. 2. Two mechanisms are considered that may account for rhythmic sympathetic discharges. First, neuronal elements of peripheral or central origin produce rhythmic activity by phasically exciting and/or inhibiting neurons within central sympathetic networks. Second, rhythms arise within central sympathetic networks. Evidence is considered that indicates the operation of both mechanisms; the first in muscle and the second in skin sympathetic vasoconstrictor networks. 3. Sympathetic activity to the rat tail, a model for the nervous control of skin circulation, is regulated by central networks involved in thermoregulation and those associated with fear and arousal. In an anaesthetized preparation, activity displays an apparently autonomous rhythm (T-rhythm; 0.4-1.2 Hz) and the level of activity can be manipulated by regulating core body temperature. This model has been used to study rhythm generation in central sympathetic networks and possible functional relevance. 4. A unique insight provided by the T rhythm, into possible physiological function(s) underlying rhythmic sympathetic discharges is that the activity of single sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons within a population innervating the same target can have different rhythm frequencies. Therefore, the graded and dynamic entrainment of the rhythms by inputs, such as central respiratory drive and/or lung inflation-related afferent activity, can produce graded and dynamic synchronization of sympathetic discharges. The degree of synchronization may influence the efficacy of transmission in a target chain of excitable cells. 5. The T-rhythm may be generated within the spinal cord because the intrathecal application of 5-hydroxytryptamine at the L1 level of the spinal cord of a rat spinalized at T10-T11 produces a T-like rhythm

  6. Resting sympathetic arousal moderates the association between parasympathetic reactivity and working memory performance in adults reporting high levels of life stress. (United States)

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Roos, Leslie E; Skowron, Elizabeth A


    The neurovisceral integration model stipulates that autonomic function plays a critical role in the regulation of higher-order cognitive processes, yet most work to date has examined parasympathetic function in isolation from sympathetic function. Furthermore, the majority of work has been conducted on normative samples, which typically demonstrate parasympathetic withdrawal to increase arousal needed to complete cognitive tasks. Little is known about how autonomic regulation supports cognitive function in populations exposed to high levels of stress, which is critical given that chronic stress exposure alters autonomic function. To address this, we sought to characterize how parasympathetic (high-frequency heart rate variability, HF-HRV) and sympathetic (preejection period, PEP) measures of cardiac function contribute to individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity in a sample of high-risk women. HF-HRV and PEP were measured at rest and during a visual change detection measure of WM. Multilevel modeling was used to examine within-person fluctuations in WM performance throughout the task concurrently with HF-HRV and PEP, as well as between-person differences as a function of resting HF-HRV and PEP levels. Results indicate that resting PEP moderated the association between HF-HRV reactivity and WM capacity. Increases in WM capacity across the task were associated with increases in parasympathetic activity, but only among individuals with longer resting PEP (lower sympathetic arousal). Follow-up analyses showed that shorter resting PEP was associated with greater cumulative risk exposure. These results support the autonomic space framework, in that the relationship between behavior and parasympathetic function appears dependent on resting sympathetic activation. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Transportable type neutron level indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatskevich, M.V.; Kalinin, O.V.; Moskovkin, V.N.; Molchanov, A.V.; Bobkov, A.D.; Rabotnov, Yu.A.


    Some peculiarities of designing level neutron converters (LNC) for portable indicators or level neutron relays are considered. The effect of the LNC geometry and other factors on measurement errors has been studied. Calibration results of the LNC with a neutron reflector and without it are presented. It is shown that the problem of level monitoring with the help of portable indicators can be solved practically for any volume, provided two LNC modifications with reflectors are available: the NPU-G modification with horizontal location of a counter for large volumes and the NPU-V with vertical location of a counter for lesser volumes. A possibility of perfecting LNC performances by shielding the counter with thermal neutron absorbers has been studied. The design of the NPU-V modification for the NIUP-2 level indicator is described. It is intended for tubes and cylinders 30-100 mm in diameter. Measurements carried out on different steel and aluminium vessels with a diameter ranging from 300 to 100 mm and a wall thickness of up to 16 mm with the help of the NPU-V and NPU-G modifications proved the efficiency of the LNC to control a variety of products (kerosine, gasoline, oils, acids, alkalis) [ru

  8. 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels in pregnant women during workplace and nonworkplace stresses: a potential biologic marker of sympathetic activity. (United States)

    Katz, V L; Ekstrom, R D; Mason, G A; Golden, R N


    Melatonin production is regulated by both catecholamines and sympathetic activity. Urine levels of the major metabolite of melatonin, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, correlate well with serum melatonin levels and have been used to evaluate sympathetic output. We tested the hypothesis that urinary levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin would reflect the change in adrenergic activity on working days compared with nonworking days during pregnancy. Twenty-three healthy pregnant women, employed in a variety of occupations, including physicians, nurses, secretaries, salespeople, and laboratory workers were recruited from the clinics of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine. We measured 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels in first morning voids and for the subsequent 10 hours at 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks' gestation. Urine was collected in sets during working days and during nonworking days. 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin was measured by radioimmunoassay. In 11 women we also measured urine catecholamines by high-performance liquid chromatography. Levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin output did not change across gestation, although they tended to drift down as pregnancy progressed. Median levels at first morning void were 6.3 micrograms on workdays and 4.6 micrograms on nonworkdays. Although all values were skewed toward work being greater than nonwork, there were large interindividual variations. We therefore compared subjects against themselves and compared work levels for each subject to the corresponding gestational age-matched nonwork value. Among the 23 women, median 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were 81% greater during work than nonwork (p < 0.0002) when first morning collections were compared. Daytime urinary excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin on workdays was 38% (p < 0.005) greater than during nonworkdays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Hibernation or Resurrection? (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Doumas, Michael; Tsioufis, Costas

    The most current versions of renal sympathetic denervation have been invented as minimally invasive approaches for the management of drug-resistant hypertension. The anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of renal sympathetic innervation provide a strong background supporting an important role of the renal nerves in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and volume. In addition, historical data with surgical sympathectomy and experimental data with surgical renal denervation indicate a beneficial effect on BP levels. Early clinical studies with transcatheter radiofrequency ablation demonstrated impressive BP reduction, accompanied by beneficial effects in target organ damage and other disease conditions characterized by sympathetic overactivity. However, the failure of the SYMPLICITY 3 trial to meet its primary efficacy end point raised a lot of concerns and put the field of renal denervation into hibernation. This review aims to translate basic research into clinical practice by presenting the anatomical and physiological basis for renal sympathetic denervation, critically discussing the past and present knowledge in this field, where we stand now, and also speculating about the future of the intervention and potential directions for research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. SGR-76 gamma radiation level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubinskij-Nadezhdin, I.V.


    The design of a gamma-radiation level indicator is described; the instrument is part of a mobile radiometric laboratory (MRL). The design of the instrument permits gamma-radiation dose rates recording at 0.2-200 R/hr, and signals on gamma-background levels. The instrument has two separate threshold levels of signalling actuation. The light signalling at the first level is precautionary, and the sound signalling at the second level indicates the necessity of taking a decision as to whether or not the MRL can remain in the gamma-radiation field. Halogenic counters operating in a current mode are used as detectors. The basic error in recording the dose rate amounts to +-25%. Overall dimensions of the instrument 150x280x100 mm; weight less than 2.5 kg

  11. Statistical Indicators for Religious Studies: Indicators of Level and Structure (United States)

    Herteliu, Claudiu; Isaic-Maniu, Alexandru


    Using statistic indicators as vectors of information relative to the operational status of a phenomenon, including a religious one, is unanimously accepted. By introducing a system of statistic indicators we can also analyze the interfacing areas of a phenomenon. In this context, we have elaborated a system of statistic indicators specific to the…

  12. Optimal safety levels via social indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, N.C.; Nathwani, J.S.


    In the management of natural or technological hazards in a society, the objective should be to serve the public interest in a rational manner. Decisions with regard to risk levels for the public - if they are to be defensible and self-consistent - require an integrated system of values that covers the entire range of hazards under public regulation. The process for setting risk levels (or safety goals) should ideally involve a thorough consideration of cost and benefit of all kinds, supported by explicit quantified comparison on a widely acceptable scale. The purpose of the paper is to show how quantitative criteria within the context of an appropriate framework can be used to guide risk management decisions. Social indicators are time series, statistics that reflect some aspect of the quality of life in a society or group of individuals. Development, validation, and use of social indicators is an important current research activity, as exemplified by journals such as Social Indicators Research. The basic objective is to provide quantitative measures for assessing the rationales and effectiveness of public decision-making. The concept is applicable to the nuclear industry

  13. Netrin-1 controls sympathetic arterial innervation. (United States)

    Brunet, Isabelle; Gordon, Emma; Han, Jinah; Cristofaro, Brunella; Broqueres-You, Dong; Liu, Chun; Bouvrée, Karine; Zhang, Jiasheng; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Larrivée, Bruno; Jagu, Julia; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Pardanaud, Luc; Machado, Maria J C; Kennedy, Timothy E; Zhuang, Zhen; Simons, Michael; Levy, Bernard I; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger; Eichmann, Anne


    Autonomic sympathetic nerves innervate peripheral resistance arteries, thereby regulating vascular tone and controlling blood supply to organs. Despite the fundamental importance of blood flow control, how sympathetic arterial innervation develops remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the axon guidance cue netrin-1 as an essential factor required for development of arterial innervation in mice. Netrin-1 was produced by arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the onset of innervation, and arterial innervation required the interaction of netrin-1 with its receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), on sympathetic growth cones. Function-blocking approaches, including cell type-specific deletion of the genes encoding Ntn1 in SMCs and Dcc in sympathetic neurons, led to severe and selective reduction of sympathetic innervation and to defective vasoconstriction in resistance arteries. These findings indicate that netrin-1 and DCC are critical for the control of arterial innervation and blood flow regulation in peripheral organs.

  14. Relationship between Zinc Levels and Anthropometric Indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 24, 2018 ... Keywords: Anthropometric indices, female children, serum zinc, sickle cell anemia. Relationship ... with SCA have reduced weight, height, and BMI when compared with their .... to low self‑esteem and depression. There is ...

  15. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O


    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human...... sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are blocked. Blood flow has been measure by the local 133Xe-technique. The results indicate the presence of spinal as well as supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to human peripheral tissues. Especially is emphasized the presence of a local sympathetic veno...... skeletal muscle, cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues of the limbs indicate that the situation is more complex. Measurements have been carried out during acute as well as chronic sympathetic denervation. Spinal sympathetic reflex mechanisms have been evaluated in tetraplegic patients, where supraspinal...

  16. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve function in alcoholic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Andersen, K; Smith, T


    (18% and 48% decrease respectively). However, in three patients with moderate neuropathy, and in one patient with no signs of neuropathy, this veno-arteriolar reflex was absent, indicating dysfunction of the peripheral sympathetic adrenergic nerve fibres. The three patients also showed a lesser degree......The peripheral sympathetic vasomotor nerve function was investigated in 18 male chronic alcoholics admitted for intellectual impairment or polyneuropathy. By means of the local 133Xenon washout technique, the sympathetic veno-arteriolar axon-reflex was studied. This normally is responsible for a 50...... comprise not only the peripheral sensory and motor nerve fibres, but also the thin pseudomotor and vasomotor nerves....

  17. [Nerve growth factor and the physiology of pain: the relationships among interoception, sympathetic neurons and the emotional response indicated by the molecular pathophysiology of congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis]. (United States)

    Indo, Yasuhiro


    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor essential for the survival and maintenance of neurons. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in NTRK1, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkA, for NGF. Mutations in NTRK1 cause the selective loss of NGF-dependent neurons, including both NGF-dependent primary afferents and sympathetic postganglionic neurons, in otherwise intact systems. The NGF-dependent primary afferents are thinly myelinated AΔ or unmyelinated C-fibers that are dependent on the NGF-TrkA system during development. NGF-dependent primary afferents are not only nociceptive neurons that transmit pain and temperature sensation, but also are polymodal receptors that play essential roles for interoception by monitoring various changes in the physiological status of all tissues in the body. In addition, they contribute to various inflammatory processes in acute, chronic and allergic inflammation. Together with sympathetic postganglionic neurons, they maintain the homeostasis of the body and emotional responses via interactions with the brain, immune and endocrine systems. Pain is closely related to emotions that accompany physical responses induced by systemic activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to a negative image of emotions in daily life, Antonio Damasio proposed the 'Somatic Marker Hypothesis', wherein emotions play critical roles in the decision-making and reasoning processes. According to this hypothesis, reciprocal communication between the brain and the body-proper are essential for emotional responses. Using the pathophysiology of CIPA as a foundation, this article suggests that NGF-dependent neurons constitute a part of the neuronal network required for homeostasis and emotional responses, and indicates that this network plays important roles in mediating the reciprocal communication between the brain and the body-proper.

  18. Renal sympathetic denervation in hypertension. (United States)

    Doumas, Michael; Faselis, Charles; Papademetriou, Vasilios


    Despite the abundance of antihypertensive drugs, resistant hypertension remains a major clinical problem. Recent technological advances render interventional management of resistant hypertension one of the hottest topics in the hypertension field. The aim of this review is to present the pathophysiologic background and the mechanisms mediating blood pressure reduction after renal sympathetic denervation, to analyze recent findings with this fascinating approach and to critically suggest future research directions. Catheter-based, ablation-induced renal sympathetic denervation was initially studied in 45 patients with resistant hypertension in a proof-of-concept study. Impressive blood pressure reductions of about 30/15  mmHg were achieved at 6 months, without serious complications. A second, controlled, randomized (but not blinded) study confirmed the results, verifying the efficacy and safety of the procedure. A recent report revealed the 2-year durability of blood pressure reduction. Data published so far indicate that ablation-induced renal denervation is a feasible, effective, and well tolerated interventional approach for the management of resistant hypertension. The groundbreaking studies of renal denervation in drug-resistant hypertension pave the way for further research in other disease conditions in which sympathetic overactivity seems to play a critical role. This initial wave of enthusiasm needs to be followed by rigorous investigation, for the proper identification of the potential and the limitations, indications, and contraindications of this approach.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Zimovets, Ivan; Hu, Huidong; Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dai, Xinghua, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)


    The 2015 March 15 coronal mass ejection as one of the two that together drove the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far was associated with sympathetic filament eruptions. We investigate the relations between the different filaments involved in the eruption. A surge-like small-scale filament motion is confirmed as the trigger that initiated the erupting filament with multi-wavelength observations and using a forced magnetic field extrapolation method. When the erupting filament moved to an open magnetic field region, it experienced an obvious acceleration process and was accompanied by a C-class flare and the rise of another larger filament that eventually failed to erupt. We measure the decay index of the background magnetic field, which presents a critical height of 118 Mm. Combining with a potential field source surface extrapolation method, we analyze the distributions of the large-scale magnetic field, which indicates that the open magnetic field region may provide a favorable condition for F2 rapid acceleration and have some relation with the largest solar storm. The comparison between the successful and failed filament eruptions suggests that the confining magnetic field plays an important role in the preconditions for an eruption.

  20. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases pain behavior and the blood glucose level: possible involvement of sympathetic nervous system. (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won


    The relationship between interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection of IL-1β increased pain behavior. In addition, i.t. IL-1β injection caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. The time-course study showed that maximal blood glucose level was observed 30 and 60 min after i.t. IL-1β administration. Furthermore, i.t. injection of IL-1β enhanced the blood glucose level when mice were orally fed with d-glucose. The i.t. administration of IL-1β antagonist (AF12198) inhibited the hyperglycemia and pain behaviors induced by IL-1β. We found in the present study that adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA level was also increased by i.t. IL-1β injection. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with phentolamine (an α(1)-adrenergic blocker) or yohimbine (an α(2)-adrenergic blocker) significantly attenuated the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β administered i.t. However, the blood glucose level and pain behavior were not affected by butoxamine (a β(2)-adrenergic blocker), whereas metoprolol (a β(2)-adrenergic blocker) enhanced IL-1β-induced blood glucose level and pain behavior in mice fed with d-glucose. However, its effect was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that IL-1β administered i.t. increases the blood glucose level via an activation of α adrenergic nervous system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sympathetic chain Schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mashat, Faisal M.


    Schwannomas are rare, benign, slowly growing tumors arising from Schwann cells that line nerve sheaths. Schwannomas arising from the cervical sympathetic chain are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 70-year-old man who presented with only an asymptomatic neck mass. Physical examination revealed a left sided Horner syndrome and a neck mass with transmitted pulsation and anterior displacement of the carotid artery. Computed tomography (CT) showed a well-defined non-enhancing mass with vascular displacement. The nerve of origin of this encapsulated tumor was the sympathetic chain. The tumor was excised completely intact. The pathologic diagnosis was Schwannoma (Antoni type A and Antoni type B). The patient has been well and free of tumor recurrence for 14 months with persistence of asymptomatic left sided Horner syndrome. The clinical, radiological and pathological evaluations, therapy and postoperative complications of this tumor are discussed. (author)

  2. Predicting the Proficiency Level of Language Learners Using Lexical Indices (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle S.


    This study explores how second language (L2) texts written by learners at various proficiency levels can be classified using computational indices that characterize lexical competence. For this study, 100 writing samples taken from 100 L2 learners were analyzed using lexical indices reported by the computational tool Coh-Metrix. The L2 writing…

  3. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System. (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo


    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympathoexcitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel therapeutic

  4. The composite indicators used in assessing innovation at national level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela HINCU


    Full Text Available The purpose of present paper is to present some recent developments in constructing composite innovation (or even, science and technology S&T indicators on a national level. Measuring innovation at the national level is crucial in developing appropriate long term strategies for economic growth, because it is widely believed technological innovation is one of the main drivers of sustained economic-social welfare, if not the single most important driver of economic growth. Our purpose is to present a mapping exercise of metrics – based on composite indicators - found in the STI literature, pointing out those used in practice, with a view to corresponding values in the case of Romania. It has become standard practice to combine several indicators for science, technology, and innovation to form composite numbers. Composite indicators are increasingly being used to make cross-national comparisons of country performance in specified areas such as competitiveness, globalisation, innovation, etc.

  5. Ultrasonic level indicator for liquids and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanngiesser, P.


    Ultrasonic level indicator for liquids where a piezo-element is used to reverse the piezoelectric effect may be applied in a more versatile way if the indicator is provided with a reflector. It becomes less susceptible to faults and may be used for all liquids, including liquid metals. The piezo-element may then be used at the same time as receiver for ultrasonic waves emitted previously and, in that case, echoed back by the refelctor. (UWI) [de

  6. Resting sympathetic activity is associated with the sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal. (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Malterer, Katherine R; Matzek, Luke J; Levine, James A; Charkoudian, Nisha; Miles, John M; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B


    Individuals with high plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels at rest have a smaller reduction in resting energy expenditure (REE) following β -adrenergic blockade. If this finding extends to the response to a meal, it could have important implications for the role of the sympathetic nervous system in energy balance and weight gain. We hypothesized high muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) would be associated with a low sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal. Fourteen young, healthy adults completed two visits randomized to continuous saline (control) or intravenous propranolol to achieve systemic β -adrenergic blockade. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and REE were measured (indirect calorimetry) followed by a liquid mixed meal (Ensure). Measures of energy expenditure continued every 30 min for 5 h after the meal and are reported as an area under the curve (AUC). Sympathetic support of energy expenditure was calculated as the difference between the AUC during saline and β -blockade (AUC P ropranolol -AUC S aline , β -REE) and as a percent (%) of control (AUC P ropranolol ÷AUC S aline  × 100). β -REE was associated with baseline sympathetic activity, such that individuals with high resting MSNA (bursts/100 heart beats) and plasma NE had the greatest sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal (MSNA: β -REE R  =   -0.58, P =  0.03; %REE R  = -0.56, P =  0.04; NE: β -REE R  = -0.55, P  = 0.0535; %REE R  = -0.54, P  = 0.0552). Contrary to our hypothesis, high resting sympathetic activity is associated with a greater sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a liquid meal. These findings may have implications for weight maintenance in individuals with varying resting sympathetic activity. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  7. A neighborhood statistics model for predicting stream pathogen indicator levels. (United States)

    Pandey, Pramod K; Pasternack, Gregory B; Majumder, Mahbubul; Soupir, Michelle L; Kaiser, Mark S


    Because elevated levels of water-borne Escherichia coli in streams are a leading cause of water quality impairments in the U.S., water-quality managers need tools for predicting aqueous E. coli levels. Presently, E. coli levels may be predicted using complex mechanistic models that have a high degree of unchecked uncertainty or simpler statistical models. To assess spatio-temporal patterns of instream E. coli levels, herein we measured E. coli, a pathogen indicator, at 16 sites (at four different times) within the Squaw Creek watershed, Iowa, and subsequently, the Markov Random Field model was exploited to develop a neighborhood statistics model for predicting instream E. coli levels. Two observed covariates, local water temperature (degrees Celsius) and mean cross-sectional depth (meters), were used as inputs to the model. Predictions of E. coli levels in the water column were compared with independent observational data collected from 16 in-stream locations. The results revealed that spatio-temporal averages of predicted and observed E. coli levels were extremely close. Approximately 66 % of individual predicted E. coli concentrations were within a factor of 2 of the observed values. In only one event, the difference between prediction and observation was beyond one order of magnitude. The mean of all predicted values at 16 locations was approximately 1 % higher than the mean of the observed values. The approach presented here will be useful while assessing instream contaminations such as pathogen/pathogen indicator levels at the watershed scale.

  8. Sympathetic arousal, but not disturbed executive functioning, mediates the impairment of cognitive flexibility under stress. (United States)

    Marko, Martin; Riečanský, Igor


    Cognitive flexibility emerges from an interplay of multiple cognitive systems, of which lexical-semantic and executive are thought to be the most important. Yet this has not been addressed by previous studies demonstrating that such forms of flexible thought deteriorate under stress. Motivated by these shortcomings, the present study evaluated several candidate mechanisms implied to mediate the impairing effects of stress on flexible thinking. Fifty-seven healthy adults were randomly assigned to psychosocial stress or control condition while assessed for performance on cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, semantic fluency, and self-reported cognitive interference. Stress response was indicated by changes in skin conductance, hearth rate, and state anxiety. Our analyses showed that acute stress impaired cognitive flexibility via a concomitant increase in sympathetic arousal, while this mediator was positively associated with semantic fluency. Stress also decreased working memory capacity, which was partially mediated by elevated cognitive interference, but neither of these two measures were associated with cognitive flexibility or sympathetic arousal. Following these findings, we conclude that acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility via sympathetic arousal that modulates lexical-semantic and associative processes. In particular, the results indicate that stress-level of sympathetic activation may restrict the accessibility and integration of remote associates and bias the response competition towards prepotent and dominant ideas. Importantly, our results indicate that stress-induced impairments of cognitive flexibility and executive functions are mediated by distinct neurocognitive mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail:


    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  10. System for indicating the level of material in a container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, T.L.


    In a radiation detecting system for controlling the level of material in a container, the first counter accumulates pulses generated by a geiger tube at a rate related to the level of material and a second counter accumulates clock pulses. A race condition is established between a NAND circuit indicating that the first counter has reached a predetermined total, and a NAND circuit indicating that the second counter has reached a second predetermined total representing a fixed counting interval. The first NAND circuit to respond to its predetermined total actuates a circuit to reset both counters and, if indicative of the material level being below a predetermined minimum, actuates an alarm or operates a control circuit to add material to the container. In the example shown, an additional NAND circuit responds to a different count in the first counter which count in the same time interval corresponds to a higher level, and when material is being added to the container, the race condition is between two NAND circuits. The effect of this is to provide a hysteresis effect preventing the circuit from 'hunting' around one level of material. (author)

  11. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sook Min


    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2. However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI.

  12. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem


    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [tr

  13. Sympathetic Nerve Injury in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Diamantis


    Full Text Available The double innervation of the thyroid comes from the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Injury rates during surgery are at 30% but can be minimized by upwardly preparing the thyroid vessels at the level of thyroid capsule. Several factors have been accused of increasing the risk of injury including age and tumor size. Our aim was to investigate of there is indeed any possible correlations between these factors and a possible increase in injury rates following thyroidectomy. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical correlation was observed for a positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and thyroid malignancy surgery (p < 0.001; I2 = 74% No statistical correlations were observed for a negative or positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and tumor size. There was also no statistically significant value observed for the correlation of the patients’ age with the risk of sympathetic nerve injury (p = 0.388. Lack of significant correlation reported could be due to the small number of studies and great heterogeneity between them.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by chronic burning pain, restricted range of motion, oedema and vasolability. Patients are difficult to treat and the prognosis is very often poor. This report emphasizes that an amputation in case of a reflex sympathetic

  15. Effects of cilnidipine on sympathetic nerve activity and cardiorenal function in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: association with BNP and aldosterone levels. (United States)

    Tanaka, Masami; Sekioka, Risa; Nishimura, Takeshi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Itoh, Hiroshi


    Hypertension stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and this phenomenon is exacerbated by diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of cilnidipine, an N/L-type calcium channel blocker, on aspects of this system in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In 33 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with a calcium channel blocker other than cilnidipine, we evaluated the influence of switching to cilnidipine on blood pressure, heart rate, catecholamine, plasma renin and aldosterone concentration, brain natriuretic peptide, urine liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and urinary albumin excretion ratio in the same patients by a cross-over design. Other biochemical parameters were also evaluated. Switching to cilnidipine did not change blood pressure but caused reduction in catecholamine concentrations in blood and urine and plasma aldosterone concentration, accompanied by significant reduction in brain natriuretic peptide, urine liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and albumin excretion ratio. These parameters other than brain natriuretic peptide were significantly increased after cilnidipine was changed to the original calcium channel blocker. In 33 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, compared to other calcium channel blockers, cilnidipine suppressed sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone, and significantly improved markers of cardiorenal disorders. Therefore, cilnidipine may be an important calcium channel blocker for use in combination with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors when dealing with hypertension complicated with diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PCBs levels and indicator congeners in children's and adolescents' hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Baocui; Liu, Xinhui; Hou, Jing; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wenwen; Xu, Diandou; Zhang, Li


    Thirty polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the hair samples collected from children (4–12) and adolescents (13–18) of Changchun city, Northeastern China. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the adolescents' hair samples were 161.0 ng g −1 and 61.7 ng g −1 , which were relatively higher than 43.7 ng g −1 and 14.6 ng g −1 in the children's ones. Considering gender difference, the mean concentrations in the girls' hair samples were approximately two times higher than those in the boys' ones for most PCB congeners. The pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue. It was found that the levels of total PCBs and dl-PCBs were highly correlated with PCB 118 level in the children's hair samples, and with PCB 114 level in the adolescents' ones. The result demonstrated that the two PCB congeners could be applied as the indicators to evaluate the concentrations of total PCBs and dl-PCBs in children's and adolescents' hair, respectively. -- Highlights: • PCBs levels for most congeners were higher in the adolescents' hair samples. • The mean PCBs were approximately 2 times higher for girls except few congeners. • Pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue in the both hair samples. • PCB 118 and PCB 114 were the indicators for total PCBs and total dl-PCBs. -- The PCBs levels can be predicted conveniently by the congener-specific analysis

  17. Sympathetic arousal as a marker of chronicity in childhood stuttering. (United States)

    Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M


    This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. Participants were 9 children with persisting stuttering, 23 children who recovered, and 17 children who do not stutter. Participants performed a stress-inducing picture-naming task and skin conductance was measured across three time points. Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered. Findings are taken to suggest that sympathetic activity may be an early marker of heightened risk for chronic stuttering.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem R. Denisov


    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to show possible variants of audit in the higher educational institution while processes of internationalisation (procedures of definition of its level; to find out an estimation method of the received results in the given sphere.Methods. The methods involve comparative analysis, synthesis, range and systematization of information concerning the discussed problem.Results and scientific novelty. The necessity of universities participating in internationalization processes is proved. Existing approaches to internationalization evaluation levels are reviewed, as well as best practices for each criterion. Level indicators of considered process are proposed due to summarising the results of the given review, and also as a result of the coordination of criteria NAFSA and authors’ system of indicators: international programs supporting by a university administration, curricular changes, faculty involving into international research, faculty involving into teaching process, students participation, abroad study support, international students and teachers support. The research demonstrates that to improve the adequacy the system of indicators has to be supplemented with some indicators to evaluate the conformity of a university’s internationalization to its mission; the conformity of a university’s internationalization to the government geopolitics; extracurricular activities of students; cultural aspects of internationalization including communication with local ethnical groups; attractiongetting mechanisms for international students.Practical significance. The proposed system of indicators can be used for an estimation of high school development in internationalisation sphere, and under certain correction and improvement for efficiency definition of development of its academic divisions in the given field.

  19. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels. (United States)

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M


    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intracranial Pressure Is a Determinant of Sympathetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Schmidt


    Full Text Available Intracranial pressure (ICP is the pressure within the cranium. ICP rise compresses brain vessels and reduces cerebral blood delivery. Massive ICP rise leads to cerebral ischemia, but it is also known to produce hypertension, bradycardia and respiratory irregularities due to a sympatho-adrenal mechanism termed Cushing response. One still unresolved question is whether the Cushing response is a non-synaptic acute brainstem ischemic mechanism or part of a larger physiological reflex for arterial blood pressure control and homeostasis regulation. We hypothesize that changes in ICP modulates sympathetic activity. Thus, modest ICP increase and decrease were achieved in mice and patients with respectively intra-ventricular and lumbar fluid infusion. Sympathetic activity was gauged directly by microneurography, recording renal sympathetic nerve activity in mice and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in patients, and gauged indirectly in both species by heart-rate variability analysis. In mice (n = 15, renal sympathetic activity increased from 29.9 ± 4.0 bursts.s−1 (baseline ICP 6.6 ± 0.7 mmHg to 45.7 ± 6.4 bursts.s−1 (plateau ICP 38.6 ± 1.0 mmHg and decreased to 34.8 ± 5.6 bursts.s−1 (post-infusion ICP 9.1 ± 0.8 mmHg. In patients (n = 10, muscle sympathetic activity increased from 51.2 ± 2.5 bursts.min−1 (baseline ICP 8.3 ± 1.0 mmHg to 66.7 ± 2.9 bursts.min−1 (plateau ICP 25 ± 0.3 mmHg and decreased to 58.8 ± 2.6 bursts.min−1 (post-infusion ICP 14.8 ± 0.9 mmHg. In patients 7 mmHg ICP rise significantly increases sympathetic activity by 17%. Heart-rate variability analysis demonstrated a significant vagal withdrawal during the ICP rise, in accordance with the microneurography findings. Mice and human results are alike. We demonstrate in animal and human that ICP is a reversible determinant of efferent sympathetic outflow, even at relatively low ICP levels. ICP is a biophysical stress related to the forces within the brain. But ICP


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Romanchuk


    2Lviv State University Physical Culture The aim of this study was to determine the functional state cardiorespiratory system in males younger with "safe" level of somatic health (LSH. Were examined 104 males aged 20,6 ± 0,9 years, engaged in various sports, and had no existing acute and chronic diseases. The survey was conducted using spiroarteriocardiorhythmography (SACR. It is shown that in all studied systems of regulation, regulation except SBP probably marked differences between persons with "safe" and "low" LSH. At the same time, the comparison of "safe" and "medium" LSH differences relate only to the predominance of sympathetic influences on heart rate, decrease suprasegmental effects on DBP, reducing regulatory influences on spontaneous breath and their high-frequency components, reducing of baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac output. Key words: "safe" level of somatic health, regulation of the cardiorespiratory system.

  2. Raised Vaginal Fluid Fibronectin Level Indicates Premature Rupture of Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhowmik


    Full Text Available Background: Premature rupture of membrane (PROM is one of the common complications of pregnancy that has major impact on fetal and neonatal outcome. It is the commonest clinical event where a normal pregnancy becomes suddenly a high-risk one for mother and fetus or neonate. Objective: The study was undertaken to investigate whether raised fibronectin level in vaginal fluid may indicate premature rupture of membrane. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka during the period of January 2006 to December 2007. A total of 114 pregnant women with gestational age 28th week up to 40th week were included. Sixty were PROM (Group I and 54 were non-PROM (Group II subjects. Fibronectin in vaginal fluid was measured by an immunochemical reaction by nephelometer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 10.0. Results: The PROM patients had significantly higher concentration of fibronectin (225.77 ± 115.18 ng/mL compared to that in non-PROM subjects (8.04 ± 16.17 ng/mL (p < 0.001. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in cases of unequivocal rupture or intactness of the membranes, the result of the fibronectin test corresponds well with the clinical situation. So fibronectin is a sensitive test for detection of amniotic fluid in the vagina.

  3. determining food security indicators at household level in drought

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 21, 2012 ... the food insecure agro-ecological zones using indicators in drought prone areas of the Amhara region by .... the lowest tiers in the administrative structure .... influence the per capita kilocalorie .... feeding habit and culture.

  4. [Influence of Sympathetic Denervation of the Renal Artery on the Level of Arterial Blood Pressure, Cerebral Blood Flow and Cognitive Function In Patients With Resistant Arterial Hypertension]. (United States)

    Efimova, Y N; Lichikaki, A V; Lishmanov, B Y


    To study the effect of radiofrequency ablation of renal arteries on regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in patients with resistant arterial hypertension (AH). Transcatheter renal denervation (TRD) was performed in 17 patients with resistant AH. Examination before and after TRD included SPECT with mTc-HMPAO, 24-hours blood pressure (BP) monitoring, and comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Fifteen patients without angiographic signs of carotid atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and AH, neurological and psychiatric disorders were investigated as control group. Compared with control group patients with AH had decreases of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in right (by 13.5%, p=0.00002) and left (by 15.5%, p=0.0006) inferior frontal lobes, in right temporal brain region (by 11.5%, p=0.008); in right and left occipital lobes (by 8.2%, p=0.04). In 6 months after TRD we observed significant improvement of cognitive function, parameters of 24-hour BP monitoring, and rCBF. We also noted definite close interdependence between changes of rCBF, indices of 24-hours BP monitoring, and dynamics of cognitive function. Improvement of long-term verbal memory correlated with increases of rCBF in left superior frontal and right occipital regions while dynamics of mentation and attention correlated positively with augmentation of rCBF in right posterior parietal region. Changes of perfusion in inferior parts of left frontal lobe and in right occipital region correlated with dynamics of index of diurnal diastolic hypertension time (R2=0.64, p=0.001, and R2=0.60, p=0.03, respectively). Our results suggest, that in patients with resistant AH positive effect of TRD on levels of 24-hour mean BP as well as on indices of BP load leads to in augmentation of rCBF and improvement of cognitive function.

  5. Scaling Analysis of Author-Level Bibliometric Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth; Larsen, Birger


    Despite of the concerns from the bibliometric community, evaluation of the individual through bibliometric indices is already performed as a form of ‘pseudo peer review’ in selection of candidates for tenure, in background checks of potential employees’ publicationand citation impact, and in appr......Despite of the concerns from the bibliometric community, evaluation of the individual through bibliometric indices is already performed as a form of ‘pseudo peer review’ in selection of candidates for tenure, in background checks of potential employees’ publicationand citation impact......, and in appraisal of funding applications. We investigate the role of central and isolated indicators in the fields of Astronomy, Environmental Science, Philosophy and Public Health and the effect these have on author-rankings....

  6. Distinguishing Intensity Levels of Grassland Fertilization Using Vegetation Indices


    Jens L. Hollberg; Jürgen Schellberg


    Monitoring the reaction of grassland canopies on fertilizer application is of major importance to enable a well-adjusted management supporting a sustainable production of the grass crop. Up to date, grassland managers estimate the nutrient status and growth dynamics of grasslands by costly and time-consuming field surveys, which only provide low temporal and spatial data density. Grassland mapping using remotely-sensed Vegetation Indices (VIs) has the potential to contribute to solving these ...

  7. Botanical indices of ploidy levels in some African accessions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-nine accessions of Oryza punctata Kotschy ex Steud, from local and other African habitats were studied to establish the attributes that can delineate the two ploidy levels based on agro-botanical, foliar epidermal and nodal anatomical characteristics. The diploid plants of O. punctata are early-maturing annuals with a ...

  8. Indications for tonsillectomy stratified by the level of evidence (United States)

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.


    Background: One of the most significant clinical trials, demonstrating the efficacy of tonsillectomy (TE) for recurrent throat infection in severely affected children, was published in 1984. This systematic review was undertaken to compile various indications for TE as suggested in the literature after 1984 and to stratify the papers according to the current concept of evidence-based medicine. Material and methods: A systematic Medline research was performed using the key word of “tonsillectomy“ in combination with different filters such as “systematic reviews“, “meta-analysis“, “English“, “German“, and “from 1984/01/01 to 2015/05/31“. Further research was performed in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network and BMJ Clinical Evidence using the same key word. Finally, data from the “Trip Database” were researched for “tonsillectomy” and “indication“ and “from: 1984 to: 2015“ in combination with either “systematic review“ or “meta-analysis“ or “metaanalysis”. Results: A total of 237 papers were retrieved but only 57 matched our inclusion criteria covering the following topics: peritonsillar abscess (3), guidelines (5), otitis media with effusion (5), psoriasis (3), PFAPA syndrome (6), evidence-based indications (5), renal diseases (7), sleep-related breathing disorders (11), and tonsillitis/pharyngitis (12), respectively. Conclusions: 1) The literature suggests, that TE is not indicated to treat otitis media with effusion. 2) It has been shown, that the PFAPA syndrome is self-limiting and responds well to steroid administration, at least in a considerable amount of children. The indication for TE therefore appears to be imbalanced but further research is required to clarify the value of surgery. 3) Abscesstonsillectomy as a routine is not justified and indicated only for cases not responding to other measures of treatment, evident complications

  9. Mean 24-hours sympathetic nervous system activity decreases during head-down tilted bed rest but not during microgravity (United States)

    Christensen, Nj; Heer, M.; Ivanova, K.; Norsk, P.

    Sympathetic nervous system activity is closely related to gravitational stress in ground based experiments. Thus a high activity is present in the standing-up position and a very low activity is observed during acute head-out water immersion. Adjustments in sympathetic activity are necessary to maintain a constant blood pressure during variations in venous return. Head-down tilted bed rest is applied as a model to simulate changes observed during microgravity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that mean 24-hours sympathetic activity was low and similar during space flight and in ground based observation obtained during long-term head-down tilted bed rest. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline was measured by a radioenzymatic technique as an index of muscle sympathetic activity and thrombocyte noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured as indices of mean 24-hours sympathoadrenal activity. Previous results have indicated that thrombocyte noradrenaline level has a half-time of 2 days. Thus to reflect sympathetic activity during a specific experiment the study period must last for at least 6 days and a sample must be obtained within 12 hours after the experiment has ended. Ten normal healthy subjects were studied before and during a 14 days head-down tilted bed rest as well as during an ambulatory study period of a similar length. The whole experiment was repeated while the subjects were on a low calorie diet. Thrombocyte noradrenaline levels were studied in 4 cosmonauts before and within 12 hours after landing after more than 7 days in flight. Thrombocyte noradrenaline decreased markedly during the head-down tilted bed rest (pdifferent in cosmonauts and in subjects participating in the head down tilted bed rest study (170± 29% (Mean± SEM) vs. 57± 7%, respectively; presponse to combined effects of a reduced plasma volume and an increased vascular capacity in flight.

  10. Distinguishing Intensity Levels of Grassland Fertilization Using Vegetation Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens L. Hollberg


    Full Text Available Monitoring the reaction of grassland canopies on fertilizer application is of major importance to enable a well-adjusted management supporting a sustainable production of the grass crop. Up to date, grassland managers estimate the nutrient status and growth dynamics of grasslands by costly and time-consuming field surveys, which only provide low temporal and spatial data density. Grassland mapping using remotely-sensed Vegetation Indices (VIs has the potential to contribute to solving these problems. In this study, we explored the potential of VIs for distinguishing five differently-fertilized grassland communities. Therefore, we collected spectral signatures of these communities in a long-term fertilization experiment (since 1941 in Germany throughout the growing seasons 2012–2014. Fifteen VIs were calculated and their seasonal developments investigated. Welch tests revealed that the accuracy of VIs for distinguishing these grassland communities varies throughout the growing season. Thus, the selection of the most promising single VI for grassland mapping was dependent on the date of the spectra acquisition. A random forests classification using all calculated VIs reduced variations in classification accuracy within the growing season and provided a higher overall precision of classification. Thus, we recommend a careful selection of VIs for grassland mapping or the utilization of temporally-stable methods, i.e., including a set of VIs in the random forests algorithm.

  11. Inflammation in CRPS: role of the sympathetic supply. (United States)

    Schlereth, Tanja; Drummond, Peter D; Birklein, Frank


    Acute Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is associated with signs of inflammation such as increased skin temperature, oedema, skin colour changes and pain. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-1beta, IL-6) are up-regulated, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) are diminished. Adaptive immunity seems to be involved in CRPS pathophysiology as many patients have autoantibodies directed against β2 adrenergic and muscarinic-2 receptors. In an animal tibial fracture model changes in the innate immune response such as up-regulation of keratinocytes are also found. Additionally, CRPS is accompanied by increased neurogenic inflammation which depends mainly on neuropeptides such as CGRP and Substance P. Besides inflammatory signs, sympathetic nervous system involvement in CRPS results in cool skin, increased sweating and sympathetically-maintained pain. The norepinephrine level is lower in the CRPS-affected than contralateral limb, but sympathetic sprouting and up-regulation of alpha-adrenoceptors may result in an adrenergic supersensitivity. The sympathetic nervous system and inflammation interact: norepinephrine influences the immune system and the production of cytokines. There is substantial evidence that this interaction contributes to the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of CRPS, but this interaction is not straightforward. How inflammation in CRPS might be exaggerated by sympathetic transmitters requires further elucidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Myocardial Infarction Causes Transient Cholinergic Transdifferentiation of Cardiac Sympathetic Nerves via gp130. (United States)

    Olivas, Antoinette; Gardner, Ryan T; Wang, Lianguo; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Woodward, William R; Habecker, Beth A


    Sympathetic and parasympathetic control of the heart is a classic example of norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) triggering opposing actions. Sympathetic NE increases heart rate and contractility through activation of β receptors, whereas parasympathetic ACh slows the heart through muscarinic receptors. Sympathetic neurons can undergo a developmental transition from production of NE to ACh and we provide evidence that mouse cardiac sympathetic nerves transiently produce ACh after myocardial infarction (MI). ACh levels increased in viable heart tissue 10-14 d after MI, returning to control levels at 21 d, whereas NE levels were stable. At the same time, the genes required for ACh synthesis increased in stellate ganglia, which contain most of the sympathetic neurons projecting to the heart. Immunohistochemistry 14 d after MI revealed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in stellate sympathetic neurons and vesicular ACh transporter immunoreactivity in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cardiac sympathetic fibers. Finally, selective deletion of the ChAT gene from adult sympathetic neurons prevented the infarction-induced increase in cardiac ACh. Deletion of the gp130 cytokine receptor from sympathetic neurons prevented the induction of cholinergic genes after MI, suggesting that inflammatory cytokines induce the transient acquisition of a cholinergic phenotype in cardiac sympathetic neurons. Ex vivo experiments examining the effect of NE and ACh on rabbit cardiac action potential duration revealed that ACh blunted both the NE-stimulated decrease in cardiac action potential duration and increase in myocyte calcium transients. This raises the possibility that sympathetic co-release of ACh and NE may impair adaptation to high heart rates and increase arrhythmia susceptibility. Sympathetic neurons normally make norepinephrine (NE), which increases heart rate and the contractility of cardiac myocytes. We found that, after myocardial infarction, the sympathetic neurons

  13. Contamination Revealed by Indicator Microorganism Levels during Veal Processing. (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Wang, Rong; Luedtke, Brandon E; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad


    During site visits of veal processors, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has reported processing deficiencies that likely contribute to increased levels of veal contamination. Here, we report the results of measuring aerobic plate count bacteria (APC), Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms (CF), and Escherichia coli during eight sample collections at five veal processors to assess contamination during the harvest of bob veal and formula-fed veal before (n = 5 plants) and after (n = 3 plants) changes to interventions and processing practices. Hides of veal calves at each plant had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 6.02 to 8.07, 2.95 to 5.24, 3.28 to 5.83, and 3.08 to 5.59, respectively. Preintervention carcasses had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 3.08 to 5.22, 1.16 to 3.47, 0.21 to 3.06, and -0.07 to 3.10, respectively, before and 2.72 to 4.50, 0.99 to 2.76, 0.69 to 2.26, and 0.33 to 2.12, respectively, after changes were made to improve sanitary dressing procedures. Final veal carcasses had mean log CFU/100 cm(2) APC, Enterobacteriaceae, CF, and E. coli of 0.36 to 2.84, -0.21 to 1.59, -0.23 to 1.59, and -0.38 to 1.45 before and 0.44 to 2.64, -0.16 to 1.33, -0.42 to 1.20, and 0.48 to 1.09 after changes were made to improve carcass-directed interventions. Whereas the improved dressing procedures resulted in improved carcass cleanliness, the changes to carcass-directed interventions were less successful, and veal processors are urged to use techniques that ensure uniform and consistent delivery of antimicrobials to carcasses. Analysis of results comparing bob veal to formula-fed veal found bob veal hides, preintervention carcasses, and final carcasses to have increased (P 0.05) relative to formula fed veal. When both veal categories were harvested at the same plant on the same day, similar results were observed. Since identification by FSIS, the control of

  14. Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects (United States)

    Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos


    OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610

  15. Increase in Operator's Sympathetic Nerve Activity during Complicated Hepatobiliary Surgery: Evidence for Surgeons' Mental Stress. (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Hayashida, Naomi; Kuba, Sayaka; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Noritada; Takamura, Noboru; Eguchi, Susumu


    Surgeons often experience stress during operations. The heart rate variability (HRV) is the variability in the beat-to-beat interval, which has been used as parameters of stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mental stress of surgeons before, during and after operations, especially during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Additionally, the parameters were compared in various procedures during the operations. By frequency domain method using electrocardiograph, we measured the high frequency (HF) component, representing the parasympathetic activity, and the low frequency (LF)/HF ratio, representing the sympathetic activity. In all 5 cases of PD, the surgeon showed significantly lower HF component and higher LF/HF during operation, indicating predominance of sympathetic nervous system and increased stress, than those before the operation (p operation. Out of the 4 LDLT cases, the value of HF was decreased in two and the LF/HF increased in three cases (p operation compared to those before the operation. In all cases, the value of HF was decreased and/or the LF/HF increased significantly during the reconstruction of the vessels or bile ducts than during the removal of the liver. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity increased during hepatobiliary surgery compared with the level before the operation, and various procedures during the operations induced diverse changes in the autonomic nervous activities. The HRV analysis could assess the chronological changes of mental stress by measuring the autonomic nervous balances.

  16. Regional sympathetic denervation after myocardial infarction in humans detected noninvasively using I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, M.S.; Tuli, M.M.; Radtke, N.L.; Heger, J.J.; Miles, W.M.; Mock, B.H.; Burt, R.W.; Wellman, H.N.; Zipes, D.P. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, IN (USA))


    Transmural myocardial infarction in dogs produces denervation of sympathetic nerves in viable myocardium apical to the infarct that may be arrhythmogenic. It is unknown whether sympathetic denervation occurs in humans. The purpose of this study was to use iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiolabeled guanethidine analog that is actively taken up by sympathetic nerve terminals, to image noninvasively the cardiac sympathetic nerves in patients with and without ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. Results showed that 10 of 12 patients with spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial infarction exhibited regions of thallium-201 uptake indicating viable perfused myocardium, with no MIBG uptake. Such a finding is consistent with sympathetic denervation. One patient had frequent episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia induced at exercise testing that was eliminated by beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Eleven of the 12 patients had ventricular tachycardia induced at electrophysiologic study and metoprolol never prevented induction. Sympathetic denervation was also detected in two of seven postinfarction patients without ventricular arrhythmias. Normal control subjects had no regions lacking MIBG uptake. This study provides evidence that regional sympathetic denervation occurs in humans after myocardial infarction and can be detected noninvasively by comparing MIBG and thallium-201 images. Although the presence of sympathetic denervation may be related to the onset of spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias in some patients, it does not appear to be related to sustained ventricular tachycardia induced at electrophysiologic study.

  17. Pet measurements of presynaptic sympathetic nerve terminals in the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Hutchins, G.D.; Wieland, D.M.


    [ 18 F]Metaraminol (FMR) and [ 11 C]hydroxyephedrine (HED) are catecholamine analogues that have been developed at the University of Michigan for the noninvasive characterization of the sympathetic nervous system of the heart using positron emission tomography (PET). Pharmacological studies employing neurotoxins and uptake inhibitors have demonstrated that both FMR and HED specifically trace the uptake and storage of catecholamines in sympathetic nerve terminals with little nonspecific tracer accumulation. These compounds exhibit excellent qualitative imaging characteristics with heart-to-blood ratios exceeding 6:1 as early as 15 min after intravenous injection in both animals (HED and FMR) and humans (HED). Tracer kinetic modeling techniques have been employed for the quantitative assessment of neuronal catecholamine uptake and storage. Indices of neuronal function, such as the volume of tracer distribution derived from the kinetic models, have been employed in preliminary human studies. Comparison of the tissue distribution volume of HED between normal (control subjects) and denervated (recent transplant patients) cardiac tissue demonstrates a dynamic range of approximately 5:1. This distribution volume is reduced by 60% from normal in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, indicating dysfunction of the sympathetic system. These results show that HED used in combination with PET provides a sophisticated quantitative approach for studying the sympathetic nervous system of the normal and diseased human heart

  18. Innervating sympathetic neurons regulate heart size and the timing of cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal. (United States)

    Kreipke, R E; Birren, S J


    Sympathetic drive to the heart is a key modulator of cardiac function and interactions between heart tissue and innervating sympathetic fibres are established early in development. Significant innervation takes place during postnatal heart development, a period when cardiomyocytes undergo a rapid transition from proliferative to hypertrophic growth. The question of whether these innervating sympathetic fibres play a role in regulating the modes of cardiomyocyte growth was investigated using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to abolish early sympathetic innervation of the heart. Postnatal chemical sympathectomy resulted in rats with smaller hearts, indicating that heart growth is regulated by innervating sympathetic fibres during the postnatal period. In vitro experiments showed that sympathetic interactions resulted in delays in markers of cardiomyocyte maturation, suggesting that changes in the timing of the transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes could underlie changes in heart size in the sympathectomized animals. There was also an increase in the expression of Meis1, which has been linked to cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal, suggesting that sympathetic signalling suppresses cell cycle withdrawal. This signalling involves β-adrenergic activation, which was necessary for sympathetic regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. The effect of β-adrenergic signalling on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy underwent a developmental transition. While young postnatal cardiomyocytes responded to isoproterenol (isoprenaline) with a decrease in cell size, mature cardiomyocytes showed an increase in cell size in response to the drug. Together, these results suggest that early sympathetic effects on proliferation modulate a key transition between proliferative and hypertrophic growth of the heart and contribute to the sympathetic regulation of adult heart size. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  19. Egr3 dependent sympathetic target tissue innervation in the absence of neuron death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available Nerve Growth Factor (NGF is a target tissue derived neurotrophin required for normal sympathetic neuron survival and target tissue innervation. NGF signaling regulates gene expression in sympathetic neurons, which in turn mediates critical aspects of neuron survival, axon extension and terminal axon branching during sympathetic nervous system (SNS development. Egr3 is a transcription factor regulated by NGF signaling in sympathetic neurons that is essential for normal SNS development. Germline Egr3-deficient mice have physiologic dysautonomia characterized by apoptotic sympathetic neuron death and abnormal innervation to many target tissues. The extent to which sympathetic innervation abnormalities in the absence of Egr3 is caused by altered innervation or by neuron death during development is unknown. Using Bax-deficient mice to abrogate apoptotic sympathetic neuron death in vivo, we show that Egr3 has an essential role in target tissue innervation in the absence of neuron death. Sympathetic target tissue innervation is abnormal in many target tissues in the absence of neuron death, and like NGF, Egr3 also appears to effect target tissue innervation heterogeneously. In some tissues, such as heart, spleen, bowel, kidney, pineal gland and the eye, Egr3 is essential for normal innervation, whereas in other tissues such as lung, stomach, pancreas and liver, Egr3 appears to have little role in innervation. Moreover, in salivary glands and heart, two tissues where Egr3 has an essential role in sympathetic innervation, NGF and NT-3 are expressed normally in the absence of Egr3 indicating that abnormal target tissue innervation is not due to deregulation of these neurotrophins in target tissues. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate a role for Egr3 in mediating sympathetic target tissue innervation that is independent of neuron survival or neurotrophin deregulation.

  20. Short-chain fatty acids and ketones directly regulate sympathetic nervous system via G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41). (United States)

    Kimura, Ikuo; Inoue, Daisuke; Maeda, Takeshi; Hara, Takafumi; Ichimura, Atsuhiko; Miyauchi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Makio; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh


    The maintenance of energy homeostasis is essential for life, and its dysregulation leads to a variety of metabolic disorders. Under a fed condition, mammals use glucose as the main metabolic fuel, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the colonic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also contribute a significant proportion of daily energy requirement. Under ketogenic conditions such as starvation and diabetes, ketone bodies produced in the liver from fatty acids are used as the main energy sources. To balance energy intake, dietary excess and starvation trigger an increase or a decrease in energy expenditure, respectively, by regulating the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The regulation of metabolic homeostasis by glucose is well recognized; however, the roles of SCFAs and ketone bodies in maintaining energy balance remain unclear. Here, we show that SCFAs and ketone bodies directly regulate SNS activity via GPR41, a Gi/o protein-coupled receptor for SCFAs, at the level of the sympathetic ganglion. GPR41 was most abundantly expressed in sympathetic ganglia in mouse and humans. SCFA propionate promoted sympathetic outflow via GPR41. On the other hand, a ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate, produced during starvation or diabetes, suppressed SNS activity by antagonizing GPR41. Pharmacological and siRNA experiments indicated that GPR41-mediated activation of sympathetic neurons involves Gβγ-PLCβ-MAPK signaling. Sympathetic regulation by SCFAs and ketone bodies correlated well with their respective effects on energy consumption. These findings establish that SCFAs and ketone bodies directly regulate GPR41-mediated SNS activity and thereby control body energy expenditure in maintaining metabolic homeostasis.

  1. Paleo sea-level changes and relative sea-level indicators: Precise measurements, indicative meaning and glacial isostatic adjustment perspectives from Mallorca (Western Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorscheid, T; Stocchi, P.; Casella, E.; Gómez-Pujolf, L.; Vacchi, M.; Mann, T.; Rovere, A.


    Paleo relative sea-level (RSL) indicators formed during the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e have been reported bya large number of studies worldwide. Despite this, three main aspects are seldom reported: (1) use of high-precisionsurvey techniques applied to MIS 5e RSL indicators; (2) application of

  2. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautamaeki, Riikka; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Bengel, Frank M.


    Balance of the autonomic nervous system is essential for adequate cardiac performance, and alterations seem to play a key role in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases. PET imaging of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has advanced extensively in recent years, and multiple pre- and postsynaptic tracers have been introduced. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PET enables noninvasive quantification of neurophysiologic processes at the tissue level. Ligands for catecholamine receptors, along with radiolabeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs, have been applied to determine involvement of sympathetic dysinnervation at different stages of heart diseases such as ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmia. This review summarizes the recent findings in neurocardiological PET imaging. Experimental studies with several radioligands and clinical findings in cardiac dysautonomias are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Clinical evaluation of carbon-11-phenylephrine: MAO-sensitive marker of cardiac sympathetic neurons. (United States)

    Raffel, D M; Corbett, J R; del Rosario, R B; Gildersleeve, D L; Chiao, P C; Schwaiger, M; Wieland, D M


    The sympathomimetic drug phenylephrine recently has been labeled with 11C for use in PET studies of cardiac sympathetic innervation. Previous reports using isolated perfused rat heart models indicate that phenylephrine is metabolized by intraneuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO). This report compares the imaging characteristics, neuronal selectivity and kinetics of (-)-[11C]phenylephrine (PHEN) to the structurally similar but MAO-resistant analog (-)-[11C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED), an established heart neuronal marker. Fourteen healthy volunteers were studied with PET and PHEN. Ten had paired studies with HED; four of the 10 were scanned a second time with each tracer after oral administration of desipramine, a selective neuronal transport blocker. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic responses were monitored. Blood levels of intact radiotracer and radiolabeled metabolites were determined from venous blood samples taken during the PET study. Myocardial retention indices for both tracers were calculated. No hemodynamic or electrocardiographic effects were observed with either tracer. PHEN showed reduced myocardial retention at 50 min compared to HED; however, image quality and uniformity of distribution were comparable. PHEN cleared from myocardium with a mean half-time of 59 +/- 5 min, while myocardial levels of HED remained constant. PHEN metabolites appeared in the blood approximately three times faster than HED metabolites. Desipramine pretreatment markedly reduced (> 60%) myocardial retention of both PHEN and HED. PHEN provides PET images of human heart comparable in quality and uniformity to HED. Like HED, PHEN localizes in the sympathetic nerves of the heart. However, the more rapid efflux of PHEN, that is likely mediated by MAO, may provide information on the functional status of cardiac sympathetic neurons unobtainable with HED.

  4. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman


    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  5. A review of the characteristics of 108 author-level bibliometric indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna; Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Larsen, Birger


    of publication activity at the individual level. This paper reviews 108 indicators that can potentially be used to measure performance on individual author-level, and examines the complexity of their calculations in relation to what they are supposed to reflect and ease of end-user application. As such we...... provide a schematic overview of author-level indicators, where the indicators are broadly categorised into indicators of publication count, indicators that qualify output (on the level of the researcher and journal), indicators of the effect of output (effect as citations, citations normalized to field...... or the researcher’s body of work), indicators that rank the individual’s work and indicators of impact over time. Supported by an extensive appendix we present how the indicators are computed, the complexity of the mathematical calculation and demands to data-collection, their advantages and limitations as well...

  6. Sympathetic network drive during water deprivation does not increase respiratory or cardiac rhythmic sympathetic nerve activity. (United States)

    Holbein, Walter W; Toney, Glenn M


    Effects of water deprivation on rhythmic bursting of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were investigated in anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, euhydrated (control) and 48-h water-deprived (WD) rats (n = 8/group). Control and WD rats had similar baseline values of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and central respiratory drive. Although integrated splanchnic SNA (sSNA) was greater in WD rats than controls (P analysis of respiratory rhythmic bursting of sSNA revealed that inspiratory rhythmic burst amplitude was actually smaller (P analysis revealed that water deprivation had no effect on either the amplitude or periodicity of the cardiac rhythmic oscillation of sSNA. Collectively, these data indicate that the increase of sSNA produced by water deprivation is not attributable to either increased respiratory or cardiac rhythmic burst discharge. Thus the sympathetic network response to acute water deprivation appears to differ from that of chronic sympathoexcitation in neurogenic forms of arterial hypertension, where increased respiratory rhythmic bursting of SNA and baroreflex adaptations have been reported.

  7. A review of the characteristics of 108 author-level bibliometric indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth; Schneider, Jesper; Larsen, Birger


    of publication activity at the individual level. This paper reviews 108 indicators that can potentially be used to measure performance on individual author-level, and examines the complexity of their calculations in relation to what they are supposed to reflect and ease of end-user application. As such we......An increasing demand for bibliometric assessment of individuals has led to a growth of new bibliometric indicators as well as new variants or combinations of established ones. The aim of this review is to contribute with objective facts about the usefulness of bibliometric indicators of the effects...... provide a schematic overview of author-level indicators, where the indicators are broadly categorised into indicators of publication count, indicators that qualify output (on the level of the researcher and journal), indicators of the effect of output (effect as citations, citations normalized to field...

  8. Sympathetic, sensory, and nonneuronal contributions to the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to local cooling. (United States)

    Johnson, John M; Yen, Tony C; Zhao, Kun; Kosiba, Wojciech A


    Previous work indicates that sympathetic nerves participate in the vascular responses to direct cooling of the skin in humans. We evaluated this hypothesis further in a four-part series by measuring changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) from forearm skin locally cooled from 34 to 29 degrees C for 30 min. In part 1, bretylium tosylate reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-14 +/- 6.6% control CVC, first 5 min) to one of vasodilation (+19.7 +/- 7.7%) but did not affect the response at 30 min (-30.6 +/- 9% control, -38.9 +/- 6.9% bretylium; both P 0.05 between treatments). In part 2, yohimbine and propranolol (YP) also reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-14.3 +/- 4.2% control) to vasodilation (+26.3 +/- 12.1% YP), without a significant effect on the 30-min response (-26.7 +/- 6.1% YP, -43.2 +/- 6.5% control; both P 0.05 between sites). In part 3, the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 had no significant effect on either phase of vasoconstriction (P > 0.05 between sites both times). In part 4, sensory nerve blockade by anesthetic cream (Emla) also reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-20.1 +/- 6.4% control) to one of vasodilation (+213.4 +/- 87.0% Emla), whereas the final levels did not differ significantly (-37.7 +/- 10.1% control, -37.2 +/- 8.7% Emla; both P 0.05 between treatments). These results indicate that local cooling causes cold-sensitive afferents to activate sympathetic nerves to release norepinephrine, leading to a local cutaneous vasoconstriction that masks a nonneurogenic vasodilation. Later, a vasoconstriction develops with or without functional sensory or sympathetic nerves.

  9. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U


    vasoconstriction normally seen after lowering the forearm 40 cm below heart level was absent since SBF only decreased by 4% (+/- 7%, P greater than 0.1) during these conditions. In head-up vertical position we noticed a diminished baroreceptor response as SBF at heart level was reduced by 11% (+/- 7%, P greater...... than 0.1) compared to supine position. After proximal local anaesthesia SBF increased by 351% (+/- 81%, P less than 0.01) and disclosed a normal vasoconstrictor response as SBF was reduced by 53% (+/- 5%, P less than 0.01) during arm lowering. Five of the treated patients were restudied.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  10. Changes in the Skin Conductance Monitor as an End Point for Sympathetic Nerve Blocks. (United States)

    Gungor, Semih; Rana, Bhumika; Fields, Kara; Bae, James J; Mount, Lauren; Buschiazzo, Valeria; Storm, Hanne


    There is a lack of objective methods for determining the achievement of sympathetic block. This study validates the skin conductance monitor (SCM) as an end point indicator of successful sympathetic blockade as compared with traditional monitors. This interventional study included 13 patients undergoing 25 lumbar sympathetic blocks to compare time to indication of successful blockade between the SCM indices and traditional measures, clinically visible hyperemia, clinically visible engorgement of veins, subjective skin temperature difference, unilateral thermometry monitoring, bilateral comparative thermometry monitoring, and change in waveform amplitude in pulse oximetry plethysmography, within a 30-minute observation period. Differences in the SCM indices were studied pre- and postblock to validate the SCM. SCM showed substantially greater odds of indicating achievement of sympathetic block in the next moment (i.e., hazard rate) compared with all traditional measures (clinically visible hyperemia, clinically visible engorgement of veins, subjective temperature difference, unilateral thermometry monitoring, bilateral comparative thermometry monitoring, and change in waveform amplitude in pulse oximetry plethysmography; P ≤ 0.011). SCM indicated successful block for all (100%) procedures, while the traditional measures failed to indicate successful blocks in 16-84% of procedures. The SCM indices were significantly higher in preblock compared with postblock measurements (P SCM is a more reliable and rapid response indicator of a successful sympathetic blockade when compared with traditional monitors. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  11. Defining acceptable levels for ecological indicators: an approach for considering social values. (United States)

    Smyth, Robyn L; Watzin, Mary C; Manning, Robert E


    Ecological indicators can facilitate an adaptive management approach, but only if acceptable levels for those indicators have been defined so that the data collected can be interpreted. Because acceptable levels are an expression of the desired state of the ecosystem, the process of establishing acceptable levels should incorporate not just ecological understanding but also societal values. The goal of this research was to explore an approach for defining acceptable levels of ecological indicators that explicitly considers social perspectives and values. We used a set of eight indicators that were related to issues of concern in the Lake Champlain Basin. Our approach was based on normative theory. Using a stakeholder survey, we measured respondent normative evaluations of varying levels of our indicators. Aggregated social norm curves were used to determine the level at which indicator values shifted from acceptable to unacceptable conditions. For seven of the eight indicators, clear preferences were interpretable from these norm curves. For example, closures of public beaches because of bacterial contamination and days of intense algae bloom went from acceptable to unacceptable at 7-10 days in a summer season. Survey respondents also indicated that the number of fish caught from Lake Champlain that could be safely consumed each month was unacceptably low and the number of streams draining into the lake that were impaired by storm water was unacceptably high. If indicators that translate ecological conditions into social consequences are carefully selected, we believe the normative approach has considerable merit for defining acceptable levels of valued ecological system components.

  12. Assessing Metal Levels in Children from the Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma(MICA) study (United States)

    Toxic and essential metals levels can be used as health indicators. Here, we quantitatively compare and contrast toxic and essential metals levels in vacuum dust, urine, and fingernail samples of 109 children in Detroit, Michigan as part of The Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood...

  13. Effects of Test Level Discrimination and Difficulty on Answer-Copying Indices (United States)

    Sunbul, Onder; Yormaz, Seha


    In this study Type I Error and the power rates of omega (?) and GBT (generalized binomial test) indices were investigated for several nominal alpha levels and for 40 and 80-item test lengths with 10,000-examinee sample size under several test level restrictions. As a result, Type I error rates of both indices were found to be below the acceptable…

  14. Cognitive Indicators of Different Levels of Special Educational Support Needs in Autism (United States)

    Aljunied, Mariam; Frederickson, Norah


    Potential cognitive indicators of the level of special educational needs (SEN) were investigated in 52 children with autism. Two general indicators (intelligence quotient and cognitive modifiability) and three specific indicators (theory of mind, executive functioning and central coherence) were evaluated for their ability to discriminate three…

  15. Muscle afferent receptors engaged in augmented sympathetic responsiveness in peripheral artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua eLi


    Full Text Available The exercise pressor reflex (EPR is a neural control mechanism responsible for the cardiovascular responses to exercise. As exercise is initiated, thin fiber muscle afferent nerves are activated by mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising in the contracting muscles. This leads to reflex increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate primarily through activation of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Studies of humans and animals have indicated that the EPR is exaggerated in a number of cardiovascular diseases. For the last several years, studies have specifically employed a rodent model to examine the mechanisms at receptor and cellular levels by which responses of SNA and blood pressure to static exercise are heightened in peripheral artery disease (PAD, one of the most common cardiovascular disorders. A rat model of this disease has well been established. Specifically, femoral artery occlusion is used to study intermittent claudication that is observed in human PAD. The receptors on thin fiber muscle afferents that are engaged in this disease include transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1, purinergic P2X and acid sensing ion channel (ASIC. The role played by nerve growth factor (NGF in regulating those sensory receptors in the processing of amplified EPR was also investigated. The purpose of this review is to focus on a theme namely that PAD accentuates autonomic reflex responses to exercise and further address regulatory mechanisms leading to abnormal sympathetic responsiveness. This review will present some of recent results in regard with several receptors in muscle sensory neurons in contribution to augmented autonomic reflex responses in PAD. Review of the findings from recent studies would lead to a better understanding in integrated processing of sympathetic nervous system in PAD.

  16. Sympathetic cooling of ions in a hybrid atom ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeltkemeier, Bastian


    In this thesis the dynamics of a trapped ion immersed in a spatially localized buffer gas is investigated. For a homogeneous buffer gas, the ion's energy distribution reaches a stable equilibrium only if the mass of the buffer gas atoms is below a critical value. This limitation can be overcome by using multipole traps in combination and/or a spatially confined buffer gas. Using a generalized model for elastic collisions of the ion with the buffer gas atoms, the ion's energy distribution is numerically determined for arbitrary buffer gas distributions and trap parameters. Three regimes characterized by the respective analytic form of the ion's equilibrium energy distribution are found. One of these is a novel regime at large atom-to-ion mass ratios where the final ion temperature can tuned by adiabatically decreasing the spatial extension of the buffer gas and the effective ion trap depth (forced sympathetic cooling). The second part of the thesis presents a hybrid atom ion trap designed for sympathetic cooling of hydroxide anions. In this hybrid trap the anions are immersed in a cloud of laser cooled rubidium atoms. The translational and rovibrational temperatures of the anions is probed by photodetachment tomography and spectroscopy which shows the first ever indication of sympathetic cooling of anions by laser cooled atoms.

  17. Cardiorespiratory Coupling: Common Rhythms in Cardiac, Sympathetic, and Respiratory Activities (United States)

    Dick, Thomas E.; Hsieh, Yee-Hsee; Dhingra, Rishi R.; Baekey, David M.; Galán, Roberto F.; Wehrwein, Erica; Morris, Kendall F.


    Cardiorespiratory coupling is an encompassing term describing more than the well-recognized influences of respiration on heart rate and blood pressure. Our data indicate that cardiorespiratory coupling reflects a reciprocal interaction between autonomic and respiratory control systems, and the cardiovascular system modulates the ventilatory pattern as well. For example, cardioventilatory coupling refers to the influence of heart beats and arterial pulse pressure on respiration and is the tendency for the next inspiration to start at a preferred latency after the last heart beat in expiration. Multiple complementary, well-described mechanisms mediate respiration’s influence on cardiovascular function, whereas mechanisms mediating the cardiovascular system’s influence on respiration may only be through the baroreceptors but are just being identified. Our review will describe a differential effect of conditioning rats with either chronic intermittent or sustained hypoxia on sympathetic nerve activity but also on ventilatory pattern variability. Both intermittent and sustained hypoxia increase sympathetic nerve activity after 2 weeks but affect sympatho-respiratory coupling differentially. Intermittent hypoxia enhances sympatho-respiratory coupling, which is associated with low variability in the ventilatory pattern. In contrast, after constant hypobaric hypoxia, 1-to-1 coupling between bursts of sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity is replaced by 2-to-3 coupling. This change in coupling pattern is associated with increased variability of the ventilatory pattern. After baro-denervating hypobaric hypoxic-conditioned rats, splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity becomes tonic (distinct bursts are absent) with decreases during phrenic nerve bursts and ventilatory pattern becomes regular. Thus, conditioning rats to either intermittent or sustained hypoxia accentuates the reciprocal nature of cardiorespiratory coupling. Finally, identifying a compelling physiologic

  18. Adrenergic innervation of the developing chick heart: neural crest ablations to produce sympathetically aneural hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, M.; Stewart, D.


    Ablation of various regions of premigratory trunk neural crest which gives rise to the sympathetic trunks was used to remove sympathetic cardiac innervation. Neuronal uptake of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine was used as an index of neuronal development in the chick atrium. Following ablation of neural crest over somites 10-15 or 15-20, uptake was significantly decreased in the atrium at 16 and 17 days of development. Ablation of neural crest over somites 5-10 and 20-25 caused no decrease in [ 3 H]-norepinephrine uptake. Removal of neural crest over somites 5-25 or 10-20 caused approximately equal depletions of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine uptake in the atrium. Cardiac norepinephrine concentration was significantly depressed following ablation of neural crest over somites 5-25 but not over somites 10-20. Light-microscopic and histofluorescent preparations confirmed the absence of sympathetic trunks in the region of the normal origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves following neural crest ablation over somites 10-20. The neural tube and dorsal root ganglia were damaged in the area of the neural-crest ablation; however, all of these structures were normal cranial and caudal to the lesioned area. Development of most of the embryos as well as the morphology of all of the hearts was normal following the lesion. These results indicate that it is possible to produce sympathetically aneural hearts by neural-crest ablation; however, sympathetic cardiac nerves account for an insignificant amount of cardiac norepinephrine

  19. Global Fire Emissions Indicators, Country-Level Tabular Data: 1997-2015 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Fire Emissions Indicators, Country-Level Tabular Data: 1997-2015 contains country tabulations from 1997 to 2015 for the total area burned (hectares) and...

  20. Seasonal pH and carbondioxide level as indicator of vulnerability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal pH and carbondioxide level as indicator of vulnerability of fresh and marine ... are already evident but the impact of these changes on marine and coastal living ... and their potential impacts on global climate and aquatic ecosystems.

  1. The sympathetic nervous system in polycystic ovary syndrome: a novel therapeutic target? (United States)

    Lansdown, Andrew; Rees, D Aled


    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition associated with long-term health risks, including type 2 diabetes and vascular dysfunction in addition to reproductive sequelae. Many of the common features of PCOS, such as central obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), are associated with chronic sympathetic overactivity, suggesting that sympathoexcitation may be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. Rodent models of polycystic ovaries have shown that ovarian sympathetic outflow may be increased, accompanied by elevated intra-ovarian synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF) which may be involved in initiation of ovarian pathology. Patients with PCOS have evidence of increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), altered heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery postexercise, compared with age- and BMI-matched controls, suggesting a generalized increase in sympathetic nerve activity. Active weight loss can reduce MSNA and whole body noradrenaline spillover, whereas low-frequency electroacupuncture decreased MSNA in overweight women with PCOS. Treatment of OSA with continuous positive airways pressure may reduce plasma noradrenaline levels and diastolic blood pressure and improve cardiac sympathovagal balance. Renal sympathetic denervation also reduced MSNA, noradrenaline spillover and blood pressure in two PCOS subjects with hypertension, accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. The sympathetic nervous system may thus offer a new therapeutic target in PCOS but larger and longer-term studies are needed before these treatments can be considered in clinical practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. CBM Maze-Scores as Indicators of Reading Level and Growth for Seventh-Grade Students (United States)

    Chung, Siuman; Espin, Christine A.; Stevenson, Claire E.


    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status, scores and growth on a standardized reading test.…

  3. CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, S.; Espin, C.A.; Stevenson, C.E.

    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status,

  4. A Synthetic Indicator of a Company's Level of Intellectual Capital as a Hidden Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Dominiak


    Full Text Available The authors of the paper analyzed 21 common methods of measuring a company's intellectual capital, finding that none of them meet all 6 demands that a model indicator should satisfy. As a result, a new method was developed, which meets the conditions for a model indicator. Using the chosen expert method, a synthetic indicator of a company's level of intellectual capital (WPKI has been determined. The authors of the paper determine the WPKI indicator for public construction companies using the algorithm defining a hidden value. (original abstract

  5. Eppur Si Muove: The dynamic nature of physiological control of renal blood flow by the renal sympathetic nerves. (United States)

    Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter Ricci; Zucker, Irving H


    Tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response are widely appreciated as important regulators of renal blood flow, but the role of the sympathetic nervous system in physiological renal blood flow control remains controversial. Where classic studies using static measures of renal blood flow failed, dynamic approaches have succeeded in demonstrating sympathetic control of renal blood flow under normal physiological conditions. This review focuses on transfer function analysis of renal pressure-flow, which leverages the physical relationship between blood pressure and flow to assess the underlying vascular control mechanisms. Studies using this approach indicate that the renal nerves are important in the rapid regulation of the renal vasculature. Animals with intact renal innervation show a sympathetic signature in the frequency range associated with sympathetic vasomotion that is eliminated by renal denervation. In conscious rabbits, this sympathetic signature exerts vasoconstrictive, baroreflex control of renal vascular conductance, matching well with the rhythmic, baroreflex-influenced control of renal sympathetic nerve activity and complementing findings from other studies employing dynamic approaches to study renal sympathetic vascular control. In this light, classic studies reporting that nerve stimulation and renal denervation do not affect static measures of renal blood flow provide evidence for the strength of renal autoregulation rather than evidence against physiological renal sympathetic control of renal blood flow. Thus, alongside tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response, renal sympathetic outflow should be considered an important physiological regulator of renal blood flow. Clinically, renal sympathetic vasomotion may be important for solving the problems facing the field of therapeutic renal denervation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim V. Efimov


    Full Text Available Functional properties characterize the purpose of the aircraft and are described by its flight performance characteristics such as range and cruising speed, payload, runway characteristics, etc. Functional properties also characterize the aircraft efficiency that determines the objective need for their analysis by both aircraft designers and operators in conditions of permanent and systematic efficiency increase necessity. When choosing the aircraft, it is important for the operator to make sure that a selected aircraft type has a high level of functional properties, which will allow it to provide high operational efficiency without obsolescence in the long term. However, when choosing from several aircraft types the operator has to face the fact that some characteristics of considered aircraft variants are better and the others are worse that does not allow to definitely determine what aircraft type has a higher level of functional properties.The possibility of applying technical efficiency indicators and a generalized technical level indicator for analyzing the functional properties of civil aviation aircraft is explored in this article. Fuel, weight and target efficiency values as well as the previously improved technical level indicator value were calculated for the different generations and modifications of Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 families of medium-range airplanes, which was followed by the results interpretation within one airplane generation and when moving historically from one airplane generation to another. According to analysis results it is concluded that it is impossible to define the change of the aircraft functional properties level by the change in the values of separate technical efficiency indicators. Thus, it is proposed to use a generalized technical level indicator that determines the level of aircraft technical perfection for purpose and to use efficiency indicators to analyze the cost of providing this level of

  7. Sympathetic vasoconstriction takes an unexpected pannexin detour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schak Nielsen, Morten


    Sympathetic vasoconstriction plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and the distribution of blood flow. In this issue of Science Signaling, Billaud et al. show that sympathetic vasoconstriction occurs through a complex scheme involving the activation of large-pore pannexin 1...... channels and the subsequent release of adenosine triphosphate that promotes contraction in an autocrine and paracrine manner. This elaborate mechanism may function as a point of intercept for other signaling pathways-for example, in relation to the phenomenon "functional sympatholysis," in which exercise...... abrogates sympathetic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle. Because pannexin 1 channels are inhibited by nitric oxide, they may function as a switch to turn off adrenergic signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise....

  8. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator. (United States)

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A


    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  9. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrsa Bergmann Sverrisdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal studies indicates the importance of an interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and the endothelium for cardiovascular regulation. However the interaction between these two systems remains largely unexplored in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether directly recorded sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 10 healthy normotensive subjects (3 f/7 m, (age 37+/-11 yrs, (BMI 24+/-3 kg/m(2 direct recordings of sympathetic action potentials to the muscle vascular bed (MSNA were performed and endothelial function estimated with the Reactive Hyperaemia- Peripheral Arterial Tonometry (RH-PAT technique. Blood samples were taken and time spent on leisure-time physical activities was estimated. In all subjects the rate between resting flow and the maximum flow, the Reactive Hyperemic index (RH-PAT index, was within the normal range (1.9-3.3 and MSNA was as expected for age and gender (13-44 burst/minute. RH-PAT index was inversely related to MSNA (r = -0.8, p = 0.005. RH-PAT index and MSNA were reciprocally related to time (h/week spent on physical activity (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006 respectively and platelet concentration (PLT (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy normotensive individuals, indicating that sympathetic outflow may be modulated by changes in endothelial function. In this study time spent on physical activity is identified as a predictor of sympathetic nerve activity and endothelial function in a group of healthy individuals. The results are of importance in understanding mechanisms underlying sympathetic activation in conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction and emphasise the importance of a daily exercise routine for maintenance of cardiovascular

  10. Indication of prenatal diagnosis in pregnancies complicated by undetectable second-trimester maternal serum estriol levels. (United States)

    Minsart, Anne-Frédérique; Van Onderbergen, Anne; Jacques, Francotte; Kurt, Crener; Gillerot, Yves


    Undetectable maternal serum unconjugated estriol levels in the second-trimester screening test have been associated with congenital pathology and an adverse pregnancy outcome. We reviewed outcomes of pregnancies with undetectable levels of estriol (threatened fetal abortion, one case of multiple congenital anomalies and one case of isolated adrenocorticotropin hormone deficiency. There were 6 women remaining with unexplained undetectable estriol. Undetectable maternal estriol values may indicate a severe fetal pathology and should lead to further investigations.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 level as an indicator for restenosis following cervical and intracranial angioplasty and stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-peng Liu


    Full Text Available Cervical and intracranial angioplasty and stenting is an effective and safe method of reducing the risk of ischemic stroke, but it may be affected by in-stent restenosis. The present study investigated serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 as a predictor of restenosis after 40 patients underwent cervical and/or intracranial angioplasty and stenting. Results showed that restenosis occurred in 30% (3/10 of patients when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 at 3 days after surgery was 2.5 times higher than preoperative level. No restenosis occurred when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 at 3 days after surgery was not 2.5 times higher than preoperative level. Restenosis occurred in 12% (2/17 of patients when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 was higher than preoperative level for more than 30 days after surgery, but only occurred in 4% (1/23 of patients when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 was higher than preoperative level for less than 30 days after surgery. However, the differences observed were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Experimental findings indicate that when the serum level of matrix metalloproteinase 9 is 2.5 times higher than preoperative level at 3 days after cervical and intracranial angioplasty and stenting, it may serve as a predictor of in-stent restenosis.

  12. Temporal Synchronization Analysis for Improving Regression Modeling of Fecal Indicator Bacteria Levels (United States)

    Multiple linear regression models are often used to predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in recreational swimming waters based on independent variables (IVs) such as meteorologic, hydrodynamic, and water-quality measures. The IVs used for these analyses are traditiona...

  13. Literary ethnographic writing as sympathetic experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    perhaps only implicitly) of research. But we have no direct access to the subjective world of others and can only inhabit their point of view by way of imagination. Writing literary ethnographic text is one way, I will argue, of experimenting with such sympathetic imagination. By putting together observed...

  14. Thinking anxious, feeling anxious, or both? Cognitive bias moderates the relationship between anxiety disorder status and sympathetic arousal in youth. (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Vreeland, Allison; Piacentini, John


    Cognitive bias and physiological arousal are two putative markers that may underlie youth anxiety. However, data on relationships between cognitive bias and arousal are limited, and typically do not include behavioral measurement of these constructs in order to tap real-time processes. We aimed to examine the relationship between performance-based cognitive bias and sympathetic arousal during stress in clinically anxious and typically-developing youth. The sample included children and adolescents ages 9 to 17 (Mean age=13.18, SD=2.60) who either met diagnostic criteria for primary generalized anxiety, social phobia, or separation anxiety (N=24) or healthy controls who had no history of psychopathology (N=22). Youth completed performance-based measures of attention and interpretation bias. Electrodermal activity was assessed while youth participated in the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C; Buske-Kirschbaum, Jobst, & Wustmans, 1997). A mixed models analysis indicated significant linear and non-linear changes in skin conductance, with similar slopes for both groups. Interpretation bias, but not attention bias, moderated the relationship between group status and sympathetic arousal during the TSST-C. Arousal trajectories did not differ for anxious and healthy control youth who exhibited high levels of threat interpretation bias. However, for youth who exhibited moderate and low levels of interpretation bias, the anxious group demonstrated greater arousal slopes than healthy control youth. Results provide initial evidence that the relationship between anxiety status and physiological arousal during stress may be moderated by level of interpretation bias for threat. These findings may implicate interpretation bias as a marker of sympathetic reactivity in youth. Implications for future research and limitations are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Sympathetic activation during early pregnancy in humans (United States)

    Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Bivens, Tiffany B; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi


    Sympathetic activity has been reported to increase in normotensive pregnant women, and to be even greater in women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia at term. Whether sympathetic overactivity develops early during pregnancy, remaining high throughout gestation, or whether it only occurs at term providing the substrate for hypertensive disorders is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic activation occurs early during pregnancy in humans. Eleven healthy women (29 ± 3 (SD) years) without prior hypertensive pregnancies were tested during the mid-luteal phase (PRE) and early pregnancy (EARLY; 6.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and haemodynamics were measured supine, at 30 deg and 60 deg upright tilt for 5 min each. Blood samples were drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, and aldosterone. MSNA was significantly greater during EARLY than PRE (supine: 25 ± 8 vs. 14 ± 8 bursts min−1, 60 deg tilt: 49 ± 14 vs. 40 ± 10 bursts min−1; main effect, P < 0.05). Resting diastolic pressure trended lower (P = 0.09), heart rate was similar, total peripheral resistance decreased (2172 ± 364 vs. 2543 ± 352 dyne s cm−5; P < 0.05), sympathetic vascular transduction was blunted (0.10 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.47 units a.u.−1 min−1; P < 0.01), and both renin (supine: 27.9 ± 6.2 vs. 14.2 ± 8.7 pg ml−1, P < 0.01) and aldosterone (supine: 16.7 ± 14.1 vs. 7.7 ± 6.8 ng ml−1, P = 0.05) were higher during EARLY than PRE. These results suggest that sympathetic activation is a common characteristic of early pregnancy in humans despite reduced diastolic pressure and total peripheral resistance. These observations challenge conventional thinking about blood pressure regulation during pregnancy, showing marked sympathetic activation occurring within the first few weeks of conception, and may provide the substrate for pregnancy induced cardiovascular complications. PMID:22687610

  16. Decision making concept of risk control: integration of decision criteria, top level risk indices and plant performance indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Mavko, B.; Kozuh, M.


    A support system for risk monitoring and control is suggested. The following concepts of system elements are briefly discussed: risk curve partitioning, the reliability cost function, the multi-objective optimization model, preference assessment, safety/risk indicators, and knowledge based systems. (Z.S.) 2 figs

  17. Dynamic interaction between the heart and its sympathetic innervation following T5 spinal cord transection. (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E


    Midthoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with enhanced sympathetic support of heart rate as well as myocardial damage related to calcium overload. The myocardial damage may elicit an enhanced sympathetic support of contractility to maintain ventricular function. In contrast, the level of inotropic drive may be reduced to match the lower afterload that results from the injury-induced reduction in arterial pressure. Accordingly, the inotropic response to midthoracic SCI may be increased or decreased but has not been investigated and therefore remains unknown. Furthermore, the altered ventricular function may be associated with anatomical changes in cardiac sympathetic innervation. To determine the inotropic drive following midthoracic SCI, a telemetry device was used for repeated measurements of left ventricular (LV) function, with and without beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, in rats before and after midthoracic SCI or sham SCI. In addition, NGF content (ELISA) and dendritic arborization (cholera toxin B immunohistochemistry and Sholl analysis) of cardiac-projecting sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the stellate ganglia were determined. Midthoracic SCI was associated with an enhanced sympathetic support of heart rate, dP/dt(+), and dP/dt(-). Importantly, cardiac function was lower following blockade of the sympathetic nervous system in rats with midthoracic SCI compared with sham-operated rats. Finally, these functional neuroplastic changes were associated with an increased NGF content and structural neuroplasticity within the stellate ganglia. Results document impaired LV function with codirectional changes in chronotropic and inotropic responses following midthoracic SCI. These functional changes were associated with a dynamic interaction between the heart and its sympathetic innervation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eBadoer


    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation has called obesity a global epidemic. There is a strong association between body weight gain and blood pressure. A major determinant of blood pressure is the level of activity in sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs. A characteristic of obesity, in both humans and in animal models, is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity to the skeletal muscle vasculature and to the kidneys. Obesity is now recognised as a chronic, low level inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated including those produced by adipose tissue. The most well known adipokine released from fat tissue is leptin. The adipokine, resistin,, is also released from adipose tissue. Resistin can act in the central nervous system to influence the sympathetic nerve activity. Here, we review the effects of resistin on sympathetic nerve activity and compare them with leptin. We build an argument that resistin and leptin may have complex interactions. Firstly, they may augment each other as both are excitatory on sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs; In contrast, they could antagonize each other’s actions on brown adipose tissue, a key metabolic organ. These interactions may be important in conditions in which leptin and resistin are elevated, such as in obesity.

  19. NIKE: a new clinical tool for establishing levels of indications for cataract surgery. (United States)

    Lundström, Mats; Albrecht, Susanne; Håkansson, Ingemar; Lorefors, Ragnhild; Ohlsson, Sven; Polland, Werner; Schmid, Andrea; Svensson, Göran; Wendel, Eva


    The purpose of this study was to construct a new clinical tool for establishing levels of indications for cataract surgery, and to validate this tool. Teams from nine eye clinics reached an agreement about the need to develop a clinical tool for setting levels of indications for cataract surgery and about the items that should be included in the tool. The tool was to be called 'NIKE' (Nationell Indikationsmodell för Kataraktextraktion). The Canadian Cataract Priority Criteria Tool served as a model for the NIKE tool, which was modified for Swedish conditions. Items included in the tool were visual acuity of both eyes, patients' perceived difficulties in day-to-day life, cataract symptoms, the ability to live independently, and medical/ophthalmic reasons for surgery. The tool was validated and tested in 343 cataract surgery patients. Validity, stability and reliability were tested and the outcome of surgery was studied in relation to the indication setting. Four indication groups (IGs) were suggested. The group with the greatest indications for surgery was named group 1 and that with the lowest, group 4. Validity was proved to be good. Surgery had the greatest impact on the group with the highest indications for surgery. Test-retest reliability test and interexaminer tests of indication settings showed statistically significant intraclass correlations (intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] 0.526 and 0.923, respectively). A new clinical tool for indication setting in cataract surgery is presented. This tool, the NIKE, takes into account both visual acuity and the patient's perceived problems in day-to-day life because of cataract. The tool seems to be stable and reliable and neutral towards different examiners.

  20. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on cardiac sympathetic activity and function in patients with therapy resistant hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Peter M.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Daan W.; Dobrowolski, Linn C.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Verberne, Hein J.; Vogt, Liffert; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.


    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is currently being investigated in multiple studies of sympathetically driven cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure and arrhythmias. Our aim was to assess systemic and cardiac sympatholytic effects of RSD by the measurement of cardiac sympathetic activity

  1. Role of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in the patterning of vestibular system influences on sympathetic nervous system outflow to the upper and lower body. (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yates, Bill J


    Research on animal models as well as human subjects has demonstrated that the vestibular system contributes to regulating the distribution of blood in the body through effects on the sympathetic nervous system. Elimination of vestibular inputs results in increased blood flow to the hindlimbs during vestibular stimulation, because it attenuates the increase in vascular resistance that ordinarily occurs in the lower body during head-up tilts. Additionally, the changes in vascular resistance produced by vestibular stimulation differ between body regions. Electrical stimulation of vestibular afferents produces an inhibition of most hindlimb vasoconstrictor fibers and a decrease in hindlimb vascular resistance, but an initial excitation of most upper body vasoconstrictor fibers accompanied by an increase in upper body vascular resistance. The present study tested the hypothesis that neurons in the principal vasomotor region of the brainstem, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), whose projections extended past the T10 segment, to spinal levels containing sympathetic preganglionic neurons regulating lower body blood flow, respond differently to electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve than RVLM neurons whose axons terminate rostral to T10. Contrary to our hypothesis, the majority of RVLM neurons were excited by vestibular stimulation, despite their level of projection in the spinal cord. These findings indicate that the RVLM is not solely responsible for establishing the patterning of vestibular-sympathetic responses. This patterning apparently requires the integration by spinal circuitry of labyrinthine signals transmitted from the brainstem, likely from regions in addition to the RVLM.

  2. Exploring changes in open defecation prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa based on national level indices. (United States)

    Galan, Deise I; Kim, Seung-Sup; Graham, Jay P


    In sub-Saharan Africa, it is estimated that 215 million people continue to engage in open defecation. This practice facilitates the transmission of diarrheal diseases - one of the leading causes of mortality in children under 5 in sub-Saharan Africa. The main purpose of this study is to: estimate changes in open defecation prevalence between 2005 and 2010 across countries in sub-Saharan Africa; examine the association between national level indices and changes in open defecation prevalence; and assess how many countries can achieve 'open defecation free status' by 2015. After applying selection criteria, this study analyzed country-level data for 34 sub-Saharan African countries. Seven country-level indices were collected: 1) presence of a national sanitation policy; 2) budget line for sanitation; 3) budget allocated to sanitation; 4) annual per capita GDP; 5) GDP growth; 6) implementation of total sanitation approaches; and 7) per capita aid disbursement for water supply and sanitation. The relationships between these country-level indices and the change in open defecation from 2005 to 2010 were investigated using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test and Spearman's rank correlation test. Only 3 countries (i.e. Ethiopia, Angola and Sao Tome and Principe) decreased open defecation by 10% or more between 2005 and 2010. No significant associations were observed between the change in open defecation prevalence and all of national level indices except per capita aid disbursement. Per capita aid disbursement for water and sanitation was positively associated with a reduction in open defecation (p-value = 0.02) for a subset of 29 low-income countries from 2005 to 2010. Only one country in our analysis, Angola, is on track to end open defecation by 2015 based on their performance between 2000 and 2010. Most of the national level indices, including a country's economic status, were not associated with the change in the open defecation prevalence. Based on current trends, the goal


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiayan; Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang Bo


    On 2005 August 5, two solar filaments erupted successively from different confined arcades underlying a common overarching multiple-arcade bipolar helmet streamer. We present detailed observations of these two events and identify them as sympathetic filament eruptions. The first (F1) is a small active-region filament located near the outskirts of the streamer arcade. It underwent a nonradial eruption, initially moving in the interior of the streamer arcade and resulting in an over-and-out coronal mass ejection. The second filament (F2), a larger quiescent one far away from F1, was clearly disturbed during the F1 eruption. It then underwent a very slow eruption and finally disappeared completely and permanently. Because two belt-shaped diffuse dimmings formed along the footprints of the streamer arcade in the first eruption and persisted throughout the complete disappearance of F2, the eruption series are interpreted as sympathetic: the simple expansion of the common streamer arcade forced by the F1 eruption weakened magnetic flux overlying F2 and thus led to its slow eruption, with the dimming formation indicating their physical connection. Our observations suggest that multiple-arcade bipolar helmet-streamer configurations are appropriate to producing sympathetic eruptions. Combined with the recent observations of unipolar-streamer sympathetic events, it appears that a multiple-arcade unipolar or bipolar helmet streamer can serve as a common magnetic configuration for sympathetic eruptions.

  4. Neural correlates of fear-induced sympathetic response associated with the peripheral temperature change rate. (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Mika; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro


    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is essential for coping with environmental stressors such as fearful stimuli. Recent human imaging studies demonstrated that activity in some cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula cortex (aIC), is related to sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the functional brain connectivity related to sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. The participants were 32 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity when watching horror and control movies. Fingertip temperature was taken during the scanning as a measure of sympathetic response. The movies were watched a second time, and the degree of fear (9-point Likert-type scale) was evaluated every three seconds. The brain activity of the ACC, bilateral aIC, and bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) was correlated with the change rate of fingertip temperature, with or without fearful stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis revealed significantly greater positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ACC and between the amygdala and the aIC when watching the horror movie than when watching the control movie. Whole-brain psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that the functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC was modulated according to the fear rating. Our results indicate that the increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC represents a sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ortega


    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the relationship between the level of self-efficacy of the player with the ball in basketball, various performance indicators, and individual participation of the youth player in competition, with the goal of being able to establish initial values that help to define game styles and systems that are adapted to the characteristics of the youth player. In order to evaluate the levels of self-efficacy, a questionnaire was administered to 187 players from the under-16 age category. From a total of 22 games, the following variables related to the individual performance of the player were analyzed: a points scored; b shot attempts and shots made of 1, 2, and 3 points; c efficacy percentage of 1, 2, and 3-point shots; d rebounds made; and e personal fouls received. With regard to participation, the following variables were analyzed: f minutes played; g total time of ball possession; h number of ball possessions; i number of passes received; and j number of offensive phases in which the player participates. The results indicate that the performance and participation variables correctly classify 74.2% when differentiating between players with high and low levels of selfefficacy. The players with high levels of self-efficacy presented higher values in the different performance and participation variables than the players with low levels of self-efficacy.

  6. Indicative effects of climate change on groundwater levels in Estonian raised bogs over 50 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lode


    Full Text Available Analyses of 50-year (1962–2011 monthly air temperature and precipitation data indicated substantial climate change in the locations of two raised bogs (Linnusaare and Männikjärve in central-east Estonia. During recent years the cross-year winter air temperature increased by 1.7 ºC, while the cold-season precipitation increased by 4 mm. The fluctuation amplitude of temperature and precipitation values decreased. Snow depth proved to be the most sensitive variable to winter warming, followed by groundwater levels together with mean and maximum soil frosts. Long-term groundwater levels on the domes of the bogs and in the forested/treed lagg areas were 0.3−0.4 m and 0.4−0.8 m below the soil surface, respectively. Warming caused changes in groundwater level amplitude of 3−22 cm in the bog domes and 3−14 cm in the forested lagg zones. The lowest groundwater levels in ridge-pool ecotopes at Männikjärve rose by 6−10 cm (i.e. these ecotopes became wetter; but the incidence of low groundwater levels increased in most ecotopes, indicating a more general trend towards drier conditions in the bog.

  7. Application of indicator kriging to the complementary use of bioindicators at three trophic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rui; Tavares, Paula C.; Palma, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Sergio, Cecilia


    The use of biological indicators is widespread in environmental monitoring, although it has long been recognised that each bioindicator is generally associated with a range of potential limitations and shortcomings. To circumvent this problem, this study adopted the complementary use of bioindicators representing different trophic levels and providing different type of information, in an innovative approach to integrate knowledge and to estimate the overall health state of ecosystems. The approach is illustrated using mercury contamination in primary producers (mosses), primary consumers (domestic pigeons and red-legged partridges) and top predators (Bonelli's eagles) in southern Portugal. Indicator kriging geostatistics was used to identify the areas where mercury concentration was higher than the median for each species, and to produce an index that combines mercury contamination across trophic levels. Spatial patterns of mercury contamination were consistent across species. The combined index provided a new level of information useful in incorporating measures of overall environmental contamination into pollution studies. - Mercury levels in bioindicators at three trophic levels were combined using geostatistics to build an integrated environmental contamination index.

  8. Application of indicator kriging to the complementary use of bioindicators at three trophic levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rui, E-mail: rui.figueira@iict.p [Jardim Botanico Tropical, Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, Trav. Conde da Ribeira, 9, 1300-142 Lisboa (Portugal); CERENA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Tavares, Paula C. [CVRM-Geo-Systems Centre, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Palma, Luis [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Beja, Pedro [ERENA, Ordenamento e Gestao de Recursos Naturais, Rua Robalo Gouveia, 1-1A, 1900-392 Lisboa (Portugal); CIBIO, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, Campus Agrario de Vairao, Universidade do Porto, Vairao (Portugal); Sergio, Cecilia [Jardim Botanico, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Universidade de Lisboa, R. Escola Politecnica, 58, 1250-102 Lisboa (Portugal); CBA, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)


    The use of biological indicators is widespread in environmental monitoring, although it has long been recognised that each bioindicator is generally associated with a range of potential limitations and shortcomings. To circumvent this problem, this study adopted the complementary use of bioindicators representing different trophic levels and providing different type of information, in an innovative approach to integrate knowledge and to estimate the overall health state of ecosystems. The approach is illustrated using mercury contamination in primary producers (mosses), primary consumers (domestic pigeons and red-legged partridges) and top predators (Bonelli's eagles) in southern Portugal. Indicator kriging geostatistics was used to identify the areas where mercury concentration was higher than the median for each species, and to produce an index that combines mercury contamination across trophic levels. Spatial patterns of mercury contamination were consistent across species. The combined index provided a new level of information useful in incorporating measures of overall environmental contamination into pollution studies. - Mercury levels in bioindicators at three trophic levels were combined using geostatistics to build an integrated environmental contamination index.

  9. Assessment of left ventricular ejection force and sympathetic skin response in normotensive and hypertensive subjects: A double-blind observational comparative case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Saxena


    Conclusion: Stage 1 hypertension is a stage of increased sympathetic activity, leading to increased LVEF and hypertension (resetting of baroreceptors; stage 2 hypertension is a stage of normal sympathetic activity, increased LVEF, increased SV, and hypertension (possibly a stage of shift of renal equilibrium curve/renal output curve and blood pressure to a newer level.

  10. Identification of Appropriate Biodiversity Indicators for Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management at National Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolunay, A.; Akyol, A.


    Sustainable forest management (SFM) practices have started in 1999 in Turkey. A set of criteria and indicators, composed by the General Directorate of Forestry (GDF) on the basis of the criteria and indicators defined in the Pan-European and Near Eastern Processes, was enquired via a survey to serve this purpose. GDF tested the sustainability under the following titles: Situation of forest resources, biodiversity, health and vitality, production capacity and functions, protective functions and environmental and socio-economic functions. There were problems in identification and definition of SFM criteria and indicators. Biological diversity indicators has been selected, described and developed in this study. At this phase, the survey was completed upon receiving the views of the scientists interested in different dimensions of this topic as well as the views of other interest groups affiliated with forestry. As a result, there were 13 indicators that may be used as the basis of a regional or forest management unit level for the purpose of protecting, developing and maintaining biodiversity. Furthermore, these indicators are instruments, which may easily be used by relevant decision-makers in the management of forest resources in a more effective and productive manner. (author)

  11. Sympathetic stimulation alters left ventricular relaxation and chamber size. (United States)

    Burwash, I G; Morgan, D E; Koilpillai, C J; Blackmore, G L; Johnstone, D E; Armour, J A


    Alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility, relaxation, and chamber dimensions induced by efferent sympathetic nerve stimulation were investigated in nine anesthetized open-chest dogs in sinus rhythm. Supramaximal stimulation of acutely decentralized left stellate ganglia augmented heart rate, LV systolic pressure, and rate of LV pressure rise (maximum +dP/dt, 1,809 +/- 191 to 6,304 +/- 725 mmHg/s) and fall (maximum -dP/dt, -2,392 +/- 230 to -4,458 +/- 482 mmHg/s). It also reduced the time constant of isovolumic relaxation, tau (36.5 +/- 4.8 to 14.9 +/- 1.1 ms). Simultaneous two-dimensional echocardiography recorded reductions in end-diastolic and end-systolic LV cross-sectional chamber areas (23 and 31%, respectively), an increase in area ejection fraction (32%), and increases in end-diastolic and end-systolic wall thicknesses (14 and 13%, respectively). End-systolic and end-diastolic wall stresses were unchanged by stellate ganglion stimulation (98 +/- 12 to 95 +/- 9 dyn x 10(3)/cm2; 6.4 +/- 2.4 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 dyn x 10(3)/cm2, respectively). Atrial pacing to similar heart rates did not alter monitored indexes of contractility. Dobutamine and isoproterenol induced changes similar to those resulting from sympathetic neuronal stimulation. These data indicate that when the efferent sympathetic nervous system increases left ventricular contractility and relaxation, concomitant reductions in systolic and diastolic dimensions of that chamber occur that are associated with increasing wall thickness such that LV wall stress changes are minimized.

  12. SPEAR indicates pesticide effects in streams - Comparative use of species- and family-level biomonitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beketov, M.A.; Foit, K.; Schaefer, R.B.; Schriever, C.A.; Sacchi, A.; Capri, E.; Biggs, J.; Wells, C.; Liess, M.


    To detect effects of pesticides on non-target freshwater organisms the Species at risk (SPEAR pesticides ) bioindicator based on biological traits was previously developed and successfully validated over different biogeographical regions of Europe using species-level data on stream invertebrates. Since many freshwater biomonitoring programmes have family-level taxonomic resolution we tested the applicability of SPEAR pesticides with family-level biomonitoring data to indicate pesticide effects in streams (i.e. insecticide toxicity of pesticides). The study showed that the explanatory power of the family-level SPEAR(fm) pesticides is not significantly lower than the species-level index. The results suggest that the family-level SPEAR(fm) pesticides is a sensitive, cost-effective, and potentially European-wide bioindicator of pesticide contamination in flowing waters. Class boundaries for SPEAR pesticides according to EU Water Framework Directive are defined to contribute to the assessment of ecological status of water bodies. - We show that SPEAR pesticides can be based on family-level biomonitoring data and is applicable for large-scale monitoring programmes to detect and quantify pesticide contamination.

  13. SPEAR indicates pesticide effects in streams - Comparative use of species- and family-level biomonitoring data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beketov, M.A., E-mail: mikhail.beketov@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Foit, K.; Schaefer, R.B.; Schriever, C.A. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Sacchi, A.; Capri, E. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Chimica Agraria ed Ambientale, Piacenza (Italy); Biggs, J. [Pond Conservation, c/o Oxford Brookes University, Headington (United Kingdom); Wells, C. [Environment Agency of England and Wales, Science Department, Bristol (United Kingdom); Liess, M. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)


    To detect effects of pesticides on non-target freshwater organisms the Species at risk (SPEAR{sub pesticides}) bioindicator based on biological traits was previously developed and successfully validated over different biogeographical regions of Europe using species-level data on stream invertebrates. Since many freshwater biomonitoring programmes have family-level taxonomic resolution we tested the applicability of SPEAR{sub pesticides} with family-level biomonitoring data to indicate pesticide effects in streams (i.e. insecticide toxicity of pesticides). The study showed that the explanatory power of the family-level SPEAR(fm){sub pesticides} is not significantly lower than the species-level index. The results suggest that the family-level SPEAR(fm){sub pesticides} is a sensitive, cost-effective, and potentially European-wide bioindicator of pesticide contamination in flowing waters. Class boundaries for SPEAR{sub pesticides} according to EU Water Framework Directive are defined to contribute to the assessment of ecological status of water bodies. - We show that SPEAR{sub pesticides} can be based on family-level biomonitoring data and is applicable for large-scale monitoring programmes to detect and quantify pesticide contamination.

  14. Cernavoda NPP Unit 1: Operating experience program and plant specific performance indicators (level 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodor, Vasile; Popa, Viorel


    The basis for the Operating Experience Program was set in place since early stages of the commissioning phase (1993), when a system based on the Canadian approach was implemented for reporting, reviewing, assessing and establishing of the necessary corrective action for unplanned events. This system provided excellent opportunity to train staff in unplanned event assessment methodology, and prepare the station for the formal reporting process following criticality in accordance with the licensing requirements. The formal process, set in place after criticality is described in Station Instruction Procedure SI-01365-P13 'Unplanned Event Report' and was developed under the supervision of Safety and Compliance Department. In parallel, a program for information exchange and trending of performance indicators was developed by Technical Services Department. The WANO recommendations following August 1997 Peer Review provided the opportunity for a better understanding and reconsideration of the Operating Experience Program. As a result, all the activities related to this topic were assigned to a new structure, within Safety and Compliance Department. As such an Operating Experience Group was created and a new program is now being developed in an integrated and centralized manner. The content of the paper is the following: - Overview; - Operating Experience Program; - Event Analysis (Unplanned Events Assessment System - UEIR Process- and Systematic Analysis of Operational Events - ACR Process); - Information Exchange Program; - Monitoring of Operating Experience - Plant Specific Performance Indicators; - Purpose; - Level 2 Performance Indicators. Four appendices are added containing: - A. Station performance indicators/targets (Level 2); - B. SPI (Station Performance Indicators - Level 2) - Graphics; - C. UEIR, LRS (Safety and Licensing Review Sheet), UEFR (Unplanned Event Follow-up Report), ACR and OPEX forms. (authors)

  15. A critical cluster analysis of 44 indicators of author-level performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth


    -four indicators of individual researcher performance were computed using the data. The clustering solution was supported by continued reference to the researcher’s curriculum vitae, an effect analysis and a risk analysis. Disciplinary appropriate indicators were identified and used to divide the researchers......This paper explores a 7-stage cluster methodology as a process to identify appropriate indicators for evaluation of individual researchers at a disciplinary and seniority level. Publication and citation data for 741 researchers from 4 disciplines was collected in Web of Science. Forty...... of statistics in research evaluation. The strength of the 7-stage cluster methodology is that it makes clear that in the evaluation of individual researchers, statistics cannot stand alone. The methodology is reliant on contextual information to verify the bibliometric values and cluster solution...

  16. Change in sympathetic nerve firing pattern associated with dietary weight loss in the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Annie Lambert


    Full Text Available Sympathetic activation in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development. Diet-induced weight loss decreases sympathetic outflow. However the mechanisms that account for sympathetic inhibition are not known. We sought to provide a detailed description of the sympathetic response to diet by analyzing the firing behavior of single-unit sympathetic nerve fibres. Fourteen subjects (57±2 years, 9 men, 5 females fulfilling ATP III criteria for the MS underwent a 3-month low calorie diet. Metabolic profile, hemodynamic parameters and multi-unit and single unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography were assessed prior to and at the end of the diet. Patients’ weight dropped from 96±4 to 88±3 kg (P<0.001. This was associated with a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-12 ±3 and -5±2 mmHg, P<0.05, and in heart rate (-7±2 bpm, P<0.01 and an improvement in all metabolic parameters (fasting glucose: -0.302.1±0.118 mmol/l, total cholesterol: -0.564±0.164 mmol/l, triglycerides: -0.414±0.137 mmol/l, P<0.05. Multi-unit MSNA decreased from 68±4 to 59±5 bursts per 100 heartbeats (P<0.05. Single-unit MSNA indicated that the firing rate of individual vasoconstrictor fibres decreased from 59±10 to 32±4 spikes per 100 heart beats (P<0.05. The probability of firing decreased from 34±5 to 23±3 % of heartbeats (P<0.05, and the incidence of multiple firing decreased from 14±4 to 6±1 % of heartbeats (P<0.05. Cardiac and sympathetic baroreflex function were significantly improved (cardiac slope: 6.57±0.69 to 9.57±1.20 msec.mmHg-1; sympathetic slope: -3.86±0.34 to -5.05±0.47 bursts per 100 heartbeats.mmHg-1 P<0.05 for both. Hypocaloric diet decreased sympathetic activity and improved hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The sympathoinhibition associated with weight loss involves marked changes, not only in the rate but also in the firing pattern of

  17. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent (United States)


    Background The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. Methods 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. Results 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p fitness score (r = -0.360, -0.413 and -0.403 for body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio, respectively). Waist circumference was the strongest and significant predictor for fitness (ß = -0.318, p = 0.002). Conclusion Only 9.6% of the students were fit. There was also an inverse association between body composition and fitness score among apparently healthy adolescents, with waist circumference indicated as the strongest predictor. The low fitness level among the Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age. PMID:25436933


    Buckley, Una; Yamakawa, Kentaro; Takamiya, Tatsuo; Armour, J. Andrew; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.


    Background Selective, bilateral cervicothoracic sympathectomy has proven to be effective for managing ventricular arrhythmias in the setting of structural heart disease. The procedure currently employed removes the caudal portions of both stellate ganglia, along with thoracic chain ganglia down to T4 ganglia. Objective To define the relative contributions of T1-T2 and the T3-T4 paravertebral ganglia in modulating ventricular electrical function. Methods In anesthetized vagotomised porcine subjects (n=8), the heart was exposed via sternotomy along with right and left paravertebral sympathetic ganglia to the T4 level. A 56-electrode epicardial sock was placed over both ventricles to assess epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARI) in response to individually stimulating right and left stellate vs T3 paravertebral ganglia. Responses to T3 stimuli were repeated following surgical removal of the caudal portions of stellate ganglia and T2 bilaterally. Results In intact preparations, stellate ganglion vs T3 stimuli (4Hz, 4ms duration) were titrated to produce equivalent decreases in global ventricular ARIs (right-side 85±6 vs 55±10 ms; left-side 24±3 vs 17±7 ms). Threshold of stimulus intensity applied to T3 ganglia to achieve threshold was 3 times that of T1 threshold. ARIs in unstimulated states were unaffected by bilateral stellate-T2 ganglion removal. Following acute decentralization, T3 stimulation failed to change ARIs. Conclusion Preganglionic sympathetic efferents arising from the T1-T4 spinal cord that project to the heart transit through stellate ganglia via the paravertebral chain. T1-T2 surgical excision is thus sufficient to functionally interrupt central control of peripheral sympathetic efferent activity. PMID:26282244

  19. Fitness level and body composition indices: cross-sectional study among Malaysian adolescent. (United States)

    Hanifah, Redzal Abu; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie; Su, Tin Tin; Nahar, Azmi Mohamed


    The importance of fitness level on the well-being of children and adolescent has long been recognised. The aim of this study was to investigate the fitness level of school-going Malaysian adolescent, and its association with body composition indices. 1071 healthy secondary school students participated in the fitness assessment for the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART) study. Body composition indices such as body mass index for age, waist circumference and waist height ratio were measured. Fitness level was assessed with Modified Harvard Step Test. Physical Fitness Score was calculated using total time of step test exercise and resting heart rates. Fitness levels were divided into 3 categories - unacceptable, marginally acceptable, and acceptable. Partial correlation analysis was used to determine the association between fitness score and body composition, by controlling age, gender, locality, ethnicity, smoking status and sexual maturation. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which body composition was the strongest predictor for fitness. 43.3% of the participants were categorised into the unacceptable fitness group, 47.1% were considered marginally acceptable, and 9.6% were acceptable. There was a significant moderate inverse association (p Malaysian adolescent should necessitate the value of healthy lifestyle starting at a young age.

  20. Multi-level significance of vulnerability indicators. Case study: Eastern Romania (United States)

    Stanga, I. C.; Grozavu, A.


    Vulnerability assessment aims, most frequently, to emphasize internal fragility of a system comparing to a reference standard, to similar systems or in relation to a given hazard. Internal fragility, either biophysical or structural, may affect the capacity to predict, to prepare for, to cope with or to recover from a disaster. Thus, vulnerability is linked to resilience and adaptive capacity. From local level to global one, vulnerability factors and corresponding indicators are different and their significance must be tested and validated in a well-structured conceptual and methodological framework. In this paper, the authors aim to show the real vulnerability of rural settlements in Eastern Romania in a multi-level approach. The research area, Tutova Hills, counts about 3421 and more than 200.000 inhabitants in 421 villages characterized by deficient accessibility, lack of endowments, subsistential agriculture, high pressure on natural environment (especially on forest and soil resources), poverty and aging process of population. Factors that could influence the vulnerability of these rural settlements have been inventoried and assigned into groups through a cluster analysis: habitat and technical urban facilities, infrastructure, economical, social and demographical indicators, environment quality, management of emergency situations etc. Firstly, the main difficulty was to convert qualitative variable in quantitative indicators and to standardize all values to make possible mathematical and statistical processing of data. Secondly, the great variability of vulnerability factors, their different measuring units and their high amplitude of variation require different method of standardization in order to obtain values between zero (minimum vulnerability) and one (maximum vulnerability). Final vulnerability indicators were selected and integrated in a general scheme, according to their significance resulted from an appropriate factor analysis: linear and

  1. Assessment of Mismatch at Indicated Level of the Upper Side Zone of LZC on abnormal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Park, Joong-Woo; Kho, Dae-Hack; Seo, Hyung-Beom; Han, Bong-Gyun; Moon, Jin-Soo


    Liquid Zone Control System of CANDU reactor provides bulk and spatial control. This system has produced abnormal operations with water level increase due to refueling since 1998. The abnormal operations of LZC system at Wolsong 2 can be divided into two periods. One is the sudden drop with continuous operation mode of LZC compressor and the other one is cycling with the on-off operation mode of the LZC compressor. It is identified through the communication with other CANDU reactors that this phenomenon is not unique to Wolsong. Whenever the upper side zone (1,8,6,13) level exceeded 80%, these abnormal operations occurred and mismatch between indicated and actual zone level was found. Counter-plan is prepared to ease these abnormal operations by physicist own efforts at Wolsong 2


    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Acelajado, Maria C.; Pisoni, Roberto; Li, Peng; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A.


    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of treatment failure defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) in spite of ≥5 classes of antihypertensive agents, including chlorthalidone and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. A prospective evaluation of possible mechanisms of refractory hypertension has not been done. The goal of this study was to test for evidence of heightened sympathetic tone as indicated by 24-hr urinary (U-) normetanephrine levels, clinic and ambulatory heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), arterial stiffness as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) compared to patients with controlled resistant hypertension. Forty-four consecutive patients, 15 with refractory and 29 with controlled resistant hypertension, were evaluated prospectively. Refractory hypertensive patients were younger (48±13.3 vs. 56.5±14.1 years, p=0.038) and more likely female (80.0 vs 51.9 %, p=0.047) compared to patients with controlled resistant hypertension. They also had higher U-normetanephrine levels (464.4±250.2 vs. 309.8±147.6 μg/24h, p=0.03), higher clinic HR (77.8±7.7 vs. 68.8±7.6 bpm, p=0.001) and 24-hr ambulatory HR (77.8±7.7 vs 68.8±7.6, p=0.0018), higher PWV (11.8±2.2 vs. 9.4±1.5 m/s, p=0.009), reduced HRV (4.48 vs. 6.11, p=0.03), and higher SVR (3795±1753 vs. 2382±349 dyne·sec·cm5·m2, p=0.008). These findings are consistent with heightened sympathetic tone being a major contributor to antihypertensive treatment failure and highlight the need for effective sympatholytic therapies in patients with refractory hypertension. PMID:25987662

  3. Reduced capacity of cardiac efferent sympathetic neurons to release noradrenaline and modify cardiac function in tachycardia-induced canine heart failure. (United States)

    Cardinal, R; Nadeau, R; Laurent, C; Boudreau, G; Armour, J A


    To investigate the capacity of efferent sympathetic neurons to modulate the failing heart, stellate ganglion stimulation was performed in dogs with biventricular heart failure induced by rapid ventricular pacing (240 beats/min) for 4-6 weeks. Less noradrenaline was released from cardiac myoneural junctions into coronary sinus blood in response to left stellate ganglion stimulation in anesthetized failing heart preparations (582 pg/mL, lower and upper 95% confidence intervals of 288 and 1174 pg/mL, n = 19) compared with healthy heart preparations (6391 pg/mL, 95% confidence intervals of 4180 and 9770 pg/mL, n = 14; p < 0.001). There was substantial adrenaline extraction by failing hearts (49 +/- 6%), although it was slightly lower than in healthy heart preparations (65 +/- 9%, p = 0.055). In contrast with healthy heart preparations, no net release of adrenaline occurred during stellate ganglion stimulation in any of the failing heart preparations, and ventricular tissue levels of adrenaline fell below the sensitivity limit of the HPLC technique. In failing heart preparations, maximal electrical stimulation of right or left stellate ganglia resulted in minimal augmentation of left ventricular intramyocardial (17%) and chamber (12%) systolic pressures. These indices were augmented by 145 and 97%, respectively, following exogenous noradrenaline administration. Thus, the cardiac efferent sympathetic neurons' reduced capacity to release noradrenaline and modify cardiac function can contribute to reduction of sympathetic support to the failing heart.

  4. System of Indicators of the Level of Costs of Financing an Economic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laktionova Aleksandra A.


    Full Text Available The article offers a system of indicators of the level of costs of financing economic subjects, in the basis of which there is a function of formation of recommendations or identification of directions and priorities in the part of selection of one or another source of financing, its urgency and specific features of attraction of resources, on the basis of information on the level of agent’s costs, information asymmetry costs, financial instability, transaction and market indicators of cost of financial resources. The article pays a special attention to a significant structure forming factor of the ownership structure, which identifies the volume and logic of interconnection of all costs of financing and determining incentives and risks in the system of management of financial activity of an economic subject from the point of view of all participants. It exerts especially big influence upon formation of such implicit costs of financing as agent’s costs and information asymmetry costs. The system of factors of stimulants and de-stimulants of costs of financing includes factors of external environment (macro-economic and market indicators of cost and institutional provision and internal environment (ownership structure, characteristic of investment activity and financing an economic subject, organisation of business and corporate management.

  5. Indicators of deprivation, voting patterns, and health status at area level in the Republic of Ireland. (United States)

    Kelleher, C; Timoney, A; Friel, S; McKeown, D


    To determine what relation, if any, exists between mortality patterns, indicators of deprivation, general lifestyle and social attitudes, as exemplified by general election voting pattern, in the Republic of Ireland. A relation has been demonstrated previously between voting and mortality patterns in the United Kingdom. Cross sectional ecological study using three data sources. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were based on mortality rates at county level and 1996 census data from the Central Statistics Office, 1997 general election first preference voting data in all 41 constituencies were aggregated to county level. Selected reported measures of health status, lifestyle and social circumstances are from the first ever National survey on lifestyles, attitudes and nutrition (SLAN). This study comprised adults over 18 years sampled by post using the electoral register from 273 representative district electoral divisions. Univariate inter-relations were examined at individual level for the dataset as a whole, adjusting for age and at aggregated level for 26 county borough areas, which included the two largest cities and for 22 county areas, which afforded correlation with voting pattern, using the method of Pearson's correlation coefficient. 1,806,932 votes were cast nationally at the 1997 general election, representing a voter turnout of 65.92 %. There was an overall response rate of 62% to SLAN comprising 6539 adults (47% male). The demographic pattern of survey respondents was consistent with that of the general population over 18 years. At individual level there was a large number of highly significant inter-relations between indicators of deprivation, various measures of self rated health status and lifestyle factors. Aggregated at 26 county level percentage unemployed (r=0.408, p=0.038), and level of education (r=0.475, p=0.014) related significantly to SMR and inversely to both fruit and vegetable consumption (r= -0.672, p=0.001) and excess alcohol

  6. Study of Effects of Sorghum Cultivation on Some Soil Biological Indicators at Different Zinc Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagheri


    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential element for plant growth which its high concentrations can cause pollution and toxicity in plant. In this study, the effects of sorghum cultivation on some indicators of microbial activity and its association with increased zinc concentrations in two soils with relatively similar physical and chemical properties, but different in concentration of heavy metals were investigated. In both soils zinc levels were added to obtain 250, 375 and 500 mg kg-1 (based on the initial nitric acid extractable content. Using plastic boxes containing 8 kg of soil, growth boxes (Rhizobox were prepared. The box interior was divided into three sections S1 (the rhizosphere, S2 (adjacent to the rhizosphere and S3 (bulk soil using nylon net plates. The results showed that at all levels of zinc in both soil types, BCF were bigger than units, so using this indicator, sorghum can be considered as a plant for accumulation of zinc. Microbial respiration and dehydrogenase activity was reduced in all sections adjacent to root in the polluted soil. It is generally understood that substrates and inhibitors (heavy metals compete in the formation of substrate-enzyme and inhibitor-enzyme complexes, but the effects of sorghum cultivation in increasing biological and enzyme activity indexes in soil 1 (non-polluted was higher than soil 2 (polluted, perhaps due to improvements in microbial activity in the vicinity of the roots, even in concentration higher than stress condition levels for zinc in soil.

  7. Research of hands' strength and endurance indications of arm sport athletes having different levels of skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Podrigalo


    Full Text Available Purpose : comparative study of indicators of hands’ strength and endurance at athletes of arm sport of different skill levels. Material : the study involved 50 athletes. Athletes were divided into two groups: 1 - 15 athletes with high skill levels (age 25,25 ± 0,62 years and 2 - 35 athletes and fans of mass categories (age 22,21 ± 0,35 years. Results : it is shown that the results of carpal dynamometry right and left hands were significantly higher in group 1 (respectively: 60,50 ± 0,91 kg and 53,75 ± 0,83 kg against 52,35 ± 0,51 kg and 48 53 ± 0,46 kg. Strength endurance was significantly higher in group 2 (respectively: 32,97 ± 0,61 sec 33,09 ± 0,62 sec against 23,78 ± 0,85 sec and 24,66 ± 0,78 sec. Found that carpal dynamometry has a maximum contribution to the system (in group 1 for the right hand - 18.17, for the left - 23.50, in group 2 - 7.44 and 7.10. Correlation coefficients dynamometry in group 1 were significantly higher. Strength endurance had almost no connection with the study of reliable performance. Conclusions : it is proved that the level of carpal dynamometry is an important informative and adequate criterion. This indicator is characterized by a maximum contribution backbone.

  8. Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Parasympathetic versus sympathetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Akihiko; Kurata, Chinori; Sugi, Toshihiko; Mikami, Tadashi; Shouda, Sakae


    Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction often causes lethal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. 123 I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) can evaluate cardiac sympathetic dysfunction, and analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) can reflect cardiac parasympathetic activity. We examined whether cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction assessed by HRV may correlate with sympathetic dysfunction assessed by MIBG in diabetic patients. In 24-hour electrocardiography, we analyzed 4 HRV parameters: high-frequency power (HF), HF in the early morning (EMHF), rMSSD and pNN50. MIBG planar images and SPECT were obtained 15 minutes (early) and 150 minutes (late) after injection and the heart washout rate was calculated. The defect score in 9 left ventricular regions was scored on a 4 point scale (0=normal - 3=severe defect). In 20 selected diabetic patients without congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and renal failure, parasympathetic HRV parameters had a negative correlation with the sum of defect scores (DS) in the late images (R=-0.47 to -0.59, p<0.05) and some parameters had a negative correlation with the washout rate (R=-0.50 to -0.55, p<0.05). In a total of 64 diabetic patients also, these parameters had a negative correlation with late DS (R=-0.28 to -0.35, p<0.05) and early DS (R=-0.27 to -0.32, p<0.05). The progress of diabetic cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction may parallel the sympathetic one. (author)

  9. [Neurolitic block of the lumbar sympathetic chain improves chronic pain in a patient with critical lower limb ischemia]. (United States)

    Barreto Junior, Elton Pereira de Sá; Nascimento, Jedson Dos Santos; de Castro, Anita Perpetua Carvalho Rocha

    Sympathectomy is one of the therapies used in the treatment of chronic obstructive arterial disease (COAD). Although not considered as first-line strategy, it should be considered in the management of pain difficult to control. This clinical case describes the evolution of a patient with inoperable COAD who responded properly to the lumbar sympathetic block. A female patient, afro-descendant, 69 years old, ASA II, admitted to the algology service due to refractory ischemic pain in the lower limbs. The patient had undergone several surgical procedures and conservative treatments without success. Vascular surgery considered the case as out of therapeutic possibility, unless limb amputation. At that time, sympathectomy was indicated. After admission to the operating room, the patient was monitored, positioned and sedated. The blockade was performed with the aid of radioscopy, bilaterally, at L2-L3-L4 right and L3 left levels. On the right side, at each level cited, 3mL of absolute alcohol with 0.25% bupivacaine were injected without vasoconstrictor, and on the left side only local anesthetic. The procedure was performed uneventfully. The patient was discharged with complete remission of the pain. Neurolitic block of the lumbar sympathetic chain is an effective and safe treatment option for pain control in patients with critical limb ischemia patients in whom the only possible intervention would be limb amputation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Profile of laboratory instruction in secondary school level chemistry and indication for reform (United States)

    Wang, Mei

    This study is a profile of the laboratory component of instruction in secondary school level chemistry. As one of several companion studies, the purpose of the study is to investigate present practices related to instruction as a means of producing reform that improve cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes. Five hundred-forty students, from 18 chemistry classes taught by 12 teachers in ten high schools were involved in this study. Three schools included public and private schools, urban school, suburban schools, and rural schools. Three levels or types of chemistry courses were offered in these schools: school regular chemistry for college bound students, Chemistry in the Community or "ChemCom" for non-college bound students, and a second year of chemistry or advanced placement chemistry. Laboratory sessions in each of these three levels of courses were observed, videotaped, and later analyzed using the Modified Revised Science Teachers Behaviors Inventory (MR-STBI). The 12 chemistry teachers, eight science supervisors, and selected students were interviewed to determine their professional backgrounds and other factors that might influence how they teach, how they think, and how they learn. The following conclusions developed from the research are: (1) The three levels of chemistry courses are offered across high schools of varying sizes and locations. (2) Teachers perceive that students come to chemistry classes poorly prepared to effectively carry out laboratory experiences and/or investigations. (3) While students indicated that they are able to effectively use math skills in analyzing the results of chemistry laboratory experiments, teachers, in general, are not satisfied with the level at which students are prepared to use these skills, or to use writing skills. (4) Students working in pairs, is the typical approach. Group cooperation is sometimes used in carrying out the laboratory component of chemistry instruction in the ChemCom and AP chemistry

  11. Dominant Indicators of Bank Crises: Comparative Analysis for States with Different Levels of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Vladislav I.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to identification of common and distinctive regularities of development of banking systems with different levels of development of economy through study of the most important macro-economic and financial indicators. The article uses instruments of the applied statistics. The study is based on comparison of mean values of indicators in two groups of countries (countries with a high level of income and countries with a medium level of income, each of which is divided into two sub-groups based on whether there was banking crisis in 2008 or not. In the result of the study the article shows that there are both common and distinctive features of development of banking systems of countries with different levels of economic development. Thus, a typical scenario, characteristic for countries with developed economy that had banking crisis in 2008, includes availability of a relatively large-scale crediting of the economy under conditions of relatively low rates of economic growth and close connections of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. Development of banking systems of developing countries during the pre-crisis period is characterised with the following specific features: relatively high rates of growth of scales of crediting of the economy and high rates of economic growth under conditions of use of significant volumes of resources, borrowed in financial markets, and close connection of the national banking systems with banking systems of other countries. The study allows a more efficient use of experience of states with developed economy, since the described results give a possibility to adjust experience of other states, taking into account characteristic features of banking systems of developing countries. Also the study identified states, experience of which should be studied. The conducted analysis of interrelations of indicators could be used for building models of assessment of

  12. Phytosterol and cholesterol precursor levels indicate increased cholesterol excretion and biosynthesis in gallstone disease. (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Schirin-Sokhan, Ramin; Villarroel, Luis; Nervi, Flavio; Pimentel, Fernando; Lammert, Frank; Miquel, Juan Francisco


    In hepatocytes and enterocytes sterol uptake and secretion is mediated by Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5/8 proteins, respectively. Whereas serum levels of phytosterols represent surrogate markers for intestinal cholesterol absorption, cholesterol precursors reflect cholesterol biosynthesis. Here we compare serum and biliary sterol levels in ethnically different populations of patients with gallstone disease (GSD) and stone-free controls to identify differences in cholesterol transport and synthesis between these groups. In this case-control study four cohorts were analyzed: 112 German patients with GSD and 152 controls; two distinct Chilean ethnic groups: Hispanics (100 GSD, 100 controls), and Amerindians (20 GSD, 20 controls); additionally an 8-year follow-up of 70 Hispanics was performed. Serum sterols were measured by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Gallbladder bile sterol levels were analyzed in cholesterol GSD and controls. Common ABCG5/8 variants were genotyped. Comparison of serum sterols showed lower levels of phytosterols and higher levels of cholesterol precursors in GSD patients than in controls. The ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors were lower in GSD patients, whereas biliary phytosterol and cholesterol concentrations were elevated as compared with controls. In the follow-up study, serum phytosterol levels were significantly lower even before GSD was detectable by ultrasound. An ethnic gradient in the ratios of phytosterols to cholesterol precursors was apparent (Germans > Hispanics > Amerindians). ABCG5/8 variants did not fully explain the sterol metabolic trait of GSD in any of the cohorts. Individuals predisposed to GSD display increased biliary output of cholesterol in the setting of relatively low intestinal cholesterol absorption, indicating enhanced whole-body sterol clearance. This metabolic trait precedes gallstone formation and is a feature of ethnic groups at higher risk of cholesterol

  13. Vibration sense and sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in patients with occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Jepsen, K; Henriksen, O; Parm, Martin Lehnsbo


    function was studied by the capability of the local sympathetic venoarteriolar reflex (Henriksen 1977) elicited by lowering the leg to induce an arteriolar constriction in subcutaneous tissue at the ankle level. Blood flow was measured by the local isotope washout technique. In only five patients with loss...

  14. Exercise training attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity. (United States)

    Li, G; Liu, J-Y; Zhang, H-X; Li, Q; Zhang, S-W


    It is known that excessive sympathetic activity and oxidative stress are enhanced in obesity. This study aimed to clarify whether exercise training (ET) attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in obesity. The obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: regular diet (RD) plus sedentary (RD-S), RD plus ET (RD-ET), HFD plus sedentary (HFD-S), and HFD plus ET (HFD-ET). The rats in RD-ET and HFD-ET groups were trained on a motorized treadmill for 60 min/day, five days/week for 8 weeks. The sympathetic activity was evaluated by the plasma norepinephrine (NE) level. The superoxide anion, malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes levels in serum and muscles were measured to evaluate oxidative stress. The ET prevented the increases in the body weight, arterial pressure and white adipose tissue mass in HFD rats. The NE level in plasma and oxidative stress related parameters got lower in HFD-ET group compared with HFD-S group. We have found decreased mRNA and protein levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 by ET in HFD rats. These findings suggest that ET may be effective for attenuating sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity.

  15. Tritium levels in the environment of KAPS - an indicator of quality performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, K.G.; John, Jaison T.; Joshi, C.P.; Jha, M.K.; Dole, M.U.; Vyas, P.V.; Hegde, A.G.


    Tritium is produced in the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor by the activation of Heavy water used as moderator and coolant. Due to its large abundance in the reactor and its presence in both liquid and gaseous effluents, Tritium concentration in environmental matrices is an indicator of radioactivity releases from PHWR type reactors. Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) is a PHWR type power station located at Kakrapar Village in the Surat district. The station is operating since 1993 and a comprehensive environmental survey program was carried out at this site by Health Physics Division, BARC for radioactivity levels in the environment. The survey carried out at KAPS environment for the past ten years (1994-2003) reveals that there is no increase in radiation levels and tritium is the only radionuclide detected in environmental matrices. The yearly average committed effective dose due to Tritium in the environment works out to be about 2.2 μSv, which is a conservative figure and is of very low significance. The life time stochastic risk to the total population (all age group) attributable to 2 μSv effective dose works out to be 1x10 -7 which is also a conservative estimate and can be considered to be very safe. The very low committed dose observed in KAPS environment, indicate the quality performance of the station. (author)

  16. Sympathetic nerve-derived ATP regulates renal medullary blood flow via vasa recta pericytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott S Wildman


    Full Text Available Pericyte cells are now known to be a novel locus of blood flow control, being able to regulate capillary diameter via their unique morphology and expression of contractile proteins. We have previously shown that exogenous ATP causes constriction of vasa recta via renal pericytes, acting at a variety of membrane bound P2 receptors on descending vasa recta, and therefore may be able to regulate medullary blood flow (MBF. Regulation of MBF is essential for appropriate urine concentration and providing essential oxygen and nutrients to this region of high, and variable, metabolic demand. Various sources of endogenous ATP have been proposed, including from epithelial, endothelial and red blood cells in response to stimuli such as mechanical stimulation, local acidosis, hypoxia, and exposure to various hormones. Extensive sympathetic innervation of the nephron has previously been shown, however the innervation reported has focused around the proximal and distal tubules, and ascending loop of Henle. We hypothesise that sympathetic nerves are an additional source of ATP acting at renal pericytes and therefore regulate MBF. Using a rat live kidney slice model in combination with video imaging and confocal microscopy techniques we firstly show sympathetic nerves in close proximity to vasa recta pericytes in both the outer and inner medulla. Secondly, we demonstrate pharmacological stimulation of sympathetic nerves in situ (by tyramine evokes pericyte-mediated vasoconstriction of vasa recta capillaries; inhibited by the application of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin. Lastly, tyramine-evoked vasoconstriction of vasa recta by pericytes is significantly less than ATP-evoked vasoconstriction. Sympathetic innervation may provide an additional level of functional regulation in the renal medulla that is highly localized. It now needs to be determined under which physiological/pathophysiological circumstances that sympathetic innervation of renal pericytes is

  17. Adrenal hormones interact with sympathetic innervation to modulate growth of embryonic heart in oculo. (United States)

    Tucker, D C; Torres, A


    To allow experimental manipulation of adrenal hormone and autonomic influences on developing myocardium without alteration of hemodynamic load, embryonic rat heart was cultured in the anterior eye chamber of an adult rat. Sympathetic innervation of embryonic day 12 heart grafts was manipulated by surgical sympathectomy of one eye chamber in each host rat. Adrenal hormone exposure was manipulated by host adrenal medullectomy (MEDX) in experiment 1 and by host adrenalectomy (ADX) in experiment 2. In experiment 1, whole heart grafts were larger in MEDX than in sham-operated hosts by 8 wk in oculo (6.14 +/- 0.71 vs. 5.09 +/- 0.69 mm2 with innervation intact and 7.97 +/- 2.07 vs. 3.09 +/- 0.63 mm2 with sympathetic innervation prevented). In experiment 2, host ADX increased growth of embryonic day 12 ventricles grafted into sympathectomized eye chambers (0.69 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.04 mm2) but did not affect growth of grafts in intact eye chambers (0.85 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.05 +/- 0.15 mm2). Corticosterone replacement (4 mg/day) entirely reversed the effect of host ADX on graft growth (superior cervical ganglionectomy, 0.47 +/- 0.03 mm2; intact eye chambers, 0.90 +/- 0.91 mm2). Beating rate of grafts was not affected by adrenal hormone manipulations. These experiments indicate that the compromised growth of embryonic heart grafts placed in sympathectomized eye chambers requires exposure to adult levels of glucocorticoids during the early days after grafting. These results suggest that interactions between neural and hormonal stimulation influence cardiac growth in the in oculo culture system and during normal development.

  18. Renal sympathetic nervous system and the effects of denervation on renal arteries. (United States)

    Kannan, Arun; Medina, Raul Ivan; Nagajothi, Nagapradeep; Balamuthusamy, Saravanan


    Resistant hypertension is associated with chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in various comorbidities. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is often under estimated due to various reasons. Activation of sympathetic nervous system at the renal- as well as systemic- level contributes to the increased level of catecholamines and resulting increase in the blood pressure. This increased activity was demonstrated by increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity and renal and total body noradrenaline spillover. Apart from the hypertension, it is hypothesized to be associated with insulin resistance, congestive heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. Renal denervation is a novel procedure where the sympathetic afferent and efferent activity is reduced by various techniques and has been used successfully to treat drug-resistant hypertension improvement of various metabolic derangements. Renal denervation has the unique advantage of offering the denervation at the renal level, thus mitigating the systemic side effects. Renal denervation can be done by various techniques including radiofrequency ablation, ultrasound guided ablation and chemical ablation. Various trials evaluated the role of renal denervation in the management of resistant hypertension and have found promising results. More studies are underway to evaluate the role of renal denervation in patients presenting with resistant hypertension in different scenarios. Appropriate patient selection might be the key in determining the effectiveness of the procedure.

  19. Fibromyalgia: When Distress Becomes (Un)sympathetic Pain


    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel


    Fibromyalgia is a painful stress-related disorder. A key issue in fibromyalgia research is to investigate how distress could be converted into pain. The sympathetic nervous system is the main element of the stress response system. In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels facilitate this type of sympathetic pain. Similar mechanisms may...

  20. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats. (United States)

    Li, Peng; Huang, Pei-Pei; Yang, Yun; Liu, Chi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Sun, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Qing


    Li P, Huang P, Yang Y, Liu C, Lu Y, Wang F, Sun W, Kong X. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats. J Appl Physiol 122: 121-129, 2017. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01019.2015-Sympathetic activity is enhanced in patients with essential or secondary hypertension, as well as in various hypertensive animal models. Therapeutic targeting of sympathetic activation is considered an effective antihypertensive strategy. We hypothesized that renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) attenuates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and renal disease in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Rats underwent 2K1C modeling or sham surgery; then rats underwent RSD or sham surgery 4 wk later, thus resulting in four groups (normotensive-sham, normotensive-RSD, 2K1C-sham, and 2K1C-RSD). Norepinephrine was measured by ELISA. Echocardiography was used to assess heart function. Fibrosis and apoptosis were assessed by Masson and TUNEL staining. Changes in mean arterial blood pressure in response to hexamethonium and plasma norepinephrine levels were used to evaluate basal sympathetic nerve activity. The 2K1C modeling success rate was 86.8%. RSD reversed the elevated systolic blood pressure induced by 2K1C, but had no effect on body weight. Compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group, rats in the 2K1C-RSD group showed lower left ventricular mass/body weight ratio, interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness in systole, whereas fractional shortening and ejection fraction were higher. Right kidney apoptosis and left kidney hypertrophy were not changed by RSD. Arterial fibrosis was lower in animals in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with those in the 2K1C-sham group. RSD reduced plasma norepinephrine and basal sympathetic activity in rats in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group. These

  1. Estimation of regional myocardial sympathetic neuronal function with I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial images in patients with cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Kato, Kazuzo; Nakano, Hajime; Igarashi, Masaki; Ueno, Takashi; Hirosawa, Koshichiro; Kusakabe, Kiyoko.


    Myocardial SPECT images with I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were obtained in 10 patients with cardiomyopathy under stable state. For myocardial imaging, MIBG and Tl-201 (Tl) were simultaneously injected and collected. The ratio of MIBG to Tl (M/T ratio) in ROI was obtained with 50% cut off levels in order to eliminate background activity. The patients were divided into three major groups: (l) those who had the M/T ratio ranging from 0.8 to l.20 at rest and had marked defects in the infero-lateral region on delayed MIBG images, where pathophysiologically accelerated regional sympathetic neuronal function was suspected (n=5), (II) those who had increased M/T ratios (l.6 and l.7) in the basal septal wall (n=3), and (III) those who had decreased M/T ratios (0.7 and 0.75) in the apical septal wall, where depletion of myocardial norepinephrine was suspected (n=2). These findings indicate the potential of myocardial MIBG images to evaluate myocardial distribution of norepinephrine, i.e. myocardial sympathetic neuronal function. Certain shortcomings, such as an increased background due to dual isotopes and an increased pulmonary uptake of MIBG, require further study on quantitative methods. (Namekawa, K)

  2. Usefulness of cardiac 125I-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake for evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve abnormalities in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nanami; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Shigeta, Yukio


    We investigated cardiac sympathetic nerve abnormalities in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats using 125 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). The radioactivity ratio of cardiac tissue to 1 ml blood (H/B) was used as an index of cardiac MIBG uptake. Cardiac 125 I-MIBG uptake (H/B) in 4-, 8- and 20-wk diabetic rats was 48% lower than that in control rats. Similar results were obtained even when the data were corrected for g wet tissue weight. Although there was no improvement in H/B following 2-wk insulin treatment, the H/B ratio increased significantly, to 85% of control levels, following 4 wk insulin treatment indicating the reversibility of impaired MIBG uptake in diabetic rats. In vivo reserpine treatment resulted in a 50% reduction in the H/B value in control rats. However, the treatment did not significantly suppress uptake in diabetic rats. Cardiac norepinephrine content in both * 4- and ** 8-wk diabetic rats was significantly ( * p ** p 125 I-MIBG in diabetic rats is significantly impaired due to cardiac sympathetic nerve abnormalities. These abnormalities are reversible, however, dependent on the diabetic state. (author)

  3. Key characteristics for tool choice in indicator-based sustainability assessment at farm level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Marchand


    Full Text Available Although the literature on sustainability assessment tools to support decision making in agriculture is rapidly growing, little attention has been paid to the actual tool choice. We focused on the choice of more complex integrated indicator-based tools at the farm level. The objective was to determine key characteristics as criteria for tool choice. This was done with an in-depth comparison of 2 cases: the Monitoring Tool for Integrated Farm Sustainability and the Public Goods Tool. They differ in characteristics that may influence tool choice: data, time, and budgetary requirements. With an enhanced framework, we derived 11 key characteristics to describe differences between the case tools. Based on the key characteristics, we defined 2 types of indicator-based tools: full sustainability assessment (FSA and rapid sustainability assessment (RSA. RSA tools are more oriented toward communicating and learning. They are therefore more suitable for use by a larger group of farmers, can help to raise awareness, trigger farmers to become interested in sustainable farming, and highlight areas of good or bad performance. If and when farmers increase their commitment to on-farm sustainability, they can gain additional insight by using an FSA tool. Based on complementary and modular use of the tools, practical recommendations for the different end users, i.e., researchers, farmers, advisers, and so forth, have been suggested.

  4. The Feeling of Agency: Empirical Indicators for a Pre-Reflective Level of Action Awareness (United States)

    David, Nicole; Stenzel, Anna; Schneider, Till R.; Engel, Andreas K.


    The sense of agency has been defined as the sense that I am the author of my own actions. This sense, however, is usually not reflected upon but instead pre-reflectively experienced. Experimental approaches usually measure the sense of agency by judgments or verbal reports, despite evidence that the sense of agency is not sufficiently assessed on such a reflective level. Here we sought to identify non-verbal measures of the sense of agency, particularly testing the relevance of physiological activity such as skin conductance and heart rate. Manipulating the visual feedback to an executed movement, we investigated how well physiological activity and other movement parameters differed between real and false feedback (i.e., between actual agency and non-agency), and how they related to accuracy of agency judgments. Skin conductance and heart rate did not differ between agency and non-agency situations; neither did they inform agency judgments. In contrast, movement onsets – particularly, discrepancies between feedback and movement onsets – were related to agency judgments. Overall, our results indicate weak visceral–somatic associations with the sense of agency. Thus, physiological activity did not prove to be an empirical indicator for the feeling of agency. PMID:21779268

  5. Delineating Facies Spatial Distribution by Integrating Ensemble Data Assimilation and Indicator Geostatistics with Level Set Transformation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Song, Xuehang; Ye, Ming; Dai, Zhenxue; Zachara, John; Chen, Xingyuan


    A new approach is developed to delineate the spatial distribution of discrete facies (geological units that have unique distributions of hydraulic, physical, and/or chemical properties) conditioned not only on direct data (measurements directly related to facies properties, e.g., grain size distribution obtained from borehole samples) but also on indirect data (observations indirectly related to facies distribution, e.g., hydraulic head and tracer concentration). Our method integrates for the first time ensemble data assimilation with traditional transition probability-based geostatistics. The concept of level set is introduced to build shape parameterization that allows transformation between discrete facies indicators and continuous random variables. The spatial structure of different facies is simulated by indicator models using conditioning points selected adaptively during the iterative process of data assimilation. To evaluate the new method, a two-dimensional semi-synthetic example is designed to estimate the spatial distribution and permeability of two distinct facies from transient head data induced by pumping tests. The example demonstrates that our new method adequately captures the spatial pattern of facies distribution by imposing spatial continuity through conditioning points. The new method also reproduces the overall response in hydraulic head field with better accuracy compared to data assimilation with no constraints on spatial continuity on facies.

  6. A Comprehensive Real-Time Indoor Air-Quality Level Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang


    Full Text Available The growing concern about Indoor Air-Quality has accelerated the development of small, low-cost air-quality monitoring systems. These systems are capable of monitoring various indoor air pollutants in real time, notifying users about the current air-quality status and gathering the information to the central server. However, most Internet of Things (IoT-based air-quality monitoring systems numerically present the sensed value per pollutant, making it difficult for general users to identify how polluted the air is. Therefore, in this paper, we first introduce a tiny air-quality monitoring system that we developed and, based on the system, we also test the applicability of the comprehensive Air-Quality Index (AQI, which is widely used all over the world, in terms of its capacity for a comprehensive indoor air-quality indication. We also develop design considerations for an IoT-based air-quality monitoring system and propose a real-time comprehensive indoor air-quality level indication method, which effectively copes with dynamic changes and is efficient in terms of processing and memory overhead.

  7. Methodological developments in US state-level Genuine Progress Indicators: toward GPI 2.0 (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Berik, Günseli; Gaddis, Erica J. Brown


    The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) has emerged as an important monetary measure of economic well-being. Unlike mainstream economic indicators, primarily Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the GPI accounts for both the benefits and costs of economic production across diverse economic, social, and environmental domains in a more comprehensive manner. Recently, the GPI has gained traction in subnational policy in the United States, with GPI studies being conducted in a number of states and with their formal adoption by several state governments. As the GPI is applied in different locations, new methods are developed, different data sources are available, and new issues of policy relevance are addressed using its component indicators. This has led to a divergence in methods, reducing comparability between studies and yielding results that are of varying methodological sophistication. In this study, we review the “state of the art” in recent US state-level GPI studies, focusing on those from Hawaii, Maryland, Ohio, Utah, and Vermont. Through adoption of a consistent approach, these and future GPI studies could utilize a framework that supports more uniform, comparable, and accurate measurements of progress. We also identify longer-term issues, particularly related to treatment of nonrenewable resource depletion, government spending, income inequality, and ecosystem services. As these issues are successfully addressed and disseminated, a “GPI 2.0” will emerge that better measures economic well-being and has greater accuracy and policy relevance than past GPI measurements. As the GPI expands further into mainstream policy analysis, a more formal process by which methods could be updated, standardized, and applied is needed.

  8. Renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension. (United States)

    Froeschl, Michael; Hadziomerovic, Adnan; Ruzicka, Marcel


    Resistant hypertension is an increasingly prevalent health problem associated with important adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The pathophysiology that underlies this condition involves increased function of both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system. A crucial link between these 2 systems is the web of sympathetic fibres that course within the adventitia of the renal arteries. These nerves can be targeted by applying radiofrequency energy from the lumen of the renal arteries to renal artery walls (percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation [RSD]), an approach that has attracted great interest. This paper critically reviews the evidence supporting the use of RSD. Small studies suggest that RSD can produce dramatic blood pressure reductions: In the randomized Symplicity HTN-2 trial of 106 patients, the mean fall in blood pressure at 6 months in patients who received the treatment was 32/12 mm Hg. However, there are limitations to the evidence for RSD in the treatment of resistant hypertension. These include the small number of patients studied; the lack of any placebo-controlled evidence; the fact that blood pressure outcomes were based on office assessments, as opposed to 24-hour ambulatory monitoring; the lack of longer-term efficacy data; and the lack of long-term safety data. Some of these concerns are being addressed in the ongoing Renal Denervation in Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension (Symplicity HTN-3) trial. The first percutaneous RSD system was approved by Health Canada in the spring of 2012. But until more and better-quality data are available, this procedure should generally be reserved for those patients whose resistant hypertension is truly uncontrolled. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship Between Biomechanical Indicators of the Snatch Technique and Female Weightlifters' Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyszka Paulina


    Full Text Available Introduction. The snatch technique is a discipline in Olympic weightlifting. The lifter has to raise the barbell from the platform directly above their head in one movement. While reviewing the literature on biomechanical analysis of the techniques of weightlifting, one can find positions on the analysis of parameters, such as barbell track, horizontal displacement, and angular positions of the joints in the individual phases of the lifter's movement. Many texts concern female and male lifters taking part in World or European Championships. The parameters of the best competitors are outlined - mostly those who finish in the top five places in competition. Mostly these are parameters regarding male lifters, and less frequently those of female lifters. In the literature review, an overlooked aspect is that of the definition of the diversity of indicators as regards the snatch technique practiced by female lifters depending on score. Material and methods. In the research, registered snatch attempts during the World Championship were used. Videos were used by judges to establish a maximum weight limit for female lifters. The attempts were registered by two cameras and were later digitally processed by the APAS 2000 system. Barbell parameters, maximum speed, average of the bar, and the parameters of the lifter-bar collocation (horizontal displacement of barbell weights and height elevation were assessed. Results. The analysed attempts show the margin of error for measurement of the average speed of the barbell as 0.03 m/s. The difference in maximum speed of analysed attempts is 15%. The height of clearance of the first-placed female lifter's barbell was 12.7 cm, 30 cm for the last-placed. Conclusions. The sporting level of weightlifting by female lifters influences the analysed biomechanical indicators of the snatch. Those indicators, which are similar in the case of both the World Championship winner and the female lifter who came last, may be

  10. Using reanalysis and drought indices to study portfolio-level climate risk in the industry sector (United States)

    Bonnafous, L.


    Water-related hazards including flooding due to extreme rainfall, persistent drought and pollution, either due to industrial operations themselves, or to the failure of infrastructure have emerged as a potential risk for industrial operations. Most companies have risk management plans at each operational location to address these risks to a certain design level. The residual risk may or may not be managed, and is typically not quantified at a portfolio scale, i.e. across many sites. Given that climate is the driver of many of these extreme events, and there is evidence of quasi-periodic climate regimes at inter-annual and decadal timescales, it is possible that a portfolio is subject to persistent, multi-year exceedances of the design level. It is thus likely that there is correlation in the climate-induced portfolio water risk across its operational sites as multiple sites may experience a hazard beyond the design level in a given year. Therefore, a need exists for water risk indexes that allow for an exploration of the possible space and/or time clustering in exposure across many sites contained in a portfolio. Focusing on extreme daily rainfall amounts and monthly to yearly drought, and using examples from major mining companies, we illustrate how such indexes can be developed using reanalysis products as well as gridded datasets of drought indices based on climate data records. For the examples of mining companies provided, we note that the actual exposure is substantially higher than would be expected in the absence of space and time correlation of risk as is often tacitly assumed within the industry. We also find evidence for the increasing exposure to climate-induced risk, and for decadal variability in exposure. The relative vulnerability of different portfolios to multiple extreme events in a given year is also demonstrated.

  11. Mechanisms of sympathetic activation and blood pressure elevation by intermittent hypoxia. (United States)

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Kumar, Ganesh K


    Sleep disordered breathing with recurrent apneas is one of the most frequently encountered breathing disorder in adult humans and preterm infants. Recurrent apnea patients exhibit several co-morbidities including hypertension and persistent sympathetic activation. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) resulting from apneas appears to be the primary stimulus for evoking autonomic changes. The purpose of this article is to briefly review the effects of IH on chemo- and baro-reflexes and circulating vasoactive hormones and their contribution to sympathetic activation and blood pressures. Sleep apnea patients and IH-treated rodents exhibit exaggerated arterial chemo-reflex. Studies on rodent models demonstrated that IH leads to hyperactive carotid body response to hypoxia. On the other hand, baro-reflex function is attenuated in patients with sleep apnea and in IH-treated rodents. Circulating vasoactive hormone levels are elevated in sleep apnea patients and in rodent models of IH. Thus, persistent sympathetic activation and hypertension associated with sleep apneas seems to be due to a combination of altered chemo- and baro-reflexes resulting in sympathetic activation and action of elevated circulating levels of vasoactive hormones on vasculature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurotrophin responsiveness of sympathetic neurons is regulated by rapid mobilization of the p75 receptor to the cell surface through TrkA activation of Arf6. (United States)

    Edward Hickman, F; Stanley, Emily M; Carter, Bruce D


    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays an integral role in patterning the sympathetic nervous system during development. Initially, p75NTR is expressed at low levels as sympathetic axons project toward their targets, which enables neurotrophin-3 (NT3) to activate TrkA receptors and promote growth. Upon reaching nerve growth factor (NGF) producing tissues, p75NTR is up regulated resulting in formation of TrkA-p75 complexes, which are high affinity binding sites selective for NGF, thereby blunting NT3 signaling. The level of p75NTR expressed on the neuron surface is instrumental in regulating trophic factor response; however, the mechanisms by which p75NTR expression is regulated are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a rapid, translation independent increase in surface expression of p75NTR in response to NGF in rat sympathetic neurons. p75NTR was mobilized to the neuron surface from GGA3-postitive vesicles through activation of the GTPase Arf6, which was stimulated by NGF, but not NT3 binding to TrkA. Arf6 activation required PI3 kinase activity and was prevented by an inhibitor of the cytohesin family of Arf6 GEFs. Overexpression of a constitutively active Arf6 mutant (Q67L) was sufficient to significantly increase surface expression of p75NTR even in the absence of NGF. Functionally, expression of active Arf6 markedly attenuated the ability of NT3 to promote neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth while the NGF response was unaltered. These data suggest that NGF activation of Arf6 through TrkA is critical for the increase in p75NTR surface expression that enables the switch in neurotrophin responsiveness during development in the sympathetic nervous system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT p75NTR is instrumental in the regulation of neuronal survival and apoptosis during development and is also implicated as a contributor to aberrant neurodegeneration in numerous conditions. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate p75NTR surface

  13. Usage of link-level performance indicators for HSDPA network-level simulations in E-UMTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Frank; de Bruin, I.C.C.; Silva, João Carlos; Souto, Nuno; Cercas, Francisco; Correia, Américo


    The paper describes integration of HSDPA (high-speed downlink packet access) link-level simulation results into network-level simulations for enhanced UMTS. The link-level simulations model all physical layer features depicted in the 3GPP standards. These include: generation of transport blocks;

  14. Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is independent of sympathetic activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Christensen, N J; Andreasen, J


    in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy, whereas baseline plasma DOPA concentrations were similar in the three groups investigated: 6.55 (5.03-7.26, median [interquartile range], n = 8) nmol l-1 in diabetics with neuropathy, 7.41 (5.79-7.97, n = 8) nmol l-1...... in diabetics without neuropathy, and 6.85 (5.58-7.36, n = 8) nmol l-1 in controls. No relationship was obtained between baseline values of plasma NE and plasma DOPA. Plasma DOPA did not change in the upright position, whereas plasma NE increased significantly. Our results indicate that plasma DOPA...... is not related to sympathetic activity and may be of non-neuronal origin....

  15. Link-level vulnerability indicators for real-world networks (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; Snelder, M.; Van Zuylen, H.J.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    Literature proposes link-based indicators as predictors of the delay caused by a blockade on a particular link. This paper cross-compares these indicators and compares them with the result of a full simulation. The indicators predict different links to be vulnerable. Furthermore, the indicators do

  16. Adolescent sympathetic activity and salivary C-reactive protein: The effects of parental behavior. (United States)

    Nelson, Benjamin W; Byrne, Michelle L; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Schwartz, Orli S; Reynolds, Eric C; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B


    This study utilized a novel multisystem approach to investigate the effect of observed parental behavior on the relationship between biological mechanisms associated with disease processes (i.e., autonomic physiology and immune response) among their adolescent children. Thirty-three adolescents (23 males), aged 11-13, and their parents participated in a laboratory session in which adolescents provided baseline measures of autonomic (sympathetic) activity, and adolescents and 1 parent participated in a laboratory based dyadic conflict resolution interaction task. This included 3 male parent/male adolescent dyads, 20 female parent/male adolescent dyads, 3 male parent/female adolescent dyads, and 7 female parent/female adolescent dyads. Approximately 3 years later, adolescents provided a salivary measure of C-Reactive Protein (sCRP) to index inflammation. Analyses revealed a positive association between sympathetic activity and sCRP, as well as a moderating role of positive parental behavior in this relationship, such that the association between sympathetic activity and sCRP was greater among adolescents whose parents displayed shorter duration of positive affect. Overall findings indicate parental behavior may influence the association between adolescent sympathetic activity and inflammatory processes. These findings have important implications for understanding the impact of psychosocial factors on biological mechanisms of disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Sensory and sympathetic correlates of heat pain sensitization and habituation in men and women. (United States)

    Breimhorst, M; Hondrich, M; Rebhorn, C; May, A; Birklein, F


    Habituation and sensitization are important behavioural responses to repeated exposure to painful stimuli, but little is known about the factors determining sensory, affective and sympathetic habituation to repeated pain stimulation in men and women. Thirty volunteers (15 women) underwent a standardized heat pain paradigm spread over 8 consecutive days. At the beginning of the experiment, personality dimensions, coping strategies and pain catastrophizing thoughts were determined. Receiving a series of 10 blocks of six painful heat stimuli a day, participants rated pain intensity and unpleasantness. Skin conductance was recorded throughout the sessions. The results show similar habituation of both the sensory and affective dimensions of pain in men and women, although skin conductance did not undergo a significant decrease across the eight days. When focusing on single daily sessions, women showed pain sensitization but sympathetic habituation, while men showed pain sensitization but stable sympathetic activation. Our findings therefore indicate that the process of long-term habituation to painful heat stimuli is a common feature in both genders, whereas men and women might differently recruit their sympathetic nervous system for short-term pain processing. This study could potentially help to better evaluate gender-specific mechanisms in pain perception. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  18. Sympathetic skin responses in patients with hyperthyroidism. (United States)

    Gozke, E; Ozyurt, Z; Dortcan, N; Ore, O; Kocer, A; Ozer, E


    The aim of this study was to investigate the disorders of sympathetic nervous system in patients with hyperthyroidism using sympathetic skin response (SSR). Twenty-two newly diagnosed cases with hyperthyroidism were included in the study. The results were compared with those of 20 healthy controls. SSR was recorded with the contralateral electrical stimulation of the median nerve (of the upper extremities) and tibial nerve (of the lower extremities) with active electrodes placed on palms and soles and reference electrodes attached on the dorsal aspects of hands and feet. Ages of the cases with hyperthyroidism and controls ranged between 15-65 years (mean: 46.7 +/- 15.0 years) and 24-62 years (mean: 39.6 +/- 9.8 years) respectively (p > 0.05). In all the control subjects SSR could be obtained, while from the lower extremities of 4 cases with hyperthyroidism (18.0%) SSR could not be elicited. Mean SSR latencies of lower extremities were found significantly longer than control group (p nervous system involvement in cases with hyperthyroidism.

  19. Linking sea level rise and socioeconomic indicators under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (United States)

    Nauels, Alexander; Rogelj, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Meinshausen, Malte; Mengel, Matthias


    In order to assess future sea level rise and its societal impacts, we need to study climate change pathways combined with different scenarios of socioeconomic development. Here, we present sea level rise (SLR) projections for the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) storylines and different year-2100 radiative forcing targets (FTs). Future SLR is estimated with a comprehensive SLR emulator that accounts for Antarctic rapid discharge from hydrofracturing and ice cliff instability. Across all baseline scenario realizations (no dedicated climate mitigation), we find 2100 median SLR relative to 1986-2005 of 89 cm (likely range: 57-130 cm) for SSP1, 105 cm (73-150 cm) for SSP2, 105 cm (75-147 cm) for SSP3, 93 cm (63-133 cm) for SSP4, and 132 cm (95-189 cm) for SSP5. The 2100 sea level responses for combined SSP-FT scenarios are dominated by the mitigation targets and yield median estimates of 52 cm (34-75 cm) for FT 2.6 Wm-2, 62 cm (40-96 cm) for FT 3.4 Wm-2, 75 cm (47-113 cm) for FT 4.5 Wm-2, and 91 cm (61-132 cm) for FT 6.0 Wm-2. Average 2081-2100 annual SLR rates are 5 mm yr-1 and 19 mm yr-1 for FT 2.6 Wm-2 and the baseline scenarios, respectively. Our model setup allows linking scenario-specific emission and socioeconomic indicators to projected SLR. We find that 2100 median SSP SLR projections could be limited to around 50 cm if 2050 cumulative CO2 emissions since pre-industrial stay below 850 GtC, with a global coal phase-out nearly completed by that time. For SSP mitigation scenarios, a 2050 carbon price of 100 US2005 tCO2 -1 would correspond to a median 2100 SLR of around 65 cm. Our results confirm that rapid and early emission reductions are essential for limiting 2100 SLR.

  20. Increased cardiac sympathetic activity in patients with hypothyroidism as determined by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuru; Inaba, Shigeki; Emori, Toshiaki; Imamura, Kimiharu; Kawano, Katsunori; Ueda, Tetsuro; Kobayashi, Hideki; Hosoda, Saichi


    Clinical manifestations of hypothyroidism, such as bradycardia, suggest decreased sympathetic tone. However, previous studies in patients with hypothyroidism have suggested that increased plasma noradrenaline (NA) levels represent enhanced general sympathetic activity. As yet, cardiac sympathetic activity (CSA) in hypothyroidism has not been clarified. To evaluate CSA in patients with hypothyroidism, iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy was performed in eight patients with hypothyroidism before therapy and in ten normal control patients. Planar images were obtained at 15 min and 4 h after injection of MIBG. The ratio of early myocardial uptake to the total injected dose (MU) and myocardial clearance of MIBG within 4 h p.i. (MC) were calculated. Plasma NA was also measured, and echocardiography was performed in all patients. Those patients with hypothyroidism in the euthyroid state after medical therapy were also evaluated in a similar manner. Left ventricular ejection fraction, measured by echocardiography, did not differ significantly between the groups. NA, MU and MC were significantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in controls, and all parameters were decreased after therapy. MC was well correlated with NA in hypothyroidism (r=0.86) before therapy. We conclude that CSA is increased in patients with hypothyroidism, in parallel with the enhanced general sympathetic activity. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Enhanced sympathetic arousal in response to FMRI scanning correlates with task induced activations and deactivations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Muehlhan

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly shown that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI triggers distress and neuroendocrine response systems. Prior studies have revealed that sympathetic arousal increases, particularly at the beginning of the examination. Against this background it appears likely that those stress reactions during the scanning procedure may influence task performance and neural correlates. However, the question how sympathetic arousal elicited by the scanning procedure itself may act as a potential confounder of fMRI data remains unresolved today. Thirty-seven scanner naive healthy subjects performed a simple cued target detection task. Levels of salivary alpha amylase (sAA, as a biomarker for sympathetic activity, were assessed in samples obtained at several time points during the lab visit. SAA increased two times, immediately prior to scanning and at the end of the scanning procedure. Neural activation related to motor preparation and timing as well as task performance was positively correlated with the first increase. Furthermore, the first sAA increase was associated with task induced deactivation (TID in frontal and parietal regions. However, these effects were restricted to the first part of the experiment. Consequently, this bias of scanner related sympathetic activation should be considered in future fMRI investigations. It is of particular importance for pharmacological investigations studying adrenergic agents and the comparison of groups with different stress vulnerabilities like patients and controls or adolescents and adults.

  2. Functional role of diverse changes in sympathetic nerve activity in regulating arterial pressure during REM sleep. (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Misa; Yoshida, Ikue; Miki, Kenju


    This study aimed to investigate whether REM sleep evoked diverse changes in sympathetic outflows and, if so, to elucidate why REM sleep evokes diverse changes in sympathetic outflows. Male Wistar rats were chronically implanted with electrodes to measure renal (RSNA) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram, and catheters to measure systemic arterial and central venous pressure; these parameters were measured simultaneously and continuously during the sleep-awake cycle in the same rat. REM sleep resulted in a step reduction in RNSA by 36.1% ± 2.7% (P sleep. In contrast to REM sleep, RSNA, LSNA, systemic arterial pressure, and heart rate increased in a unidirectional manner associated with increases in physical activity levels in the order from NREM sleep, quiet awake, moving, and grooming state. Thus, the relationship between RSNA vs. LSNA and systemic arterial pressure vs. heart rate observed during REM sleep was dissociated compared with that obtained during the other behavioral states. It is suggested that the diverse changes in sympathetic outflows during REM sleep may be needed to increase systemic arterial pressure by balancing vascular resistance between muscles and vegetative organs without depending on the heart.

  3. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D


    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  4. The Effect of Sympathetic Antagonists on the Antidepressant Action ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alprazolam is an anti-anxiety drug shown to be effective in the treatment of depression. In this study, the effect of sympathetic receptor antagonists on alprazolam–induced antidepressant action was studied using a mouse model of forced swimming behavioral despair. The interaction of three sympathetic receptor ...

  5. Using salivary cortisol to measure the effects of a Wilbarger protocol-based procedure on sympathetic arousal: a pilot study. (United States)

    Kimball, Judith G; Lynch, Keara M; Stewart, Kelli C; Williams, Nicole E; Thomas, Meghan A; Atwood, Kam D


    This study investigated changes in salivary cortisol, the stress hormone, after administration of a procedure based on the Wilbarger protocol to children diagnosed with sensory defensiveness (SD), a type of sensory modulation dysfunction. Using a single-subject design across participants, we studied 4 boys with SD ages 3 to 5 years. Each participant completed four sessions consisting of the collection of a saliva sample, administration of a procedure based on the Wilbarger protocol, 15 min of quiet neutral activities to allow time for any changes in cortisol level to manifest in the saliva, and the second collection of saliva. Saliva samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Salivary cortisol levels in all participants changed after each of four applications of a procedure based on the Wilbarger protocol. The cortisol levels of 2 children whose levels were relatively higher on pretest decreased at each posttest. The levels of 1 child whose cortisol was higher on pretest three times decreased those three times and increased the one time the pretest cortisol was lower. The levels of 1 child who had the lowest cortisol levels of any of the children increased each time. Therefore, in all participants, cortisol moved in the direction of modulation. In these 4 boys, a procedure based on the Wilbarger protocol modulated cortisol levels toward a middle range. This pilot study indicates that there is an association between sympathetic nervous system response and the Wilbarger protocol-based procedure, as indicated by salivary cortisol levels.

  6. Sympathetic block by metal clips may be a reversible operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lars L; Mikkelsen, Rasmus T; Derejko, Miroslawa


    , but the question of reversibility remains controversial. Two recent experimental studies found severe histological signs of nerve damage 4-6 weeks after clip removal, but they only used conventional histopathological staining methods. METHODS: Thoracoscopic clipping of the sympathetic trunk was performed in adult...... the sympathetic chain vary tremendously. Most surgeons transect or resect the sympathetic chain, but application of a metal clip that blocks transmission of nerve impulses in the sympathetic chain is used increasingly worldwide. This approach offers potential reversibility if patients regret surgery...... suggests in theory that application of metal clips to the sympathetic chain is a reversible procedure if only the observation period is prolonged. Further studies with longer periods between application and removal as well as investigations of nerve conduction should be encouraged, because we do not know...

  7. Differential Toxicities of Intraneurally Injected Mercuric Chloride for Sympathetic and Somatic Motor Fibers: An Ultrastructural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng


    Conclusion: This study demonstrated an undue susceptibility of sympathetic fibers to mercury intoxication. The mechanisms that underlie the selective reaction of sympathetic fibers to mercury warrant further investigation.

  8. On the (in)consistency of citizen and municipal level indicators of social capital and local government performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, J.K.


    We study the empirical consistency of survey based (micro level) indicators of social capital and local government performance on the one, and municipality based (aggregate level) measures of these two concepts on the other hand. Knowledge about the behavior of these indicators is helpful for

  9. Transcription initiation patterns indicate divergent strategies for gene regulation at the chromatin level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Rach


    Full Text Available The application of deep sequencing to map 5' capped transcripts has confirmed the existence of at least two distinct promoter classes in metazoans: "focused" promoters with transcription start sites (TSSs that occur in a narrowly defined genomic span and "dispersed" promoters with TSSs that are spread over a larger window. Previous studies have explored the presence of genomic features, such as CpG islands and sequence motifs, in these promoter classes, but virtually no studies have directly investigated the relationship with chromatin features. Here, we show that promoter classes are significantly differentiated by nucleosome organization and chromatin structure. Dispersed promoters display higher associations with well-positioned nucleosomes downstream of the TSS and a more clearly defined nucleosome free region upstream, while focused promoters have a less organized nucleosome structure, yet higher presence of RNA polymerase II. These differences extend to histone variants (H2A.Z and marks (H3K4 methylation, as well as insulator binding (such as CTCF, independent of the expression levels of affected genes. Notably, differences are conserved across mammals and flies, and they provide for a clearer separation of promoter architectures than the presence and absence of CpG islands or the occurrence of stalled RNA polymerase. Computational models support the stronger contribution of chromatin features to the definition of dispersed promoters compared to focused start sites. Our results show that promoter classes defined from 5' capped transcripts not only reflect differences in the initiation process at the core promoter but also are indicative of divergent transcriptional programs established within gene-proximal nucleosome organization.

  10. Digoxin serum levels with respect to some biochemical and clinical indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, J.; Curilla, E.


    Digoxin serum levels were examined in 40 patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with levels of potassium, magnesium, creatinine, urea, glomerular filtration (GF) and with clinical signs of different degrees of digitalis serum concentration. The digoxin level assessed by ELISA and RIA methods correlated fairly closely. An average dependence was found between digoxin levels and levels of creatinine, urea and GF. A correlation was observed between a high level of digoxin and clinical signs of digitalis intoxication

  11. Digoxin serum levels with respect to some biochemical and clinical indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlak, J; Curilla, E [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta


    Digoxin serum levels were examined in 40 patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with levels of potassium, magnesium, creatinine, urea, glomerular filtration (GF) and with clinical signs of different degrees of digitalis serum concentration. The digoxin level assessed by ELISA and RIA methods correlated fairly closely. An average dependence was found between digoxin levels and levels of creatinine, urea and GF. A correlation was observed between a high level of digoxin and clinical signs of digitalis intoxication.

  12. Design and construction of AT89C2051 micro controller based water level indicator for poly tank manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashong, Cynthia Ama


    This project is aimed at designing and constructing an AT89C2051 Micro controller Based Water level Indicator by programming a micro controller that has high frequency, logic, clock circuitry and 2.7V to 6V operating range with 5V volts being logic level 1 and 0 Volts being logic level 0 using Assembler language and programming the AT89C2051 Microcontroller using Galep 4 programmer. The device component and assembly includes A T89C2051 Micro controller, sensor (copper probe), bread board, electric bell for alarm to indicate low water level and a bulb to indicate high water level (that is the water tank is full). The AT89C2051 Micro controller Based Water Level Indicator works by sounding a bell when the tank is empty or the water level is low and light a bulb when the poly tank is full. The boundary within which the device operates is at the upper water level and the lower water level of the device (tank). That is it can operate within the levels of high to low limit. The result is very useful since it will help in ensuring water security. It is satisfactory since the project is working and indicating that the water level is low or high (that is the tank is empty or full). (au)

  13. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY


    worse in the VIQ>PIQ group than in the NON and PIQ>VIQ groups. Significant negative correlations between IQD and most of the motor subtests (r=0.31–0.46, P<0.01 were found only in the VIQ>PIQ group.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that 1 IQD indicates the level of motor competence in preschoolers at risk for developmental delays and 2 IQD is negatively associated with motor competence in preschoolers with significant VIQ>PIQ discrepancy. The first finding was that preschoolers with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD performed significantly worse on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD and preschoolers with PIQ>VIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD. However, preschoolers with significant PIQ>VIQ discrepancy performed better on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD, though the difference was not statistically significant. The second finding was that preschoolers with larger VIQ>PIQ discrepancy had worse motor competence in visual-motor integration and body-movement coordination. Professionals should pay attention to the motor development of children with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy and evaluate children’s IQD along with their motor competence. Keywords: IQ discrepancy, motor competence, child

  14. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome: MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masciocchi, C.; Fascetti, E.; Bonanni, G.; Calvisi, V.; Buoni, C.; Passariello, R.


    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS) is characterized by pain, swelling, and limitation of motion. The etiology and pathophysiology mechanism have not yet been identified. We considered eight patients with clinical signs of RSDS, in five cases located at the knee joint and in three cases in the hip. In all cases conventional radiography and radionuclide bone scanning were performed before MR imaging. Conventional radiography was negative in three cases while scintigraphy demonstrated the lesion in all patients. MR imaging showed an area of low intensity signal on T1-weighted scans and an increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. This area is located at the bone marrow and its regular and homogeneous. This specific finding on MR images is due to reflect edema by hyperemia of the bone marrow. The MR imaging diagnosis was confirmed on clinical and radiological follow-up. MR imaging can have a role in the differential diagnosis when other studies are nondiagnostic or nonspecific for RSDS

  15. Sympathetic cooling of nanospheres with cold atoms (United States)

    Montoya, Cris; Witherspoon, Apryl; Ranjit, Gambhir; Casey, Kirsten; Kitching, John; Geraci, Andrew


    Ground state cooling of mesoscopic mechanical structures could enable new hybrid quantum systems where mechanical oscillators act as transducers. Such systems could provide coupling between photons, spins and charges via phonons. It has recently been shown theoretically that optically trapped dielectric nanospheres could reach the ground state via sympathetic cooling with trapped cold atoms. This technique can be beneficial in cases where cryogenic operation of the oscillator is not practical. We describe experimental advances towards coupling an optically levitated dielectric nanosphere to a gas of cold Rubidium atoms. The sphere and the cold atoms are in separate vacuum chambers and are coupled using a one-dimensional optical lattice. This work is partially supported by NSF, Grant Nos. PHY-1205994,PHY-1506431.

  16. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghizadeh-Asl Rahim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran Methods In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. Results All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly. The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless

  17. Arterial indices and serum cystatin C level in individuals with occupational wide band noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali R Khoshdel


    Full Text Available Background: Chronic exposure to noise is known to cause a wide range of health problems including extracellular matrix (ECM proliferation and involvement of cardiovascular system. There are a few studies to investigate noise-induced vascular changes using noninvasive methods. In this study we used carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT and aortic augmentation as indices of arterial properties and cystatin C as a serum biomarker relating to ECM metabolism. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three male participants were included in this study from aeronautic technicians: 39 with and 54 without a history of wide band noise (WBN exposure. For better discrimination, the participants were divided into the two age groups: 40 years old. Adjusted aortic augmentation index (AI for a heart rate equal to 75 beats per minute (AIx@HR75 were calculated using pulse wave analysis (PWA. CIMT was measured in 54 participants who accepted to undergo Doppler ultrasonography. Serum cystatin C was also measured. Results: Among younger individuals the mean CIMT was 0.85 ± 0.09 mm and 0.75 ± 0.22 mm in the in the exposed and the control groups respectively. Among older individuals CIMT had a mean of 1.04 ± 0.22 mm vs. 1.00 ± 0.25 mm for the exposed vs. the control group. However, in both age groups the difference was not significant at the 0.05 level. A comparison of AIx@HR75 between exposure group and control group both in younger age group (5.46 ± 11.22 vs. 8.56 ± 8.66 and older age group (17.55 ± 10.07 vs. 16.61 ± 5.77 revealed no significant difference. We did not find any significant correlation between CIMT and AIx@HR75 in exposed group (r = 0.314, P value = 0.145 but the correlation was significant in control group (r = 0.455, P value = 0.019. Serum cystatin C level was significantly lower in individuals with WBN exposure compared to controls (441.10 ± 104.70 ng/L vs. 616.89 ± 136.14, P

  18. [Relationship between sympathetic activity and response to treatment with atenolol in hypertensive patients. Investigation group of the study of efficiency and tolerance of atenolol in hypertensive patients with increase in the sympathetic activity]. (United States)

    de la Sierra, A


    Therapeutical response to antihypertensive treatment is poorly predicted by individual clinical or biochemical characteristics. Some preliminary data indicate that therapeutical response to atenolol might depend on physical and/or sympathetic activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the blood pressure response to atenolol depending on physical and sympathetic activity. One thousand one hundred forty hypertensive patients were treated with the beta adrenorecepetor blocker atenolol in an open fashion during 3 months. Before the beginning of the treatment, we evaluated current weekly physical activity (direct interview), as well as sympathetic activity (direct interview and baseline heart rate). Age or physical activity did not correlate with blood pressure response to atenolol. Conversely, hypertensive patients with symptoms suggesting sympathetic overactivity (three or more of the following symptoms: palpitations, anxiety, diaphoresis, headache, tremor or weakness; n = 456), showed a more pronounced decrease in systolic (27.7 [13.4] vs 25.8 [14.3] mmHg; p = 0.0226) and diastolic (17.6 [8.3] vs 15.5 [8.6] mmHg; p = 0.0001) blood pressures (SBP and DBP), with respect to the remaining hypertensive patients (n = 719). Moreover, we found a statistically significant correlation between blood pressure fall with atenolol and baseline heart rate (r = 0.107, P anxiety, emotional tension or sympathetic overactivity are associated with a more pronounced blood pressure fall to antihypertensive treatment with atenolol. These circumstances may play a role when choosing a new antihypertensive therapy.

  19. Slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure: from modeling to clinical application. (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Takagawa, Junya; Ishise, Hisanari; Ueno, Hiroshi; Oda, Yoshitaka; Goso, Yukiko; Joho, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroshi


    Influences of slow and deep respiration on steady-state sympathetic nerve activity remain controversial in humans and could vary depending on disease conditions and basal sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate the respiratory modulation of steady-state sympathetic nerve activity, we modeled the dynamic nature of the relationship between lung inflation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 heart failure patients with exaggerated sympathetic outflow at rest. An autoregressive exogenous input model was utilized to simulate entire responses of MSNA to variable respiratory patterns. In another 18 patients, we determined the influence of increasing tidal volume and slowing respiratory frequency on MSNA; 10 patients underwent a 15-min device-guided slow respiration and the remaining 8 had no respiratory modification. The model predicted that a 1-liter, step increase of lung volume decreased MSNA dynamically; its nadir (-33 ± 22%) occurred at 2.4 s; and steady-state decrease (-15 ± 5%), at 6 s. Actually, in patients with the device-guided slow and deep respiration, respiratory frequency effectively fell from 16.4 ± 3.9 to 6.7 ± 2.8/min (P state MSNA was decreased by 31% (P state MSNA. Thus slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with high levels of resting sympathetic tone as in heart failure. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  20. The pattern of activation of the sympathetic nervous system during tilt-induced syncope. (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Sciborski, Ryszard; Smereka, Jacek; Checiński, Igor; Mazurek, Walentyna


    A 49-year-old patient with a history of situational syncope and minimal electrocardiographic signs of accessory pathway is described. The evidence for pre-excitation was present only during the sympathetic activation caused by exercise testing and isoprenaline infusion. This phenomenon served as an indicator of significant adrenergic drive to the heart after the tilt-induced syncope. The meaning of the observed electrocardiographic changes in the course of neurocardiogenic reaction and its contribution to the understanding of the sympatho-vagal balance during vasovagal syncope is discussed. The lack of preexcitation signs during syncope and its appearance several seconds after the syncope-related sinus pause indicates sympathetic withdrawal before and shortly after the asystole. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Elevated levels of serum amyloid A indicate poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun-Ye; Zheng, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Juan; Lin, Yue-Hao; Dai, Shu-Qin; Zhang, Ge; Liu, Wan-Li


    Increase of Serum amyloid A (SAA) level has been observed in patients with a variety of cancers. The objective of this study was to determined whether SAA level could be used as a prognostic parameter in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). SAA levels were measured by rate nephelometry immunoassay in 167 healthy controls and 167 ESCC patients prior to surgical resection. Statistical associations between clinicopathological observations and SAA levels were determined using the Mann–Whitney U test. The clinical value of SAA level as a prognostic parameter was evaluated using the Cox’s proportional hazards model. SAA levels were significantly higher in patients with ESCC compared to levels in healthy controls (13.88 ± 15.19 mg/L vs. 2.26 ± 1.66 mg/L, P < 0.001). Elevation of SAA levels (≥ 8.0 mg/L) was observed in 54.5% (91/167) of patients with ESCC but not in healthy controls. SAA levels were associated with tumor size (P < 0.001), histological differentiation (P = 0.015), T classification (P < 0.001), clinical stage (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001) and distant metastasis (P < 0.001), but not with the age and gender of the patients or tumor location. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with an elevated level of SAA (≥ 8.0 mg/L) had significantly lower 5-year survival rate than those with non-elevated SAA (< 8.0 mg/L, log-rank P < 0.0001). An elevated level of preoperative SAA was found to associate with tumor progression and poor survival in patients with ESCC

  2. Renal sympathetic nerve ablation for treatment-resistant hypertension (United States)

    Krum, Henry; Schlaich, Markus; Sobotka, Paul


    Hypertension is a major risk factor for increased cardiovascular events with accelerated sympathetic nerve activity implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of disease. Blood pressure is not adequately controlled in many patients, despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapy. Novel procedure- as well as device-based strategies, such as percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation, have been developed to improve blood pressure in these refractory patients. Renal sympathetic denervation not only reduces blood pressure but also renal as well as systemic sympathetic nerve activity in such patients. The reduction in blood pressure appears to be sustained over 3 years after the procedure, which suggests absence of re-innervation of renal sympathetic nerves. Safety appears to be adequate. This approach may also have potential in other disorders associated with enhanced sympathetic nerve activity such as congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome. This review will focus on the current status of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation, clinical efficacy and safety outcomes and prospects beyond refractory hypertension. PMID:23819768

  3. Glutamate and GABA in vestibulo-sympathetic pathway neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay R Holstein


    Full Text Available The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively. The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. Vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the

  4. A PC Based Level Indicating Controller Using a Hall Probe Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Bera


    Full Text Available A PC-based measurement and control of liquid level is a very important part of the modern instrumentation system of a process plant in any process industry. In this measurement and control system, the liquid level is measured by using a suitable level transducer. Among the different types of level transducers for measurement and control of liquid level in storage tank the cheapest one is perhaps the float type sensor and the movement of the float with level is generally converted into the movement of a pointer or that of a flapper or that of a potentiometer. In all of these system float is connected with the output device through a mechanical linkage and thus the measurement is subjected to errors due to wear and tear, friction etc. at the mechanical linkage. Here a non-contact float & magnet type level transducer using hall probe has been described in the present paper. A control system has been designed by using thyristor driven pump as the final control element, the speed of which is controlled by the computer through an opto-isolator unit. Experiments have been performed to find the operational characteristics of the transducer and the control loop. The experimental reports are presented in the paper. A very good performance characteristic has been observed.

  5. Sympathetic activity of S-(+-ketamine low doses in the epidural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Mihaljevic


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: S-(+-ketamine is an intravenous anaesthetic and sympathomimetic with properties of local anaesthetic. It has an effect of an analgetic and local anaesthetic when administered epidurally, but there are no data whether low doses of S-(+-ketamine have sympathomimetic effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether low doses of S-(+-ketamine, given epidurally together with local anaesthetic, have any effect on sympathetic nervous system, both systemic and below the level of anaesthetic block. METHODS: The study was conducted on two groups of patients to whom epidural anaesthesia was administered to. Local anaesthesia (0.5% bupivacaine was given to one group (control group while local anaesthesia and S-(+-ketamine were given to other group. Age, height, weight, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure were measured. Non-competitive enzyme immunochemistry method (Cat Combi ELISA was used to determine the concentrations of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline. Immunoenzymometric determination with luminescent substrate on a machine called Vitros Eci was used to determine the concentration of cortisol. Pulse transit time was measured using photoplethysmography. Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon test and Friedman ANOVA were the statistical tests. Blood pressure, pulse, adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol concentrations were measured in order to estimate systemic sympathetic effects. RESULTS: 40 patients in the control group were given 0.5% bupivacaine and 40 patients in the test group were given 0.5% bupivacaine with S-(+-ketamine. Value p < 0.05 has been taken as a limit of statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Low dose of S-(+-ketamine administered epidurally had no sympathomimetic effects; it did not change blood pressure, pulse, serum hormones or pulse transit time. Low dose of S-(+-ketamine administered epidurally did not deepen sympathetic block. Adding 25 mg of S-(+-ketamine to 0

  6. Uncovering High-Level Corruption: Cross-National Objective Corruption Risk Indicators Using Public Procurement Data


    Fazekas, Mihaly; Kocsis, G


    Measuring high-level corruption is subject to extensive scholarly and policy interest, which has achieved moderate progress in the last decade. This article develops two objective proxy measures of high-level corruption in public procurement: single bidding in competitive markets and a composite score of tendering ‘red flags’. Using official government data on 2.8 million contracts in twenty-eight European countries in 2009–14, we directly operationalize a common definition of corruption: unj...

  7. SERUM magnesium levels as an indicator of status of Diabetes Mellitus type 2. (United States)

    Ramadass, S; Basu, Sharbari; Srinivasan, A R


    Magnesium deficiency is commonly associated with endocrine and metabolic disorders, especially with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 though the mechanism of hypomagnesemia in Diabetes Mellitus is not completely known. There is a close association between metabolic control of Diabetes Mellitus and impaired magnesium balance. To estimate the serum levels of magnesium in patients of with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and to find a correlation if any, with the duration and control (by estimating HbA1c) of Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Fifty patients of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 were included in the study. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting and post prandial glucose, HbA1c and magnesium. The patients were grouped into three categories based upon their HbA1c levels into those with good control, need intervention and poor control. The three groups were compared with reference to their mean levels of blood glucose and magnesium. Association of serum magnesium levels with HbA1c, Fasting and postprandial blood glucose and duration of Diabetes Mellitus was also done. Serum magnesium levels were found to decline with rise in HbA1c levels and with duration of Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Hypomagnesemia is linked to poor control of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and depletion of serum magnesium occurs exponentially with duration of disease. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alterations of left ventricular deformation and cardiac sympathetic derangement in patients with systolic heart failure: a 3D speckle tracking echocardiography and cardiac {sup 123}I-MIBG study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leosco, Dario; Parisi, Valentina; Pagano, Gennaro; Femminella, Grazia Daniela; Bevilacqua, Agnese; Formisano, Roberto; Ferro, Gaetana; De Lucia, Claudio; Ferrara, Nicola [University Federico II, Department of Translational Medical Science, Naples (Italy); Pellegrino, Teresa [Italian National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Science, Naples (Italy); Paolillo, Stefania [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Science, Naples (Italy); SDN Foundation, Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, Naples (Italy); Prastaro, Maria; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Science, Naples (Italy); Rengo, Giuseppe [University Federico II, Department of Translational Medical Science, Naples (Italy); Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Istituto di Telese, Benevento, BN (Italy)


    Myocardial contractile function is under the control of cardiac sympathetic activity. Three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) and cardiac imaging with {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) are two sophisticated techniques for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) deformation and sympathetic innervation, respectively, which offer important prognostic information in patients with heart failure (HF). The purpose of this investigation was to explore, in patients with systolic HF, the relationship between LV deformation assessed by 3D-STE and cardiac sympathetic derangement evaluated by {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging. We prospectively studied 75 patients with systolic HF. All patients underwent a 3D-STE study (longitudinal, circumferential, area and radial) and {sup 123}I-MIBG planar and SPECT cardiac imaging. 3D-STE longitudinal, circumferential and area strain values were correlated with {sup 123}I-MIBG late heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio and late SPECT total defect score. After stratification of the patients according to ischaemic or nonischaemic HF aetiology, we observed a good correlation of all 3D-STE measurements with late H/M ratio and SPECT data in the ischaemic group, but in patients with HF of nonischaemic aetiology, no correlation was found between LV deformation and cardiac sympathetic activity. At the regional level, the strongest correlation between LV deformation and adrenergic innervation was found for the left anterior descending coronary artery distribution territory for all four 3D-STE values. In multivariate linear regression analyses, including age, gender, LV ejection fraction, NYHA class, body mass index, heart rate and HF aetiology, only 3D-STE area and radial strain values significantly predicted cardiac sympathetic derangement on {sup 123}I-MIBG late SPECT. This study indicated that 3D-STE measurements are correlated with {sup 123}I-MIBG planar and SPECT data. Furthermore, 3D-STE area and radial strain values

  9. Does ICD indication affect quality of life and levels of distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Sears, Samuel F; Burg, Matthew M


    The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the treatment of choice for life-threatening arrhythmias, with ICD indications having recently been extended to include primary prophylaxis. Despite the medical benefits of the ICD, there is an ongoing debate as to the impact of the ICD on patie...

  10. A critical cluster analysis of 44 indicators of author-level performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildgaard, Lorna Elizabeth


    . Publication and citation data for 741 researchers across Astronomy, Environmental Science, Philosophy and Public Health was collected in Web of Science (WoS). Forty-four indicators of individual performance were computed using the data. A two-step cluster analysis using IBM SPSS version 22 was performed...

  11. The Stability of School Effectiveness Indices across Grade Levels and Subject Areas. (United States)

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Anderson, Lorin W.


    School effectiveness indices based on regressing achievement test scores onto earlier scores and a socioeconomic status measure were obtained for South Carolina students in grades one to four. Results were unstable across grades, and grade-to-grade correlations were more significant for mathematics achievement than for reading. (Author/GDC)

  12. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa


    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. - Highlights: • Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal increases sympathetic activity in the PVN and heart. • Co-localization of TH phosphorylated at serine 40/c-Fos in the VLM after morphine withdrawal • Naloxone

  13. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa


    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. - Highlights: • Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal increases sympathetic activity in the PVN and heart. • Co-localization of TH phosphorylated at serine 40/c-Fos in the VLM after morphine withdrawal • Naloxone

  14. Criteria, indicators and levels of formed professional functional competences of future teachers of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsutina N.M.


    Full Text Available It is shown the structural components of the functional competence of professional teachers of physical education: motivational, cognitive and action-practical. We used the following methods of scientific knowledge, as the analysis of psychological, educational and methodological literature, synthesis, comparison, generalization, specification, classification, ordering Criteria and levels of occupational functional competence of future teachers of physical education. It is determined that the high level of professional formation of the functional competence of future teachers of physical culture is characterized by the motivation to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, fundamental knowledge required to perform professional functions of a teacher of physical culture, a high level of general physical fitness, pronounced specific motor abilities and skills.

  15. Relationship of serum magnesium levels and other metabolic indices in renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi F


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cyclosporine is one of the main immunosuppressors used for renal transplant recipients, and is given to prevent transplant rejection. Although the drug increases the survival of patients and grafted organs, it has some side effects independent of its effect on the immune system that are usually ignored. In this study, we evaluate the effect of cyclosporine on serum Mg levels and metabolic side effects in renal graft patients."n"n Methods: In this study, we followed 157 renal transplant recipients (62 females and 95 males who were being treated with cyclosporine at a private clinic to prevent transplant rejection. The patients were first physically examined and then blood samples were obtained in order to measure levels of cyclosporine, Mg, creatinine, fasting blood sugar, lipids, calcium, phosphorus, and uric acid levels. We then analyzed the data for correlations between serum Mg levels, cyclosporine and other metabolic complications."n"n Results: The mean levels of Mg and cyclosporine were 196±0.31mg/dl and 371±192 μg/dl, respectively. Hypomagnesemia was detected in 16 patients (10.2%.There was a significant negative correlation (p<0.05 between levels of Mg and cyclosporine levels (r=-0.53, serum

  16. Quality indicators to self-assess the level of disaster preparedness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, K.F.J.; Slottje, P.; Yzermans, C.J.


    Introduction: It impossible to predict when or where a disaster will happen next, or what its cause will be. This presentation describes an instrument that was developed to allow hospitals to self-assess their level of disaster preparedness and to prioritize areas for improvement for future disaster

  17. Turmeric Supplementation Improves Serum Glucose Indices and Leptin Levels in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases. (United States)

    Navekar, Roya; Rafraf, Maryam; Ghaffari, Aida; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Khoshbaten, Manouchehr


    Insulin and leptin resistance are important risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited evidence regarding the effects of turmeric on NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of turmeric supplementation on glycemic status and serum leptin levels in patients with NAFLD. This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 46 patients with NAFLD (21males and 25 females) aged 20-60 years old and body mass index (BMI) between 24.9 and 40 kg/m2. The turmeric group (n = 23) was given six turmeric capsules daily for 12 weeks. Each capsule contained 500 mg turmeric powder (6×500 mg). The placebo group (n = 23) was given six placebo capsules daily for the same period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity levels were collected at the baseline and at the end of the study. Daily dietary intakes also were obtained throughout the study. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test and analysis of covariance. Turmeric consumption decreased serum levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin (by 1.22, 17.69, 19.48 and 21.33% respectively, p Turmeric supplementation improved glucose indexes and serum leptin levels and may be useful in the control of NAFLD complications.

  18. Perspectives on Performance Indicators: GCE Advanced Level and Differences Between Institution Types in Cost Effectiveness. (United States)

    Fielding, A.


    Applies multilevel models of cost-effectiveness to numerous types of (British) institutions providing courses of instruction in the General Certificate of Education at Advanced Level. Different impressions may be gained about an institution's relative effectiveness when cost considerations are combined with outcome measures. Data evaluation needs…

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness (United States)

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  20. Assessment of Self-Efficacy in Systems Engineering as an Indicator of Competency Level Achievement (United States)


    i.e., students, or entry level employees) towards a common goal (i.e., the desired future state) (Ponton et al. 2001, 247). Robbins , Bradley and...04, MIT Sloan, Cambridge, MA. Lucas, William A., Sarah Y. Cooper, Tony Ward, and Frank Cave. 2009. “Industry Placement, Authentic Experience and

  1. Level of C - reactive protein as an indicator for prognosis of premature uterine contractions. (United States)

    Najat Nakishbandy, Bayar M; Barawi, Sabat A M


    high concentrations of maternal C-reactive protein have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, and premature uterine contraction may be predicted by elevated levels of C-reactive protein. This may ultimately be simple and cost-effective enough to introduce as a low-risk screening program. an observational case control study was performed from May 1st, 2010 to December 1st, 2010 at Maternity Teaching Hospital-Erbil/ Kurdistan Region/ Iraq. The sample size was (200) cases. Hundred of them were presented with premature uterine contractions at 24(+0)-36(+6) weeks. The other hundred were control group at same gestational ages. The level of C-reactive protein was determined in both groups and both groups were followed till delivery. (93) out of (100) women with premature uterine contractions had elevated level of C-Reactive protein and 91% delivered prematurely while in the control group only (9) out of (100) women had elevated level of C-reactive protein and only 8% of them delivered preterm. Differences were statistically highly significant. C-reactive protein can be used as a biomarker in prediction of premature delivery when it is associated with premature uterine contractions. As well it can be used as a screening test to detect cases that are at risk of premature delivery.

  2. Developmental neurotoxicity targeting hepatic and cardiac sympathetic innervation: effects of organophosphates are distinct from those of glucocorticoids. (United States)

    Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A


    Early-life exposure to organophosphate pesticides leads to subsequent hyperresponsiveness of β-adrenergic receptor-mediated cell signaling that regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis, culminating in metabolic abnormalities resembling prediabetes. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of chlorpyrifos or parathion on presynaptic sympathetic innervation to determine whether the postsynaptic signaling effects are accompanied by defects in neuronal input. We administered either chlorpyrifos or parathion to newborn rats using exposure paradigms known to elicit the later metabolic changes but found no alterations in either hepatic or cardiac norepinephrine levels in adolescence or adulthood. However, shifting chlorpyrifos exposure to the prenatal period did evoke changes: exposure early in gestation produced subsequent elevations in norepinephrine, whereas later gestational exposure produced significant deficits. We also distinguished the organophosphate effects from those of the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, a known endocrine disruptor that leads to later-life metabolic and cardiovascular disruption. Postnatal exposure to dexamethasone elicited deficits in peripheral norepinephrine levels but prenatal exposure did not. Our results indicate that early-life exposure to organophosphates leads to subsequent abnormalities of peripheral sympathetic innervation through mechanisms entirely distinct from those of glucocorticoids, ruling out the possibility that the organophosphate effects are secondary to stress or disruption of the HPA axis. Further, the effects on innervation were separable from those on postsynaptic signaling, differing in critical period as well as tissue- and sex-selectivity. Organophosphate targeting of both presynaptic and postsynaptic β-adrenergic sites, each with different critical periods of vulnerability, thus sets the stage for compounding of hepatic and cardiac functional abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemo-ecological studies on plant indicators for low level air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Terutaka; Kasuya, Minoru; Kagamimori, Sadanobu (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kawano, Shoichi


    The effects of low level air pollution on Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) have been studied in the surrounding area of two thermoelectric power stations newly constructed in a rural area, Fukui Prefecture, on the Japan Sea side of central Honshu, Japan. The degree of visual injury in Japanese Cedar, scored with six different categories, was examined in 1974 and 1977 respectively, covering the entire study area. A more complete monitoring has been conducted at eight permanent sites in Awara-cho since 1974. A dendrochronological study was also carried out to evaluate the effects of air pollution on the increment growth of Japanese Cedars. There were clear correlations between the distance from the power station and tree decline. Severe damage was observed, in general, within a 7 km radius from the power station. The localized injury of Japanese Cedar, along the flood plain of the two rivers, was also demonstrated. A rapid increase of injury was noted until through the late 1970's. The growth inhibition, during this period, was also revealed by tree ring analysis. Some recovery of tree vigor and increment growth was observed after the introduction of pollution control systems at the power station. Consistent relationships were demonstrated between the index of increment growth, i.e., standardized ring index, and the levels of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}. Scarcely any correlation was observed between pH of rain water and the standardized ring index. Decreased levels of foliar tannin were observed in the Japanese Cedars growing in the polluted areas. The inhibition of the shikimate pathway, by air pollution, was suggested by biochemical studies. Increased predation damage was observed in the foliage of Japanese Cedars with low tannin levels. The predisposed effects of air pollution were discussed with special reference to the inhibition of the shikimate pathway. (author).

  4. Chemo-ecological studies on plant indicators for low level air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Terutaka; Kasuya, Minoru; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Kozuka, Hiroshi; Kawano, Shoichi.


    The effects of low level air pollution on Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) have been studied in the surrounding area of two thermoelectric power stations newly constructed in a rural area, Fukui Prefecture, on the Japan Sea side of central Honshu, Japan. The degree of visual injury in Japanese Cedar, scored with six different categories, was examined in 1974 and 1977 respectively, covering the entire study area. A more complete monitoring has been conducted at eight permanent sites in Awara-cho since 1974. A dendrochronological study was also carried out to evaluate the effects of air pollution on the increment growth of Japanese Cedars. There were clear correlations between the distance from the power station and tree decline. Severe damage was observed, in general, within a 7 km radius from the power station. The localized injury of Japanese Cedar, along the flood plain of the two rivers, was also demonstrated. A rapid increase of injury was noted until through the late 1970's. The growth inhibition, during this period, was also revealed by tree ring analysis. Some recovery of tree vigor and increment growth was observed after the introduction of pollution control systems at the power station. Consistent relationships were demonstrated between the index of increment growth, i.e., standardized ring index, and the levels of SO 2 and NO 2 . Scarcely any correlation was observed between pH of rain water and the standardized ring index. Decreased levels of foliar tannin were observed in the Japanese Cedars growing in the polluted areas. The inhibition of the shikimate pathway, by air pollution, was suggested by biochemical studies. Increased predation damage was observed in the foliage of Japanese Cedars with low tannin levels. The predisposed effects of air pollution were discussed with special reference to the inhibition of the shikimate pathway. (author)

  5. Approach to the use of indicators for the assessment of the environmental level of construction products


    Montes Delgado, María Victoria; Monterde Pereira, Daniel; Villoria Saez, Paola


    The European construction industry is supposed to consume the 40% of the natural European resources and to generate the 40% of the European solid waste. Conscious of the great damage being suffered by the environment because of construction activity, this work tries to provide the building actors with a new tool to improve the current situation. The tool proposed is a model for the comprehensive evaluation of construction products by determining their environmental level. In this researc...

  6. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve integrity with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffel, David M.; Wieland, Donald M.


    The autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiac function. Abnormalities of cardiac innervation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many heart diseases, including sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. In an effort to provide clinicians with the ability to regionally map cardiac innervation, several radiotracers for imaging cardiac sympathetic neurons have been developed. This paper reviews the development of neuronal imaging agents and discusses their emerging role in the noninvasive assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation

  7. Schwanomma From Cervical Sympathetic Chain Ganglion – A Rare Presentation (United States)

    Asma, A. Affee


    Schwanommas arising from cervical sympathetic chain are tumours that are rare in occurrence. These lesions are usually difficult to differentiate from a vagal schwanomma and a carotid body tumour during the initial workup. In this report, a rarely seen huge cervical sympathetic chain schwanomma case with partial Horner’s syndrome is being presented in detail, which to our known knowledge, is one of the few cases reported in literature. PMID:26557566

  8. Imbalance between sympathetic and sensory innervation in peritoneal endometriosis. (United States)

    Arnold, Julia; Barcena de Arellano, Maria L; Rüster, Carola; Vercellino, Giuseppe F; Chiantera, Vito; Schneider, Achim; Mechsner, Sylvia


    To investigate possible mechanisms of pain pathophysiology in patients with peritoneal endometriosis, a clinical study on sensory and sympathetic nerve fibre sprouting in endometriosis was performed. Peritoneal lesions (n=40) and healthy peritoneum (n=12) were immunostained and analysed with anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), anti-substance P (SP) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), specific markers for intact nerve fibres, sensory nerve fibres and sympathetic nerve fibres, respectively, to identify the ratio of sympathetic and sensory nerve fibres. In addition, immune cell infiltrates in peritoneal endometriotic lesions were analysed and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and interleukin (IL)-1β expression was correlate with the nerve fibre density. Peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis (n=40) and without endometriosis (n=20) were used for the in vitro neuronal growth assay. Cultured chicken dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sympathetic ganglia were stained with anti-growth associated protein 43 (anti-GAP 43), anti-SP and anti-TH. We could detect an increased sensory and decreased sympathetic nerve fibres density in peritoneal lesions compared to healthy peritoneum. Peritoneal fluids of patients with endometriosis compared to patients without endometriosis induced an increased sprouting of sensory neurites from DRG and decreased neurite outgrowth from sympathetic ganglia. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an imbalance between sympathetic and sensory nerve fibres in peritoneal endometriosis, as well as an altered modulation of peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis on sympathetic and sensory innervation which might directly be involved in the maintenance of inflammation and pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sympathetic skin response evoked by laser skin stimulation


    Rossi, P.; Truini, A.; Serrao, M.; Iannetti, G. D.; Parisi, L.; Pozzessere, G.; Cruccu, G.


    The objective of this study was to evoke sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) in healthy subjects using laser stimulation and to compare these responses with those induced by conventional electrical stimuli. Twenty healthy subjects were investigated. SSRs were obtained using electrical and laser stimuli delivered to the wrist controlateral to the recording site. The sympathetic sudomotor conduction velocity (SSFCV) was measured in 8 subjects by simultaneously recording the SSR from the hand and ...

  10. Sympathetic Responses to Central Hypovolemia: New Insights from Microneurographic Recordings (United States)


    Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA 2 Department of Health and Kinesiology , The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA Edited...suggested that this phenomenon may represent sympathetic baroreflex deafferentation (Cooke et al., 2009), as the fused bursts observed during intense ...Convertino, V. A. (2009). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity during intense lower body negative pressure to presyn- cope in humans. J. Physiol. (Lond

  11. Schwanomma From Cervical Sympathetic Chain Ganglion - A Rare Presentation. (United States)

    Asma, A Affee; Kannah, E


    Schwanommas arising from cervical sympathetic chain are tumours that are rare in occurrence. These lesions are usually difficult to differentiate from a vagal schwanomma and a carotid body tumour during the initial workup. In this report, a rarely seen huge cervical sympathetic chain schwanomma case with partial Horner's syndrome is being presented in detail, which to our known knowledge, is one of the few cases reported in literature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaraj Wali


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sepsis is a lethal disease that has a complex pathophysiology including a dysregulated inflammatory response, endothelial injury, microvascular thrombosis, vasoplegia and myocardial depression leading to multiorgan failure. Prompt recognition of sepsis, early initiation of antibiotics, source control, optimal fluid and vasopressor therapy are of utmost importance. Early diagnosis of sepsis is very critical for the timely and efficient use of treatment modalities, however, there are no reliable, specific biomarkers that can guide the diagnosis of sepsis. Cardiopulmonary failure, sepsis, trauma, oncologic pathology and so can lead to lactic acidosis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the serum lactic acid levels as a prognostic marker in various type of shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective clinical study with 50 patients studied for 1 year. To study the values of serum lactate levels in shock patients. Statistical analysis- Chi-square test 2. Student’s t-test (two tailed, independent. RESULTS Out of the 50 patients included in the study, the incidence of shock was found to be high in the 21-30 years age group, 13 (26%. This study of ours revealed the most common focus of sepsis as respiratory tract (60%, followed by urinary tract (25%, skin and soft tissue (15%. Out of the 18 patients who died, it was noted that mortality rates were highest 10 (55.5% in patients with initial (0 hours high positive serum lactate levels (>4 mmol/L. Out of the 32 patients who recovered, majority 21 (65.6% had low positive serum lactate levels (0-2.5 mmol/L on admission (0 hours. Serum lactate level is significantly reduced in recovered patients. CONCLUSION Approximately, 30% to 45% of patients with septic shock and 60% to 90% of patients with cardiogenic shock die within 1 month of presentation. Lactate was chosen because it is used as a prognostic marker of global hypoxia. Serial lactate values followed over a period of time can be used to

  13. On the (In)Consistency of Citizen and Municipal Level Indicators of Social Capital and Local Government Performance. (United States)

    Kampen, Jarl K


    We study the empirical consistency of survey based (micro level) indicators of social capital and local government performance on the one, and municipality based (aggregate level) measures of these two concepts on the other hand. Knowledge about the behavior of these indicators is helpful for evaluating the value of studies carried out in isolated contexts, that is, with access to data on either, but not both, levels. The method is by comparing data collected by Statistics Belgium on Flemish municipalities, to data collected at citizen level by means of a face-to-face survey. The available evidence supplies at best a meager basis for presupposing a shared component of the indicators under study.

  14. Revision on Renal Sympathetic Ablation in the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension. (United States)

    Saraiva, Ana Filipa


    Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, with about 1 billion people affected and a possible increase to 1.5 billion by 2025. Despite advances in treatment, a proportion of patients remain resistant to conventional treatment and uncontrolled, and this can adversely affect future cardiovascular events and mortality. This alarming growth is already reflected in an important public health problem and one of the largest economic burdens of health, requiring new approaches and development of different strategies to fight this problem. This review will focus on the definition of resistant hypertension and its etiology, as well as in contemporary evidence supporting the usefulness of renal sympathetic denervation while addressing current and emerging devices, potential treatment indications in the future and unresolved issues that need to be addressed before renal sympathetic denervation can be adopted not only as a last resort exclusively for resistant hypertension. Finally an evaluation algorithm for patients with resistant hypertension which should be implemented before the execution of this technique will be proposed. Renal sympathetic denervation is a technique that possibly could have future implications in the population with hypertension, especially those with true resistant hypertension. This technique aims to reduce the renal sympathetic activation (a component in the pathophysiology of hypertension) through the destruction of the renal sympathetic nerves located in the adventitia of the renal arteries. There are several catheters that can be used; each with its specifications and therefore their selection should be made individually depending on the profile of the patient. However, a detailed pre-procedure evaluation is extremely important to exclude the large percentage of individuals with uncontrolled hypertension due to several factors that make it impossible to control blood pressure, but are likely to be corrected and as such should

  15. Vestibular control of sympathetic activity. An otolith-sympathetic reflex in humans. (United States)

    Kaufmann, H; Biaggioni, I; Voustianiouk, A; Diedrich, A; Costa, F; Clarke, R; Gizzi, M; Raphan, T; Cohen, B


    It has been proposed that a vestibular reflex originating in the otolith organs and other body graviceptors modulates sympathetic activity during changes in posture with regard to gravity. To test this hypothesis, we selectively stimulated otolith and body graviceptors sinusoidally along different head axes in the coronal plane with off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) and recorded sympathetic efferent activity in the peroneal nerve (muscle sympathetic nerve activity, MSNA), blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate. All parameters were entrained during OVAR at the frequency of rotation, with MSNA increasing in nose-up positions during forward linear acceleration and decreasing when nose-down. MSNA was correlated closely with blood pressure when subjects were within +/-90 degrees of nose-down positions with a delay of 1.4 s, the normal latency of baroreflex-driven changes in MSNA. Thus, in the nose-down position, MSNA was probably driven by baroreflex afferents. In contrast, when subjects were within +/-45 degrees of the nose-up position, i.e., when positive linear acceleration was maximal along the naso-ocipital axis, MSNA was closely related to gravitational acceleration at a latency of 0.4 s. This delay is too short for MSNA changes to be mediated by the baroreflex, but it is compatible with the delay of a response originating in the vestibular system. We postulate that a vestibulosympathetic reflex, probably originating mainly in the otolith organs, contributes to blood pressure maintenance during forward linear acceleration. Because of its short latency, this reflex may be one of the earliest mechanisms to sustain blood pressure upon standing.

  16. Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo--role of the sympathetic nervous system. (United States)

    Stämpfli, Simon F; Camici, Giovanni G; Keller, Stephan; Rozenberg, Izabela; Arras, Margarete; Schuler, Beat; Gassmann, Max; Garcia, Irene; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C


    Stress is known to correlate with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are not known. This study was designed to assess the effect of experimental stress on arterial thrombus formation, the key event in acute myocardial infarction. Mice exposed to 20 h of restraint stress displayed an increased arterial prothrombotic potential as assessed by photochemical injury-induced time to thrombotic occlusion. This increase was prevented by chemical sympathectomy performed through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Blood-born tissue factor (TF) activity was enhanced by stress and this increase could be prevented by 6-OHDA treatment. Vessel wall TF, platelet count, platelet aggregation, coagulation times (PT, aPTT), fibrinolytic system (t-PA and PAI-1) and tail bleeding time remained unaltered. Telemetric analysis revealed only minor hemodynamic changes throughout the stress protocol. Plasma catecholamines remained unaffected after restraint stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels were unchanged and inhibition of TNF-α had no effect on stress-enhanced thrombosis. These results indicate that restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis via the sympathetic nervous system. Blood-borne TF contributes, at least in part, to the observed effect whereas vessel wall TF, platelets, circulating coagulation factors, fibrinolysis and inflammation do not appear to play a role. These findings shed new light on the understanding of stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  17. Social instability and immunity in rhesus monkeys: the role of the sympathetic nervous system. (United States)

    Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W


    Social instability can adversely affect endocrine, immune and health outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) might mediate these effects. We conducted two studies with adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to understand how social conditions affect measures of SNS activity and immune function. In Experiment 1, animals were socialized in stable social conditions, then were switched to unstable (stressful) social conditions, then were returned to stable conditions. Analysis revealed quadratic effects for measures of behaviour, urinary metabolites of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and expression of immune response genes: as expected, social instability adversely impacted most measures, and the effects remediated upon re-imposition of stable conditions. Cortisol levels were unaffected. In Experiment 2, we used the sympathomimetic drug methamphetamine to challenge the SNS; animals also underwent socialization in stable or unstable groups. Surprisingly, while methamphetamine elevated plasma catecholamines, responses in lymph nodes tracked the social, and not the drug, condition: social instability upregulated the density of SNS fibres in lymph nodes and downregulated Type I interferon gene expression. Together, these results indicate that the SNS is extremely sensitive to social conditions; full understanding of the adverse effects of social instability on health should therefore incorporate measures of this health-relevant system. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Sympathetic neural modulation of the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, K.S.


    One route by which the central nervous system communicates with lymphoid organs in the periphery is through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To study SNS regulation of immune activity in vivo, selective removal of peripheral noradrenergic nerve fibers was achieved by administration of the neurotoxic drug, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), to adult mice. To assess SNS influence on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, uptake of 125 iododeoxyuridine ( 125 IUdR), a DNA precursor, was measured following 6-OHDA treatment. Sympathectomy prior to epicutaneous immunization with TNCB did not alter draining lymph nodes (LN) cell proliferation, whereas 6-OHDA treatment before footpad immunization with KLH reduced DNA synthesis in popliteal LN by 50%. In mice which were not deliberately immunized, sympathectomy stimulated 125 IUdR uptake inguinal and axillary LN, spleen, and bone marrow. In vitro, these LN and spleen cells exhibited decreased proliferation responses to the T cell mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A), whereas lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IgG secretion was enhanced. Studies examining 51 Cr-labeled lymphocyte trafficking to LN suggested that altered cell migration may play a part in sympathectomy-induced changes in LN cell function

  19. Bone mineral density in reflex sympathetic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghaphi, M.; Azarian, A.


    Objectives: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) is a complex of symptoms that produce pain burning sensation, swelling, tenderness, autonomic and physical dysfunction in joint areas, particularly distal of a limb. Osteopenia or osteoporosis is an important finding that is produced gradually in involved limb. Three phase bone can scan help to diagnosis of RSD. The disease may be bilateral but is mostly unilateral. As it is believed that bone densitometry will show osteopenia more accurate than plain comparative radiographs of the involved limbs, we investigated in patients with RSD. Methods: During last three years, 8 patients with RSD were admitted. Bone mineral density was measured for 5 patients by DEXA method. The patients were 3 males and 2 females with age range of 20 to 48 years (mean 32 years). The involved areas were ankle and foot in 4, and wrist and hand in one patient. Results: Mean Bone Mineral Content (BMC) of 4 involved lower limbs were 475 +-73 grams comparing with 516+-72 grams of uninvolved limbs (p t h patient was not significant. conclusion: comparative bone mineral density in patients with RSD of the lower limbs contributes to more accurate diagnosis than plain radiographs

  20. Serum Levels of Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin as Indicator of the Inflammatory Status in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kafkas


    Full Text Available Background. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and the acute clinical manifestations represent acute on chronic inflammation. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is found in the granules of human neutrophils, with many diverse functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that levels NGAL in blood may reflect the inflammatory process in various stages of coronary artery disease. Methods. We studied 140 patients, with SA 40, UA 35, NSTEMI 40, and STEMI 25, and 20 healthy controls. Serum NGAL was measured upon admission and before coronary angiography. Results. Significant differences were observed in median serum-NGAL(ng/mL between patients with SA (79.23 (IQR, 37.50–100.32, when compared with UA (108.00 (68.34–177.59, NSTEMI (166.49 (109.24–247.20, and STEMI (178.63 (111.18–305.92 patients and controls (50.31 (44.30–69.78 with significant incremental value from SA to STEMI. We observed a positive and significant correlation between serum-NGAL and hs-CRP (spearman coefficient rho = 0.685, <0.0001 as well as with neutrophil counts (r = 0.511, <0.0001. Conclusions. In patients with coronary artery disease serum levels of NGAL increase and reflect the degree of inflammatory process. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, serum levels of NGAL have high negative predictive value and reflecting the inflammatory status could show the severity of coronary clinical syndrome.

  1. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.


    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  2. Anorexia nervosa depends on adrenal sympathetic hyperactivity: opposite neuroautonomic profile of hyperinsulinism syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechin F


    Full Text Available Fuad Lechin1,2, Bertha van der Dijs1,2, Betty Pardey-Maldonado1, Jairo E Rivera1, Scarlet Baez1, Marcel E Lechin31Department of Pathophysiology, Sections of Neuroendocrinology, Neuropharmacology, and Neurochemistry, Instituto de Medicina Experimental, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; 2Instituto de Vias Digestivas Caracas, Centro Clínico Profesional, Caracas, Venezuela; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A and M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Texas, USAObjective: The aim of our study was to determine the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system profiles underlying anorexia nervosa (AN syndrome, given that affected patients present with the opposite clinical profile to that seen in the hyperinsulinism syndrome.Design: We measured blood pressure and heart rate, as well as circulating neurotransmitters (noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, plasma serotonin, and platelet serotonin, using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, during supine resting, one minute of orthostasis, and after five minutes of exercise. In total, 22 AN patients (12 binge-eating/purging type and 10 restricting type and age-, gender-, and race-matched controls (70 ± 10.1% versus 98 ± 3.0% of ideal body weight were recruited.Results: We found that patients with AN had adrenal sympathetic overactivity and neural sympathetic underactivity, demonstrated by a predominance of circulating adrenaline over noradrenaline levels, not only during the supine resting state (52 ± 2 versus 29 ± 1 pg/mL but also during orthostasis (67 ± 3 versus 32 ± 2 pg/mL, P < 0.05 and after exercise challenge (84 ± 4 versus 30 ± 3 pg/mL, P < 0.01.Conclusion: Considering that this peripheral autonomic nervous system disorder depends on the absolute predominance of adrenomedullary C1 adrenergic nuclei over A5 noradrenergic pontine nucleus, let us ratify the abovementioned findings. The AN syndrome depends on the

  3. Genomewide analysis indicates that queen larvae have lower methylation levels in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera) (United States)

    Shi, Yuan Yuan; Yan, Wei Yu; Huang, Zachary Y.; Wang, Zi Long; Wu, Xiao Bo; Zeng, Zhi Jiang


    The honey bee is a social insect characterized by caste differentiation, by which a young larva can develop into either a queen or a worker. Despite possessing the same genome, queen and workers display marked differences in reproductive capacity, physiology, and behavior. Recent studies have shown that DNA methylation plays important roles in caste differentiation. To further explore the roles of DNA methylation in this process, we analyzed DNA methylome profiles of both queen larvae (QL) and worker larvae (WL) of different ages (2, 4, and 6 day old), by using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (meDIP-seq) technique. The global DNA methylation levels varied between the larvae of two castes. DNA methylation increased from 2-day- to 4-day-old QL and then decreased in 6-day-old larvae. In WL, methylation levels increased with age. The methylcytosines in both larvae were enriched in introns, followed by coding sequence (CDS) regions, CpG islands, 2 kbp downstream and upstream of genes, and 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). The number of differentially methylated genes (DMGs) in 2-, 4-, and 6-day-old QL and WL was 725, 3,013, and 5,049, respectively. Compared to 4- and 6-day-old WL, a large number of genes in QL were downmethylated, which were involved in many processes including development, reproduction, and metabolic regulation. In addition, some DMGs were concerned with caste differentiation.

  4. The brain sizes of living elasmobranchii as their organization level indicator. I. General analysis. (United States)

    Myagkov, N A


    The relationship between brain and body masses of 64 species and subspecies of modern sharks and skates was investigated. It was established that the level of their encephalization in terms of the polygons of encephalization and the allometry coefficient (alpha), shows quite obviously the general organization level of one or another taxon of sharks and skates. Alpha = 0.56 for the class of cartilaginous fishes, and for the superorder of sharks and skates alpha = 0.54 and 0.61, accordingly. For several orders alpha constitutes: sharks--common for relict Hexanchiformes and Heterodontiformes 0.44, Squaliformes 0.43 and Carcharhiniformes 0.52 and skates--Rajiformes 0.44 and Dasyatiformes 0.52. All values are similar to those of other vertebrates and the theoretically calculated value of alpha (0.67). It was established the "place" of present-day Elasmobranchii and all cartilaginous fishes in the evolutionary row of Gnathostomata and Craniata on the developing and relative sizes of CNS, and the corrected alpha value for this particular vertebrate class was specified which was found to be sensationally high also in the works of foreign and native authors (Bauchot et al., 1976; Northcutt, 1978; Ebbesson, 1980; Kreps, 1980).

  5. Marine plankton as an indicator of low-level radionuclide contamination in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.


    We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review shows that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10 4 . In the years 1956-1958, considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by the nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies have largely been confined to a few selected radionuclides, and by far most of this work has been done in the northern hemisphere. We participated in Operation Deepfreeze 1981, collecting 32 plankton samples from the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Glacier on its Antarctic cruise, while Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories concurrently sampled air, water, rain and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides 7 Be, 40 K and the U and th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of 144 Ce and 95 Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68 0 . There is a definite association between the radionuclide content of plankton and air filters, suggesting that aerosol resuspension of marine radioactivity may be occurring. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and foraminifera content of the samples. 38 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  6. Levoglucosan indicates high levels of biomass burning aerosols over oceans from the Arctic to Antarctic. (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Wang, Xin-Ming; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Pengfei


    Biomass burning is known to affect air quality, global carbon cycle, and climate. However, the extent to which biomass burning gases/aerosols are present on a global scale, especially in the marine atmosphere, is poorly understood. Here we report the molecular tracer levoglucosan concentrations in marine air from the Arctic Ocean through the North and South Pacific Ocean to Antarctica during burning season. Levoglucosan was found to be present in all regions at ng/m(3) levels with the highest atmospheric loadings present in the mid-latitudes (30°-60° N and S), intermediate loadings in the Arctic, and lowest loadings in the Antarctic and equatorial latitudes. As a whole, levoglucosan concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere were comparable to those in the Northern Hemisphere. Biomass burning has a significant impact on atmospheric Hg and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) from pole-to-pole, with more contribution to WSOC in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

  7. Anomalous Radon Levels in Thermal Water as an Indicator of Seismic Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmazek, B.; Gregoric, A.; Vaupotic, J.; Kobal, I.


    Radon can be transported effectively from deep layers of the Earth to the surface by carrier gases and by water. This transport is affected by phenomena accompanying seismic events. If radon is therefore monitored shortly before or during an earthquake, at a thermal water spring, an anomaly, i. e. a sudden increase or decrease in radon level, may be observed. Thermal springs and ground waters in Slovenia have therefore been systematically surveyed for radon. The work presented here is a continuation of our previous radon monitoring related to seismic activity carried out on weekly analyses during 1981-82 in thermal waters of the Ljubljana basin. In this paper, we focus on radon anomalies in thermal springs at Hotavlje and Bled in the period from October 2005 to September 2007

  8. An Indication of Reliability of the Two-Level Approach of the AWIN Welfare Assessment Protocol for Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Czycholl


    Full Text Available To enhance feasibility, the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN assessment protocol for horses consists of two levels: the first is a visual inspection of a sample of horses performed from a distance, the second a close-up inspection of all horses. The aim was to analyse whether information would be lost if only the first level were performed. In this study, 112 first and 112 second level assessments carried out on a subsequent day by one observer were compared by calculating the Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (RS, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC, Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC and Limits of Agreements (LoA. Most indicators demonstrated sufficient reliability between the two levels. Exceptions were the Horse Grimace Scale, the Avoidance Distance Test and the Voluntary Human Approach Test (e.g., Voluntary Human Approach Test: RS: 0.38, ICC: 0.38, SDC: 0.21, LoA: −0.25–0.17, which could, however, be also interpreted as a lack of test-retest reliability. Further disagreement was found for the indicator consistency of manure (RS: 0.31, ICC: 0.38, SDC: 0.36, LoA: −0.38–0.36. For these indicators, an adaptation of the first level would be beneficial. Overall, in this study, the division into two levels was reliable and might therewith have the potential to enhance feasibility in other welfare assessment schemes.

  9. Chemical lumbar sympathetic plexus block in Buerger′s disease: Current scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampal Singh


    Full Text Available Introduction: High incidences of Buerger′s disease (43-62% in India draw our attention towards available treatment modalities in such patients. Patients with this disease are in severe pain and agony. Pain relief by any means remains first and foremost priority in such patients and if patient is able to sleep even one pain free night it is a boon for the patients. The purpose of study was to test the hypothesis that lumber sympathetic block relieves the pain of ischemic limb in Buerger′s disease. Aims and Objectives: To study the effect of chemical lumber sympathetic block on visual analog score (VAS score and walking distance of the patients. Materials and Methods: Lumber sympathetic block was given under C-arm guidance with 17.5 cm long 22 G spinal needle at L3 and L4 level. Diagnostic block was given initially with plain bupivacaine 0.25% with two needle technique. Total seven blocks series were given in all patients. Final block was given with phenol 8%, 8 ml at L3 and L4 level. In postoperative period, VAS score was observed. Effect of block on walking distance was assessed on 3 rd day before giving next block. Statistical analysis: Software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.5 was used for statistical analysis. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Both VAS and walking distance improved significantly after each successive block. Healing of ulcers of foot is also noted. Conclusion: Despite advances in treatment modalities in such patients, lumber sympathetic block is still very cost-effective, safe, and least-invasive technique in treating painful ischemic legs.

  10. Inhaled smoke volume and puff indices with cigarettes of different tar and nicotine levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, G.; Newman, S.P.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.


    Ten asymptomatic smokers each smoked a low, low-to-middle and a middle tar cigarette with approximately the same tar-to-nicotine ratio, in a randomised order. The inhaled smoke volume was measured by tracing the smoke with the inert gas 81 Kr m . Puffing indices were recorded using an electronic smoking analyser and flowhead/cigarette holder. Throughout the study neither the mean inhaled smoke volume per puff nor the total inhaled smoke volume per cigarette changed significantly; however, the mean and total puff volumes were largest with the low tar cigarette and decreased with the higher tar brands. Puff volume was related to puff work (r s =0.83,P s =0.10,P>0.1). It is concluded that when switched between brands with the same tar-to-nicotine ratio, smokers increase their puff volumes with a lower tar cigarette but do not change the volume of smoke inhaled. Puff work and puff resistance were significantly correlated (r s =0.45,P<0.02). (author)

  11. The level of sulphydryl groups as an indicator of radiation treatment of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockhausen, K.; Boegl, W.


    A biochemical procedure for the identification of irradiated pork meat (fillet, liver and heart) for doses ranging between 0.1 and 2.5 Mrad is described. Spectrophotometric determination of the sulphydryl content in irradiated and unirradiated (control) animal tissue using 6,6'-dithiodinicotinic acid (DTDNA) is applied. Ionizing radiation causes a permanent loss of sulphydryl groups in animal tissue such as meat. The dose-effect relations for this radiation-induced decrease in sulphydryl content does not follow a single function. It may be correlated with a double-exponential function, indicating that the sulphydryl content consists of two classes of widely different radiosensitivity. The most radiosensitive fraction represents approximately 20-50% of the total sulphydryl content. The G-values for the radiation-induced oxidation of sulphydryl groups in this fraction are close to 23 molecules per 100eV radiation energy absorbed by the animal tissue. For the fraction of the lower radiosensitivity the G-values reach 3-7 molecules per 100eV. Irradiation conditions, preparations of protein suspensions from meat, spectrophotometric investigations and other experimental details are reported. The results presented demonstrate that spectrophotometric determination of sulphydryl groups in irradiated meat is a promising specific and comparatively simple method of irradiation control in the dose range between a few krad and several Mrad. (author)

  12. Measuring stress level of dairy cows during milking using by geometric indices of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Kovács


    Heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV were investigated in cows (n=32, age: 3.86 years, milk production: 35±2.5 kg, DIM: 150±15 milked in a parallel milking parlour. Geometric parameters of HRV (SD1 and SD2 were calculated using Poincare graphs. HRV indices of resting 1 h after midday milking (reference period were compared to those measured during the different phases of the evening milking (driving; in the holding pen; udder preparation; milking; after milking in the milking stall. There was no difference between the reference period and the different phases of milking in animal welfare terms. During the reference period SD2 (198.5 ms was significantly higher (p<0.05 than every other measured period suggesting an increasing parasympathetic tone after milking. This parasympathetic predominance decreased with time of the day (1.5 h after milking. SD2 was significantly affected by parity, by the breeding bull (p<0.01 and by milk production (p<0.05. SD2 was notably higher (102.8 ms in multiparous cows than in primiparous cows (p<0.017; α=0.005 during resting and milking. Results suggested that a conventional milking process is not really stressful for cows. Primiparous cows were more susceptible of milking process than multiparous ones. SD2 is a good marker of vagus activity and affected by several independent factors.

  13. Integrated analysis of beach ridge and lagoon systems as indicator of sea-level changes (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Hede, Mikkel U.; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Morigi, Caterina; Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B.; Nielsen, Lars H.; Pejrup, Morten


    Beach ridges and lagoons are common features of the modern coastal landscape in much of Denmark and represent an important part of the Holocene raised marine deposits. We here present our results from investigations into the possibilities of retrieving continuous relative sea-level (RSL) information from these sedimentary archives, as facilitated by the analysis of surface morphology, coring, subsurface imaging, absolute chronology, and modern analogues. The island of Samsø (55˚51'N, 10˚36'E) was chosen as a case study example. While each of the used archives merely covers a part of the mid to late Holocene developments, their joint analysis allows identifying and separating periods of rapid RSL rise, stability and fall over most of the island's marine stage. We present possible correlations of the data from the lagoons with data from a wide beach-ridge system and suggest causal relations of the RSL reconstruction with the spatial arrangements of marine and glacial landforms on Samsø. The integrated use of a geographical perspective combined with geological precision and methodology has proven to be of great value for understanding temporal, spatial, and process relations in the investigated coastal environment. The study stresses the value of analyzing genetically independent though complementary sedimentary archives to retrieve more complete and potentially more robust results. The presented approach may be useful in microtidal, sediment-surplus environments with a transgressive-regressive Holocene RSL history.

  14. Diagnostic reference levels and complexity indices in interventional radiology: a national programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Cruces, R.; Perez-Martinez, M.; Pastor-Vega, J.M.; Canete, S. [University of Malaga, School of Medicine, Malaga (Spain); Vano, E.; Fernandez-Soto, J.M.; Sanchez-Casanueva, R.; Gallego-Beuter, J.J. [Complutense University, San Carlos Hospital, Medical School, Madrid (Spain); Carrera-Magarino, F.; Moreno-Rodriguez, F.; Moreno-Sanchez, T. [Juan Ramon Jimenez University Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Soler-Cantos, M.M.; Canis-Lopez, M. [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Hernandez-Armas, J.; Diaz-Romero, F.J. [University Hospital of Canary Islands, Tenerife (Spain); Rosales-Espizua, F.; Lopez-Medina, A.; Gonzalez-de-Garay, M. [Basurto Hospital, Bilbao (Spain); Martin-Palanca, A. [Virgen de la Victoria University Hospital, Malaga (Spain); Gil-Agudo, A.; Zarca-Diaz, M.A.; Zapata-Jimenez, J.C. [General University Hospital, Ciudad Real (Spain); Parra-Osorio, V.; Munoz Ruiz-Canela, J.J.; Moreno-Saiz, C.; Galan-Montenegro, P. [Carlos Haya University Hospital, Malaga (Spain)


    To propose national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for interventional radiology and to evaluate the impact of the procedural complexity on patient doses. Eight interventional radiology units from Spanish hospitals were involved in this project. The participants agreed to undergo common quality control procedures for X-ray systems. Kerma area product (KAP) was collected from a sample of 1,649 procedures. A consensus document established the criteria to evaluate the complexity of seven types of procedures. DRLs were set as the 3rd quartile of KAP values. The KAP (3rd quartile) in Gy cm{sup 2} for the procedures included in the survey were: lower extremity arteriography (n = 784) 78; renal arteriography (n = 37) 107; transjugular hepatic biopsies (THB) (n = 30) 45; biliary drainage (BD) (n = 314) 30; uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 56) 214; colon endoprostheses (CE) (n = 31) 169; hepatic chemoembolization (HC) (n = 269) 303; femoropopliteal revascularization (FR) (n = 62) 119; and iliac stent (n = 66) 170. The complexity involved the increases in the following KAP factors from simple to complex procedures: THB x4; BD x13; UFE x3; CE x3; HC x5; FR x5 and IS x4. The evaluation of the procedure complexity in patient doses will allow the proper use of DRLs for the optimization of interventional radiology. (orig.)

  15. Climate in France during the 21. century - Regionalized scenarios - Reference indices for the metropolitan region - Evolution at sea level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peings, Yannick; Planton, Serge; Deque, Michel; Jamous, Marc; Le Treut, Herve; Gallee, Hubert; Li, Laurent; Jouzel, J.


    After some comments on climate modelling (models, scenarios, uncertainties, regional predictions), the first part reports the study of several temperature indices (minimum, average and maximum daily temperature, number of days with abnormally high or low temperature, number of days of heat wave, number of days with negative temperatures, and so on.), precipitation indices (daily and extreme precipitations, dry periods, snow falls). It also discusses soil humidity index, strong wind index, river flow rate, and sea level. The second part reports simulation results for indices in metropolitan France according to the French Aladin-Climat, LMDZ and MAR models. The third volume reports evolutions and predictions of average sea level at the planet scale and along the French coasts, and discusses impacts related to sea level change (coast erosion, submersion, salt intrusion)

  16. Sympathetic nervous dysregulation in the absence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suuronen Erik J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with cardiovascular dysfunction, derived in part from impairment of sympathetic nervous system signaling. Glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids are potent stimulants of sympathetic activity and norepinephrine (NE release. We hypothesized that sustained hyperglycemia in the high fat diet-fed streptozotocin (STZ rat model of sustained hyperglycemia with insulin resistance would exhibit progressive sympathetic nervous dysfunction in parallel with deteriorating myocardial systolic and/or diastolic function. Methods Cardiac sympathetic nervous integrity was investigated in vivo via biodistribution of the positron emission tomography radiotracer and NE analogue [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine ([11C]HED. Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was evaluated by echocardiography. Plasma and cardiac NE levels and NE reuptake transporter (NET expression were evaluated as correlative measurements. Results The animal model displays insulin resistance, sustained hyperglycemia, and progressive hypoinsulinemia. After 8 weeks of persistent hyperglycemia, there was a significant 13-25% reduction in [11C]HED retention in myocardium of STZ-treated hyperglycemic but not euglycemic rats as compared to controls. There was a parallel 17% reduction in immunoblot density for NE reuptake transporter, a 1.2 fold and 2.5 fold elevation of cardiac and plasma NE respectively, and no change in sympathetic nerve density. No change in ejection fraction or fractional area change was detected by echocardiography. Reduced heart rate, prolonged mitral valve deceleration time, and elevated transmitral early to atrial flow velocity ratio measured by pulse-wave Doppler in hyperglycemic rats suggest diastolic impairment of the left ventricle. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that sustained hyperglycemia is associated with elevated myocardial NE content and dysregulation of sympathetic nervous system

  17. A comparison of emotional indicators and depressive symptom levels of school-age children with and without cancer. (United States)

    Durualp, Ender; Altay, Naime


    This study aims to compare the emotional indicators and depressive symptom levels of 6- to 12-year-old children with and without cancer. The sample included 20 children with cancer and 20 healthy children of similar ages and gender. Data were collected by using the Child Introduction Form, Children's Depression Inventory, the Human Figure Drawing test, and children's drawings. The results showed that the depressive symptom levels of children with cancer were significantly higher than those of healthy children. Impulsivity, mistrust, and anger were observed significantly more in children with cancer (P .05). The emotional indicators of both groups of children did not have an effect on their depression scores.

  18. Using Overall Equipment Effectiveness indicator to measure the level of planned production time usage of sewing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke


    Full Text Available The chapter presents the results of utilization of the OEE indicator to measure the level of operating time usage of sewing machine production of air bags. The idea of an OEE indictor, which is a key metrics in Total Productive Maintenance (TPM program, is presented. The goals and benefits of its calculation are included. The research object – KL 110 air bags sewing machine - what for the machine is used. The calculation of TPM indicators for the analysed machine is presented. The calculation of TPM indicators was undertaken over a period of six months of the machine’s working time. It was indicated that the overall effectiveness of the machine is at a level of 65,7%, the time losses were 34,3%. Most of the losses were related to low performance. Only Availability indicator reaches a word class level, if other indicators such as Performance, Quality and OEE should be improved, their value should be increased. Activities to improve the effectiveness of the machine utilization were determined.

  19. Central Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Browns White Fat via Sympathetic Action in Male Mice. (United States)

    Douris, Nicholas; Stevanovic, Darko M; Fisher, Ffolliott M; Cisu, Theodore I; Chee, Melissa J; Nguyen, Ngoc L; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Flier, Jeffrey S; Bartness, Timothy J; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria


    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has multiple metabolic actions, including the induction of browning in white adipose tissue. Although FGF21 stimulated browning results from a direct interaction between FGF21 and the adipocyte, browning is typically associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system through cold exposure. We tested the hypothesis that FGF21 can act via the brain, to increase sympathetic activity and induce browning, independent of cell-autonomous actions. We administered FGF21 into the central nervous system via lateral ventricle infusion into male mice and found that the central treatment increased norepinephrine turnover in target tissues that include the inguinal white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. Central FGF21 stimulated browning as assessed by histology, expression of uncoupling protein 1, and the induction of gene expression associated with browning. These effects were markedly attenuated when mice were treated with a β-blocker. Additionally, neither centrally nor peripherally administered FGF21 initiated browning in mice lacking β-adrenoceptors, demonstrating that an intact adrenergic system is necessary for FGF21 action. These data indicate that FGF21 can signal in the brain to activate the sympathetic nervous system and induce adipose tissue thermogenesis.

  20. Radioactivity levels and radiological hazard indices at the Saudi coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Trabulsy, H.A.; Khater, A.E.M.; Habbani, F.I.


    The coast of the Gulf of Aqaba is subjected to several sources of pollution due to several activities occurring at the coastal area. The activities vary between industrial, tourist and other development aspects at the Jordanian coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba. Phosphate industry has been considered a major source polluting the marine environment. According to official reports, 4-7 million tons of raw phosphate is exported through the Gulf of Aqaba. During transportation and loading, a small proportion of this enters the waters of the Gulf. Phosphate dust has also been considered another source of nutrients loading to the Gulf. 19 sediment samples were collected along the Saudi Gulf coastline, from the Saudi-Jordan border down to the end of the Gulf at Tiran Strait. Measurements of the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in Bq/kg (in dry weight) of the collected samples were carried out using gamma-ray spectrometry based on a highly pure germanium coaxial detector (HPGe). The concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th were also determined using ICP-MS technique. The average specific activities for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were found to be 11.4±1.5, 22.5±3.7, 641.1±61.3 and 3.5±0.7 Bq/kg, respectively. The results show that the mean activity of 226 Ra and 232 Th is lower than the world average of 25 Bq/kg for both of them, whereas the mean value for 40 K is about double the world average of 370 Bq/kg. The presence of 137 Cs in the analyzed samples is low in most locations. The mean concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th in the study area are 1.2 and 5.4 mg/kg, respectively, and the ratio 238 U/ 232 Th is 0.2, which is lower than the global ratio of 0.3. The ratio of 226 Ra/ 228 Ra was found to decrease southwards in the direction of Tiran Strait, away from the phosphate industry in Jordan. Mean values for radium equivalent, absorbed dose, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard index and representative level index were determined as

  1. Radioactivity levels and radiological hazard indices at the Saudi coastline of the Gulf of Aqaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Trabulsy, H.A.; Khater, A.E.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O.Box2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Habbani, F.I., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, P.O.Box 321 (Sudan)


    , annual effective dose, external and internal hazard index and representative level index were determined as: 92.9 Bq/kg, 45.6 nGy/h, 56.0 {mu}Sv/y, 0.13, 0.28 and 0.73, respectively.

  2. Forskolin suppresses delayed-rectifier K+ currents and enhances spike frequency-dependent adaptation of sympathetic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I Angel-Chavez

    Full Text Available In signal transduction research natural or synthetic molecules are commonly used to target a great variety of signaling proteins. For instance, forskolin, a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase, has been widely used in cellular preparations to increase the intracellular cAMP level. However, it has been shown that forskolin directly inhibits some cloned K+ channels, which in excitable cells set up the resting membrane potential, the shape of action potential and regulate repetitive firing. Despite the growing evidence indicating that K+ channels are blocked by forskolin, there are no studies yet assessing the impact of this mechanism of action on neuron excitability and firing patterns. In sympathetic neurons, we find that forskolin and its derivative 1,9-Dideoxyforskolin, reversibly suppress the delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV. Besides, forskolin reduced the spike afterhyperpolarization and enhanced the spike frequency-dependent adaptation. Given that IKV is mostly generated by Kv2.1 channels, HEK-293 cells were transfected with cDNA encoding for the Kv2.1 α subunit, to characterize the mechanism of forskolin action. Both drugs reversible suppressed the Kv2.1-mediated K+ currents. Forskolin inhibited Kv2.1 currents and IKV with an IC50 of ~32 μM and ~24 µM, respectively. Besides, the drug induced an apparent current inactivation and slowed-down current deactivation. We suggest that forskolin reduces the excitability of sympathetic neurons by enhancing the spike frequency-dependent adaptation, partially through a direct block of their native Kv2.1 channels.

  3. Forskolin suppresses delayed-rectifier K+ currents and enhances spike frequency-dependent adaptation of sympathetic neurons. (United States)

    Angel-Chavez, Luis I; Acosta-Gómez, Eduardo I; Morales-Avalos, Mario; Castro, Elena; Cruzblanca, Humberto


    In signal transduction research natural or synthetic molecules are commonly used to target a great variety of signaling proteins. For instance, forskolin, a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase, has been widely used in cellular preparations to increase the intracellular cAMP level. However, it has been shown that forskolin directly inhibits some cloned K+ channels, which in excitable cells set up the resting membrane potential, the shape of action potential and regulate repetitive firing. Despite the growing evidence indicating that K+ channels are blocked by forskolin, there are no studies yet assessing the impact of this mechanism of action on neuron excitability and firing patterns. In sympathetic neurons, we find that forskolin and its derivative 1,9-Dideoxyforskolin, reversibly suppress the delayed rectifier K+ current (IKV). Besides, forskolin reduced the spike afterhyperpolarization and enhanced the spike frequency-dependent adaptation. Given that IKV is mostly generated by Kv2.1 channels, HEK-293 cells were transfected with cDNA encoding for the Kv2.1 α subunit, to characterize the mechanism of forskolin action. Both drugs reversible suppressed the Kv2.1-mediated K+ currents. Forskolin inhibited Kv2.1 currents and IKV with an IC50 of ~32 μM and ~24 µM, respectively. Besides, the drug induced an apparent current inactivation and slowed-down current deactivation. We suggest that forskolin reduces the excitability of sympathetic neurons by enhancing the spike frequency-dependent adaptation, partially through a direct block of their native Kv2.1 channels.

  4. Micro-anatomy of the renal sympathetic nervous system: a human postmortem histologic study. (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel S; Deep, Nicholas L; Mendelsohn, Farrell O


    Hypertension remains an epidemic uncontrolled with pharmacologic therapies. A novel catheter inserted into the renal artery has been shown to lower blood pressure by ablating the renal sympathetic nerves with radiofrequency energy delivered through the arterial wall. We report a histologic study describing the anatomic substrate for this technique, specifically the renal sympathetic nervous system. Histological sections from proximal, middle, and distal renal artery segments from nine renal arteries (five human autopsies) were analyzed. Nerves were manually counted and their distance from the lumen-intima interface was measured using a micrometer. The nerves were then categorized by location into 0.5-mm-wide "rings" that were arranged circumferentially around the renal artery lumen. Of all nerves detected, 1.0% was in the 0-0.5 mm ring, 48.3% were in the 0.5-1.0 mm ring, 25.6% were in the 1.0-1.5 mm ring, 15.5% were in the 1.5-2.0 mm ring, and 9.5% were in the 2.0-2.5 mm ring. Beyond 0.5 mm, the proportion of nerves tended to decrease as the distance from the lumen increased. Totally, 90.5% of all nerves in this study existed within 2.0 mm of the renal artery lumen. Additionally, the number of nerves tended to increase along the length of the artery from proximal to distal segments (proximal = 216; middle = 323; distal = 417). In conclusion, our analysis indicates that a great proportion of renal sympathetic nerves have close proximity to the lumen-intima interface and should thus be accessible via renal artery interventional approaches such as catheter ablation. This data provides important anatomic information for the development of ablation and other type devices for renal sympathetic denervation. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Renal hemodynamic effects of activation of specific renal sympathetic nerve fiber groups. (United States)

    DiBona, G F; Sawin, L L


    To examine the effect of activation of a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers on renal blood flow (RBF) dynamics, anesthetized rats were instrumented with a renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) recording electrode and an electromagnetic flow probe on the ipsilateral renal artery. Peripheral thermal receptor stimulation (external heat) was used to activate a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers and to increase total RSNA. Total RSNA was reflexly increased to the same degree with somatic receptor stimulation (tail compression). Arterial pressure and heart rate were increased by both stimuli. Total RSNA was increased to the same degree by both stimuli but external heat produced a greater renal vasoconstrictor response than tail compression. Whereas both stimuli increased spectral density power of RSNA at both cardiac and respiratory frequencies, modulation of RBF variability by fluctuations of RSNA was small at these frequencies, with values for the normalized transfer gain being approximately 0.1 at >0.5 Hz. During tail compression coherent oscillations of RSNA and RBF were found at 0.3-0.4 Hz with normalized transfer gain of 0.33 +/- 0.02. During external heat coherent oscillations of RSNA and RBF were found at both 0.2 and 0.3-0.4 Hz with normalized transfer gains of 0. 63 +/- 0.05 at 0.2 Hz and 0.53 +/- 0.04 to 0.36 +/- 0.02 at 0.3-0.4 Hz. Renal denervation eliminated the oscillations in RBF at both 0.2 and 0.3-0.4 Hz. These findings indicate that despite similar increases in total RSNA, external heat results in a greater renal vasoconstrictor response than tail compression due to the activation of a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers with different frequency-response characteristics of the renal vasculature.

  6. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Watanabe

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz to high (0.15-0.40 Hz frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  7. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration. (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio


    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  8. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Botha


    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS, type 1 is a pain disorder that develops unpredictably and can follow a minor injury. A 12-year-old boy presented with severe pain in the feet and could not walk or stand weight bearing. Normal X-rays showed osteopenic changes and radiolucent lines, which appeared to be stress fractures. Three-phase bone scintigraphy showed no uptake in the left lower leg on the blood pool phase or on the immediate or delayed images. This indicated typical CPRS type 1 in children. The uptake in the right foot was increased and the stress fracture and other illness could not be differentiated. Computed tomography was done to exclude stress fractures. Only osteopenic changes in both calcaneus bones were found and there was no evidence of cortical stress fractures. Magnetic resonance images revealed oedema in the calcaneus and talus bones of both feet. The patient received epidural narcotic infusion with sympathetic blockage for 1 week combined with extensive physiotherapy. The blood pool phase of the bone scan became normal within 2 weeks, and increased uptake in both feet was noticed. The patient was followed up with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months.

  9. Effect of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation in patients with severe heart failure. (United States)

    Dai, Qiming; Lu, Jing; Wang, Benwen; Ma, Genshan


    This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility and effects of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation in patients with heart failure. A total of 20 patients with heart failure were enrolled, aged from 47 to 75 years (63±10 years). They were divided into the standard therapy (n = 10), and renal nerve radiofrequency ablation groups (n = 10). There were 15 males and 5 female patients, including 8 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 8 dilated cardiomyopathy, and 8 hypertensive cardiopathy. All of the patients met the criteria of New York Heart Association classes III-IV cardiac function. Patients with diabetes and renal failure were excluded. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation was performed on the renal artery wall under X-ray guidance. Serum electrolytes, neurohormones, and 24 h urine volume were recorded 24 h before and after the operation. Echocardiograms were performed to obtain left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline and 6 months. Heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea and edema were also monitored. After renal nerve ablation, 24 h urine volume was increased, while neurohormone levels were decreased compared with those of pre-operation and standard therapy. No obvious change in heart rate or blood pressure was recorded. Symptoms of heart failure were improved in patients after the operation. No complications were recorded in the study. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation may be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for the patients with severe congestive heart failure.

  10. Estimating the prevalence of 26 health-related indicators at neighbourhood level in the Netherlands using structured additive regression. (United States)

    van de Kassteele, Jan; Zwakhals, Laurens; Breugelmans, Oscar; Ameling, Caroline; van den Brink, Carolien


    Local policy makers increasingly need information on health-related indicators at smaller geographic levels like districts or neighbourhoods. Although more large data sources have become available, direct estimates of the prevalence of a health-related indicator cannot be produced for neighbourhoods for which only small samples or no samples are available. Small area estimation provides a solution, but unit-level models for binary-valued outcomes that can handle both non-linear effects of the predictors and spatially correlated random effects in a unified framework are rarely encountered. We used data on 26 binary-valued health-related indicators collected on 387,195 persons in the Netherlands. We associated the health-related indicators at the individual level with a set of 12 predictors obtained from national registry data. We formulated a structured additive regression model for small area estimation. The model captured potential non-linear relations between the predictors and the outcome through additive terms in a functional form using penalized splines and included a term that accounted for spatially correlated heterogeneity between neighbourhoods. The registry data were used to predict individual outcomes which in turn are aggregated into higher geographical levels, i.e. neighbourhoods. We validated our method by comparing the estimated prevalences with observed prevalences at the individual level and by comparing the estimated prevalences with direct estimates obtained by weighting methods at municipality level. We estimated the prevalence of the 26 health-related indicators for 415 municipalities, 2599 districts and 11,432 neighbourhoods in the Netherlands. We illustrate our method on overweight data and show that there are distinct geographic patterns in the overweight prevalence. Calibration plots show that the estimated prevalences agree very well with observed prevalences at the individual level. The estimated prevalences agree reasonably well with the

  11. A multi-hazard regional level impact assessment for Europe combining indicators of climatic and non-climatic change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lung, T.; Lavalle, C.; Hiederer, R.; Dosio, A.; Bouwer, L.M.


    To better prioritise adaptation strategies to a changing climate that are currently being developed, there is a need for quantitative regional level assessments that are systematic and comparable across multiple weather hazards. This study presents an indicator-based impact assessment framework at

  12. Admission blood glucose level as risk indicator of death after myocardial infarction in patients with and without diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stranders, Ischa; Diamant, Michaela; van Gelder, Rogier E.; Spruijt, Hugo J.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Heine, Robert J.; Visser, Frans C.


    High admission blood glucose levels after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are common and associated with an increased risk of death in subjects with and without known diabetes. Recent data indicate a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with unknown diabetes at the time of

  13. The Political Is Personal: Measurement and Application of Nation-Level Indicators of Gender Equity in Psychological Research (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Grabe, Shelly


    Consistent with the dictum, "the personal is political," feminist scholars have maintained that gender equity in security, access to education, economic opportunity, and property ownership are central to women's well-being. Empirical research evaluating this thesis can include nation-level indicators of gender equity, such as the United Nation…

  14. Effect of amine uptake inhibitors on the uptake of 14C-bretylium in intact and degenerating sympathetic nerves of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almgren, O.


    The effect of different amine uptake inhibitors on the accumulation of 14 C-bretylium in sympathetically denervated or decentralized salivary glands were studied in vivo in rats 11-14 hours after the surgical intervention. The time period chosen is known to be critical for the delaying effect of bretylium on the degeneration transmitter release in sympathetically innervated organs. Cocaine, desmethylimipramine (DMI), protriptyline or reserpine all depressed the uptake of 14 C-bretylium in both denervated and decentralized salivary glands, cocaine being the most efficient one. DMI and protriptyline, but not cocaine inhibit the degeneration delaying effect of bretylium, while all three agents inhibit amine uptake at level of the nerve cell membrane. Apparently, bretylium reaches the critical sites of its degeneration delaying action by the axonal amine pump but only a small fraction of the drug entering the degenerating adrenergic nerve terminal is needed at the critical sites to interact with the degeneration processes. The difference between the tricyclic antidepressants on one hand and cocaine on the other with respect to the effect on the degeneration delaying action of bretylium, must depend on some action different from the axonal membrane uptake inhibition. Reserpine which is known not to interfere with the delaying effect of bretylium on the denervation degeneration did reduce the uptake of 14 C-bretylium. This fact seems to indicate that the site of action of bretylium is located outside the adrenergic nerve granules. (author)

  15. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Morimoto-Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA. Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional

  16. Effects and Mechanisms of Radiofrequency Ablation of Renal Sympathetic Nerve on Anti-Hypertension in Canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Radiofrequency ablation of renal sympathetic nerve (RDN shows effective BP reduction in hypertensive patients while the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: We hypothesized that abnormal levels of norepinephrine (NE and changes in NE-related enzymes and angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2, angiotensin (Ang-(1-7 and Mas receptor mediate the anti-hypertensive effects of RDN. Methods: Mean values of systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Plasma and renal norepinephrine (NE concentrations were determined using highperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, and levels of NE-related enzyme and ACE2-Ang(1-7- Mas were measured using real time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry or Elisa in a hypertensive canine model fed with high-fat diet and treated with RDN. The parameters were also determined in a sham group treated with renal arteriography and a control group fed with normal diet. Results: RDN decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, plasma and renal NE. Compared with the sham group, renal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression was lower and renalase expression was higher in the RDN group. Compared with the control group, renal TH and catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT were higher and renalase was lower in the sham group. Moreover, renal ACE2, Ang-(1-7 and Mas levels of the RDN group were higher than those of the sham group, which were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion: RDN shows anti-hypertensive effect with reduced NE and activation of ACE2-Ang(1-7-Mas, indicating that it may contribute to the anti-hypertensive effect of RDN.

  17. The articulo-cardiac sympathetic reflex in spinalized, anesthetized rats. (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Atsuko; Ito, Ryuzo


    Somatic afferent regulation of heart rate by noxious knee joint stimulation has been proven in anesthetized cats to be a reflex response whose reflex center is in the brain and whose efferent arc is a cardiac sympathetic nerve. In the present study we examined whether articular stimulation could influence heart rate by this efferent sympathetic pathway in spinalized rats. In central nervous system (CNS)-intact rats, noxious articular movement of either the knee or elbow joint resulted in an increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate. However, although in acutely spinalized rats a noxious movement of the elbow joint resulted in a significant increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate, a noxious movement of the knee joint had no such effect and resulted in only a marginal increase in heart rate. Because this marginal increase was abolished by adrenalectomy suggests that it was due to the release of adrenal catecholamines. In conclusion, the spinal cord appears to be capable of mediating, by way of cardiac sympathetic nerves, the propriospinally induced reflex increase in heart rate that follows noxious stimulation of the elbow joint, but not the knee joint.

  18. Sympathetic Innervation Promotes Arterial Fate by Enhancing Endothelial ERK Activity. (United States)

    Pardanaud, Luc; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; English, Isabel; Brunet, Isabelle; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne


    Arterial endothelial cells are morphologically, functionally, and molecularly distinct from those found in veins and lymphatic vessels. How arterial fate is acquired during development and maintained in adult vessels is incompletely understood. We set out to identify factors that promote arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. We developed a functional assay, allowing us to monitor and manipulate arterial fate in vivo, using arteries isolated from quails that are grafted into the coelom of chick embryos. Endothelial cells migrate out from the grafted artery, and their colonization of host arteries and veins is quantified. Here we show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. Removal of sympathetic nerves decreases arterial fate and leads to colonization of veins, whereas exposure to sympathetic nerves or norepinephrine imposes arterial fate. Mechanistically, sympathetic nerves increase endothelial ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) activity via adrenergic α1 and α2 receptors. These findings show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial fate and may lead to novel approaches to improve arterialization in human disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Effect of Atorvastatin vs. Rosuvastatin on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in non-diabetic patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutamoto, Takayoshi; Ibe, Kunihiro [Toyosato Hospital, Toyosato, Shiga (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Masayuki; Kawahara, Chiho; Nakae, Ichiro; Fujii, Masanori; Yamamoto, Takashi; Horie, Minoru [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)


    Effects of statin therapy on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have not previously been evaluated. To compare the effects of lipophilic atorvastatin and hydrophilic rosuvastatin on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in CHF patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 63 stable outpatients with DCM, who were already receiving standard therapy for CHF, were randomized to atorvastatin (n=32) or rosuvastatin (n=31). We evaluated cardiac sympathetic nerve activity by cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, hemodynamic parameters and neurohumoral factors before and after 6 months of treatment. There were no differences in the baseline characteristics of the 2 groups. In the rosuvastatin group, there were no changes in MIBG parameters, left ventricular ejection fraction or plasma levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) after 6 months of treatment. In contrast, the atorvastatin group showed a significant increase in the delayed heart/mediastinum count ratio (2.18{+-}0.4 vs. 2.36{+-}0.4, P<0.0001), and the washout rate was significantly decreased (34.8{+-}5.7 vs. 32.6{+-}6.3%, P=0.0001) after 6 months of treatment compared with the baseline values. The plasma NT-proBNP level was also significantly decreased (729{+-}858 vs. 558{+-}747 pg/ml, P=0.0139). Lipophilic atorvastatin but not hydrophilic rosuvastatin improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in CHF patients with DCM. (author)

  20. The role of the sympathetic nervous system in radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo; Kazuko; Nakamura, Yasuko; Ikeda, Yuji; Naito, Shinji; Ito, Masahiro; Okaichi, Kumio; Sekine, Ichiro


    To evaluate the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells, apoptosis levels were compared in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), animals which are a genetic hyperfunction model of the sympathetic nervous system, and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). SHR and WKY were exposed to whole body X-ray irradiation at doses from 0.5 to 2 Gy. The apoptotic index in jejunal crypt cells was significantly greater in SHR than in WKY at each time point after irradiation and at each dose. WKY and SHR were treated with reserpine to induce sympathetic dysfunction, and were subsequently exposed to irradiation. Reserpine administration to SHR or WKY resulted in a significant suppression of apoptosis. p53 accumulation was detected in the jejunum in both WKY and SHR after irradiation by Western blotting analysis. There were no significant differences in the levels of p53 accumulation in irradiated intestine between WKY and SHR. These findings suggested that hyperfunction of the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the mechanism of high susceptibility to radiation-induced apoptosis of the jejunal crypt cells. (author)

  1. [Level of education comparing to eating behaviours and anthropometrical indicators of nutritional status among men of Cracovian population]. (United States)

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria


    The purpose of this study was to estimate of educating level effect as one indicator of social status on eating behaviours and anthropometrical parameters of nutritional status in professionally active men aged 20-60 at city environment. The research was conducted into 1320 workers of Tadeusz Sendzimir's Steelworks in Cracov. The research tool was the author's questionnaire which included questions about meal consumption regularity and frequency of consuming selected groups of foodstuffs. The indicators of nutritional status were fixed on the base of anthropometrical measurements, whereas the body content was estimated by method of bioimpendation with the use of electronic scales TBF-300P. Differentiation of some eating behaviours depending on the level of education was proved; but one cannot definitely estimate the relation of these parameters, as the higher educated people aged 40-60 years old more frequently declare two meal style of eating and more often consume confectionery than the lower educated; in turn vocationally educated men aged 20-40 more often declare consuming fast food products. Statistically considerable differentiation in some anthropometrical indicators of nutritional status depending of the level of education among men aged 40-60 was also proved. Men of vocational education are characterized by the highest value of WHR indicator but at the same time lower value of the 4 skin-fatty folds sum than higher educated people.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Kasherininov


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate effects of long-term treatment with rilmenidine compared with atenolol on lipid and glucose metabolism and cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension. Material and methods. 37 patients with hypertension were randomized to rilmenidine 1-2 mg/day or atenolol 50-100 mg/day for 26 weeks. Standard oral glucose tolerance test with a parallel measurement of insulin and glucose levels was performed. The “areas under the curve” (AUC for insulin and glucose were calculated. Plasma lipids, left ventricular mass index (LVMI and intima-media thickness (IMT were measured. Brachial artery diameter during reactive hyperemia was used to test endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDVD. Results. Blood pressure reduction was equally achieved in both treatment arms. The fasting glucose level increased in the atenolol group from 4.8±0.6 to 5.2±0.7 mmol/l (p<0.01. The AUC of glucose in rilmenidine group decreased from 860±93 to 737±66 mmol/min/l (p<0.05, and it increased from 937±86 to 989±88 mmol/min/l (p<0.05 in the atenolol group. Rilmenidine showed a positive effect on lipid levels, while in the atenolol group a significant decrease of high density lipoprotein was observed. LVMI decreased with rilmenidine by 9.6% (p<0.05 and by 6,9% (not significantly with atenolol. IMT significantly decreased in the rilmenidine. EDVD slightly increased on rilmenidine, while on atenolol group it remained unchanged. Conclusion. Our data suggest that in hypertensive patients central inhibition of sympathetic drive can produce favorable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism compared with standard β-blockade with a similar antihypertensive efficacy. Rilmenidine also provides beneficial effects on cardiovascular remodeling and altered endothelial function in hypertension.

  3. Vascular Mural Cells Promote Noradrenergic Differentiation of Embryonic Sympathetic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Fortuna


    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system controls smooth muscle tone and heart rate in the cardiovascular system. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (SNs develop in close proximity to the dorsal aorta (DA and innervate visceral smooth muscle targets. Here, we use the zebrafish embryo to ask whether the DA is required for SN development. We show that noradrenergic (NA differentiation of SN precursors temporally coincides with vascular mural cell (VMC recruitment to the DA and vascular maturation. Blocking vascular maturation inhibits VMC recruitment and blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR signaling prevents VMC differentiation and also blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. NA differentiation is normal in cloche mutants that are devoid of endothelial cells but have VMCs. Thus, PDGFR-mediated mural cell recruitment mediates neurovascular interactions between the aorta and sympathetic precursors and promotes their noradrenergic differentiation.

  4. Vascular Mural Cells Promote Noradrenergic Differentiation of Embryonic Sympathetic Neurons. (United States)

    Fortuna, Vitor; Pardanaud, Luc; Brunet, Isabelle; Ola, Roxana; Ristori, Emma; Santoro, Massimo M; Nicoli, Stefania; Eichmann, Anne


    The sympathetic nervous system controls smooth muscle tone and heart rate in the cardiovascular system. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (SNs) develop in close proximity to the dorsal aorta (DA) and innervate visceral smooth muscle targets. Here, we use the zebrafish embryo to ask whether the DA is required for SN development. We show that noradrenergic (NA) differentiation of SN precursors temporally coincides with vascular mural cell (VMC) recruitment to the DA and vascular maturation. Blocking vascular maturation inhibits VMC recruitment and blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling prevents VMC differentiation and also blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. NA differentiation is normal in cloche mutants that are devoid of endothelial cells but have VMCs. Thus, PDGFR-mediated mural cell recruitment mediates neurovascular interactions between the aorta and sympathetic precursors and promotes their noradrenergic differentiation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ground-Penetrating Radar Study of Fort Morgan Peninsula Holocene Beach Ridges as Sea-level Indicators (United States)

    Philbin, A.; Frederick, B.; Blum, M. D.; Tsoflias, G. P.


    Holocene sea-level change along the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) coast is controversial. One view interprets basal peats from the Mississippi Delta to indicate continual sea-level (SL) rise for the GoM as a whole. An alternate view proposes that data from the subsiding delta is primarily a subsidence signal, and that sandy non-deltaic shorelines indicate that regional SL reached present elevations by the middle Holocene, with minor oscillations since then. In fact, new regional long-term subsidence records from biostratigraphic indicators display significant subsidence in deltaic areas where basal-peat data were collected, and negligible rates along the GoM shoreline to the east. However, the use of sandy progradational shorelines, commonly known as "beach ridge systems", has been criticized for a lack of precise sea-level indicators, and therefore discounted. This research focuses on developing Holocene progradational sandy shorelines along the Alabama coast in the eastern GoM as SL indicators. Sandy shorelines in this area are ideal to examine SL change because they are well preserved, sufficiently distant from the subsiding delta, well mapped, and ages are known from previous work. Two-dimensional ground-penetrating radar imaging of well-dated beach-ridge successions is used here to examine and identify changes through time in the elevation of the shoreface clinoform topset-foreset break, which represents the transition between flat-lying foreshore and seaward-dipping shoreface facies, and forms in the intertidal zone. Beach-ridge successions with optical luminescence ages of ca. 5500-4800 yrs BP display topset-foreset breaks at current mean sea-level elevation, whereas beach-ridge successions from ca. 3500-2400 yrs BP display topset-foreset breaks that are 1 m above present mean SL and the elevation of modern topset-foreset breaks. These data support the view that current sea-level was reached by the middle Holocene, and was higher than present for at least

  6. Increased vascular sympathetic modulation in mice with Mas receptor deficiency (United States)

    Rabello Casali, Karina; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Moura, Marina; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Bader, Michael; Haibara, Andrea; Alenina, Natalia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A


    Introduction: The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1–7)/Mas axis could modulate the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure variabilities (BPV) which are important predictors of cardiovascular risk and provide information about the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system. Therefore we investigated the effect of Mas deficiency on autonomic modulation in wild type and Mas-knockout (KO) mice. Methods: Blood pressure was recorded at high sample rate (4000 Hz). Stationary sequences of 200–250 beats were randomly chosen. Frequency domain analysis of HR and BPV was performed with an autoregressive algorithm on the pulse interval sequences and on respective systolic sequences. Results: The KO group presented an increase of systolic arterial pressure (SAP; 127.26±11.20 vs 135.07±6.98 mmHg), BPV (3.54±1.54 vs 5.87±2.12 mmHg2), and low-frequency component of systolic BPV (0.12±0.11 vs 0.47±0.34 mmHg2). Conclusions: The deletion of Mas receptor is associated with an increase of SAP and with an increased BPV, indicating alterations in autonomic control. Increase of sympathetic vascular modulation in absence of Mas evidences the important role of Ang-(1–7)/Mas on cardiovascular regulation. Moreover, the absence of significant changes in HR and HRV can indicate an adaptation of autonomic cardiac balance. Our results suggest that the Ang-(1–7)/Mas axis seems more important in autonomic modulation of arterial pressure than HR. PMID:27080540

  7. Peptidergic modulation of efferent sympathetic neurons in intrathoracic ganglia regulating the canine heart. (United States)

    Armour, J A


    when stimulated. Following the intravenous administration of naloxone, the positive inotropic cardiac responses induced by efferent preganglionic sympathetic axonal stimulation were enhanced minimally in control states and significantly following hexamethonium administration. Thus, it appears that enkephalins are involved in the modulation of intrathoracic ganglion neurons regulating the heart, perhaps via modification of beta-adrenergic receptors. Taken together these data indicate that substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y, or enkephalins modify intrathoracic ganglionic neurons which are involved in efferent sympathetic cardiac regulation.

  8. Role of sympathetic nervous system and neuropeptides in obesity hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Hall


    Full Text Available Obesity is the most common cause of human essential hypertension in most industrialized countries. Although the precise mechanisms of obesity hypertension are not fully understood, considerable evidence suggests that excess renal sodium reabsorption and a hypertensive shift of pressure natriuresis play a major role. Sympathetic activation appears to mediate at least part of the obesity-induced sodium retention and hypertension since adrenergic blockade or renal denervation markedly attenuates these changes. Recent observations suggest that leptin and its multiple interactions with neuropeptides in the hypothalamus may link excess weight gain with increased sympathetic activity. Leptin is produced mainly in adipocytes and is believed to regulate energy balance by acting on the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and to increase energy expenditure via sympathetic activation. Short-term administration of leptin into the cerebral ventricles increases renal sympathetic activity, and long-term leptin infusion at rates that mimic plasma concentrations found in obesity raises arterial pressure and heart rate via adrenergic activation in non-obese rodents. Transgenic mice overexpressing leptin also develop hypertension. Acute studies suggest that the renal sympathetic effects of leptin may depend on interactions with other neurochemical pathways in the hypothalamus, including the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R. However, the role of this pathway in mediating the long-term effects of leptin on blood pressure is unclear. Also, it is uncertain whether there is resistance to the chronic renal sympathetic and blood pressure effects of leptin in obese subjects. In addition, leptin also has other cardiovascular and renal actions, such as stimulation of nitric oxide formation and improvement of insulin sensitivity, which may tend to reduce blood pressure in some conditions. Although the role of these mechanisms in human obesity has not been elucidated, this


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina da Siqueira


    Full Text Available Since the 1990, the theme of Human Rights and Food Security (FS has been developed in Brazil, culminating in the construction of the National Policy and Plan of Food Security (PNSAN Observatório Socioambiental em Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional: análise dos indicadores... Redes (St. Cruz Sul, Online, v. 21, nº 2, p. 49 - 62, maio/ago. 2016 50 and PLANSAN 2012/2015. The PLANSAN proposes sixty indicators divided into seven dimensions, which are clearly related to the Millennium Development Goals. In order to operationalize these indicators in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, the Socio-Environmental Food Security Observatory of Rio Grande do Sul (OBSSAN-RS was created in partnership with the State Council for Nutrition and Food Security (CONSEA-RS and the Informatics Department of UFRGS. In this context, the aim of this paper is to present the analysis of indicators of Dimension I (Food Production of the OBSSAN-RS at municipal level, discussing the importance of this tool for monitoring the establishment of the Human Right to Adequate Food (DHAA. The data available to the municipal level were compared with the indicators suggested by PLANSAN. It was observed that although contemplate important information for understanding the context of food production in the municipalities of the state, the proposed indicators have not reached entirely the requirements to monitoring the SAN in this territorial level, so adapting it is necessary to rating the state of SAN in municipalities of the RS.

  10. Responses of sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls. (United States)

    Nakamoto, M


    Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls were measured for the purpose of estimating the responsibility of the sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure. In preliminary experiment, it was confirmed that cold air exposure of the whole body was more suitable than one-hand immersion in cold water. In the main experiment, 195 subjects were examined. Sixty-five subjects had vibration syndrome with vibration-induced white finger (VWF + group) and 65 subjects had vibration syndrome without VWF (VWF- group) and 65 controls had no symptoms (control group). In the three groups, plasma norepinephrine levels increased during cold air exposure of whole body at 7 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees C. Blood pressure increased and skin temperature decreased during cold exposure. Percent increase of norepinephrine in the VWF+ group was the highest while that in VWF- group followed and that in the control group was the lowest. This whole-body response of the sympathetic nervous system to cold conditions reflected the VWF which are characteristic symptoms of vibration syndrome. Excluding the effects of shivering and a cold feeling under cold conditions, it was confirmed that the sympathetic nervous system in vibration syndrome is activated more than in the controls. These results suggest that vibration exposure to hand and arm affects the sympathetic nervous system.

  11. Plants as bio-indicators of subsurface conditions: impact of groundwater level on BTEX concentrations in trees. (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan; Bartz, Rachel; Limmer, Matt; Burken, Joel


    Numerous studies have demonstrated trees' ability to extract and translocate moderately hydrophobic contaminants, and sampling trees for compounds such as BTEX can help delineate plumes in the field. However, when BTEX is detected in the groundwater, detection in nearby trees is not as reliable an indicator of subsurface contamination as other compounds such as chlorinated solvents. Aerobic rhizospheric and bulk soil degradation is a potential explanation for the observed variability of BTEX in trees as compared to groundwater concentrations. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of groundwater level on BTEX concentrations in tree tissue. The central hypothesis was increased vadose zone thickness promotes biodegradation of BTEX leading to lower BTEX concentrations in overlying trees. Storage methods for tree core samples were also investigated as a possible reason for tree cores revealing lower than expected BTEX levels in some sampling efforts. The water level hypothesis was supported in a greenhouse study, where water table level was found to significantly affect tree BTEX concentrations, indicating that the influx of oxygen coupled with the presence of the tree facilitates aerobic biodegradation of BTEX in the vadose zone.

  12. New Indicators of the Level of Social Dissatisfaction in the Planning of Social-Economic Development of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Yurevich Dolomatov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the urgent problem related to the development of the region, namely, the creation of tools for the assessment of the level of social dissatisfaction in the region. The assessment of the level of social dissatisfaction is one of the most important tasks of state organizations in political and social spheres. The article considers the concept of "social dissatisfaction" and associated terms, it substantiates the author's position on the content of this notion. The authors have investigated the existing national and international approaches to the assessing of social tensions of the population. The system of socio-economic development indicators doesn’t contain indicators allowing to assess the level of social dissatisfaction without the results of public polls. We propose two models in the article. In the first model, the assessment is basedon the single factor (the index of social dissatisfaction based on income differentiation. The second complex model takes into account a number of factors (the index of social dissatisfaction based on complex assessment. For the calculation of the proposed indicators, the authors use the statistical data of the Federal State Statistics Service. The methodological research tools include the mathematical methods of statistical data processing. We have evaluated the methodological tools on the example of the Republic of Ingushetia. The assessment has showed the dynamics of a decline in the level of social-economic dissatisfaction in the region (1995–2011. The models of social dissatisfaction constitute a tool for rapid and up-to-date assessment of socio-economic system sustainability, and of the willingness of the population to participate in protests. The application of the results of this study is the support of decision-making regions and state structures in working out plans of the socio-economic development of the regions.

  13. A new organellar complex in rat sympathetic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Ramer

    Full Text Available Membranous compartments of neurons such as axons, dendrites and modified primary cilia are defining features of neuronal phenotype. This is unlike organelles deep to the plasma membrane, which are for the most part generic and not related directly to morphological, neurochemical or functional specializations. However, here we use multi-label immunohistochemistry combined with confocal and electron microscopy to identify a very large (approximately 6 microns in diameter, entirely intracellular neuronal organelle which occurs singly in a ubiquitous but neurochemically distinct and morphologically simple subset of sympathetic ganglion neurons. Although usually toroidal, it also occurs as twists or rods depending on its intracellular position: tori are most often perinuclear whereas rods are often found in axons. These 'loukoumasomes' (doughnut-like bodies bind a monoclonal antibody raised against beta-III-tubulin (SDL.3D10, although their inability to bind other beta-III-tubulin monoclonal antibodies indicate that the responsible antigen is not known. Position-morphology relationships within neurons and their expression of non-muscle heavy chain myosin suggest a dynamic structure. They associate with nematosomes, enigmatic nucleolus-like organelles present in many neural and non-neural tissues, which we now show to be composed of filamentous actin. Loukoumasomes also separately interact with mother centrioles forming the basal body of primary cilia. They express gamma tubulin, a microtubule nucleator which localizes to non-neuronal centrosomes, and cenexin, a mother centriole-associated protein required for ciliogenesis. These data reveal a hitherto undescribed organelle, and depict it as an intracellular transport machine, shuttling material between the primary cilium, the nematosome, and the axon.

  14. Effect of low blood lead levels on anaemia indicators and creatinine clearance rate of workers occupationally exposed to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, F.; Vasandani, A.G.M.


    Although recognized and written about centuries, lead toxicity remains an occupational and public health problem of global dimensions. Several studies have demonstrated that clinical and sub clinical effects of lead toxicity at the blood lead levels considered as safe, i.e., below 30 mug/dl in adults and 10 mu g/dl in children. Such studies have received scant attention in the case of lead occupational workers due to the presumption of high blood lead levels in accordance with occupation. In the present study, therefore an attempt was made to investigate the effect of low blood lead levels on indicators of anaemia and renal impairment. A cohort of 690 subjects who had been occupationally exposed to lead was studied using stratified random sampling design. The markers of anaemia included changes in Haematocrit value, Haemoglobin and Erythrocyte count where as renal health was judged from changes in creatinine clearance rate. The controls were derived from similar socioeconomic background and matched in age and sex with subjects. Blood lead levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption and biochemical determinations carried out using standard procedures. Blood lead levels in the range 10-40 mu g/dl had significant effect on anaemia indicators and resulted in inverse co relationship. (Pearson's correlation coefficient r-0.65, -0.71 and -0.58 respectively for haematocrit, erythrocyte count and haemoglobin). The creatinine clearance rate estimated after adjustment for body mass index and age factors was found to depend on blood lead level and duration of exposure of subjects. These effects were statistically significant in the subjects having age in the range 15-30 years. Low lead levels in blood have high potential of inducing lead related anaemia by disturbing the pathway of heme synthesis at either ferrochetalase stage or inhibiting the amino levulinate dehydratase activity. Though creatinine clearance rate did not prove as reliable marker of renal

  15. Mortality, readmission and length of stay have different relationships using hospital-level versus patient-level data: an example of the ecological fallacy affecting hospital performance indicators. (United States)

    Hofstede, Stefanie N; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti; Kringos, Dionne S; Steyerberg, Ewout; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J


    Ecological fallacy refers to an erroneous inference about individuals on the basis of findings for the group to which those individuals belong. Suppose analysis of a large database shows that hospitals with a high proportion of long length of stay (LOS) patients also have higher than average in-hospital mortality. This may prompt efforts to reduce mortality among patients with long LOS. But patients with long LOS may not be the ones at higher risk of death. It may be that hospitals with higher mortality (regardless of LOS) also have more long LOS patients-either because of quality problems on both counts or because of unaccounted differences in case mix. To provide more insight how the ecological fallacy influences the evaluation of hospital performance indicators, we assessed whether hospital-level associations between in-hospital mortality, readmission and long LOS reflect patient-level associations. Patient admissions from the Dutch National Medical Registration (2007-2012) for specific diseases (stroke, colorectal carcinoma, heart failure, acute myocardial infarction and hip/knee replacements in patients with osteoarthritis) were analysed, as well as all admissions. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess patient-level associations. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify hospital-level associations. Overall, we observed 2.2% in-hospital mortality, 8.1% readmissions and a mean LOS of 5.9 days among 8 478 884 admissions in 95 hospitals. Of the 10 disease-specific associations tested, 2 were reversed at hospital-level, 3 were consistent and 5 were only significant at either hospital-level or patient-level. A reversed association was found for stroke: patients with long LOS had 58% lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0.42 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.44)), whereas the hospital-level association was reversed (r=0.30, plevel associations were found for each hospital, but LOS varied across hospitals, thereby resulting in a positive hospital-level association

  16. Influence of the polyol pathway on norepinephrine transporter reduction in diabetic cardiac sympathetic nerves: implications for heterogeneous accumulation of MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Yasushi; Kajiyama, Satomi; Fujiwara, Hiromi; Kanegawa, Naoki; Saji, Hideo


    Cardiac scintigraphic studies using 123 I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ([ 123 I]MIBG) have demonstrated heterogeneous myocardial accumulation of MIBG in diabetes. The accumulation has been found to correlate with a heterogeneous decrease in the expression of norepinephrine transporter (NET). In diabetic peripheral nerve tissue, polyol pathways are activated and cause nerve dysfunction and degeneration. However, there has been little research on the polyol pathway and cardiac sympathetic nerves. Therefore, to assess the influence of the polyol pathway on cardiac sympathetic nervous function, we investigated the regional accumulation of MIBG and NET protein expression in diabetic model rats treated with aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) for the blockade of polyol pathways. Rats were given a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (n=76, STZ-D rats). Starting the day after STZ injection, ARI was administered daily to 42 of the rats for 4 weeks (ARI-D rats). To assess the cardiac sympathetic nervous function, [ 125 I]MIBG autoradiographic experiments were carried out. Finally, NET protein expression was assessed with a saturation binding assay. The myocardial sorbitol concentration was significantly higher in STZ-D rats than in ARI-D rats. There was no heterogeneous accumulation of MIBG in ARI-D rats. There was a heterogeneous decrease of NET expression in STZ-D rats, but not in ARI-D or control rats. The gathered data indicate that the enhanced polyol pathway correlates with the decrease in regional cardiac sympathetic nervous function, and this impairment may lead to the reduction of NET protein in cardiac sympathetic nerves of the diabetic inferior wall. (orig.)

  17. Ongoing myocardial damage relates to cardiac sympathetic nervous disintegrity in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Takanori; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Niizeki, Takeshi


    Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) has been used to assess the integrity and function of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system in patients with heart failure. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is released into the circulation when the myocardium is injured, and H-FABP has been recently used as a novel marker for the diagnosis of ongoing myocardial damage. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiac sympathetic nervous activity assessed by 123 I-MIBG imaging with serum levels of H-FABP in patients with heart failure. Fifty patients with chronic heart failure were studied. 123 I-MIBG imaging was carried out at 30 min (early) and 240 min (delayed) after the tracer injection. We measured serum levels of H-FABP using a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratios of 123 I-MIBG decreased and washout rate increased with higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. H-FABP, norepinephrine and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels increased as the severity of NYHA class advanced. Delayed H/M ratio was significantly correlated with H-FABP (r=-0.296, p=0.029) and BNP (r=-0.335, p=0.0213). Myocardial washout rate of 123 I-MIBG was also correlated with H-FABP (r=0.469, p 123 I-MIBG imaging is an appropriate approach to evaluate non-invasively not only cardiac sympathetic nervous activity, but also latent ongoing myocardial damage in the failing heart. (author)

  18. Positron emission tomographic imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.S.; Chang, P.C.; Eisenhofer, G.; Miletich, R.; Finn, R.; Bacher, J.; Kirk, K.L.; Bacharach, S.; Kopin, I.J.


    Sites of uptake, storage, and metabolism of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine and excretion of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine and its metabolites were visualized using positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning after intravenous injection of the tracer into anesthetized dogs. Radioactivity was concentrated in the renal pelvis, heart, liver, spleen, salivary glands, and gall bladder. Uptake of 18F by the heart resulted in striking delineation of the left ventricular myocardium. Pretreatment with desipramine markedly decreased cardiac positron emission, consistent with dependence of the heart on neuronal uptake (uptake-1) for removal of circulating catecholamines. In reserpinized animals, cardiac positron emission was absent within 30 minutes after injection of [ 18 F]-6-fluorodopamine, demonstrating that the emission in untreated animals was from radioactive labeling of the sympathetic storage vesicles. Decreased positron emission from denervated salivary glands confirmed that the tracer was concentrated in sympathetic neurons. Radioactivity in the gall bladder and urinary system depicted the hepatic and renal excretion of the tracer and its metabolites. Administration of tyramine or nitroprusside increased and ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan decreased the rate of loss of myocardial radioactivity. The results show that PET scanning after administration of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine can be used to visualize sites of sympathetic innervation, follow the metabolism and renal and hepatic excretion of catecholamines, and examine cardiac sympathetic function

  19. The sympathetic innervation of the heart: Important new insights. (United States)

    Coote, J H; Chauhan, R A


    Autonomic control of the heart has a significant influence over development of life threatening arrhythmias that can lead to sudden cardiac death. Sympathetic activity is known to be upregulated during these conditions and hence the sympathetic nerves present a target for treatment. However, a better understanding of the anatomy and physiology of cardiac sympathetic nerves is required for the progression of clinical interventions. This review explores the organization of the cardiac sympathetic nerves, from the preganglionic origin to the postganglionic innervations, and provides an overview of literature surrounding anti-arrhythmic therapies including thoracic sympathectomy and dorsal spinal cord stimulation. Several features of the innervation are clear. The cardiac nerves differentially supply the nodal and myocardial tissue of the heart and are dependent on activity generated in spinal neurones in the upper thoracic cord which project to synapse with ganglion cells in the stellate complex on each side. Networks of spinal interneurones determine the pattern of activity. Groups of spinal neurones selectively target specific regions of the heart but whether they exhibit a functional selectivity has still to be elucidated. Electrical or ischemic signals can lead to remodeling of nerves in the heart or ganglia. Surgical and electrical methods are proving to be clinically beneficial in reducing atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, heart failure and severe cardiac pain. This is a rapidly developing area and we need more basic understanding of how these methods work to ensure safety and reduction of side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  1. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  2. Sympathetic neural responses to smoking are age dependent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hering, D.; Somers, V. K.; Kára, T.; Kucharska, W.; Jurák, Pavel; Bieniaszewski, L.; Narkiewicz, K.


    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2006), s. 691-695 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : sympathetic neural response * blood pressure * heart rate * smoking Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 4.021, year: 2006

  3. Sympathetic Overactivity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Consequences and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep Kaur


    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing worldwide, with more than 26 million people suffering from CKD in the United States alone. More patients with CKD die of cardiovascular complications than progress to dialysis. Over 80% of CKD patients have hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another common, perhaps underappreciated, feature of CKD is an overactive sympathetic nervous system. This elevation in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA not only contributes to hypertension but also plays a detrimental role in the progression of CKD independent of any increase in blood pressure. Indeed, high SNA is associated with poor prognosis and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of its effect on blood pressure. This brief review will discuss some of the consequences of sympathetic overactivity and highlight some of the potential pathways contributing to chronically elevated SNA in CKD. Mechanisms leading to chronic sympathoexcitation in CKD are complex, multifactorial and to date, not completely understood. Identification of the mechanisms and/or signals leading to sympathetic overactivity in CKD are crucial for development of effective therapeutic targets to reduce the increased cardiovascular risk in this patient group.

  4. Sympathetic Wigner-function tomography of a dark trapped ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirkhalaf, Safoura; Mølmer, Klaus


    A protocol is provided to reconstruct the Wigner function for the motional state of a trapped ion via fluorescence detection on another ion in the same trap. This “sympathetic tomography” of a dark ion without optical transitions suitable for state measurements is based on the mapping of its...

  5. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months. Introduction ... SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1 ... may be either trauma of external origin or iatrogenic, post surgery. In some patients particularly children ...

  6. The clinical value of cardiac sympathetic imaging in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Kjaer, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip


    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the pathology of heart failure. The single-photon emission computed tomography tracer iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123) I-MIBG) can be used to investigate the activity of the predominant neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous...

  7. Baroreflex control of sympathetic activity in experimental hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C. Irigoyen


    Full Text Available The arterial baroreceptor reflex system is one of the most powerful and rapidly acting mechanisms for controlling arterial pressure. The purpose of the present review is to discuss data relating sympathetic activity to the baroreflex control of arterial pressure in two different experimental models: neurogenic hypertension by sinoaortic denervation (SAD and high-renin hypertension by total aortic ligation between the renal arteries in the rat. SAD depresses baroreflex regulation of renal sympathetic activity in both the acute and chronic phases. However, increased sympathetic activity (100% was found only in the acute phase of sinoaortic denervation. In the chronic phase of SAD average discharge normalized but the pattern of discharges was different from that found in controls. High-renin hypertensive rats showed overactivity of the renin angiotensin system and a great depression of the baroreflexes, comparable to the depression observed in chronic sinoaortic denervated rats. However, there were no differences in the average tonic sympathetic activity or changes in the pattern of discharges in high-renin rats. We suggest that the difference in the pattern of discharges may contribute to the increase in arterial pressure lability observed in chronic sinoaortic denervated rats.

  8. The development level of health indicators in Kermanshah province from the perspective of social justice in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Sulaimany


    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to analyze and assess the development level of health services in Kermanshah province from the perspective of social justice in 2010. Methods: The data extracted from the statistical yearbooks in Statistical Center of Iran and Governor's House in Kermanshah Province were studied by Division by Mean and Principal Component Methods in the framework of GIS, SPSS and Excel software using thirteen indicators of access to health. Results: Findings indicated that, based on the composite index gained, Kermanshah, Qasr-e Shirin and Paveh cities were the most advantaged in terms of a range of health indicators and Salas Babajani, Ravansar and Dalaho were the most disadvantaged cities. Conclusion: Factors such as lack of spatial planning perspective, special concern for the provision of health services in war-torn cities and motivation to work in the hometown, have affected this issue. Thus, the data indicate lack of balance and proportion of the quantity and distribution of health services to the population of the cities as well as inequality in citizens’ access to the civil welfare.

  9. Are Bavarian Forests (southern Germany) at risk from ground-level ozone? Assessment using exposure and flux based ozone indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgarten, Manuela; Huber, Christian; Bueker, Patrick; Emberson, Lisa; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Nunn, Angela J.; Heerdt, Christian; Beudert, Burkhard; Matyssek, Rainer


    Exposure and flux-based indices of O 3 risk were compared, at 19 forest locations across Bavaria in southern Germany from 2002 to 2005; leaf symptoms on mature beech trees found at these locations were also examined for O 3 injury. O 3 flux modelling was performed using continuously recorded O 3 concentrations in combination with meteorological and soil moisture data collected from Level II forest sites. O 3 measurements at nearby rural open-field sites proved appropriate as surrogates in cases where O 3 data were lacking at forest sites (with altitude-dependent average differences of about 10% between O 3 concentrations). Operational thresholds of biomass loss for both O 3 indices were exceeded at the majority of the forest locations, suggesting similar risk under long-term average climate conditions. However, exposure-based indices estimated higher O 3 risk during dry years as compared to the flux-based approach. In comparison, minor O 3 -like leaf injury symptoms were detected only at a few of the forest sites investigated. Relationships between flux-based risk thresholds and tree response need to be established for mature forest stands for validation of predicted growth reductions under the prevailing O 3 regimes. - Exposure- and flux-based ozone indices suggest Bavarian forests to be at risk from ozone; the flux-based index offers a means of incorporating stand-specific and ecological variables that influence risk.

  10. HIF2A and IGF2 Expression Correlates in Human Neuroblastoma Cells and Normal Immature Sympathetic Neuroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Mohlin


    Full Text Available During normal sympathetic nervous system (SNS development, cells of the ganglionic lineage can malignantly transform and develop into the childhood tumor neuroblastoma. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs mediate cellular responses during normal development and are central in the adaptation to oxygen shortage. HIFs are also implicated in the progression of several cancer forms, and high HIF-2α expression correlates with disseminated disease and poor outcome in neuroblastoma. During normal SNS development, HIF2A is transiently expressed in neuroblasts and chromaffin cells. SNS cells can, during development, be distinguished by distinct gene expression patterns, and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 is a marker of sympathetic chromaffin cells, whereas sympathetic neuroblasts lack IGF2 expression. Despite the neuronal derivation of neuroblastomas, we show that neuroblastoma cell lines and specimens express IGF2 and that expression of HIF2A and IGF2 correlates, with the strongest correlation in high-stage tumors. In neuroblastoma, both IGF2 and HIF2A are hypoxia-driven and knocking down IGF2 at hypoxia resulted in downregulated HIF2A levels. HIF-2α and IGF2 were strongly expressed in subsets of immature neuroblastoma cells, suggesting that these two genes could be co-expressed also at early stages of SNS development. We show that IGF2 is indeed expressed in sympathetic chain ganglia at embryonic week 6.5, a developmental stage when HIF-2α is present. These findings provide a rationale for the unexpected IGF2 expression in neuroblastomas and might suggest that IGF2 and HIF2A positive neuroblastoma cells are arrested at an embryonic differentiation stage corresponding to the stage when sympathetic chain ganglia begins to coalesce.

  11. Indicators of Educational Development in Latin America and its Impact on the Economic Levels of the Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Muñoz Izquierdo


    Full Text Available Based on the information published by the Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL, the authors have followed the growth of the region’s educational systems, mainly during the last decades of the 20th century. The patterns of distribution of educational opportunities among the various economic levels and sexes have also been examined. On the other hand, they have analyzed some impact indicators related to the expansion of educational opportunities within the working fields where graduates of those school systems are, and indicators of the probability of those individuals earning higher wages than those considered as the minimum in many countries to outdo poverty. Finally, some obstacles which have hindered the equal distribution of education have been identified, and some political features necessary to overcome them have been sketched.

  12. A novel interaction between sympathetic overactivity and aberrant regulation of renin by miR-181a in BPH/2J genetically hypertensive mice. (United States)

    Jackson, Kristy L; Marques, Francine Z; Watson, Anna M D; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Nguyen-Huu, Thu-Phuc; Morris, Brian J; Charchar, Fadi J; Davern, Pamela J; Head, Geoffrey A


    Genetically hypertensive mice (BPH/2J) are hypertensive because of an exaggerated contribution of the sympathetic nervous system to blood pressure. We hypothesize that an additional contribution to elevated blood pressure is via sympathetically mediated activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system. Our aim was to determine the contribution of the renin-angiotensin system and sympathetic nervous system to hypertension in BPH/2J mice. BPH/2J and normotensive BPN/3J mice were preimplanted with radiotelemetry devices to measure blood pressure. Depressor responses to ganglion blocker pentolinium (5 mg/kg i.p.) in mice pretreated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalaprilat (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) revealed a 2-fold greater sympathetic contribution to blood pressure in BPH/2J mice during the active and inactive period. However, the depressor response to enalaprilat was 4-fold greater in BPH/2J compared with BPN/3J mice, but only during the active period (P=0.01). This was associated with 1.6-fold higher renal renin messenger RNA (mRNA; P=0.02) and 0.8-fold lower abundance of micro-RNA-181a (P=0.03), identified previously as regulating human renin mRNA. Renin mRNA levels correlated positively with depressor responses to pentolinium (r=0.99; P=0.001), and BPH/2J mice had greater renal sympathetic innervation density as identified by tyrosine hydroxylase staining of cortical tubules. Although there is a major sympathetic contribution to hypertension in BPH/2J mice, the renin-angiotensin system also contributes, doing so to a greater extent during the active period and less during the inactive period. This is the opposite of the normal renin-angiotensin system circadian pattern. We suggest that renal hyperinnervation and enhanced sympathetically induced renin synthesis mediated by lower micro-RNA-181a contributes to hypertension in BPH/2J mice.

  13. Coral indicators of past sea-level change: A global repository of U-series dated benchmarks (United States)

    Hibbert, Fiona D.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Dutton, Andrea; Williams, Felicity H.; Chutcharavan, Peter M.; Zhao, Cheng; Tamisiea, Mark E.


    Fossil corals provide valuable data for reconstructing past sea levels, as they are often well preserved in the fossil record and can be dated with U-series methods. Here we present a global and internally consistent database of Usbnd Th dated fossil coral sea-level indicators, including full consideration of all (known) associated uncertainties (both vertical and chronological). We include carefully determined taxon-specific depth distributions, rather than blanket depth uncertainty terms as used in most previous work. This is based on a synthesis of extensive modern ecological information on depth ranges. These ranges are found to be spatially variable (between ocean basins, between regions, and on sub-regional scales) because depth itself is not limiting - instead, depth distributions arise from complex physical, chemical, and biological interactions with coral-reef growth, distribution, and composition. One of the main causes for recognition of the greater depth-variability of coral taxa has been the routine inclusion of deep-diving and ROV surveys in coral ecological studies over the past few decades, which has broken through the "shallow-water" bias of early surveys by adding frequent observations on deeper occurrences (although more are needed). It is also clear from our assessment that coral habitat-depth distributions must be determined on the species level to reduce uncertainties in reconstructions of past sea levels, and that application to sea-level studies then requires these studies also to identify fossil corals to the species level. Samples identified only to the genus level give rise to wide uncertainties in habitat depth and, hence, sea level. Our database contains extensive metadata to assist evaluations of dating quality, as well as geomorphic and stratigraphic metadata. We demonstrate with examples how such metadata can help to evaluate sea-level reconstructions, for example by identifying outlier points. One example discusses the Last

  14. Observations of long-term tide-gauge records for indications of accelerated sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornitz, V.; Solow, A.


    Long-term tide-gauge records have been examined for indications of accelerated sea-level rise. An initial evaluation of 21 records was made, using least-squares linear regression. Four of the longest records were selected for more formal statistical analysis. The regional-mean sea-level curve for west-central Europe displays an upswing after 1900. However, individual stations vary considerably over short distances. Results from other regions are less conclusive. Application of univariate and multivariate techniques to the four longest records yields strong evidence for the presence of a non-global, nonlinear component. However, the three longest European records show some common nonlinear features, implying the presence of a regional component. There is some weak statistical evidence for a common changepoint around 1895 in the long-term European records, particularly for Amsterdam and Brest

  15. Analysis of the levels of in vivo immunological indicators in patients with different types of malignanat lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Mei Wang


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the levels of in vivo immunological indicators in patients with different types of malignanat lymphoma. Methods: A total of 69 patients with different types of malignanat lymphoma who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study, among which 31 had primary extranodular malignant lymphoma (extranodular group, and 38 had primary nodular malignant lymphoma (nodular group. Moreover, 34 patients with pure lymphnoditis were served as the control group. FCM and full-automatic speed scattering turbidimetry were used to detect T lymphocyte subsets proportion, IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C4 in the three groups. Results: The comparison of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cell proportion, and CD4+/CD8+ among the three groups was significantly different. When compared with the control group, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cell proportion, and CD4+/CD8+ in the extranodular group and nodular group were significantly reduced; moreover, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+/ CD8+ in the extranodular group were significantly lower than those in the nodular group, while NK cell in the extranodular group was significantly higher than that in the nodular group. The comparison of IgG, IgA, and C3 levels among the three groups was statistically significant. When compared with the control group, IgG and IgA levels in the extranodular group and nodular group were significantly elevated, while C3 level was significantly reduced, and the comparison between the extranodular group and nodular group between the two groups was statistically significant. IgM level in the extranodular group and nodular group was elevated, C4 level was reduced, but the comparison with the control group was not statistically significant. Spearman correlation analysis showed that CD3+ and CD4+ were significantly correlated with IgA, IgG, and C3. Conclusions: With the increasing of severity degree of lymphoma, the immunological level is reduced, while CD3+ and CD4+ are significantly correlated with Ig

  16. Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploj Karolina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Methods Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3 to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4 to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. Results The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. Conclusion Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS.

  17. Elevated levels of circulating histones indicate disease activity in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). (United States)

    Li, Xiuhui; Li, Qin; Li, Junhong; Li, Ying; Chen, Yuping; Lv, Aiping; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Jianbo; Von Maltzan, Kristine; Wen, Tao


    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in children, characterized by acute viral infection accompanying acute inflammatory responses. Circulating histones are leading mediators of the inflammatory processes. This study aimed to elucidate whether circulating histones play a contributory role during HFMD. We measured plasma levels of histones, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cytokines in HFMD patients (n = 126) and compared the results with those of a control group (n = 30). Circulating histone levels were significantly increased in HFMD patients (3.794 ± 0.156 μg/ml) compared with healthy controls (0.238 ± 0.023 μg/ml, p histones correlated positively with plasma IL-6 and IL-10, whereas in severe HFMD, histones were associated with elevated IL-6 and TNF-ɑ levels. These data demonstrate that circulating histones are excessively released in patients with HFMD, which may indicate disease severity and contribute to systemic inflammation by promoting cytokine production (e.g. IL-6). We suggest that in mild HFMD, circulating histones may originate largely from neutrophil activation, whereas in severe HFMD, dying tissue cells and neutrophil activation may be synergistically involved in the increased levels of histones.

  18. Saliva amylase as a measure of sympathetic change elicited by autogenic training in patients with functional somatic syndromes. (United States)

    Kiba, Tadashi; Kanbara, Kenji; Ban, Ikumi; Kato, Fumie; Kawashima, Sadanobu; Saka, Yukie; Yamamoto, Kazumi; Nishiyama, Junji; Mizuno, Yasuyuki; Abe, Tetsuya; Fukunaga, Mikihiko


    The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of autogenic training (AT) on patients with functional somatic syndrome (FSS) using salivary amylase, the skin temperature of the finger, subjective severity of symptoms, and psychological characteristics as measures. We assessed 20 patients with FSS and 23 healthy controls before and after AT. Baseline levels of salivary amylase prior to an AT session were significantly higher in the FSS group than in the control group. However, this difference was not significant after AT. The skin temperature of the finger increased after AT in both the FSS and control groups. AT contributed to the improvement of somatic symptoms in patients with FSS. Our results regarding psychological characteristics suggest that mood disturbances are deeply involved in the pathology of FSS. Individuals with FSS exhibited elevated levels of sympathetic activity compared with healthy controls. Our data indicates that AT eased dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system in patients with FSS. Thus, salivary amylase may be a useful index of change induced by AT in patients with FSS.

  19. Perspective of use of Pinus sylvestris L. as biological indicator of areas with low level radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragan, G.I.; Dragan, N.V.; Levon, F.M.


    Research indicates data about distinct of Pinus sylvestris as biological indicator. Especially important is discovered distinctiveness of reactions of Pinus sylvestris to low level radioactive pollution. To identify radioactive pollution in habitats using biological indicators it is recommended the following complex of markers of functions of vegetative and reproductive systems of Pinus sylvestris: specific changes in architectonic of tree crowns; increase in number of annual cycles of growth to two or three and duration of active vegetation drastic change in morphogenesis of vegetative shoots in secondary (summer) shoots; formation of intermediate structures (combined buds and shoots) with mosaic development of some metamers with regular or affected structure; stimulation of buds (general increase of points of growth and appearance of additional ways of their formation); specific changes in gistogenesis of needles; hollow tar channels filled with sclerenhyma or parenchyma ect.; interruption of morphogenesis of male reproductive shoots; increase in the number of abnormal pollen grains to 70%; abnormal branching of pollen channels. All affects in vegetative system of Pinus sylvestris take place at the age of up to 12-14 (20) years. (authors)

  20. Attention indicator dynamics of qualified climbers influenced by hypoxic training during the overcoming various altitude levels of Mount Elbrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Kiyko


    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the effect of hypoxic training on the attention indicators at different altitudes when crossing the Mount Elbrus. Material & Methods: the study of various attention indicators with the participation of control (n=16 and experimental (n=12 groups with the use of interval hypoxic training (IHT in the 15–15 mode with breathing through the system into a confined space in the experimental group and using the methods of mathematical statistics are carried out. Result: studies have made it possible to determine that the use of the regime of discontinuous hypoxia 15–15 in the training process of the pre-competitive period contribute to an increase in attention rates that affect adaptation to the load under hypoxia conditions. Conclusion: results of the conducted studies indicate that the use of IHT in the 15–15 mode in the period before the ascent to Mount Elbrus allows to significantly increase the attention rates of qualified climbers at different altitude levels.

  1. The Water Footprint as an indicator of environmental sustainability in water use at the river basin level. (United States)

    Pellicer-Martínez, Francisco; Martínez-Paz, José Miguel


    One of the main challenges in water management is to determine how the current water use can condition its availability to future generations and hence its sustainability. This study proposes the use of the Water Footprint (WF) indicator to assess the environmental sustainability in water resources management at the river basin level. The current study presents the methodology developed and applies it to a case study. The WF is a relatively new indicator that measures the total volume of freshwater that is used as a production factor. Its application is ever growing in the evaluation of water use in production processes. The calculation of the WF involves water resources (blue), precipitation stored in the soil (green) and pollution (grey). It provides a comprehensive assessment of the environmental sustainability of water use in a river basin. The methodology is based upon the simulation of the anthropised water cycle, which is conducted by combining a hydrological model and a decision support system. The methodology allows the assessment of the environmental sustainability of water management at different levels, and/or ex-ante analysis of how the decisions made in water planning process affect sustainability. The sustainability study was carried out in the Segura River Basin (SRB) in South-eastern Spain. The SRB is among the most complex basins in Europe, given its special peculiarities: competition for the use, overexploitation of aquifers, pollution, alternative sources, among others. The results indicate that blue water use is not sustainable due to the generalised overexploitation of aquifers. They also reveal that surface water pollution, which is not sustainable, is mainly caused by phosphate concentrations. The assessment of future scenarios reveals that these problems will worsen if no additional measures are implemented, and therefore the water management in the SRB is environmentally unsustainable in both the short- and medium-term. Copyright © 2016

  2. [The influence of single moderate exercise on the sympathetic nervous system activity in patients with essential hypertension]. (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota


    Sympathetic nervous system may play an important role in development and maintenance of hypertension. Its activity can be assessed by plasma levels of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and adrenergic receptor density. Hypertensive subjects may be more prone to reveal overactivity of sympathetic nervous system, for instance as a result of physical stress. The aim of the study was to determine the activity of sympathetic nervous system in young patients with newly recognized, untreated mild hypertension. The study was carried out in 22 patients (age 38.5 +/- 10.3 years) and 20 normotensive volunteers (age 38.5 +/- 8.6 years) as a control group, matched for sex. Density of alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic receptors using 3H-yohimbine and 125I-cyanopindolol respectively, total catecholamines and plasma renin activity using radioenzymatic assay, neuropeptide Y and aldosterone using radioimmunoassay were assessed in the blood taken in the supine position and after moderate bicycle ergometer exercise. Plasma concentration of NPY at rest did not differ between the groups, but increased significantly after exercise and was greater in hypertensive patients (p < 0.05). The density of alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic receptors at rest and after exercise in hypertensive subjects was unchanged when comparing to healthy individuals. The plasma concentrations of endogenous catecholamines, plasma renin activity and aldosterone level increase during exercise in both studied groups (p < 0.05). Aldosterone level was higher in hypertensive patients at rest (p < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between baseline aldosterone and NPY levels in hypertensive patients (r = -0.44, p < 0.05). Moderate exercise in hypertensive subjects causes the hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system expressed as increase of NPY plasma level.

  3. A new function for ATP: activating cardiac sympathetic afferents during myocardial ischemia. (United States)

    Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C


    Myocardial ischemia activates cardiac sympathetic afferents leading to chest pain and reflex cardiovascular responses. Brief myocardial ischemia leads to ATP release in the interstitial space. Furthermore, exogenous ATP and α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP), a P2X receptor agonist, stimulate cutaneous group III and IV sensory nerve fibers. The present study tested the hypothesis that endogenous ATP excites cardiac afferents during ischemia through activation of P2 receptors. Nerve activity of single unit cardiac sympathetic afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain or rami communicates (T(2)-T(5)) in anesthetized cats. Single fields of 45 afferents (conduction velocities = 0.25-4.92 m/s) were identified in the left ventricle with a stimulating electrode. Five minutes of myocardial ischemia stimulated 39 of 45 cardiac afferents (8 Aδ, 37 C fibers). Epicardial application of ATP (1-4 μmol) stimulated six ischemically sensitive cardiac afferents in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, epicardial ATP (2 μmol), ADP (2 μmol), a P2Y agonist, and α,β-meATP (0.5 μmol) significantly activated eight other ischemically sensitive afferents. Third, pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, a P2 receptor antagonist, abolished the responses of six afferents to epicardial ATP (2 μmol) and attenuated the ischemia-related increase in activity of seven other afferents by 37%. In the absence of P2 receptor blockade, cardiac afferents responded consistently to repeated application of ATP (n = 6) and to recurrent myocardial ischemia (n = 6). Finally, six ischemia-insensitive cardiac spinal afferents did not respond to epicardial ATP (2-4 μmol), although these afferents did respond to epicardial bradykinin. Taken together, these data indicate that, during ischemia, endogenously released ATP activates ischemia-sensitive, but not ischemia-insensitive, cardiac spinal afferents through stimulation of P2 receptors likely located on the cardiac sensory

  4. Continuous Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglion Block in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients with Spinal Cord Stimulation Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EungDon Kim


    Full Text Available The sympathetic block is widely used for treating neuropathic pain such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. However, single sympathetic block often provides only short-term effect. Moreover, frequent procedures for sympathetic block may increase the risk of complications. The use of epidural route may be limited by concern of infection in case of previous implantation of the spinal cord stimulation (SCS. In contrast, a continuous sympathetic block can be administered without such concerns. The continuous thoracic sympathetic block (TSGB has been used to treat the ischemic disease and other neuropathic conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia. We administered continuous thoracic sympathetic block using catheter in CRPS patients who underwent SCS implantations and achieved desirable outcomes. We believe a continuous sympathetic block is a considerable option before performing neurolysis or radiofrequency rhizotomy and even after SCS implantation.

  5. Sympathetic Innervation during Development Is Necessary for Pancreatic Islet Architecture and Functional Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Borden


    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons depend on target-derived neurotrophic cues to control their survival and growth. However, whether sympathetic innervation contributes reciprocally to the development of target tissues is less clear. Here, we report that sympathetic innervation is necessary for the formation of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and for their functional maturation. Genetic or pharmacological ablation of sympathetic innervation during development resulted in altered islet architecture, reduced insulin secretion, and impaired glucose tolerance in mice. Similar defects were observed with pharmacological blockade of β-adrenergic signaling. Conversely, the administration of a β-adrenergic agonist restored islet morphology and glucose tolerance in deinnervated animals. Furthermore, in neuron-islet cocultures, sympathetic neurons promoted islet cell migration in a β-adrenergic-dependent manner. This study reveals that islet architecture requires extrinsic inductive cues from neighboring tissues such as sympathetic nerves and suggests that early perturbations in sympathetic innervation might underlie metabolic disorders.

  6. Electrophysiological indices of anterior cingulate cortex function reveal changing levels of cognitive effort and reward valuation that sustain task performance. (United States)

    Umemoto, Akina; Inzlicht, Michael; Holroyd, Clay B


    Successful execution of goal-directed behaviors often requires the deployment of cognitive control, which is thought to require cognitive effort. Recent theories have proposed that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) regulates control levels by weighing the reward-related benefits of control against its effort-related costs. However, given that the sensations of cognitive effort and reward valuation are available only to introspection, this hypothesis is difficult to investigate empirically. We have proposed that two electrophysiological indices of ACC function, frontal midline theta and the reward positivity (RewP), provide objective measures of these functions. To explore this issue, we recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) from participants engaged in an extended, cognitively-demanding task. Participants performed a time estimation task for 2hours in which they received reward and error feedback according to their task performance. We observed that the amplitude of the RewP, a feedback-locked component of the event related brain potential associated with reward processing, decreased with time-on-task. Conversely, frontal midline theta power, which consists of 4-8Hz EEG oscillations associated with cognitive effort, increased with time-on-task. We also explored how these phenomena changed over time by conducting within-participant multi-level modeling analyses. Our results suggest that extended execution of a cognitively-demanding task is characterized by an early phase in which high control levels foster rapid improvements in task performance, and a later phase in which high control levels were necessary to maintain stable task performance, perhaps counteracting waning reward valuation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Possible links between extreme levels of space weather changes and human health state in middle latitudes: direct and indirect indicators (United States)

    Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin

    geomagnetic storms of the solar cycle 23 on the mentioned systems in middle-latitude location. In these studies, direct and indirect indicators of space weather influence are used: 1) Indirect indicators are essentially epidemiological data showing the temporal and spatial distribution of defined events or health disturbances involving considerable numbers of test subjects over several years. The indirect indicators used in this paper are: temporal distribution of emergency calls and hospital admissions (sudden cardiac deaths, acute myocardial infarction mortality and morbidity, so on), dynamics of traffic accidents, epidemics, etc.; 2) Direct indicators. They are physiological parameters, which can be objectively verified and which are acquired either in vivo, directly on the subject (heart rate and its variability, blood pressure, human brain's functional state, human psycho-emotional state, so on), or in vitro by laboratory diagnostics or tissue investigations. The potential co-factors, e.g. terrestrial (tropospheric) weather, seasons, demographic factor, working environment, etc., were also considered in the interpretation of the indicators. Spectral analyses have revealed certain chronobiological periodicities in the considered data. There are also provided results of daily medical-physiological experiments (acupunctural studies of conductivity of the biologically active points of human body in days with different geomagnetic activity levels) conducted in the Laboratory of Heliobiology, Baku, Azerbaijan, as a part of collaborative studies with Russian institutions such as IZMIRAN and Space Research Institute. They show on the latitudinal and longitudinal dependence of space weather influence. Our complex studies enabled to conclude that not only extremely high, but also very low levels of geomagnetic activity may have signifi- cant influence on human health state, especially, in the cardio-vascular health state and human brain's bioelectrical activity.

  8. CaMKII Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptor Activity of Hypothalamic Presympathetic Neurons and Sympathetic Outflow in Hypertension. (United States)

    Li, De-Pei; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Jixiang; Pan, Hui-Lin


    NMDAR activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is increased and critically involved in heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binds to and modulates NMDAR activity. In this study, we determined the role of CaMKII in regulating NMDAR activity of PVN presympathetic neurons in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). NMDAR-mediated EPSCs and puff NMDA-elicited currents were recorded in spinally projecting PVN neurons in SHRs and male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The basal amplitude of evoked NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in retrogradely labeled PVN neurons were significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. The CaMKII inhibitor autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (AIP) normalized the increased amplitude of NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in labeled PVN neurons in SHRs but had no effect in WKY rats. Treatment with AIP also normalized the higher frequency of NMDAR-mediated miniature EPSCs of PVN neurons in SHRs. CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation level of GluN2B serine 1303 (S1303) in the PVN, but not in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, was significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. Lowering blood pressure with celiac ganglionectomy in SHRs did not alter the increased level of phosphorylated GluN2B S1303 in the PVN. In addition, microinjection of AIP into the PVN significantly reduced arterial blood pressure and lumbar sympathetic nerve discharges in SHRs. Our findings suggest that CaMKII activity is increased in the PVN and contributes to potentiated presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity to elevate sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone is a major contributor to the development of hypertension. Although glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory drive in the hypothalamus plays a critical role in increased sympathetic output in hypertension, the molecular mechanism involved in

  9. Effect of Different Nitrogen Levels on Phenology, Growth Indices and Yield of two Lentil Cultivars under Rainfed Conditions in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bannayan Aval


    Full Text Available Introduction Lentil (Lens Culinarris Medik. is an important pulse crop in Iran and is usually grown in rainfed areas. The average lentil yield in Iran is 1195 and 476 Kg.ha-1 in irrigated and rainfed farms, respectively. Low productivity occurs due to different factors. One of these factors is poor agronomic management practices that applied by the farmers, e.g. Limitation or inappropriate fertilizer distribution. Plant development occurs in a number of consecutive phases. These phases can be affected by temperature, moisture, photoperiod, cultivar and other factors. The amount of available nitrogen affects the distribution of assimilates between vegetative and reproductive organs and phenological stages of growth. Therefore, analysis of growth indices and its effective factors can be used as a suitable tool in evaluating the yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen levels on phenology and growth indices of two lentil cultivars in rainfed conditions of Mashhad. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted as split plot layout based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growth season 2016. Nitrogen fertilizer as urea (in three levels i.e. 0, 40 and 80 kg.ha-1 and cultivar (in two levels i.e. Birjand and Robat were in main plots and sub plots, respectively. To determine the leaf area and dry matter, sampling was done every two weeks during the growing season. Phenological stages timing for each plot were determined based on 50% of emergence, 50% of flowering, 50% of maturity. Final yield was estimated from three square meter from each plot. Data were analyzed with the SAS software; the means were compared with Duncan's multiple range tests at the 5% level of probability. The graphs were prepared by SigmaPlot software. Results and Discussion The results showed that the effect of urea fertilizer was

  10. Correlation Coefficient, Path Analysis and Drought Tolerance Indices for Wheat under Deficit Irrigation Conditions and Nitrogen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Tavakoli


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the indices of drought tolerance, correlation coefficient and path analysis at deficit irrigation and nitrogen experiment, this experiment was conducted as split plot arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications during 2000-2003 for wheat at Maragheh agricultural research station of DARI. The treatments were included four levels of deficit irrigation (Rainfed, 100, 160 and 220mm of water use as main plots and five nitrogen rates (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg.N.ha-1 as sub plots. Grain, straw and biological yield, harvest index, productivity degree, plant height, kernel number per spike, Spike number per square meter and TKW determined from the middle of each plot. There were positive significant correlations due to grain yield with all variables: harvest index (r = 0.969 , Productivity degree (r = 0.952 , straw yield (r = 0.904 , plant height (r = 0.904 , biological yield (r = 0.824 , Spike number per square meter (r = 0.817 , kernel number per spike (r = 0.773 and TKW (r = 0.612 respectively. Results of path analysis showed that increase in grain yield was due to increase spike number per square meter and kernel number per spike respectively. On based of indices of drought tolerance (Tolerance Index, Mean Productivity, Geometric Mean Productivity and Harmonic Mean, treatment of %66full irrigation combined with 90KgN.ha-1 was substantially increased water productivity.

  11. Indicators to examine quality of large scale survey data: an example through district level household and facility survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakoli Borkotoky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large scale surveys are the main source of data pertaining to all the social and demographic indicators, hence its quality is also of great concern. In this paper, we discuss the indicators used to examine the quality of data. We focus on age misreporting, incompleteness and inconsistency of information; and skipping of questions on reproductive and sexual health related issues. In order to observe the practical consequences of errors in a survey; the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3 is used as an example dataset. METHODS: Whipple's and Myer's indices are used to identify age misreporting. Age displacements are identified by estimating downward and upward transfers for women from bordering age groups of the eligible age range. Skipping pattern is examined by recording the responses to the questions which precede the sections on birth history, immunization, and reproductive and sexual health. RESULTS: The study observed errors in age reporting, in all the states, but the extent of misreporting differs by state and individual characteristics. Illiteracy, rural residence and poor economic condition are the major factors that lead to age misreporting. Female were excluded from the eligible age group, to reduce the duration of interview. The study further observed that respondents tend to skip questions on HIV/RTI and other questions which follow a set of questions. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that age misreporting, inconsistency and incomplete response are three sources of error that need to be considered carefully before drawing conclusions from any survey. DLHS-3 also suffers from age misreporting, particularly for female in the reproductive ages. In view of the coverage of the survey, it may not be possible to control age misreporting completely, but some extra effort to probe a better answer may help in improving the quality of data in the survey.

  12. Sympathetic Denervation Accelerates Wound Contraction but Inhibits Reepithelialization and Pericyte Proliferation in Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Zheng


    Full Text Available Previous studies focused on the effects of sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA on nondiabetic wounds, but the effects of 6-OHDA on diabetic wounds have not been previously reported. In this study, treated mice received intraperitoneal 6-OHDA, and control mice received intraperitoneal injections of normal saline. Full-thickness wounds were established on the backs of mice. The wounds were sectioned (four mice per group for analysis at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days after injury. The wound areas in the control group were larger than those in the treatment group. Histological scores for epidermal and dermal regeneration were reduced in the 6-OHDA-treated group on day 21. The mast cells (MCs in each field decreased after sympathectomy on days 17 and 21. The expression levels of norepinephrine, epidermal growth factor (EGF, interleukin-1 beta, NG2 proteoglycan, and desmin in the treatment group were less than those in the control group. In conclusion, 6-OHDA delays reepithelialization during wound healing in diabetic mice by decreasing EGF, but increases wound contraction by reducing IL-1β levels and the number of MCs. Besides, 6-OHDA led to reduced pericyte proliferation in diabetic wounds, which might explain the vascular dysfunction after sympathetic nerve loss in diabetic wounds.

  13. Reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus alter sympathetic activity during metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN contains heterogeneous populations of neurons involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. The PVN plays an important role in the sympathoexcitatory response to increasing circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang-II, which activates AT1 receptors in the circumventricular organs (OCVs, mainly in the subfornical organ (SFO. Circulating Ang-II induces a de novo synthesis of Ang-II in SFO neurons projecting to pre-autonomic PVN neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors induces intracellular increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Chronic sympathetic nerve activation promotes a series of metabolic disorders that characterizes the metabolic syndrome (MetS: dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hyperleptinemia and elevated plasma hormone levels, such as noradrenaline, glucocorticoids, leptin, insulin and Ang-II. This review will discuss the contribution of our laboratory and others regarding the sympathoexcitation caused by peripheral Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species along the subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize that this mechanism could be involved in metabolic disorders underlying MetS.

  14. Aggressive behavior and hair cortisol levels in captive Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas) as animal-based welfare indicators. (United States)

    Salas, Marina; Temple, Déborah; Abáigar, Teresa; Cuadrado, Mariano; Delclaux, Maria; Enseñat, Conrad; Almagro, Vanessa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Carbajal, Annaïs; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Amat, Marta; Lopez-Bejar, Manel; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Manteca, Xavier


    Ensuring welfare in captive wild animal populations is important not only for ethical and legal reasons, but also to maintain healthy individuals and populations. An increased level of social behaviors such as aggression can reduce welfare by causing physical damage and chronic stress to animals. Recently, cortisol in hair has been advanced as a non-invasive indicator to quantify long-lasting stress in many species. The sensitivity of social behavior and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated in several groups of dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas). Four different groups of gazelles from three different zoos were observed and the expression of intra-specific affiliative and negative social behaviors was assessed across the different groups. Hair samples were taken from sub-groups of animals and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Significant differences between groups of dorcas gazelles were found in frequency of negative social behavior and hair cortisol concentration. Despite the low sample size, these two parameters had a positive Spearman correlation coefficient (r s  = +0.80, P = 0.20). These results suggest that hair cortisol levels are sensitive to differences in the social structure of dorcas gazelles. Zoo Biol. 35:467-473, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Yoshida

    Full Text Available Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  16. Inverse associations between obesity indicators and thymic T-cell production levels in aging atomic-bomb survivors. (United States)

    Yoshida, Kengo; Nakashima, Eiji; Kubo, Yoshiko; Yamaoka, Mika; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hayashi, Tomonori; Ohishi, Waka; Kusunoki, Yoichiro


    Reduction of the naive T-cell population represents a deteriorating state in the immune system that occurs with advancing age. In animal model studies, obesity compromises the T-cell immune system as a result of enhanced adipogenesis in primary lymphoid organs and systemic inflammation. In this study, to test the hypothesis that obesity may contribute to the aging of human T-cell immunity, a thousand atomic-bomb survivors were examined for obesity status and ability to produce naive T cells, i.e., T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) numbers in CD4 and CD8 T cells. The number of TRECs showed a strong positive correlation with naive T cell numbers, and lower TREC numbers were associated with higher age. We found that the TREC number was inversely associated with levels of obesity indicators (BMI, hemoglobin A1c) and serum CRP levels. Development of type-2 diabetes and fatty liver was also associated with lower TREC numbers. This population study suggests that obesity with enhanced inflammation is involved in aging of the human T-cell immune system. Given the fact that obesity increases the risk of numerous age-related diseases, attenuated immune competence is a possible mechanistic link between obesity and disease development among the elderly.

  17. [Analysis on the exposure level and geographic distribution trend of toxicological indicators in rural drinking water, Shandong Province, in 2015]. (United States)

    Shi, F; Lyu, S P; Kong, F L; Yang, X T; Zhou, J Y


    Objective: To analyze the exposure level and the geographical distribution trend of toxicological indicators of rural drinking water in Shandong Province. Methods: The drawing method was used to randomly select no less than 60% villages and towns from 137 counties (cities, districts) of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2015, and then 1-3 rural centralized water supply units were selected according to the circumstance of rural centralized water supply units in each village and town. In total, 735 villages and towns, 1 473 rural centralized water supply units were selected, and 1 473 water samples were collected. The water treatment process, water supply population and other circumstances of the rural centralized water supply units were investigated, the water quality was monitored, the content of toxicological indicators of drinking water in different areas was compared, and the trend surface isogram of excessive toxicological indicators was drawn. Results: The qualified rate of toxicological indicators in 1 473 water samples was 83.64% ( n =1 232). The main toxicological indicators that affected the qualified rate of toxicological indicators of drinking water in rural areas in Shandong Province were nitrate and fluoride. The excessive rate of fluoride was 5.70% ( n =84) and the exposed population was 1 736 709 (4.22%). The excessive rate of nitrate (as nitrogen) was 12.29% ( n =181) and the exposed population was 1 393 612 (3.39%). The P (5)0 content of fluoride in the eastern, middle and western regions was 0.24, 0.29 and 0.59 mg/L, respective;which was higher in the western region than in the east and the middle regions ( P 0.05). The P (50) content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in the eastern, middle and western regions was 8.00, 7.48, and 2.00 mg/L, which was higher in the eastern and middle regions than in the west region ( P 0.05). The trend surface isogram of nitrate and fluoride content showed that the content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in rural drinking water in

  18. Simulating sympathetic detonation using the hydrodynamic models and constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Hoon; Kim, Min Sung; Yoh, Jack J. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Tae Boo [Hanwha Corporation Defense Rand D Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A Sympathetic detonation (SD) is a detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion. Most of times it is unintended while the impact of blast fragments or strong shock waves from the initiating donor explosive is the cause of SD. We investigate the SD of a cylindrical explosive charge (64 % RDX, 20 % Al, 16 % HTPB) contained in a steel casing. The constitutive relations for high explosive are obtained from a thermo-chemical code that provides the size effect data without the rate stick data typically used for building the rate law and equation of state. A full size SD test of eight pallet-packaged artillery shells is performed that provides the pressure data while the hydrodynamic model with proper constitutive relations for reactive materials and the fragmentation model for steel casing is conducted to replicate the experimental findings. The work presents a novel effort to accurately model and reproduce the sympathetic detonation event with a reduced experimental effort.

  19. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-bo


    Previous studies have shown that observing another’s pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another’s needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people’s moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  20. The biophysics of renal sympathetic denervation using radiofrequency energy. (United States)

    Patel, Hitesh C; Dhillon, Paramdeep S; Mahfoud, Felix; Lindsay, Alistair C; Hayward, Carl; Ernst, Sabine; Lyon, Alexander R; Rosen, Stuart D; di Mario, Carlo


    Renal sympathetic denervation is currently performed in the treatment of resistant hypertension by interventionists who otherwise do not typically use radiofrequency (RF) energy ablation in their clinical practice. Adequate RF lesion formation is dependent upon good electrode-tissue contact, power delivery, electrode-tissue interface temperature, target-tissue impedance and the size of the catheter's active electrode. There is significant interplay between these variables and hence an appreciation of the biophysical determinants of RF lesion formation is required to provide effective and safe clinical care to our patients. In this review article, we summarize the biophysics of RF ablation and explain why and how complications of renal sympathetic denervation may occur and discuss methods to minimise them.

  1. Does transcutaneous nerve stimulation have effect on sympathetic skin response? (United States)

    Okuyucu, E Esra; Turhanoğlu, Ayşe Dicle; Guntel, Murat; Yılmazer, Serkan; Savaş, Nazan; Mansuroğlu, Ayhan


    This study examined the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the sympathetic nerve system by sympathetic skin response test. Fifty-five healthy volunteers received either: (i) 30minutes TENS (25 participants) (ii) 30minutes sham TENS (30 participants) and SSR test was performed pre- and post-TENS. The mean values of latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of five consecutive SSRs were calculated. A significant amplitude difference was found between TENS and sham TENS group both in right and left hand (p=0.04, p=0.01, respectively). However there was no significant latancy difference between two groups (p>0.05 ). TENS has an inhibitory effect on elicited SNS responses when compared with sham TENS control group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Central vs. peripheral neuraxial sympathetic control of porcine ventricular electrophysiology (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kentaro; Howard-Quijano, Kimberly; Zhou, Wei; Rajendran, Pradeep; Yagishita, Daigo; Vaseghi, Marmar; Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Armour, J. Andrew; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.


    Sympathoexcitation is associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of thoracic dorsal root afferent neural inputs to the spinal cord in modulating ventricular sympathetic control of normal heart electrophysiology. We hypothesize that dorsal root afferent input tonically modulates basal and evoked efferent sympathetic control of the heart. A 56-electrode sock placed on the epicardial ventricle in anesthetized Yorkshire pigs (n = 17) recorded electrophysiological function, as well as activation recovery interval (ARI) and dispersion in ARI, at baseline conditions and during stellate ganglion electrical stimulation. Measures were compared between intact states and sequential unilateral T1–T4 dorsal root transection (DRTx), ipsilateral ventral root transection (VRTx), and contralateral dorsal and ventral root transections (DVRTx). Left or right DRTx decreased global basal ARI [Lt.DRTx: 369 ± 12 to 319 ± 13 ms (P < 0.01) and Rt.DRTx: 388 ± 19 to 356 ± 15 ms (P < 0.01)]. Subsequent unilateral VRTx followed by contralateral DRx+VRTx induced no further change. In intact states, left and right stellate ganglion stimulation shortened ARIs (6 ± 2% vs. 17 ± 3%), while increasing dispersion (+139% vs. +88%). There was no difference in magnitude of ARI or dispersion change with stellate stimulation following spinal root transections. Interruption of thoracic spinal afferent signaling results in enhanced basal cardiac sympathoexcitability without diminishing the sympathetic response to stellate ganglion stimulation. This suggests spinal dorsal root transection releases spinal cord-mediated tonic inhibitory control of efferent sympathetic tone, while maintaining intrathoracic cardiocentric neural networks. PMID:26661096

  3. Temperament affects sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee


    Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population.

  4. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population


    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee


    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean vers...

  5. Permissive Parenting, Deviant Peer Affiliations, and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescence: the Moderating Role of Sympathetic Nervous System Reactivity. (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A; Tu, Kelly M; El-Sheikh, Mona


    The present study examined two measures of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity as moderators of the indirect path from permissive parenting to deviant peer affiliations to delinquency among a community sample of adolescents. Participants included 252 adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 53 % boys; 66 % European American, 34 % African American). A multi-method design was employed to address the research questions. Two indicators of SNS reactivity, skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) and cardiac pre-ejection period reactivity (PEPR) were examined. SNS activity was measured during a baseline period and a problem-solving task (star-tracing); reactivity was computed as the difference between the task and baseline periods. Adolescents reported on permissive parenting, deviant peer affiliations, externalizing behaviors, and substance use (alcohol, marijuana). Analyses revealed indirect effects between permissive parenting and delinquency via affiliation with deviant peers. Additionally, links between permissive parenting to affiliation with deviant peers and affiliation with deviant peers to delinquency was moderated by SNS reactivity. Less SNS reactivity (less PEPR and/or less SCLR) were risk factors for externalizing problems and alcohol use. Findings highlight the moderating role of SNS reactivity in parenting and peer pathways that may contribute to adolescent delinquency and point to possibilities of targeted interventions for vulnerable youth.

  6. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity: An entity to keep in mind. (United States)

    Godoy, D A; Panhke, P; Guerrero Suarez, P D; Murillo-Cabezas, F


    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a potentially life-threatening neurological emergency secondary to multiple acute acquired brain injuries. It is clinically characterized by the cyclic and simultaneous appearance of signs and symptoms secondary to exacerbated sympathetic discharge. The diagnosis is based on the clinical findings, and high alert rates are required. No widely available and validated homogeneous diagnostic criteria have been established to date. There have been recent consensus attempts to shed light on this obscure phenomenon. Its physiopathology is complex and has not been fully clarified. However, the excitation-inhibition model is the theory that best explains the different aspects of this condition, including the response to treatment with the available drugs. The key therapeutic references are the early recognition of the disorder, avoiding secondary injuries and the triggering of paroxysms. Once sympathetic crises occur, they must peremptorily aborted and prevented. of the later the syndrome is recognized, the poorer the patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats. (United States)

    Briant, Linford J B; Stalbovskiy, Alexey O; Nolan, Matthew F; Champneys, Alan R; Pickering, Anthony E


    Hypertension is associated with pathologically increased sympathetic drive to the vasculature. This has been attributed to increased excitatory drive to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) from brainstem cardiovascular control centers. However, there is also evidence supporting increased intrinsic excitability of SPN. To test this hypothesis, we made whole cell recordings of muscle vasoconstrictor-like (MVClike) SPN in the working-heart brainstem preparation of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MVClike SPN have a higher spontaneous firing frequency in the SH rat (3.85 ± 0.4 vs. 2.44 ± 0.4 Hz in WKY; P = 0.011) with greater respiratory modulation of their activity. The action potentials of SH SPN had smaller, shorter afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and showed diminished transient rectification indicating suppression of an A-type potassium conductance (IA). We developed mathematical models of the SPN to establish if changes in their intrinsic properties in SH rats could account for their altered firing. Reduction of the maximal conductance density of IA by 15-30% changed the excitability and output of the model from the WKY to a SH profile, with increased firing frequency, amplified respiratory modulation, and smaller AHPs. This change in output is predominantly a consequence of altered synaptic integration. Consistent with these in silico predictions, we found that intrathecal 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased sympathetic nerve activity, elevated perfusion pressure, and augmented Traube-Hering waves. Our findings indicate that IA acts as a powerful filter on incoming synaptic drive to SPN and that its diminution in the SH rat is potentially sufficient to account for the increased sympathetic output underlying hypertension. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism affects sympathetic tone in a gender-specific way. (United States)

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An; Chen, Tien-Yu; Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan


    The Val/Val genotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism (Val66Met) has been reported to affect human anxiety-related phenotypes. Substantial research has demonstrated that anxiety is associated with sympathetic activation, while sex steroid hormones have been shown to exert differential actions in regulating BDNF expression. Thus, we examined whether the BDNF variant modulates autonomic function in a gender-dependent manner. From 708 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 583 drug-free healthy Han Chinese (355 males, 228 females; age 34.43±8.42 years) was recruited for BDNF genotyping (Val/Val: 136, 23.3%, Val/Met: 294, 50.4%, and Met/Met: 153, 26.2%). Time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were used to assess autonomic outflow to the heart. Significant genotype-by-gender interaction effects were found on HRV indices. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, male participants bearing the Val/Val genotype had significant increases in low frequency (LF), LF% and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio, indicating altered sympathovagal balance with increased sympathetic modulation, compared to male Met/Met homozygotes. Females, however, showed an opposite but non-significant pattern. These results suggest that the studied BDNF polymorphism is associated with sympathetic control in a gender-specific way. The findings here support the view that male subjects with the Val/Val genotype have increased risk of anxiety by association with sympathetic activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Insulin growth factors regulate the mitotic cycle in cultured rat sympathetic neuroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCicco-Bloom, E.; Black, I.B.


    While neuronal mitosis is uniquely restricted to early development, the underlying regulation remains to be defined. The authors have now developed a dissociated, embryonic sympathetic neuron culture system that uses fully defined medium in which cells enter the mitotic cycle. The cultured cells expressed two neuronal traits, tyrosine hydroxylase and the neuron-specific 160-kDa neurofilament subunit protein, but were devoid of glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for non-myelin-forming Schwann cells in ganglia. Approximately one-third of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells synthesized DNA in culture, specifically incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine into their nuclei. They used this system to define factors regulating the mitotic cycle in sympathetic neuroblasts. Members of the insulin family of growth factors, including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, regulated DNA synthesis in the presumptive neuroblasts. Insulin more than doubled the proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells entering the mitotic cycle, as indicated by autoradiography of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into nuclei. Scintillation spectrometry was an even more sensitive index of DNA synthesis. In contrast, the trophic protein nerve growth factor exhibited no mitogenic effect, suggesting that the mitogenic action of insulin growth factors is highly specific. The observations are discussed in the context of the detection of insulin growth factors and receptors in the developing brain

  10. Anthropometric Indicators in Children Referred to a Tertiary-level Public Health Care Institution from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjetic, Mariana Andrea; Mantero, Paula; Zubillaga, Marcela Beatriz; Boccio, José; Goldman, Cinthia


    Full text: Introduction: Stunting is a multifactorial phenomenon with a high prevalence in developing countries. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that colonizes the gastric mucosa, has been related to growth impairment due to micronutrient malabsorption. However this hypothesis remains controversial. Objective: The aim of our work was to determine anthropometric indicators in children referred to a Tertiary-level Public Health Care Institution from Buenos Aires, Argentina, for upper gastrointestinal symptoms evaluation. Methods: 525 children (4-16 y) assisting to the Gastroenterology Unit of the Hospital de Niños “Sor María Ludovica”, La Plata, Argentina, were diagnosed for H. pylori infection by the 13C-Urea Breath Test. Weight and height were measured for calculation of anthropometric indicators height for age (HAZ), weight for age (WAZ) and Body Mass Index for age (BMI) using the Anthro Plus 2007 software of the World Health Organization. Statistical analysis was performed by Student’s t Test, Mann-Whitney Test and lineal regression. Results: Prevalence of H. pylori infection was 25.1% (95% CI, 21.5-29.5), with a mean age of the children similar in both groups, 10.1y (95% CI, 9.8-10.3y). Mean HAZ and WAZ were -0.40 (95% CI, -0.57-[-0.22]) and -0.31 (95% CI, -0.51-[-0.11]) in the positive group, and -0.18 (95% CI, -0.28-[-0.09]) and -0.10 (95% CI, -0.21-0.01) in the negative group. HAZ was significantly lower in the positive group (p = 0.04), while no significant differences were found for WAZ (p = 0.07) and BMI for age (p = 0.20) between both groups. However, after adjusting for confounding factors these differences were no longer significant. Stunting was found in 4.5% (95% CI, 2.1-9.6) and 3.3% (95% CI, 1.9-5.6) of the H. pylori positive and negative children respectively, while underweight was observed in 5.3% (95% CI, 2.6-10.5) and 6.7% (95% CI, 4.6-9.6) of the above mentioned groups. Conclusions: Prevalence of stunting and underweight were low in

  11. Using key performance indicators as knowledge-management tools at a regional health-care authority level. (United States)

    Berler, Alexander; Pavlopoulos, Sotiris; Koutsouris, Dimitris


    The advantages of the introduction of information and communication technologies in the complex health-care sector are already well-known and well-stated in the past. It is, nevertheless, paradoxical that although the medical community has embraced with satisfaction most of the technological discoveries allowing the improvement in patient care, this has not happened when talking about health-care informatics. Taking the above issue of concern, our work proposes an information model for knowledge management (KM) based upon the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) in health-care systems. Based upon the use of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework (Kaplan/Norton) and quality assurance techniques in health care (Donabedian), this paper is proposing a patient journey centered approach that drives information flow at all levels of the day-to-day process of delivering effective and managed care, toward information assessment and knowledge discovery. In order to persuade health-care decision-makers to assess the added value of KM tools, those should be used to propose new performance measurement and performance management techniques at all levels of a health-care system. The proposed KPIs are forming a complete set of metrics that enable the performance management of a regional health-care system. In addition, the performance framework established is technically applied by the use of state-of-the-art KM tools such as data warehouses and business intelligence information systems. In that sense, the proposed infrastructure is, technologically speaking, an important KM tool that enables knowledge sharing amongst various health-care stakeholders and between different health-care groups. The use of BSC is an enabling framework toward a KM strategy in health care.

  12. Effects of Electrical Stimulation in Sympathetic Neuron-Cardiomyocyte Co-cultures (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akimasa; Tani, Hiromasa; Mori, Masahide; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Lee, Jong-Kook; Noshiro, Makoto; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    The sympathetic nervous system is one of the principal sources for regulating cardiovascular functions. Little is known, however, about the network-level interactions between sympathetic neurons and cardiomyocytes. In this study, a semi-separated co-culture system of superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons and ventricular myocytes (VMs) was developed by using a polydimethylsyloxane (PDMS) chamber placed on a microelectrode-array (MEA) substrate. Neurites of SCG neurons passed through a conduit of the chamber and reached VMs. Evoked activities of SCG neurons were observed from several electrodes immediately after applying constant-voltage stimulation (1 V, 1 ms, biphasic square pulses) to SCG neurons by using 32 electrodes. Furthermore, this stimulation was applied to SCG neurons at the frequency of 1, 5 and 10 Hz. After applying these three kinds of stimulations, mean minute contraction rate of VMs increased with an increase in the frequency of stimulation. These results suggest that changes in contraction rate of VMs after applying electrical stimulations to SCG neurons depend on frequencies of these stimulations and that the heart-regulating mechanisms as well as that in the body were formed in this co-culture system.

  13. Influence of sympathetic nervous system on sensorimotor function: whiplash associated disorders (WAD) as a model. (United States)

    Passatore, Magda; Roatta, Silvestro


    There is increasing interest about the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in initiation and maintenance of chronic muscle pain syndromes of different aetiology. Epidemiological data show that stresses of different nature, e.g. work-related, psychosocial, etc., typically characterised by SNS activation, may be a co-factor in the development of the pain syndrome and/or negatively affect its time course. In spite of their clear traumatic origin, whiplash associated disorders (WAD) appear to share many common features with other chronic pain syndromes affecting the musculo-skeletal system. These features do not only include symptoms, like type of pain or sensory and motor dysfunctions, but possibly also some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that may concur to establish the chronic pain syndrome. This review focuses on WAD, particular emphasis being devoted to sensorimotor symptoms, and on the actions exerted by the sympathetic system at muscle level. Besides its well-known action on muscle blood flow, the SNS is able to affect the contractility of muscle fibres, to modulate the proprioceptive information arising from the muscle spindle receptors and, under certain conditions, to modulate nociceptive information. Furthermore, the activity of the SNS itself is in turn affected by muscle conditions, such as its current state of activity, fatigue and pain signals originating in the muscle. The possible involvement of the SNS in the development of WAD is discussed in light of the several positive feedback loops in which it is implicated.

  14. Sympathetic Neurotransmitters Modulate Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoclast Activity in the Context of Collagen-Induced Arthritis (United States)

    Muschter, Dominique; Schäfer, Nicole; Stangl, Hubert; Straub, Rainer H.; Grässel, Susanne


    Excessive synovial osteoclastogenesis is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Concomitantly, local synovial changes comprise neuronal components of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Here, we wanted to analyze if collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) alters bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, and how sympathetic neurotransmitters participate in this process. Therefore, BMMs from Dark Agouti rats at different CIA stages were differentiated into osteoclasts in vitro and osteoclast number, cathepsin K activity, matrix resorption and apoptosis were analyzed in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh), noradrenaline (NA) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and assay-dependent, adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477. We observed modulation of neurotransmitter receptor mRNA expression in CIA osteoclasts without affecting protein level. CIA stage-dependently altered marker gene expression associated with osteoclast differentiation and activity without affecting osteoclast number or activity. Neurotransmitter stimulation modulated osteoclast differentiation, apoptosis and activity. VIP, NA and adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477 inhibited cathepsin K activity and osteoclastogenesis (NKH477, 10-6M NA) whereas ACh mostly acted pro-osteoclastogenic. We conclude that CIA alone does not affect metabolism of in vitro generated osteoclasts whereas stimulation with NA, VIP plus specific activation of adenylyl cyclase induced anti-resorptive effects probably mediated via cAMP signaling. Contrary, we suggest pro-osteoclastogenic and pro-resorptive properties of ACh mediated via muscarinic receptors. PMID:26431344

  15. Mood states, sympathetic activity, and in vivo beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. (United States)

    Yu, Bum-Hee; Kang, Eun-Ho; Ziegler, Michael G; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mood states and beta-adrenergic receptor function in a normal population. We also examined if sympathetic nervous system activity is related to mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. Sixty-two participants aged 25-50 years were enrolled in this study. Mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Beta-adrenergic receptor function was determined using the chronotropic 25 dose isoproterenol infusion test. Level of sympathetic nervous system activity was estimated from 24-hr urine norepinephrine excretion. Higher tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and anger-hostility were related to decreased beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity (i.e., higher chronotropic 25 dose values), but tension-anxiety was the only remaining independent predictor of beta-adrenergic receptor function after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Urinary norepinephrine excretion was unrelated to either mood states or beta-adrenergic receptor function. These findings replicate previous reports that anxiety is related to decreased (i.e., desensitized) beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity, even after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index.

  16. The effect of different dietary levels of thyme essential oil on serum biochemical indices in Mahua broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhu


    Full Text Available A 42-day trial was undertaken to study the effect of different dietary levels of thyme essential oil (TEO on serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens. Seven hundred and sixty-eight selected one-day-old Mahua broilers were divided into 8 dietary treatment groups with an addition of 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.35 mg/kg of thyme essential oil respectively, with 4 replicate pens per treatment group (24 birds each. The feeding programme included a starter diet until day 21 and a finisher diet from day 22 until day 42. The results suggested that TEO markedly increased serum total proteins and globulins on day 21, significantly decreased alanine aminotransferase activity (P≤0.05, the albumin- to-globulin ratio, and serum urea on day 21 and 42, and in particular it improved highdensity lipoproteins on day 21 and 42 (P≤0.05. In conclusion, TEO can promote protein metabolism, enhance lipolysis and strengthen the immune function. Furthermore, after a comprehensive analysis, the ideal range of the essential oil addition to the broiler feed proved to be between 0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg.

  17. The Role of Lumbar Sympathetic Nerves in Regulation of Blood Flow to Skeletal Muscle during Anaphylactic Hypotension in Anesthetized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    Full Text Available During hypovolemic shock, skeletal muscle blood flow could be redistributed to vital organs via vasoconstriction in part evoked by activation of the innervating sympathetic nerve activity. However, it is not well known whether this mechanism operates during anaphylactic shock. We determined the femoral artery blood flow (FBF and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA mainly regulating the hindquater muscle blood flow during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the following groups (n = 7/group: (1 non-sensitized, (2 anaphylaxis, (3 anaphylaxis-lumbar sympathectomy (LS and (4 anaphylaxis-sinoaortic denervation (SAD groups. Anaphylaxis was induced by an intravenous injection of the ovalbumin antigen to the sensitized rats. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP, heart rate (HR, central venous pressure (CVP, FBF and LSNA were continuously measured. In the anaphylaxis group, LSNA and HR increased, while SAP and FBF decreased after antigen injection. In the anaphylaxis-SAD group, LSNA did not significantly change during the early phase, but the responses of SAP and FBF were similar to those in the anaphylaxis group. In the anaphylaxis-LS group, both FBF and SAP decreased similarly to the anaphylaxis group during anaphylactic hypotension. These results indicated that LSNA increased via baroreceptor reflex, but this sympathoexcitation or LS did not affect antigen-induced decreases in FBF or SAP. Lumbar sympathetic nerves are not involved in regulation of the blood flow to the hindlimb or systemic blood pressure during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

  18. Evaluation of myocardial sympathetic nerve function in patients with mitral valve prolapse using iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Fumiko; Nomura, Masahiro; Yukinaka, Michiko


    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is closely related to myocardial sympathetic nerve function. This study evaluated the presence of impaired myocardial sympathetic nerve function by Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in nine patients with MVP. For comparison, 15 healthy subjects without heart disease were investigated (control group). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and anterior planar myocardial scintigraphy were performed 15 min (initial images) and 3 hours (delayed images) after injection of MIBG (111 MBq). The location and degrees of reduced tracer uptake were evaluated. Myocardial MIBG uptake was quantified by uptake ratio of the heart (H) to upper mediastinum (M) on the anterior planar images (H/M). Percentage washout of MIBG in nine sectors of all oblique slices along the short-axis was calculated. The washout rates were higher at the inferoposterior and septal segments in patients with anterior leaflet prolapse, and at inferoposterior and lateral segments in patients with posterior leaflet prolapse. The bull's eye map showed increased washout rate in the apical and posteroseptal basal segments. There was no significant difference in the H/M ratio between MVP patients and the control group. These results indicate that MIBG can be used to evaluate localized myocardial sympathetic nerve function in MVP. (author)

  19. Effect of 4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin on brown fat adipose tissue- and cutaneous-sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral body temperature. (United States)

    Shen, Jiao; Nakamura, Hiroyasu; Fujisaki, Yoshiyuki; Tanida, Mamoru; Horii, Yuko; Fuyuki, Risa; Takumi, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Koso; Kometani, Takashi; Nagai, Katsuya


    Changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system are good indicators of alterations in physiological phenomena such as the body temperature, blood glucose, blood pressure. Hesperidin, a flavanone known as vitamin P, has been shown to reduce the levels of serum lipids, cholesterol, and blood pressure. However, hesperidin is not water-soluble and is not well absorbed from the intestine. G-hesperidin (4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin) is more water-soluble and more rapidly absorbed than hesperidin. In order to clarify the functions of G-hesperidin, we examined the effects of oral administration of G-hesperidin on interscapular brown adipose tissue-sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) and cutaneous sympathetic nerve activity (CASNA) in rats weighing about 300 g. In this study, we found that oral administration of 60 mg of G-hesperidin increased the BAT-SNA but decreased the CASNA in urethane-anesthetized rats. Since an elevation in BAT-SNA increases heat production (i.e. body temperature (BT)) and a decrease in CASNA increases cutaneous perfusion, we examined whether oral administration of G-hesperidin had an effect on the peripheral BT in rats. Consequently, we observed that the subcutaneous BT at the caudal end of the back after oral administration of 60 mg of G-hesperidin was significantly higher than the subcutaneous BT after oral administration of water in conscious rats. These findings suggest that G-hesperidin enhances the BAT-SNA and suppresses the CASNA resulting in an increase in the peripheral BT, probably by an increase in the thermogenesis in the BAT and an elevation in the cutaneous blood flow.

  20. Neural and sympathetic activity associated with exploration in decision-making: Further evidence for involvement of insula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eOhira


    Full Text Available We previously reported that sympathetic activity was associated with exploration in decision-making indexed by entropy, which is a concept in information theory and indexes randomness of choices or the degree of deviation from sticking to recent experiences of gains and losses, and that activation of the anterior insula mediated this association. The current study aims to replicate and to expand these findings in a situation where contingency between options and outcomes is manipulated. Sixteen participants performed a stochastic decision-making task in which we manipulated a condition with low uncertainty of gain/loss (contingent-reward condition and a condition with high uncertainty of gain/loss (random-reward condition. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET, and cardiovascular parameters and catecholamine in the peripheral blood were measured, during the task. In the contingent-reward condition, norepinephrine as an index of sympathetic activity was positively correlated with entropy indicating exploration in decision-making. Norepinephrine was negatively correlated with neural activity in the right posterior insula, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsal pons, suggesting neural bases for detecting changes of bodily states. Furthermore, right anterior insular activity was negatively correlated with entropy, suggesting influences on exploration in decision-making. By contrast, in the random-reward condition, entropy correlated with activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices but not with sympathetic activity. These findings suggest that influences of sympathetic activity on exploration in decision-making and its underlying neural mechanisms might be dependent on the degree of uncertainty of situations.

  1. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature (United States)

    Alawi, Khadija M.; Aubdool, Aisah A.; Liang, Lihuan; Wilde, Elena; Vepa, Abhinav; Psefteli, Maria-Paraskevi; Brain, Susan D.; Keeble, Julie E.


    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in sensory nerve nociceptive signaling. Recently, it has been discovered that TRPV1 receptors also regulate basal body temperature in multiple species from mice to humans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPV1 modulates basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of core body temperature. AMG9810 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (2% DMSO/5% Tween 80/10 ml/kg saline) was injected intraperitoneally. Adrenoceptor antagonists or vehicle (5 ml/kg saline) was injected subcutaneously. In WT mice, the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, caused significant hyperthermia, associated with increased noradrenaline concentrations in brown adipose tissue. The hyperthermia was significantly attenuated by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the mixed α-/β-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol, and the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. TRPV1 KO mice have a normal basal body temperature, indicative of developmental compensation. d-Amphetamine (potent sympathomimetic) caused hyperthermia in WT mice, which was reduced in TRPV1 KO mice, suggesting a decreased sympathetic drive in KOs. This study provides new evidence that TRPV1 controls thermoregulation upstream of the SNS, providing a potential therapeutic target for sympathetic hyperactivity thermoregulatory disorders.—Alawi, K. M., Aubdool, A. A., Liang, L., Wilde, E., Vepa, A., Psefteli, M.-P., Brain, S. D., Keeble, J. E. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature. PMID:26136480

  2. Dietary factors associated with obesity indicators and level of sports participation in Flemish adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delecluse Christophe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity develops when energy intake continuously exceeds energy expenditure, causing a fundamental chronic energy imbalance. Societal and behavioural changes over the last decades are held responsible for the considerable increase in sedentary lifestyles and inappropriate dietary patterns. The role of dietary fat and other dietary factors in the aetiology and maintenance of excess weight is controversial. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the dietary factors associated with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and to analyse whether dietary intake varies between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Methods Data for this cross-sectional study, including anthropometric measurements, 3-day diet diary and physical activity questionnaire, were collected by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health (SPAH between October 2002 and April 2004. Results of 485 adult men and 362 women with plausible dietary records were analysed. Analyses of covariance were performed to determine the differences in dietary intake between normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, and between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Results Total energy intake, protein and fat intake (kcal/day were significantly higher in obese subjects compared to their lean counterparts in both genders. Percentage of energy intake from fat was significantly higher in obese men compared to men with normal weight or WC. Energy percentages from carbohydrates and fibres were negatively related to BMI and WC in men, whereas in women a higher carbohydrate and fibre intake was positively associated with obesity. Alcohol intake was positively associated with WC in men. Subjects participating in health related sports reported higher intake of carbohydrates, but lower intake of fat compared to subjects not participating in sports. Conclusion This study supports the evidence that

  3. 46 CFR 52.01-110 - Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges... (United States)


    ... § 52.01-110 Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water-level indicators, water columns, gauge-glass connections, gauge cocks, and pressure gauges (modifies PG-60). 52.01-110 Section 52.01-110 Shipping COAST...

  4. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans. (United States)

    Kox, Matthijs; van Eijk, Lucas T; Zwaag, Jelle; van den Wildenberg, Joanne; Sweep, Fred C G J; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Pickkers, Peter


    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot be voluntarily influenced. Herein, we evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response. Healthy volunteers were randomized to either the intervention (n = 12) or control group (n = 12). Subjects in the intervention group were trained for 10 d in meditation (third eye meditation), breathing techniques (i.a., cyclic hyperventilation followed by breath retention), and exposure to cold (i.a., immersions in ice cold water). The control group was not trained. Subsequently, all subjects underwent experimental endotoxemia (i.v. administration of 2 ng/kg Escherichia coli endotoxin). In the intervention group, practicing the learned techniques resulted in intermittent respiratory alkalosis and hypoxia resulting in profoundly increased plasma epinephrine levels. In the intervention group, plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased more rapidly after endotoxin administration, correlated strongly with preceding epinephrine levels, and were higher. Levels of proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 were lower in the intervention group and correlated negatively with IL-10 levels. Finally, flu-like symptoms were lower in the intervention group. In conclusion, we demonstrate that voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in epinephrine release and subsequent suppression of the innate immune response in humans in vivo. These results could have important implications for the treatment of conditions associated with excessive or persistent inflammation, such as autoimmune diseases.

  5. The sympathetic and sensory innervation of rat airways: origin and neurochemical characterisation


    Radtke, Anne


    Sensory and sympathetic innervation of Brown Norway rat airways were investigated using retrograde neuronal tracing with fluorescent dyes and double labelling immunofluorescence. Sensory neurons projecting to the lung are located in nodose and jugular vagal ganglia. Sympathetic neuronal supply of the lung originates in the stellate ganglia and superior cervical ganglia. Concerning immuno-reactivity for the SP and NOS in sensory and NPY and TH in sympathetic neurons were investigated. IR for S...

  6. Autonomic markers of emotional processing: skin sympathetic nerve activity in humans during exposure to emotionally charged images. (United States)

    Brown, Rachael; James, Cheree; Henderson, Luke A; Macefield, Vaughan G


    The sympathetic innervation of the skin primarily subserves thermoregulation, but the system has also been commandeered as a means of expressing emotion. While it is known that the level of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is affected by anxiety, the majority of emotional studies have utilized the galvanic skin response as a means of inferring increases in SSNA. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the changes in SSNA when showing subjects neutral or emotionally charged images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). SSNA was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in ten subjects. Neutral images, positively charged images (erotica) or negatively charged images (mutilation) were presented in blocks of fifteen images of a specific type, each block lasting 2 min. Images of erotica or mutilation were presented in a quasi-random fashion, each block following a block of neutral images. Both images of erotica or images of mutilation caused significant increases in SSNA, but the increases in SSNA were greater for mutilation. The increases in SSNA were often coupled with sweat release and cutaneous vasoconstriction; however, these markers were not always consistent with the SSNA increases. We conclude that SSNA, comprising cutaneous vasoconstrictor and sudomotor activity, increases with both positively charged and negatively charged emotional images. Measurement of SSNA provides a more comprehensive assessment of sympathetic outflow to the skin than does the use of sweat release alone as a marker of emotional processing.

  7. Relict benthic foraminifera in surface sediments off central east coast of India as indicator of sea level changes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rana, S.S.; Nigam, R.; Panchang, R.

    surface samples is characteristic of coral reef environment and has been inferred as evidence for past low sea levels. Based on extrapolation of previously published radiocarbon dates from the region, we propose a pliable sea level curve for the period...

  8. Marital conflict and children's externalizing behavior: interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Moore, Ginger A


    "Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS...

  9. Burst Activity and Heart Rhythm Modulation in the Sympathetic Outflow to the Heart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baselli, G


    In 13 decerebrate, artificially ventilated cats preganglionic sympathetic outflow to the heart was recorded with ECG and ventilation signal, A novel algorithm was implemented that extracts weighted...

  10. Baroreflex dysfunction and augmented sympathetic nerve responses during mental stress in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Park, Jeanie; Marvar, Paul J; Liao, Peizhou; Kankam, Melanie L; Norrholm, Seth D; Downey, Ryan M; McCullough, S Ashley; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Rothbaum, Barbara O


    the groups. In PTSD vs. Controls, MSNA (+8.2 ± 1.0 vs. +1.2 ± 1.3 bursts min -1 , P PTSD vs. Controls, MSNA (+21.0 ± 2.6 vs. +6.7 ± 1.5 bursts min -1 , P PTSD group, sympathetic BRS (-1.2 ± 0.2 vs. -2.0 ± 0.3 burst incidence mmHg -1 , P = 0.026) and cardiovagal BRS (9.5 ± 1.4 vs. 23.6 ± 4.3 ms mmHg -1 , P = 0.008) were significantly blunted at rest. PTSD patients had significantly higher highly sensitive-C-reactive protein levels compared to Controls (2.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.0 ± 0.3 mg L -1 , P = 0.047). Augmented SNS and haemodynamic responses to mental stress, blunted BRS and inflammation may contribute to an increased CV risk in PTSD. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  11. Nitric Oxide Orchestrates a Power-Law Modulation of Sympathetic Firing Behaviors in Neonatal Rat Spinal Cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kuei Su


    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a diffusible gas and has multifarious effects on both pre- and postsynaptic events. As a consequence of complex excitatory and inhibitory integrations, NO effects on neuronal activities are heterogeneous. Using in vitro preparations of neonatal rats that retain the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and the thoracic spinal cord as an experimental model, we report here that either enhancement or attenuation of NO production in the neonatal rat spinal cords could increase, decrease, or not change the spontaneous firing behaviors recorded from splanchnic sympathetic single fibers. To elucidate the mathematical features of NO-mediated heterogeneous responses, the ratios of changes in firing were plotted against their original firing rates. In log-log plots, a linear data distribution demonstrated that NO-mediated heterogeneity in sympathetic firing responses was well described by a power function. Selective antagonists were applied to test if glycinergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission in the spinal cord are involved in NO-mediated power-law firing modulations (plFM. NO-mediated plFM diminished in the presence of mecamylamine (an open-channel blocker of nicotinic cholinergic receptors, indicating that endogenous nicotinic receptor activities were essential for plFM. Applications of strychnine (a glycine receptor blocker, gabazine (a GABAA receptor blocker, or kynurenate (a broad-spectrum ionotropic glutamate receptor blocker also caused plFM. However, strychnine- or kynurenate-induced plFM was diminished by L-NAME (an NO synthase inhibitor pretreatments, indicating that the involvements of glycine or ionotropic glutamate receptor activities in plFM were secondary to NO signaling. To recapitulate the arithmetic natures of the plFM, the plFM were simulated by firing changes in two components: a step increment and a fractional reduction of their basal firing activities. Ionotropic glutamate receptor

  12. [Applications of 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in landscape pattern analysis of mountainous area at county level]. (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Qi, Wei; Li, Le; Sun, Yao; Qin, Tian-Tian; Wang, Na-Na


    Landscape pattern indices are the commonly used tools for the quantitative analysis of landscape pattern. However, the traditional 2D landscape pattern indices neglect the effects of terrain on landscape, existing definite limitations in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns in mountains areas. Taking the Qixia City, a typical mountainous and hilly region in Shandong Province of East China, as a case, this paper compared the differences between 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns and their dynamic changes in mountainous areas. On the basis of terrain structure analysis, a set of landscape pattern indices were selected, including area and density (class area and mean patch size), edge and shape (edge density, landscape shape index, and fractal dimension of mean patch), diversity (Shannon's diversity index and evenness index) , and gathering and spread (contagion index). There existed obvious differences between the 3D class area, mean patch area, and edge density and the corresponding 2D indices, but no significant differences between the 3D landscape shape index, fractal dimension of mean patch, and Shannon' s diversity index and evenness index and the corresponding 2D indices. The 3D contagion index and 2D contagion index had no difference. Because the 3D landscape pattern indices were calculated by using patch surface area and surface perimeter whereas the 2D landscape pattern indices were calculated by adopting patch projective area and projective perimeter, the 3D landscape pattern indices could be relative accurate and efficient in describing the landscape area, density and borderline, in mountainous areas. However, there were no distinct differences in describing landscape shape, diversity, and gathering and spread between the 3D and 2D landscape pattern indices. Generally, by introducing 3D landscape pattern indices to topographic pattern, the description of landscape pattern and its dynamic

  13. Sediment geochemistry as potential sea-level indicators to assess coseismic vertical displacements above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust (United States)

    Bender, A. M.; Witter, R. C.; Munk, L. A.


    Nearly the entire 4000-km-long Alaska-Aleutian megathrust has ruptured in large or great (Mw ≥8) earthquakes in the past 100 years, yet paleoseismic records of earlier events are only documented east of Kodiak Is. in the region of the 1964 Alaska earthquake. The Mw 9.2 1964 earthquake dropped the coast along Cook Inlet and Turnagain Arm by ≤1.8 m and raised shore platforms around Prince William Sound by ≤3 m. Evidence of sudden (coseismic) vertical displacements during megathrust earthquakes are archived in coastal sediments as sharp stratigraphic contacts that record rapid relative sea-level (RSL) changes. We use geochemical analyses of coastal sediments to detect sudden RSL changes at 2 sites above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust. One site on Knik Arm near Anchorage subsided ~0.6 m during the 1964 earthquake. The other site overlies the Shumagin Islands segment of the megathrust, without rupture since before 1903. Relative to terrestrial sources of sediment, marine sources should be enriched in δ13C, δ15N, and have higher C:N, and Cl- concentrations. Our analyses will test whether these geochemical proxies can provide evidence for sudden RSL change across stratigraphic contacts that record coseismic uplift or subsidence. Coseismic subsidence should be represented by contacts that place sediment with enriched δ13C, δ15N signatures, elevated C:N and Cl- concentrations over sediment with lower values of these geochemical proxies and the reverse for coseismic uplift. A 1-2 m tall, ~0.5-km-long bluff along Knik Arm exposes three buried wetland soils overlain by gray mud. The soils become faint and pinch out to the northeast near a large tidal channel. Other studies of similar buried soils at adjacent sites suggest the youngest soil at Knik Arm subsided in 1964. 14C analyses of plant fossils in two older soils will provide age estimates for earlier events. We will apply the proposed geochemical methods to 20 samples collected along a forested upland to tidal

  14. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve ablation for loin pain haematuria syndrome. (United States)

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Fulignati, Pierluigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Rovella, Valentina; Di Daniele, Nicola


    Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a severe renal pain condition of uncertain origin and often resistant to treatment. Nephrectomy and renal autotrasplantation have occasionally been performed in very severe cases. Its pathogenesis is controversial. A 40-year-old hypertensive lady was diagnosed with LPHS after repeated diagnostic imaging procedures had ruled out any renal, abdominal or spinal conditions to justify pain. Notwithstanding treatment with three drugs, she had frequent hypertensive crises during which the loin pain was dramatically exacerbated. Vascular causes of the pain and hypertension were investigated and excluded. Her renal function was normal. The patient was referred to a multidisciplinary pain clinic, but had no significant improvement in her pain symptoms despite the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adjuvant antidepressants and opioid-like agents. The pain and the discomfort were so severe that her quality of life was very poor, and her social and professional activities were compromised. Nephrectomy and renal autotransplantation have occasionally been performed in these cases. Since visceral pain signals flow through afferent sympathetic fibres, we felt that percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation of the renal sympathetic nerve fibres (recently introduced for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension) could be valuable for pain relief. We treated the patient with radiofrequency ablation (Medtronic Symplicity Catheter) applied only to the right renal artery. After a 6-month follow-up, the patient is pain free and normotensive with all drugs withdrawn. She has experienced no hypertensive crises in the meantime. This observation suggests that percutaneous sympathetic denervation could prove to be an effective mini-invasive strategy for the treatment of chronic renal pain, and LPHS in particular.

  15. Study of sympathetic nerve activity in young Indian obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kalpana


    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is the culmination of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This energy balance can be potentially affected by the activity of autonomic nervous system (ANS. Altered sympathetic nerve function may be of importance in obesity. Objective: The present study is an attempt to pinpoint the defect (if any in the activity of sympathetic limb of the ANS in obesity, by subjecting to isometric exercise stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 females belonging to the age group of 18-22 years were recruited for the study. The participants were divided into two groups as normal weight and obese based on WHO guidelines for Asia Pacific region. After recording the resting blood pressure, they were subjected to isometric exercise by Handgrip dynamometer. Blood pressure was recorded again, and the difference was noted down. All recorded parameters were compared between two groups using unpaired t test. The relationship between body mass index (BMI and rise in diastolic pressure was quantified by Pearson′s correlation test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In obese, the diastolic pressure was significantly higher at rest, but showed reduced rise during handgrip test in comparison with normal weight individuals. Also, the rise in diastolic pressure exhibited a negative relation with BMI. Conclusion: The result is suggestive of impaired autonomic function at rest and reduced sympathetic activity in the group of obese when subjected to stress. This could make them more prone for future development of hypertension or other cardiovascular disorders.

  16. Sympathetic ophthalmia after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Haruta


    Full Text Available Masatoshi Haruta1, Hirokazu Mukuno2, Kazuaki Nishijima3, Hitoshi Takagi4, Mihori Kita51Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Konan Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: We report a case of a sympathetic ophthalmia that occurred after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for a retinal detachment.Case report: A 41-year-old Japanese woman underwent combined phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the right eye. Endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade were used to manage inferior retinal holes. Four weeks after the surgery, she returned with a 5-day history of reduced vision and metamorphopsia in her left eye. Slit-lamp examination showed a shallow anterior chamber in the right eye and moderate anterior uveitis bilaterally. Silicone oil bubbles and pigment dispersion were observed in the subconjunctival space adjacent to the right eye’s superonasal sclerotomy site. Fundus examination showed multifocal serous retinal detachments in both eyes. A diagnosis of sympathetic ophthalmia was made and the patient was treated with intensive topical and systemic steroids. The subretinal fluid cleared in both eyes following treatment. Twelve months after the onset of inflammation, the patient’s condition was stable on a combination of oral cyclosporine and topical steroids. Sunset glow retinal changes remain, but there has been no evidence of recurrent inflammation.Conclusion: Sympathetic ophthalmia can develop after 23-gauge

  17. Memory coherence of a sympathetically cooled trapped-ion qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Home, J. P.; McDonnell, M. J.; Szwer, D. J.; Keitch, B. C.; Lucas, D. M.; Stacey, D. N.; Steane, A. M.


    We demonstrate sympathetic cooling of a 43 Ca + trapped-ion 'memory' qubit by a 40 Ca + 'coolant' ion sufficiently near the ground state of motion for fault-tolerant quantum logic, while maintaining coherence of the qubit. This is an essential ingredient in trapped-ion quantum computers. The isotope shifts are sufficient to suppress decoherence and phase shifts of the memory qubit due to the cooling light which illuminates both ions. We measure the qubit coherence during ten cycles of sideband cooling, finding a coherence loss of 3.3% per cooling cycle. The natural limit of the method is O(10 -4 ) infidelity per cooling cycle.

  18. Sympathetic cooling and crystallization of ions in a linear Paul trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewsen, M.; Bowe, P.; Hornekaer, L.; Brodersen, C.; Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Schiffer, J.P.


    Coulomb crystals, containing up to a few hundred ions of which more than 50% were cooled sympathetically by the Coulomb interaction with laser cooled Mg + ions, have been produced in a linear Paul trap. By controlling the balance of the radiation pressure from the two cooling lasers, the Coulomb crystals could be segregated according to ion species. Previous studies of ion crystals and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the temperature may be around 10 mK or lower. The obtained results indicate that a wide range of atomic and molecular ions, which due to their internal structures are not amenable to direct laser cooling, can be effectively cooled and localized (crystallized) in linear Paul traps. For high resolution spectroscopy of such ions this may turn out to be very useful. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  19. The analysis of Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) relative sea-level indicators: Reconstructing sea-level in a warmer world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, A.; Raymo, M.E.; Vacchi, M.; Lorscheid, T; Stocchi, P.; Gómez-Pujolf, L.; Harris, D.L.; Casella, E.; O'Leary, M.J.; Hearty, P.J.


    The Last Interglacial (MIS 5e, 128–116 ka) is among the most studied past periods in Earth's history. The climate at that time was warmer than today, primarily due to different orbital conditions, with smaller ice sheets and higher sea-level. Field evidence for MIS 5e sea-level was reported from

  20. Increased Sympathetic Renal Innervation in Hemodialysis Patients Is the Anatomical Substrate of Sympathetic Hyperactivity in End-Stage Renal Disease. (United States)

    Mauriello, Alessandro; Rovella, Valentina; Anemona, Lucia; Servadei, Francesca; Giannini, Elena; Bove, Pierluigi; Anselmo, Alessandro; Melino, Gerry; Di Daniele, Nicola


    Renal denervation represents an emerging treatment for resistant hypertension in patients with end-stage renal disease, but data about the anatomic substrate of this treatment are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the morphological basis of sympathetic hyperactivity in the setting of hemodialysis patients to identify an anatomical substrate that could warrant the use of this new therapeutic approach. The distribution of sympathetic nerves was evaluated in the adventitia of 38 renal arteries that were collected at autopsy or during surgery from 25 patients: 9 with end-stage renal disease on dialysis (DIAL group) and 16 age-matched control nondialysis patients (CTRL group). Patients in the DIAL group showed a significant increase in nerve density in the internal area of the peri-adventitial tissue (within the first 0.5 mm of the beginning of the adventitia) compared with the CTRL group (4.01±0.30 versus 2.87±0.28×mm(2), P=0.01). Regardless of dialysis, hypertensive patients with signs of severe arteriolar damage had a greater number of nerve endings in the most internal adventitia, and this number was significantly higher than in patients without hypertensive arteriolar damage (3.90±0.36 versus 2.87±0.41×mm(2), P=0.04), showing a correlation with hypertensive arteriolar damage rather than with hypertensive clinical history. The findings from this study provide a morphological basis underlying sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with end-stage renal disease and might offer useful information to improve the use of renal denervation in this group of patients. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Sympathetic activity of S-(+-ketamine low doses in the epidural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Mihaljevic


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: S-(+-ketamine is an intravenous anaesthetic and sympathomimetic with properties of local anaesthetic. It has an effect of an analgetic and local anaesthetic when administered epidurally, but there are no data whether low doses of S-(+-ketamine have sympathomimetic effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether low doses of S-(+-ketamine, given epidurally together with local anaesthetic, have any effect on sympathetic nervous system, both systemic and below the level of anaesthetic block. Methods: The study was conducted on two groups of patients to whom epidural anaesthesia was administered to. Local anaesthesia (0.5% bupivacaine was given to one group (control group while local anaesthesia and S-(+-ketamine were given to other group. Age, height, weight, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure were measured. Non-competitive enzyme immunochemistry method (Cat Combi ELISA was used to determine the concentrations of catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline. Immunoenzymometric determination with luminescent substrate on a machine called Vitros Eci was used to determine the concentration of cortisol. Pulse transit time was measured using photoplethysmography. Mann–Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon test and Friedman ANOVA were the statistical tests. Blood pressure, pulse, adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol concentrations were measured in order to estimate systemic sympathetic effects. Results: 40 patients in the control group were given 0.5% bupivacaine and 40 patients in the test group were given 0.5% bupivacaine with S-(+-ketamine. Value p < 0.05 has been taken as a limit of statistical significance. Conclusions: Low dose of S-(+-ketamine administered epidurally had no sympathomimetic effects; it did not change blood pressure, pulse, serum hormones or pulse transit time. Low dose of S-(+-ketamine administered epidurally did not deepen sympathetic block. Adding 25 mg of S-(+-ketamine to 0

  2. Noninvasive evaluation of sympathetic nervous system in human heart by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Kalff, V.; Rosenspire, K.; Haka, M.S.; Molina, E.; Hutchins, G.D.; Deeb, M.; Wolfe, E. Jr.; Wieland, D.M.


    The noninvasive functional characterization of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system by imaging techniques may provide important pathophysiological information in various cardiac disease states. Hydroxyephedrine labeled with carbon 11 has been developed as a new catecholamine analogue to be used in the in vivo evaluation of presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminals by positron emission tomography (PET). To determine the feasibility of this imaging approach in the human heart, six normal volunteers and five patients with recent cardiac transplants underwent dynamic PET imaging after intravenous injection of 20 mCi [11C]hydroxyephedrine. Blood and myocardial tracer kinetics were assessed using a regions-of-interest approach. In normal volunteers, blood 11C activity cleared rapidly, whereas myocardium retained 11C activity with a long tissue half-life. Relative tracer retention in the myocardium averaged 79 +/- 31% of peak activity at 60 minutes after tracer injection. The heart-to-blood 11C activity ratio exceeded 6:1 as soon as 30 minutes after tracer injection, yielding excellent image quality. Little regional variation of tracer retention was observed, indicating homogeneous sympathetic innervation throughout the left ventricle. In the transplant recipients, myocardial [11C]hydroxyephedrine retention at 60 minutes was significantly less (-82%) than that of normal volunteers, indicating only little non-neuronal binding of the tracer in the denervated human heart. Thus, [11C]hydroxyephedrine, in combination with dynamic PET imaging, allows the noninvasive delineation of myocardial adrenergic nerve terminals. Tracer kinetic modeling may permit quantitative assessment of myocardial catecholamine uptake, which will in turn provide insights into the effects of various disease processes on the neuronal integrity of the heart

  3. Effects of sympathetic denervation or chronic reserpine on potassium (42K) and chloride (36Cl) efflux from guinea-pig vas deferens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquilla, P.R.; Jones, A.W.; Fleming, W.W.


    Potassium ( 42 K) or chloride ( 36 Cl) efflux curves were determined in guinea-pig vas deferens from control, reserpine-treated animals (1 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days), and from animals whose vas deferens had been sympathetically denervated 1 week before. Steady-state 42 K turnover in control tissues was 0.0052+-0.0002 min -1 ; neither reserpine treatment nor sympathetic denervation changed this parameter significantly. Control 36 Cl turnover was 0.058+-0.002 min -1 and it was unaffected by either procedure. Methoxamine (3x10 -6 to 10 -4 M) induced dose-related increases in the fractional exchange of 42 K and 36 Cl. These were of greater magnitude after sympathetic denervation or reserpine treatment. Furtrethonium also produced dose-dependent increases in 42 K efflux; its dose-response curve was shifted 2.6-fold to the left of the control curve by reserpine treatment. These results indicate that interruption of adrenergic transmission to the guinea-pig vas deferens is associated with increased changes in membrane permeability to Cl and possibly K in response to drug activation of α-adrenergic and cholinegic receptors. It is suggested that the supersensitivity phenomenon observed in the guinea-pig vas deferens after reserpine or sympathetic denervation is, in part, related to improved transduction of drug-receptor interaction into ionic permeability changes. (Auth.)

  4. One safety critical indicators model for regulatory actions on nuclear power plants based on a level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges


    This study presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This methodology can be used for identifying situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can also identify eventual room for improvements by generating suggestions and recommendations, as a complement for regulatory actions and inspections, focusing resources on eventual existing weaknesses, in order to increase or maintain a high pattern of operational safety. (author)

  5. Carotid body (Thermoreceptors, sympathetic neural activation, and cardiometabolic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Iturriaga

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH. In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. The classical construct considers the CB as the main peripheral oxygen sensor, triggering reflex physiological responses to acute hypoxemia and facilitating the ventilatory acclimation to chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. However, a growing body of experimental evidence supports the novel concept that an abnormally enhanced CB chemosensory input to the brainstem contributes to overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, and consequent pathology. Indeed, the CB has been implicated in several diseases associated with increases in central sympathetic outflow. These include hypertension, heart failure, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, ablation of the CB has been proposed for the treatment of severe and resistant hypertension in humans. In this review, we will analyze and discuss new evidence supporting an important role for the CB chemoreceptor in the progression of autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome.

  6. Patterns of Sympathetic Responses Induced by Different Stress Tasks (United States)

    Fechir, M; Schlereth, T; Purat, T; Kritzmann, S; Geber, C; Eberle, T; Gamer, M; Birklein, F


    Stress tasks are used to induce sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal. However, the efficacy and the patterns of SNS activation have not been systematically compared between different tasks. Therefore, we analyzed SNS activation during the following stress tasks: Presentation of negative, positive, and – as a control – neutral affective pictures, Color-Word interference test (CWT), mental arithmetic under time limit, singing a song aloud, and giving a spontaneous talk. We examined 11 healthy subjects and recorded the following SNS parameters: Activation of emotional sweating by quantitative sudometry, skin vasoconstriction by laser-Doppler flowmetry, heart rate by ECG, blood pressure by determination of pulse wave transit time (PWTT), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle. Moreover, subjective stress ratings were acquired for each task using a visual analog scale. All tasks were felt significantly stressful when compared to viewing neutral pictures. However, SNS activation was not reliable: Affective pictures did not induce a significant SNS response; singing, giving a talk and mental arithmetic selectively increased heart rate and emotional sweating. Only the CWT globally activated the SNS. Regarding all tasks, induction of emotional sweating, increase of heart rate and blood pressure significantly correlated with subjective stress ratings, in contrast to EMG and skin vasoconstriction. Our results show that the activation of the SNS widely varies depending on the stress task. Different stress tasks differently activate the SNS, which is an important finding when considering sympathetic reactions - in clinical situations and in research. PMID:19018304

  7. Acute sex hormone suppression reduces skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity. (United States)

    Day, Danielle S; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Bell, Christopher; Kohrt, Wendy M


    Comparisons of sympathetic nervous system activity (SNA) between young and older women have produced equivocal results, in part due to inadequate control for potential differences in sex hormone concentrations, age, and body composition. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a short-term reduction in sex hormones on tonic skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), an indirect measure of whole body SNA, using an experimental model of sex hormone deficiency in young women. We also assessed the independent effects of estradiol and progesterone add-back therapy on MSNA. MSNA was measured in 9 women (30±2 years; mean±SE) on three separate occasions: during the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase, on the fifth day of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant) administration, and after 5 days add-back of either estradiol (n=4) or progesterone (n=3) during continued GnRHant administration. In response to GnRHant, there were significant reductions in serum estradiol and progesterone (both psuppression attenuates MSNA and that this may be related to the suppression of progesterone rather than estradiol.

  8. Renal sympathetic denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension. (United States)

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Catalina; González-Vélez, Miguel; Stilp, Erik; Ward, Charisse; Mena-Hurtado, Carlos


    Arterial hypertension (HTN) is a major health problem worldwide. Treatment-resistant hypertension (trHTN) is defined as the failure to achieve target blood pressure despite the concomitant use of maximally tolerated doses of three different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. trHTN is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Renal sympathetic denervation (RDn) is available and implemented abroad as a strategy for the treatment of trHTN and is currently under clinical investigation in the United States. Selective renal sympathectomy via an endovascular approach effectively decreases renal sympathetic nerve hyperactivity leading to a decrease in blood pressure. The Symplicity catheter, currently under investigation in the United States, is a 6-French compatible system advanced under fluoroscopic guidance via percutaneous access of the common femoral artery to the distal lumen of each of the main renal arteries. Radiofrequency (RF) energy is then applied to the endoluminal surface of the renal arteries via an electrode located at the tip of the catheter. Two clinical trials (Symplicity HTN 1 and Symplicity HTN 2) have shown the efficacy of RDn with a post-procedure decline of 27/17 mmHg at 12 months and 32/12 mmHg at 6 months, respectively, with few minor adverse events. Symplicity HTN-3 study is a, multi-center, prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled study currently under way and will provide further insights about the safety and efficacy of renal denervation in patients with trHTN.

  9. Gudmundur Finnbogason, "sympathetic understanding," and early Icelandic psychology. (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L


    Gudmundur Finnbogason (1873-1944) was a pioneer of Icelandic psychology. He was educated at the University of Copenhagen where he finished his M.A. in 1901 in philosophy, specializing in psychology. During the years 1901-1905, Finnbogason played a major role in establishing and shaping the future of primary education in Iceland. He defended his doctoral thesis on "sympathetic understanding" at the University of Copenhagen in 1911. This work deals with the psychology of imitation. In it Finnbogason defends the view that imitation is basically perception so that there is a direct link from perception to motor behavior. Through imitation people tend to assume the countenance and demeanor of other people, thus showing, in Finnbogason's terminology, "sympathetic understanding." Finnbogason's theory of imitation in many respects anticipates contemporary approaches to the psychology of imitation. In 1918 Finnbogason became professor of applied psychology at the recently founded University of Iceland. Here he attempted to establish psychology as an independent discipline. In this he was unsuccessful; his chair was abolished in 1924.

  10. Increased sympathetic activity during sleep and nocturnal hypertension in Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F S; Hansen, H P; Jacobsen, P


    AIMS: To elucidate the putative factors involved in the blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: Extracellular fluid volume and fluid shift from interstitial to plasma volume (haematocrit), sympathetic nervous activity...... (plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline) and the internal 'body clock' (serum melatonin) were investigated in 31 hypertensive Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with diabetic nephropathy (24 males, age 60 (45-73) years). All variables, except extracellular volume, were measured repeatedly...... constant in both groups. Extracellular fluid volume and plasma melatonin levels were comparable in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Sustained adrenergic activity during sleep is associated with blunted nocturnal blood pressure reduction in hypertensive Type 2DM patients with diabetic nephropathy, probably...

  11. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels during the first 48 hours of intensive care may indicate upcoming acute kidney injury. (United States)

    Kamis, Fatih; Yegenaga, Itir; Musul, Mert; Baydemir, Canan; Bek, Sibel; Kalender, Betül; Baykara, Nur


    The recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) as early as possible is important in the intensive care unit. This study proposes that serum and urine levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may be used for this purpose. One hundred and seven critically ill adult patients with no previous renal failure were included. NGAL levels were measured during the first 48 hours after admission; NGAL levels were followed for 7 days and classified based on Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-Stage Renal Failure criteria. The AKI incidence was 35.5%, and serum NGAL (sNGAL) and urinary NGAL (uNGAL) levels were higher in the AKI group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.76 (P<.001) for sNGAL and 0.75 (P<.001) for uNGAL. Seventy-one percent of AKI cases were observed within 48 hours, with 11 additional cases in the ensuing 7 days. The mean serum creatinine levels in the 11 patients were not different from non-AKI levels (P=.197), but the NGAL values were different, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for sNGAL uNGAL was 1.00 (P=.014) and 0.93 (P=.02), respectively. Most AKI cases were diagnosed within the first 48 hours after admission, and NGAL was useful for predicting upcoming AKI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diffusion and usage of public e-services in Europe: An assessment of country level indicators and drivers


    Seri, Paolo; Bianchi, Annaflavia; Matteucci, Nicola


    We analyze the state of the art of indicators on eGovernment, eHealth, eProcurement and ePartecipation. We survey the main methodological properties of these indicators, and uncover the principal stylized facts and trends; at the same time, we highlight their heuristic limits and potential inconsistencies. Finally, we address empirically the issue of the explanation of the indexes scores – i.e. how the supply of the various eServices in each country is affected by political, institutional and...

  13. Deleterious effect of salusin-β in paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity and blood pressure via NF-κB signaling in a rat model of obesity hypertension. (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanchun; Ren, Kuang


    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has been shown to play a critical role in regulating blood pressure and sympathetic activity in obesity hypertension (OH). Salusin-β is a bioactive peptide with potential roles in mediating cardiovascular activity. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that salusin-β in the PVN can modulate sympathetic activity and blood pressure in OH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce OH by a 12-week feeding of a high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat). Microinjection of salusin-β into the PVN increased the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas salusin-β antibody elicited significant decreases in RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β only in the OH rats. As expected, the OH rats had a higher norepinephrine level, which was further increased by salusin-β. Furthermore, salusin-β in the PVN accelerated the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) and the degradation of IKB-α (an endogenous inhibitor of NF-KB). Pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an exogenous inhibitor of NF-KB) decreased RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β in the PVN in the OH rats. We concluded that salusin-β in the PVN markedly increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure in diet-induced OH rats via NF-κB signaling.

  14. Cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging with (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine: Perspectives from Japan and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, K.; Scholte, A.; Nakata, T.; Dimitriu-Leen, A.C.; Chikamori, T.; Vitola, J.V.; Yoshinaga, K.


    Cardiac sympathetic nervous system dysfunction is closely associated with risk of serious cardiac events in patients with heart failure (HF), including HF progression, pump-failure death, and sudden cardiac death by lethal ventricular arrhythmia. For cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging,

  15. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow (United States)

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.


    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  16. Sympathetic mediated vasomotion and skin capillary permeability in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, JD; Hoeven, JH; Roon, AM; Smit, AJ; Hoogenberg, K

    Aims/hypothesis. A loss of sympathetic function could lead to changes in capillary fluid filtration in diabetic patients. We investigated whether a decreased sympathetically mediated vasomotion in the skin in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy is associated with an abnormal capillary

  17. Effects of Antidepressants, but not Psychopathology, on Cardiac Sympathetic Control : A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Geus, Eco J. C.


    Increased sympathetic activity has been hypothesized to have a role in the elevated somatic disease risk in persons with depressive or anxiety disorders. However, it remains unclear whether increased sympathetic activity reflects a direct effect of anxiety or depression or an indirect effect of

  18. Axon Guidance of Sympathetic Neurons to Cardiomyocytes by Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miwa, Keiko; Lee, Jong-Kook; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Opthof, Tobias; Fu, Xianming; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Itsuo; Komuro, Issei


    Molecular signaling of cardiac autonomic innervation is an unresolved issue. Here, we show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes cardiac sympathetic innervation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, ventricular myocytes (VMs) and sympathetic neurons (SNs) isolated from neonatal


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The deployment of anytechnologicalprocesscauseenvironmentalpollution, andthisimplies a reductionin the quality of theworkenvironmentandthe ambient environment. In theseconditions, inthispaperwasaimedtoestablishingtheoptimumpointto reduce pollutionaccordingtoexpenditure made to reduceandpreventenvironmentalpollution , but it wasdeterminedthepoint of reduction of ofpollutionbased onthecostsand social utilities. It wasalsodeterminedhowthecorrect design of a technologicalprocess or anactivitywithenvironmental impact consideringenvironmental quality indicator for eachstage of it.

  20. Association Levels of Development the City of Kerman In Terms of Health and Indicators Using the Numerical Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Raadabadi


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: knowledge and understanding of the situation is necessary for planning to achieve optimal development that this identifying involves separating study regions to planning areas and evaluation of the separate regions by development indicators and analysis and ranking of each area in terms of having development blessings. This study aims to Stratification of Kerman Province Districts in Terms of Health Indicators with taxonomy models. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was applied using taxonomy Models to Stratification of 16 Kerman Province Districts based on 10 selected health indicators. Data were collected by the researcher form and through statistical center of Iran and Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was done using SPSS/19. Results: The calculations based on taxonomy Model, Baft district with 0.46 and Rigan district with 0.96 were most and less developed districts, respectively. Conclusions: there is a relatively large difference between cities in the health sector and Most of the citiesare not satisfactory in the aspect of healthcare indices. So having plan on how to allocate resources for the health sector to improve the health of the cities is essential for policy makers.

  1. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4 : An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 “Level of water stress”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Wada, Y.; Bouraoui, F.; de Roo, A.; Mekonnen, M. M.; van de Bund, W. J.; Batelaan, O.; Pavelic, P.; Bastiaanssen, Wim G M; Kummu, M.; Rockström, J.; Liu, J.; Bisselink, B.; Ronco, P.; Pistocchi, A.; Bidoglio, G.


    Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to

  2. Effect of sympathetic nerve block on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Rung, G W; Kehlet, H


    BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerve blocks relieve pain in certain chronic pain states, but the role of the sympathetic pathways in acute pain is unclear. Thus the authors wanted to determine whether a sympathetic block could reduce acute pain and hyperalgesia after a heat injury in healthy volunteers....... The duration and quality of blocks were evaluated by the sympatogalvanic skin response and skin temperature. Bilateral heat injuries were produced on the medial surfaces of the calves with a 50 x 25 mm thermode (47 degrees C, 7 min) 45 min after the blocks. Pain intensity induced by heat, pain thresholds...... between sympathetic block and placebo for pain or mechanical allodynia during injury, or pain thresholds, pain responses to heat, or areas of secondary hyperalgesia after the injury. The comparisons were done for the period when the block was effective. CONCLUSION: Sympathetic nerve block did not change...

  3. Bibliometric indicators at the micro-level: some results in the area of natural resources at the Spanish CSIC


    Rodrigo Costas; María Bordons


    This analysis is based on the international database Science Citation Index and the Spanish database ICYT combined. A total of 3,302 SCI and 1,183 ICYT publications were identified during 1994-2001 for the 333 permanent scientists analysed. The scientific performance of scientists was studied through different indicators related to: activity (SCI and ICYT productivity), expected impact (average impact of publications, percentage of documents in top journals), observed impact (number of citati...

  4. Effect of radiation-treated feeds on some biochemical indicators of nutrition level achieved with energy nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, K.; Dvorak, J.; Hrusovsky, J.


    Two groups of dogs were fed for 90 days a diet irradiated with 60 Co to a dose of 25 kGy/kg. Two other groups of experimental animals were fed over the same period a nonirradiated diet. Laboratory examinations of the irradiated feeds showed their microbiological and mycological intactness. Irradiation caused a significant 35% degradation of essential amino acids and an increase in ammoniacal nitrogen, destruction changes in the lipid component of the feeds and partial decomposition of the saccharide component. Organoleptic examination of the irradiated feeds did not show any perceptible changes. Hematological examination of the animals fed the irradiated feeds showed significant negative effects on the blood count. Biochemical examination of the blood serum and plasma showed that the total protein of the experimental dogs dropped and that the creatinine level had also significantly decreased. The increase in free ammonia caused by ionizing radiation increased the pH level in the dogs' blood. The destruction of the lipid fraction in the feeds caused a decrease in the activity of lipofilic axerophthol thereby distrubing the biological value of the feeds. There was a significant decrease in the magnesium level in animals fed the irradiated feeds without biological supplements. On the other hand, the levels of potassium, calcium and phosphorus did not reflect the difference between the two groups of animals. (author)

  5. How useful are prescribing indicators based on the DU90% method to distinguish the quality of prescribing between pharmacotherapy audit meetings with different levels of functioning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichert, M.; Aalst, A. van der; Wit, H. de; Stroo, M.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de


    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess the association between the quality of drug prescribing based on three indicator types derived from the DU90% method and different levels of functioning in pharmacotherapy audit meetings (PTAMs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of functioning in

  6. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.


    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  7. Chewing reduces sympathetic nervous response to stress and prevents poststress arrhythmias in rats. (United States)

    Koizumi, So; Minamisawa, Susumu; Sasaguri, Kenichi; Onozuka, Minoru; Sato, Sadao; Ono, Yumie


    Reducing stress is important in preventing sudden death in patients with cardiovascular disease, as stressful events may cause autonomic imbalance and trigger fatal arrhythmias. Since chewing has been shown to inhibit stress-induced neuronal responses in the hypothalamus, we hypothesized that chewing could ameliorate stress-induced autonomic imbalance and prevent arrhythmias. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed changes in radiotelemetered electrocardiograms in rats that were allowed to chew a wooden stick during a 1-h period of immobilization stress. Chewing significantly reduced the occurrence of ventricular premature beats (VPBs) and complex ventricular ectopy after immobilization and prevented stress-induced prolongation of the QT interval of VPBs throughout the 10-h experimental period. It also prevented prolongation of the QRS complex and fluctuations in the QT interval in normal sinus rhythm beats preceding VPBs during both immobilization and in the poststress period. Fast Fourier transform-based spectral analysis of heart-rate variability further showed that chewing significantly inhibited the stress-induced increase in the power ratio of low-to-high frequency activity (LF/HF: a marker of sympathetic activity) during immobilization and in addition was associated with blunting of the stress-induced increase in plasma noradrenaline observed at the termination of immobilization. Similar suppressive effects on the occurrence of VPBs and the LF/HF were observed in rats that were administered the β-adrenergic blocker propranolol before immobilization. These results indicate that chewing can ameliorate sympathetic hyperactivity during stress and prevent poststress arrhythmias and suggest that chewing may provide a nonpharmacological and cost-effective treatment option for patients with a high risk of stress-induced fatal arrhythmia.

  8. Testing the Association Between Traditional and Novel Indicators of County-Level Structural Racism and Birth Outcomes among Black and White Women. (United States)

    Chambers, Brittany D; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Tanner, Amanda E; Nichols, Tracy R; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly


    Despite decreases in infants born premature and at low birth weight in the United States (U.S.), racial disparities between Black and White women continue. In response, the purpose of this analysis was to examine associations between both traditional and novel indicators of county-level structural racism and birth outcomes among Black and White women. We merged individual-level data from the California Birth Statistical Master Files 2009-2013 with county-level data from the United States (U.S.) Census American Community Survey. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine Black-White differences among 531,170 primiparous women across 33 California counties. Traditional (e.g., dissimilarity index) and novel indicators (e.g., Black to White ratio in elected office) were associated with earlier gestational age and lower birth weight among Black and White women. A traditional indicator was more strongly associated with earlier gestational age for Black women than for White women. This was the first study to empirically demonstrate that structural racism, measured by both traditional and novel indicators, is associated with poor health and wellbeing of infants born to Black and White women. However, findings indicate traditional indicators of structural racism, rather than novel indicators, better explain racial disparities in birth outcomes. Results also suggest the need to develop more innovative approaches to: (1) measure structural racism at the county-level and (2) reform public policies to increase integration and access to resources.

  9. Production and sympathetic cooling of complex molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chaobo


    This thesis reports on experimental and theoretical studies of the sympathetic cooling of complex molecular ions demonstrating that this general method for cooling atomic and molecular ions is reliable and efficient. For this purpose, complex molecular ions and barium ions have been confined simultaneously in a linear Paul trap. The complex molecular ions are generated in an electrospray ionization system and transferred to the trap via a 2 m long octopole ion guide. These molecular ions are pre-cooled by room temperature helium buffer gas so that they can be captured by the trap. The atomic barium ions are loaded from a barium evaporator oven and are laser-cooled by a 493 nm cooling laser and a 650 nm repumping laser. Due to the mutual Coulomb interaction among these charged particles, the kinetic energy of the complex molecular ions can be reduced significantly. In our experiments we have demonstrated the sympathetic cooling of various molecules (CO{sub 2}, Alexa Fluor 350, glycyrrhetinic acid, cytochrome c) covering a wide mass range from a few tens to 13000 amu. In every case the molecular ions could be cooled down to millikelvin temperatures. Photo-chemical reactions of the {sup 138}Ba{sup +} ions in the ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) excited state with gases such as O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, or N{sub 2}O, could be observed. If the initial {sup 138}Ba{sup +} ion ensemble is cold, the produced {sup 138}BaO{sup +} ions are cold as well, with a similar temperature as the laser-cooled barium ions (a few tens of millikelvin). The back-reaction of {sup 138}BaO{sup +} ions with neutral CO to {sup 138}Ba{sup +} is possible and was observed in our experiments as well. A powerful molecular dynamics (MD) simulation program has been developed. With this program dynamic properties of ion ensembles, such as sympathetic interactions or heating effects, have been investigated and experimental results have been analyzed to obtain, for example, ion numbers and temperatures. Additionally, the

  10. Production and sympathetic cooling of complex molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chaobo


    This thesis reports on experimental and theoretical studies of the sympathetic cooling of complex molecular ions demonstrating that this general method for cooling atomic and molecular ions is reliable and efficient. For this purpose, complex molecular ions and barium ions have been confined simultaneously in a linear Paul trap. The complex molecular ions are generated in an electrospray ionization system and transferred to the trap via a 2 m long octopole ion guide. These molecular ions are pre-cooled by room temperature helium buffer gas so that they can be captured by the trap. The atomic barium ions are loaded from a barium evaporator oven and are laser-cooled by a 493 nm cooling laser and a 650 nm repumping laser. Due to the mutual Coulomb interaction among these charged particles, the kinetic energy of the complex molecular ions can be reduced significantly. In our experiments we have demonstrated the sympathetic cooling of various molecules (CO 2 , Alexa Fluor 350, glycyrrhetinic acid, cytochrome c) covering a wide mass range from a few tens to 13000 amu. In every case the molecular ions could be cooled down to millikelvin temperatures. Photo-chemical reactions of the 138 Ba + ions in the ( 2 P 1/2 ) excited state with gases such as O 2 , CO 2 , or N 2 O, could be observed. If the initial 138 Ba + ion ensemble is cold, the produced 138 BaO + ions are cold as well, with a similar temperature as the laser-cooled barium ions (a few tens of millikelvin). The back-reaction of 138 BaO + ions with neutral CO to 138 Ba + is possible and was observed in our experiments as well. A powerful molecular dynamics (MD) simulation program has been developed. With this program dynamic properties of ion ensembles, such as sympathetic interactions or heating effects, have been investigated and experimental results have been analyzed to obtain, for example, ion numbers and temperatures. Additionally, the feasibility of nondestructive spectroscopy via an optical dipole excitation

  11. Corruption perception index as an indicator of the level of corruption in an individual country and the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Moiseeva


    Full Text Available Objective to evaluate the methodology of corruption analysis based on the corruption perception index. nbsp Methods the author used such sociological method as nonparticipant simple observation methods of expert assessments and analysis of documents grouping and summarizing calculation of generalizing indicators analysis economicmathematical and statistical techniques. nbsp Results the corruption perception index like any other method of studying corruption available in science cannot be recognized as a universal indicator of its measurement. It does not meet the requirements of measurement reliability the number of data sources and countries included in the index changed new surveys emerged and some studies were discontinued changes to the calculation methodology were made. Therefore the only reliable technique is to compare the data on a particular state from the same specific source over a period of time. However the author believes that the monitoring of changes of this indicator in a particular state may be important for assessing the achievement of the statersquos tasks aimed at improving the investment climate. nbsp Scientific novelty despite numerous studies of certain aspects of anticorruption the search for a universal method for evaluating the effectiveness of this struggle continues. Basing on the data studied by the author a quantitative sociologicalstatistical assessment of the effectiveness of anticorruption measures in the Republic of Belarus and neighboring countries is given. The article also substantiates the proposal to develop the anticorruption index for the countries which are similar in the standards of doing business and a common understanding of national interests and methods of achieving them namely the Customs Union CIS BRICS and SCO countries. Practical significance the provisions and conclusions of the research can be used by the state authorities and public organizations for the formation and implementation of the

  12. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A.


    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web

  13. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A


    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web.

  14. Natural radioactivity levels and radiation hazard indices in granite from aswan to wadi el-allaqi south eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Taher, A.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Orabi, A.A.


    Studies on radiation level and radionuclide distribution in granite from Aswan to Wadi El-Allaqi area which is located in southeastern desert of Egypt were undertaken. The samples collected from five locations: Gabal El Mesala, Umm Hibal, Abu Herigle, Abu Marw and Deneibit El Quleib. The purpose of this study is to provide a baseline map of radioactivity background levels in the investigated area environment and will be used as reference information to assess any changes in the radioactive background level due to geological processes. The highest average values of 226 R a and 232 T h concentration (24.003 and 31.227 Bq/kg respectively) was observed at Abu Herigle region whereas the highest average value of 40 K concentration 589.984 Bq/kg were detected in Umm Hibal location. The absorbed dose rate in air was found to be in the range between 5.400- 45.109 nGy/h and radium equivalent activity concentration was found in the range between 29.570 - 71.855 Bq/Kg. Also the representative external hazard index values for the corresponding samples was also estimated and given

  15. [Increased sympathetic activity assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability in patients with CRPS I]. (United States)

    Schulze, J; Troeger, C


    The complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a painful neuropathic disorder with an antecedent disproportionate trauma leading to spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, impaired motor function, swelling, changes in sweating and vascular abnormalities without nerve injury. Whether this syndrome is the result of central or peripheral autonomic dysfunction is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in patients with CRPS I by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. This is a pilot study on 6 patients (mean age 50 years; 4 female, 2 male) diagnosed as suffering from CRPS I and 6 age-matched healthy controls. In the pain-free interval and after taking rest for 5 min, 512 subsequent heart beats were obtained with an ECG standard lead II in the supine and then sitting position. Using an autoregressive model, power spectral densities were calculated for the following frequency bands: CRPS I compared to the healthy controls in the supine position (LF/HF=4.01 vs. LF/HF=1.27; p=0.041). The application of stress by changing to the sitting position even increased that difference (6.72 vs. 1.93). Our results support the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of the early stage CRPS I might be related to an increased sympathetic activity. By assessing the autonomic influence on the heart rate variability in CRPS I patients we could also conclude that this disturbance occurs rather at a central level. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  16. Delineating neurotrophin-3 dependent signaling pathways underlying sympathetic axon growth along intermediate targets. (United States)

    Keeler, Austin B; Suo, Dong; Park, Juyeon; Deppmann, Christopher D


    Postganglionic sympathetic neurons detect vascular derived neurotrophin 3 (NT3) via the axonally expressed receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkA, to promote chemo-attraction along intermediate targets. Once axons arrive to their final target, a structurally related neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor (NGF), also acts through TrkA to promote final target innervation. Does TrkA signal differently at these different locales? We previously found that Coronin-1 is upregulated in sympathetic neurons upon exposure to NGF, thereby endowing the NGF-TrkA complex with new signaling capabilities (i.e. calcium signaling), which dampens axon growth and branching. Based on the notion that axons do not express functional levels of Coronin-1 prior to final target innervation, we developed an in vitro model for axon growth and branching along intermediate targets using Coro1a -/- neurons grown in NT3. We found that, similar to NGF-TrkA, NT3-TrkA is capable of inducing MAPK and PI3K in the presence or absence of Coronin-1. However, unlike NGF, NT3 does not induce calcium release from intracellular stores. Using a combination of pharmacology, knockout neurons and in vitro functional assays, we suggest that the NT3-TrkA complex uses Ras/MAPK and/or PI3K-AKT signaling to induce axon growth and inhibit axon branching along intermediate targets. However, in the presence of Coronin-1, these signaling pathways lose their ability to impact NT3 dependent axon growth or branching. This is consistent with a role for Coronin-1 as a molecular switch for axon behavior and suggests that Coronin-1 suppresses NT3 dependent axon behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The west African mangrove: an indicator of sea-level fluctuations and regional climate changes during the last deglaciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezine, A.M.


    The review of modern and late Quaternary pollen data recording the mangrove evolution in West Africa shows that littoral and deep-sea sediments have registered different signals. The first one gives evidence for past sea-level variations from ca. 12,000 B.P. to ca. 5,000 B.P. The second one records the first widespread response of tropical forest ecosystems to the last deglaciation step and enhanced monsoonal rains at ca. 9,500 B.P. (authors)

  18. Molecular phylogeny and comparative morphology indicate that odontostomatids (Alveolata, Ciliophora) form a distinct class-level taxon related to Armophorea. (United States)

    Fernandes, Noemi M; Vizzoni, Vinicius F; Borges, Bárbara do N; A G Soares, Carlos; Silva-Neto, Inácio D da; S Paiva, Thiago da


    The odontostomatids are among the least studied ciliates, possibly due to their small sizes, restriction to anaerobic environments and difficulty in culturing. Consequently, their phylogenetic affinities to other ciliate taxa are still poorly understood. In the present study, we analyzed newly obtained ribosomal gene sequences of the odontostomatids Discomorphella pedroeneasi and Saprodinium dentatum, together with sequences from the literature, including Epalxella antiquorum and a large assemblage of ciliate sequences representing the major recognized classes. The results show that D. pedroeneasi and S. dentatum form a deep-diverging branch related to metopid and clevelandellid armophoreans, corroborating the old literature. However E. antiquorum clustered with the morphologically discrepant plagiopylids, indicating that either the complex odontostomatid body architecture evolved convergently, or the positioning of E. antiquorum as a plagiopylid is artifactual. A new ciliate class, Odontostomatea n. cl., is proposed based on molecular analyses and comparative morphology of odontostomatids with related taxa. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Sympathetic nervous system activity measured by skin conductance quantifies the challenge of walking adaptability tasks after stroke. (United States)

    Clark, David J; Chatterjee, Sudeshna A; McGuirk, Theresa E; Porges, Eric C; Fox, Emily J; Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K


    Walking adaptability tasks are challenging for people with motor impairments. The construct of perceived challenge is typically measured by self-report assessments, which are susceptible to subjective measurement error. The development of an objective physiologically-based measure of challenge may help to improve the ability to assess this important aspect of mobility function. The objective of this study to investigate the use of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity measured by skin conductance to gauge the physiological stress response to challenging walking adaptability tasks in people post-stroke. Thirty adults with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis performed a battery of seventeen walking adaptability tasks. SNS activity was measured by skin conductance from the palmar surface of each hand. The primary outcome variable was the percent change in skin conductance level (ΔSCL) between the baseline resting and walking phases of each task. Task difficulty was measured by performance speed and by physical therapist scoring of performance. Walking function and balance confidence were measured by preferred walking speed and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, respectively. There was a statistically significant negative association between ΔSCL and task performance speed and between ΔSCL and clinical score, indicating that tasks with greater SNS activity had slower performance speed and poorer clinical scores. ΔSCL was significantly greater for low functioning participants versus high functioning participants, particularly during the most challenging walking adaptability tasks. This study supports the use of SNS activity measured by skin conductance as a valuable approach for objectively quantifying the perceived challenge of walking adaptability tasks in people post-stroke. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Levasseur, Regis; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L.; Armstrong, Dawna; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard


    We previously showed that leptin inhibits bone formation by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that hypothalamic leptin-dependent antiosteogenic and anorexigenic networks differ, and that the peripheral mediators of leptin antiosteogenic function appear to be neuronal. Neuropeptides mediating leptin anorexigenic function do not affect bone formation. Leptin deficiency results in low sympathetic tone, and genetic or pharmacological ablation of adrenergic signaling leads to a leptin-resistant high bone mass. beta-adrenergic receptors on osteoblasts regulate their proliferation, and a beta-adrenergic agonist decreases bone mass in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice while a beta-adrenergic antagonist increases bone mass in wild-type and ovariectomized mice. None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.

  1. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsioufis


    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RH is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge points towards an impact of several factors on SNS activation, namely, insulin resistance, adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, cyclic intermittent hypoxaemia, aldosterone effects on central nervous system, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors dysregulation. The further investigation and understanding of the mechanisms leading to SNS activation could reveal novel therapeutic targets and expand our treatment options in the challenging management of RH.

  2. Statistical evaluation of the feasibility of satellite-retrieved cloud parameters as indicators of PM2.5 levels. (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Di Girolamo, Larry; Chen, Liangfu; Zhang, Xueying; Liu, Yang


    The spatial and temporal characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particulate matter research has been conducted on the association between cloud properties and PM2.5 levels. In this study, we analyzed the relationships between ground PM2.5 concentrations and two satellite-retrieved cloud parameters using data from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Network during 2000-2010. We found that both satellite-retrieved cloud fraction (CF) and cloud optical thickness (COT) are negatively associated with PM2.5 levels. PM2.5 speciation and meteorological analysis suggested that the main reason for these negative relationships might be the decreased secondary particle generation. Stratified analyses by season, land use type, and site location showed that seasonal impacts on this relationship are significant. These associations do not vary substantially between urban and rural sites or inland and coastal sites. The statistically significant negative associations of PM2.5 mass concentrations with CF and COT suggest that satellite-retrieved cloud parameters have the potential to serve as predictors to fill the data gap left by satellite aerosol optical depth in satellite-driven PM2.5 models.

  3. Cardiac Sympathetic Hyperactivity after Chemotherapy: Early Sign of Cardiotoxicity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimarães, Sarita Lígia Pessoa de Melo Machado [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Hospital Agamenon Magalhães (HAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Brandão, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Andrade, Luciana Raposo [Hospital Santa Joana, Recife, PE (Brazil); Maia, Rafael José Coelho [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Hospital Agamenon Magalhães (HAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Markman Filho, Brivaldo [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    Chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab can cause cardiotoxicity. Alteration of cardiac adrenergic function assessed by metaiodobenzylguanidine labeled with iodine-123 ({sup 123}I-mIBG) seems to precede the drop in left ventricular ejection fraction. To evaluate and to compare the presence of cardiovascular abnormalities among patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab, and only with anthracycline. Patients with breast cancer were analyzed clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic and cardiac sympathetic activity. In scintigraphic images, the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum, and the washout rate were calculated. The variables were compared between patients who received anthracyclines and trastuzumab (Group 1) and only anthracyclines (Group 2). Twenty patients, with mean age 57 ± 14 years, were studied. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography was 67.8 ± 4.0%. Mean washout rate was 28.39 ± 9.23% and the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was 2.07 ± 0.28. Of the patients, 82% showed an increased in washout rate, and the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum decreased in 25%. Concerning the groups, the mean washout rate of Group 1 was 32.68 ± 9.30% and of Group 2 was 24.56 ± 7.72% (p = 0,06). The ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was normal in all patients in Group 2, however, the Group 1, showed 50% the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum ≤ 1.8 (p = 0.02). In women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy, assessment of cardiac sympathetic activity with {sup 123}I-mIBG appears to be an early marker of cardiotoxicity. The combination of chemotherapy showed higher risk of cardiac adrenergic hyperactivity.

  4. Targeted NGF siRNA delivery attenuates sympathetic nerve sprouting and deteriorates cardiac dysfunction in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Hu

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF is involved in nerve sprouting, hyper-innervation, angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, and preservation of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. Positively modulating NGF expression may represent a novel pharmacological strategy to improve post-infarction prognosis. In this study, lentivirus encoding NGF short interfering RNA (siRNA was prepared, and MI was modeled in the rat using left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Rats were randomly grouped to receive intramyocardial injection of lentiviral solution containing NGF-siRNA (n = 19, MI-SiNGF group, lentiviral solution containing empty vector (n = 18, MI-GFP group or 0.9% NaCl solution (n = 18, MI-control group, or to receive thoracotomy and pericardiotomy (n = 17, sham-operated group. At 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk after transduction, rats in the MI-control group had higher levels of NGF mRNA and protein than those in the sham-operated group, rats in the MI-GFP group showed similar levels as the MI-control group, and rats in the MI-SiNGF group had lower levels compared to the MI-GFP group, indicating that MI model was successfully established and NGF siRNA effectively inhibited the expression of NGF. At 8 wk, echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies revealed a more severe cardiac dysfunction in the MI-siRNA group compared to the MI-GFP group. Moreover, rats in the MI-siRNA group had lower mRNA and protein expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and growth-associated protein 43-positive nerve fibers (GAP-43 at both the infarcted border and within the non-infarcted left ventricles (LV. NGF silencing also reduced the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and decreased the arteriolar and capillary densities at the infarcted border compared to the MI-GFP group. Histological analysis indicated a large infarcted size in the MI-SiNGF group. These findings suggested that endogenous NGF silencing attenuated sympathetic nerve sprouting

  5. Coastal lagoon sediments and benthic foraminifera as indicator for Holocene sea-level change: Samsø, southern Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Morigi, Caterina; Pejrup, Morten

    The island of Samsø is located in the southern Kattegat region of Denmark, a relatively sheltered micro-tidal environment. The area experienced a period of rapid transgression during the early Altantic period, reaching its maximum approx. 7,600 yr BP. Since then, isostatic uplift gradually caused....... Over time, an extensive beach ridge system formed, which eventually connected the islands, giving Samsø its characteristic shape. Ephemeral shallow-water lagoons evolved in topographic depressions along the shores of the island, most of which became inactive until today. A semi-enclosed coastal lagoon......-level and to investigate associated geomorphic responses in coastal lagoon and beach ridge systems. Vibracorings will be carried out in these sedimentary environments and will be supplemented with manual auger corings and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to assess vertical variations in the deposited sediments...

  6. Neural indices of phonemic discrimination and sentence-level speech intelligibility in quiet and noise: A P3 study. (United States)

    Koerner, Tess K; Zhang, Yang; Nelson, Peggy B; Wang, Boxiang; Zou, Hui


    This study examined how speech babble noise differentially affected the auditory P3 responses and the associated neural oscillatory activities for consonant and vowel discrimination in relation to segmental- and sentence-level speech perception in noise. The data were collected from 16 normal-hearing participants in a double-oddball paradigm that contained a consonant (/ba/ to /da/) and vowel (/ba/ to /bu/) change in quiet and noise (speech-babble background at a -3 dB signal-to-noise ratio) conditions. Time-frequency analysis was applied to obtain inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) and event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) measures in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands for the P3 response. Behavioral measures included percent correct phoneme detection and reaction time as well as percent correct IEEE sentence recognition in quiet and in noise. Linear mixed-effects models were applied to determine possible brain-behavior correlates. A significant noise-induced reduction in P3 amplitude was found, accompanied by significantly longer P3 latency and decreases in ITPC across all frequency bands of interest. There was a differential effect of noise on consonant discrimination and vowel discrimination in both ERP and behavioral measures, such that noise impacted the detection of the consonant change more than the vowel change. The P3 amplitude and some of the ITPC and ERSP measures were significant predictors of speech perception at segmental- and sentence-levels across listening conditions and stimuli. These data demonstrate that the P3 response with its associated cortical oscillations represents a potential neurophysiological marker for speech perception in noise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone densitometry as an indicator of percentage tibia ash in broiler chicks fed varying dietary calcium and phosphorus levels. (United States)

    Onyango, E M; Hester, P Y; Stroshine, R; Adeola, O


    The relative sensitivity of tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), percentage ash (ash), and shear force as indicators for dietary Ca and P was compared in 3-wk-old broiler chicks. One hundred eight 7-d-old chicks were grouped by weight into 6 blocks of 3 cages each with 6 birds per cage. Three corn-soybean meal-based diets were randomly assigned to cages within each block. The diets were low P, medium P, and adequate P and were formulated to contain 4.0, 5.1, and 7.8 g of total P/kg feed, respectively; and 5.1, 6.7, and 10.0 g of Ca/kg feed, respectively. The chicks were fed the experimental diets for 14 d. On d 22, chicks were killed, and tibiae were removed from 3 birds/cage. Weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, BMC, BMD, shear force, and ash were determined. The BMC and BMD were determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Correlations among the various bone status variables and dietary Ca and P were determined. Growth performance criteria and ash increased linearly, and BMC and BMD increased linearly and quadratically as dietary concentrations of Ca and P increased. The correlation coefficient between dietary Ca and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.89, 0.91, 0.50, or 0.89, respectively; and between dietary P and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.88, 0.91, 0.48, or 0.89, respectively. The correlation coefficient between ash and BMC, BMD, or shear force was 0.92, 0.93, or 0.67, respectively. The correlation coefficients for linear regression between shear force and BMC or BMD was 0.56. The regression model for predicting percentage ash using BMD was as follows: percentage ash = 24 + (240 x BMD) with an r2 of 86%. It is concluded that in broiler chicks, tibia ash, BMC, and BMD may be more sensitive than shear force as indicators of dietary Ca and P concentrations and that BMD as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used to predict percentage of tibia ash.

  8. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4: An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 "Level of water stress". (United States)

    Vanham, D; Hoekstra, A Y; Wada, Y; Bouraoui, F; de Roo, A; Mekonnen, M M; van de Bund, W J; Batelaan, O; Pavelic, P; Bastiaanssen, W G M; Kummu, M; Rockström, J; Liu, J; Bisselink, B; Ronco, P; Pistocchi, A; Bidoglio, G


    Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to identify whether the currently proposed indicator 6.4.2 considers the different elements that need to be accounted for in a WS indicator. WS indicators compare water use with water availability. We identify seven essential elements: 1) both gross and net water abstraction (or withdrawal) provide important information to understand WS; 2) WS indicators need to incorporate environmental flow requirements (EFR); 3) temporal and 4) spatial disaggregation is required in a WS assessment; 5) both renewable surface water and groundwater resources, including their interaction, need to be accounted for as renewable water availability; 6) alternative available water resources need to be accounted for as well, like fossil groundwater and desalinated water; 7) WS indicators need to account for water storage in reservoirs, water recycling and managed aquifer recharge. Indicator 6.4.2 considers many of these elements, but there is need for improvement. It is recommended that WS is measured based on net abstraction as well, in addition to currently only measuring WS based on gross abstraction. It does incorporate EFR. Temporal and spatial disaggregation is indeed defined as a goal in more advanced monitoring levels, in which it is also called for a differentiation between surface and groundwater resources. However, regarding element 6 and 7 there are some shortcomings for which we provide recommendations. In addition, indicator 6.4.2 is only one indicator, which monitors blue WS, but does not give information on green or green-blue water scarcity or on water quality. Within the SDG indicator framework, some of these topics are covered with other indicators. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  9. Factors associated with the growing-finishing performances of swine herds: an exploratory study on serological and herd level indicators. (United States)

    Fablet, C; Rose, N; Grasland, B; Robert, N; Lewandowski, E; Gosselin, M


    Growing and finishing performances of pigs strongly influence farm efficiency and profitability. The performances of the pigs rely on the herd health status and also on several non-infectious factors. Many recommendations for the improvement of the technical performances of a herd are based on the results of studies assessing the effect of one or a limited number of infections or environmental factors. Few studies investigated jointly the influence of both type of factors on swine herd performances. This work aimed at identifying infectious and non-infectious factors associated with the growing and finishing performances of 41 French swine herds. Two groups of herds were identified using a clustering analysis: a cluster of 24 herds with the highest technical performance values (mean average daily gain = 781.1 g/day +/- 26.3; mean feed conversion ratio = 2.5 kg/kg +/- 0.1; mean mortality rate = 4.1% +/- 0.9; and mean carcass slaughter weight = 121.2 kg +/- 5.2) and a cluster of 17 herds with the lowest performance values (mean average daily gain =715.8 g/day +/- 26.5; mean feed conversion ratio = 2.6 kg/kg +/- 0.1; mean mortality rate = 6.8% +/- 2.0; and mean carcass slaughter weight = 117.7 kg +/- 3.6). Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify factors associated with the level of technical performance. Infection with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the porcine circovirus type 2 were infectious factors associated with the cluster having the lowest performance values. This cluster also featured farrow-to-finish type herds, a short interval between successive batches of pigs (≤3 weeks) and mixing of pigs from different batches in the growing or/and finishing steps. Inconsistency between nursery and fattening building management was another factor associated with the low-performance cluster. The odds of a herd showing low growing-finishing performance was significantly

  10. Renal sympathetic nerve, blood flow, and epithelial transport responses to thermal stress. (United States)

    Wilson, Thad E


    Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state. Hyperthermia extends these directional changes, until heat illness results. Because kidney responses are very difficult to study in humans in vivo, this review describes and qualitatively evaluates an in vivo human skin model of sympathetically regulated epithelial tissue compared to that of the nephron. This model utilizes skin responses to thermal stress, involving 1) increased skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), decreased skin blood flow, and suppressed eccrine epithelial transport during cold stress; and 2) increased SSNA, skin blood flow, and eccrine epithelial transport during heat stress. This model appears to mimic aspects of the renal responses. Investigations of skin responses, which parallel certain renal responses, may aid understanding of epithelial-sympathetic nervous system interactions during cold and heat stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sympathetic nerves: How do they affect angiogenesis, particularly during wound healing of soft tissues? (United States)

    Pan, Liangli; Tang, Jianbing; Liu, Hongwei; Cheng, Biao


    Angiogenesis is essential for wound healing, and angiogenesis impairment can result in chronic ulcers. Studies have shown that the sympathetic nervous system has an important role in angiogenesis. In recent years, researchers have focused on the roles of sympathetic nerves in tumor angiogenesis. In fact, sympathetic nerves can affect angiogenesis in the wound healing of soft tissues, and may have a similar mechanism of action as that seen in tumorigenesis. Sympathetic nerves act primarily through interactions between the neurotransmitters released from nerve endings and receptors present in target organs. Among this, activation or inhibition of adrenergic receptors (mainly β-adrenergic receptors) influence formation of new blood vessels considerably. As sympathetic nerves locate near pericytes in microvessel, go along the capillaries and there are adrenergic receptors present in endothelial cells and pericytes, sympathetic nerves may participate in angiogenesis by influencing the endothelial cells and pericytes of new capillaries. Studying the roles of sympathetic nerves on the angiogenesis of wound healing can contribute to understanding the mechanisms of tissue repair, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis, thereby providing new therapeutic perspectives.

  12. Sympathetic Blocks Provided Sustained Pain Relief in a Patient with Refractory Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Cheng


    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin biopsies. A series of 9 lumbar sympathetic blocks over a 26-month period provided sustained pain relief in his legs. Additional thoracic paravertebral blocks further provided control of the pain in the trunk which can occasionally be seen in severe diabetic neuropathy cases, consequent to extensive involvement of the intercostal nerves. These blocks provided sustained and significant pain relief and improvement of quality of life over a period of more than two years. We thus provided the first clinical evidence supporting the notion that sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in painful diabetic neuropathy and sympathetic blocks can be an effective management modality of painful diabetic neuropathy. We concluded that the sympathetic nervous system is a valuable therapeutic target of pharmacological and interventional modalities of treatments in painful diabetic neuropathy patients.

  13. A population-level analysis of birth weight indices in Peel Region, Ontario: the impact of ethnic diversity. (United States)

    Ramuscak, Nancy L; Jiang, Depeng; Dooling, Kathleen L; Mowat, David L


    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the elevated rate of low birth weight (LBW) in the Region of Peel, Ontario can be attributed to the high proportion of immigrants in the population. In addition, we examined how the infant birth weight distribution in Peel differs by maternal region of birth. Provincial live birth registration data were used to compare rates of LBW, preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births in Peel and Ontario for the years 2002 through 2006 by maternal region of birth. Birth weight for gestational age curves were developed for singletons and were specific for infant sex and maternal region of birth using the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method. Quantile regression was used to examine whether the median birth weight at term (37 to 42 weeks) differed by maternal region of birth. The rate of LBW was higher in Peel than in Ontario (6.8% and 6.0%, respectively). This is the result of a higher SGA rate and not due to differences in rates of preterm birth. Infants of immigrant mothers had significantly lower median birth weights at all gestations, showing that the birth weight distribution among infants of immigrant mothers is shifted towards lower birth weights. At the population level, the shifted birth weight distribution among singleton infants of immigrant mothers has significant impact on the LBW rate observed in Peel.

  14. A study of internal contamination, using 137Cs and 90Sr urinary level, as indicator in the case of nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albulescu, L.; Gruia, D.


    Our laboratory has from long time a permanent monitoring programme concerning the radioactivity of the environmental factors in Bechet zone (fallout, drinking water, soil) and foodstuffs. The topical results of this programme indicates that there were not significant modifications in the 137 Cs and 90 Sr mean-levels, as indicators in case of nuclear accident, due by Chernobyl accident or by the nearby functioning of NPP in Koslodui. The purpose of this study is to determine the internal contamination of the population in Dolj-district, using the indirect test of determination of radioactivity of excretes (urinary analysis). The daily-urinary levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are the best indicators for the human body contamination, in the case of a nuclear accident, conclusion that can be drawn from the Fig.1 below. The variation of these indicators shows that the young people is the most exposed segment of population. (author)

  15. Effect of sympathetic activity on capsaicin-evoked pain, hyperalgesia, and vasodilatation. (United States)

    Baron, R; Wasner, G; Borgstedt, R; Hastedt, E; Schulte, H; Binder, A; Kopper, F; Rowbotham, M; Levine, J D; Fields, H L


    Painful nerve and tissue injuries can be exacerbated by activity in sympathetic neurons. The mechanisms of sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) are unclear. To determine the effect of cutaneous sympathetic activity on pain induced by primary afferent C-nociceptor sensitization with capsaicin in humans. In healthy volunteers capsaicin was applied topically (n = 12) or injected into the forearm skin (n = 10) to induce spontaneous pain, dynamic and punctate mechanical hyperalgesia, and antidromic (axon reflex) vasodilatation (flare). Intensity of pain and hyperalgesia, axon reflex vasodilatation (laser Doppler), and flare size and area of hyperalgesia (planimetry) were assessed. The local skin temperature at the application and measurement sites was kept constant at 35 degrees C. In each individual the analyses were performed during the presence of high and low sympathetic skin activity induced by whole-body cooling and warming with a thermal suit. By this method sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity is modulated in the widest range that can be achieved physiologically. The degree of vasoconstrictor discharge was monitored by measuring skin blood flow (laser Doppler) and temperature (infrared thermometry) at the index finger. The intensity and spatial distribution of capsaicin-evoked spontaneous pain and dynamic and punctate mechanical hyperalgesia were identical during the presence of high and low sympathetic discharge. Antidromic vasodilatation and flare size were significantly diminished when sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons were excited. Cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity does not influence spontaneous pain and mechanical hyperalgesia after capsaicin-induced C-nociceptor sensitization. When using physiologic stimulation of sympathetic activity, the capsaicin model is not useful for elucidating mechanisms of SMP. In neuropathic pain states with SMP, different mechanisms may be present.

  16. [Level of completion of the prehospital care and transfer record as a quality indicator in an emergency medical service]. (United States)

    Ballestros Peña, Sendoa; Lorrio Palomino, Sergio; Ariz Zubiaur, Mónica


    BASICS: A Prehospital Care and Transfer Recording (PCTR) is an out-of-hospital medical recording. This paper was made to assess and compare the level of fulfillment of the basic parameters of the PCTR developed by the Life Support Units with nurses (Life Support Units with Nurse, LSUwN and without nurses (Basic Life Support Units, BLSU) from SAMUR Bilbao in 2010. A descriptive, retrospective and comparative study was performed by analysing a randomized sample of 660 PCTR (precision 3%), aiming to check the fulfillment of the basic data. 98.33% of total recordings were readable. In overall, fulfillment rate was 90.31% (CI 89.24- 97.3 71%) of all basic parameters for LSUwN PCTR and 84.81% (CI 83.56 to 86%) for BLSU. 34.1% of PCTR were completely and correctly fulfilled. The LSUwN scored significantly better (p < 0.000). There were recording failures in "date and time", "address" and "physical examination". There were differences between the recording of clinical and administrative information (88.64% vs 86.72%, p = 0.02). In order to consider a parameter has optimal, it has to reach 100% of fulfillment. If it doesn't, and its score reaches no more than 80%, it should be reviewed. In this case, the results would be considered acceptable, but the administrative items of BLSU records, and allergies in both units should be strengthened. LSUwN has obtained better scores. The need of recording clinical information must be instilled as evidence of quality care.

  17. Clinical usefulness of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients with cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Hajime; Yoneyama, Satoshi; Kamitani, Tadaaki; Kawasaki, Shingo; Takahashi, Toru; Kunishige, Hiroshi


    To assess the clinical utility of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in evaluating cardiac sympathetic nerve disturbance in diabetic patients, we performed MIBG scintigraphy in 18 diabetic patients and 11 normal controls. Diabetic patients with symptomatic neuropathy (DM2) had a significantly lower heart to mediastinum uptake ratio than did those without neuropathy or normal controls in initial and delayed images (initial image, 1.90±0.27 vs 2.32±0.38, 2.41±0.40, p<0.01; delayed image, 1.80±0.31 vs 2.48±0.35, 2.56±0.28, p<001, respectively). Defect score, assessed visually, were higher in DM2 patients than in patients in the other two groups (initial image, 7±2.6 vs 1.5±1.9, 0.7±0.9; delayed image 10.6±3.3 vs 4.0±2.5, 1.7±1.6 p<0.01, respectively). The maximum washout rate in DM2 patients was also higher than those in patients in the other two groups. The findings of these indices obtained from MIBG scintigraphy coincided with the % low-frequency power extracted from heart rate fluctuations using a power spectral analysis and the results of the Schellong test, which were used to evaluate sympathetic function. These results suggest that MIBG scintigraphy may be useful for evaluating cardiac sympathetic nerve disturbance in patients with diabetes. (author)

  18. The role of sympathetic nervous system in the progression of chronic kidney disease in the era of catheter based sympathetic renal denervation. (United States)

    Petras, Dimitrios; Koutroutsos, Konstantinos; Kordalis, Athanasios; Tsioufis, Costas; Stefanadis, Christodoulos


    The kidney has been shown to be critically involved as both trigger and target of sympathetic nervous system overactivity in both experimental and clinical studies. Renal injury and ischemia, activation of renin angiotensin system and dysfunction of nitric oxide system have been implicated in adrenergic activation from kidney. Conversely, several lines of evidence suggest that sympathetic overactivity, through functional and morphological alterations in renal physiology and structure, may contribute to kidney injury and chronic kidney disease progression. Pharmacologic modulation of sympathetic nervous system activity has been found to have a blood pressure independent renoprotective effect. The inadequate normalization of sympathoexcitation by pharmacologic treatment asks for novel treatment options. Catheter based renal denervation targets selectively both efferent and afferent renal nerves and functionally denervates the kidney providing blood pressure reduction in clinical trials and renoprotection in experimental models by ameliorating the effects of excessive renal sympathetic drive. This review will focus on the role of sympathetic overactivity in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and CKD progression and will speculate on the effect of renal denervation to these conditions.

  19. Investigation Of Arterial Blood Pressure Level And Metabolic Indices In Patients With Arterial Hypertension At Pharmacotherapy With Antihypertensive Medicines Of Various Chemical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Kh. Glybochko


    Full Text Available The research goal is to carry on the comparative analysis of medicines of various chemical structure, Telmisar-tan and Bisoprolol, and to reveal their effect on the arterial blood pressure level and the indices of various metabolic processes in patients with arterial hypertension. 60 out-patients with arterial hypertension (stage II risk III both males and females aged 33-55 have been under study taking Telmisartan and Bisoprolol for 3 months. While treating the patients the arterial blood pressure level control and biochemical investigations for determination the indices of metabolic processes have been carried out. The investigated medications have provided the decrease of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure parameters, the increase of concentration of total and ionized calcium, chlorine ions, urea and total bilirubin in blood plasma. Therapy with Telmisartan has shown more significant increase of potassium level in erythro-cytes, decrease of levels of natrium, glucose, glycolized hemoglobin and triglycerides and increased contents of alani-naminotransferase and aspartataminotransferase. The course of therapy with Bisoprolol has restored the normal level of magnesium in blood plasma, has not have any influence on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, increased the level of alaninaminotransferase and significantly increased the contents of total and ionized calcium, urea and creatinine. 3-months therapy with Telmisartan and Bisoprolol has proved the decrease of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure in patients with arterial hypertension. The medications under study have had active and variable effects on metabolic indices

  20. Alternating myocardial sympathetic neural function of athlete's heart in professional cycle racers examined with iodine-123-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Keiko; Inoue, Tomio; Hasegawa, Akira; Oriuchi, Noboru; Okamoto, Eiichi; Tomaru, Yumi; Endo, Keigo


    Myocardial sympathetic neural function in professional athletes who had the long-term tremendous cardiac load has not been fully investigated by myocardial iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in comparison with power spectral analysis (PSA) in electrocardiography. Eleven male professional cycle racers and age-matched 11 male healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The low frequency components in the power spectral density (LF), the high frequency components in the power spectral density (HF), the LF/HF ratio and mean R-R interval were derived from PSA and time-domain analysis of heart rate variability in electrocardiography. The mean heart-to-mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M ratio) of the MIBG uptake, in professional cycle racers was significantly lower than that in healthy volunteers (p<0.01) and HF power in professional cycle racers was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers (p<0.05). In the group of professional cycle racers, the H/M ratio showed a significant correlation with the R-R interval, as indices of parasympathetic nerve activity (r=0.80, p<0.01), but not with the LF/HF ratio as an index of sympathetic nerve activity. These results may indicate that parasympathetic nerve activity has an effect on MIBG uptake in a cyclist's heart. (author)

  1. Efficacy of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Is Coupled to Phosphodiesterase 2A in Cardiac Sympathetic Neurons. (United States)

    Li, Dan; Lu, Chieh-Ju; Hao, Guoliang; Wright, Hannah; Woodward, Lavinia; Liu, Kun; Vergari, Elisa; Surdo, Nicoletta C; Herring, Neil; Zaccolo, Manuela; Paterson, David J


    Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) regulates cGMP-phosphodiesterase activity. Its elevation is regarded as an early compensatory response to cardiac failure where it can facilitate sympathovagal balance and cardiorenal homeostasis. However, recent reports suggest a paradoxical proadrenergic action of BNP. Because phosphodiesterase activity is altered in cardiovascular disease, we tested the hypothesis that BNP might lose its efficacy by minimizing the action of cGMP on downstream pathways coupled to neurotransmission. BNP decreased norepinephrine release from atrial preparations in response to field stimulation and also significantly reduced the heart rate responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation in vitro. Using electrophysiological recording and fluorescence imaging, BNP also reduced the depolarization evoked calcium current and intracellular calcium transient in isolated cardiac sympathetic neurons. Pharmacological manipulations suggested that the reduction in the calcium transient was regulated by a cGMP/protein kinase G pathway. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements for cAMP, and an immunoassay for cGMP, showed that BNP increased cGMP, but not cAMP. In addition, overexpression of phosphodiesterase 2A after adenoviral gene transfer markedly decreased BNP stimulation of cGMP and abrogated the BNP responses to the calcium current, intracellular calcium transient, and neurotransmitter release. These effects were reversed on inhibition of phosphodiesterase 2A. Moreover, phosphodiesterase 2A activity was significantly elevated in stellate neurons from the prohypertensive rat compared with the normotensive control. Our data suggest that abnormally high levels of phosphodiesterase 2A may provide a brake against the inhibitory action of BNP on sympathetic transmission. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Median Sacral Artery, Sympathetic Nerves, and the Coccygeal Body: A Study Using Serial Sections of Human Embryos and Fetuses. (United States)

    Jin, Zhe Wu; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco


    To examine how the median sacral artery (MSA) is involved with the coccygeal body or glomus coccygeum, we studied serial frontal or sagittal sections of 14 embryos (approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) and 12 fetuses (10-18 weeks). At five weeks, the caudal end of the dorsal aorta (i.e., MSA) accompanied putative sympathetic ganglion cells in front of the upper coccygeal and lower sacral vertebrae. At six weeks, a candidate for the initial coccygeal body was identified as a longitudinal arterial plexus involving nerve fibers and sympathetic ganglion cells between arteries. At 10-18 weeks, the MSA exhibited a highly tortuous course at the lower sacral and coccygeal levels, and was attached to and surrounded by veins, nerve fibers, and sympathetic ganglion cells near and between the bilateral origins of the levator ani muscle. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and chromogranin A in the nerves. However, throughout the stages examined, we found no evidence suggestive of an arteriovenous anastomosis, such as well-developed smooth muscle. An acute anterior flexure of the vertebrae at the lower sacrum, as well as regression of the secondary neural tube, seemed to induce arterial plexus formation from an initial straight MSA. Nerves and ganglion cells were likely to be secondarily involved with the plexus because of the close topographical relationship. However, these nerves might play a major role in the extreme change into adult morphology. An arteriovenous anastomosis along the MSA might be an overinterpretation, at least in the prenatal human. Anat Rec, 299:819-827, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Ron; Bovee, Toine; Traag, Win A; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Baumann, Bert; Portier, Liza; Weg, Guido van de; Vries, Jaap de


    The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a

  4. Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants. (United States)

    Joosen, Katharina J; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H


    Physiological reactivity to repeated infant crying was examined as a predictor of risk for harsh discipline use with 12-month-olds in a longitudinal study with 48 low-income mother-infant dyads. Physiological reactivity was measured while mothers listened to three blocks of infant cry sounds in a standard cry paradigm when their infants were 3 months old. Signs of harsh discipline use were observed during two tasks during a home visit when the infants were 12 months old. Mothers showing signs of harsh discipline (n = 10) with their 12-month-olds were compared to mothers who did not (n = 38) on their sympathetic (skin conductance levels [SCL]) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to the cry sounds. Results showed a significant interaction effect for sympathetic reactivity only. Mean SCL of harsh-risk mothers showed a significant different response pattern from baseline to crying and onward into the recovery, suggesting that mean SCL of mothers who showed signs of harsh discipline continued to rise across the repeated bouts of cry sounds while, after an initial increase, mean SCL level of the other mothers showed a steady decline. We suggest that harsh parenting is reflected in physiological overreactivity to negative infant signals and discuss our findings from a polyvagal perspective.

  5. Racemic ketamine decreases muscle sympathetic activity but maintains the neural response to hypotensive challenges in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienbaum, P.; Heuter, T.; Michel, M. C.; Peters, J.


    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular stimulation and increased catecholamine plasma concentrations during ketamine anesthesia have been attributed to increased central sympathetic activity as well as catecholamine reuptake inhibition in various experimental models. However, direct recordings of efferent

  6. Sympathetic neural adaptation to hypocaloric diet with or without exercise training in obese metabolic syndrome subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straznicky, Nora E; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Nestel, Paul J


    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity contributes to the pathogenesis and target organ complications of obesity. This study was conducted to examine the effects of lifestyle interventions (weight loss alone or together with exercise) on SNS function....

  7. Subtle involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, P.L.; Vos, P.E.; Wieneke, G.H.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Blankestijn, P.J.; Karemaker, J.M.


    The literature on the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is conflicting. We therefore investigated several aspects of autonomic function, namely muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, cardiac function (electrocardiogram; ECG),

  8. Subtle involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, P. Liam; Vos, Pieter E.; Wieneke, George H.; Wokke, John H. J.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Karemaker, John M.


    The literature on the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is conflicting. We therefore investigated several aspects of autonomic function, namely muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, cardiac function (electrocardiogram; ECG),

  9. Effect of experimental hyperinsulinemia on sympathetic nervous system activity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.B.


    Since insulin acutely stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, a role for sympathetic overactivity has been hypothesized to underlie the association between chronic hyperinsulinemia and hypertension. To assess the effect of sustained hyperinsulinemia on sympathetic function, [ 3 H]norepinephrine (NE) turnover was measured in rats injected with insulin for 14d. NE turnover in insulin-treated animals given free access to lab chow and a 10% sucrose solution was compared with that obtained in rats fed chow alone or chow plus sucrose. Sucrose ingestion increased NE turnover in heart, brown adipose tissue, and liver, but exogenous insulin did not augment turnover beyond that seen in animals given sucrose alone. This study, therefore, provides no evidence that chronic hyperinsulinemia, sufficient to induce peripheral insulin resistance, stimulates sympathetic activity more than that produced by chronic sucrose ingestion


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Background. In humans, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition attenuates the vasoconstriction induced by sympathetic stimulation in a number of peripheral districts. Whether this is also the case in the coronary circulation is unknown, however. Methods and Results. In nine normotensive

  11. Factitious lymphoedema as a psychiatric condition mimicking reflex sympathetic dystrophy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaejike Nnamdi


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Reflex sympathetic dystrophy can result in severe disability with only one in five patients able to fully resume prior activities. Therefore, it is important to diagnose this condition early and begin appropriate treatment. Factitious lymphoedema can mimic reflex sympathetic dystrophy and is caused by self-inflicted tourniquets, blows to the arm or repeated skin irritation. Patients with factitious lymphoedema have an underlying psychiatric disorder but usually present to emergency or orthopaedics departments. Factitious lymphoedema can then be misdiagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. The treatment for factitious lymphoedema is dealing with the underlying psychiatric condition. Case presentation We share our experience of treating a 33-year-old man, who presented with factitious lymphoedema, initially diagnosed as reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Conclusion Awareness of this very similar differential diagnosis allows early appropriate treatment to be administered.

  12. High levels of X-linked Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) are indicative of radio chemotherapy resistance in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, L.; Kehoe, J.; Fay, J.; Bacon, O.; Lindner, A.U.; Kay, E.W.; Deasy, J.; McNamara, D.A.; Prehn, J.H.M.


    The mainstay of treatment in rectal cancer is neoadjuvant radio chemotherapy prior to surgery, in an attempt to downstage the tumour, allowing for more complete removal during surgery. In 40 % of cases however, this neoadjuvant radio chemotherapy fails to achieve tumour regression, partly due insufficient apoptosis signaling. X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (XIAP) is an anti-apoptotic protein that has been reported to contribute to disease progression and chemotherapy resistance. We obtained rectal biopsy normal and matched tumour tissue from 29 rectal cancer patients with varying degrees of tumour regression, and using Western blot, examined anti-apoptotic XIAP and pro-apoptotic Smac protein levels in these tissues, with the aim to examine whether disturbed XIAP/Smac levels may be an indicator of neoadjuvant radio chemotherapy resistance. Expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 was also examined. We found that levels of XIAP increased in accordance with the degree of radio chemotherapy resistance of the tissue. Levels of this protein were also significantly higher in tumour tissue, compared to matched normal tissue in highly resistant tissue. In contrast, Smac protein levels did not increase with radio chemotherapy resistance, and the protein was similarly expressed in normal and tumour tissue, indicating a shift in the balance of these proteins. Post treatment surgical resection tissue was available for 8 patients. When we compared matched tissue pre- and post- radio chemotherapy we found that XIAP levels increased significantly during treatment in both normal and tumour tissue, while Smac levels did not change. cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 levels were not differentially expressed in varying degrees of radio chemotherapy resistance, and neoadjuvant therapy did not alter expression of these proteins. These data indicate that disturbance of the XIAP/Smac balance may be a driver of radio chemotherapy resistance, and hence high levels of XIAP may

  13. Serum vaspin level as a predictive indicator in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty. (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Zong-Fan; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Jia, Ben-Li; Yu, Gang; Yin, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yang


    This study is all about predicting the value of serum vaspin level in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty (LVBG). A total of 164 patients (from January 2012 to May 2015) with severe obesity were chosen and performed LVBG. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect the serum vaspin level. The patients were given a biochemical automatic analyzer to measure the biochemical indicators. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) helps in the calculation of fasting insulin level (FINS) and insulin resistance (IR). The changes in fatty liver were examined by computed tomography (CT). Receiver operating characteristic curve is used to increase the predictive value of serum vaspin level in the amelioration of liver function and disturbances in the metabolism. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, serum vaspin level, and triglyceride (TG) decreased, but CT value of liver increased at 4th, 7th, and 12th month after surgery. After the 7th and 12th month period of surgery, the alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, FINS, and HOMA-IR reduced in the patients (P fatty liver and metabolic disturbance. This study proves that the serum vaspin level serves as a predictive indicator in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after LVBG.

  14. Optogenetic release of norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic neurons alters mechanical and electrical function. (United States)

    Wengrowski, Anastasia M; Wang, Xin; Tapa, Srinivas; Posnack, Nikki Gillum; Mendelowitz, David; Kay, Matthew W


    Release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic neurons enhances heart rate (HR) and developed force through activation of β-adrenergic receptors, and this sympathoexcitation is a key risk for the generation of cardiac arrhythmias. Studies of β-adrenergic modulation of cardiac function typically involve the administration of exogenous β-adrenergic receptor agonists to directly elicit global β-adrenergic receptor activation by bypassing the involvement of sympathetic nerve terminals. In this work, we use a novel method to activate sympathetic fibres within the myocardium of Langendorff-perfused hearts while measuring changes in electrical and mechanical function. The light-activated optogenetic protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was expressed in murine catecholaminergic sympathetic neurons. Sympathetic fibres were then photoactivated to examine changes in contractile force, HR, and cardiac electrical activity. Incidence of arrhythmia was measured with and without exposure to photoactivation of sympathetic fibres, and hearts were optically mapped to detect changes in action potential durations and conduction velocities. Results demonstrate facilitation of both developed force and HR after photostimulated release of NE, with increases in contractile force and HR of 34.5 ± 5.5 and 25.0 ± 9.3%, respectively. Photostimulation of sympathetic fibres also made hearts more susceptible to arrhythmia, with greater incidence and severity. In addition, optically mapped action potentials displayed a small but significant shortening of the plateau phase (-5.5 ± 1.0 ms) after photostimulation. This study characterizes a powerful and clinically relevant new model for studies of cardiac arrhythmias generated by increasing the activity of sympathetic nerve terminals and the resulting activation of myocyte β-adrenergic receptors. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email:

  15. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress. (United States)

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E


    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  16. Hyperthyroidism is characterized by both increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulation of heart rate: evidence from spectral analysis of heart rate variability. (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Tseng, Yin-Jiun; Chu, Woei-Chyn


    The clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism resemble those of the hyperadrenergic state. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of hyperthyroidism on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and to investigate the relationship between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and parameters of spectral heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in hyperthyroidism. Thirty-two hyperthyroid Graves' disease patients (mean age 31 years) and 32 sex-, age-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched normal control subjects were recruited to receive one-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The cardiac autonomic nervous function was evaluated by the spectral analysis of HRV, which indicates the autonomic modulation of the sinus node. The correlation coefficients between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and parameters of the spectral HRV analysis were also computed. The hyperthyroid patients revealed significant differences (P hyperthyroidism in 28 patients, all of the above parameters were restored to levels comparable to those of the controls. In addition, serum thyroid hormone concentrations showed significant correlations with spectral HRV parameters. Hyperthyroidism is in a sympathovagal imbalanced state, characterized by both increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulation of the heart rate. These autonomic dysfunctions can be detected simultaneously by spectral analysis of HRV, and the spectral HRV parameters could reflect the disease severity in hyperthyroid patients.

  17. Comparison of the Blood Level OF Leptin in Umbilical Cord of Newborns of Mothers With Gestational Diabetes and Normal Mothers and Its Relationship With Growth Indices of Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is defined as an abnormal increase in blood glucose levels and is the most common disease that can complicate pregnancy. Leptin, a hormone produced mainly in adipose tissue, plays an important role in preventing fat accumulation in tissues such as skeletal muscle and myocardium and can be used to evaluate changes in lipid levels effectively. Leptin cannot cross the placental barrier, and its level in the umbilical cord is of fetal origin. Objectives Due to the lack of similar studies in Ahvaz, we aimed to determine the relationship between umbilical blood levels of this hormone with growth indices of newborns with normal mothers and mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Materials and Methods After delivery and using the aseptic method, 5 mL of blood from the umbilical vein was taken immediately by staffs to separate serum and was then stored at −20°C. Serum level of leptin was measured using the Elisa method in two groups: “case” and “control.” All information collected in the questionnaires was analyzed using SPSS-19 software as well as other statistical methods. Results Serum leptin levels in the cord blood of mothers with GDM were significantly higher than in normal mothers. There was a significant relationship between serum leptin levels and birth weight in infants with diabetic mothers. In this study, no significant correlation was observed between cord leptin levels and other growth indices. Conclusions Changes in neonatal leptin levels can reflect changes in the body fat tissue and neonatal birth weight and could be effective in predicting weight gain in newborns with mothers who have gestational diabetes and may reduce birth trauma or future complications.

  18. Ghrelin potentiates cardiac reactivity to stress by modulating sympathetic control and beta-adrenergic response. (United States)

    Camargo-Silva, Gabriel; Turones, Larissa Córdova; da Cruz, Kellen Rosa; Gomes, Karina Pereira; Mendonça, Michelle Mendanha; Nunes, Allancer; de Jesus, Itamar Guedes; Colugnati, Diego Basile; Pansani, Aline Priscila; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Santos, Robson; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky; Guatimosim, Silvia; de Castro, Carlos Henrique; Ianzer, Danielle; Ferreira, Reginaldo Nassar; Xavier, Carlos Henrique


    Prior evidence indicates that ghrelin is involved in the integration of cardiovascular functions and behavioral responses. Ghrelin actions are mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue receptor subtype 1a (GHS-R1a), which is expressed in peripheral tissues and central areas involved in the control of cardiovascular responses to stress. In the present study, we assessed the role of ghrelin - GHS-R1a axis in the cardiovascular reactivity to acute emotional stress in rats. Ghrelin potentiated the tachycardia evoked by restraint and air jet stresses, which was reverted by GHS-R1a blockade. Evaluation of the autonomic balance revealed that the sympathetic branch modulates the ghrelin-evoked positive chronotropy. In isolated hearts, the perfusion with ghrelin potentiated the contractile responses caused by stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor, without altering the amplitude of the responses evoked by acetylcholine. Experiments in isolated cardiomyocytes revealed that ghrelin amplified the increases in calcium transient changes evoked by isoproterenol. Taken together, our results indicate that the Ghrelin-GHS-R1a axis potentiates the magnitude of stress-evoked tachycardia by modulating the autonomic nervous system and peripheral mechanisms, strongly relying on the activation of cardiac calcium transient and beta-adrenergic receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of rectal motility in rats. (United States)

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Tong, Wei-Dong; Takahashi, Toku; Kosinski, Lauren; Ludwig, Kirk A


    The colon and rectum are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Abnormalities of the ANS are associated with diseases of the colon and rectum while its modulation is a putative mechanism for sacral nerve stimulation. The purpose of this study is to establish a rat model elucidating the role of the efferent ANS on rectal motility. Rectal motility following transection or stimulation of parasympathetic pelvic nerves (PN) or sympathetic hypogastric nerves (HGN) was measured with rectal strain gauge transducers and quantified as a motility index (MI). Colonic transit was measured 24 hours after transection by calculating the geometric center (GC) of distribution of (51)Cr Transection of PN and HGN decreased MI to 518 +/- 185 g*s (p < 0.05) and increased MI to 5,029 +/- 1,954 g*s (p < 0.05), respectively, compared to sham (975 +/- 243 g*s). Sectioning of PN and HGN decreased transit with GC = 4.9 +/- 0.2 (p < 0.05) and increased transit with GC = 8.1 +/- 0.7 (p < 0.02), respectively, compared to sham (GC = 5.8 +/- 0.3). Stimulation of PN and HGN increased MI to 831 +/- 157% (p < 0.01) and decreased MI to 251 +/- 24% (p < 0.05), respectively. Rectal motility is significantly altered by sectioning or stimulating either HGN or PN. This model may be useful in studying how sacral nerve stimulation exerts its effects and provide insight into the maladies of colonic motility.

  20. High-resolution Observations of Sympathetic Filament Eruptions by NVST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shangwei; Su, Yingna; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan [5001 Riverwood Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34231 (United States); Sun, Xudong, E-mail: [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    We investigate two sympathetic filament eruptions observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope on 2015 October 15. The full picture of the eruptions is obtained from the corresponding Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations. The two filaments start from active region NOAA 12434 in the north and end in one large quiescent filament channel in the south. The left filament erupts first, followed by the right filament eruption about 10 minutes later. Clear twist structure and rotating motion are observed in both filaments during the eruption. Both eruptions failed, since the filaments first rise up, then flow toward the south and merge into the southern large quiescent filament. We also observe repeated activations of mini filaments below the right filament after its eruption. Using magnetic field models constructed based on SDO /HMI magnetograms via the flux rope insertion method, we find that the left filament eruption is likely to be triggered by kink instability, while the weakening of overlying magnetic fields due to magnetic reconnection at an X-point between the two filament systems might play an important role in the onset of the right filament eruption.

  1. Inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission in canine saphenous veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edoute, Y.; Vanhoutte, P.M.; Shepherd, J.T.


    Inorganic phosphate has been proposed as the initiator of metabolic vasodilatation in active skeletal muscle. The present study was primarily designed to determine if this substance has an inhibitory effect on adrenergic neurotransmission. Rings of canine saphenous veins were suspended for isometric tension recording in organ chambers. A comparison was made of the ability of inorganic phosphate (3 to 14 mM) to relax rings contracted to the same degree by electrical stimulation, exogenous norepinephrine, and prostaglandin F/sub 2α/. The relaxation during electrical stimulation was significantly greater at all concentrations of phosphate. In strips of saphenous veins previously incubated with [ 3 H]norepinephrine, the depression of the contractile response caused by phosphate during electrical stimulated was accompanied by a significant reduction in the overflow of labeled neurotransmitter. Thus inorganic phosphate inhibits sympathetic neurotransmission and hence may have a key role in the sympatholysis in the active skeletal muscles during exercise. By contrast, in this preparation, it has a modest direct relaxing action on the vascular smooth muscle

  2. Separate neurochemical classes of sympathetic postganglionic neurons project to the left ventricle of the rat heart. (United States)

    Richardson, R J; Grkovic, I; Allen, A M; Anderson, C R


    The sympathetic innervation of the rat heart was investigated by retrograde neuronal tracing and multiple label immunohistochemistry. Injections of Fast Blue made into the left ventricular wall labelled sympathetic neurons that were located along the medial border of both the left and right stellate ganglia. Cardiac projecting sympathetic postganglionic neurons could be grouped into one of four neurochemical populations, characterised by their content of calbindin and/or neuropeptide Y (NPY). The subpopulations of neurons contained immunoreactivity to both calbindin and NPY, immunoreactivity to calbindin only, immunoreactivity to NPY only and no immunoreactivity to calbindin or NPY. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons were also labelled in vitro with rhodamine dextran applied to the cut end of a cardiac nerve. The same neurochemical subpopulations of sympathetic neurons were identified by using this technique but in different proportions to those labelled from the left ventricle. Preganglionic terminals that were immunoreactive for another calcium-binding protein, calretinin, preferentially surrounded retrogradely labelled neurons that were immunoreactive for both calbindin and NPY. The separate sympathetic pathways projecting to the rat heart may control different cardiac functions.

  3. Renal sympathetic denervation for treatment of patients with heart failure: summary of the available evidence. (United States)

    Nammas, Wail; Koistinen, Juhani; Paana, Tuomas; Karjalainen, Pasi P


    Heart failure syndrome results from compensatory mechanisms that operate to restore - back to normal - the systemic perfusion pressure. Sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in heart failure; norepinephrine contributes to maintenance of the systemic blood pressure and increasing preload. Cardiac norepinephrine spillover increases in patients with heart failure; norepinephrine exerts direct toxicity on cardiac myocytes resulting in a decrease of synthetic activity and/or viability. Importantly, cardiac norepinephrine spillover is a powerful predictor of mortality in patients with moderate to severe HF. This provided the rationale for trials that demonstrated survival benefit associated with the use of beta adrenergic blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the MOXCON trial demonstrated that rapid uptitration of moxonidine (inhibitor of central sympathetic outflow) in patients with heart failure was associated with excess mortality and morbidity, despite reduction of plasma norepinephrine. Interestingly, renal norepinephrine spillover was the only independent predictor of adverse outcome in patients with heart failure, in multivariable analysis. Recently, renal sympathetic denervation has emerged as a novel approach for control of blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. This article summarizes the available evidence for the effect of renal sympathetic denervation in the setting of heart failure. Key messages Experimental studies supported a beneficial effect of renal sympathetic denervation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Clinical studies demonstrated improvement of symptoms, and left ventricular function. In heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, renal sympathetic denervation is associated with improvement of surrogate endpoints.

  4. Stimulation of host bone marrow stromal cells by sympathetic nerves promotes breast cancer bone metastasis in mice. (United States)

    Campbell, J Preston; Karolak, Matthew R; Ma, Yun; Perrien, Daniel S; Masood-Campbell, S Kathryn; Penner, Niki L; Munoz, Steve A; Zijlstra, Andries; Yang, Xiangli; Sterling, Julie A; Elefteriou, Florent


    Bone and lung metastases are responsible for the majority of deaths in patients with breast cancer. Following treatment of the primary cancer, emotional and psychosocial factors within this population precipitate time to recurrence and death, however the underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. Using a mouse model of bone metastasis, we provide experimental evidence that activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is one of many pathophysiological consequences of severe stress and depression, promotes MDA-231 breast cancer cell colonization of bone via a neurohormonal effect on the host bone marrow stroma. We demonstrate that induction of RANKL expression in bone marrow osteoblasts, following β2AR stimulation, increases the migration of metastatic MDA-231 cells in vitro, independently of SDF1-CXCR4 signaling. We also show that the stimulatory effect of endogenous (chronic stress) or pharmacologic sympathetic activation on breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo can be blocked with the β-blocker propranolol, and by knockdown of RANK expression in MDA-231 cells. These findings indicate that RANKL promotes breast cancer cell metastasis to bone via its pro-migratory effect on breast cancer cells, independently of its effect on bone turnover. The emerging clinical implication, supported by recent epidemiological studies, is that βAR-blockers and drugs interfering with RANKL signaling, such as Denosumab, could increase patient survival if used as adjuvant therapy to inhibit both the early colonization of bone by metastatic breast cancer cells and the initiation of the "vicious cycle" of bone destruction induced by these cells.

  5. Simultaneous storage of lithium and cesium in a quasi-electrostatic dipole trap. Spinchanging collisions and sympathetic evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlleben, W.


    This work reports on both inelastic and elastic cold ground state collisions of cesium (Cs) and lithium (Li) in the conservative potential of a quasi-electrostatic optical dipole trap. We make for the first time dedicated measurements of the ground state interaction between atoms of different elements. We study the process of thermalisation by sympathetic cooling in a finite potential. We determine the rate coefficients of hyperfine-changing collisions with regard to three different processes: homonuclear collisions of Cs with Cs, with both of them being in the upper hyperfine ground state; equally for collisions of Li with Li, with both of them being in the upper hyperfine state. For the first time an estimate of the heteronuclear rate coefficient could be given for the collision of Cs in the (F = 4) state with Li in the (F = 1) ground state. We find that elastic interaction in the atomic ground state leads to fast particle losses of Li, which is initially the less abundant in the trap. After transfer into the trap, the Li athermically occupies high energy states just beneath the trap edge. With the well known small LiLi scattering rate alone the distribution cannot thermalize. We believe that LiCs collisions mediate Li thermalisation and subsequent evaporation. The sympathetic evaporation of Li carries away part of the energy of the combined ensemble. We have first experimental indication that this process can cool further down the initially colder of the two gases. (orig.)

  6. New insights on the maternal diet induced-hypertension: potential role of the phenotypic plasticity and sympathetic-respiratory overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and affects worldwide population. Current environment including life style coupled with genetic programming have been attributed to the rising incidence of hypertension. Besides, environmental conditions during perinatal development such as maternal malnutrition can program changes in the integration among renal, neural and endocrine system leading to hypertension. This phenomenon is termed phenotypic plasticity and refers to the adjustment of a phenotype in response to environmental input without genetic change, following a novel or unusual input during development. Human and animal studies indicate that fetal exposure to an adverse maternal environment may alter the renal morphology and physiology that contribute to the development of hypertension. Recently, it has been shown that the maternal protein restriction alter the central control of SAH by a mechanism that include respiratory dysfunction and enhanced sympathetic-respiratory coupling at early life, which may contribute to adult hypertension. This review will address the new insights on the maternal diet induced-hypertension that include the potential role of the phenotypic plasticity, specifically the perinatal protein malnutrition, and sympathetic-respiratory overactivity.

  7. Highly localized interactions between sensory neurons and sprouting sympathetic fibers observed in a transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun-Ming


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sprouting of sympathetic fibers into sensory ganglia occurs in many preclinical pain models, providing a possible anatomical substrate for sympathetically enhanced pain. However, the functional consequences of this sprouting have been controversial. We used a transgenic mouse in which sympathetic fibers expressed green fluorescent protein, observable in live tissue. Medium and large diameter lumbar sensory neurons with and without nearby sympathetic fibers were recorded in whole ganglion preparations using microelectrodes. Results After spinal nerve ligation, sympathetic sprouting was extensive by 3 days. Abnormal spontaneous activity increased to 15% and rheobase was reduced. Spontaneously active cells had Aαβ conduction velocities but were clustered near the medium/large cell boundary. Neurons with sympathetic basket formations had a dramatically higher incidence of spontaneous activity (71% and had lower rheobase than cells with no sympathetic fibers nearby. Cells with lower density nearby fibers had intermediate phenotypes. Immunohistochemistry of sectioned ganglia showed that cells surrounded by sympathetic fibers were enriched in nociceptive markers TrkA, substance P, or CGRP. Spontaneous activity began before sympathetic sprouting was observed, but blocking sympathetic sprouting on day 3 by cutting the dorsal ramus in addition to the ventral ramus of the spinal nerve greatly reduced abnormal spontaneous activity. Conclusions The data suggest that early sympathetic sprouting into the sensory ganglia may have highly localized, excitatory effects. Quantitatively, neurons with sympathetic basket formations may account for more than half of the observed spontaneous activity, despite being relatively rare. Spontaneous activity in sensory neurons and sympathetic sprouting may be mutually re-enforcing.

  8. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on 24-hour blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stefanie Zuern


    Full Text Available Background: In patients with arterial hypertension, increased blood pressure (BP variability contributes to end organ damage independently from mean levels of arterial BP. Increased BP variability has been linked to alterations in autonomic function including sympathetic overdrive. We hypothesized that catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN confers beneficial effects on BPV. Methods and Results: Eleven consecutive patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension (age 68.9±7.0 years; baseline systolic BP 189±23mmHg despite medication with 5.6±2.1 antihypertensive drugs underwent bilateral RDN. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed before RDN and six months thereafter. BPV was primarily assessed by means of standard deviation of 24-hour systolic arterial blood pressures (SDsys. Secondary measures of BPV were maximum systolic blood pressure (MAXsys and maximum difference between two consecutive readings of systolic BP (deltamaxsys over 24 hours. Six months after RDN, SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were significantly reduced from 16.9±4.6mmHg to 13.5±2.5mmHg (p=0.003, from 190±22mmHg to 172±20mmHg (p<0.001 and from 40±15mmHg to 28±7mmHg (p=0.006, respectively, without changes in concomitant antihypertensive therapy. Reductions of SDsys, MAXsys and deltamaxsys were observed in 10/11 (90.9%, 11/11 (100% and 9/11 (81.8% patients, respectively. Although we noted a significant reduction of systolic office blood pressure by 30.4±27.7mmHg (p=0.007, there was only a trend in reduction of average systolic BP assessed from ABPM (149±19mmHg to 142±18mmHg; p=0.086.Conclusions: In patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension, RDN leads to significant reductions of BP variability. Effects of RDN on BPV over 24 hours were more pronounced than on average levels of BP.

  9. Association between circulating levels of adiponectin and indices of bone mass and bone metabolism in middle-aged post-menopausal women. (United States)

    Tenta, R; Kontogianni, M D; Yiannakouris, N


    Adiponectin, a fat derived cytokine, is a potential independent contributor to bone mineral density (BMD); however, its action on bone metabolism in humans is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of adiponectin with bone mass indices and bone metabolic markers in middle-aged post-menopausal women without diabetes. A random sample consisted of 81 post-menopausal women (age range 45-61 yr, osteopenic/osteoporotic no.=43) was studied. Lumbar-spine BMD (BMD(L2-L4)) and total-body bone mineral content (TBBMC) were measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma levels of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) and IGF-I were determined. No association was observed between total or HMW adiponectin and BMD(L2-L4) or TBBMC. On the contrary, adiponectin levels were positively associated with OPG levels (partial r=0.276, p=0.015) and negatively with IGF-I (partial r=-0.438, pfailed to show statistically significant association between circulating adiponectin levels and indices of bone mass in women during the postmenopausal period, we showed significant associations with OPG and IGF-I levels, suggesting an anabolic role of adiponectin, which may contribute in the understanding of the interplay between adipose tissue-derived hormones and bone metabolism. © 2012, Editrice Kurtis.

  10. Role of adrenal hormones in the synthesis of noradrenaline in cardiac sympathetic neurones (United States)

    Bhagat, B.


    1. Adrenalectomy or adrenal demedullation affected neither the levels of endogenous catecholamines in the rat heart nor the accumulation of 3H-noradrenaline 1 hr after its intravenous administration. 2. Twenty-four hours after intravenous administration of labelled amine, however, its retention was markedly reduced in the heart of adrenalectomized or demedullated rats. Ganglionic blockade prevented this reduction. 3. Rate calculations from the decline of catecholamine levels after blockade of synthesis with α-methyl-tyrosine showed that cardiac synthesis of noradrenaline increased about four-fold after demedullation and about three-fold after adrenalectomy. This increase in synthesis may compensate for the loss of circulating catecholamines. 4. There was no change in catechol-o-methyl-transferase activity, but monoamine oxidase activity was increased in the homogenates of the heart of adrenalectomized and demedullated rats. The increase in the cardiac monoamine oxidase activity was markedly greater in the adrenalectomized rats than in the demedullated rats. 5. It is suggested that adrenal cortex insufficiency may modulate the rate of synthesis of noradrenaline and monoamine oxidase activity in cardiac sympathetic neurones. PMID:5360339

  11. Gender Differences in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease and Sympathetic Ophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Wang


    Full Text Available Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH and sympathetic ophthalmia (SO are types of T-cell mediated autoimmune granulomatous uveitis. Although the two diseases share common clinical features, they have certain differences in gender predilections. VKH classically has been reported as more prevalent in females than males, yet some studies in Japan and China have not found differences in gender prevalence. Male patients have a higher risk of chorioretinal degeneration, vitiligo, and worse prognosis. Conversely, the changing levels of estrogen/progesterone during pregnancy and the menstrual cycle as well as higher levels of TGF-β show a protective role in females. Potential causes of female predilection for VKH are associated with HLA-DR and HLA-DQ alleles. SO, a bilateral granulomatous uveitis, occurs in the context of one eye after a penetrating injury due to trauma or surgery. In contrast to the female dominance in VKH, males are more frequently affected by SO due to a higher incidence of ocular injury, especially during wartime. However, no gender predilection of SO has been reported in postsurgical cases. No clinically different manifestations are revealed between males and females in SO secondary to either ocular trauma or surgery. The potential causes of the gender difference may provide hints on future treatment and disease evaluation.

  12. Remodelling of cardiac sympathetic re-innervation with thoracic spinal cord stimulation improves left ventricular function in a porcine model of heart failure. (United States)

    Liao, Song-Yan; Liu, Yuan; Zuo, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuelin; Yue, Wensheng; Au, Ka-Wing; Lai, Wing-Hon; Wu, Yangsong; Shuto, Chika; Chen, Peter; Siu, Chung-Wah; Schwartz, Peter J; Tse, Hung-Fat


    Thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to improve left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, the optimal duration (intermittent vs. continuous) of stimulation and the mechanisms of action remain unclear. We performed chronic thoracic SCS at the level of T1-T3 (50 Hz, pulse width 0.2 ms) in 30 adult pigs with HF induced by myocardial infarction and rapid ventricular pacing for 4 weeks. All the animals were treated with daily oral metoprolol succinate (25 mg) plus ramipril (2.5 mg), and randomized to a control group (n = 10), intermittent SCS (4 h ×3, n = 10) or continuous SCS (24 h, n = 10) for 10 weeks. Serial measurements of LVEF and +dP/dt and serum levels of norepinephrine and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. After sacrifice, immunohistological studies of myocardial sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve sprouting and innervation were performed. Echocardiogram revealed a significant increase in LVEF and +dP/dt at 10 weeks in both the intermittent and continuous SCS group compared with controls (P < 0.05). In both SCS groups, there was diffuse sympathetic nerve sprouting over the infarct, peri-infarct, and normal regions compared with only the peri-infarct and infarct regions in the control group. In addition, sympathetic innervation at the peri-infarct and infarct regions was increased following SCS, but decreased in the control group. Myocardium norepinephrine spillover and serum BNP at 10 weeks was significantly decreased only in the continuous SCS group (P < 0.05). In a porcine model of HF, SCS induces significant remodelling of cardiac sympathetic innervation over the peri-infarct and infarct regions and is associated with improved LV function and reduced myocardial norepinephrine spillover. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:

  13. Serum levels of chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) during virus infections; indication that chicken MBL is an acute phase reactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jensenius, J. C.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik


    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum collectin which is believed to be an opsonin of the innate immune defence against various microorganisms. MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in man. We investigated the concentration of serum MBL in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV...... levels returned to normal values 6-10 days after infection. The results indicated that MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in chickens....

  14. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter


    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  15. Understanding the natural and social factors behind regional longevity in Guangxi, China—Is centenarian ratio a good enough indicator for assessing the longevity level? (United States)

    Deng, Q.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.


    Despite a number of longevity indicators having been used in previous longevity studies, few studies have critically evaluated whether these indicators are suitable. In addition, an increasing number of studies have attempted to determine the influence of socio-economic and natural factors on regional longevity, but only certain factors were considered. The present study bridges this gap by determining the relationship between the seven longevity indicators and selecting 24 natural and socio-economic indicators in the 91 selected counties and districts in Guangxi, China. The seven longevity indicators here refer to Centenarian ratio, Longevity index, Longevity level, Aging tendency, 80+ ratio, 90+ ratio and 95+ ratio. Natural indicators in this study mainly refer to climatic ones. Socio-economic indicators can be categorized into those related to economic, education, local infrastructure, and health care facilities. These data were mainly drawn from the Meteorological Data Sharing Service System and Guangxi's sixth population census. Stepwise regression analysis has been used as the primary research method to determine the relationship between the longevity indicators and the natural, social, and economic indicators. The results show that the climate factors regarding atmospheric pressure, humidity, and rainfall are the most significant contributors to the longevity of the 60- to 90-year-old elderly in Guangxi, while the difference of mean annual temperature could have negative impacts. Also, the natural and socioeconomic factors that impact the extremely old population (those over 95 years old) in Guangxi are still not clear. This study reveals that the longevity index and longevity level are useful supplementary indexes to the centenarian ratio for assessing the regional longevity as they could help reflect the regional longevity regarding the proportion of young-old and old-old population and not just limit to those over 100 years old. The elderly (those from 60

  16. Ethnic-group socioeconomic status as an indicator of community-level disadvantage: A study of overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Tam, Christina; John, Iyanrick; Lui, Camillia


    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. Informed by a wide socioeconomic diversity among Asian American ethnic groups, this study explored ethnic-group socioeconomic status (SES) as an indicator of community-level disadvantage that may influence overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. We hypothesized that ethnic-group SES was inversely associated with overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1525 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from pooled 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) data. Age, gender, nativity, individual-level SES (income and education), and two lifestyle variables (fast food consumption and physical activity) were controlled for. We found that adolescents in high- or middle-level SES ethnic groups were far less likely to be overweight/obese than those in low-SES ethnic groups. Further, these relationships were more pronounced for foreign-born adolescents but not significant for U.S.-born adolescents. Ethnic-group SES may be a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans and, potentially, other populations with high proportions of immigrants of diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute stimulation of brain mu opioid receptors inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via sympathetic innervation. (United States)

    Tudurí, Eva; Beiroa, Daniel; Stegbauer, Johannes; Fernø, Johan; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén


    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β-cells express opioid receptors, whose activation by opioid peptides modulates hormone secretion. Opioid receptors are also expressed in multiple brain regions including the hypothalamus, where they play a role in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, but their potential role in central regulation of glucose metabolism is unknown. Here, we investigate whether central opioid receptors participate in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in vivo. C57BL/6J mice were acutely treated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with specific agonists for the three main opioid receptors, kappa (KOR), delta (DOR) and mu (MOR) opioid receptors: activation of KOR and DOR did not alter glucose tolerance, whereas activation of brain MOR with the specific agonist DAMGO blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), reduced insulin sensitivity, increased the expression of gluconeogenic genes in the liver and, consequently, impaired glucose tolerance. Pharmacological blockade of α2A-adrenergic receptors prevented DAMGO-induced glucose intolerance and gluconeogenesis. Accordingly, DAMGO failed to inhibit GSIS and to impair glucose tolerance in α2A-adrenoceptor knockout mice, indicating that the effects of central MOR activation on β-cells are mediated via sympathetic innervation. Our results show for the first time a new role of the central opioid system, specifically the MOR, in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Higher exercise intensity delays postexercise recovery of impedance-derived cardiac sympathetic activity. (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M


    Systolic time intervals (STIs) provide noninvasive insights into cardiac sympathetic neural activity (cSNA). As the effect of exercise intensity on postexercise STI recovery is unclear, this study investigated the STI recovery profile after different exercise intensities. Eleven healthy males cycled for 8 min at 3 separate intensities: LOW (40%-45%), MOD (75%-80%), and HIGH (90%-95%) of heart-rate (HR) reserve. Bio-impedance cardiography was used to assess STIs - primarily pre-ejection period (PEP; inversely correlated with cSNA), as well as left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and PEP:LVET - during 10 min seated recovery immediately postexercise. Heart-rate variability (HRV), i.e., natural-logarithm of root mean square of successive differences (Ln-RMSSD), was calculated as an index of cardiac parasympathetic neural activity (cPNA). Higher preceding exercise intensity elicited a slower recovery of HR and Ln-RMSSD (p return to baseline by 10 min following any intensity (p ≤ 0.009). Recovery of STIs was also slower following higher intensity exercise (p ≤ 0.002). By 30 s postexercise, higher preceding intensity resulted in a lower PEP (98 ± 14 ms, 75 ± 6 ms, 66 ± 5 ms for LOW, MOD, and HIGH, respectively, p fashion. While exercise intensity must be considered, acute recovery may be a valuable period during which to concurrently monitor these noninvasive indices, to identify potentially abnormal cardiac autonomic responses.

  19. The sympathetic skin response in diabetic neuropathy and its relationship to autonomic symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Moallem, Mansour A.; Zaidan, Radwan M.; Alkali, Nura H.


    Objective was to examine the utility of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) as a measure of impaired autonomic function among diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia. In this case-control study, baseline SSR was obtained from 18 healthy subjects, followed by nerve conduction studies and SSR testing on a consecutive cohort of 50 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. The SSR in diabetic patients was compared between those with autonomic neuropathy and those without autonomic neuropathy. This study was conducted at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from June 2006 to June 2007. The SSR was present in all healthy subjects and in 32 diabetic patients. Among 16 patients with autonomic neuropathy, the SSR was absent in 14 and present in 2, while 4 of 34 patients lacking evidence of autonomic neuropathy had absent SSR. Using Fisher's exact test, we found a strong association between absent SSR and autonomic neuropathy (p<0.001), however, not with age or duration of diabetes mellitus. As a diagnostic test of autonomic neuropathy, the SSR had a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 88.2%, a positive predictive value of 77.8%, and a negative predictive value of 93.7%. Absence of the SSR is a reliable indicator of autonomic neuropathy among patients with diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  20. A Study of Sympathetic Flaring Using a Full-Sun Event Catalog (United States)

    Higgins, P. A.; Schrijver, C. J.; Title, A. M.; Bloomfield, D.; Gallagher, P.


    There has been a trove of papers published on the statistics of flare occurrence. These studies are trying to answer the question of whether or not subsequent solar flares are related. The majority of these works have not included both flare location information and the physical properties of the regions responsible for the eruptions, and none have taken advantage of full-Sun event coverage. Now that SDO/AIA is available and the STEREO spacecraft have progressed past 90 degrees from Earth's heliographic longitude, this new information is available to us. This work aims to quantify how common sympathetic events are, and how important they are in the forecasting of solar flares. A 3D plot of detected and clustered flare events for a full solar rotation, including the Valentine's Day Event of 2011. A full-Sun image in the EUV (304A) including both STEREO view points and AIA. The GOES X-ray light curves during the February period of 2011 are shown in the bottom panel. Detected flare events are indicated by the green dashed lines and the time stamp of this image is denoted by the red line.

  1. Renal sympathetic denervation for treatment of resistant hypertension: Egyptian experience. (United States)

    Hamza, Mohamed; Khamis, Hazem


    Among the Egyptian population with essential hypertension, a minority are under control (systolic pressure renal artery radiofrequency (RF) ablation. To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of catheter-based radiofrequency renal sympathetic denervation for treatment of resistant hypertension in Egyptian patients. Patients with essential hypertension unresponsive to at least 3 types of antihypertensive medical therapy (baseline office systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg) (n = 55) were enrolled between February 2012 and June 2013 and received percutaneous RF ablation. Patients were followed up for 6 months after treatment to detect any change in office-based measurement of blood pressure. Urine and blood samples were taken to evaluate the effects on renal function. A reduction of mean office blood pressure was seen from 174/103 ± 9/5 mmHg at baseline to 150/91 ± 8/5 mmHg at 6 months follow-up (P = 0.001). Also, we noted a significant decrease in plasma renin activity (3.66 ± 0.64 vs. 3.37 ± 0.47 ng/mL per hour; P = 0.003), and there were no periprocedural complications, no adverse events, and no change in renal function during the follow-up period. Also, no change was noted in the number of medications after 6 months (3.95 ± 1.64 vs. 3.67 ± 0.72; P = 0.27). In this observational study, catheter-based renal denervation causes sustained blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension, without serious adverse events. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Analysis of Health Indicators in Two Rural Communities on the Colombian Caribbean Coast: Poor Water Supply and Education Level Are Associated with Water-Related Diseases. (United States)

    Ruiz-Díaz, María Stephany; Mora-García, Gustavo José; Salguedo-Madrid, Germán Israel; Alario, Ángelo; Gómez-Camargo, Doris Esther


    Water-related diseases are closely linked with drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) indicators, socioeconomic status, education level, or dwelling's conditions. Developing countries exhibit a particular vulnerability to these diseases, especially rural areas and urban slums. This study assessed socioeconomic features, WASH indicators, and water-related diseases in two rural areas of the Colombian Caribbean coast. Most of this population did not finish basic education (72.3%, N = 159). Only one of the communities had a water supply (aqueduct), whereas the other received water via an adapted tanker ship. No respondents reported sewage services; 92.7% ( N = 204) had garbage service. Reported cases of diarrhea were associated with low education levels ( P = 2.37 × 10 -9 ) and an unimproved drinking water supply ( P = 0.035). At least one fever episode was reported in 20% ( N = 44) of dwellings, but the cases were not related to any indicator. The Aedes/ House index (percentage of houses that tested positive for Aedes larvae and/or pupae) was 69%, the container index (percentage of water-holding containers positive for Aedes larvae or pupae) 29.4%, and the Breteau index (number of positive containers per 100 houses in a specific location) was three positive containers per 100 inspected houses. The presence of positive containers was associated with the absence of a drinking water supply ( P = 0.04). The community with poorer health indicators showed greater health vulnerability conditions for acquisition of water-related diseases. In summary, water supply and educational level were the main factors associated with the presence of water-related diseases in both communities.

  3. Control of sympathetic vasomotor tone by catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata (United States)

    Marina, Nephtali; Abdala, Ana P.L.; Korsak, Alla; Simms, Annabel E.; Allen, Andrew M.; Paton, Julian F.R.; Gourine, Alexander V.


    Aims Increased sympathetic tone in obstructive sleep apnoea results from recurrent episodes of systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia and might be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we re-evaluated the role of a specific population of sympathoexcitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone, arterial blood pressure, and hypercapnia-evoked sympathetic and cardiovascular responses. Methods and results In anaesthetized rats in vivo and perfused rat working heart brainstem preparations in situ, C1 neurones were acutely silenced by application of the insect peptide allatostatin following cell-specific targeting with a lentiviral vector to express the inhibitory Drosophila allatostatin receptor. In anaesthetized rats with denervated peripheral chemoreceptors, acute inhibition of 50% of the C1 neuronal population resulted in ∼50% reduction in renal sympathetic nerve activity and a profound fall in arterial blood pressure (by ∼25 mmHg). However, under these conditions systemic hypercapnia still evoked vigorous sympathetic activation and the slopes of the CO2-evoked sympathoexcitatory and cardiovascular responses were not affected by inhibition of C1 neurones. Inhibition of C1 neurones in situ resulted in a reversible fall in perfusion pressure and the amplitude of respiratory-related bursts of thoracic sympathetic nerve activity. Conclusion These data confirm a fundamental physiological role of medullary catecholaminergic C1 neurones in maintaining resting sympathetic vasomotor tone and arterial blood pressure. However, C1 neurones do not appear to mediate sympathoexcitation evoked by central actions of CO2. PMID:21543384

  4. Recurrent postoperative CRPS I in patients with abnormal preoperative sympathetic function.