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Sample records for levels hiroshima adult

  1. Serum immunoglobulin levels in the ABCC-JNIH adult health study: Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.A.; Milton, R.C.; Hamilton, H.B.

    1973-05-31

    Immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA, and IgM) were determined on 2043 individuals in the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study population, and levels were compared to disease states and the dose of radiation ATB. Mean levels for both cities and sexes combined were IgG = 1577 mg%, IgA = 312 mg%, and IgM = 127 mg%. Differences between these mean levels and those reported in other studies are thought secondary to racial and environmental factors, and technical differences with the methods used for quantitation. Females had higher IgM levels that tended to go down with advancing age. Of the diseases evaluated, rheumatoid arthritis, cirrhosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis affected immunoglobulin levels the greatest. There was no apparent relationship between radiation dose from the atomic bomb and immunoglobulin levels determined more than 25 years after exposure. (6 tables)

  2. Hiroshima and ourselves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1985-08-02

    The author discusses his feelings and responses which he experienced from interviewing Hiroshima survivors. As survivors attempted to recall their feelings at the time of the bomb, they conveyed a sense of having been immersed in a sea of death. They remembered not only the expectation of their own death but also the sense that the whole world was dying. What impressed the author most was the survivor's lifelong encounter with death, which could be understood as taking place in four stages: the immersion in death at the time of the bomb; the experience of acute radiation effects (including extreme weakness, severe gastrointestinal symptoms, bleeding into the skin and from bodily orifices, high fever, low white blood cell counts, alopecia, and death); delayed radiation effects (increased incidence of leukemia and of many forms of cancer); and an eventual sense of permanent death taint associated with the identity of hibakusha, or explosion-affected person.

  3. Teaching Hiroshima: Thinking about the Unthinkable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Reg

    1983-01-01

    Describes the instructional materials used in a sophomore literature course to deal with the topic of possible nuclear destruction, including John Hersey's "Hiroshima"; photographs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Carl Sagan's "Cosmos"; and specially prepared handouts and worksheets. (LAL)

  4. An Attempt to Measure the Gamma Radiation Dosage at Hiroshima from Photosensitive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brixner, Berlyn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McmIllan, Edwin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-23

    After Japan surrendered in August 1945, a team of Los Alamos scientists entered both Hiroshima and Nagasaki to assess the damage of Little Boy and Fat Man. Two of these scientists, Berlyn Brixner and Edwin McMillan, discovered a stock of photographic film in Hiroshima that had been fogged by the gamma radiation from Little Boy. They devised an experiment that they thought might be used to determine the exposure levels in the city. Below is both their description of the film stock and the attempt to determine the exposure levels at Hiroshima.

  5. Hiroshima: Perspectives on the Atomic Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Amy

    In this curriculum module students analyze both U.S. and Japanese perspectives of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The activities integrate Howard Gardner's work on multiple intelligences. The module is recommended as a supplement to textbook coverage of the war in the Pacific and of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. It can be used to support both…

  6. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Phair, J.P.; Seki, Masafumi; Hamilton, H.B.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1964-08-19

    The present study was conducted at ABCC on a sample of Hiroshima residents systematically seleced for determining the influence on general health status of exposure to the atomic bomb of 1945. A survey for urinary infections was taken on persons in the sample examined in the ABCC clinic over a 1-year period: approximately 3000 women and 2000 men. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of urinary infection and to study the relation between bacteriuria and various aspects of the general examination, particularly blood pressure. In addition, the rates of urinary tract infection in the clinic were compared with the rates of chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy. Results showed that infections were much more common in women than in men and rose with age in both sexes. The greatest increase in the prevalence was found in women age 60 years and over was due to coliform bacteria in all but a few instances. There was no difference in hematuria, glycosuria, diabetes, serum cholesterol, blood groups, electrocardiograms, audiometry, vibrometry, hemoglobin levels or height-weight ratios. Blood pressure is higher in infected women as compared with noninfected women and the finding of higher rates for cardiac enlargement suggests that this small difference in blood pressures may have biological significance. However, the data do not permit a conclusion as to whether the urinary infections were responsible for the higher blood pressure levels, or whether the higher blood pressure levels increased the frequency of detectable infection. The difference between the clinical rates of urinary infection in men and women, and the pathological diagnosis of pyelonephritis in the same population, supports a previous suggestion that much of what is called pyelonephritis at autopsy is not due to urinary tract infection. 27 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  7. A Teaching Tool: John Hersey's Hiroshima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John Anthony

    1983-01-01

    Hersey humanizes the horror of Hiroshima by describing the experiences of five survivors. Twenty senior high students in a U.S. history course were divided into five teams, one for each survivor, and asked to write a case history of that individual, make an oral presentation, and draw the victim's picture. (RM)

  8. Counseling for English Learning at Hiroshima University

    OpenAIRE

    前田, 啓朗

    2002-01-01

    This report shows the series of attempt of "Counseling for English Learning (CEL)," which was planned by Information Media Center. CEL started for the students at Hiroshima University in October 23, 2001. Since learners of English have various characteristics, it is very difficult to support each learner's problem or trouble only in classroom. CEL was planned to support and facilitate students' learning, flexibly considering individual learner differences such as language proficiency or learn...

  9. Hiroshima to Fukushima biohazards of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    Set against a backdrop of the recent disaster at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, "Hiroshima to Fukushima" examines the issue of radiation safety. The author provides important and accurate scientific information about the radioactive substances arising from nuclear power plants and weapons, including the effects of this radiation on living organisms. Currently, humankind is at a crossroads and must decide whether to phase out or increase its reliance on nuclear power as weapons and an energy source. Although a few countries, mostly European, have vowed to abolish nuclear power as an energy source, many other countries are about to increase their nuclear power programs. This book is written from a Japanese perspective and thus provides an alternative to views of Western writers. The author includes rigorous scientific analyses, however maintains a broad scope which allows the book to be accessible to decision-makers and non-specialists.

  10. 'Stone for Peace' from Hiroshima presented to Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus 21. oktoobril 2011 Hiroshima Rahukivi Ühingu juhtidega, kes andsid Kadrioru pargi jaapani aiale mälestuskivi, mis meenutab 6. augustil 1945 toimunud tuumapommi plahvatust

  11. Audiometric changes with age in Hiroshima: a statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J.W.; Ishii, Goro

    1960-10-01

    Audiometry observations were analyzed for 290 irradiated survivors of the 1945 atomic bomb in Hiroshima and in 293 nonirradiated subjects. The study was undertaken in order to determine the age changes in audiology in irradiated and nonirradiated subjects as well as to investigate the pattern of hearing levels in a Japanese population for comparison with patterns in Caucasians. The following statistical observations were made. Correlation between hearing levels for right and left ear. Correlation between hearing levels at various cycles. Changes in hearing levels by age and sex. The relation between age and decibel loss was not linear and correlation ratios with age were 0.45 to 0.72. Audiometry seems to be of some value as one of a battery of tests of physiologic aging designed for detection of irradiation induced nonspecific aging acceleration. In this relatively small sample, no differences in hearing acuity were detected in the atomic bomb survivors as compared with the control sample. 6 references, 3 figures, 9 tables.

  12. Vitamin levels in adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaas, Elisabeth Toverud; Aarsland, Tore Ivar Malmei; Ulvik, Arve; Halmøy, Anne; Ueland, Per Magne; Haavik, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Micronutrients containing vitamins are reported to reduce symptom levels in persons with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on vitamin levels in ADHD are sparse. Aims To examine the relationship between vitamin concentrations, ADHD diagnosis and psychiatric symptoms in young adult ADHD patients and controls. Method Eight vitamins and the nicotine metabolite cotinine were analysed in serum samples from 133 ADHD patients and 131 controls aged between 18 and 40, who also reported ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions. Results Lower concentrations of vitamins B2, B6 and B9 were associated with the ADHD diagnosis, and B2 and B6 also with symptom severity. Smokers had lower levels of vitamins B2 and B9. Conclusions ADHD patients were overrepresented in the group with low levels of some vitamins, possibly indicative of inadequate dietary intake of these micronutrients in a subgroup of patients. It is important to identify these patients in dietary intervention trials of ADHD. Declaration of interest J.H. has received lecture honoraria as part of continuing medical education programmes sponsored by Novartis, Eli Lilly and Company, and Janssen-Cilag. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27990293

  13. Proteinuria in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

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    Freedman, L.R.; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J.P.; Nefzger, M.D.

    1966-08-25

    A study of the epidemiology of proteinuria was conducted on about 5000 persons comprising a portion of the clinical sample under study at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In addition, data from previous examinations of similar samples were analyzed. Proteinuria was more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The rates for men and women did not differ within cities. Age-specific rates of proteinuria were peculiar, peaking in adolescence and old age. In the subjects under study proteinuria was frequently inconstant and usually represented excretion of less than 1.0 g of protein per day. Prior exposure to radiation as measured by distance from the hypocenter was correlated with increased proteinuria rates in 18-year-old subjects who were in utero ATB. Subjects exposed after birth did not show this tendency. It is unsettled whether radiation results in renal disease by increasing the subject's susceptibility to the usual causes of glomerulonephritis or by some more direct mechanism. Persons with proteinuria had higher mean blood pressures and serum urea nitrogen levels than controls and had other findings indicative of generalized cardiovascular-renal disease. Persons with thyroid disease had an increased risk of proteinuria whereas the converse was true of those with a history of treatment for peptic ulcer. Many other factors were tested for a relation to proteinuria, including family history of renal disease, socioeconomic status, urinary symptoms, ingestion of medications, physical findings, hemoglobin levels, height, weight, ABO blood groups, audiometry, vibrometry, and serum cholesterol levels. Although urinary symptoms were more common in persons with proteinuria, the findings in other areas were not sufficiently different to suggest meaningful relations. 20 references, 2 figures, 13 tables.

  14. Hiroshima: A City with Peace as Its Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Employs a summary of the story "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes" by Eleanor Coerr as an introduction to the city of Hiroshima's (Japan) quest for world peace, peace education, and strong opposition to nuclear warfare. Discusses various symbols of peace, such as paper cranes in Japanese culture, and offers five teaching activities.…

  15. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G. (Univ. of Toronto School of Medicine, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-12-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease.

  16. Literature, cinema and history in "Hiroshima Mon Amour"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nismária Alves David Barros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Hiroshima Mon Amour, realization by Alain Resnais divulged in 1959 and ciné-roman by Marguerite Duras published in 1960. Considering the Jeanne-Marie Clerc's theory (2004, we understand that the literature and the cinema are resources of expression that do not establish competition or subordination relations, but they establish complementary relations, they make mutual exchanges for their renewals. They are not the documents on the atomic tragedy of Hiroshima because they congregate historical facts, literary narrative and cinematographic techniques. This ciné-roman and this film displays a revolutionary position of the artistic form to express a critical vision on the world after war. They create a love history and a history of loss, focusing the individual anguish in the plot. Through  the return to the past, using a poetical language, they discloses the pains of the protagonist and the pains of the humanity. Therefore the receiver reflects on himself.

  17. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

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    Manabu Asakawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX was 25,590 mouse units (MU per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-fluorescent detection (FLD (HPLC-FLD, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, infrared (IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g. Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10. These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  18. Highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula containing tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-02-20

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as "strongly toxic" (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665-5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  19. Feasibility of using {sup 236}U to reconstruct close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, A., E-mail: ayaskgc@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8526 (Japan); Kawai, K. [Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, K-INET, Kanazawa University, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224 (Japan); Steier, P. [VERA-Laboratory, Fakultaet fuer Physik - Isotopenforschung, Universitaet Wien, Waehringer Str. 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Imanaka, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Endo, S. [Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Zhumadilov, K. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Yamamoto, M. [Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, K-INET, Kanazawa University, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1224 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    The first results on the feasibility of using {sup 236}U to reconstruct the level and spatial distribution of close-in fallout deposition from the Hiroshima A-bomb are reported, coupled with the use of global fallout {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu. The results for global fallout {sup 236}U in soil samples (0-30 cm) from Ishikawa prefecture showed that the deposition density of {sup 236}U from the global fallout can be accurately evaluated using AMS. All deposited {sup 236}U, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu appeared to have been recovered using 30-cm cores. It was also noted from the depth profiles for {sup 236}U/{sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 236}U/{sup 137}Cs ratios that the downward behavior of {sup 236}U in the soil was apparently similar to that of {sup 239+240}Pu, while the {sup 137}Cs was liable to be retained in upper layers compared with {sup 236}U and {sup 239+240}Pu. The accumulated levels were 1.78 x 10{sup 13} atoms m{sup -2} for {sup 236}U, 4340 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 137}Cs and 141 Bq m{sup -2} for {sup 239+240}Pu. The ratios of {sup 236}U/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 236}U/{sup 239+240}Pu were (4.10 {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup 9} and (1.26 {+-} 0.04) x 10{sup 11} atoms Bq{sup -1}, respectively. Results of {sup 236}U, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239+240}Pu measurements for the seven soil cores (0-30 cm) from Hiroshima were discussed on the basis of ratios of {sup 236}U/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 236}U/{sup 239+240}Pu by comparing with those from the background area in Ishikawa, indicating that the global fallout dominates the current level of {sup 236}U accumulation in soil in the Black-rain area around Hiroshima after the Hiroshima bomb, and the contribution of the close-in fallout {sup 236}U produced by the Hiroshima A-bomb seems difficult to observe.

  20. Predictors of urinary 3-PBA levels in adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Nonchemical stressors that impact the urinary levels of bisphenol-A in 50 North Carolina adults. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Morgan,...

  1. August 2014 Hiroshima landslide disaster and its societal impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Sassa, Kyoji; Wang, Chunxiang

    2015-04-01

    In the early morning of August 20, 2014, Hiroshima city was hit by a number of debris flows along a linear rain band which caused extreme downpour. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows: 1. Extreme rainfall events : geology and geomorphology does not much affect the distribution of landslides initiation sites. 2. Area of causative extreme rainfall is localized in 2 km x 10 km along the rain band. 3. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow by undrained loading onto the torrent deposits. 4. Apparently long-term land-use change affected the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan. 5. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave gigantic societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill.

  2. Expired nitric oxide levels in adult asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiharu Okada

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The expired nitric oxide (NO concentration is known to be higher in asthmatic subjects than in normal subjects. To elucidate the role of NO in asthma, we examined the expired NO concentrations in relation to the type (atopic, mixed, non- atopic, and severity (mild, moderate, severe of asthmatics, as well as the influence of steroid treatment. Twenty-seven normal subjects, 48 asthmatics, 8 subjects with allergic rhinitis, and 13 subjects with pulmonary emphysema participated in the study. The expired NO concentration was significantly higher in asthmatics and patients with allergic rhinitis than in normal subjects (P<0.01. No significant difference was observed between the expired NO concentration in patients with pulmonary emphysema and that of normal subjects. The expired NO concentrations were significantly lower in non- atopic asthma than in atopic asthma. Nitric oxide levels were significantly lower in severe asthma than in mild asthma. High doses of steroid treatment are often used in severe asthma. The dose of inhaled beclomethasone and expired NO concentrations showed a negative correlation (r= −0.51587, P<0.004. Drip infusion of hydrocortisone tended to increase the exhaled NO concentration just after drip infusion, however, it decreased after 24 h. These results suggest that steroid treatment decreases the expired NO concentrations in asthmatics, although it cannot be concluded that NO increases the severity of asthma. The measurement of expired NO concentrations is an easy, non-invasive test, which may be a useful tool for monitoring the condition of asthmatics.

  3. A lifelong journey of moving beyond wartime trauma for survivors from Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Nishimura, Chie; Ito, Mio; Wands, Lisa Marie; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 51 stories of health, shared by people who survived the wartime trauma of Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, seeking to identify turning points that moved participants along over their lifetime. The central turning point for Hiroshima survivors was "becoming Hibabusha (A-bomb survivor)" and for Pearl Harbor survivors was "honoring the memory and setting it aside." Wartime trauma was permanently integrated into survivors' histories, surfacing steadily over decades for Hiroshima survivors and intermittently over decades for Pearl Harbor survivors. Regardless of experience or nationality, participants moved through wartime trauma by connecting with others, pursuing personal and global peace.

  4. Commissioning of a compact synchrotron radiation source at Hiroshima University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Andreyashkin, M.; Goto, K. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1998-11-01

    A 700 MeV synchrotron radiation source is under commissioning at Hiroshima University. The ring is of a racetrack type with two undulators, linear and helical ones, at the long straight sections. The bending field, produced by normal conducting magnet, is as strong as 2.7 Tesla, which generates as high radiation power as compatible with the one from usual 1.6 GeV ring. 14 beam-ports from the bending sections together with two from the undulators are prepared. The injector is a 150 MeV racetrack microtron, which is used also for other purposes than the beam injection into the storage ring. As of March 1998, the stored current is typically 100 mA at start and the beam lifetime is three hours. We expect the beam lifetime will be extended to be eight hours after degassing operation for another few months. (author)

  5. Innovation of dental education system for researcher, dentist, dental hygienist and dental technician in Hiroshima University

    OpenAIRE

    Kurihara, Hidemi

    2006-01-01

    Hiroshima University Faculty of Dentistry's goal is to become the worldwide research and education center in Dentistry. It seems to constitute the dental education by two missions: core and characteristic. Hiroshima University Faculty of Dentistry has clarified their characteristic mission and improved dental education system to reinforce the innovative part of the education. We started two programs to cultivate researchers/educators who will be a world-wide leader of dental research and educ...

  6. Noise level analysis in adult intensive care unit

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    Helen Katharine Christofel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the noise level in adult intensive care unit. Methods: a quantitative study, in which the sound levels of the intensive care unit have been assessed by means of a decibel meter. Results: comparing the groups, there was a reduction in noise levels in both periods studied, but only in the afternoon there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05. The health professionals pointed out that the unit had moderate noise, coming mainly from equipment and professionals. Conclusion: adjusting the ventilator alarms contributed to the reduction of noise levels in the unit, and there was the perception that it is a moderate noise environment, although the noise levels in decibels observed were above the recommended values.

  7. Atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde at the campus University of Hiroshima, Japan

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    Sonia Naomi Nomi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO were measured at Hiroshima (Japan during spring and summer of 2005. Measurements of O3, NOx, and SO2 were simultaneously conducted, in an attempt to identify temporal profiles and sources for these aldehydes. Atmospheric aldehydes were collected using C18 silica gel cartridges coated with an acidic solution of 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detection adjusted to 360 nm. Summer concentrations were higher than spring levels. FA concentrations during spring period ranged from 0.50 to 1.05 ppb and AA concentrations ranged from 0.17 to 1.31 ppb; during summer their concentrations ranged from 1.55 to 4.12 ppb and 0. 34 to 2.03 ppb. Average FA/AA in spring and summer were 3.09 and 3.72 suggesting biogenic emissions of aldehydes. The levels of FA and AA, their temporal variations, and their concentration ratio (FA/AA indicated that photochemical reactions contributed significantly to the formation of atmospheric aldehydes at the study site.

  8. Higher Education for the 1980s. Challenges and Responses. Report of the Hiroshima International Seminar on Higher Education (2nd, Hiroshima, Japan, January 29-31, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The challenges of social change, values crises, societal needs for higher education, the internal dynamics of higher educational systems, and future reforms in higher education were discussed at the Second Hiroshima International Seminar on Higher Education. Topics discussed include: Higher Education in an Age of Internationalization (Michio…

  9. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

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    Platt Illeane

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration

  10. The image of the atomic bomb in Japan before Hiroshima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Maika

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces the roots of the image of the atomic bomb in Japan by investigating the various discourses on atomic energy and atomic weapons in Japanese literature prior to the bombing of Hiroshima in August 1945. Japan is a country that suffered an atomic attack and, at the same time, one of the countries that was engaged in atomic weapons research during the Second World War. During the war, the discourses on atomic weapons were not limited to the military or scientific communities, but included the general public, thus facilitating the creation of a shared image of the atomic bomb as an ultimate weapon. This paper examines how this image was created. This special issue deals with the comparison among different countries, but the purpose of my paper is to deepen this subject by illustrating the differences within a single country in different periods. This research aims to extend the historical perspective concerning the atomic bomb in Japan, and offers another way of looking at this both historical and contemporary issue.

  11. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srsen, S. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-05-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were too small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable.

  12. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  13. Predictors of urinary cadmium levels in adult females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Jane A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States)]. E-mail: jamcelroy@wisc.edu; Shafer, Martin M. [University of Wisconsin, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 600 N Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Hampton, John M. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, 610 Walnut Street, 370 WARF, Madison, WI 53726 (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Cancer Prevention Program, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402 PO Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to low levels of cadmium has raised concern about adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of non-occupationally exposed adult females that correlated with creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels. In our population-based study, trained interviewers collected information from 254 female Wisconsin residents aged 20-69 years on tobacco use, limited dietary consumption patterns, reproductive history, demographics, and residential history. Participants provided spot-urine specimens collected at home. Urine cadmium concentrations were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and creatinine levels were also determined. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals for the natural log of the creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were calculated for each characteristic using multivariate analysis of variance adjusting for age and smoking status. Results were calculated on the log scale and then transformed to the original scale by taking the exponent of each of the values. We observed statistically significant increasing creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium mean levels relative to smoking status, older age, parity, lower body surface area, mineral zinc supplement consumption, and high income. We did not observe a difference relative to consumption of organ meats, crustaceans, alcohol, multivitamins, multiminerals or homegrown vegetables, age of menopause, menarche of participant or oldest daughter, menopausal status or urban-rural residential location. Approximately 40% of the variance in creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium levels in adult women was explained by several characteristics. Similar to other studies, age and smoking were the strongest determinants of creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium concentration.

  14. Leptin levels in children and adults with classic galactosaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Knerr, Ina

    2012-11-07

    Among the long-term complications of Classic Galactosaemia (Gal) is premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in female patients with subtle abnormalities of reproductive function also reported in male patients. Leptin is a circulating hormone which reflects body energy stores and which affects the neuroendocrine reproductive axis and pubertal development.We measured serum leptin in 28 children (10 girls, 18 boys; mean age 7.6 years, range 0.5-17.9 years) and in 22 adults (10 females, 12 males; mean age 23.9 years, range 18-37 years) with Gal on a strict galactose-restricted diet in comparison with control data.Leptin levels (expressed as SDS for gender and pubertal stage) were lower in Gal children than controls (mean leptin-SDS = -0.71 for girls, p < 0.05, -0.97 for boys compared with SDS = 0 for controls, p < 0.05). In an age-related analysis, leptin levels did not correlate with age in children with Gal for both sexes as it did for matched controls.As expected, females had higher leptin levels than males in either group. In adults with Gal, leptin concentrations were within normal limits for both sexes when adjusted for gender and BMI. There was a linear relationship between log-leptin and BMI in children with Gal and in controls. For Gal women, log-leptin was also associated with BMI. However, for Gal men, and hence for the entire group of adult Gal patients, this association between log-leptin and BMI was not detectable. Our findings suggest that leptin dysregulation may play a role in fertility issues in individuals with Gal from an early age.

  15. Critical Analysis of a Social and Scientific Moral Dilemma: Fifth Graders and Veterans Respond to "Hiroshima No Pika."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Dee

    This document presents results of a survey studying the Japanese picture book, "Hiroshima No Pika." The story aptly captures how a family of three find their lives shattered in a matter of seconds when the atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima (Japan) in World War II. Issues presented in the story are: (1) immediate survival in the face of…

  16. Sulfur activation at the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly: a replica of the Hiroshima bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III

    1985-04-01

    Studies have been completed on the activation of sulfur by fast neutrons from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly which replicates the general features of the Hiroshima bomb. The complex effects of the bomb's design and construction on leakage of sulfur-activation neutrons were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our sulfur activation studies were performed as part of a larger program to provide benchmark data for testing of methods used in recent source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb. Source neutrons capable of activating sulfur play an important role in determining neutron doses in Hiroshima at a kilometer or more from the point of explosion. 37 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. SCIWORA at Thoracic Level in an Adult: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniz Akcay Yalbuzdag

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although SCIWORA has been reported more prevalent in children, few case reports published SCIWORA in adults. Twenty seven year old man transferred to our rehabilitation unit with paraplegia arose after fall from height of 8 and concurrent blunt trauma to thoracic region. The neurological level was of T11 American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS C. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of both brain, and spine didn%u2019t prove any significant abnormalities except the protrusion of intervertebral discs at the levels of T8-9, and T9-10. Urodynamic study findings were compatible with flaccid neurogenic bladder. He enrolled in the neurological rehabilitation program. After neurological rehabilitation program partial improvement observed in his functional status. The diagnosis of SCIWORA without any abnormality in the spine with MRI may be challenging. Therefore the diagnosis might retard until the termination of spinal shock.

  18. Photography and nuclear catastrophe. The visual representation of the occurrences in Hiroshima/Nagasaki and Chernobyl; Fotografie und atomare Katastrophe. Die visuelle Repraesentation der Ereignisse von Hiroshima/Nagasaki und Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerkner, Daniel

    2014-02-13

    The dissertation project seeks to analyse the photographic positions that deal with the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. This focus includes press photographs of the events as well as artistic, documentary and touristic images that take an approach towards the disasters often years after and hereby form iconographic or material references to the events. The study reveals central strategies for photographic images of atomic catastrophes, be they of military or civil nature. It is the inability to visualize non-visible nuclear rays or the complexity of processes on an atomic level that has turned out to be crucial. This incapacity of making images, a paradigm of invisibility, substantially coins the cultural role of the events. The question of how a society deals with these abstract potentials of nuclear technology has turned out to be always anew of high relevance in regard to ecological, social and technological policies of images.

  19. Suboptimal Vitamin D levels among adult survivors of childhood cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise A. Rokitka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Vitamin D plays an important role in many bodily systems, with increasing evidence suggesting its importance for the prevention of chronic diseases and cancer. The identification of vitamin D levels in childhood cancer survivors becomes, therefore, particularly relevant, given that optimizing levels may contribute to the prevention of secondary malignancies and chronic diseases.Methods: A cross - sectional analysis of serum 25 - hydroxyvitamin D levels among adult survivors of childhood cancers living in New York State and surrounding areas (n = 139 was performed. Independent variables included gender, race/ethnicity, cancer site, year of diagnosis, past medical and surgical history, prior radiation therapy; prior chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, age at last clinic visit, year of last clinic visit, height, weight, body mass index, and vitamin D supplementation.Results: Overall, 34% of survivors were vitamin D deficient (< 20 ng/ml, 39% were classified as insufficient (20 - 29 ng/ml and 27% (≥ 30 ng/ml were classified as having sufficient levels. Despite vitamin D supplementation among 41 patients, 68.3% continued to have insufficient or deficient levels. Participants with a BMI > 25 demonstrated lower levels of vitamin D (p < 0.05. Vitamin D levels did not vary by age group, race, ethnicity, diagnosis, or years since diagnosis.Conclusion: Given the growing awareness of the role of vitamin D and the documented late effects of treatment for childhood cancers, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency within the childhood cancer survivor population is of concern. Vitamin D represents an important target for surveillance and intervention to help improve long - term outcomes of childhood cancer survivors.

  20. OSCEs in Japanese postgraduate clinical training Hiroshima experience 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, N; Ogawa, T

    2010-11-01

    Hiroshima University Hospital used the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as a formative and summative assessment tool to evaluate trainees' competence. To reflect on Hiroshima University Hospital experience of OSCEs in postgraduate training in terms of OSCE structure and trainees' perception of the OSCE they attended. A total 27 OSCEs implemented in Hiroshima University Hospital from 2000 to 2009 were examined. The OSCE in postgraduate training, Hiroshima University Hospital, was influenced by many factors from organisational and pedagogical perspectives, and changed to meet social and curriculum needs. At each OSCE, all examinees were required to answer an anonymous questionnaire, which consisted of ten checklists, just after their experience of OSCE. Five hundred and forty trainees who attended each OSCE were required to answer a questionnaire and 510 were returned (94.4%). In the comparison between formative and summative OSCEs, the number of trainees who answered "the OSCE is meaningful" in formative OSCE was significantly higher than that in summative OSCE (P process of OSCE change has helped with educational reforms because of its adaptability. Flexible attitudes to change are necessary for stakeholders to achieve the desired reforms. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. From History to Memory: Alain Resnais’ and Marguerite Duras’ Hiroshima mon amour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah French

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the representation of history and memory in Alain Resnais’ and Marguerite Duras’ 1959 film Hiroshima mon amour. It argues that the film’s privileging of subjective remembrance reflects a broader cultural interest in using memory as a counter discourse to established history. The widely documented cultural preoccupation with memory became particularly prominent in the early 1980s. However, Hiroshima mon amour can be read as an important early example of a film that predates the contemporary ‘memory boom’. For Resnais and Duras, the magnitude of the devastation in Hiroshima exceeds the limits of filmic representation. Their solution to the problem that the historic event is unrepresentable is to approach the event indirectly while focusing on an individual traumatic memory. Through a close analysis and critique of the film I argue that the film’s emphasis on individual memory validates the legitimacy of the personal narrative but problematically subsumes the political events and displaces history from the discursive realm. I also suggest that problems emerge in the film’s depiction of its traumatised female subject. While Hiroshima mon amour represents a complex female subjectivity and interiority, the process of remembrance depicted deprives the woman of agency and renders her trapped within a compulsive repetition of the past.

  2. Zoonotic onchocerciasis in Hiroshima, Japan, and molecular analysis of a paraffin section of the agent for a reliable identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Japan is a country of high specific diversity of Onchocerca with eight species, the adults of two not yet known. Onchocerca dewittei japonica, a common filarial parasite of wild boar, had been proved to be the agent of five zoonotic onchocerciasis in Kyushu island with morphological and molecular studies. The sixth case, at Hiroshima in the main island, was identified to the same Onchocerca species, based on adult characters observed on histological sections. To consolidate the identification, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene analysis was attempted with the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded parasite specimen. The sequence (196 bp of a CO1 gene fragment of the parasite successfully PCR-amplified agreed well with those of O. dewittei japonica registered in GenBank, confirming the morphological identification. Moreover a comparison with the CO1 gene sequences of six other Onchocerca species in GenBank excluded the possibility that Onchocerca sp. from wild boar and Onchocerca sp. type A from cattle in Japan, were the causative agents in this case. Mitochondrial DNA analysis proved to be a valuable tool to support the morphological method for the discrimination of zoonotic Onchocerca species in a histological specimen.

  3. Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Kudoh, Takaya; Takatsuji, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kasai, Akihide

    2010-02-01

    Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Moon jellyfish and ichthyoplankton were collected at 13 stations in Hiroshima Bay during monthly surveys from July to September in 2006 and 2007. Surface temperature in 2006 was significantly lower during the August and September cruises and surface salinity was lower during all cruises than in 2007. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant gelatinous plankton collected, accounting for 89.7% in wet weight. Mean moon jellyfish abundance in 2006 was higher than that in 2007 from July through September, with significant inter-year differences for July and September. Variability in precipitation and nutritional input from the Ohta River, northernmost part of Hiroshima Bay, were suggested as possible factors affecting the inter-annual variability in moon jellyfish abundance in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay. Moon jellyfish were more abundant in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay, where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was lower, while low in the central part of the bay. Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus eggs were most dominant (58.1% in number) among the ichthyoplankton and were abundant in the central area of Hiroshima Bay. Explanatory analysis was conducted to detect possible effects of environmental conditions on the abundance of moon jellyfish and Japanese anchovy eggs during the summer months in Hiroshima Bay. Of the environmental conditions tested (temperature, salinity and DO of surface and bottom layers at each sampling station), bottom DO had the most significant effect on the moon jellyfish abundance: there was a negative correlation between the bottom DO and the moon jellyfish abundance in Hiroshima Bay during summer.

  4. Learner-Centered Teaching Style: Comparing Face-to-Face and Online Adult Educators' Commitment Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Shanda E.

    2013-01-01

    For at least 50 years, prominent adult learning theorists have recommended that adult educators commit to a learner-centered teaching approach. Extensive teaching styles research has been conducted on face-to-face and online adult educators, albeit separately, to examine their commitment levels to the learner-centered style. In addition, there has…

  5. Learner-Centered Teaching Style: Comparing Face-to-Face and Online Adult Educators' Commitment Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Shanda E.

    2013-01-01

    For at least 50 years, prominent adult learning theorists have recommended that adult educators commit to a learner-centered teaching approach. Extensive teaching styles research has been conducted on face-to-face and online adult educators, albeit separately, to examine their commitment levels to the learner-centered style. In addition, there has…

  6. Neutron and gamma ray calculation for Hiroshima-type atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Iwatani, Kazuo; Oka, Takamitsu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hasai, Hiromi

    1998-03-01

    We looked at the radiation dose of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb again in 1986. We gave it the name of ``Dosimetry System 1986`` (DS86). We and other groups have measured the expose dose since 1986. Now, the difference between data of {sup 152}Eu and the calculation result on the basis of DS86 was found. To investigate the reason, we carried out the calculations of neutron transport and neutron absorption gamma ray for Hiroshima atomic bomb by MCNP3A and MCNP4A code. The problems caused by fast neutron {sup 32}P from sulfur in insulator of pole. To correct the difference, we investigated many models and found agreement of all data within 1 km. (S.Y.)

  7. Acknowledging Fascination with Catastrophe and Terrorism: September 11 and the Nuclear Destruction of Hiroshima/Nagasaki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Aretoulakis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the twentieth century there was a critical shift from prioritizing the anti-aesthetic and the “sublime” towards favoring beauty in aesthetic as well as political matters. In this context, the present article discusses the role of beauty and aesthetics in such major disasters as the September 11 terrorist attacks and the Hiroshima/Nagasaki nuclear bombings. More specifically, it posits that there is a morally unacceptable feeling of fascination when witnessing destructive events of such magnitude. On the other hand, aesthetic appreciation is paradoxically indispensable for an ethical assessment of man-made catastrophes. Keywords: Beauty, Hiroshima, 9/11, Terrorism, Aesthetic Judgment, Imagination, Ethics.

  8. Study of the Formation of the Semiconductor Equipment Industry in the Bingo District in Hiroshima (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KATO Atsumi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview on how the semiconductor equipment industry in the Bingo district in Hiroshima was developed. The textile industry once prospered in the Bingo district, but after its decline, semiconductor equipment-related companies were started centering around the Shinco Electronics Group Co., Ltd., which was a subcontractor of ROHM Co., Ltd. Furthermore, other semiconductor equipment companies and liquid crystal equipment companies are located in the Bingo district, and...

  9. Multiple endocrine tumors in A-bomb survivors, autopsy cases, Hiroshima. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Fujikura, Toshio (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)); Ezaki, Haruo

    1984-03-01

    Multiple endocrine tumors (MET) were observed in 27 of 4,136 autopsy cases (0.3%) of the fixed population including Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors and the control group. The thyroid was the most common organ in which MET occurred, followed by the ovary. Thirteen cases, including two cases of three MET, had MET in both the tyroid and the ovary, 11 of which had been exposed to one rad or more of atomic bomb.

  10. [Pneumococcal disease in adults: Risk levels and vaccine recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Córcoles, Angel; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga

    2017-02-01

    There are currently two anti-pneumococcal vaccines available for use in adults: the classical 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) and the new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The main advantage of the PCV13 is the potentially better immunogenicity, with its major disadvantages being the higher cost and the lower serotype-coverage than the PPV23. The currently available scientific evidence supports the following basic recommendations: (i)among adults with greatest risk (basically asplenia and immunocompromised), a dual vaccination (PCV13+PPV23) is recommended; (ii)among adults with increased risk (basically persons >65years-old and patients 15-64years with chronic pulmonary or heart disease, diabetes and/or alcoholism), a single vaccination with PPV23 is recommended (single dose in primo-vaccinated >65years; re-vaccination at 5-10years in those primo-vaccinated <65years-old); and (iii) in the rest of adults (risk normal/low) vaccination is not recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating Adult Literacy Programs at the Community Provider Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseman, John; Sutton, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Details the design and implementation of a rolling review process for community-based adult literacy programs. Describes four steps: documentation to become "review ready," collection of feedback from participants and key informants, site visit by reviewers, and use of the evaluation report as a planning tool. (SK)

  12. The Level of Willingness to Evacuate among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Graves, Amy; Turner, Keith W.; Swan, James H.

    2011-01-01

    The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of older adults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations…

  13. Teaching a High-Level Contextualized Mathematics Curriculum to Adult Basic Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Daniel A.; Wollett, Chelsie; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a high level contextualized mathematics curriculum by 12 adult basic instructors in a midwestern state. The 10-week pilot curriculum embedded high level mathematics in contexts that were familiar to adult learners. Instructors' weekly online posts were coded, and the following themes emerged: (a)…

  14. Teaching a High-Level Contextualized Mathematics Curriculum to Adult Basic Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Daniel A.; Wollett, Chelsie; Reynolds, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a high level contextualized mathematics curriculum by 12 adult basic instructors in a midwestern state. The 10-week pilot curriculum embedded high level mathematics in contexts that were familiar to adult learners. Instructors' weekly online posts were coded, and the following themes emerged: (a)…

  15. Seasonal changes of magnetic minerals and their grain sizes in the Hiroshima Bay sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, N.; Ishikawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of red tide have been reported since 1970 in the Hiroshima bay, and the red tide is caused by a bloom of dinoflagellates. Iron is an essential element for dinoflagellates, and is supplied as bivalent or trivalent ions and iron compounds from lands to sea. For damage predictions of red tide, it is important to research the distribution of iron in the bay. The acidification of seawater during summer has been also observed in the Hiroshima Bay. Increase of CO2 concentration and decrease of dissolved oxygen (DO) content in seawater cause an anoxic condition in the bay. It is known that iron oxides are dissolved and sulfides are formed in an anoxic condition. For clarifying variations of the distribution and mode of iron in sediments and bottom water in the Hiroshima Bay, we investigated kinds of iron compounds in the sediments and the amount of dissolved iron in the bottom waters. Sediment cores of 5cm in depth were taken at three sites in the Hiroshima Bay by using a multiple corer and crab sampler. Data of oceanographic observations at these sites showed that the temperature of the bottom water increased, whereas DO and pH values decreased during the sampling period. The sediment samples were composed of clayey silt. We measured dissolved iron concentration in interstitial and bottom waters filtered above 0.45 um grains, and performed magnetic hysteresis measurements and high temperature magnetometry on the sediment samples. The presence of magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3) were recognized in all analyzed samples, whereas greigite (Fe3S4) appeared at these sites with an anoxic condition in the bottom water. Magnetic grain size increased from June to August, while iron concentration increased in the bottom waters. It is suggested that magnetite and hematite were dissolved and greigite was formed, associated with the proceeding of the anoxic condition, and that the grain-size of magnetic minerals and the iron concentration of the bottom water

  16. The relation between leisure activities and glycemic levels from deaf adults

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim has been to check the association among leisure activities and glycemic levels from deaf adults. Transversal study made with 36 deaf adults in an Audiocomunicação school, making use of a semi-structured questionnaire. Chi-square, Fisher and Contingency Coefficient tests were made. Unfed capillary glycemic average showed up close to values considered usual, however, there are participants with risky glycemic level. Participants with altered glycemic levels totalized 11,1%. We checked a...

  17. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiandu, C; Okerengwo, A A; Dapper, D V

    2013-06-30

    Serum levels of the immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA and IgM were determined by the single radial immunodiffusion technique of Mancini in a total of 122 apparently healthy subjects consisting of 43 children (20 males; 23 females) aged 5-12 years and 79 adults (39 males; 40 females) aged 18-65 years resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. The effects of age and sex on the serum levels of the various immunoglobulin types were also determined. The mean values and ranges for the various immunoglobulin types are presented for both children and adults. Although, female children were found to have significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male children (p0.05). However, female adults had significantly higher mean values of IgG and significantly lower mean values of IgA compared to male adults (pimmunoglobulin between adults and children. The present study reports mean values of the various types of immunoglobulin in apparently healthy children and adults resident in Port Harcourt, southeastern Nigeria. Significant gender differences were observed for some of the immunoglobulin types only amongst adults. Our results suggest that these gender differences amongst adults were apparently a gradual build-up from childhood. The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria.

  18. Exposure to Atomic Bomb Radiation and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Later Life: The Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Katsumasa; Takahashi, Ikuno; Nakashima, Eiji; Yanagi, Masahide; Kawasaki, Ryo; Neriishi, Kazuo; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between radiation exposure from the atomic bombings and the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among older residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Adult Health Study is a cohort study of atomic bomb survivors living in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comprising 2153 participants who underwent examinations with retinal fundus photographs in 2006-2008. The radiation dose to the eye for the analysis was estimated with the revised dosimetry system (DS02). The retinal photographs were graded according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System modified for nonstereoscopic retinal images. Early and late AMD were defined according to the type of lesion detected in the worse eye of the participants. Person-specific data were analyzed by using a logistic regression model to assess the association between radiation dose and AMD. Among the 1824 subjects with gradable retinal images (84.7% of the overall participants), the estimated eye dose was widely distributed, with a mean of 0.45 Gy and standard deviation of 0.74 Gy. The prevalence of early and late AMD was 10.5% and 0.3%, respectively. There were no significant associations between radiation dose and AMD, with each 1-Gy increase in exposure, adjusted odds ratio was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.15) for early AMD and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.21-2.94) for late AMD. No significant associations were found between atomic bomb irradiation early in life and the prevalence of early or late AMD later in life among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

  19. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of…

  20. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of…

  1. Education of Older Adults in Communities with Varying Levels of Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krašovec, Sabina Jelenc; Kump, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the education of older adults in communities with different levels of well-being. We are interested in whether the educational offerings for older adults depend on the well-being of the local community. We also examine how the educational offerings differ depending on whether the community is primarily rural or urban. In…

  2. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  3. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation.

  4. Paralytic toxicity in the ribbon worm Cephalothrix species (Nemertea) in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan and the isolation of tetrodotoxin as a main component of its toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Toyoshima, Tadayoshi; Ito, Katsutoshi; Bessho, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Chisato; Tsunetsugu, Shogo; Shida, Yasuo; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Shunsuke F; Noguchi, Tamao; Miyazawa, Keisuke

    2003-06-01

    Paralytic toxicity of ribbon worms ("himomushi" in Japanese), identified as undescribed species of the genus Cephalothrix, found on the surface of the shells of cultured oysters in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture was examined between April 1998 and December 2001. The toxicity study showed that all of specimens were found to contain toxins with strong paralytic action in mice; the highest toxicity (as tetrodotoxin, TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for whole body throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component of this himomushi toxin (HMT) was isolated from a pooled specimen (390 g; total toxicity 2,897,000MU) by a method that consisted of treatment with activated charcoal, chromatography on Bio-Gel P-2 and Bio-Rex 70 (H+ form), and finally crystallization from an acidified methanolic solution. The recrystallized toxin showed a specific toxicity of 3520MU/mg. This toxin showed (M+H)+ and (M+H-H(2)O)+ ion peaks at m/z 320 and 302, respectively, by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The absorption band at 3353, 3235, 1666, 1612 and 1076 cm(-1) were observed in infrared spectrum of this toxin. This spectrum was indistinguishable from that of TTX. The 1H-NMR spectrum for the recrystallized toxin was the same as that for TTX. The pair of doublets centered at 2.33 (J=10.0Hz) and 5.48 ppm (J=10.0Hz) which are characteristic of TTX, were shown to be coupled by double irradiation. Furthermore, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the alkali-hydrolyzate of this toxin indicated the presence of quinazoline skeleton (C9-base) specific to TTX.

  5. Classifying Adults with Binge Eating Disorder Based on Severity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Riva, Giuseppe; Serino, Silvia; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Clerici, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    The clinical utility of the severity criterion for binge eating disorder (BED), introduced in the DSM-5 as a means of addressing heterogeneity and variability in the severity of this disorder, was evaluated in 189 treatment-seeking adults with (DSM-5) BED. Participants classified with mild, moderate, severe and extreme severity of BED, based on their weekly frequency of binge eating episodes, differed significantly from each other in body mass index (BMI), eating disorder features, putative factors involved in the maintenance process of the disorder, comorbid mood, anxiety and personality disorders, psychological distress, social maladjustment and illness-specific functional impairment (medium-to-large effect sizes). They were also statistically distinguishable in metabolic syndrome prevalence, even after adjusting for BMI (large effect size), suggesting the possibility of non-BMI-mediated mechanisms. The implications of the findings, providing support for the utility of the binge frequency as a severity criterion for BED, and directions for future research are outlined. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Comparison of medical data of atomic-bomb survivors resident in the U. S. and Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikako (Hiroshima Atomic-Bomb Survivors Health Clinic (Japan)); Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Yamada, Hiroaki

    1982-06-01

    The third medical examination of A-bomb survivors residing in the U.S. was performed in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Honolulu during the period 6 - 28 May 1981. The test results were studied and the actual state of the survivors in the U.S., was reviewed as explained hereunder. 1) The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.2% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. The present addresses of the survivors are distributed over 15 states, but those in California constitute 77.6% of the total, and when those residing in the states along the west coast and Hawaii are added the rate increases to 95.9%. 2) Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin concentration were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors. 3) Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination of treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%.

  7. Seasonal changes of rock magnetic parameters and dissolved iron in the Hiroshima Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, N.; Amano, Y.; Ishikawa, N.

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of red tide caused by dinoflagellate blooms have been reported since 1970 in the Hiroshima bay. Iron is an essential element for dinoflagellates, and is supplied as bivalent or trivalent ions and iron compounds from lands to sea. For damage predictions of red tide, it is important to research the distribution of iron in the bay. In order to investigate the distribution and mode of iron in sediments, suspended solids (SS), and bottom water in the Hiroshima Bay, rock magnetic and geochemical analyses are performed. Sediments of 5 cm in depth and overlying bottom water were taken at three sites in the bay every month. The sediment samples were composed of clayey silt. We measured dissolved iron concentration in bottom waters filtered above 0.45 um grains. The contents of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in the sediments are measured. The rock magnetic measurements (magnetic susceptibility, NRM, ARM, IRM, HIRM, S-0.3T, magnetic hysteresis, and high temperature magnetometry) of the sediments and SS are conducted. Concentration dependent rock magnetic parameters of the sediments and SS show relatively high values during spring at the near estuary site. It indicates that relatively larger amount of terrigenous materials are supplied in this season. Magnetic grain size decreases during summer, while iron concentration increases in the bottom waters. Data of oceanographic observations at these sites showed that the temperature of the bottom water increased, whereas DO and pH values decreased during summer. The presence of magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3) were recognized in all analyzed samples, whereas greigite (Fe3S4) appeared during summer. The contents of sulfur in the sediments also increase in this period. It is implied that magnetite and hematite were dissolved, and greigite was formed associated with the proceeding of the anoxic condition during summer. It is suggested that irons moves between sediments and bottom water corresponding to seasonal

  8. Serum paraoxonase activity and lipid hydroperoxide levels in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... different substrates.16 First, the rate of hydrolysis of paraoxon was ... when p value was less than 0.05. ... parameters, and serum LOOH levels, paraoxonase .... inhibition of cell growth. ... Hambrecht R, Wolf A, Gielen S, et al.

  9. The effects of neutrons in Hiroshima. Implications for the risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer, A M

    1999-01-01

    Risk estimates for radiation-induced late effects are relevant to various considerations in radiation protection. Most of these considerations relate to small doses for which no excess risk can be seen even in extensive epidemiological studies. Risk coefficients for radiation protection must, therefore, be based on uncertain extrapolation of observations obtained at moderate or high doses. The extrapolation can not be replaced, as yet, by new, more direct information on processes such as radiation-induced genetic instability or adaptive response. While the new findings indicate complexities that may be highly relevant to the effectiveness- or lack of effectiveness- of radiation at low doses, they remain insufficiently understood to permit a decision as to whether dose-effect relations are linear, curvilinear, or have a threshold in dose. In view of these uncertainties radiation-protection regulations are, today, based on the conservative assumption of a linear dose dependence without threshold. This approach assures a sufficient degree of protection, but it may become unreasonably over-conservative, when the cautious hypothesis is treated as proven fact, and when-in addition-the assumed initial slope of the dose relation is not critically evaluated. A reliable evaluation needs to be based on the follow-up of the atom-bomb bomb survivors, and several major aspects of current interest are discussed here. a) Mortality from solid tumours in Hiroshima shows a statistically significant excess at a colon dose of 50 mGy; however, it is likely that this is the result of a bias in assigning causes of death. b) The solid cancer mortality data of the atom-bomb survivors are consistent with linearity in dose, but they can be shown to be equally consistent with a considerable degree of curvature. c) Even with the present dosimetry system, DS86, a substantial part of the effect at small doses in Hiroshima could be due to neutrons. If this is the case, the risk estimates for gamma

  10. Residual radioactivity measurement in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for the evaluation of DS86 neutron fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, K.; Endo, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima Univ., Kasumi, Hiroshima (JP)] [and others

    2000-05-01

    Residual {sup 152}Eu activity produced by neutrons from the Nagasaki atomic bomb has been measured in seven mineral samples located up to 1142 m from the epicenter. Europium was chemically separated from the sample and gamma-ray measurement was carried out with a well-type Ge detector. Deduced specific activities were compared with previous measurements and with activation calculation based on the DS86 neutron fluence. Present results are slightly higher than the calculation at far distances. However, systematic discrepancy as has been observed in Hiroshima is not clear. Further measurements for samples beyond 1000 m from the hypocenter are necessary to ensure the discrepancy problem. (author)

  11. High levels of serum hyaluronic acid in adults with dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Ausciutti Victorino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / objectives. Hyaluronic acid (HA is rarely described in dermatomyositis (DM. Thus, we determined any clinical association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional single-center analysis 75 DM and 75 healthy individuals, during the period from January 2012 to July 2013. An anti-HA antibody assay was performed using specific ELISA/EIA kits, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Results. The patients with DM and control subjects had comparable demographic distributions (p>0.05. The median time duration between disease diagnosis and initial symptoms was 6.0 [3.0-12.0] months, with a median DM disease duration of 4.0 [1.0-7.0] years. The median level of serum HA was significantly increased in patients with DM compared to the control group [329.0 (80.0-958.0 vs. 133.0 (30.0-262.0 ng/mL, respectively; p0.05. Serum HA also did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, auto-antibodies or drug use (p>0.05, but did correlate with cutaneous features, such as photosensitivity (p=0.001, “shawl” sign (p=0.018, “V-neck” sign (p=0.005 and cuticular hypertrophy (p=0.014. Conclusions. A high level of serum AH was observed in DM compared to healthy individuals. In DM, HA did not correlate to demographic, auto-antibodies and therapy parameters. However, HA correlated specifically with some cutaneous features, suggesting that this glycosaminoglycan could be involved in modulating cutaneous inflammation in this population. More studies are necessary to understand the correlation between AH and patients with DM.

  12. GHb level and subsequent mortality among adults in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saydah, Sharon; Tao, Min; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Gregg, Edward

    2009-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association of hyperglycemia, as measured by GHb, with subsequent mortality in a nationally representative sample of adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We included adults aged > or =20 years who participated in Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and had complete information, including baseline diabetes status by self-report and measured GHb (n = 19,025) and follow-up through the end of 2000 for mortality. RESULTS In the overall population, higher levels of GHb were associated with increased risk of mortality from all causes, heart disease, and cancer. After adjustment for potential risk factors, the relative hazard (RH) for adults with GHb > or =8% compared with adults with GHb GHb > or =8% compared with GHb GHb category. Among adults without diagnosed diabetes, there was no significant association of all-cause, heart disease, or cancer mortality and GHb category. CONCLUSIONS These results highlight the importance of GHb levels in mortality risk among a nationally representative sample of adults with and without diagnosed diabetes and indicate that higher levels are associated with increased mortality in adults with diabetes.

  13. Seasonal changes in magnetic parameters of sediments with changing redox conditions in Hiroshima Bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Noriko; Amano, Yuka; Ishikawa, Naoto

    2016-07-01

    To describe and interpret the relationship between spatial and seasonal changes in the sedimentary environment of nearshore sediments and their magnetic properties, magnetic and geochemical analyses were performed on sediment samples from three stations in Hiroshima Bay, Japan. Vertical stratification of the water column in the bay changes throughout the year, and magnetic hysteresis parameters and mineralogy in the bay sediments vary in response to changes in redox conditions of bottom waters. Magnetite and hematite are present year-round at all stations. The presence of maghemitized magnetite is inferred at a station located at the entrance to the bay. Greigite is recognized at all stations in September 2011 but is not found at the entrance to the bay when water column stratification is disturbed from October 2011. The presence of maghemite and goethite is inferred at two stations in the inner bay when the sedimentary environment is oxic. The remanent coercivity/coercivity ratio (Hcr/Hc) also varies, both spatially and temporally, which reflects changes in magnetic mineralogy. Increased of Hcr/Hc values are likely to be caused by goethite and/or maghemite formation when water column stratification is disturbed and the seafloor is oxic. Concentration-dependent magnetic parameters do not respond to seasonal changes in the redox conditions of bottom waters. Reaction times and/or changes in chemical and physical conditions may be insufficient to affect these parameters in the sediments of Hiroshima Bay.

  14. Levels of the inflammation marker YKL-40 in young adults exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Dejgaard, Thomas F; Clausen, Tine D;

    2016-01-01

    Plasma levels of the inflammatory marker YKL-40 were investigated in 597 adult offspring born to women with and without diabetes during pregnancy. No association between fetal exposure to maternal hyperglycemia and levels of YKL-40 was found. However, female sex and increasing BMI in the offspring...

  15. Longitudinal studies of inhibin B levels in boys and young adults with Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2003-01-01

    ) and 11 controls were followed with longitudinal serum inhibin B measurements every 3-12 months as they approached and entered puberty. None of the boys had significant bone age delay, and all entered puberty at the normal time and progressed through it at the expected time. In addition, 15 young adults....../unmeasurable levels observed later in adult KS, while remaining unchanged in the controls....

  16. Towards a "Common" View of Difficult Past? The Representation of Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Trilateral Teaching Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    The centrality of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japanese collective memory has been often perceived by the country's neighbours, i.e. the People's Republic of China and South Korea, as a pillar of the country's (alleged) "victim consciousness" and amnesia in regard to the suffering inflicted on others. For this reason, the…

  17. Impact of Rhythm on Vietnamese Adult EFL Learners Intelligibility in Term of Mid-level Tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien DANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of L1 (Vietnamese on L2 (English with a specific reference to rhythm. The transfer of L1 rhythm to the L2 rhythm is considered as a potential factor in reducing EFL learner’s intelligibility.  The findings of this quantitative research show that Vietnamese adult EFL learners’ oral output is significantly unintelligible due to the application the mid-level tone of their first language, part of Vietnamese rhythm to produce English rhythm in a pronunciation test, making their utterance monotonous. This paper aims at presenting findings gained from an examination into how the Vietnamese rhythm, the mid-level tone, affects 50 Vietnamese adult EFL learners’ intelligibility in a pronunciation test assessed by ten judges. Key words: rhythm, mid-level tone, Vietnamese adult EFL learners, and intelligibility

  18. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Education for hydraulics and pnuematics in Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University; Hiroshima shiritsudaigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, M. [Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Hiroshima City University. Department of Computer Science is responsible for the education, covering a wide educational range from basics of information processing methodology to application of mathematical procedures. This university provides no subject directly related to hydraulics and pneumatics, which, however, can be studied by the courses of control engineering or modern control theories. These themes are taken up for graduation theses for bachelors and masters; 2 for dynamic characteristics of pneumatic cylinders, and one for pneumatic circuit simulation. Images of the terms hydraulics and pneumatics are outdated for students of information-related departments. Hydraulics and pneumatics are being forced to rapidly change, like other branches of science, and it may be time to make a drastic change from hardware to software, because their developments have been excessively oriented to hardware. It is needless to say that they are based on hardware, but it may be worthy of drastically changing these branches of science by establishing virtual fluid power systems. It is also proposed to introduce the modern multi-media techniques into the education of hydraulics and pneumatics. (NEDO)

  20. The relation between leisure activities and glycemic levels from deaf adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim has been to check the association among leisure activities and glycemic levels from deaf adults. Transversal study made with 36 deaf adults in an Audiocomunicação school, making use of a semi-structured questionnaire. Chi-square, Fisher and Contingency Coefficient tests were made. Unfed capillary glycemic average showed up close to values considered usual, however, there are participants with risky glycemic level. Participants with altered glycemic levels totalized 11,1%. We checked association among deaf glycemic people having leisure activities, go shopping (p=0,034 and visiting relatives (p=0,012. Leisure activities may have influence over glycemic levels of deaf people, and nurses are supposed to consider stimuli and orientation of leisure activities in nurse processes, as a potential intervention to promote health of those people, and prevent implications caused by altered glycemic levels.

  1. Alterations in cytochrome P-450 levels in adult rats following neonatal exposure to xenobiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangar, R.C. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States) Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)); Springer, D.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (United States)); Buhler, D.R. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to certain xenobiotics has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism in adult rats in a manner that indicates long-term changes in enzyme regulation. Previously, the authors have observed changes in adult testosterone metabolism and in cytochrome P-450 (P-450) mRNA levels in animals neonatally exposed to phenobarbital (PB) or diethylstilbestrol (DES). In order to test for other enzyme alterations, they used Western blot procedures for specific P-450s to analyze hepatic microsomes from adult rats (24 wk old) that had been exposed neonatally to DES, PB, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), or pregnenolone 16[alpha]-carbonitrile (PCN). The most striking effects were observed in the DES-treated males: P-4502C6 and an immunologically similar protein were increased 60 and 90%, respectively, relative to control values, but P-4503A2 was decreased by 44%. No changes were observed in the DES-treated males in levels of P-4502E1, P-4502B, or the male-specific P-4502C13. Adult males neonatally treated with PB had 150% increase in levels of anti-P4502B-reactive protein without significant changes in the other enzymes. The DES- and DMBA-treated females had increased levels of the female-specific P-4502C12 of 38 and 48%, respectively, but no other observed alterations. The results confirm that neonatal exposure to DES or PB can cause alterations in adult hepatic cytochrome P-450 levels but show that these chemicals act on different enzymes. Neonatal DMBA resulted in changes in adult females similar to those produced by the synthetic estrogen DES, but did so at about two-thirds lower dose. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Prediction of the mid-tracheal level using surface anatomical landmarks in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young-Eun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Ryu, Ho-Geoul; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Endotracheal tube (ETT) should be placed at the optimal level to avoid single lung ventilation or accidental extubation. This study was performed to estimate the mid-tracheal level by using surface anatomical landmarks in adult patients. Neck computed tomography images of 329 adult patients between the ages of 16 and 79 years were reviewed. In the midline sagittal plane, the levels corresponding to the vocal cords, cricoid cartilage, suprasternal notch, manubriosternal junction, and carina were identified. The surface distances from the cricoid cartilage to the suprasternal notch (extCC-SSN) and that from the suprasternal notch to the manubriosternal junction (extSSN-MSJ) were measured. The relationship between mid-tracheal level and the surface distances was analyzed using Bland–Altman plot. The difference between the extCC-SSN and the mid-tracheal level was −6.6 (12.5) mm, and the difference between the extSSN-MSJ and the mid-tracheal level was −19.2 (6.1) mm. The difference between the extCC-SSN and the mid-tracheal level was smaller in females compared with males [−1.7 (11.7) mm vs −12.8 (10.7) mm; P < 0.001]. The mid-tracheal level, which is helpful in planning the insertion depth of an ETT, can be predicted by the surface distance between the cricoid cartilage and suprasternal notch in adults, especially in females. PMID:28328810

  3. Serum levels of vitamin D, sunlight exposure, and knee cartilage loss in older adults: the Tasmanian older adult cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changhai; Cicuttini, Flavia; Parameswaran, Venkat; Burgess, John; Quinn, Steve; Jones, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    To determine the associations between serum levels of vitamin D, sunlight exposure, and knee cartilage loss cross-sectionally and longitudinally in older adults. A total of 880 randomly selected subjects (mean age 61 years [range 51-79 years], 50% women) were studied at baseline, and 353 of these subjects were studied 2.9 years later. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) were assessed by radioimmunoassay, and sunlight exposure was assessed by questionnaire. T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the right knee was performed to determine knee cartilage volume and defects. Knee radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) and knee pain were also assessed. The mean 25(OH)D serum level was 52.8 nmoles/liter at baseline (range 13-119 nmoles/liter). Winter sunlight exposure and serum 25(OH)D level were both positively associated with medial and lateral tibial cartilage volume, and a serum 25(OH)D levelSunlight exposure and serum 25(OH)D levels are both associated with decreased knee cartilage loss (assessed by radiograph or MRI). This is best observed using the whole range of 25(OH)D levels rather than predefined cut points and implies that achieving vitamin D sufficiency may prevent and/or retard cartilage loss in knee OA.

  4. Radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk: Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor data, 1950-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kodama, Kazunori; Nishi, Nobuo; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Suyama, Akihiko; Soda, Midori; Grant, Eric J; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sakata, Ritsu; Moriwaki, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikiko; Konda, Manami; Shore, Roy E

    2010-01-14

    To investigate the degree to which ionising radiation confers risk of mortality from heart disease and stroke. Prospective cohort study with more than 50 years of follow-up. Atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. 86 611 Life Span Study cohort members with individually estimated radiation doses from 0 to >3 Gy (86% received atomic bomb radiation. About 9600 participants died of stroke and 8400 died of heart disease between 1950 and 2003. For stroke, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 9% (95% confidence interval 1% to 17%, P=0.02) on the basis of a linear dose-response model, but an indication of possible upward curvature suggested relatively little risk at low doses. For heart disease, the estimated excess relative risk per gray was 14% (6% to 23%, Patomic bomb survivors.

  5. Correlations between tests of aging in Hiroshima subjects: an attempt to define physiologic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J.W.; Hashizume, Asaji; Jablon, Seymour

    1964-12-01

    Nine physiologic functions which change with age were measured in 437 subjects during their regular visits to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission clinic in Hiroshima, Japan. This pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of collecting such data in a population sample physiologic age score. Tests conducted consisted of: skin elasticity, systolic blood pressure, vital capacity, hand grip strength, light extinction time, vibrometer, visual activity, audiometry, and serum cholesterol. The study demonstrated that adequate sample data could be obtained, and that statistical treatment could construct a physiologic age for individual subjects. However, the tests were of limited value below age 40, and the validation of the concept of physiologic age requires eventual correlation with mortality. Since the ABCC program includes a highly accurate mortality survey, it is hoped that data on physiologic aging can be collected and eventually related to mortality. 11 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  6. International conference on quantum simulators and design, hiroshima, Japan, 3-6 december 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2007-09-12

    This special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter comprises selected papers from the 1st International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design (QSD2006) held in Hiroshima, Japan, 3-6 December 2006. This conference was organized under the auspices of the Development of New Quantum Simulators and Quantum Design Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), and Hiroshima University Quantum design is a computational approach to the development of new materials with specified properties and functionalities. The basic ingredient is the use of quantum simulations to design a material that meets a given specification of properties and functionalities. For this to be successful, the quantum simulation should be highly reliable and be applicable to systems of realistic size. A central interest is, therefore, the development of new methods of quantum simulation and quantum design. This includes methods beyond the local density approximation of density functional theory (LDA), order-N methods, methods dealing with excitations and reactions, and so on, as well as the application of these methods to the design of new materials and devices. The field of quantum design has developed rapidly in the past few years and this conference provides an international forum for experimental and theoretical researchers to exchange ideas. A total of 183 delegates from 8 countries participated in the conference. There were 18 invited talks, 16 oral presentations and 100 posters. There were many new ideas and we foresee dramatic progress in the coming years. The 2nd International Conference on Quantum Simulators and Design will be held in Tokyo, Japan, 31 May-3 June 2008.

  7. Neutron relative biological effectiveness in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masao S; Endo, Satoru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Nomura, Taisei

    2016-11-01

    The calculated risk of cancer in humans due to radiation exposure is based primarily on long-term follow-up studies, e.g. the life-span study (LSS) on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since A-bomb radiation consists of a mixture of γ-rays and neutrons, it is essential that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons is adequately evaluated if a study is to serve as a reference for cancer risk. However, the relatively small neutron component hampered the direct estimation of RBE in LSS data. To circumvent this problem, several strategies have been attempted, including dose-independent constant RBE, dose-dependent variable RBE, and dependence on the degrees of dominance of intermingled γ-rays. By surveying the available literature, we tested the chromosomal RBE of neutrons as the biological endpoint for its equivalence to the microdosimetric quantities obtained using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in various neutron fields. The radiation weighting factor, or quality factor, Qn, of neutrons as expressed in terms of the energy dependence of the maximum RBE, RBEm, was consistent with that predicted by the TEPC data, indicating that the chromosomally measured RBE was independent of the magnitude of coexisting γ-rays. The obtained neutron RBE, which varied with neutron dose, was confirmed to be the most adequate RBE system in terms of agreement with the cancer incidence in A-bomb survivors, using chromosome aberrations as surrogate markers. With this RBE system, the cancer risk in A-bomb survivors as expressed in unit dose of reference radiation is equally compatible with Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities, and may be potentially applicable in other cases of human radiation exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  8. Late radiation responses in man: Current evaluation from results from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, William J.

    Among the late effects of exposure to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, none looms larger than radiation related malignancies. Indeed, the late effects of A-bomb radiation on mortality appear to be limited to an increase in malignant tumors. At present, it can be shown that cancers of the breast, colon, esophagus, lungs, stomach, thyroid, and urinary tract as well as leukemia and multiple myeloma increase in frequency with an increase in exposure. No significant relationship to radiation can as yet be established for malignant lymphoma, nor cancers of the rectum, pancreas or uterus. Radiation induced malignancies other than leukemia seem to develop proportionally to the natural cancer rate for the attained age. For specific age-at-death intervals, both relative and absolute risks tend to be higher for those of younger age at the time of bombing. Other late effects include radiation-related lenticular opacities, disturbances of growth among those survivors still growing at the time of exposure, and mental retardation and small head sizes among the in utero exposed. Chromosomal abnormalities too are more frequently encountered in the peripheral leucocytes of survivors, and this increase is functionally related to their exposure. Some uncertainty continues to surround both the quantity and quality of the radiation released by these two nuclear devices, particularly the Hiroshima bomb. A recent reassessment suggests that the gamma radiation estimates which have been used in the past may be too low at some distances and the neutron radiation estimates too high at all distances; moreover, the energies of the neutrons released now appear ``softer'' than previously conjectured. These uncertainties not sufficiently large, however, to compromise the reality of the increased frequency of malignancy, but make estimates of the dose response, particularly in terms of gamma and neutron exposures, tentative.

  9. COMPARISON OF LEVELS OF SELF-ESTEEM BY SEX AND LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN TWO GROUPS OF SENIOR ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rodríguez Méndez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to observe whether there are differences in the self-esteem score, depending on the level of physical activity (active-sedentary in a sample of senior adults. Twenty-six senior adults participated in the study with an average of 73 ± 9 years of age. The sedentary group (n = 12 belonged to the Santo Domingo Nursing Home in Heredia, Costa Rica, while the active group belonged to the project entitled Modulation of the Aging Process of the Movement for Life Program. Results: No significant differences were found in scores by level of physical activity (t = 0.931, p = 0.363; however, there were significant differences in self-esteem scores by gender (t = -2.255, p = 0.034. It was concluded that the level of physical activity does not affect self-esteem and that men’s level of self-esteem is higher than women’s.

  10. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  11. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  12. Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Are Extremely Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged [greater than or equal to]50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three Dutch healthcare…

  13. Do Delinquent Young Adults have a High or a Low Level of Self-concept?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Schoot, Rens; Wong, Thessa M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the levels of self-concept of delinquent young adults (n = 873). This question is of theoretical and practical importance, as therapeutic programs addressing the self-concept must be based on clear evidence. The present study demonstrated that self-concept is related to delinquen

  14. Physical activity levels in older adults with intellectual disabilities are extremely low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Reis, Debora; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study measures physical activity levels in a representative population-based sample of older adults (aged >= 50 years) with intellectual disabilities. For this, the steps/day of all 1050 participants of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities study (HA-ID; a study conducted among three

  15. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  16. Predictors of PTSD symptoms in adults admitted to a Level I trauma center: A prospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, M.B.; Warren, A.M.; Rosenfield, D.; Roden-Foreman, K.; Bennett, M.; Reynolds, M.C.; Davis, M.L.; Foreman, M.; Petrey, L.B.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Trauma centers are an ideal point of intervention in efforts to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to assist in the development of prevention efforts, this study sought to identify early predictors of PTSD symptoms among adults admitted to a Level I trauma center using a novel an

  17. Age-associated changes in the level of physical activity in elderly adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Nishida, Yuusuke; Fujita, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify how light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity in older adults changes with age, subdividing physical activity according to intensity levels, by using an accelerometer. [Subjects] Older adults living independently in the community were included (n = 106, age: 65–85 years). [Methods] A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure the amount of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity (1–2.9, 3–5.9, and ≥6 metabolic equivalents, respectively) and inactive time over 7 days. Light- and moderate-intensity physical activity levels were further subdivided into 1–1.9, 2–2.9, 3–3.9, and 4–5.9 metabolic equivalents, respectively. [Results] The amount of moderate-intensity physical activity at both sub-levels showed significant inverse correlations with age (r = −0.34, −0.33, respectively), but this was not seen with other levels. Both levels of moderate-intensity physical activity were independently predicted by age using multiple regression analysis adjusted for gender and body mass index. [Conclusion] These results suggest that understanding the reduction in moderate-intensity physical activity with age in older adults, subdivided according to intensity level, could be a useful index to increase the amount of higher intensity physical activity in stages, considering individual health conditions. PMID:26834332

  18. Lifestyle and Dietary Factors Associated with Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Cho, BeLong

    2015-08-01

    Inadequate vitamin D status is highly prevalent in the Korean population, especially among young adults. Nonetheless, correlates of suboptimal vitamin D levels in young adults are not well defined. This study aimed to investigate potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D levels in young adults in Korea. This cross-sectional study was based on health check-up data from 3,450 healthy male and female university students aged 18-29 yr in Seoul between April and May 2013. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Anthropometric data were measured, and lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic factors were obtained through self-administered questionnaires. General linear regression was used to assess correlates of serum 25(OH)D levels. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.1 ng/mL, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D levels less than 10 ng/mL was 44.7% (39.5% in men, 50.2% in women). In a final multivariable model, significant positive correlates of serum 25(OH)D were older age, male sex, increased physical activity, sunlight exposure ≥ 30 min/day, eating breakfast regularly, consumption of dairy and fatty fish, and use of vitamin D-containing supplements. In contrast, significant inverse correlates were obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) or underweight (BMI instant noodles and sugar-sweetened beverages. In conclusion, many modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with low serum 25(OH)D levels in Korean young adults. Further studies on potential mechanisms of the correlates and optimal strategies to improve vitamin D status in this vulnerable subpopulation are warranted.

  19. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  20. Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of Procedural Motor Memories in Children and Adults: The Pre-Sleep Level of Performance Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ines; Metzkow-Meszaros, Maila; Knapp, Susanne; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In striking contrast to adults, in children sleep following training a motor task did not induce the expected (offline) gain in motor skill performance in previous studies. Children normally perform at distinctly lower levels than adults. Moreover, evidence in adults suggests that sleep dependent offline gains in skill essentially depend on the…

  1. Individual and contextual-level factors associated with continuity of care for adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Cynthia A; Guada, Joseph; Phillips, Gary; Ranbom, Lorin; Fortney, John C

    2014-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined rates of conformance to continuity of care treatment guidelines and factors associated with conformance for persons with schizophrenia. Subjects were 8,621 adult Ohio Medicaid recipients, aged 18-64, treated for schizophrenia in 2004. Information on individual-level (demographic and clinical characteristics) and contextual-level variables (county socio-demographic, economic, and health care resources) were abstracted from Medicaid claim files and the Area Resource File. Outcome measures captured four dimensions of continuity of care: (1) regularity of care; (2) transitions; (3) care coordination, and (4) treatment engagement. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the association between individual and contextual-level variables and the four continuity of care measures. The results indicated that conformance rates for continuity of care for adults with schizophrenia are below recommended guidelines and that variations in continuity of care are associated with both individual and contextual-level factors. Efforts to improve continuity of care should target high risk patient groups (racial/ethnic minorities, the dually diagnosed, and younger adults with early onset psychosis), as well as community-level risk factors (provider supply and geographic barriers of rural counties) that impede access to care.

  2. Long-term epidemiological studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: study populations, dosimetry and summary of health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Toshiteru

    2012-10-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation succeeded 28 years' worth of activities of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission on long-term epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has three major cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, i.e. the Life Span Study (LSS) of 120,000 people, the In Utero Cohort of 3600 and the Second Generation Study (F(1)) of 77,000. The LSS and F(1) studies include a periodic health examination for each sub-cohort, i.e. the Adult Health Study and the F(1) Clinical Study, respectively. An extensive individual dose estimation was conducted and the system was published as the Dosimetry System established in 2002 (DS02). As results of these studies, increases of cancers in relation to dose were clearly shown. Increases of other mortality causes were also observed, including heart and respiratory diseases. There has been no evidence of genetic effects in the survivors' children, including cancer and other multi-factorial diseases. The increase in the expected mortality number in the next 10 y would allow the analyses of further details of the observed effects related to atomic bomb exposures.

  3. Level walking in adults with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder: An analysis of movement variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wenchong; Wilmut, Kate; Barnett, Anna L

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown that Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a condition that continues beyond childhood. Although adults with DCD report difficulties with dynamic balance, as well as frequent tripping and bumping into objects, there have been no specific studies on walking in this population. Some previous work has focused on walking in children with DCD but variation in the tasks and measures used has led to inconsistent findings. The aim of the current study therefore was to examine the characteristics of level walking in adults with and without DCD. Fifteen adults with DCD and 15 typically developing (TD) controls walked barefoot at a natural pace up and down an 11 m walkway for one minute. Foot placement measures and velocity and acceleration of the body were recorded, as well as measures of movement variability. The adults with DCD showed similar gait patterns to the TD group in terms of step length, step width, double support time and stride time. The DCD group also showed similar velocity and acceleration to the TD group in the medio-lateral, anterior-posterior and vertical direction. However, the DCD group exhibited greater variability in all foot placement and some body movement measures. The finding that adults with DCD have a reduced ability to produce consistent movement patterns is discussed in relation to postural control limitations and compared to variability of walking measures found in elderly populations.

  4. La voix off au féminin : Hiroshima mon amour et Aurélia Steiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cazenave

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Une étude comparée du grand film moderne d’Alain Resnais, Hiroshima mon amour (1959, et du dyptique de Marguerite Duras, Aurélia Steiner (1979, laisse entrevoir une filiation entre deux films que vingt ans séparent et où s’entrecroisent un certain nombre de fils conducteurs : le lieu et la parole ; l’histoire et la mémoire ; la voix-off au féminin et l’irreprésentable. Il s’agira donc de penser ces deux œuvres cinématographiques à partir du rapport entre le parler féminin et la représentation du passé, soit la tonte des femmes au moment de la libération dans Hiroshima mon amour, soit l’extermination des Juifs d’Europe dans Aurélia Steiner.

  5. Using a Music Video Parody to Promote Breastfeeding and Increase Comfort Levels Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Erin L; Beadle, Julie; Lukeman, Sionnach; Lukeman, Ellen; Aquino, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    North Americans are not meeting the World Health Organization's breastfeeding recommendations. Young adults understand that breastfeeding is healthy but are uncomfortable seeing breastfeeding. Research aim: The aim of the current project was to determine if a music video parody promoting breastfeeding is perceived by young adults to be an effective means of promotion and if exposure to such a video could increase comfort levels. Young adults rated how comfortable they felt looking at breastfeeding and bottle-feeding images (pretest). Two months later, a subset of participants watched the music video parody "Breastfeeding My Baby." In Phase 1, participants completed the picture-rating task again (posttest) after a 2-month delay, plus a survey to assess memory and perception of the video. In Phase 2, participants were reminded of the video before completing the comfort ratings, and in the final phase, posttest measures were administered only 1 week after exposure to the video. Across all phases, the video was perceived to be effective and was memorable. Breastfeeding comfort ratings were comparable at pretest across participant groups; comfort ratings improved at posttest for participants who saw the video but only if they were reminded of seeing it before providing their ratings. At shorter intervals between seeing the video and completing the posttests, comfort ratings for breastfeeding images increased for all participants, highlighting the general importance of exposure to breastfeeding. Young adults are receptive to using a music video parody to promote breastfeeding, which can help to increase comfort levels with breastfeeding.

  6. IGF-1 Restores Visual Cortex Plasticity in Adult Life by Reducing Local GABA Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system architecture is markedly modified by sensory experience during early life, but a decline of plasticity occurs with age. Recent studies have challenged this dogma providing evidence that both pharmacological treatments and paradigms based on the manipulation of environmental stimulation levels can be successfully employed as strategies for enhancing plasticity in the adult nervous system. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 is a peptide implicated in prenatal and postnatal phases of brain development such as neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, synaptogenesis, and experience-dependent plasticity. Here, using the visual system as a paradigmatic model, we report that IGF-1 reactivates neural plasticity in the adult brain. Exogenous administration of IGF-1 in the adult visual cortex, indeed, restores the susceptibility of cortical neurons to monocular deprivation and promotes the recovery of normal visual functions in adult amblyopic animals. These effects were accompanied by a marked reduction of intracortical GABA levels. Moreover, we show that a transitory increase of IGF-1 expression is associated to the plasticity reinstatement induced by environmental enrichment (EE and that blocking IGF-1 action by means of the IGF-1 receptor antagonist JB1 prevents EE effects on plasticity processes.

  7. Research on the information literacy skills of college freshmen and evaluation of the library literacy program at Hiroshima University Library

    OpenAIRE

    庄, ゆかり; 長登, 康; 稲垣, 知宏; 隅谷, 孝洋

    2011-01-01

    Hiroshima University Library offers an information literacy program to freshmen in their first semester which is a one-shot sixty minute session on how to search for and use bibliographic information. Student knowledge and sessions are evaluated through the use of questionnaires about their experiences using computers and pre-and post-tests using e-learning resources. While neither a strong correlation between computer use and information literacy knowledge nor direct effects of their learnin...

  8. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  9. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Transgender Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Bockting, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed individual (i.e., internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including: density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientatio...

  10. Utility of C-Reactive Protein Levels for Early Prediction of Dengue Severity in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has broad clinical presentation with unpredictable clinical evolution and outcome. We aimed to evaluate the utility of C-reactive protein (CRP levels for distinguishing between mild and severe cases in the early phase of the dengue illness. We retrospectively evaluated adults with dengue from 2006 to 2014, according to 1997 and 2009 World Health Organization (WHO criteria for severity. Of 191 included patients, 32.9% had nonshock dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, 3.1% dengue shock syndrome (DSS, and 7.9% severe dengue. The risk of DHF/DSS and severe dengue is significantly related to the increasing levels of CRP. Of 191 patients, 97 had CRP levels measured during the febrile (days 1–3; 85 during the critical (days 4–6; and 9 during the convalescent (days 7–10 illness phases. During the febrile phase, there was significant higher CRP level for DSS versus DF/nonshock DHF and severe dengue versus nonsevere dengue, with CRP cutoff level 30.1 mg/L (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, 0.938; 100% sensitivity, 76.3% specificity and 24.2 mg/L (AUC, 0.717; 70% sensitivity, 71.3% specificity, respectively. Our study highlights the utility of the CRP levels in early prediction of DSS and severe dengue in adult patients.

  11. Relationship between Glycemic Load and Blood Lipid Level in Hospitalized Adult Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases in China have been on the rise in recent decades, partially due to reduced cereal consumption and excessive intake of low glycemic index (GI foods such as meat and oil. Although the relationship between dietary glycemic load (GL and various metabolic diseases has been extensively studied worldwide, it is unclear whether dietary GL is related to blood lipid levels and dyslipidemia risk in Chinese. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between dietary GL and blood lipid levels and dyslipidemia risk in hospitalized Chinese adults.Dietary GL in 2258 hospitalized Chinese adults was calculated based upon GI, carbohydrate content and daily intake of individual foods. In addition, fasting total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C data were collected. Multiple regression and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between dietary GL and plasma lipid levels or dyslipidemia risk.Dietary GL remained inversely associated with blood total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (P0.05.High GL diet, as represented by traditional Chinese dietary pattern, may contribute to reduced risk of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults.

  12. Individual- and Structural-Level Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts Among Transgender Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Bockting, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed individual (ie, internalized transphobia) and structural forms of stigma as risk factors for suicide attempts among transgender adults. Internalized transphobia was assessed through a 26-item scale including four dimensions: pride, passing, alienation, and shame. State-level structural stigma was operationalized as a composite index, including density of same-sex couples; proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination; and aggregated public opinion toward homosexuality. Multivariable logistic generalized estimating equation models assessed associations of interest among an online sample of transgender adults (N = 1,229) representing 48 states and the District of Columbia. Lower levels of structural stigma were associated with fewer lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.997), and a higher score on the internalized transphobia scale was associated with greater lifetime suicide attempts (AOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.33). Addressing stigma at multiple levels is necessary to reduce the vulnerability of suicide attempts among transgender adults.

  13. Hiroshima: a catástrofe atômica e suas testemunhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Izumi Nakagawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo das duas Guerras Mundiais, observou-se o rompimento da humanidade com as normas de conduta inauguradas pelo Iluminismo, legitimando a violência como algo intrínseco à sociedade moderna. Essa mudança de valores foi acompanhada pelo crescente investimento científico e tecnológico, que atingiu um elevado desenvolvimento durante o século XX e trouxe, como um de seus resultados, os maiores genocídios realizados pelos Estados autoritários em nome de seus interesses políticos e econômicos. A barbárie nos leva a considerar um elemento para a reflexão: as testemunhas. Essas corporificam a necessidade de um resgate da humanização, da retomada dos valores morais perdidos com a banalização da violência. Assim, o testemunho confronta a história e demonstra que o desenvolvimento tecnológico não é sinônimo de desenvolvimento humano. Pelo contrário, permite questionar a verdadeira intenção das nações que, em busca de hegemonia, destroem maciçamente populações inteiras. Nesse contexto, emergem as seguintes questões: o que é o testemunho e qual a sua importância para a sociedade moderna? O que levou, historicamente, ao surgimento das testemunhas? Qual o contexto histórico que proporcionou o desenvolvimento da bomba atômica? Por que houve a necessidade, por parte das nações em guerra, de exterminarem milhares de pessoas, principalmente civis? Qual a consequência do rompimento das normas de civilidade pelas duas Guerras Mundiais? Para responder a essas perguntas, investigou-se o Museu Memorial da Paz de Hiroshima no que diz respeito à sua exposição permanente, seus objetivos no que se refere à luta contra o esquecimento da catástrofe atômica e à coleta de testemunhos. Após esse primeiro momento da pesquisa, procedeu-se ao estudo do contexto histórico que culminou nas atrocidades cometidas ao longo das duas Grandes Guerras, os resultados dos extermínios em massa para a sociedade moderna e, finalmente, o

  14. Physical exercise associated with improved BMD independently of sex and vitamin D levels in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Schwarz, Peter; Hovind, Peter Hambak

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Young men and women accrue the majority of their bone mass in their teens and twenties, where their bone mass peaks (PBM), yet little is known about the roles of physical exercise, vitamin D levels and bone mineral density (BMD) near PBM. METHODS: To comparatively examine the effect...... of physical exercise and two vitamin D levels (insufficient s-25[OH]D 80 nmol/L) on the BMD measured at the femoral neck, total hip (bilaterally) and the lumbar spine (L2-L4) in male and female participants approaching PBM. RESULTS: The insufficient s-25[OH]D group, median...... it was equal at the lumbar spine. CONCLUSION: The BMD in young healthy adults is associated with physical exercise, independent of sex and s-25[OH]D status. A sufficient s-25[OH]D status was systematically associated with a higher BMD for all levels of exercise. For both sexes and vitamin D levels exercise...

  15. Association between cytomegalovirus antibody levels and cognitive functioning in non-elderly adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Dickerson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV have been associated with cognitive impairment, but the quantitative relationship between CMV antibody levels and domains of cognitive functioning in younger adults has not been established. METHODS: We measured IgG class antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in 521 individuals, mean age 32.8 years. Participants were selected for the absence of psychiatric disorder and of a serious medical condition that could affect brain functioning. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test part A, and the WAIS III Letter Number Sequencing subtest. Linear regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative association between cognitive scores and Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody level. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the odds of low cognitive scores and elevated antibody levels defined as an antibody level > = 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of the group. RESULTS: Higher levels of CMV antibodies were associated with lower performance on RBANS Total (coefficient -1.03, p<.0002, Delayed Memory (coefficient -0.94, p<.001, Visuospatial/Constructional (coefficient -1.77, p<5×10(-7, and Letter Number Sequencing (coefficient -0.15, p<.03. There was an incremental relationship between the level of CMV antibody elevation and the odds of a low RBANS Total score. The odds of a low total cognitive score were 1.63 (95th % CI 1.01, 2.64; p<.045, 2.22 (95th % CI 1.33, 3.70; p<.002, and 2.46 (95th % CI 1.24, 4.86; p<.010 with a CMV antibody level greater than or equal to the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of Cytomegalovirus antibodies are associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning in non-elderly adults. Methods for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection should be evaluated to determine if they result in an

  16. Association between Cytomegalovirus Antibody Levels and Cognitive Functioning in Non-Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Origoni, Andrea; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A. B.; Savage, Christina L. G.; Yolken, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of antibodies to Cytomegalovirus (CMV) have been associated with cognitive impairment, but the quantitative relationship between CMV antibody levels and domains of cognitive functioning in younger adults has not been established. Methods We measured IgG class antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in 521 individuals, mean age 32.8 years. Participants were selected for the absence of psychiatric disorder and of a serious medical condition that could affect brain functioning. Cognitive functioning was measured with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Test part A, and the WAIS III Letter Number Sequencing subtest. Linear regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative association between cognitive scores and Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody level. Logistic regression analyses were used to measure the odds of low cognitive scores and elevated antibody levels defined as an antibody level > = 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile of the group. Results Higher levels of CMV antibodies were associated with lower performance on RBANS Total (coefficient −1.03, p<.0002), Delayed Memory (coefficient −0.94, p<.001), Visuospatial/Constructional (coefficient −1.77, p<5×10−7), and Letter Number Sequencing (coefficient −0.15, p<.03). There was an incremental relationship between the level of CMV antibody elevation and the odds of a low RBANS Total score. The odds of a low total cognitive score were 1.63 (95th % CI 1.01, 2.64; p<.045), 2.22 (95th % CI 1.33, 3.70; p<.002), and 2.46 (95th % CI 1.24, 4.86; p<.010) with a CMV antibody level greater than or equal to the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile respectively. Conclusions Higher levels of Cytomegalovirus antibodies are associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning in non-elderly adults. Methods for the prevention and treatment of CMV infection should be evaluated to determine if they result in an

  17. Burns ITU admissions: length of stay in specific levels of care for adult and paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Zeshaan N; Frew, Quentin; Din, Asmat H; Unluer, Zeynep; Smailes, Sarah; Philp, Bruce; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Prediction of total length of stay (LOS) for burns patients based on the total burn surface area (TBSA) is well accepted. Total LOS is a poor measure of resource consumption. Our aim was to determine the LOS in specific levels of care to better inform resource allocation. We performed a retrospective review of LOS in intensive treatment unit (ITU), burns high dependency unit (HDU) and burns low dependency unit (LDU) for all patients requiring ITU admission in a regional burns service from 2003 to 2011. During this period, our unit has admitted 1312 paediatric and 1445 adult patients to our Burns ITU. In both groups, ITU comprised 20% of the total LOS (mean 0.23±0.02 [adult] and 0.22±0.02 [paediatric] days per %burn). In adults, 33% of LOS was in HDU (0.52±0.06 days per %burn) and 48% (0.68±0.06 days per %burn) in LDU, while in children, 15% of LOS was in HDU (0.19±0.03 days per %burn) and 65% in LDU (0.70±0.06 days per %burn). When considering Burns ITU admissions, resource allocation ought to be planned according to expected LOS in specific levels of care rather than total LOS. The largest proportion of stay is in low dependency, likely due to social issues.

  18. Factors that affect serum levels of ferritin in Australian adults and implications for follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Elizabeth J; Rossi, Enrico; Beilby, John P; Trinder, Debbie; Olynyk, John K

    2014-01-01

    Serum levels of ferritin are commonly measured to assess iron stores but are affected by factors such as obesity and chronic disease. Published reference ranges have not changed in decades, and the number of patients whose levels exceed the upper limits has been increasing. As a result, more patients are evaluated for iron overload. We compared serum levels of ferritin in 1188 Australian adults who participated in the 2005 Busselton Population Survey with levels from the 1995 survey. Parametric regression was used to assess the effects of body weight and biochemical parameters on serum level of ferritin to derive contemporary population-appropriate reference ranges. In 2005, age-adjusted levels of ferritin were 21% higher in men (P ferritin in men ≥35 years old and in postmenopausal women (P ≤ .002). Serum level of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) correlated with serum level of ferritin (P Serum levels of ferritin increased significantly between 1995 and 2005. Reference ranges that accommodate demographic and biomedical variations will assist clinicians in identifying individuals who require further evaluation for iron overload. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Survivors and scientists: Hiroshima, Fukushima, and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1975-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-04-01

    In this article, I reflect on the Radiation Effects Research Foundation and its ongoing studies of long-term radiation risk. Originally called the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1947-1975), the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has carried out epidemiological research tracking the biomedical effects of radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki for almost 70 years. Radiation Effects Research Foundation scientists also played a key role in the assessment of populations exposed at Chernobyl and are now embarking on studies of workers at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. I examine the role of estimating dosimetry in post-disaster epidemiology, highlight how national identity and citizenship have mattered in radiation risk networks, and track how participants interpreted the relationships between nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. Industrial interests in Japan and the United States sought to draw a sharp line between the risks of nuclear war and the risks of nuclear power, but the work of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (which became the basis of worker protection standards for the industry) and the activism of atomic bomb survivors have drawn these two nuclear domains together. This is so particularly in the wake of the Fukushima disaster, Japan's 'third atomic bombing'. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation is therefore a critical node in a complex global network of scientific institutions that adjudicate radiation risk and proclaim when it is present and when absent. Its history, I suggest, can illuminate some properties of modern disasters and the many sciences that engage with them.

  20. Natural history and outcome of antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections in women: Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L.R.; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J.P.

    1964-04-23

    The present report is a review of data collected from 159 women whose positive urine cultures were detected during 4 years of a study of the late medical effects of ionizing radiation emitted during the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Although there are always uncertainties in a retrospective analysis of data, a number of unusual features of the present series of patients provided the stimulus for undertaking the review. These features included the relatively unbiased nature of the study population, the finding of a group of patients who were untreated for sizeable intervals of time, the long follow-up after treatment and the use of quantitative bacteriologic techniques during the entire period of observation. Although the entire study population was not screened for urinary infection, the age distribution of patients with infections was similar of that found in surveys of the general population. Treatment was considered successful in about 84% of cases when evaluation was based on follow-up cultures approximately 3 months after the administration of antibiotics. When evaluation was based on 18 months or more follow-up after treatment, only about 50% of patients had negative urine cultures. These results were similar to those reported previously in hospital clinic patients. Observations on a small group of untreated patients suggest that for women, the long term results of gram negative urinary tract infections is not significantly altered by a single short course of antibiotic treatment. 27 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors registry over 30 years, 1968-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasagi, Keiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    2002-04-01

    The relation of radiation exposure with noncancer mortality was examined on 44,514 atomic bomb survivors (17,935 males, 26,579 females, and mean age 22.8{+-}15.7 yrs at the time of bombing) registered at Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, based on mortality follow-up over 30 years, 1968-1997. Noncancer mortality was significantly related to radiation dose with relative risk of 1.06 at 1 Sv radiation dose, although weaker than the dose response in solid cancer mortality. The significant dose responses were observed especially in circulatory disease, stroke and urinary organ disease, and suggestive dose response in pneumonia. The temporal pattern in dose response by age at the time of bombing indicated that the relative risk of noncancer mortality was higher with follow-up period, which is contrary to a decreasing dose response in solid cancer mortality with follow-up period. The tendency was remarkable in those survivors younger at the time of bombing. These findings suggest that the significant radiation risk observed in noncancer mortality might increase as the proportion of younger survivors among atomic bomb survivors increases. (author)

  2. Estimation of radiation doses for atomic-bomb survivors in the Hiroshima University Registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, M.; Matsuura, M.; Hayakawa, N.; Kamada, N. [Hiroshima Univ., Kasumi (Japan); Ito, C. [Hiroshima A-bomb Casualty Council Health Management Promotion Center, Senda-machi Naka-ku (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The present study presents the Hiroshima University Registry of atomic bomb survivors, of which the total number is about 270,000, and application of absorbed doses. From this registry, we picked up 49,102 survivors and applied organ doses based on the dosimetry system 1986 (DS86), which is named the Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). The applied dose data are based on the tables listed in the DS86 final report such as the free-in-air kermas, the house shielding factors, and organ dose factors for the active bone marrow and the breast. Calculations for the 13 other organs provided in DS86 are possible. To obtained the organ doses for each survivor, it is necessary to obtain information concerning (1) place exposed, (2) whether they were shielded or not, and (3) age. ABS93D body transmission factors for active bone marrow for neutrons and gamma rays agreed with DS 86 to within a few percent. Of the survivors studied, 35, 123 of them were used for the relative risk estimation of leukemia mortality, adopting the same method as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) for comparison. For the observation period from 1968 to 1989, the analyzed relative risks for leukemia mortality at 1 Gy by shielded kerm and by active bone marrow dose are 2.01 and 2.37, respectively, which are consistent with the RERF results. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Learning disabilities in individuals exposed prenatally to ionizing radiation: The Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, William J.; Otake, Masanori

    The brain, undoubtedly the most complex organ in the mammalian body, is the culmination of a long and interrelated sequence of molecular, cellular and tissue events. Brain function hinges on the orderly progression of these, each of which must occur correctly, temporally and spatially. Impingement on any one will give rise to a less developed system of cellular connections, and hence impaired function. Moreover, the neurons of the central nervous system are not self-renewing and thus neuronal loss cannot be repaired through repopulation. Reanalysis of the data on the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suggests that severe mental retardation occurs primarily, if not exclusively in the period from the 8th through the 15th week following fertilization. Within this window of vulnerability, the increase in mental retardation appears linear with dose and without theshold. More subtle functional effects also occur as reflected in diminished performance on intelligence tests and in school. These findings and their implications for space travel and regulatory agencies charged with the specification of acceptable risks should not require further elaboration in this article given the focus of the radiobiological presentations at this meeting.

  4. Addressing Practical Issues Related Tto Nursing Care For International Visitors To Hiroshima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Nishikawa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When nine million foreigners visited Japan in 2013, the federal government set a goal to attract an additional two and a half million visitors including medical tourists by 2020. This research investigates the attitudes and concerns of Japanese nurses when they are in a situation dealing with foreign patients. The data were collected from March through September 2010, from 114 nurses at three hospitals, in close proximity to popular tourist destinations in Hiroshima. A questionnaire was developed for this research, named Mari Meter, which included a section to write answers to an open question for the nurses to express their opinions. These responses were examined statistically and by word analysis using Text Mining Studio. Japanese nurses expressed greatest concern about payment options, foreign language skills, and issues of informed consent, when dealing with foreigners. The results confirm that, in order to provide a high quality of patient care, extra preparation and a greater knowledge of international workers and visitors are required by nursing professionals in Japan.

  5. Visual-Somatosensory Integration is Linked to Physical Activity Level in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Jeannette R; Dumas, Kristina; Holtzer, Roee

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining multisensory integration (MSI) in aging consistently demonstrate greater reaction time (RT) facilitation in old compared to young adults, but often fail to determine the utility of MSI. The aim of the current experiment was to further elucidate the utility of MSI in aging by determining its relationship to physical activity level. 147 non-demented older adults (mean age 77 years; 57% female) participated. Participants were instructed to make speeded responses to visual, somatosensory, and visual-somatosensory (VS) stimuli. Depending on the magnitude of the individuals' RT facilitation, participants were classified into a MSI or NO MSI group. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity scale. As predicted, RTs to VS stimuli were significantly shorter than those elicited to constituent unisensory conditions. Multisensory RT facilitation was a significant predictor of total number of physical activity days per month, with individuals in the NO MSI group reporting greater engagement in physical activities compared to those requiring greater RT facilitation.

  6. Dairy products consumption and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in Saudi children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Aljohani, Naji; Al-Attas, Omar S; Krishnaswamy, Soundararajan; Alfawaz, Hanan; Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman; Alokail, Majed S

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in several calcium deficiency-related disease conditions. We aimed to investigate vitamin D status and its association with consumption frequencies of various dairy products in Saudi population. Subjects consisted of 820 children (327 boys; mean age 14.9 yrs and 493 girls; 14.8 yrs) and 565 adults (249 men, 27.9 yrs and 316 women 32.2 yrs). We estimated the consumption frequencies of various dairy food products (fresh milk, powdered milk, laban, yoghurt and cheese) using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire and serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D). Associations between variables of interest were assessed by Pearson correlation analysis. Among the study subjects, 80% boys, 90% girls, 64% men and 50% women had deficient/insufficient levels of vitamin D. Modest associations were found between mean serum 25 (OH) D concentration and fresh milk consumption in children (r=0.11) (especially in girls (r=0.12)), and overall dairy products consumption in women (r=0.12). Conclusion: Results indicated widespread vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabian children and adults. High level of vitamin D deficiency and a lack of strong correlation between dairy product consumption and serum level of vitamin D imply a need for adequate fortification of milk and other dairy products with vitamin D. PMID:26339421

  7. Effect of literacy level on cognitive and language tests in Korean illiterate older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JungWan; Yoon, Ji Hye; Kim, Soo Ryon; Kim, HyangHee

    2014-10-01

    Illiterate individuals represent a significant proportion of the world's population. Acquisition of reading and writing skills influences the functional status of the brain, and consequently alters the performance on cognitive and language tests. Thus, it is important to identify the degree of the impact of levels of both illiteracy and education as potential confounders on test performance in people with neurological communication disorders. A total of 203 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older were recruited for the present study. Participants were classified into four groups based on the literacy level; pure illiterate (n=29), semi-illiterate (n=67), literate (n=75) and high-level literate (n=32). The participants completed the Mini-Mental State Examination, Boston Naming Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test (animal), verb naming, and sentence comprehension tests. The pure illiterate group showed the lowest performance on all five tests. Regression analysis showed that literacy level was the variable that best predicted the performance on cognitive and language tests. These findings suggest that literacy in performance on cognitive and language tests is an important factor in neuropsychological evaluations for older adults. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  8. An Examination of the Relationship between Reading Comprehension, Higher-Level and Lower-Level Reading Sub-Skills in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Using a large adult reading database, we examined the relationships between high-level and low-level reading skills and between multiple reading skills, general cognitive ability, and reading comprehension ability. A principal components analysis found partial dissociability between higher-level skills including reading comprehension, vocabulary…

  9. Effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in healthy nonsmoking Saudi adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Habib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is an emerging marker of inflammation in respiratory diseases. However, it is affected by a number of confounding factors. We aimed to study the effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on FENO in non-smoking Saudi healthy adults. Methods: We recruited 12 nonsmoker healthy male adults aged 36.6 ± 2.7 (21-50 years. All subjects were free from acute respiratory infections or allergies and had normal ventilatory functions and serum IgE levels. At 8 am in the morning, their baseline values of FENO were recorded. They had not taken tea or coffee in the morning and had taken similar light breakfast. They were given three cups of Arabian Qahwa to drink and then after every 30 minutes, serial levels of FENO were recorded. Results: Average FENO levels at baseline were 28.73 ± 9.33 (mean ± SD parts per billion (ppb. The mean FENO levels started to decrease significantly after 30 minutes of drinking Arabian Qahwa (P=0.002. This decrease in FENO level was further observed till two hours after Qahwa drinking and then it started to increase in next 90 minutes but still was significantly lower than the baseline (P=0.002. The mean FENO level recorded after 4 hours was 27.22 ± 10.22 (P=0.039. Conclusions: FENO levels were significantly lowered by intake of Arabian Qahwa and this effect remains for about 4 hours. Therefore, history of recent Qahwa intake and abstinence is essential before performance of FENO and its interpretation.

  10. Association between aerobic exercise training effects of serum adropin level, arterial stiffness, and adiposity in obese elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of adropin, which enhances endothelial cell release of nitric oxide (NO), are lower in obese patients. Although habitual aerobic exercise reduces arterial stiffness and adiposity, the relationship between these effects and circulating levels of adropin remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if serum adropin level is associated with the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults. In Experiment 1, we examined whether serum adropin levels are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, carotid β-stiffness, plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level, and abdominal visceral fat in 27 normal, 20 overweight, and 25 obese adults (age, 41-79 years). In Experiment 2, we examined the effects of an 8-week aerobic exercise training program on the relationship between serum adropin level and arterial stiffness or adiposity in 13 obese adults (age, 54-76 years). Serum adropin levels in normal, overweight, and obese adults negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness and abdominal visceral fat, and positively correlated with plasma NOx level and cardiorespiratory fitness. After the 8-week exercise program, serum adropin levels in obese adults were elevated, and correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.573, P exercise training-induced increase in serum adropin may be related to the training effects of arterial stiffness and adiposity in obese adults.

  11. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  12. Association between Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyun; Choi, Jin-Su; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lee, Young-Hoon; Nam, Hae-Sung; Park, Kyeong-Soo; Ryu, So-Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo; Oh, Su-Hyun; Kim, Sun A; Shin, Min-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. This study evaluated the association between serum vitamin D levels and type 2 diabetes in Korean adults. This study included 9,014 subjects (3,600 males and 5,414 females) aged ≥50 years who participated in the Dong-gu Study. The subjects were divided into groups in whom the serum vitamin D level was severely deficient (<10 ng/mL), deficient (10 to <20 ng/mL), insufficient (20 to <30 ng/mL) and sufficient (≥30 ng/mL). Type 2 diabetes was defined by a fasting blood glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL and/or an HbA1c proportion of ≥6.5% and/or self-reported current use of diabetes medication. Multiple logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and type 2 diabetes. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 22.6%, 22.5% and 18.4% and 12.7% for severely deficient, deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, respectively. Multivariate modeling revealed that subjects with insufficient or sufficient vitamin D levels were at a lower risk of type 2 diabetes than were subjects with deficient vitamin D levels [odds ratio (OR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71–0.94 and OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35–0.74, respectively]. Higher serum vitamin D levels were associated with a reduced risk of diabetes in Korean adults, suggesting that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes.

  13. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels in adult population of Bangladesh: Results from STEPS 2006 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M Mostafa; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Ahmed, Jasimuddin; Talukder, Md Habibullah; Rahman, A H M Shafiqur

    2016-01-01

    A nationally representative survey was carried out to determine the distribution of blood glucose and cholesterol in adult population of Bangladesh in the absence of existing data. The study adopted a multistage and geographically clustered sampling technique of households. A total of 2610 individuals (1444 men and 1166 women) aged 25-64 years were selected from rural and urban areas. Capillary blood glucose and total cholesterol levels were measured using an overnight fasting state. The mean age of the participants was 41 years [standard deviation (SD), 11 years]. Half of them (49%) were from urban areas. Half of them (51%) had primary or higher education. Mean glucose was 74mg/dL (SD 23mg/dL). Men had higher mean glucose levels (79mg/dL) than women (67mg/dL). Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes (blood glucose level ≥126mg/dL and/or use of anti-diabetic medication) was 5.5%. In men, it was almost two-and-half times (7.6%) compared with women (2.8%). It was also double in urban areas (7.8%) compared with rural areas (3.4%). Mean cholesterol level among all participants was 167mg/dL (SD 26mg/dL). Men and women had almost similar levels (169mg/dL versus 166mg/dL, respectively). Prevalence of high cholesterol level (≥240mg/dL) was very low (1.3%) in both men (2.2%) and women (0.5%). However, the prevalence of borderline high cholesterol was substantial (5.8%) in this sample. The prevalence of high hypercholesterolemia is low, whereas there is a high prevalence of borderline high cholesterol and diabetes in the adult population of Bangladesh. This warrants population-based interventions to tackle this problem. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining the Level of the Dural Sac Tip: Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binokay, F.; Akgul, E.; Bicakci, K.; Soyupak, S.; Aksungur, E.; Sertdemir, Y. [Cukurova Univ., Balcali Hospital, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology and Dept. of Biostatistics

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the variation in the location of the dural sac (DS) in a living adult population and to correlate this position with age and sex. Material and Methods: T2-weighted, midline, sagittal, spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of 743 patients were assessed to identify the tip of the DS. This location was recorded in relation to the upper, middle, or lower third of the adjacent vertebral body or the adjacent intervertebral disk. Results: Frequency distribution for levels of termination of the DS on MRI demonstrated that the end of the DS was usually located at the upper one-third of S2 (25.2%). The mean level in females was also the upper one-third of S2 (26.5%) and in males the lower one-third of S2 (24.1%). The overall mean DS position was mostly at the upper one-third of S2. No significant differences in DS position were seen between male and female patients or with increasing age. Conclusion: It is important to know the possible range for the termination level of the DS when performing caudal anesthesia and craniospinal irradiation in some clinical situations. The distribution of DS location in a large adult population was shown to range from the L5-S1 intervertebral disk to the upper third of S3 vertebrae.

  15. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  16. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  17. Serum ferritin levels are associated with arterial stiffness in healthy Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ji Yoon; Kim, Min Kyung; Kang, Shinae; Nam, Ji Sun; Ahn, Chul Woo; Kim, Kyung Rae; Park, Jong Suk

    2016-08-01

    Although an association between serum ferritin and atherosclerosis has been suggested, limited epidemiologic data are available regarding the association between ferritin and arterial stiffness in healthy adults. A total of 2932 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles including ferritin were measured. The arterial stiffness was measured using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Serum ferritin levels were classified into quartiles and baPWV values gradually increased with each ferritin quartile. Multiple regression analysis showed that ferritin levels were independently correlated with baPWV. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, as compared with the lowest quartile, the odds ratios for high baPWV (>75(th) percentile) were 1.15 (0.84-1.56), 1.37 (0.97-1.73), and 1.46 (1.29-2.17) among men (p for trend ferritin, respectively. In conclusion, serum ferritin levels are independently associated with arterial stiffness in healthy Korean adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. No association between leptin levels and sleep duration or quality in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kristen L; Galli, Giulia; Zhao, Xiongce; Mattingly, Megan; Cizza, Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    Previous research in lean subjects has found lower leptin levels associated with shorter sleep duration. Since leptin levels are higher and some of the actions of leptin are impaired in obese individuals, one cannot assume that sleep will be similarly associated with leptin in obese individuals. The aim of this paper was to examine the cross-sectional association between habitual sleep duration and quality and plasma leptin levels in a sample of 80 obese men and premenopausal women aged 18-50 years. Leptin levels (ng/ml) were assayed on a fasting blood sample taken in the morning. We calculated a relative leptin level by dividing leptin by body fat percentage. Sleep duration and sleep efficiency were measured by 2 weeks of wrist actigraphy and respiratory disturbance index (RDI), a measure of sleep disordered breathing, was assessed by a portable screening device on a single night. Mean leptin levels and body fat percentage were higher in women than men (P sleep measures, including sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and sleep disordered breathing. There was also no difference between men and women in the association between sleep and leptin. In conclusion, contrary to what has been reported in other studies, measures of sleep duration and quality were not associated with leptin levels in our sample of obese adults.

  19. Effects of broadband noise on cortical evoked auditory responses at different loudness levels in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C; Munro, Kevin J; Sawaya, Kathleen; Peter, Varghese

    2014-03-26

    Young adults with no history of hearing concerns were tested to investigate their /da/-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (P1-N1-P2) recorded from 32 scalp electrodes in the presence and absence of noise at three different loudness levels (soft, comfortable, and loud), at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio (+3 dB). P1 peak latency significantly increased at soft and loud levels, and N1 and P2 latencies increased at all three levels in the presence of noise, compared with the quiet condition. P1 amplitude was significantly larger in quiet than in noise conditions at the loudest level. N1 amplitude was larger in quiet than in noise for the soft level only. P2 amplitude was reduced in the presence of noise to a similar degree at all loudness levels. The differential effects of noise on P1, N1, and P2 suggest differences in auditory processes underlying these peaks. The combination of level and signal-to-noise ratio should be considered when using cortical auditory evoked potentials as an electrophysiological indicator of degraded speech processing.

  20. Vitamin D levels in asymptomatic adults--a population survey in Karachi, Pakistan.

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    Adil Sheikh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well established that low levels of 25(OH Vitamin D (<30 ng/dL are a common finding world over, affecting over a billion of the global population. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in the asymptomatic adult population of Karachi, Pakistan and the demographic, nutritional and co-morbidity characteristics associated with serum vitamin D levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted at two spaced out densely populated areas of the city. Serum levels of 25OH vitamin D were measured and GFR as renal function was assessed by using 4 variable MDRD formula. RESULTS: Our sample of 300 had a median age of 48(interquartile range 38-55 years. The median level of serum vitamin D was 18.8 (IQ range 12.65-24.62 ng/dL. A total of 253 (84.3% respondents had low levels (<30 ng/dL of 25OH vitamin D. Serum PTH and vitamin D were negatively correlated (r = -0.176, p = 0.001. The median PTH in the vitamin D sufficiency group was 38.4 (IQ range28.0-48.8pg/mL compared with 44.4 (IQ range 34.3-56.8 pg/mL in the deficiency group (p = 0.011.The median serum calcium level in the sample was 9.46(IQ range 9.18-9.68 ng/dL. Low serum levels of vitamin D were not associated with hypertension (p = 0.771 or with an elevated spot blood pressure (p = 0.164.In our sample 75(26% respondents had an eGFR corresponding to stage 2 and stage 3 CKD. There was no significant correlation between levels of vitamin D and eGFR (r = -0.127, p-value = 0.277. Respondents using daily vitamin D supplements had higher 25 OH vitamin D levels (p-value = 0.021. CONCLUSION: We observed a high proportion of the asymptomatic adult population having low levels of vitamin D and subclinical deterioration of eGFR. The specific cause(s for this observed high prevalence of low 25OH vitamin D levels are not clear and need to be investigated further upon.

  1. How Depressive Levels Are Related to the Adults' Experiences of Lower-Limb Amputation: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study aims to explore whether different adults' experiences of lower-limb amputation could be associated with different levels of depression. To achieve these study objectives, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was used in a convenience sample of 42 adult amputees (mean age of 61 years; SD = 13.5). All of them had…

  2. Factors of Significant Impact on Proficiency Levels of Adult ESL Learners within Post-Secondary Education in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study seeks to identify factors that have a significant impact on the second language proficiency levels of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at a four-year university in Puerto Rico. Current data indicate that a significant percentage of adult ESL learners encounter major difficulties within the process of…

  3. Examining Differences in the Levels of False Memories in Children and Adults Using Child-Normed Lists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Jeffrey S.; Rhodes, Matthew G.

    2008-01-01

    Several previous studies have demonstrated that children, when compared with adults, exhibit both lower levels of veridical memory and fewer intrusions when given semantically associated lists. However, researchers have drawn these conclusions using semantically associated word lists that were normed with adults, which may not lead to the same…

  4. How Depressive Levels Are Related to the Adults' Experiences of Lower-Limb Amputation: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study aims to explore whether different adults' experiences of lower-limb amputation could be associated with different levels of depression. To achieve these study objectives, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was used in a convenience sample of 42 adult amputees (mean age of 61 years; SD = 13.5). All of them had…

  5. The U.K. service level audit of insulin pump therapy in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H D; Goenka, N; Furlong, N J; Saunders, S; Morrison, G; Langridge, P; Paul, P; Ghatak, A; Weston, P J

    2014-04-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) published guidelines for the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in 2008 (technology appraisal 151). The first U.K.-wide insulin pump audit took place in 2012 with the aim of determining adherence to the guidance issued in NICE technology appraisal 151. The results of the adult service level audit are reported here. All centres providing continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion services to adults with diabetes in the U.K. were invited to participate. Audit metrics were aligned to technology appraisal 151. Data entry took place online using a DiabetesE formatted data collection tool. One hundred and eighty-three centres were identified as delivering adult continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion services in the U.K., of which 178 (97.3%) participated in the audit. At the time of the audit, 13 428 adults were using insulin pump therapy, giving an estimated prevalence of use of 6%. Ninety-three per cent of centres did not report any barriers in obtaining funding for patients who fulfilled NICE criteria. The mean number of consultant programmed activities dedicated to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion services was 0.96 (range 0-8), mean whole-time equivalent diabetes specialist nurses was 0.62 (range 0-3) and mean whole-time equivalent dietitian services was 0.3 (range 0-2), of which 39, 61 and 60%, respectively, were not formally funded. The prevalence of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion use in the U.K. falls well below the expectation of NICE (15-20%) and that of other European countries (> 15%) and the U.S.A. (40%). This may be attributable, in part, to lack of healthcare professional time needed for identification and training of new pump therapy users. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  6. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

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    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  7. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

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    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation.

  8. Blood lead levels in the adult Victorian population: results from the Victorian Health Monitor.

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    Kelsall, Liza M; de Gooyer, Tanyth E; Carey, Marion; Vaughan, Loretta; Ansari, Zahid

    2013-06-01

    To estimate blood lead levels (BLLs) in the adult Victorian population and compare the distribution of BLLs with the current national reference level to better inform public health prevention and management of lead toxicity. Population-based cross-sectional health measurement survey of 50 randomly selected Census Collection Districts (CDs) throughout Victoria. The Victorian Health Monitor (VHM) was conducted over 12 months from May 2009 to April 2010. One eligible person (aged 18-75 years) from each household selected within each CD was randomly selected to participate. Persons with an intellectual disability and pregnant women were excluded from the sampling frame. BLLs were obtained from 3,622 of the 3,653 (99%) VHM participants. The geometric mean and median BLLs from the adult sample were 0.070 μmol/L (95%CI, 0.068-0.073) and 0.05 μmol/L (range: 0.05 to 1.22 μmol/L), respectively. Elevated BLLs (≥0.483 μmol/L or ≥10 μg/dL) were identified in 19 participants (0.7%; 95%CI, 0.3-1.6). Additionally, 86 participants (1.8%; 95%CI, 1.3-2.4) were identified with BLLs between 0.242 and <0.483 μmol/L (5 to <10 μg/dL). The geometric mean BLL was significantly higher for males, compared with females (0.077 μmol/L vs 0.064 μmol/L; p<0.001). BLLs increased significantly with age for both sexes. The first population estimates of BLLs in Victorian adults indicate the average adult BLL to be well below the current national reference level. However, some groups of the population have BLLs at which adverse effects may occur. Implications : The results provide baseline estimates for future population health surveillance and comparison with studies of at-risk groups. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Imipramine reverses alterations in cytokines and BDNF levels induced by maternal deprivation in adult rats.

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    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Ribeiro, Karine F; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Vuolo, Francieli; Colpo, Gabriela D; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Kapczinski, Flávio; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence is pointing toward an association between immune molecules, as well brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the depression. The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioral and molecular effects of the antidepressant imipramine in maternally deprived adult rats. To this aim, maternally deprived and non-deprived (control group) male rats were treated with imipramine (30mg/kg) once a day for 14 days during their adult phase. Their behavior was then assessed using the forced swimming test. In addition to this, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines were assessed in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In addition, BDNF protein levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. In deprived rats treated with saline was observed an increase on immobility time, compared with non-deprived rats treated with imipramine (pimipramine treatment reversed the effects of maternal deprivation on BDNF and cytokines levels (pimipramine, it is suggested that classic antidepressants could exert their effects by modulating the immune system.

  10. Tomographic mapping of a coastal upwelling and the associated diurnal internal tides in Hiroshima Bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanzheng; Kaneko, Arata; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Gohda, Noriaki

    2015-06-01

    Temperature variations caused by a typhoon were measured in the northern part of Hiroshima Bay by four coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) systems. The horizontal distributions of depth-averaged temperature from 0 to 8 m were mapped at 10 min intervals between the 11 and 25 September 2013. The horizontal distributions of a coastal upwelling and the associated diurnal internal tides were reconstructed well by regularized inversion based on the grid segmented method, using one-way travel time data along five successful sound transmission lines. Station-to-station ranges were corrected in such a way that sound speed (determined from one-way travel time data) was equal to sound speed calculated from a couple of CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) data sets on each transmission line. In addition, all station positions were adjusted to make focal points at the geographical positions of the transducers. The corrections increased the accuracy of temperature measurements to make temperature errors as small as 0.073-0.079°C. The high accuracy made it possible to map the temperature structure with a variation range of less than 0.5°C. An upwelling grew from 16 to 17 September, due to a typhoon-derived northerly wind. The diurnal internal tide resonated with the semidiurnal external tide, which was pronounced after the upwelling decayed (18 September), around the time the spring tide occurred. The upwelling and mixing fractions were formulated. These fractions increased continuously as the upwelling grew. Complete mixing was observed during the upwelling's mature phase.

  11. Contribution of individual and environmental factors to physical activity level among Spanish adults.

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    José Antonio Serrano-Sanchez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA is a major risk for chronic disease and obesity. The main aims of the present study were to identify individual and environmental factors independently associated with PA and examine the relative contribution of these factors to PA level in Spanish adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,000 adults (18-75 years old from Gran Canaria (Spain was selected using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The participants were interviewed at home using a validated questionnaire to assess PA as well as individual and environmental factors. The data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. One demographic variable (education, two cognitive (self-efficacy and perceived barriers, and one social environmental (organized format were independently associated with PA in both genders. Odds ratios ranged between 1.76-2.07 in men and 1.35-2.50 in women (both p<0.05. Individual and environmental factors explained about one-third of the variance in PA level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-efficacy and perceived barriers were the most significant factors to meet an adequate level of PA. The risk of insufficient PA was twofold greater in men with primary or lesser studies and who are employed. In women, living in rural environments increased the risk of insufficient PA. The promotion of organized PA may be an efficient way to increase the level of PA in the general population. Improvement in the access to sport facilities and places for PA is a prerequisite that may be insufficient and should be combined with strategies to improve self-efficacy and overcome perceived barriers in adulthood.

  12. Geological and Petrological Studies on the Hiroshima Granite in the Togouchi-Yuu-Takehara District Southwest Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Takehiro

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is throwing light on the mechanism of emplacement of the Hiroshima granite and on the space problem of volcano-plutonism in the Inner Zone of Southwest Japan during the late Cretaceous. In order to discuss these problems which are classical and have so far been unsolved, the author has selected the Togouchi-Yuu-Takehara district as a granite field of the San-yo zone. In the southern end of the district, the granite is in contact with Ryoke granitic and metamorph...

  13. As bombas atômicas podem dizimar a humanidade - Hiroshima e Nagasaki, há 70 anos

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    OKUNO EMICO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo rememora o que aconteceu há 70 anos após o lançamento pelos americanos das bombas atômicas Little Boy e Fat Man, respectivamente, nas cidades japonesas de Hiroshima e Nagasaki. Discorre suscintamente sobre energia nuclear e o Projeto Manhattan, que desenvolveu e produziu essas bombas e suas características. A destruição causada e os efeitos biológicos consequentes na população são também descritos.

  14. Resurrection of Auritibicen shikokuanus (Kato, 1959 stat. rev. & comb. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cryptotympanini from Ehime and Hiroshima of Japan

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    Young June Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Auritibicen shikokuanus (Kato, 1959 stat. rev. & comb. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cryptotympanini from Ehime Prefecture (Shikoku of Japan is resurrected from junior synonymy with Auritibicen kyushyuensis (Kato, 1926. Auritibicen ishiharai (Kato, 1959 syn. nov. & comb. nov. from Hiroshima Prefecture (Honshu of Japan is resurrected from junior synonymy with A. kyushyuensis and then is synonymized with A. shikokuanus. Morphological comparisons are made among closely related species, A. shikokuanus, A. kyushyuensis, and Auritibicen intermedius (Mori, 1931.

  15. Multicenter study on adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-min; Gu, Jian-wen; Kuang, Yong-qin; Ma, Yuan; Xia, Xun; Yang, Tao; Lu, Min; He, Wei-qi; Sun, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Yan-chao

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to observe the adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients of multi-centers, and explore the change of hypophyseal hormones in postoperative pituitary tumor patients. Sixty patients with pituitary tumor admitted during March, 2011-March, 2012 were selected. Postoperative hypophyseal hormone deficiency and the change of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative growth hormone levels were recorded. Growth hormone hypofunction was the most common hormonal hypofunction, which took up to 85.0 %. Adrenocortical hormone hypofunction was next to it and accounted for 58.33 %. GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn deficiency was the most common in postoperative hormone deficiency, which took up to 40.00 %, and GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn + AVP and GH deficiencies were next to it and accounted for 23.33 and 16.67 %, respectively. The hormone levels in patients after total pituitary tumor resection were significantly lower than those after partial pituitary tumor resection, and the difference was statistically significant; growth hormone and serum prolactin levels after surgery in two groups were decreased, and the difference was statistically significant. The incidence rate of growth hormone deficiency in postoperative pituitary tumor patients is high, which is usually complicated with deficiency of various hypophyseal hormones. In clinical, we should pay attention to the levels of the hypopnyseal hormones, and take timely measures to avoid postoperative complications.

  16. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome

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    Udenze Ifeoma Christiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6, tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome and to determine the relationship between components of the metabolic syndrome and CRP in adult Nigerians. Subjects and Methods: This was a case–control study of fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty age- and sex-matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Blood pressure and anthropometry measurements were taken and venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparisons of continuous variables and categorical variables were done using the Student's t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The age- and sex-matched males and females with and without the metabolic syndrome did not differ in their sociodemographic characteristics. They however differed in some clinical and laboratory parameters such as diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.048, waist circumference (P = 0.002, body mass index (P = 0.012, waist/hip ratio (P = 0.023, high density lipoprotein (HDL (P = 0.012, and insulin resistance (IR (P = 0.042. There was a statistically significant increase in the inflammatory marker, CRP (P = 0.019, the cytokines, IL6 (P = 0.040, and TNF-α (P = 0.031 between the subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. There was also a significant association between CRP, waist circumference, IR, and HDL in the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines are

  17. Blood pressure levels and body mass index in Brazilian adults with Down syndrome

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    Felipe Pucci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increased life expectancy among people with Down syndrome (DS has introduced new environmental factors that may affect blood pressure (BP and/or lead to obesity in this population. The aim here was to investigate BP levels and body mass index (BMI in adults with DS, correlating these data with the patients' sex and age. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional observational study conducted in special schools in Curitiba (PR, Brazil. METHODS: 97 adult patients were included. BP was measured in accordance with the established guidelines. BMI was calculated by dividing the weight by the height squared (kg/m2. RESULTS: Sex had no influence on BMI; nor did systolic BP (SBP or diastolic BP (DBP. The age range was from 18 to 56 years. No correlation was observed between increasing age and greater BMI or BP. Eighty-six individuals (88.7% presented normal BP, eleven (11.3% prehypertension and none hypertension. Twenty patients (20.4% presented BP lower than 90 × 60 mmHg. BMI ranged from 18 to 48 kg/m2 (mean of 28.8 ± 3.92 kg/m2: 21.9% had normal weight; 40.7% were overweight; and 25.3% had obesity class I, 9.9% class II and 2.2% class III. Higher BMI was associated with significantly greater SBP and DBP (P = 0.0175 and P = 0.0015. CONCLUSION: Sex and age did not influence SBP, DBP or BMI in Brazilian adults with DS. Higher BMI was associated with greater BP (both systolic and diastolic.

  18. Effects of butachlor on reproduction and hormone levels in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Juhua; Liu, Shaoying; Zhou, Shengli; Wang, Minghua; Zhu, Guonian

    2013-01-01

    Butachlor, a chloracetamide herbicide, is widely used in China. In the present study, paired adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to various concentrations of butachlor (0, 25, 50 and 100 μg/L) for 30 days, and the effects on reproduction and endocrine disruption were evaluated using fecundity, condition factor (CF), gonadosomatic index (GSI), liver somatic index (LSI), plasma vitellogenin (VTG), sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels as endpoints. Our results showed that the mean fecundity rates were significantly decreased at 50 and 100 μg/L butachlor during the 30-day exposure period. At the end of the exposure period, no significant changes were observed in CF and LSI in both females and males, while GSI was significantly reduced in males at 50 and 100 μg/L butachlor. At 100 μg/L butachlor, plasma testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were significantly decreased in females, while plasma VTG level was significantly increased in males. Plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels were significantly increased at 50 and 100 μg/L butachlor in males, and at 100 μg/L in females. This work demonstrated that butachlor adversely affected the normal reproductive success of zebrafish, and disrupted the thyroid and sex steroid endocrine systems, which provides the basis for the estimated ecological risk during butachlor exposure.

  19. Less-healthy eating behaviors have a greater association with a high level of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among rural adults than among urban adults

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    Wesley R. Dean

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption is associated with the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States; however, little is known about how less-healthy eating behaviors influence high levels of SSB consumption among rural adults. Objective: We assessed the frequency of SSB consumption among rural and urban adults, examined the correlates of frequent SSB consumption, and determined difference in correlates between rural and urban adults in a large region of Texas. Design: A cross-sectional study using data on 1,878 adult participants (urban = 734 and rural = 1,144, who were recruited by random digit dialing to participate in the seven-county 2006 Brazos Valley Community Health Assessment. Data included demographic characteristics, eating behaviors (SSB consumption, frequency of fast-food meals, frequency of breakfast meals, and daily fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity. Results: The prevalence of any consumption of SSB and the prevalence of high consumption of SSB were significantly higher among rural adults compared with urban counterparts. The multivariable logistic regression models indicated that a high level of SSB consumption (≥3 cans or glasses SSB/day was associated with demographic characteristics (poverty-level income and children in the home, frequent consumption of fast-food meals, infrequent breakfast meals, low fruit and vegetable intake, and household food insecurity especially among rural adults. Conclusions: This study provides impetus for understanding associations among multiple eating behaviors, especially among economically and geographically disadvantaged adults. New strategies are needed for educating consumers, not only about how to moderate their SSB intake, but also how to simultaneously disrupt the co-occurrence of undesirable eating and promote healthful eating.

  20. Audiovisual speech perception at various presentation levels in Mandarin-speaking adults with cochlear implants.

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    Shu-Yu Liu

    Full Text Available (1 To evaluate the recognition of words, phonemes and lexical tones in audiovisual (AV and auditory-only (AO modes in Mandarin-speaking adults with cochlear implants (CIs; (2 to understand the effect of presentation levels on AV speech perception; (3 to learn the effect of hearing experience on AV speech perception.Thirteen deaf adults (age = 29.1±13.5 years; 8 male, 5 female who had used CIs for >6 months and 10 normal-hearing (NH adults participated in this study. Seven of them were prelingually deaf, and 6 postlingually deaf. The Mandarin Monosyllablic Word Recognition Test was used to assess recognition of words, phonemes and lexical tones in AV and AO conditions at 3 presentation levels: speech detection threshold (SDT, speech recognition threshold (SRT and 10 dB SL (re:SRT.The prelingual group had better phoneme recognition in the AV mode than in the AO mode at SDT and SRT (both p = 0.016, and so did the NH group at SDT (p = 0.004. Mode difference was not noted in the postlingual group. None of the groups had significantly different tone recognition in the 2 modes. The prelingual and postlingual groups had significantly better phoneme and tone recognition than the NH one at SDT in the AO mode (p = 0.016 and p = 0.002 for phonemes; p = 0.001 and p<0.001 for tones but were outperformed by the NH group at 10 dB SL (re:SRT in both modes (both p<0.001 for phonemes; p<0.001 and p = 0.002 for tones. The recognition scores had a significant correlation with group with age and sex controlled (p<0.001.Visual input may help prelingually deaf implantees to recognize phonemes but may not augment Mandarin tone recognition. The effect of presentation level seems minimal on CI users' AV perception. This indicates special considerations in developing audiological assessment protocols and rehabilitation strategies for implantees who speak tonal languages.

  1. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: mafero@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Arrebola, J.P., E-mail: jparrebola@ugr.es [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Oncology Unit, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Artacho-Cordón, F.; Amaya, E. [Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.Granada, University of Granada, San Cecilio University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Aragones, N. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Llorca, J. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Universidad de Cantabria-IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Perez-Gomez, B. [Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Cancer Epidemiology Research Group, Oncology and Hematology Area, IIS Puerta de Hierro (IDIPHIM), Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04 ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24 ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p′-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p′-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p′-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and

  2. Effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field on anxiety level and spatial memory of adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li-hua; SHI Hong-mei; LIU Tong-tong; XUYing-chun; YE Kang-ping; WANG Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Background As the widespread use of electric devices in modern life,human are exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) much more frequently than ever.Over the past decades,a substantial number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that ELF MF (50 Hz) exposure is associated with increased risk of various health effects.The present study examined the effects of chronic exposure to ELF MF on anxiety level and spatial memory of adult rats.Methods The 50-Hz ELF MF was used during the whole experimental procedures and the value of magnetic field (MF)was set to 2 mT.Adult rats were divided randomly to control,MF 1 hour and MF 4 hours group.Anxiety-related behaviors were examined in the open field test and the elevated plus maze; changes in spatial learning and memory were determined in Morris water maze after 4 weeks of daily exposure.Results Rats in MF 4 hours group had increased anxiety-like behaviors with unaltered locomotor activity.In the Morris water maze test,rats had reduced latency to find the hidden platform and improved long-term memory of former location of platform without changes in short-term memory and locomotor activity.Conclusion Chronic ELF MF exposure has anxiogenic effect on rats,and the promoting effects on spatial learning and long-term retention of spatial memory.

  3. Multi-level intervention to prevent influenza infections in older low income and minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J; Radda, Kim; Coman, Emil; Vazquez, Elsie

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we describe a successful multi-level participatory intervention grounded in principles of individual and group empowerment, and guided by social construction theory. The intervention addressed known and persistent inequities in influenza vaccination among African American and Latino older adults, and associated infections, hospitalizations and mortality. It was designed to increase resident ability to make informed decisions about vaccination, and to build internal and external infrastructure to support sustainability over time. The intervention brought a group of social scientists, vaccine researchers, geriatricians, public health nurses, elder services providers and advocates together with senior housing management and activist African American and Latino residents living in public senior housing in a small east coast city. Two buildings of equal size and similar ethnic composition were randomized as intervention and control buildings. Pre and post intervention surveys were conducted in both buildings, measuring knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Processes and outcomes were documented at four levels: Influenza Strategic Alliance (macro and exo levels), building management (meso level), building resident committee (meso level) and individual residents. The Influenza Strategic Alliance (I.S.A.) provided ongoing resources, information and vaccine; the building management provided economic and other in-kind resources and supported residents to continue flu clinics in the building. The V.I.P. Resident Committee conducted flu campaigns with flu clinics in English and Spanish. The vaccination rate in the intervention building at post test exceeded the study goal of 70% and showed a significant improvement over the control building. The intervention achieved desired outcomes at all four levels and resulted in a significant increase in influenza vaccination, and improvements in pro-vaccination knowledge, beliefs, and understanding of health consequences.

  4. Incretin and glucagon levels in adult offspring exposed to maternal diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Fetal exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life. The pathogenesis of T2DM involves dysfunction of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), as well...... as hyperglucagonemia. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate circulating plasma levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a follow-up study of 567 offspring, aged 18-27 years. We included...... two groups exposed to maternal diabetes in utero: offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (O-GDM; n = 163) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM; n = 146). Two reference groups were included: offspring of women with risk factors for GDM, but normoglycemia during pregnancy (O-NoGDM; n...

  5. Pour Adolescent et Adulte, Francais Langue Etrangere, Niveau 1 (French as a Foreign Language, Level 1, for Adolescents and Adults)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists dictionaries and reading materials including stories and legends, biographies, works relating to cinema, theatre and French civilization, magazines, and educational activities and games for introductory instruction of French as a foreign language to adults and adolescents. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  6. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Arrebola, J P; Artacho-Cordón, F; Amaya, E; Aragones, N; Llorca, J; Perez-Gomez, B; Ardanaz, E; Kogevinas, M; Castano-Vinyals, G; Pollan, M; Olea, N

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p'-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p'-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and point to novel

  7. Distribution of Abdominal Obesity and Fitness Level in Overweight and Obese Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominal obesity and its relative distribution are known to differ in association with metabolic characteristics and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study aimed to determine an association between fitness level and abdominal adiposity in overweight and obese adults. Methods. 228 overweight and obese individuals were classified as either cardiorespiratory unfit or fit based on their recovery heart rate. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, the visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio, and cardiometabolic characteristics were analyzed to examine the relationship between recovery heart rate and abdominal adiposity components. Results. After adjustments for age and sex, significant relationships of recovery heart rate and VAT, SAT, and VAT/SAT ratio were found; however, SAT was not significantly associated after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI (r=0.045, P=0.499, whereas VAT (r=0.232, P<0.001 and VAT/SAT ratio (r=0.214, P=0.001 remained associated. Through stepwise multiple regression analyses after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, lifestyle factors, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, and hsCRP, recovery heart rate was identified as an independent variable associated with VAT (β=0.204, P<0.001 and VAT/SAT ratio (β=0.163, P=0.008 but not with SAT (β=0.097, P=0.111. Conclusions. Cardiorespiratory fitness level is independently associated with VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio but not with SAT in overweight and obese adults.

  8. Physical activity levels, duration pattern and adherence to WHO recommendations in German adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzak, Agnes; Heier, Margit; Thorand, Barbara; Laxy, Michael; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Background Intensity and duration of physical activity are associated with the achievement of health benefits. Our aim was to characterize physical activity behavior in terms of intensity, duration pattern, and adherence to the WHO physical activity recommendations in a population-based sample of adults from southern Germany. Further, we investigated associations between physical activity and sex, age, and body mass index (BMI), considering also common chronic diseases. Methods We analyzed 475 subjects (47% males, mean age 58 years, range 48–68 years) who wore ActiGraph accelerometers for up to seven days. Measured accelerations per minute obtained from the vertical axis (uniaxial) and the vector magnitude of all three axes (triaxial) were classified as sedentary, light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) according to predefined acceleration count cut-offs. The average minutes/day spent in each activity level per subject served as outcome. Associations of sex, age, BMI, and seven chronic diseases or health limitations, with the activity levels were analyzed by negative binomial regression. Results Most of the wear time was spent in sedentarism (median 61%/day), whereas the median time spent in MVPA was only 3%, with men achieving more MVPA than women (35 vs. 28 minutes/day, pdiabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety/depression, pain or walking difficulties was observed in regression analyses with MVPA as outcome. Conclusions Activity behavior among middle-aged German adults was highly insufficient, indicating a further need for physical activity promotion in order to gain health benefits. PMID:28245253

  9. Endocannabinoid and Mood Responses to Exercise in Adults with Varying Activity Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brellenthin, Angelique G; Crombie, Kevin M; Hillard, Cecilia J; Koltyn, Kelli F

    2017-08-01

    Acute aerobic exercise improves mood and activates the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in physically active individuals; however, both mood and eCB responses to exercise may vary based on habitual levels of physical activity. This study aimed to examine eCB and mood responses to prescribed and preferred exercises among individuals with low, moderate, and high levels of physical activity. Thirty-six healthy adults (21 ± 4 yr) were recruited from low (≤60 min moderate-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] per week), moderate (150-299 min MVPA per week), and high (≥300 MVPA per week) physical activity groups. Participants performed both prescribed (approximately 70%-75% max) and preferred (i.e., self-selected) aerobic exercise on separate days. Mood states and eCB concentrations were assessed before and after exercise conditions. Both preferred and prescribed exercise resulted in significant increases (P eCB (N-arachidonoylethanolamine [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol); however, increases in AEA (P eCB outcomes. These results indicate that eCB and mood responses to exercise do not differ significantly between samples with varying physical activity levels. This study also demonstrates that in addition to prescribed exercise, preferred exercise activates the eCB system, and this activation may contribute to positive mood outcomes with exercise.

  10. Relation Between Ghrelin Hormone Levels and Bone Mineral Density in Normal Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Naghiaee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ghrelin hormone is a polypeptide with 28 amino acids that is secreted along the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in fundus of stomach. Some physiological functions of ghrelin include increase of appetite and food intake, energy balance, stimulation of growth hormone secretion and heart output and decrease in blood pressure. Recently, relation of ghrelin and bone mineral density has been considered. Methods: This descriptive study included 33 adult persons above 20 years of age. Bone mineral density was determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in femur and lumbar regions. T-score over than -1 was considered as normal case. Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA method. Results: The mean of age, body mass index and serum ghrelin were 40±10.6years, 27±3.6 kg/m² and 100.5±128 pg/ml, respectively. Correlation of ghrelin and variables was not statistically significant except weight (p=0.05. Conclusion: Range of serum ghrelin levels varies with age. In the present research, there was no relationship between ghrelin levels and bone mineral density in femur and lumbar regions. More studies with larger number of samples are proposed.

  11. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  12. Low serum levels of vitamin B12 in older adults with normal nutritional status by mini nutritional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, D A; Noronha, M B; Cunha, N A; Abrunhosa, S F; Rocha, A N; Amaral, T F

    2016-07-01

    Undernutrition as well as low levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid are common problems among older adults. However, recommended routine nutritional status assessment tools may result in inadequate vitamin serum levels to go unnoticed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the inadequacy of serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid within Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) classification categories among older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 97 older adults residing in care homes in Portugal. Undernutrition was identified through the MNA, and serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were measured using chemiluminescence. Cognitive function, depressive symptoms and functional characteristics were also assessed using the Abbreviated Mental Test Score, the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Barthel Index, respectively. The mean age of older adults was 82.2 (6.3) years; 3.1% were undernourished and 26.8% were at undernutrition risk. In the MNA normal nutritional status group, 11.8% presented vitamin B12 deficiency (older adults with low serum levels of vitamin B12 presenting normal nutritional status by MNA was identified. This finding emphasizes the need to evaluate serum vitamin B12 levels, independently of the MNA results.

  13. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  14. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Chatziarzenis, Marios; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Claesson, Hans-Peter; Koppner, Jenny; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124) and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112) participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (pstress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might have been suppressed and their HPA-axis down-regulated after living in a stressful environment with economic and social pressure.

  15. Different plasma levels of interleukins and chemokines:comparison between children and adults with AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Chang-zhong; ZHAO Yan; ZHANG Fu-jie; YAO Hang-ping; WU Ling-jiao; ZHAO Hong-xin; WEI Hong-shan; WU Nan-ping

    2009-01-01

    Background The immunological differences between children and adults with AIDS in China are not well documented.Th1/Th2 cytokines and chemokines are two types of immune factors intimately involved in disease progression of HIV-1 infection. This study aimed to identify changes in plasma levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines inerleukin (IL)-18, IL-16, IL-10 and chemokines regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in HIV-1-infected children and adults in China.Methods Seventy-five children with AIDS and 35 adult AIDS patients were recruited and clinical data were collected.CD4+ T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometery and plasma HIV RNA levels were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Plasma levels of IL-18, IL-10, IL-16, RANTES, MCP-1, SDF-1α and SDF-1β were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) and soluble Fas (sFas) were measured to validate the level of humoral and cellular immune activation.Results The mean levels of all cytokines in pediatric and adult AIDS patients were significantly higher than in their healthy controls (P <0.01). The mean levels of these cytokines were higher in pediatric patients than in adult patients (P <0.05, except for SDF-1α and β2-MG). Some of the cytokine levels in patients younger than 6 years old was higher than in older children and adults with AIDS (IL-10, IL-18, SDF-1α, MCP, RANTES and sFas, P<0.05). Levels of IL-18, IL-10,RANTES and β2-MG of pediatric patients increased as the levels of viral load increased (P <0.05).Conclusions Abnormal immune activation can be measured in Chinese pediatric and adult patients with AIDS, and is higher in children than in adult patients. The cytokines levels coincide with disease progression of AIDS, but have no direct relationship with total CD4+ T cell count.

  16. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in healthy adults from five regions of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakszyn, Paula; Goñi, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asunción; Millán, Esmeralda; López, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, M Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Sánchez, M José; Tormo, M José; González, Carlos A; Agudo, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure of serum levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (p,p'-DDE), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in healthy adults in Spain. Furthermore, we also analyzed these levels according to dietary, other lifestyle factors and anthropometric characteristics. We measured the concentrations of such organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in serum samples collected during 1992-1996 from 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, they were residents of five Spanish regions, they were randomly selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. OCPs were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The most frequent compound found in serum was p,p'-DDE, present in 98% of the samples, followed by HCB and beta-HCH, found in 89% and 77% of samples, respectively, while p,p'-DDT could be measured only in 26% of subjects. The geometric means of serum concentrations (ng/g lipid) were 822 for p,p'-DDE, 167 for beta-HCH, and 379 for HCB. The concentrations of all OCPs were positively associated with age and body mass index, and decreased along the period of blood collection. No association was found between OCPs levels and dietary factors. The concentrations of p,p'-DDE and beta-HCB were higher in Murcia, one of southern regions, most likely associated with intensive past use of pesticides related to agricultural practices, while higher levels of HCB were found in Navarra, located in the north, maybe due to industrial use rather than agricultural application.

  17. Uric formaldehyde levels are negatively correlated with cognitive abilities in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Su, Tao; Zhou, Ting; He, Yingge; Lu, Jing; Li, Juan; He, Rongqiao

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that the abnormal accumulation of endogenous formaldehyde could be a critical factor in age-related cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to estimate the correlation between uric formaldehyde and general cognitive abilities in a community-based elderly population, and to measure the extent and direction in which the correlation varied with demographic characteristics. Using a double-blind design, formaldehyde in human urine was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (n = 604), and general cognitive abilities were measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Demographic characteristics, in terms of age, gender, residential region, and education were taken into consideration. We found that uric formaldehyde levels were inversely correlated with the MoCA score, and the concentration varied with demographic features: higher odds of a high formaldehyde level occurred among the less educated and those living in old urban or rural areas. In cytological experiments, the level of cellular formaldehyde released into the medium increased as SH-SY5Y and BV2 cells were incubated for three days. Formaldehyde in excess impaired the processes of N2a cells and neurites of primary cultured rat hippocampal cells. However, removal of formaldehyde markedly rescued and regenerated the processes of N2a cells. These results demonstrated a negative correlation between the endogenous formaldehyde and general cognitive abilities. High formaldehyde levels could be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in older adults, and could be developed as a non-invasive marker for detection and monitoring of age-related cognitive impairment.

  18. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  19. The impact of asthma control on salivary cortisol level in adult asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Liu, Jing Nan; Kim, Joo-Hee; Nam, Young-Hee; Choi, Gil Soon; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-09-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease causing psychological stress which leads to the activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The purpose of this study is to compare morning salivary cortisol levels in persistent asthma patients according to their disease severities and control status. Total 206 adult asthma patients were recruited from four university hospitals. Spirometry, questionnaire of Asthma Quality of Life (AQOL) and Asthma Control Test (ACT) were completed, and saliva samples were collected prospectively to measure morning cortisol level. The mean patient age was 56.5±15.3 years with mean asthma duration of 9.1±11.1 years. Sixty five patents (31.6%) were classified as mild persistent asthma, and 141 patients (68.4%) were classified as moderate persistent asthma according to the Expert Panel Report 3. The mean predicted FEV1 was 88.8%±18.4%, and the methacholine PC20 was 9.6±8.5 mg/mL in all study population. The mean ACT score for all patients was 19.9±3.6, and there were 71 (34.5%) patients in poorly controlled and 135 (65.5%) in well controlled asthma. The poorly controlled asthma patients were characterized by significantly lower FEV1 (84.6%±17.6% vs 91.1%±18.5%, P=0.018), lower AQOL scores (46.0±13.9 vs 73.8±26.3, Pcortisol levels (0.14±0.08 vs 0.18±0.11 µg/dL, P=0.04) compared to well controlled asthma. The ACT score was significantly related to salivary cortisol levels (P=0.034) after adjusting for age. There was no significant difference in salivary cortisol levels (0.17±0.12 vs 0.16±0.08, P=0.725) when analyzed according to the dose of used corticosteroid and lung function. Asthma control status affects morning salivary cortisol level. Measuring the morning salivary cortisol level might be a simple and new way to assess asthma control status.

  20. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  1. Loneliness and coping among tertiary-level adult cancer patients in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G R

    1990-10-01

    This exploratory study measured the degree of loneliness experienced by adult cancer patients. All were in the initial phases of the illness, that is, currently receiving treatment consisting of either chemotherapy or radiation therapy on an outpatient basis and/or recuperating from surgery in the home setting. All were within 100 days of initial diagnosis of cancer. The UCLA Loneliness Scale by Peplau was used in measuring loneliness. In addition, the coping methods of this same group of patients were examined using the Jalowiec Coping Scale to determine predominant methods of coping with the situational crisis imposed by cancer diagnosis and treatment. The instruments were administered in the home or in an outpatient setting and patients were accessed through cancer treatment centers and from oncologists in the southern Illinois area. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of loneliness, to identify predominant coping methods, and to discern the relationship, if any, between coping methods employed and the degree of loneliness reported by the adult cancer patients. The conceptual framework chosen for the study was taken from the work of Lazarus and Jalowiec with regard to coping; the work of Peplau, Russell, and Cutrone on loneliness formed the conceptual basis for the portion of the study regarding that dimension. A total of 41 cancer patients were surveyed--21 were male and 20 were female. The median age was 60 years, and the mean educational level was 10.5 years. There were significant differences found between loneliness scores by age categories and by marital status, as well as a relationship between membership in organizations and loneliness scores. There were significant relationships found between coping methods (confrontive, emotive, palliative) employed and the degree of loneliness experienced by these cancer patients. Coping methods were also ranked by frequency of use, and interesting patterns emerged--especially noteworthy were group

  2. Relative Association of Multi-Level Supportive Environments on Poor Health among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G; Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-04-06

    Background: The aging of the United States population poses significant challenges to American healthcare and informal caregiving systems. Additional research is needed to understand how health promotion programs and policies based on a socio-ecological perspective impact the health and well-being of older persons. The purpose of this study was to investigate personal characteristics and supportive environments associated with poor health among older individuals aged 65 and over. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design and was guided by a conceptual framework developed by the authors to depict the relationship between personal characteristics and environments associated with poor health status. Environment types included in this study were family, home, financial, neighborhood, and healthcare. The sample was comprised of 1319 adults aged 65 years and older residing in Central Texas. From a random selection of households, participants were administered a mail-based survey created by a community collaborative effort. Descriptive statistics and three binary logistic regression models were fitted to examine associations with poor health status (i.e., physical, mental, and combined physical/mental). Results: Two personal characteristics (number of chronic conditions and educational level) were consistently related (p health outcomes. Supportive family, home, financial, neighborhood, and health care environmental factors were shown to be related (p health outcomes. Conclusions: Multidimensional factors including personal characteristics and protective environments are related to health status among older individuals. The unique roles of each environment can help inform public health interventions to create and enhance support for older adults to engage in healthful activities and improve their physical and mental health.

  3. Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

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    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL, as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness, the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8, smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5, physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4, larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71; and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98. Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies.

  4. Genetic predictors of fibrin D-dimer levels in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas L.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Strachan, David P.; Huang, Jie; Dehghan, Abbas; Trompet, Stella; Lopez, Lorna M.; Shin, So-Youn; Baumert, Jens; Vitart, Veronique; Bis, Joshua C.; Wild, Sarah H.; Rumley, Ann; Yang, Qiong; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Stott, David. J.; Davies, Gail; Carter, Angela M.; Thorand, Barbara; Polašek, Ozren; McKnight, Barbara; Campbell, Harry; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Buckley, Brendan M.; Harris, Sarah E.; Williams, Frances M. K.; Peters, Annette; Pulanic, Drazen; Lumley, Thomas; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Liewald, David C.; Gieger, Christian; Campbell, Susan; Ford, Ian; Gow, Alan J.; Luciano, Michelle; Porteous, David J.; Guo, Xiuqing; Sattar, Naveed; Tenesa, Albert; Cushman, Mary; Slagboom, P. Eline; Visscher, Peter M.; Spector, Tim D.; Illig, Thomas; Rudan, Igor; Bovill, Edwin G.; Wright, Alan F.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Tofler, Geoffrey; Hofman, Albert; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Starr, John M.; Grant, Peter J.; Karakas, Mahir; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Wilson, James F.; Lowe, Gordon D. O.; O’Donnell, Christopher J; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Jukema, J. Wouter; Deary, Ian J.; Soranzo, Nicole; Koenig, Wolfgang; Hayward, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibrin fragment D-dimer is one of several peptides produced when cross-linked fibrin is degraded by plasmin, and is the most widely-used clinical marker of activated blood coagulation. To identity genetic loci influencing D-dimer levels, we performed the first large-scale, genome-wide association search. Methods and Results A genome-wide investigation of the genomic correlates of plasma D-dimer levels was conducted among 21,052 European-ancestry adults. Plasma levels of D-dimer were measured independently in each of 13 cohorts. Each study analyzed the association between ~2.6 million genotyped and imputed variants across the 22 autosomal chromosomes and natural-log transformed D-dimer levels using linear regression in additive genetic models adjusted for age and sex. Among all variants, 74 exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold and marked 3 regions. At 1p22, rs12029080 (p-value 6.4×10−52) was 46.0 kb upstream from F3, coagulation factor III (tissue factor). At 1q24, rs6687813 (p-value 2.4×10−14) was 79.7 kb downstream of F5, coagulation factor V. At 4q32, rs13109457 (p-value 2.9×10−18) was located between 2 fibrinogen genes: 10.4 kb downstream from FGG and 3.0 kb upstream from FGA. Variants were associated with a 0.099, 0.096, and 0.061 unit difference, respectively, in natural-log transformed D-dimer and together accounted for 1.8% of the total variance. When adjusted for non-synonymous substitutions in F5 and FGA loci known to be associated with D-dimer levels, there was no evidence of an additional association at either locus. Conclusions Three genes were associated with fibrin D-dimer levels, of which the F3 association was the strongest and has not been previously reported. PMID:21502573

  5. Conventional hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass increases the serum lactate level in adult cardiac surgery

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    Rabie Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass on lactate level in adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Design: An observational study. Setting: Prince Sultan cardiac center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Participants: The study included 283 patients classified into two groups: Hemofiltration group (n=138, hemofiltration was done during CPB. Control group (n = 145, patients without hemofiltration. Interventions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements and Main Results: Monitors included hematocrit, lactate levels, mixed venous oxygen saturation, amount of fluid removal during hemofiltration and urine output. The lactate elevated in group H than group C (P < 0.05, and the PH showed metabolic acidosis in group H (P < 0.05. The mixed venous oxygen saturation decreased in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The number of transfused packed red blood cells was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The hematocrit was higher in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The urine output was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass leads to hemoconcentration, elevated lactate level and increased inotropic support. There are some recommendations for hemofiltration: First; Hemofiltration should be limited for patients with impaired renal function, positive fluid balance, reduced response to diuretics or prolonged bypass time more than 2 hours. Second; Minimal amount of fluids should be administered to maintain adequate cardiac output and reduction of priming volumes is preferable to maintain controlled hemodilution. Third; it should be done before weaning of or after cardiopulmonary bypass and not during the whole time of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  6. KNOWLEDGE LEVELS OF YOUNG ADULT MEN ABOUT SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (ANKARA 2004

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    Mustafa Alparslan BABAYIÐIT

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted disease (STD is an important health problem as all over the world in our country. We aimed to determine the level of male adolescents’ knowledge about STD particularly about HIV/AIDS and evaluate the factors regarding to their knowledge. This study was performed in November – December 2004 in Etimesgut Military Troop. Three hundred twenty five person was selected by simple randomized methods, and 310 person accepted to participate in this study. All participants were young male military persons and the mean age was 21,8+1,7. The best known topic was “How many times can a condom used?” (86,5%. AIDS was the best known STD (76,1% , and the Gonore was second, 49,7%, but syphilis was only known 6,5%. Over all knowledge score was 6,4+2,3 (max:10. Mean score of participants who had not graduated elementary school, were only 4,2. We realized that this result increased with education level. Mean score was 7,1 in participants with high school or upper education level and difference between these two groups was statistically significant (p=0,001. Participants who were born and living in the west part of the country had the highest mean score (7,8 and 7,1 respectively. Consequently, young adults who’ve been at high risk about STD, have knowledge needs, especially who live in the east region. It will be useful to have education programmes about this subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 16-24

  7. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on Oxytocin and Cortisol Blood Levels in Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the “hormone of affiliation” and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as

  8. Traditional and alternative nutrition--levels of homocysteine and lipid parameters in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Babinská, K; Kopcová, J; Klvanová, J; Béderová, A; Magálová, T

    2000-12-01

    Values of homocysteine and lipid parameters were measured in groups of adults consuming alternative nutrition (vegetarians/lactoovo/, vegans) and compared with a group consuming traditional diet (omnivores, general population). Frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia was 53% in the vegans group, 28% in vegetarians vs. 5% in omnivores. In conditions of lower methionine intake (reduced content in plant proteins), the remethylation pathway of homocysteine metabolism prevails and it is vitamin B12 and folate-dependent. The intake of vitamin B12 is equal to zero in vegans; vegetarians consume 124% of the RDA vs. 383% in omnivores. Serum vitamin levels are significantly lower in subjects consuming alternative nutrition with deficiency observed in 24% of vegetarians, 78% of vegans vs. 0% in omnivores. Serum folate levels are within the reference range in all groups. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia in the groups consuming alternative diet is a consequence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Vegetarians and vegans meet the RDA for energy and fat, and have a favourable proportion of saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids on total energy intake; the ratio of linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid in their diet corresponds with the recommendations. They have low cholesterol consumption and higher vitamin E and C intake. Optimal fat intake of correct composition is reflected in lower values of atherosclerosis risk factors (cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index, saturated fatty acids, triacylglycerols), and significantly higher levels of protective substances (linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, HDL-cholesterol, vitamin E, vitamin E/cholesterol, vitamin C). Low lipid risk factors but higher findings of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians mean a diminished protective effect of alternative nutrition in cardiovascular disease prevention.

  9. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on oxytocin and cortisol blood levels in mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Krause

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the hormone of affiliation and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004 and cortisol decreased by the significant majority of 73% participants (p = .004. Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol, consistent with our hypotheses. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should

  10. Correlation between atherogenic index of plasma level and metabolism components in adult growth hormone deficiency patients

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    Jia-jia XIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP levels with anthropometrics, glycolipid metabolism markers and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6 in adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD patients. Methods Retrospective analysis were carried out in 40 AGHD patients (AGHD group, admitted to First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University and 40 healthy adults from physical examination centre (control group during June 2009 to September 2012. The general anthropometries and blood biochemical indexes were collected and compared between two groups. AIP, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment β-cell function (HOMA-β, LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and TG/LDL-C were calculated and compared between two groups. The correlation between AIP and these indexes was analyzed using Pearson correlation. Results Compared with control group, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, fasting insulin (FINS, HOMA-β, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, hs-CPR, IL-6, AIP were significant higher, but HDL-C levels were lower in AGHD group (P0.05. There was a positive association between AIP and all the WC, WHR, FINS, HOMA-β, HOMA-IR, TC, LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, TG/LDL-C, hs-CRP and IL-6 (r=0.349, 0.314, 0.347, 0.335, 0.297, 0.256, 0.576, 0.749, 0.702, 0.477, 0.226, respectively, P<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that hs-CRP and IL-6 were independent risk factors of AIP. Conclusion AIP is significantly higher in AGHD patients than healthy people, and it shows a strong correlation with many risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.12.10

  11. Levels of diphtheria and tetanus specific IgG of Portuguese adult women, before and after vaccination with adult type Td. Duration of immunity following vaccination

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    Santos Maria

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for tetanus toxoid decennial booster doses has been questioned by some experts. Several counter arguments have been presented, supporting the maintenance of decennial adult booster doses with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (adult formulation of the vaccine: Td. This study aimed to evaluate the use of Td in Portuguese adult women under routine conditions. For that purpose we selected a group of women 30+ years of age to which vaccination was recommended. We intended to know if pre-vaccination antibody concentrations were associated with factors as age at first and last vaccination, number of doses and time since last revaccination. We also intended to assess the serological efficacy of Td booster. Methods Following the Portuguese guidelines 100 women were vaccinated with Td. Antitetanus toxin IgG (ATT IgG and antidiphtheria toxin IgG (ADT IgG levels were measured (mIU/ml in 100 pre-vaccination and 91 post-vaccination sera. Detailed vaccination records were available from 88 participants. Results Twenty-two women (Group A began vaccination with DPT/DT in their early childhood and their pre-vaccination ATT IgG levels increased with the number of doses received (p = 0.022 and decreased with time since last vaccination (p = 0.016. Among the 66 women who began vaccination in adolescence and adulthood (Group B, with monovalent TT, ATT IgG levels decreased with age at first dose (p Conclusion Our study suggests that, to protect against tetanus, there is no need to administer decennial boosters to the Portuguese adults who have complied with the childhood/adolescent schedule (6 doses of tetanus toxoid. The adult booster intervals could be wider, probably of 20 years. This also seems to apply to protection against diphtheria, but issues on the herd immunity and on the circulation of toxigenic strains need to be better understood.

  12. Older adult mental health: Teaching senior-level baccalaureate nursing students what they need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, William J; Bradway, Christine K; Aselage, Melissa

    2010-07-01

    Within the older adult population, certain idiosyncratic aspects of mental illness add to the challenges of helping clients manage these disorders. Older adults are more likely than younger populations to experience physiologically based comorbidities, a dynamic that further strains coping capacities. Barriers to the provision of comprehensive mental health nursing care for older adults include myths and stigmas about aging and mental health. Nurse educators are challenged to move students toward a more positive, empirically based approach to the care of older adults' mental health. In this article, background information supporting the importance of working to improve students' knowledge of and attitudes toward mental illness in older adults is provided. Specific teaching strategies in the areas of older adult mental health, dementia, and delirium are discussed. Resources to support the incorporation of these strategies into nursing curricula are described.

  13. Swarm slide - debris flow disaster induced by extreme rainfall in Hiroshima, August 2014 and lessons learnt in urban designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, H.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Hiroshima city was hit by swarm debris flows along a narrow, and linear-shaped rain band of 2 km x 10 km which appeared in the early morning of August 20, 2014. Most of the flows were induced by shallow slide in the upstream. This disaster claimed 74 death, although this city experienced very similar disaster in 1999, claiming more than 30 residents lives. In the most severely affected debris flow torrent, more than 50 residents were killed. Most of the casualties arose in the wooden, vulnerable houses constructed in front of the exit of torrents. Points and lessons learnt from the disaster are as follows:1. Authors collected two types of sands from the source scar of the initial debris slides which induced debris flows. Tested by the ring shear apparatus under pore-pressure control condition, clear "Sliding surface liquefaction" was confirmed for both samples even under small normal stress, representing the small thickness of the slides. These results shows even instant excess pore pressure could initiate the slides and trigger slide-induced debris flow byundrained loading onto the torrent deposits.2. Apparently long-term land-use change since 1945 affected and raised the vulnerability of the community. Residential area had expanded into hill-slope (mountainous / semi-mountainous area) especially along the torrents. Those communities were developed on the past debris flow fan.3. As the devastated area is very close to downtown of Hiroshima city, it gave large societal impact to the Japanese citizens. After 1999 Hiroshima debris flow disaster, the Landslide disaster reduction law which intends to promote designation of landslide potential risk zones, was adopted in 2000. Immediately after 2014 disaster, national diet approved revision of the bill to promote rapid completion of the designation over the national territory. MLIT (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Tranportation and Tourism) decided to install X-band rain radars at more sites to cover whole city zones

  14. The effect of level of knowledge accuracy of results on learning of motor skills in children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Beltrão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of knowledge accuracy of results (KR is a variable that interferes with the learning of motor skills, however such interference does not work the same way in adults and children. This study examined the effects of KR in children and adults during learning of a manipulative task with target accuracy. Forty adults (female = 21.13 ± 2.26 years; male = 20.97 ± 2.17 years and forty children (female = 9.10 ± .83 years; male = 9.70 ± .48 years practiced a task of hitting a target placed on a table by the thrown of metal discs. There were six experimental groups and two control groups (without KR containing 10 subjects each. Experimental groups differed according to the individual's KR (less precise KR, precise KR and very precise KR and development level (children and adult. Performance measure was the absolute error (AE. A three-way (age × groups × blocks and two-way (groups × blocks analysis of variance for the stabilization and adaptation phases were used. Results showed that adults perform better than children in low and intermediate KR and in high KR adults and children showed similar performance.

  15. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

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    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  16. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U

    1995-01-01

    It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor...... behavior of adult Pterostichus cupreus carabid beetles was quantified after being raised on copper-contaminated food and soil during larval development. Copper was found to have an acute toxic effect measured in larval mortality, to cause a slight increase in the developmental period of males......, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  17. Ambulation in adults with myelomeningocele. Is it possible to predict the level of ambulation in early life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitzberg, A.; Lind, M.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prediction of ambulation in adults with myelomeningocele from muscle strength testing and ambulation in early life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two myelomeningocele (MMC) individuals at the age 18-37 years at follow-up were studied...... with muscle strength within the first year of life, 7 achieved the predicted ambulatory function, 6 had a better, and 7 a poorer function. Of 32 individuals with known muscle strength at the age of 5-8 years, 10 had function as predicted, 5 a better ambulatory function, and 17 had a poorer ambulation in adult...... life than predicted. Good strength in quadriceps muscles gave significant better prospect for adult walking. Of the 52 participants, 41 retained their ambulation status from 5-8 years of age. CONCLUSION: For MMC individuals with motor levels L3-L5, adult ambulatory function cannot be determined from...

  18. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  19. Original Research: The Effects of Red Yeast Rice Supplementation on Cholesterol Levels in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Diane; Fong, Amy; Pelt, Amanda van

    2017-08-01

    : Purpose: Red yeast rice (RYR) supplementation has become a popular alternative to statin therapy in treating hypercholesterolemia. This state-of-the-science review seeks to explore the most recent evidence on the effectiveness and safety of RYR supplementation in treating dyslipidemic adults. This review extends the time frame of a meta-analysis performed by Li and colleagues in 2014; specifically, we looked at the literature published between September 2013 and April 2016. We conducted a search of four electronic databases-PsycINFO, CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus-using the terms red yeast rice and cholesterol. We excluded studies that included berberine or lovastatin. Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Eleven articles reported on randomized controlled trials, one reported on an open-label pilot study, and one reported on an open-label clinical trial. Two articles were meta-analyses. The 13 studies involved a total of 1,246 participants, with an additional 7,467 participants reported in the two meta-analyses. Significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol levels with RYR supplementation were observed in all trials. There were no significant changes in liver and kidney function, and 10 studies noted no significant changes in creatine kinase levels. Although RYR appears to be a safe and effective lipid-lowering agent, there is insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of RYR supplementation to patients. Further research is needed, including long-term studies, studies that include participants with comorbidities and complex medical histories, and studies that take into account the variability of formulation and dosage of RYR in the marketplace.

  20. Hospital-Level Changes in Adult ICU Bed Supply in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, David J; Seymour, Christopher W; Kahn, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Although the number of intensive care beds in the United States is increasing, little is known about the hospitals responsible for this growth. We sought to better characterize national growth in intensive care beds by identifying hospital-level factors associated with increasing numbers of intensive care beds over time. We performed a repeated-measures time series analysis of hospital-level intensive care bed supply using data from Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. All United States acute care hospitals with adult intensive care beds over the years 1996-2011. None. None. We described the number of beds, teaching status, ownership, intensive care occupancy, and urbanicity for each hospital in each year of the study. We then examined the relationship between increasing intensive care beds and these characteristics, controlling for other factors. The study included 4,457 hospitals and 55,865 hospital-years. Overall, the majority of intensive care bed growth occurred in teaching hospitals (net, +13,471 beds; 72.1% of total growth), hospitals with 250 or more beds (net, +18,327 beds; 91.8% of total growth), and hospitals in the highest quartile of occupancy (net, +10,157 beds; 54.0% of total growth). In a longitudinal multivariable model, larger hospital size, teaching status, and high intensive care occupancy were associated with subsequent-year growth. Furthermore, the effects of hospital size and teaching status were modified by occupancy: the greatest odds of increasing ICU beds were in hospitals with 500 or more beds in the highest quartile of occupancy (adjusted odds ratio, 18.9; 95% CI, 14.0-25.5; p hospitals in the highest quartile of occupancy (adjusted odds ratio, 7.3; 95% CI, 5.3-9.9; p bed expansion in the United States is occurring in larger hospitals and teaching centers, particularly following a year with high ICU occupancy.

  1. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibody levels discriminate two subtypes of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 杨琳; 周智广; 黄干; 颜湘

    2003-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical characteristics between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) with different titers of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA) and to define the two distinct subtypes of LADA.Methods Sera of 750 patients with an initial diagnosis of T2DM from central south of China were screened for GADA using a radioligand assay. The distribution and frequency of GADA levels were described. Two hundred and ninety-five patients were divided into the T2DM group (n=233) and the LADA group (n=62) to compare the age of onset, body mass index, HbA1c, C-peptide, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic diabetic complications. Furthermore, LADA patients with different GADA titers were subdivided to analyze the same indexes as the above. Results The prevalence of LADA (defined as GADA≥0.05, namely GADA positive) was 9.7% in the 750 initially diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Compared with T2DM, LADA patients were younger at their ages of onset, had lower C-peptide and body mass index, and also had less cases with hypertension and with dyslipidemia. However, only patients with high titer of GADA had poorer beta cell functions and less diabetic complications compared to T2DM and low GADA titer of LADA patients. Patients with low GADA titer were similar to T2DM patients, except that they were prone to develop ketosis more frequently.Conclusions Two clinically distinct subtypes of LADA can be identified by GADA levels in patients initially-diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Patients with high titer of GADA (GADA≥0.5) subsequently develop more insulin dependency, which are classified as LADA-type 1; while those with lower GADA titer (0.05≤GADA<0.5) and having clinical and metabolic phenotypes of type 2 diabetes are classified as LADA-type 2.

  2. Effects of topiramate and carbamazepine on thyroid hormone level in adults with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Yu; Yulan Huang; Hongbin Sun; Jie Liu; Fei Xu; Xiaoping Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that traditional antiepileptics, such as phenytoin, carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital, etc., can result in the decrease of thyroid hormone of epileptic patients. However, there is still no sufficient evidence for the studies about the effect of new-type antiepileptics, such as topiramate (TPM),on thyroid hormones.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of TPM and CBZ on the level of thyroid hormones in serum of adults with epilepsy.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 100 outpatients or inpatients newly diagnosed to have epilepsy were selected from the Department of Neurology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital from July 2003 to August 2005, including 60males and 40 females, aged 18-70 years. All the patients were accorded with the standard for the classification of epilepsy set by International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in 1981; Had been Informed and agreed with the detection; Had no history of thyroid gland disease; Had not taken any drugs could affect the thyroid function. Meanwhile, 40 adult healthy examinees were selected from our hospital as the control group, including24 males and 16 females, aged 18-65 years.METHODS: ① The 100 epileptic patients were randomly divided into TPM group (n =50) and CBZ group (n =50),and they were treated with TPM (Xian-Janssen Pharmaceutical, Ltd.; Batch number: 03AS032, Norm: 25mg/tablet) and CBZ (Shanghai Sunve Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; Batch number: 030201, Norm: 100 mg/tablet)respectively. The initial dosage of TPM was 25 mg per day, increased by 25 mg every week, the objective dosage of 100-200 mg per day was maintained when the symptoms were satisfactorily controlled. The dosage of CBZ was 6-8 mg/kg per day. All the patients were administrated for 1 year. ② The serum levels of total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid

  3. What Word-Level Knowledge Can Adult Learners Acquire after Minimal Exposure to a New Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…

  4. IMPACT EVALUATION OF HAIZUKA DAM ON ITS UP STREAM:A CASE STUDY IN HIROSHIMA PREFECTURE, JAPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Forood AZARI DEHKORDI; Nobukazu NAKAGOSHI

    2004-01-01

    Japan ranks fifth in the world for the number of large dams. Environmental impacts of large dams are known, such as enormous losses of water or disruption of fish spawning, however, impacts of the dams on their up streams are functions of topography of the up stream. Haizuka Dam is located in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan and its implementation will start in 2006. This large dam influences its up stream through dam making activities, which occurs in order and with different spatial presences that were categorized into chronological and spatial impacts. In this case study, spatial impacts were further divided into horizontal and vertical ones. The horizontal impacts were identified as new roads, diversion tunnel, dam lake, and submerged cultivated land, while vertical impacts were recognized as submerged historical monuments, slope protections, dam body, and deforested area in the reservoir. There were convergences of spatial and temporal impacts, however, the extent of the impacts was limited to the lake boundary.

  5. Combined Effect of an Atmospheric River and a Cut-off Low in Hiroshima Flooding Event on August 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hirota, N.; Kato, M.; Arakane, S.

    2015-12-01

    An extraordinary precipitation over 100 mmhr-1in Hiroshima on August 19, 2014, caused a flash flood which resulted in 74 fatalities and collapse of 330 houses. In order to examine the meteorological background of this flooding event, we carried out a detailed analysis utilizing rain gauge data, satellite precipitation dataset, and a meso scale and a global scale objective analyses provided from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Then, we performed numerical experiments using a nonhydrostatic compressible equation model called the Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). As a result, a combined effect of an atmospheric river (AR) and a cut-off low (COL) in this flooding event was elucidated. During the event, a filamentary transport of moisture extending from the Indochina Peninsula to the Japanese Islands was observed along the southern side of the subtropical jet, forming an AR. This AR had a deep structure with an amount of free tropospheric moisture comparable to that of the boundary layer. Concurrently, there was a COL, detached from the Mid-Pacific Trough, moving northwestward toward the Japanese Archipelago. With various sensitivity experiments, we concluded that a mid-tropospheric instability associated with the cold core of the COL and a dynamical ascent induced in its foreside, collaboratively worked with the anomalous moisture in the free troposphere associated with the AR, to extraordinarily enhance the precipitation over Hiroshima region. An orographic effect to concentrate the precipitation in this region was also confirmed. An implication on a difference in effects of AR in this event with a climatologically moist boundary layer, from those in the US west coast with a very dry environment, was also obtained. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1503) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  6. Meningitis in a Canadian adult due to high level penicillin-resistant, cefotaxime-intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Cécile Tremblay; Anne-Marie Bourgault; Pierre St-Antoine

    1996-01-01

    Invasive penicillin-resistant pneumococcal (PRSP) infections are increasing worldwide. In Canada, the incidence of penicillin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is estimated at greater than 6%. In Quebec, only one case of PRSP meningitis has been reported and involved an infant. An adult patient is described who presented with meningitis caused by high level penicillin-resistant, cefotaxime-intermediate S pneumoniae.

  7. Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a longitudinal panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing concern about physical inactivity in adolescents and young adults. Identifying determinants that are associated with low levels of physical activity and with changes in physical activity levels will help to develop specific prevention strategies. The present study describes the prevalence and potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior changes of young adults. The study is based on the Swiss Household Panel (SHP, a longitudinal study assessing social changes in a representative sample of Swiss households since 1999. Methods Data is collected yearly using computer-assisted telephone interviews. Information is obtained from each household member over 14 years of age. Participants between 14 and 24 years entering the SHP between 1999 and 2006 were included (N = 3,068. "Inactive" was defined as less than 1 day/week of at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity, "no sport" as exercising less than once a week. Age, gender, nationality, linguistic region, household income, education, membership in a sport club, reading, and Internet use were included as potential determinants of physical activity behavior and behavior change. Results In both young men and young women, the prevalence of inactivity, "no sport", and non-membership in a sport club was increasing with age. Women were less active than men of the same age. From one wave to the following, 11.1% of young men and 12.1% of young women became active, and 11.9% of men and 13.7% of women became inactive, respectively (pooled data over all eight waves. Non-membership in a sport club was the strongest predictor for "no sport" (ORmen 6.7 [4.9-8.9]; ORwomen 8.1 [5.7-11.4], but also for being inactive (OR 4.6 [3.5-6.0]; 4.6 [3.3-6.4]. Leaving a sport club (OR 7.8 [4.4-14.0]; 11.9 [5.9-24.1] and remaining non-member (OR 7.8 [4.7-12.9]; 12.4 [6.4-24.1] were the strongest predictors of becoming "no sport". Effects for becoming inactive were

  8. Phonemic verbal fluency task in adults with high-level literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opasso, Patrícia Romano; Barreto, Simone Dos Santos; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2016-01-01

    To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters. The means for number of words beginning the letters F, A and S and for total number of words beginning with either letter generated per minute corresponded to 15.3, 14.4, 13.9 and 43.5, respectively. Reference values obtained from young adults with high levels of literacy submitted to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test in this study were similar to those reported in the international literature. These reference values can be used for clinical assessment of language disorder and neuropsychological evaluation. Obter parâmetros de normalidade na tarefa de fluência verbal fonêmica, versão F-A-S, em uma população de alto letramento de adultos falantes do português brasileiro. A amostra foi constituída por 40 voluntários, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 19 e 59 anos, e com mais de 8 anos de estudo. Todos os voluntários foram inicialmente submetidos ao Miniexame do Estado Mental e ao Teste do Desenho do Relógio, para fins de rastreio cognitivo, e, então, ao Teste de Fluência Verbal Fonêmica F-A-S. Neste último, os indivíduos foram orientados a produzirem o maior número de palavras que conseguissem, iniciadas com cada uma das três letras ditas pelo examinador, em um intervalo de 60 segundos cada. As médias das palavras produzidas com as letras F-A-S foram as seguintes: "F" = 15,3 palavras por minuto; "A" = 14,4 palavras por minuto; e "S" = 13,9 palavras por minuto. A m

  9. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; Oliveira, Camila Andrea de; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-07-01

    The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a normal-protein (NP, 17% casein) or low-protein (LP, 6% casein) diet. Blood pressure (BP) values from 60-day-old male offspring were measured by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electro sphygmomanometer. Hearts (d60) were collected for assessment of connexin 43 (Cx43) mRNA expression and morphological and morphometric analysis. LP offspring showed no difference in body weight, although they were born lighter than NP offspring. BP levels were significantly higher in the LP group. We observed a significant increase in the area occupied by collagen fibers, a decrease in the number of cardiomyocytes by 104 µm2, and an increase in cardiomyocyte area associated with an increased Cx43 expression. GPR changes myocardial levels of Cx43 mRNA in male young adult rats, suggesting that this mechanism aims to compensate the fibrotic process by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the heart interstitium. A limitação dietética durante a gravidez influencia o crescimento e desenvolvimento do feto e da prole e sua saúde na vida adulta. Os mecanismos subjacentes dos efeitos adversos da restrição proteica gestacional (RPG) no desenvolvimento dos corações da prole não são bem compreendidos. Avaliar os efeitos da RPG sobre a estrutura cardíaca em filhotes machos de ratas aos 60 dias após o nascimento (d60). Ratos fêmeas Wistar grávidas foram alimentadas com uma dieta de proteína normal (PN, 17% caseína) ou de baixa proteína (BP, caseína 6%). Os valores de pressão arterial (PA) de descendentes do sexo masculino de

  10. Central somatosensory conduction slowing in adults with isolated elevated plasma level of homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jun Luo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Elevated plasma level of homocysteine (eHcy is a recognized risk factor for dementia. However, whether the central conduction is affected in patients with an isolated eHcy is unknown. In this study, we addressed whether central conduction is altered in adults with eHcy. Methods: Evoked potential studies including somatosensory (SSEP, visual (VEP and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP, were performed to evaluate central conduction in patients with isolated eHcy. Results: Nine SSEP, 7 VEP, and 6 BAEP were studied in 9 patients with eHcy (age: 63.3 ± 7.5 years old, mean ± standard deviation, male/female: 4/5. SSEP with median nerve stimulation was delayed in peak latency of N9 (5/9/55.6%, abnormal/total subjects/percentage, N13 (7/9/77.8%, N20 (6/9/66.7%, and/or interpeak latency of N9-N13 (5/9/55.6%, N13-N20 (5/9/55.6%, and N9-N20 (4/9/44.4%. There was one delayed P100 latency (1/7/14.3% in 7 VEP. BAEP was within normal limits in all the 6 subjects tested. Conclusion: Our pilot study provided neurophysiologic evidence of central conduction slowness in patients with eHcy, which may be due to a large diameter fiber dysfunction within the somatosensory, but not the visual and auditory, white matter pathway. The central conduction slowing in eHcy may be relevant to the pathophysiologic background for slowing the central processing.

  11. Android and gynoid fat percentages and serum lipid levels in United States adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fat distribution is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of android and gynoid fat percentages with lipid profiles to determine whether android and/or gynoid fat percentages are associated with serum lipid levels. A population-based cross-sectional study. Five thousand six hundred and ninety-six adults (20 years and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. The regional body composition in the android and gynoid regions was defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The estimation of lipid risk profiles included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Regardless of gender, android and gynoid body fat percentages were positively and significantly correlated with BMI and waist circumference. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia and BMI, increases in android fat percentage were significantly associated with total cholesterol, TG and HDL cholesterol in males, and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in females. The gynoid fat percentages showed a positive correlation with total cholesterol in males, whereas gynoid fat accumulation in females showed a favourable association with TG and HDL cholesterol. The observed associations differed according to ethnic groups. Our results suggest that regional fat distribution in the android and gynoid regions have different effects on lipid profiles, and that fat in the android region, rather than the gynoid region, may be an important factor in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Serum levels of high sensitivity C-Reactive protein and its association with lipidemic status in Bangladeshi healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rehnuma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic diseases are affecting human health all over the world. These chronic disease states are associated with high sensitive CRP. The present study aims to measure hsCRP and lipid levels in a group of healthy adults to work out the normal hsCRP levels and explore its relationship to lipidemic and anthropometric variables.Materials and Methods: A total of 149 adults, age 30-60 yrs, healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Vital statistics were taken along with measurement of blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and hsCRP levels. Data were analyzed using statistical Package for Social Program (SPSS for Windows version 10.Results: Mean (±SD hsCRP was 2.46±1.89 (mg/l with a cut off value of 3mg/l. Of the total 149 subjects 102 (66.4% and 47 (31.5% subjects had hsCRP level below and above the cutoff respectively. Triglyceride was significantly higher (p=0.033 and HDL was lower in subjects with high hsCRP. Total cholesterol and LDL was almost similar in both groups. Binary logistic regression showed significant negative association between hsCRP and HDLc (p=0.029 and but the model excluding HDL-c showed significant positive association (p=0.03 with triglyceride.Conclusion: About one-third of healthy Bangladeshi adults may have chronic subclinical inflammation and thus may have a risk of cardiovascular disorders. More than one-third healthy Bangladeshi adults have one or more type of dyslipidemia and the subclinical chronic inflammation in healthy Bangladeshi adults has a positive association with their serum triglyceride and negative association with their HDL-cholesterol levels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11591 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 644-648

  13. Association between Obesity and Physical Fitness, and Hemoglobin A1c Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekal, Yoonsuk; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Park, Sukyung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jun-Young; Kang, Jung-Ui; Naruse, Masayo; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Sun-Hyeon; Chu, Sang Hui; Suh, Sang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity level, physical fitness level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors among Korean adults. Methods A total of 557 adults (272 males and 285 females) who underwent medical check-up at local hospital were recruited. In addition to regular health check-up, cardiopulmonary fitness, muscular endurance were measured and their association were analyzed. Results The prevalence of MetS was 31.7% for males and 23.7% for females. Females with the higher muscular endurance had lower waist circumference, triglyceride level, and HbA1c level than those with the lower muscular endurance. Males with the higher level of cardiopulmonary fitness had lower diastolic blood pressure, lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol level than males with the lower level of cardiopulmonary fitness. Females with the higher level of cardiopulmonary fitness had lower body weight, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose level than females with the lower level of cardiopulmonary fitness. Participants with the higher level of adiposity and the lower level of physical fitness were 5.26 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19 to 12.62), 5.71 times (95% CI, 2.23 to 14.60) more likely to have MetS, respectively, in male and female compared to participants who were neither obese nor have the lower level of fitness. Conclusion This study suggests that maintaining a healthy body weight as well as a certain level of fitness is important for the prevention of MetS. PMID:20617079

  14. Behavioral Health Outcomes Among Adults: Associations With Individual and Community-Level Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunlap, Laura J; Han, Beth; Dowd, William N; Cowell, Alexander J; Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L; Davies, M. Christine; Colpe, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Objective:This study examined the relationship between state and local economic conditions and serious psychological distress, substance use disorders, and mental health service utilization among adults in the United...

  15. Individual Differences in Adult Learners of English as a Foreign Language at Two Levels of Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [eng] In today’s globalised world it is becoming increasingly common that adults need to learn new languages at any age. And while the number of foreign language adult learners keeps growing, there is still a dearth of research aiming at elucidating what individual differences explain variation in foreign language learning outcomes in students placed in schools which do not have any entry requirements. This study investigated which individual differences impact second language acquisiti...

  16. The association between gender difference with metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome score and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun; Jeong, Dae Keun; Park, Chang Eun; Oh, Hye Jong; Kim, Sung Gil

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the association between gender difference with metabolic syndrome (MetS), metabolic syndrome score (MSS) and serum vitamin D levels in Korean adults. Analyses were restricted to 5147 adults (2162 men; 2985 women) aged 20 and older, using the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. In the non-adjusted model, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were inversely associated with MetS (p = .001) and MSS (p = .009) in men, but positively associated with MetS (p = .002) and MSS (p D levels were inversely associated with MetS (p D concentration in men.

  17. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Faresjö

    Full Text Available The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124 and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112 participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (p<0.0001, had experienced more serious life events (p = 0.002, had lower hope for the future (p<0.0001, and had significantly more widespread symptoms of depression (p<0.0001 and anxiety (p<0.0001 than the Swedes. But, the Greeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (p<0.0001 than the Swedes, and this difference was still significant in a multivariate regression (p<0.0001, after adjustments for potential intervening variables. A variety of factors related to differences in the physical or socio-cultural environment between the two sites, might possibly explain this finding. However, a potential biological mechanism is that long-term stress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might

  18. Physical activity levels and patterns in older adults: the influence of a DVD-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Neha P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, H David; Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The use of multimedia to influence health behaviors offers unique advantages over more traditional center-based programs, however, little is known about the effectiveness of such approaches in improving physical activity levels over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a progressive and age-appropriate, DVD-delivered exercise program in promoting physical activity levels among older adult cohorts. Community dwelling older adults (N = 307, Mean age = 71 years) were randomized to one of two groups: a 6-month home-based DVD-delivered exercise (i.e., FlexToBa™) intervention group or a healthy aging DVD control group. Physical activity was assessed objectively using a standard 7-day accelerometer wear period and subjectively using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, at baseline and follow-up. Analysis of covariances indicated a statistically significant treatment effect for subjectively [F(1,250) = 8.42, P = .004, η(2) = .03] and objectively [F(1,240) = 3.77, P = .05, η(2) = .02] measured physical activity. The older cohort (>70) in the FlexToBa condition further had significantly larger improvements in physical activity levels compared to their younger counterparts. From a public health perspective, media-delivered interventions such as the FlexToBa program might prove to be cost-effective, have a broader reach and at the same time be effective in improving physical activity levels in older adults.

  19. The association between self-reported daily hassles and cortisol levels in depression and anxiety in community living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, H-M; Forget, H; Préville, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the association, in a naturalistic setting, between daily hassles and diurnal salivary cortisol differs in the presence of depression and anxiety in older adults. Data were assessed in a large representative community sample of older adults (n = 1760). A multinomial analysis was used to study as an outcome variable: no disorder, depression only, anxiety only and depression and anxiety, as a function of daily hassles and cortisol levels controlling for age, gender and time of saliva collection. Multivariate regression analyses were also carried out to test the association between daily hassles and cortisol levels stratified by depression and anxiety status. A significant positive association was observed between the number of daily hassles reported and cortisol levels in participants with no depression and no anxiety and in participants with anxiety. Participants without depression and anxiety, and those with depression only, had significant lower cortisol levels later in the day. This was not observed in respondents with anxiety. Stressors such as daily hassles are associated with cortisol secretion in depression and anxiety in older adults in a large epidemiologic setting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  1. Physical Fitness Profile in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Differences between Levels of Sport Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Rodriguez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular and aerobic capacity can be reduced in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous studies suggest these individuals might be particularly susceptible to losing basic functions because of poor physical fitness. The aim of this study is to describe the physical fitness profile of adult athletes with ID and identify whether…

  2. Predictors of Urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Levels in 50 North Carolina Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited data are available on the non-chemical stressors that impact adult exposures to pyrethroid insecticides based on urinary biomonitoring. The urinary metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), is commonly used to assess human exposure to a number of pyrethroids. In a furthe...

  3. Preparing Adult Educators: The Need to Develop Communicative Language Teaching Skills in College-Level Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines why communicative language teaching (CLT) fails to improve student learning in certain contexts by assessing two adult educators' communicative and noncommunicative practices through qualitative case studies, interviews, and participant observations. Results show no inherent CLT problems that prevent teachers from grasping…

  4. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-06-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=-0.539; PActive older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index.

  5. Physical Fitness Profile in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Differences between Levels of Sport Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; Paz-Lourido, Berta; Rodriguez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular and aerobic capacity can be reduced in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous studies suggest these individuals might be particularly susceptible to losing basic functions because of poor physical fitness. The aim of this study is to describe the physical fitness profile of adult athletes with ID and identify whether…

  6. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Kyung [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yschang@yuhs.ac [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chul Woo [Severance Institute for Vascular and Metabolic Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  7. Meningitis in a Canadian Adult due to High Level Penicillin-Resistant, Cefotaxime-Intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Tremblay

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive penicillin-resistant pneumococcal (PRSP infections are increasing worldwide. In Canada, the incidence of penicillin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is estimated at greater than 6%. In Quebec, only one case of PRSP meningitis has been reported and involved an infant. An adult patient is described who presented with meningitis caused by high level penicillin-resistant, cefotaxime-intermediate S pneumoniae.

  8. Can low serum levels of S100B predict normal CT findings after minor head injury in adults?: an evidence-based review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Romner, Bertil

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether low levels of S100B in serum can predict normal computed tomography (CT) findings after minor head injury (MHI) in adults.......To determine whether low levels of S100B in serum can predict normal computed tomography (CT) findings after minor head injury (MHI) in adults....

  9. The prevalence of HIV among adults with pulmonary TB at a population level in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Grobusch, Martin P; Cobelens, Frank

    2017-03-29

    Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection is one of the main drivers of poor outcome for both diseases in Zambia. HIV infection has been found to predict TB infection/disease and TB has been reported as a major cause of death among individuals with HIV. Improving case detection of TB/HIV co-infection has the potential to lead to early treatment of both conditions and can impact positively on treatment outcomes. This study was conducted in order to determine the HIV prevalence among adults with tuberculosis in a national prevalence survey setting in Zambia, 2013-2014. A countrywide cross sectional survey was conducted in 2013/2014 using stratified cluster sampling, proportional to population size for rural and urban populations. Each of the 66 countrywide clusters represented one census supervisory area with cluster size averaging 825 individuals. Socio-demographic characteristics were collected during a household visit by trained survey staff. A standard symptom-screening questionnaire was administered to 46,099 eligible individuals across all clusters, followed by chest x-ray reading for all eligible. Those symptomatic or with x-ray abnormalities were confirmed or ruled out as TB case by either liquid culture or Xpert MTBRif performed at the three central reference laboratories. HIV testing was offered to all participants at the survey site following the national testing algorithm with rapid tests. The prevalence was expressed as the proportion of HIV among TB cases with 95% confidence limits. A total of 265/6123 (4.3%) participants were confirmed of having tuberculosis. Thirty-six of 151 TB survey cases who accepted HIV testing were HIV-seropositive (23.8%; 95% CI 17.2-31.4). The mean age of the TB/HIV cases was 37.6 years (range 24-70). The majority of the TB/HIV cases had some chest x-ray abnormality (88.9%); were smear positive (50.0%), and/or had a positive culture result (94.4%). None of the 36 detected TB/HIV cases were already on TB treatment, and 5/36 (13

  10. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Suk Park; Pengcheng Xun; Jing Li; Steve J. Morris; Jacobs, David R; Kiang Liu; Ka He

    2016-01-01

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20–32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were m...

  11. The level of specialist assessment of adult asthma is influenced by patient age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, C; Sverrild, A; Stensen, L;

    2014-01-01

    is sparse. AIM: To examine the impact of patient age on the type and proportion of diagnostic tests performed in patients undergoing specialist assessment for asthma. METHODS: Data from a clinical population consisting of all patients consecutively referred over a 12 months period to a specialist clinic...... adults, and were more frequently smokers. However, a regression analysis showed that older age was associated with a lower likelihood of diagnostic assessment with a reversibility test, a bronchial challenge test, or measurement of exhaled NO, independently of a known diagnosis of asthma, smoking habits......BACKGROUND: Late onset asthma is associated with more severe disease and higher morbidity than in younger asthma patients. This may in part relate to under recognition of asthma in older adults, but evidence on the impact of patient age on diagnostic assessment of asthma in a specialist setting...

  12. Rising Levels of HIV Infection in Older Adults in Eastern Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background With the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment across Africa, many people are living longer with HIV. Understanding the ageing of the HIV cohort and sexual behaviour among older adults are important for appropriately responding to the changing demographics of people living with HIV. Methods We used data from a large population-based open cohort in eastern Zimbabwe to examine HIV prevalence trends and incidence among those aged 45 years and older. Five survey rounds have been complet...

  13. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  14. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloko Matshipi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i the level of physical activity; (ii the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05 relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777. The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  15. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-03-16

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults.

  16. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Glucose Level amongst Ellisras Rural Young Adult Males and Females: Ellisras Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshipi, Moloko; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel; Kemper, Han

    2017-02-16

    Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA) and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs) may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the level of physical activity; (ii) the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii) the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females) who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05) relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777). The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.

  17. Effects of metoclopramide on mRNA levels of steroid 5α-reductase isozymes in prostate of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Pilar; Torres, Jesús M; Castro, Beatriz; Frías, José F; Ortega, Esperanza

    2013-03-01

    The rising incidence of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy in the Western world is a cause of increasing public health concern. The most active androgen in the prostate is 5α-dihydrotestosterone obtained from testosterone (T) by the enzyme 5α-reductase (5α-R), expressed in the prostate as two isozymes, 5α-R1 and 5α-R2. These isozymes are involved in the growth and development of normal prostate and in the onset and progression of prostate disease. Besides androgens, prolactin (PRL) may also play a role, although it is not clear whether its effects on the prostate are in synergism with or independent of those of androgens. We previously demonstrated that sulpiride, an inductor of hyperprolactinemia, increased mRNA levels of 5α-R isozymes in prostate of adult rat. We hypothesized a possible interrelationship between PRL levels and 5α-R, although the effects of sulpiride per se cannot be ruled out. In the present study, one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction coupled with laser-induced fluorescence capillary electrophoresis was used to quantify mRNA levels of both 5α-R isozymes in prostate of adult rat after administration of metoclopramide (MTC), another inductor of PRL secretion. With the administration regimens studied, MTC produced an increase in prostate weight and mRNA levels of 5α-R1 and 5α-R2 in adult rats. Given our finding that MTC per se or MTC-induced hyperprolactinemia modifies prostate disease-related parameters in animals with reduced plasma T levels, further investigation is warranted into the possibility that MTC use by aging males may increase their risk of prostate disease.

  18. Fever of unknown origin caused by adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: the diagnostic significance of double quotidian fevers and elevated serum ferritin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A

    2004-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in adults is a commonly encountered clinical problem. Treatable causes of FUO in the adult should be the primary focus of the diagnostic workup. Neoplasms have replaced infectious diseases as being the most common cause of FUO in adults, and collagen vascular diseases are now relatively rare. The most important collagen vascular diseases presenting as an FUO include Takayasu's arteritis, Kikuchi's disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, and adult juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) (adult Still's disease). There are no specific diagnostic tests for these disorders, which commonly present as prolonged fevers that are not easily diagnosed (i.e., FUO). Adult JRA is a rare but important cause of FUO in adults. Typically, patients with adult Still's disease present with liver/spleen involvement, posi-articular arthritis, ocular involvement, and evanescent salmon-colored truncal rash. An important diagnostic finding in adult JRA is the presence of a double quotidian fever, which occurs in few other disorders. Only visceral leishmaniasis and adult JRA are causes of FUO in adults associated with double quotidian fevers. Highly elevated serum ferritin levels are the most important nonspecific diagnostic finding associated with adult JRA. We present a case of FUO caused by adult JRA presenting with diffuse polyarticular migrating arthritis, evanescent rash, and splenomegaly. The diagnosis of adult JRA was suggested by these findings in association with a double quotidian fever and a highly elevated serum ferritin level. Clinicians should appreciate the diagnostic significance of fever patterns and the diagnostic significance of elevated serum ferritin levels in patients with FUO.

  19. Correlation of C-reactive protein level and obesity in Chinese adults and children: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Lv, G

    2013-09-01

    This meta-analysis evaluated the correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and obesity in Chinese adults and children. We searched three Chinese databases [Wanfang, WEIPU, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI)] in addition to PubMed. The search was restricted to only Chinese studies published online before January 9, 2013. Data from 28 articles were independently abstracted by two reviewers. The articles' characteristics were abstracted as follows: 1) first author name; 2) year of publication; 3) study population; 4) sample size; 5) sex, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and CRP level of the study population; 6) Pearson correlation coefficients, Spearman correlation coefficients, or odds ratios between CRP level and obesity. The metaanalysis was conducted to pool the Pearson correlation coefficients using a random-effects model. The pooled Pearson correlation coefficient between CRP and BMI was 0.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.56] in Chinese adults and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.31-0.62) in Chinese children, and the pooled Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.24-0.40) in the general Chinese population and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.42-0.64) in the obese Chinese population. Significant correlation was thus found between CRP and obesity in Chinese adults and children.

  20. IL-7 and SCF Levels Inversely Correlate with T Cell Reconstitution and Clinical Outcomes after Cord Blood Transplantation in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Politikos

    Full Text Available Recovery of thymopoiesis is critical for immune reconstitution after HSCT. IL-7 and SCF are two major thymotropic cytokines. We investigated whether the kinetics of circulating levels of these cytokines might provide insight into the prolonged immunodeficiency after double umbilical cord blood transplantation (dUCBT in adults. We examined plasma levels of IL-7 and SCF, T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle (TREC levels and T cell subsets in 60 adult patients undergoing dUCBT. Median levels of IL-7 increased by more than 3-fold at 4 weeks and remained elevated through 100 days after dUCBT. SCF showed a less than 2-fold increase and more protracted elevation than IL-7. IL-7 levels inversely correlated with the reconstitution of various T cell subsets but not with TRECs. SCF levels inversely correlated with reconstitution of CD4+T cells, especially the naïve CD4+CD45RA+ subset, and with TRECs suggesting that SCF but not IL-7 had an effect on thymic regeneration. In Cox models, elevated levels of IL-7 and SCF were associated with higher non-relapse mortality (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01 and worse overall survival (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001. Elevated IL-7 but not SCF was also associated with development of GvHD (p = 0.03. Thus, IL-7 and SCF are elevated for a prolonged period after dUCBT and persistently high levels of these cytokines may correlate with worse clinical outcomes.

  1. Neutron-induced 63Ni activity and microscopic observation of copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Shinozaki, Kenji; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Fast neutron activation data for 63Ni in copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb are important in evaluating neutron doses to the survivors. Up to until now, accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting methods have been applied in 63Ni measurements and data were accumulated within 1500 m from the hypocenter. The slope of the activation curve versus distance shows reasonable agreement with the calculation result, however, data near the hypocenter are scarce. In the present work, two copper samples obtained from the Atomic bomb dome (155 m from the hypocenter) and the Bank of Japan building (392 m) were utilized in 63Ni beta-ray measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. Additionally, microscopic observation of the metal surfaces was performed for the first time. Only upper limit of 63Ni production was obtained for copper sample of the Atomic bomb dome. The result of the 63Ni measurement for Bank of Japan building show reasonable agreement with the AMS measurement and to fast neutron activation calculations based on the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) neutrons.

  2. Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, J.N.; Schull, W.J. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period.

  3. Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974): relation to atomic bomb radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, M. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan); Norman, J.E. Jr.; Kato, H.; Yagawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB. The ratio of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complications in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevalence of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed.

  4. Neutron spectrum and yield of the Hiroshima A-bomb deduced from radionuclide measurements at one location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühm, W; Kato, K; Korschinek, G; Morinaga, H; Nolte, E

    1995-07-01

    In this paper measurements of the radionuclides of 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Co, 152Eu and 154Eu in samples from Hiroshima, which were exposed to neutrons of the A-bomb explosion, are interpreted. In order to calculate the neutron spectrum at the sample site, neutron transport calculations using Monte Carlo techniques were carried out. Activation profiles in a granite mock-up irradiated with reactor neutrons could be reproduced by this method using DS86 input parameters. The calculated neutron spectrum at the sample site for non-thermal neutrons is identical to that obtained in DS86, but contains some 50% more thermal neutrons. The influence of parameters like soil composition, source terms and air humidity on the activation of these radioisotopes is discussed. The granite-covered earth at the sample site, for example, hardens the spectrum in comparison with DS86 values. Even when using a fission spectrum pointing downward and neglecting air humidity one cannot explain our 36Cl measurements. If the effective thermal neutron fluences, that have a similar ratio of resonance integral to thermal neutron capture cross sections obtained from 36Cl, 41Ca and 152Eu, are averaged, a bomb yield of about 16 kt is deduced in agreement with a bomb yield of (15 +/- 3) kt estimated in DS86.

  5. [Kenzo Yoshida of the Hiroshima Domain and Chloroform Anesthesia at the End of the Edo Era in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuiki, Akitomo

    2016-02-01

    Japanese physicians encountered difficulties in obtaining information from The Netherlands on general anesthetics since 1848. It was a turning point when Chinese medical textbooks were imported in the latter half of the 1850 s. They were written by Benjamin Hobson (1816-1873), a British missionary and physician who lived in China for many years. Among them, Siyi Luelun (Sei-i Ryakuron) published in 1857, was widely welcome by Japanese surgeons and medical students. Kenzo Yoshida (1848-1924), a physician from the Hiroshima Domain, was impressed by a two-page description of chloroform anesthesia in it He observed William Willis administrating chloroform anesthesia on several injured Satsuma domain soldiers in January 1868 at the Shokokuji Temple in Kyoto. A few days later, Yoshida had a chance to administer chloroform to a man who committed suicide by cutting the abdomen. The intestine, which was 90 cm long, protruded from the wound, was put back into the abdominal cavity under chloroform anesthesia given by Yoshida. This is the second case of chloroform anesthesia administered by a Japanese physician.

  6. In-Situ U-Pb Dating of Apatite by Hiroshima-SHRIMP: Contributions to Earth and Planetary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kentaro; Sano, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    The Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) is the first ion microprobe dedicated to geological isotopic analyses, especially in-situ analyses related to the geochronology of zircon. Such a sophisticated ion probe, which can attain a high sensitivity at a high mass resolution, based on a double focusing high mass-resolution spectrometer, designed by Matsuda (1974), was constructed at the Australian National University. In 1996, such an instrument was installed at Hiroshima University and was the first SHRIMP to be installed in Japan. Since its installation, our focus has been on the in-situ U-Pb dating of the mineral apatite, as well as zircon, which is a more common U-bearing mineral. This provides the possibility for extending the use of in-situ U-Pb dating from determining the age of formation of volcanic, granitic, sedimentary and metamorphic minerals to the direct determination of the diagenetic age of fossils and/or the crystallization age of various meteorites, which can provide new insights into the thermal history on the Earth and/or the Solar System. In this paper, we review the methodology associated with in-situ apatite dating and our contribution to Earth and Planetary Science over the past 16 years.

  7. Microbial exposures in infancy predict levels of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-4 in Filipino young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Paula Skye; Kuzawa, Christopher; Adair, Linda; Borja, Judith B.; McDade, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Infancy represents a window of development during which long-term immunological functioning can be influenced. In this study, we evaluate proxies of microbial exposures in infancy as predictors of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in young adulthood. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an immunoregulatory cytokine that plays a role in the pathogenesis of atopic and allergic disease. Methods Data come from 1,403 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS), an ongoing population-based study in the Philippines. Relationships between microbial and nutritional environments in infancy and plasma IL-4 concentrations in adulthood were evaluated using tobit regression models. Results Having older siblings and more episodes of respiratory illness in infancy significantly predicted lower concentrations of plasma IL-4 in adulthood. Unexpectedly, more episodes of diarrheal illness in infancy were associated with higher IL-4. Interactions between a composite household pathogen exposure score, and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding approached significance. This interaction showed that the negative association between household pathogen exposure in infancy and adult IL-4 was only significant for individuals who had been exclusively breastfed for a short duration of time. Finally, currently living in an urban household was unexpectedly, negatively associated with adult IL-4. Associations were independent of early nutrition, socioeconomic status, and urbanicity, as well as current measures of infection, body fat, socioeconomic status, and smoking. Conclusions This study builds on a growing body of literature demonstrating that early ecological conditions have long-term effects on human biology by providing evidence that multiple proxies of microbial exposures in infancy are associated with adult IL-4. PMID:22307655

  8. The Effect of Disulfiram on Serum Levels of Hormones in the Pituitary-Thyroid in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Disulfiram is used for treatment of alcohol intoxication.Based on the results of different studies, excessive amounts of the drug can affect the body's endocrine function. This study investigated the effect of disulfiram on the activity of the pituitary - thy-roid in adult male rats. Materials & Methods: In this study 50 adult male Wistar rats weighing approximately 200 to 220 g were used in the experimental, control and intact groups. Experimental groups received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg oral doses of disulfiram for 10 days and control group received 1 ml saline for 10 days and intact groups did not receive any thing. At the end of the tenth day ,the rats were bled from the heart and T3, T4 and TSH hormones were measured by commercial kits Gama Counter and the results were analyzed using one-way (ANOVA with SPSS ver-sion 18. Results: Results show that there was no significant changes in T4 plasma level, but T3 and TSH level increased significantly when the control and intact groups were compared. Conclusion: Disulfiram had no significant effect in T4 plasma level but T3 and TSH level in-creased significantly. It probably happened due to increasing serotonin and reducing soma-tostatine and also enhancing the activity of 5-Deiodinase enzymes following the entry of cal-cium ions into the cells.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:43-47

  9. Levels of antibodies specific to tetanus toxoid, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide in healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Uwe; Stemberg, Frank; Rieger, Christian H L; Büttner, Wolfgang; Borte, Michael; Schubert, Simone; Möllers, Helga; Riedel, Frank; Herz, Udo; Renz, Harald; Herzog, Wilhelm

    2003-03-01

    Antibody levels specific for capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and for tetanus toxoid were measured in serum samples of 386 age-stratified subjects. The study group consists of healthy adult blood donors and hospitalized children undergoing elective surgery, excluding individuals with a history of infection. In children, anti-tetanus toxoid antibody levels displayed two peaks of 1.20 IU/ml (20.4 mg/liter) and 1.65 IU/ml (28.1 mg/liter) related to the schedule of routine childhood immunization in the first year and at 8 years of age. Eighty percent of the antibodies are of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype. For pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP), the specific antibody levels represent the acquisition of natural immunity. The initial concentration of 9.2 mg/liter was low in infancy (0.5 to 1 years of age) and remained low until 3 to 4 years of age (14.6 mg/liter). During this period PCP antibodies were almost 100% of the IgG2 subclass. Thereafter, IgG anti-PCP antibody titers increased steadily to adult levels (59.5 mg/liter). The data are intended to provide reference ranges to aid in the interpretation of specific antibody determinations in the clinical setting.

  10. Dynamics of vitellogenin and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone levels in adult and subadult whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: relation to molting and eyestalk ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jung; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Shinji, Junpei; Bae, Sun-Hye; Wilder, Marcy N

    2014-01-01

    Levels of vitellogenin (VG) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in relation to the molting cycle and ovarian maturation induced by eyestalk ablation. During the molt cycle, VG mRNA expression levels and VG concentrations showed similar patterns of fluctuation. VG levels increased significantly at early intermolt (stage C0) in adults, but not in subadults. Unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation increased VG levels in adults, whereas only bilateral eyestalk ablation affected subadults. VIH levels showed contrasting patterns between adults and subadults. In adults, levels were high in late postmolt adults (stage B) and then low thereafter, whereas they increased from postmolt (stage A) to intermolt (stage C0) in subadults and remained high. Unilateral eyestalk ablation increased VIH levels 10 days following ablation in adults, after which levels decreased at 20 days. VIH levels decreased from 10 to 20 days after bilateral ablation. Both unilateral and bilateral ablation led to increased VIH levels in subadults. Eyestalk ablation induced ovarian maturation, but did not reduce VIH concentrations in the hemolymph. This phenomenon was perhaps due to other crustacean hyperglycemic hormone peptides having cross-reactivity with VIH antibodies. This is the first report to quantify concentrations of VG and VIH together in L. vannamei hemolymph, and to examine their relative dynamics.

  11. Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli levels following probiotic cheese consumption in adults: A double blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The beneficial effects of Lactobacillus species have been reported but the role of these species including Lactobacillus casei (L. casei on oral health is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ef-fects of conventional or probiotic cheese containing L.casei on salivary Streptococcus mutans (SM and Lactobacilli levels. Methods: In this double-blind controlled trial (IRCT201009144745N1, 60 adults were randomly allocated in 2 paral-lel blocks. SM and Lactobacilli count assessment were performed three times. Subjects consumed either cheese contain-ing L. casei (110[6] Cfu /g (probiotic block, n=29 or cheese without any probiotic (control block, n=31 twice daily for two weeks. Bacterial levels changes were compared using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney Tests. Logistic regression compared changes in number of subjects with lowest and highest SM or Lactobacilli levels. Results: Statistically significant (p = 0.001 reduction of salivary SM was found in probiotic group. SM levels reduc-tion was not significant between placebo and trial groups (p = 0.46, 62% in probiotic vs. 32% in placebo group. Lacto-bacilli count changes during trial were not statistically significant inter and intra blocks (p = 0.12. Probiotic interven-tion was significantly effective in high levels (> 10[5] cfu/ml of SM (Odds Ratio 11.6, 95% CI 1.56-86.17, p = 0.017. Conclusions: Probiotic cheese containing L. casei was not effective in salivary SM levels reduction comparing to conventional cheese. Adding L. casei to cheese could be useful in decreasing SM counts in adults 18-37 years old with highest level of SM.

  12. Forced chromatin looping raises fetal hemoglobin in adult sickle cells to higher levels than pharmacologic inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Laura; Motta, Irene; Lourenco, Silvia; Gemmo, Chiara; Deng, Wulan; Rupon, Jeremy W; Abdulmalik, Osheiza Y; Manwani, Deepa; Blobel, Gerd A; Rivella, Stefano

    2016-08-25

    Overcoming the silencing of the fetal γ-globin gene has been a long-standing goal in the treatment of sickle cell disease (SCD). The major transcriptional enhancer of the β-globin locus, called the locus control region (LCR), dynamically interacts with the developmental stage-appropriate β-type globin genes via chromatin looping, a process requiring the protein Ldb1. In adult erythroid cells, the LCR can be redirected from the adult β- to the fetal γ-globin promoter by tethering Ldb1 to the human γ-globin promoter with custom-designed zinc finger (ZF) proteins (ZF-Ldb1), leading to reactivation of γ-globin gene expression. To compare this approach to pharmacologic reactivation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hematopoietic cells from patients with SCD were treated with a lentivirus expressing the ZF-Ldb1 or with chemical HbF inducers. The HbF increase in cells treated with ZF-Ldb1 was more than double that observed with decitabine and pomalidomide; butyrate had an intermediate effect whereas tranylcypromine and hydroxyurea showed relatively low HbF reactivation. ZF-Ldb1 showed comparatively little toxicity, and reduced sickle hemoglobin (HbS) synthesis as well as sickling of SCD erythroid cells under hypoxic conditions. The efficacy and low cytotoxicity of lentiviral-mediated ZF-Ldb1 gene transfer compared with the drug regimens support its therapeutic potential for the treatment of SCD.

  13. Food intake and blood cholesterol levels of community-based adults with mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Karen M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of literature links nutrition to mood, especially in epidemiological surveys, but there is little information characterizing food intake in people with diagnosed mood disorders. Methods Food intake obtained from 3-day food records was evaluated in 97 adults with mood disorders, whose diagnoses were confirmed in structured interviews. Information from a population nutrition survey, national guidelines for nutritional intakes (Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide and North American dietary guidelines (Dietary Reference Intakes was utilized to evaluate the quality of their food intake. Results Compared to the regional nutrition survey data and national guidelines, a greater proportion of study participants consumed fewer of the recommended servings of grains (p p p p p p 5.2 and ≤ 6.2 mmol/L and 21% had hypercholesterolemia (> 6.2 mmol/L. Conclusions Much research has proposed multiple ways in which healthier diets may exert protective effects on mental health. The results of this study suggest that adults with mood disorders could benefit from nutritional interventions to improve diet quality.

  14. Measurement of the severity of disability in community-dwelling adults and older adults: interval-level measures for accurate comparisons in large survey data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buz, José; Cortés-Rodríguez, María

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To (1) create a single metric of disability using Rasch modelling to be used for comparing disability severity levels across groups and countries, (2) test whether the interval-level measures were invariant across countries, sociodemographic and health variables and (3) examine the gains in precision using interval-level measures relative to ordinal scores when discriminating between groups known to differ in disability. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting/participants Data were drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), including comparable data across 16 countries and involving 58 489 community-dwelling adults aged 50+. Main outcome measures A single metric of disability composed of self-care and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and functional limitations. We examined the construct validity through the fit to the Rasch model and the know-groups method. Reliability was examined using person separation reliability. Results The single metric fulfilled the requirements of a strong hierarchical scale; was able to separate persons with different levels of disability; demonstrated invariance of the item hierarchy across countries; and was unbiased by age, gender and different health conditions. However, we found a blurred hierarchy of ADL and IADL tasks. Rasch-based measures yielded gains in relative precision (11–116%) in discriminating between groups with different medical conditions. Conclusions Equal-interval measures, with person-invariance and item-invariance properties, provide epidemiologists and researchers with the opportunity to gain better insight into the hierarchical structure of functional disability, and yield more reliable and accurate estimates of disability across groups and countries. Interval-level measures of disability allow parametric statistical analysis to confidently examine the relationship between disability and continuous measures so frequent in health sciences

  15. Participation levels of physical activity programs for community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Deijl (Marielle); A. Schop-Etman (Astrid); C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although many physical activity (PA) programs have been implemented and tested for effectiveness, high participation levels are needed in order to achieve public health impact. This study aimed to determine participation levels of PA programs aimed to improve PA among

  16. Participation levels of physical activity programs for community-dwelling older adults: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Van Der Deijl (Marielle); A. Etman (Astrid); C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although many physical activity (PA) programs have been implemented and tested for effectiveness, high participation levels are needed in order to achieve public health impact. This study aimed to determine participation levels of PA programs aimed to improve PA among communi

  17. Efficacy of Brain Gym Training on the Cognitive Performance and Fitness Level of Active Older Adults: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancela, José M; Vila Suárez, Ma Helena; Vasconcelos, Jamine; Lima, Ana; Ayán, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the impact of Brain Gym (BG) training in active older adults. Eighty-five participants were assigned to four training groups: BG (n = 18), BG plus water-based exercise (n = 18), land-based exercise (n = 30), and land plus water-based exercise (n = 19). The effects of the programs on the attention and memory functions were assessed by means of the symbol digit modality test. The two-min step and the eight-foot up-and-go tests were used to evaluate their impact on fitness level. No program had a significant influence on the participant's cognitive performance, while different effects on the sample' fitness levels were observed. These findings suggest that the effects of BG on the cognitive performance and fitness level of active older adults are similar to those obtained after the practice of a traditional exercise program. Whether BG is performed in isolation or combined with other exercise programs seems to have no influence on such effects.

  18. Common FABP4 Genetic Variants and Plasma Levels of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Biggs, Mary L.; Jensen, Majken K.; Ix, Joachim H.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Zieman, Susan J.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Psaty, Bruce M.; Siscovick, David S.; Djoussé, Luc

    2013-01-01

    We examined common variants in the fatty acid binding protein 4 gene (FABP4) and plasma levels of FABP4 in adults aged 65 and older from the Cardiovascular Health Study. We genotyped rs16909187, rs1054135, rs16909192, rs10808846, rs7018409, rs2290201, and rs6992708 and measured circulating FABP4 levels among 3190 European Americans and 660 African Americans. Among European Americans, the minor alleles of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were associated with lower FABP4 levels (all p ≤ 0.01). Among African Americans, the SNP with the lowest minor allele frequency was associated with lower FABP4 levels (p = 0.015). The C-A haplotype of rs16909192 and rs2290201 was associated with lower FABP4 levels in both European Americans (frequency = 16 %; p = 0.001) and African Americans (frequency = 8 %; p = 0.04). The haplotype combined a SNP in the first intron with one in the 3′untranslated region. However, the alleles associated with lower FABP4 levels were associated with higher fasting glucose in meta-analyses from the MAGIC consortium. These results demonstrate associations of common SNP and haplotypes in the FABP4 gene with lower plasma FABP4 but higher fasting glucose levels. PMID:24043587

  19. Longitudinal lactate levels from routine point-of-care monitoring in adult Malawian antiretroviral therapy patients: associations with stavudine toxicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoma, Newton; Mallewa, Jane; Kaunda, Symon; Njalale, Yasin; Kampira, Elizabeth; Mukaka, Mavuto; Heyderman, Robert S; van Oosterhout, Joep J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Stavudine is still widely used in under-resourced settings such as Malawi due to its low price. It frequently causes peripheral neuropathy and lipodystrophy and increases the risk of lactic acidosis and other high lactate syndromes. Methods We studied the association of longitudinal lactate levels, obtained by routine, 3-monthly point-of-care monitoring, with peripheral neuropathy, lipodystrophy and high lactate syndromes in adult Malawians who were in the second year of stavudine containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Results Point-of-care lactate measurements were feasible in a busy urban ART clinic. Of 1170 lactate levels collected from 253 patients over the course of one year, 487 (41.8%) were elevated (>2.2mg/dl), 58 (5.0%) were highly elevated (>3.5mg/dl). At least one elevated lactate level occurred in 210 (83.0%) of patients and sustained hyperlactatemia in 65 (26.4%). In random effects analyses lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy were associated with higher lactate levels. Only five patients developed high lactate syndromes (one lactic acidosis) of whom no preceding lactate measurements were available because events had started before enrolment. Lactate levels significantly decreased over time and no high lactate syndromes were observed after the 15th month on ART. Conclusion Lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy were associated with higher lactate levels. Lactate levels decreased over time, coinciding with absence of new high lactate syndromes after the 15th month on ART. PMID:23926161

  20. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years....... Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate ( ... and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 (

  1. Increased adult hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and normal levels of neurogenesis in maternal separation rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greisen, Mia H; Altar, C Anthony; Bolwig, Tom G; Whitehead, Richard; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2005-03-15

    Repeated maternal separation of rat pups during the early postnatal period may affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurons in brain areas that are compromised by chronic stress. In the present study, a highly significant increase in hippocampal BDNF protein concentration was found in adult rats that as neonates had been subjected to 180 min of daily separation compared with handled rats separated for 15 min daily. BDNF protein was unchanged in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus/paraventricular nucleus. Expression of BDNF mRNA in the CA1, CA3, or dentate gyrus of the hippocampus or in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus was not affected by maternal separation. All animals displayed similar behavioral patterns in a forced-swim paradigm, which did not affect BDNF protein concentration in the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Repeated administration of bromodeoxyuridine revealed equal numbers of surviving, newly generated granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats from the 15 min or 180 min groups. The age-dependent decline in neurogenesis from 3 months to 7 months of age did not differ between the groups. Insofar as BDNF can stimulate neurogenesis and repair, we propose that the elevated hippocampal protein concentration found in maternally deprived rats might be a compensatory reaction to separation during the neonatal period, maintaining adult neurogenesis at levels equal to those of the handled rats.

  2. The use of a food supplement is associated with changes in total cholesterol levels in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigues Tavares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High levels of total cholesterol are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. An oral formulation comprised of two types of capsules was tested in adult women (n = 14 with total cholesterol values >200 mg/dL. In the first capsule were red yeast rice extract, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, pteroylglutamic acid and cyanocobalamin, and in the second, a mixture of fish oils containing docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. After four weeks of supplementation, a significant (p =0.001 decrease was observed in the mean values of total cholesterol.

  3. How Depressive Levels Are Related to the Adults' Experiences of Lower-Limb Amputation: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The current pilot study aims to explore whether different adults' experiences of lower-limb amputation could be associated with different levels of depression. To achieve these study objectives, a convergent parallel mixed methods design was used in a convenience sample of 42 adult amputees (mean age of 61 years; SD = 13.5). All of them had…

  4. Educational level as a contextual and proximate determinant of all cause mortality in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    2003-01-01

    , exercise, alcohol use, and body mass index) and contextual factors (local area unemployment, income share, and household composition) were included in the Cox model. CONCLUSION: In this study the educational level of an area influenced subject's mortality, but first after adjustment for behavioural......): 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98) and individual level (HR: 0.76 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.88) were inversely associated with mortality, when comparing the higest educated groups with the least educated. However, at parish level the effect was only present, when information on subject's income, behaviour (smoking...

  5. Urinary arsenic levels in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Garnier, Robert; Cirimele, Vincent; Persoons, Renaud; Fréry, Nadine

    2012-09-01

    The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74 years and children aged 3-17 years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3 days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (μg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (μg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34 μg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75 μg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9 μg/g of creatinine (10.68 μg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96 μg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42 μg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29 μg/g of creatinine (72.75 μg/L). Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS+MMA+DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels

  6. Recommended level of physical activity and health-related quality of life among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Yoshio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but less research has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL exists in the Japanese population. Thus, the present study examined whether the recommended physical activity would be associated with HRQOL in the general Japanese middle-aged population. Methods Data were obtained from 1211 male and female respondents (39.4 ± 10.9 year, mean ± SD from an Internet-based survey of registrants of an Internet research service. Physical activity level was estimated from the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan, respondents were divided into a recommended group, an insufficient group, and an inactive group according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. Multivariate analyses of covariance were utilized. Results Across both genders, the recommended group had significantly higher physical functioning (PF scores than the inactive group (p Conclusion Individuals who attained the recommended level of physical activity had better scores on some dimensions of HRQOL than those who did not, suggesting that the recommended level of physical activity may be applicable not only to the physiological objective outcomes but also to some dimensions in both the physical and mental aspects of HRQOL.

  7. [Level of reading skills as a measure of cognitive reserve in elderly adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Añari, Marcio; Flores-Valdivia, Gilda; Fernández-Guinea, Sara

    2013-01-16

    Cognitive reserve modulates between neurodegenerative processes and the clinical manifestations of cognitive impairment and dementia. This construct is associated with the capacity to optimise the execution of tasks by recruiting neuronal networks and with the use of alternative cognitive strategies that would be mediated by formal educational processes. To analyse the level of reading skills as a measure of cognitive reserve and as a reliable predictor of performance in tests for evaluating different cognitive domains. The sample consisted of 87 healthy subjects who were asked to complete the Word Naming test as an indicator of the level of reading skills; this allowed us to divide the sample into subjects with a low and a high level of reading ability. A broad neuropsychological battery was then applied. The subjects with a low level of reading skills displayed lower general cognitive performance, reduced processing speed and cognitive deficits. Furthermore, the level of reading skills is a better predictor of performance in executive functions and general cognitive performance than the variables age, years of schooling and education. The level of reading skills has shown itself to be a good measure of cognitive reserve and a reliable predictor of executive and cognitive functioning in ageing.

  8. Amylase level in extrahepatic bile duct in adult patients with choledochal cyst plus anomalous pancreatico-biliary ductal union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Ho Jeong; Jin-Hong Kim; Jae-Ho Han; Wook-Hwan Kim; Yong-Sik Jung; Hong Kim; Bong-Wan Kim; Jung-Woon Kim; Jeong Hong; Hee-Jung Wang; Myung-Wook Kim; Byung-Moo Yoo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between pancreatic amylase in bile duct and the clinico-pathological features in adult patients with choledochal cyst and anomalous pancreatico-biliary ductal union (APBDU).METHODS: From 39 patients who underwent surgery for choledochal cyst between March 1995 and March 2003,we selected 15 adult patients who had some symptoms and were radiologically diagnosed as APBDU, and their clinico-pathological features were subsequently evaluated retrospectively. However, we could not obtain biliary amylase in all the patients because of the surgeon's slip.Therefore, we measured the amylase level in gall bladder of 10 patients and in common bile duct of 11 patients.RESULTS: Levels of amylase in common bile duct and gall bladder ranged from 11 500 to 212 000 IU/L, and the younger the patients, the higher the biliary amylase level (r= -0.982, P<0.01). Pathologically, significant correlation was found between the size of choledochal cyst and the grade of inflammation (r= 0.798,P<0.01). And, significant correlation was found between the level of amylase in gall bladder and the grade of hyperplasia. On the other hand, there was no correlation to the age of symptomatic onset or inflammatory grade (r = 0.743, P<0.05). Level of lipase was elevated from 6 000 to 159 000 IU/L in bile duct and from 14 400 to 117 000 IU/L in the gall bladder;however, there was no significant correlation with age or clinico-pathological features.CONCLUSION: The results support the notion that amylase has a particular role in the onset of symptoms, and suggest that a large amount of biliary amylase induces early onset of symptom, thereby making early diagnosis possible.

  9. Long-Term Intermittent Hypoxia Elevates Cobalt Levels in the Brain and Injures White Matter in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Lear, Jessica; Zhu, Yan; Grinspan, Judith B.; Hare, Dominic J.; Wang, SiHe; Bunch, Dustin; Doble, Philip A.; Robinson, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to the variable oxygenation patterns in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes oxidative stress within the brain. We hypothesized that this stress is associated with increased levels of redox-active metals and white matter injury. Design: Participants were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group (single independent variable). Setting: University animal house. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6J mice. Interventions: To model OSA, mice were exposed to long-term intermittent hypoxia (LTIH) for 10 hours/day for 8 weeks or sham intermittent hypoxia (SIH). Measurements and Results: Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to quantitatively map the distribution of the trace elements cobalt, copper, iron, and zinc in forebrain sections. Control mice contained 62 ± 7 ng cobalt/g wet weight, whereas LTIH mice contained 5600 ± 600 ng cobalt/g wet weight (P Cobalt was concentrated within white matter regions of the brain, including the corpus callosum. Compared to that of control mice, the corpus callosum of LTIH mice had significantly more endoplasmic reticulum stress, fewer myelin-associated proteins, disorganized myelin sheaths, and more degenerated axon profiles. Because cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12, serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels were measured. LTIH mice had low MMA levels (P cobalt, predominantly in the white matter. The increased cobalt is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, myelin loss, and axonal injury. Low plasma methylmalonic acid levels are associated with white matter injury in long-term intermittent hypoxia and possibly in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Veasey SC; Lear J; Zhu Y; Grinspan JB; Hare DJ; Wang S; Bunch D; Doble PA; Robinson SR. Long-term intermittent hypoxia elevates cobalt levels in the brain and injures white matter in adult mice. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1471-1481. PMID:24082306

  10. Adult vaccination coverage levels among users of complementary/alternative medicine – results from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardenheier Barbara H

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While many Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM practitioners do not object to immunization, some discourage or even actively oppose vaccination among their patients. However, previous studies in this area have focused on childhood immunizations, and it is unknown whether and to what extent CAM practitioners may influence the vaccination behavior of their adult patients. The purpose of this study was to describe vaccination coverage levels of adults aged ≥ 18 years according to their CAM use status and determine if there is an association between CAM use and adult vaccination coverage. Methods Data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, limited to 30,617 adults that provided at least one valid answer to the CAM supplement, were analyzed. Receipt of influenza vaccine during the past 12 months, pneumococcal vaccine (ever, and ≥ 1 dose of hepatitis B vaccine was self-reported. Coverage levels for each vaccine by CAM use status were determined for adults who were considered high priority for vaccination because of the presence of a high risk condition and for non-priority adults. Multivariable analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between CAM users and vaccination status, adjusting for demographic and healthcare utilization characteristics. Results Overall, 36% were recent CAM users. Among priority adults, adjusted vaccination coverage levels were significantly different between recent and non-CAM users for influenza (44% vs 38%; p-value Conclusion Vaccination coverage levels among recent CAM users were found to be higher than non-CAM users. Because CAM use has been increasing over time in the U.S., it is important to continue monitoring CAM use and its possible influence on receipt of immunizations among adults. Since adult vaccination coverage levels remain below Healthy People 2010 goals, it may be beneficial to work with CAM practitioners to promote adult vaccines as preventive services in

  11. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Vitamin D Supplement in Adult Patients with Asthma Exacerbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantveerawong, Teerapol; Pradubpongsa, Panitan; Sangasapaviliya, Atik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. Objective. This study aimed to compare vitamin D status during the period of severe asthma exacerbations and investigate if vitamin D supplementation improves asthma control. Methods. A total of 47 asthmatic patients and 40 healthy subjects participated in this study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), asthma control test (ACT) score, and % predicted peak expiratory flow rate were evaluated in the period with and without severe asthma exacerbations. After that, we provided vitamin D2 supplements to the patients with low vitamin D levels for 3 months. Results. At the period of asthma exacerbation, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was 38.29% and 34.04%. There was no significant difference in the levels of serum 25(OH)D with and without asthma exacerbations but the levels were significantly higher in the healthy group. Serum 25(OH)D levels significantly correlated with ACT score. Moreover, vitamin D2 supplementation improved asthma control in uncontrolled asthma group. Conclusions. Hypovitaminosis D was common in asthmatic patients but was not the leading cause of asthma exacerbations. Serum 25(OH)D levels correlated with the ability to control asthma. Improving vitamin D status might be a benefit in uncontrolled asthmatic patients. PMID:27974898

  12. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  13. Significant Association between Serum Interleukin-6 and Helicobacter pylori Antibody Levels among H. pylori-Positive Japanese Adults

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    Hiroko Nakagawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine produced by many types of cells. Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis that is an underlying cause of coronary heart disease (CHD. Since the 1990s, some studies have shown an association between H. pylori infection and CHD, which may be mediated by inflammation. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the association between serum anti-H. pylori IgG levels and serum IL-6 levels in H. pylori-infected adults. Methods. We enrolled 158 subjects who visited a clinic located in an urban area to be tested for H. pylori infection, using the 13C-urea breath test, and who were found to be infected and subsequently received eradication. Results. The geometric mean serum IL-6 level was 1.78 pg/mL for men, 1.57 pg/mL for women, and 1.64 pg/mL overall. Logarithms of serum IL-6 levels were positively correlated with logarithms of serum H. pylori IgG levels (r=0.24, P=0.002. In multiple linear regression analysis adjusting for sex and age, the serum IL-6 level was still significantly associated with the IgG level in all subjects (β=0.18, P=0.012. Conclusion. Higher H. pylori IgG levels were significantly associated with higher serum IL-6 levels among H. pylori-infected individuals.

  14. Inclusion and exclusion factors in adult education of youth with a low educational level in Spain

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    Salva-Mut Salva-Mut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse, from a biographical perspective, youth participation in education and training, aged between 26 and 28 years, who have no qualifications or at most have a qualification corresponding to the Lower Secondary Education Certificate (LSEC (ISCED 0-2, during the 10 years elapsed between the end of compulsory education (2000 and the time of the interview (2010. As regards their personal life stories, we cover a broad period which includes different stages in the transition into adulthood, stages which take place in a historical context in which we have moved from a time characterised by ease of access to employment among youth with a low educational level to another time in which youth unemployment levels affects over half of the workforce aged 16 to 24 and in which public policies supporting training and social and professional insertion of young people with a low educational level have been reduced.

  15. Increased serum ferritin levels are independently related to incidence of prediabetes in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, G; Yang, H; Bao, X; Zhang, Q; Liu, L; Wu, H; Du, H; Xia, Y; Shi, H; Guo, X; Liu, X; Li, C; Su, Q; Gu, Y; Fang, L; Yu, F; Sun, S; Wang, X; Zhou, M; Jia, Q; Guo, Q; Song, K; Huang, G; Wang, G; Wu, Y; Niu, K

    2017-04-01

    To comprehensively and exhaustively assess the relationship between serum ferritin levels and incidence of prediabetes in a prospective study. This prospective cohort study (n=7380) with a mean follow-up of 3.07 years (range: 1-7, 95% CI: 3.03-3.12) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Blood fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum ferritin levels and other potentially confounding factors were measured at baseline and at each year of follow-up. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the gender-specific relationship between baseline and mean serum ferritin quintiles and prediabetes. The incidence of prediabetes was 85 per 1000 person-years among men and 44 per 1000 person-years among women during follow-up (from 2007 to 2014). After adjusting for potential confounders, hazard ratios (95% CI) for prediabetes across baseline ferritin quintiles were: for men, 1.00, 1.13 (0.90-1.40), 1.20 (0.97-1.48), 1.41 (1.14-1.73) and 1.73 (1.41-2.11); and for women, 1.00, 1.01 (0.74-1.38), 0.68 (0.48-0.96), 0.84 (0.61-1.15) and 1.07 (0.80-1.45), respectively. Similar results were also observed for mean ferritin levels. Both baseline and mean serum ferritin levels were significantly and linearly related to prediabetes in men, whereas U-shaped relationships were observed between baseline and mean serum ferritin and prediabetes in women. The relationship between prediabetes risk and mean serum ferritin levels may be more stable than one with baseline serum ferritin levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. NO EFFECT OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS SUPPLEMENTATION ON TESTOSTERONE LEVEL AND MUSCLE STRENGTH IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS FOR RESISTANCE TRAINING

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    C C Hsu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of oral Cordyceps sinensis supplementation combined with resistance training in young male adults. A group of 16 subjects were randomly allocated to two groups (double blind to receive either Cordyceps sinensis (CS; 2.4 g/day; n = 8 or a placebo (P; 2.4 g maltodextrin/day; n = 8 during eight weeks of resistance training. Exercises were performed for three sets of 3 to 5 repetitions at a mean training intensity of 80% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM. Before and after training, measurements were taken 1 RM to bench press, leg press, and seated rowing. The body composition, plasma testosterone levels, as well as serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate transaminoferase, and alanine transaminoferase were also measured. The results showed that CS supplementation did not significantly affect (p>0.05 the changes in all measurable variables after eight weeks of resistance training. This study suggested that CS is relatively safe to be ingested; however, CS supplementation for eight weeks neither appear to possess a significant ergogenic value nor affect testosterone level of resistance-trained young male adults.

  17. ASAM Patient Placement Criteria treatment levels: do they correspond to care actually received by homeless substance abusing adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Thomas P; Freyder, Paul J; Gibbon, Jeanette L; Hanusa, Barbara J; Seltzer, Debora; Fine, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    We report findings from a community-based two-city survey of homeless adults comparing the level of substance abuse treatment assigned to them using the ASAM Patient Placement Criteria with care actually received during the previous 12 months. Overall 531 adults were surveyed with 382 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria of being in need of treatment or having a demand for treatment. Of those with a treatment need, 1.5% met criteria for outpatient care, 40.3% intensive outpatient/partial hospitalization care, 29.8% medically monitored care and 28.8% managed care levels. In contrast, of those receiving treatment (50.5%, 162 persons), almost all care received by this cohort was either inpatient or residential based (83.6%). Unsheltered homeless persons and those without insurance were significantly more likely to report not receiving needed treatment. Lack of treatment availability or capacity, expense, and changing one's mind while on a wait list were the most commonly cited reasons for no treatment.

  18. Effects of altered fundamental frequency on nasalance during vowel production by adult speakers at targeted sound pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandulak, Kerry C; Zajac, David J

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of altered fundamental frequency (F0) on nasalance levels of the vowels /i/ and /a/ produced by adults without cleft palate within a controlled sound pressure level (SPL) range. A prospective group design with convenience sampling from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill was used. 20 men and 20 women participated, aged 18 to 55 years. All were native English speakers with normal speech and language skills and adequate velopharyngeal function. The outcome measures were percentage nasalance obtained from the Nasometer 6200 (KayPentax) headset and the Computerized Speech Lab Model 4400 (CSL, KayPentax) during vowel production while speakers (1) targeted an SPL range of 75 to 85 dB and (2) targeted the SPL plus F0 range of 165 to 175 Hz. A significant univariate effect was found for the vowels /i/ and /a/ in the targeted SPL condition such that /i/ was produced with higher nasalance than /a/. A significant univariate effect was also found during production of /a/ in the targeted SPL plus F0 condition such that men produced /a/ with higher nasalance than women did. SPL appears to largely account for percentage nasalance differences between the vowels /i/ and /a/ produced by adult male and female speakers. Increased F0 by male speakers appears to influence percentage nasalance during production of the vowel /a/. Clinical implications in regard to assessment of hypernasality are discussed.

  19. Adult attachment orientation and automatic processing of emotional information on a semantic level: A masked affective priming study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Zeitschel, Frank; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-09-30

    Early adverse social experiences leading to attachment insecurity could cause heightened sensitivity to emotional information. Automatic processing of emotional stimuli conveys information about positive-negative differentiation and the so-called possessor vs. other-relevance of valence. The aim of the present study was to examine automatic processing of emotional and relevance type information on a semantic level as a function of adult attachment avoidance and anxiety. A masked affective priming task, varying valence and relevance of prime and target adjectives, was presented to a sample of 153 healthy adults. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale was administered to assess attachment orientation. Significant priming effects for valence and relevance were observed. Attachment avoidance, but not attachment anxiety, was significantly related to affective priming independently of trait anxiety and depression. Specifically, attachment avoidance was found to be related to affective priming effects based on other-relevant words. It can be concluded that automatic processing of emotional adjectives used to characterize safe or risky social environments is heightened in avoidant individuals. The avoidantly attached processing style has similarities with repressive coping, which is characterized by an enhanced early response to emotion stimuli followed by avoidant biases at a controlled processing level.

  20. Direct and indirect relationships between physical activity and happiness levels among older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine if physical activity (PA) is associated to happiness and to investigate if social functioning and health status mediate this association. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 323 men and women, age 60 or over, who were covered by the medical insurance of the French National Education System, France. They received by mail a self-report questionnaire that asked for information about general health, PA, and happiness. In multinomial logistic regressions, the total volume of PA was associated to higher levels of happiness, but this association disappeared in the presence of social functioning. A structural equation modelling (SEM) showed an indirect association between PA and happiness, which was mediated by participants' health status and social functioning; in this SEM model, social functioning was the only variable directly associated to happiness. Complex associations among PA, health status, and social functioning appear to determine happiness levels in older adults.

  1. Analysis on Overcoming Level of Stress of Athletes Joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team Eliminations in Terms of Gender Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ACET

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to determine level of coping with stress of athletes joined in Adults Taekwondo National Team eliminations. Sample group of the research was consisted of elite 56 female, and 118 male athletes joined in the eliminations in Alanya, Antalya. Average age of females was 20, 48, males 'was 21.00. A - five - point coping with Stress S cale of Likert type developed by A.Sibel Türküm (1999 was used to identify the level of the athletes’ stress. No outstanding differences were found between the genders (p=0,987. However, in terms of the factor to cope with stress, meaningful difference w as found between groups (p=0,031. Taking into consideration this fact, mean of females was found pretty higher than the males

  2. Levels of patient activation among adults with schizophrenia: associations with hope, symptoms, medication adherence, and recovery attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Salyers, Michelle P; Lysaker, Paul H

    2013-04-01

    Patient activation, defined as one's attitudes and confidence toward managing illness, has been not been thoroughly studied in consumers with schizophrenia. The current study sought to understand the relationship between patient activation and symptoms, medication adherence, recovery attitudes, and hope in a sample of 119 adults with schizophrenia. The participants were enrolled in an 18-month randomized controlled study of the Illness Management and Recovery program. Data were collected at baseline; correlations and stepwise multiple regressions were used to examine the relationships and determine the unique contribution of variables. Higher patient activation was most strongly associated with positive recovery attitudes, higher levels of hope, and fewer emotional discomfort symptoms. Patient activation was significantly related to a broad measure of illness self-management, providing evidence for the construct validity of the patient activation measure. Our findings emphasize the importance of recovery-based mental health services that recognize level of patient activation as a potential factor in consumer outcomes.

  3. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  4. Sleep apnea and oxygen saturation in adults at 2640 m above sea level

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    Maria Angelica Bazurto Zapata

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Patients with OSA at 2640 m have nocturnal desaturation lower than 88%, which decreases with higher severity of OSA. The clinical impact of sleep disorders at this point may be greater than at sea level and should be studied.

  5. [Manual airway clearance techniques in adults and adolescents: What level of evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabillic, Michel; Gouilly, Pascal; Reychler, Gregory

    2016-04-13

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to grade the levels of evidence of the most widely used manual airway clearance techniques. A literature search was conducted over the period 1995-2014 from the Medline, PEDro, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Library, REEDOC and kinedoc databases, with the following keywords: "postural drainage", "manual vibrations", "manual chest percussion", "directed cough", "increased expiratory flow", "ELTGOL", "autogenic drainage" and "active cycle of breathing technique". Two-hundred and fifty-six articles were identified. After removing duplicates and reading the titles and abstracts, 63 articles were selected, including 9 systematic reviews. This work highlights the lack of useful scientific data and the difficulty of determining levels of evidence for manual airway clearance techniques. Techniques were assessed principally with patients with sputum production (cystic fibrosis, DDB, COPD, etc.). It also shows the limited pertinence of outcome measures to quantify congestion and hence the efficacy of airway clearance techniques. The 1994 consensus conference summary table classifying airway clearance techniques according to physical mechanism provides an interesting tool for assessment, grouping together techniques having identical mechanisms of action. From the findings of the present systematic review, it appears that only ELTGOL, autogenic drainage and ACBT present levels of evidence "B". All other techniques have lower levels of evidence. II. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. LPS infusion suppresses serum FGF21 levels in healthy adult volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina; Møller, Niels; Bjerre, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Context During the inflammatory acute phase response, plasma glucose and serum triglycerides are increased in humans. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 has plasma glucose and lipid-reducing actions, but its role in the acute inflammatory response in human is unknown. Objective To investigate circulating levels of FGF21 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. Design Two randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials were used. Setting The studies were performed at a university hospital clinical research center. Patients and interventions Study 1 (LPS bolus): Eight young, healthy, lean males were investigated two times: (1) after isotonic saline injection and (2) after LPS injection (bolus of 1 ng/kg). Each study day lasted 4 h. Study 2 (continuous LPS infusion): Eight, healthy males were investigated two times: (1) during continuously isotonic saline infusion and (2) during continuous LPS infusion (0.06 ng/kg/h). Each study day lasted 4 h. Circulating FGF21 levels were quantified every second hour by an immunoassay. Results A LPS bolus resulted in a late suppression (t = 240 min) of serum FGF21 (P = 0.035). Continuous LPS infusion revealed no significant effects on FGF21 levels (P = 0.82). Conclusions Our studies show that a bolus of LPS results in decreased FGF21 levels 4 h from exposure. PMID:28069899

  7. Cytokine levels in crevicular fluid are less responsive to orthodontic force in adults than in juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C; Van't Hof, Martin A; Von Den Hoff, Johannes W; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Zhang, Ding

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bone remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement is related to the expression of mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). No information is available concerning the effect of age on the levels of these mediators in GCF. The purpose of this study was to quantify three mediators (pr

  8. Genetic predictors of fibrin D-dimer levels in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.L. Smith (Nicholas); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer E.); D.P. Strachan (David); J. Huang (Jian); A. Dehghan (Abbas); S. Trompet (Stella); L.M. Lopez (Lorna M.); S.Y. Shin (So Youn); J. Baumert (Jens); V. Vitart (Veronique); J.C. Bis (Joshua); S.H. Wild (Sarah); A. Rumley (Ann); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.J. Stott (David. J.); G. Davies (Gareth); A.M. Carter (Angela M.); B. Thorand (Barbara); O. Polašek (Ozren); B. McKnight (Barbara); H. Campbell (Harry); A.R. Rudnicka (Alicja); M.H. Chen (Min-hsin); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S.E. Harris (Sarah); A. Peters (Annette); D. Pulanic (Drazen); T. Lumley (Thomas); A.J.M. de Craen (Anton J.M.); D.C. Liewald (David C.); C. Gieger (Christian); I. Ford (Ian); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); M. Luciano (Michelle); D.J. Porteous (David J.); X. Guo (Xiuqing); N. Sattar (Naveed); A. Tenesa (Albert); M. Cushman (Mary Ann); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); P.M. Visscher (Peter M.); T.D. Spector (Tim); T. Illig (Thomas); I. Rudan (Igor); E.G. Bovill (Edwin G.); A.F. Wright (Alan); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); G.H. Tofler (Geoffrey); A. Hofman (Albert); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); J.M. Starr (John); P.J. Grant (Peter J.); M. Karakas (Mahir); N.D. Hastie (Nicholas D.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J.F. Wilson (James); G.D.O. Lowe (Gordon); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); I.J. Deary (Ian); N. Soranzo (Nicole); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); C. Hayward (Caroline)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Fibrin fragment D-dimer, one of several peptides produced when crosslinked fibrin is degraded by plasmin, is the most widely used clinical marker of activated blood coagulation. To identity genetic loci influencing D-dimer levels, we performed the first large-scale, genome-wi

  9. Educational level as a contextual and proximate determinant of all cause mortality in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    2003-01-01

    , exercise, alcohol use, and body mass index) and contextual factors (local area unemployment, income share, and household composition) were included in the Cox model. CONCLUSION: In this study the educational level of an area influenced subject's mortality, but first after adjustment for behavioural...

  10. Evaluation of response to restraint stress by salivary corticosterone levels in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Masakatsu; Tohei, Atsushi; Sato, Takumi; Amao, Hiromi

    2016-06-01

    Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva-collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents-we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (Pstress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (Plevels in saliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments.

  11. The level and time course of disability: Trajectories of disability in adults and young elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Nusselder (Wilma); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractObjectives. The objectives of this study were: (i) to identify trajectories in the level and time course of disability, (ii) to determine the relative frequency of each trajectory, and (iii) to assess the relationship of these trajectories with age, sex and the presence of four chronic

  12. Determination of Cortisol and Dehydroepiandrosterone Levels in Saliva for Screening of Periodontitis in Older Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Ansai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent reports have found a positive relationship between periodontitis and the hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. We investigated the associations between those levels and periodontitis in never-smokers and smokers of elderly subjects. Subjects and Methods. Cortisol and DHEA levels in saliva were determined in 171 subjects (85 males, 86 females, with clinical examinations including probing depth (PD and clinical attachment loss (CAL also performed. Results. Smoking had effects on cortisol and DHEA levels, and those were significantly associated with severe PD and CAL in never-smokers. According to ROC analysis, the cutoff values of cortisol and DHEA to obtain the optimal sensitivity and specificity for detecting severe periodontitis were 2.06 ng/mL and 60.24 pg/mL, respectively, for PD, and 2.12 ng/mL and 61.78 pg/mL, respectively, for CAL. Conclusions. Assessment of hormone levels may be a useful screening method for periodontitis, though limited to never-smokers.

  13. IL-18 Serum Level in Adult Onset Still’s Disease: A Marker of Disease Activity

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    Serena Colafrancesco

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions. Higher levels of IL-18 are detected in active AODS patients and correlate with disease activity and inflammatory laboratory features. ROC-AUC analysis of the serum concentration of IL-18 suggests that it can be considered a diagnostic marker of AOSD. This paper supports the targeting of this cytokine as a possible therapeutic option in AOSD.

  14. Statin use and 25-hydroxyvitamin D blood level response to vitamin D treatment of older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: To determine whether statin use alters response of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level to vitamin D treatment. Design: Pooled analysis. Setting: Three double-blind randomized controlled trials that tested different doses of vitamin D. Participants: Participants of three trials (N = 646; ...

  15. Genetic predictors of fibrin D-dimer levels in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.L. Smith (Nicholas); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer E.); D.P. Strachan (David); J. Huang (Jian); A. Dehghan (Abbas); S. Trompet (Stella); L.M. Lopez (Lorna M.); S.Y. Shin (So Youn); J. Baumert (Jens); V. Vitart (Veronique); J.C. Bis (Joshua); S.H. Wild (Sarah); A. Rumley (Ann); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.J. Stott (David. J.); G. Davies (Gareth); A.M. Carter (Angela M.); B. Thorand (Barbara); O. Polašek (Ozren); B. McKnight (Barbara); H. Campbell (Harry); A.R. Rudnicka (Alicja); M.H. Chen (Min-hsin); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S.E. Harris (Sarah); A. Peters (Annette); D. Pulanic (Drazen); T. Lumley (Thomas); A.J.M. de Craen (Anton J.M.); D.C. Liewald (David C.); C. Gieger (Christian); I. Ford (Ian); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); M. Luciano (Michelle); D.J. Porteous (David J.); X. Guo (Xiuqing); N. Sattar (Naveed); A. Tenesa (Albert); M. Cushman (Mary Ann); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); P.M. Visscher (Peter M.); T.D. Spector (Tim); T. Illig (Thomas); I. Rudan (Igor); E.G. Bovill (Edwin G.); A.F. Wright (Alan); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); G.H. Tofler (Geoffrey); A. Hofman (Albert); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); J.M. Starr (John); P.J. Grant (Peter J.); M. Karakas (Mahir); N.D. Hastie (Nicholas D.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J.F. Wilson (James); G.D.O. Lowe (Gordon); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); I.J. Deary (Ian); N. Soranzo (Nicole); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); C. Hayward (Caroline)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Fibrin fragment D-dimer, one of several peptides produced when crosslinked fibrin is degraded by plasmin, is the most widely used clinical marker of activated blood coagulation. To identity genetic loci influencing D-dimer levels, we performed the first large-scale, genome-wi

  16. Community Gardens as Health Promoters: Effects on Mental and Physical Stress Levels in Adults with and without Mental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugrahaning Sani Dewi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on psychological and physical effects of stress while performing community garden activities of various intensity levels. The aim of this study was to determine the psychological and physical effects in adults with (case group and without (control group mental disabilities. Salivary α-amylase (sAA levels and the stress response scale (SRS-18 were used for the psychological analysis (n = 42. For physical assessment (n = 13, electrocardiogram (ECG, surface electromyogram (sEMG, and respiration rate were continuously measured while performing the activities using a multichannel telemetry system. The results showed that following the activities, the case group exhibited decreasing sAA levels while control group exhibited increasing sAA levels. However, both groups exhibited lower SRS-18 results following the activities. Compared with the control group, the case group had a significantly lower increase in the ratio of the heart rate (IRHR (5.5% during low-intensity work (filling pots with soil, but a significantly higher IRHR (16.7% during high-intensity work (turning over soil. The case group experienced significantly higher levels of fatigue during high-intensity work (digging than during the rest condition. These findings indicate that appropriate workload allocation, according to health, is necessary in the community garden setting because reducing the intensity of work assignments for people with mental disabilities will reduce their physical stress.

  17. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara R. Braams

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12–17 years old and young adults (18–26 years old. Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development.

  18. Nucleus accumbens response to rewards and testosterone levels are related to alcohol use in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Barbara R; Peper, Jiska S; van der Heide, Dianne; Peters, Sabine; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-02-01

    During adolescence there is a normative increase in risk-taking behavior, which is reflected in, for example, increases in alcohol consumption. Prior research has demonstrated a link between testosterone and alcohol consumption, and between testosterone and neural responses to rewards. Yet, no study to date tested how testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards relate to and predict individual differences in alcohol use. The current study aimed to investigate this by assessing alcohol use, testosterone levels and neural responses to rewards in adolescents (12-17 years old) and young adults (18-26 years old). Participants were measured twice with a two-year interval between testing sessions. Cross-sectional analysis showed that at the second time point higher neural activity to rewards, but not testosterone levels, explained significant variance above age in reported alcohol use. Predictive analyses showed that, higher testosterone level at the first time point, but not neural activity to rewards at the first time point, was predictive of more alcohol use at the second time point. These results suggest that neural responses to rewards are correlated with current alcohol consumption, and that testosterone level is predictive of future alcohol consumption. These results are interpreted in the context of trajectory models of adolescent development.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study of Dietary and Genetic Predictors of Blood Folate Levels in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cummings

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the U.S. has mandated folic acid (FA fortification of certain grain products to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Folate intake and red blood cell (RBC folate concentrations increased substantially post-intervention, although recent studies raise concerns about the level of ongoing benefit. This study investigated blood folate level determinants in healthy young adults, including intake of naturally occurring food folate, synthetic FA, and the interaction of naturally occurring food folate with a common missense variant in the FOLH1 gene thought to affect absorption. Participants (n = 265 completed the Diet History Questionnaire II, RBC folate testing, and were genotyped for the 484T>C FOLH1 variant. Men reported significantly greater intake of all folate sources except for supplemental FA, but RBC folate levels did not significantly differ by sex. Synthetic FA was a stronger predictor of RBC folate than naturally occurring food folate. In the largest racial group, synthetic FA and the interaction of FOLH1 genotype with naturally occurring food folate significantly predicted RBC folate, with the overall model accounting for 13.8% of the variance in RBC folate levels. Blood folate levels rely on a complex interaction of natural and synthetic folate intake as well as FOLH1 genotype.

  20. Alterations in male sexual behaviour, attractiveness and testosterone levels induced by an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2008-06-26

    Despite an abundance of research on calorie restriction (CR) altering gonadal and appetite regulating hormones, the sexual behavioural consequences of CR remain to be examined systematically. This study compared the sexual behaviour, partner preference, serum testosterone and leptin levels of male adult Hooded Wistar rats administered a CR (continuous 25%, 50% CR or a temporary restriction) with ad libitum fed controls. The temporary restriction (Previous CR) failed to alter sexual behaviour, partner preference and levels of testosterone and leptin. The moderately 25% CR males did not demonstrate an impairment in sexual behaviour but did demonstrate a reduced level of attractiveness to females in one measure of partner preference. Sexual performance was affected by a substantial CR, as the CR 50% group exhibited a longer latency to the first intromission, indicating alteration in sexual arousal. Females also consistently demonstrated a clear preference for the control group compared to the CR 50% group. These findings indicate a possible reduction in the overall reproductive potential of the substantially CR animals. Testosterone levels were equally suppressed by both the 25% and 50% CR, while leptin levels were only reduced in the CR 50% group. Leptin, rather than testosterone, may have influenced the impairment in sexual behaviour only demonstrated by the substantially CR animals. Testosterone, may, however, play a role in modulating the preference of control over CR males, as attractiveness was totally reduced by a substantial CR, and partially reduced by a moderate restricted regimen.

  1. Physical activity levels in adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review

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    Yetunde Marion Dairo

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen studies were included consisting of 3159 awID, aged 16–81 years, 54% male and 46% female. Only 9% of participants achieved minimum PA guidelines. PA levels were measured using objective and subjective methods. ID severity, living in care, gender, and age were independently significantly correlated with the number of participants achieving PA guidelines with the strongest predictor being ID severity (Beta 0.631, p < 0.001. Findings should be in the context that most of the participants were in the mild/moderate range of ID severity and none of the studies objectively measured PA in people with profound ID. To inform measurement and intervention design for improved PA, we recommend that there is an urgent need for future PA studies in awID population to include all disability severity levels. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015016675.

  2. Effect of music on depression levels and physiological responses in community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Chan, Engle Angela; Mok, Esther; Kwan Tse, Fionca Yuk

    2009-08-01

    Many people over the age of 65 do not regard depression as a treatable mental disorder and find it difficult to express themselves verbally. Listening to music can facilitate the non-verbal expression of emotion and allow people's inner feelings to be expressed without being threatened. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of music on depression levels in elderly people. A randomized controlled study was conducted with 47 elderly people (23 using music and 24 controls) who completed the study after being recruited in Hong Kong. Blood pressure, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and depression level variables were collected. In the music group, there were statistically-significant decreases in depression scores (P music as an effective nursing intervention for patients with depressive symptoms in the community setting.

  3. LPS infusion suppresses serum FGF21 levels in healthy adult volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Esben Stistrup; Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: During the inflammatory acute phase response plasma glucose and serum triglycerides are increased in humans. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 has plasma glucose and lipid reducing actions, but its role in the acute inflammatory response in human is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate...... circulating levels of FGF21 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. DESIGN: Two randomized, single blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials were used. SETTING: The studies were performed at a university hospital clinical research center. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Study 1 (LPS bolus): Eight young......) during continuously LPS infusion (0.06 ng/kg/h). Each study day lasted 4 hours. Circulating FGF21 levels were quantified every second hour by an immunoassay. RESULTS: A LPS bolus resulted in a late suppression (t = 240 minutes) of serum FGF21 (P=0.035). Continuous LPS infusion revealed no significant...

  4. Levels of adult alcohol consumption induced by interactions with child confederates exhibiting normal versus externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A R; Pelham, W E; Johnston, C; Gelernter, S

    1989-08-01

    Investigated levels of distress and alcohol consumption in Ss interacting with problematic vs non-problematic child confederates. Social drinkers were randomly assigned to interact with boys trained to enact behaviors characteristic of either normal or attention-deficit disorder/conduct disorder (ADD/CD) children. Mood data were collected before and after the interaction. Ss engaged in ad lib beer consumption for 20 min, while anticipating another interaction with the same boy. Children in the ADD/CD role produced comparably distressed moods for both male and female Ss. However, only men drank to higher blood-alcohol levels in the ADD/CD vs. normal child condition. Results suggest that higher rates of drinking observed in fathers of ADD/CD children may be partly a function of their particular response to the distress associated with interactions with such children.

  5. A case of tetanus infection in an adult with a protective tetanus antibody level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Kristan E; Acquisto, Nicole M; Bodkin, Ryan P

    2014-04-01

    Tetanus is a bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani and most commonly presents as trismus or other muscle spasms. Despite the development of the tetanus toxoid vaccine, tetanus infection has not been eradicated. Additionally, while there are hypothesized protective levels of tetanus antibody, tetanus infection may still occur in properly vaccinated individuals. We report the case of a 31-year-old male that presented to the emergency department (ED) with a 2-day history of neck and jaw pain. He reports puncturing his hand with a rusty nail 10 days prior. His reported vaccination history was that he received his last booster vaccination 13 years prior to presentation. In the ED, tetanus vaccine, tetanus immune globulin, and metronidazole were administered. His symptoms improved over the next 2 days and resolved at day 6. Despite his presentation of tetanus infection and rule out of other causes for his symptoms, his tetanus antibody level was reported at 8.4 U/mL, which is considered to be protective.A tetanus antibody level that is adequate for protective immunity should not preclude a patient from treatment of tetanus infection. This case demonstrates that a thorough history, physical exam, and rule out of other causes should guide treatment when there is concern for a tetanus infection.

  6. Morphological characteristics of adult male handball players considering five levels of performance and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuça, Luís; Fragoso, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study aims 1--to describe and compare the anthropometric characteristics of male handball players from different levels of performance, and 2--to identify the morphological variables that allow differentiation of the level of performance for each individual playing position. A total of 212 male handball players (age, 23.6 ± 5.2 years) were included in this study, and divided into five levels of performance for comparison. The playing position of each player was recorded. All participants were tested during the 2008-2009 Portuguese handball season. Twenty-eight anthropometric measures were taken by a group of anthropometrics accredited by International Society of the Advance of Kinanthropometry. Body composition, fat mass and muscle mass were calculated from the equations proposed by Faulkner26, Yuhase28, Durnin and Womersley25, Jackson and Pollock29, Matiegka33, Heymsfield, McManus, Smith, Stevens and Nixon34, Martin, Spenst, Drinkwater and Clarys21, Doupe, Martin, Searle, Kriellaars and Giesbrecht35 and Lee, Wang, Heo, Ross, Janssen and Heymsfield36. The research findings showed that the morphological optimization is important to have success in handball.

  7. Increasing levels of zeolite and Yucca schidigera in diets for adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Charleaux Roque

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the additives Yucca schidigera (YSC and zeolite (clinoptilolite on digestibility, fecal texture and odor, blood parameters and urine pH of domesticated felines was evaluated. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with twenty-one cats, in two periods, distributed in seven treatments: moist commercial feed (control; control + 125, 250 and 375 ppm YSC; and control + 0.5; 0.75 and 1.0 % zeolite. No differences were observed between the diets regarding apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrient, energy, urine pH or blood parameters. However, levels of 0.5 and 0.75% zeolite were effective both in reducing odor (R² = 96.39 and for fecal texture (R² = 99.63, showing a quadratic pattern for these variables. Levels of 125 and 375 ppm YSC were also efficient in reducing fecal odor; however they did not adjust to regression. Levels of 0.5% and 0.75% zeolite significantly reduce odor of feces and increase fecal texture when added to commercial feed for cats.

  8. Serum PCB levels in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population: the BIOAMBIENT.ES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetos, O; Bartolomé, M; Aragonés, N; Cervantes-Amat, M; Esteban, M; Ruiz-Moraga, M; Pérez-Gómez, B; Calvo, E; Vila, M; Castaño, A

    2014-09-15

    This manuscript presents the levels of six indicator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in the serum of 1880 individuals from a representative sample of the Spanish working population recruited between March 2009 and July 2010. Three out of the six PCBs studied (180, 153 and 138) were quantified in more than 99% of participants. PCB 180 was the highest contributor, followed by PCBs 153 and 138, with relative abundances of 42.6%, 33.2% and 24.2%, respectively. In contrast, PCBs 28 and 52 were detected in only 1% of samples, whereas PCB 101 was detectable in 6% of samples. The geometric mean (GM) for ΣPCBs138/153/180 was 135.4 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 121.3-151.2 ng/g lipid) and the 95th percentile was 482.2 ng/g lipid. Men had higher PCB blood concentrations than women (GMs 138.9 and 129.9 ng/g lipid respectively). As expected, serum PCB levels increased with age and frequency of fish consumption, particularly in those participants younger than 30 years of age. The highest levels we found were for participants from the Basque Country, whereas the lowest concentrations were found for those from the Canary Islands. The Spanish population studied herein had similar levels to those found previously in Greece and southern Italy, lower levels than those in France and central Europe, and higher PCB levels than those in the USA, Canada and New Zealand. This paper provides the first baseline information regarding PCB exposure in the Spanish adult population on a national scale. The results will allow us to establish reference levels, follow temporal trends and identify high-exposure groups, as well as monitor implementation of the Stockholm Convention in Spain.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase levels as a diagnostic marker in tuberculous meningitis in adult Nepalese patients

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    Anil Chander

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF adenosine deaminase (ADA levels in tuberculous meningitis (TBM and non-TBM -viral meningitis cases and to determine its diagnostic significance as a biochemical marker of TBM infection.Methods: The study population comprised two different patient groups. TBM - group I - 28 cases and non-TBM-viral meningitis - 22 cases. These were enrolled consecutively in the study and CSF specimens were collected from them. ADA estimation was carried out by spectrophotometry.Results: ADA levels (mean依 SD in the TBM and non-TBM groups were 16.46依6.24 U/L and 5.13依2.96 U/L, respectively (highly significant P10 IU/L, the test showed a good sensitivity of 82.14% (95% CI 64.41-92.12 and a high specificity of 90.91% (95% CI 72.19-97.47. Positive and negative predictive value and positive and negative likelihood ratios and accuracy of the test in TBM cases were 92% (95% CI 75.03-97.77, 80% (95% CI 60.86-91.13, 9.03 (95% CI 2.38- 34.25, 0.19 (95% CI 0.09-0.44 and 86%, respectively.Conclusion: CSF ADA levels are elevated in the TBM cases as compared to the non-TBM - viral meningitis cases with a good sensitivity and a high specificity. It is a simple and inexpensive diagnostic adjunctive test in the rapid and early diagnosis of TBM.

  10. A cross sectional, observational survey to assess levels and predictors of psychological wellbeing in adults with epidermolysis bullosa

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    Emma Dures

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB describes a cluster of genetically determined skin disorders. Symptoms can be painful, disabling and disfiguring, yet there is little research on the psychological impact of the disease. The study aim was to measure psychological wellbeing in adults with EB; and to examine the association between psychological wellbeing and self efficacy, health locus of control and adjustment to appearance in an observational, cross sectional survey. Questionnaire packs comprising the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, the General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLOC, and the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-24, were sent to approximately 385 adults with EB. The data were analysed using SPSS. Eighty-seven participants responded. Scores on the GHQ-12 showed non-problematic psychological health in 36% of the sample; levels bordering on clinical disorder in 32.1% and severe psychological distress in 31.9%. No correlations were found between demographic factors (age and sex or clinical factors (EB type and perceived severity and psychological well-being. Scores on the GSE, the internal locus of control sub-scale of the MHLOC and the DAS-24 showed them to be statistically significant correlates of psychological wellbeing (P<0.001; P<0.018; and P<0.001 respectively. In a regression analysis, adjustment to appearance and self efficacy accounted for 24% of the variation in psychological wellbeing. Adults with EB might be at risk of experiencing poor psychological health. Interventions designed to enhance disease self management, self efficacy and improve body image are likely to be beneficial in this clinical group.

  11. Plasma cytokine levels in Tanzanian HIV-1-infected adults and the effect of antiretroviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haissman, J.M.; Vestergaard, L.S.; Sembuche, S.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role immune activation leading to the production and circulation of cytokines has in the pathogenesis of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) on these parameters. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF...... counts below 200 cells per microliter than individuals with CD4 cell counts above 200 cells per microliter. HIV RNA was the strongest predictor of all cytokine expression in multivariate analysis. ART leads to a decrease in all cytokines to levels close to those of HIV-uninfected individuals. CONCLUSIONS...

  12. Association between serum vitamin D levels and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and plaque burden/composition in young adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seckin Satilmis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that low 25-OH vitamin D 25(OHD concentrations may increase the risk of several cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, myocardial infarction, heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Recent studies suggested a possible relationship between vitamin D deficiency and increased carotid intima-media wall thickness and vascular calcification. We hypothesized that low 25(OHD may be associated with coronary atherosclerosis and coronary plaque burden and composition, and investigated the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and coronary atherosclerosis, plaque burden or structure, in young adult patients by using dual-source 128x2 slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA. We included 98 patients with coronary atherosclerosis and 110, age and gender matched, subjects with normal findings on CCTA examinations. Patients with subclinical atherosclerosis had significantly higher serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, hs-CRP, uric acid, HbA1c and creatinine levels and lower serum 25(OHD levels in comparison with controls. There was no significant correlation between 25(OHD and plaque morphology. There was also a positive relationship between 25(OHD and plaque burden of coronary atherosclerosis. In multivariate analysis, coronary atherosclerosis was associated high hs-CRP (adjusted OR: 2.832, uric acid (adjusted OR: 3.671 and low 25(OHD (adjusted OR: 0.689. Low levels of 25(OHD were associated with coronary atherosclerosis and plaque burden, but there was no significant correlation between 25(OHD and plaque morphology.

  13. An increase in salivary interleukin-6 level following acute psychosocial stress and its biological correlates in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shuhei; Sugaya, Nagisa; Kimura, Kenta; Ogawa, Namiko; Yamada, Kosuke C; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Mikami, Ikuyo; Hirata, Kanako; Nagano, Yuichiro; Nomura, Shinobu

    2013-10-01

    Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been investigated frequently in stress research, knowledge regarding the biological processes of IL-6 in association with psychosocial stress remains incomplete. This study focused on salivary IL-6 and reports its temporal variation and biological correlates following acute psychosocial stress. Fifty healthy young adults (39 male and 11 female students) were subjected to the psychosocial stress test 'Trier Social Stress Test' (TSST), wherein the participants were asked to deliver a speech and perform a mental arithmetic task in front of 2 audiences. Collection of saliva samples, measurement of heart rate, and assessment of negative moods by visual analogue scales were conducted before, during, and after TSST. Salivary IL-6 levels increased by approximately 50% in response to the TSST and remained elevated for 20 min after the stress tasks were completed. Cluster analyses revealed that individuals with sustained elevation of IL-6 levels following the TSST exhibited a lower cortisol response compared to individuals with lower IL-6 levels. In the correlation analyses, a greater IL-6 response was associated with a higher heart rate during the mental arithmetic task (r=.351, ppsychosocial stress, and suggests that sympathetic activity and cortisol secretion are involved in elevation of salivary IL-6 levels.

  14. Neighborhood-level stressors, social support, and diurnal patterns of cortisol: the Chicago Community Adult Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karb, Rebecca A; Elliott, Michael R; Dowd, Jennifer B; Morenoff, Jeffrey D

    2012-09-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage has consistently been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms through which neighborhood environments may get "under the skin" remain largely unknown. Differential exposure to chronic environmental stressors has been identified as a potential pathway linking neighborhood disadvantage and poor health, particularly through the dysregulation of stress-related biological pathways such as cortisol secretion, but the majority of existing observational studies on stress and neuroendocrine functioning have focused exclusively on individual-level stressors and psychosocial characteristics. This paper aims to fill that gap by examining the association between features of the neighborhood environment and the diurnal cortisol patterns of 308 individuals from Chicago, Illinois, USA. We found that respondents in neighborhoods with high levels of perceived and observed stressors or low levels of social support experienced a flatter rate of cortisol decline throughout the day. In addition, overall mean cortisol levels were found to be lower in higher stress, lower support neighborhoods. This study adds to the growing evidence of hypocortisolism among chronically stressed adult populations and suggests hypocortisolism rather than hypercortisolism as a potential mechanism linking social disadvantage to poor health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated serum levels of neopterin in adult patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, M Y; Nassonov, E L; Tilz, G P; Geht, B M; Demel, U; Gurkina, G T; Shtutman, V Z; Guseva, A G; Wachter, H; Fuchs, D

    1997-06-01

    We determined serum concentrations of neopterin, soluble tumour necrosis factor (55 kDa) receptor (sTNF-R) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in plasma of 44 patients with polymyositis (PM)/dermatomyositis (DM), including 15 patients with primary PM, 13 patients with primary DM, and 16 patients with myositis and systemic sclerosis in overlap. Concentrations of neopterin, sTNF-R and sIL-2R were measured using commercially available immunoassays. Serum neopterin was increased in 35 of 44 PM/DM patients (80%), sTNF-R in 14 (32%) and sIL-2R in 18 (41%) patients, respectively. There were significant correlations between serum neopterin and sTNF-R, sIL-2R and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (all P < 0.001). Neopterin, as well as sTNF-R and sIL-2R, did not correlate with clinical (neuromuscular and activities of daily living scores) and laboratory (creatine kinase levels) manifestations of myositis. Increased serum levels of neopterin were associated with non-muscular manifestations of PM/DM. In conclusion, serum neopterin appears to be a useful laboratory marker for ongoing immune activation and global disease activity in PM/DM.

  16. [Physical performance of older adults living in rural areas at sea level and at high altitude in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estela-Ayamamani, David; Espinoza-Figueroa, Jossué; Columbus-Morales, Mauricio; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando; Parodi, José F; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2015-01-01

    Living at high altitudes requires the inhabitants to adapt biologically and socially to the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in physical performance (PP) in rural populations at sea level and at high altitude. A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural communities in Ancash, Peru, located at 3.345 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) and also in communities located in coastal areas at 6m.a.s.l. PP was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and other associated factors. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated. A total of 130 older adults were assessed in the high altitude communities and 129 on the coast. The median age was 71.4 years, and 55.6% were female. Low physical performance (SPPB ≤ 6) was 10.0% at high altitude and 19.4% on the coast (p<0.05). Factors associated with low physical performance were residing at the coast (aPR: 2.10, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.33), self-reported poor health (aPR: 2.48, 95% CI 1.21 -5.08), hypertension (aPR: 1.73, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.98), and age (aPR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07), while being a farmer (aPR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.97), and being independent (aPR: 0.37, 95% CI 0,20-, 072) were found to be protective factors. It was also found that the inhabitants of the coast have a mean of 0.86 points lower total SPPB than the high altitude ones (p=0.004). There is an association between altitude of residence and PP in older adults. The prevalence of a low PP in older adults in rural areas at sea level is twice as high compared to those living in high altitude rural communities. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Adults' Knowledge of Child Development in Alberta, Canada: Comparing the Level of Knowledge of Adults in Two Samples in 2007 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Vinturache, Angela; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Breitkreuz, Rhonda; Bukutu, Cecilia; Gibbard, Ben; Tough, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Parents and non-parental adults who interact with children influence child development. This study evaluates the knowledge of child development in two large and diverse samples of adults from Alberta in 2007 and 2013. Telephone interviews were completed by two random samples (1,443 in 2007; 1,451 in 2013). Participants were asked when specific…

  18. Correlation of vitamin D, bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone levels in adults with low bone density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mineral densiy (BMD is known to be affected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH D levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Indian data pertinent to above observation is scant. Our study aimed to investigate the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH D levels, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels and bone mineral density (BMD in a cohort of Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Adults with or without fragility fractures with low BMD at the hip or lumbar spine were evaluated clinically along with laboratory investigations. T-scores of the hip and spine were derived from BMD-DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the relationships between serum 25(OH D, iPTH and BMD. Results: Total of 102 patients (male:female = 38:64 with a mean age of 62.5 ± 6.4 years were included in the study. Forty-four patients had osteopenia. Osteoporosis was present in 58 patients. The mean values for serum 25(OH D and iPTH levels were 21.3 ± 0.5 ng/ml and 53.1 ± 22.3 pg/ml, respectively. In 84.3% of patients, serum 25(OH D levels were below 30 ng/ml (Normal = 30-74 ng/ml, confirming vitamin D deficiency. There was no association between 25(OH D levels and BMD at the hip or lumbar spine (P = 0.473 and 0.353, respectively. Both at the hip and lumbar spine; iPTH levels, male gender, body mass index (BMI and age were found to be significant predictors of BMD. Patients with higher BMI had significantly lower BMD and T-score. At levels <30 ng/ml, 25(OH D was negatively associated with iPTH (P = 0.041. Conclusion: Among our cohort of patients with low BMD, no direct relationship between serum 25(OH D levels and BMD was observed. However, a negative correlation between iPTH and 25(OH D at serum 25(OH D concentrations <30 ng/ml. Serum iPTH levels showed a significant negative association with BMD at the hip and lumbar spine. Our findings underscore the critical role of

  19. Liver enzymes but not free fatty acid levels predict markers of insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese, nondiabetic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Belinda; Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara; Davies, Peter Stephen Wynford; Vitetta, Luis

    2013-10-01

    Although obesity is a key predisposing risk factor in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus, not all obese individuals develop IR. This study aimed to identify key anthropometric and biochemical parameters that predict insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. Based on previous literature, we hypothesized that markers of insulin sensitivity would be negatively correlated with plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and liver enzymes. Forty nondiabetic adult participants (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m²) were recruited. Data collection included anthropometric measurements and fasting plasma samples for the quantification of liver enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase), blood lipid profile, and markers of insulin sensitivity. Questionnaires relating to dietary intake, physical activity, and fatigue were also completed. Insulin and Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA) scores were significantly correlated with indirect measures of central obesity (P fatty acids (P = .04) and ratio of n-3/n-6 fatty acids (P fatty acids (P = .03). No significant correlations were found between markers of insulin sensitivity and cholesterol levels, physical activity, or self-reported fatigue. These results have reinforced the integral role of liver function in the development of IR. Despite previous data linking elevations in free fatty acid to the development of IR, we found no relationship between these variables in this study. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maintenance of muscle myosin levels in adult C. elegans requires both the double bromodomain protein BET-1 and sumoylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Fisher

    2013-10-01

    Attenuation of RAS-mediated signalling is a conserved process essential to control cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cooperative interactions between histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation and sumoylation are crucial for proper attenuation in C. elegans, implying that the proteins recognising these histone modifications could also play an important role in attenuation of RAS-mediated signalling. We sought to systematically identify these proteins and found BET-1. BET-1 is a conserved double bromodomain protein that recognises acetyl-lysines on histone tails and maintains the stable fate of various lineages. Unexpectedly, adults lacking both BET-1 and SUMO-1 are depleted of muscle myosin, an essential component of myofibrils. We also show that this muscle myosin depletion does not occur in all animals at a specific time, but rather that the penetrance of the phenotype increases with age. To gain mechanistic insights into this process, we sought to delay the occurrence of the muscle myosin depletion phenotype and found that it requires caspase activity and MEK-dependent signalling. We also performed transcription profiling on these mutants and found an up-regulation of the FGF receptor, egl-15, a tyrosine kinase receptor acting upstream of MEK. Consistent with a MEK requirement, we could delay the muscle phenotype by systemic or hypodermal knock down of egl-15. Thus, this work uncovered a caspase- and MEK-dependent mechanism that acts specifically on ageing adults to maintain the appropriate net level of muscle myosin.

  1. Serum ferritin levels in adults with sickle cell disease in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinbami AA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Akinsegun A Akinbami,1 Adedoyin O Dosunmu,1 Adewumi A Adediran,3 Olajumoke O Oshinaike,2 Vincent O Osunkalu,1 Sarah O Ajibola,3 Olanrewaju M Arogundade11Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, 2Department of Medicine, Lagos State University, College of Medicine, Ikeja, Nigeria; 3Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, Idiaraba, NigeriaBackground: Serum ferritin is considered to be one of the most important tools in the measurement of iron balance in steady-state sickle cell disease. Increased gastrointestinal absorption of iron has been reported in sickle cell disease because of the associated chronic hemolysis, and it is also thought that repeated red cell transfusion consequent to chronic hemolysis and anemia causes excessive iron levels. The aim of this study was to determine overall and gender-specific mean ferritin levels in patients with steady-state sickle cell disease in order to establish the prevalence of iron deficiency and overload.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in homozygous patients with sickle cell disease attending the sickle cell clinic at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja. A 5 mL blood sample was collected in plain bottles from consenting participants during steady-state periods. The serum was separated and analyzed for ferritin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Another 5 mL sample was collected for a full blood count, done on the same day of collection, to determine red blood cell indices, ie, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. The Pearson Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. The differences were considered to be statistically significant when P was 300 ng/mL. Ninety-three subjects (90.29% had serum ferritin within the normal reference range of 15–300 ng/mL.Conclusion: In this study, 90% of subjects with sickle cell disease had normal iron stores

  2. Prenatal Earthquake Exposure and Midlife Uric Acid Levels Among Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chunpeng; Li, Yanping; Cui, Liufu; Cai, Jianfang; Shi, Jihong; Cheng, Feon W; Li, Yuqing; Curhan, Gary C; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-05-01

    To test whether prenatal exposure to earthquake (as a surrogate for acute prenatal stress) could have unfavorable effects on uric acid levels later in life. We included 536 individuals who had been prenatally exposed to the Tangshan earthquake in 1976, and 536 sex- and age-matched individuals without that exposure. Serum uric acid concentrations were measured based on fasting blood samples, which were repeatedly collected in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Mean uric acid concentrations in 2010 and the increasing rate from 2006 to 2010 were compared between the 2 groups, after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and other potential confounders. We also used multiple logistic regression to estimate the risk of hyperuricemia (>416 μmole/liter in men or >357 μmole/liter in women) in 2010 by calculating the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) after adjustment for the previously mentioned covariates. Participants with prenatal exposure to the earthquake had higher concentrations of serum uric acid (adjusted means 315 μmole/liter versus 296 μmole/liter; P = 0.001) and a higher likelihood of having hyperuricemia (multivariate adjusted OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.09-2.66]) in 2010 relative to those without the exposure. Prenatal exposure to the earthquake was consistently significantly associated with a faster increase in uric acid concentration from 2006 to 2010 (P uric acid and higher odds of hyperuricemia in early adulthood. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Serum liver fatty acid binding protein levels correlate positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults.

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    Juan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver fatty acid-binding protein (FABP1 plays an inconclusive role in adiposity. We investigated the association of serum FABP1 levels with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young people under 30 years old. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional analysis including 200 obese and 172 normal-weight subjects matched for age and sex, anthropometric measurements were performed and serum FABP1 and biochemical characteristics were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and by the insulin sensitivity index (S(i derived from Bergman's minimal model. FABP1 levels in obese subjects were significantly higher than those in normal-weight subjects (p<0.001 and the significance remained after adjustment for age, gender, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (p<0.001. Serum FABP1 levels were significantly correlated with many metabolic-related parameters, with BMI and triglycerides as the independent determinants. FABP1 levels remained an independent risk factor of insulin resistance assessed by binary S(i (OR = 1.868 per SD unit, 95% CI [1.035-3.373], p = 0.038 after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol,. FABP1 levels were also elevated with an increasing number of components of the metabolic syndrome (p for trend <0.001. Multiple regression modeling for the MetS and its components demonstrated that hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated to serum FABP1 levels. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Serum FABP1 correlates positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults. Our data supports the fact that FABP1 might be an important mediator participating in fatty acid metabolism and energy balance.

  4. Drinking Motives Moderate the Effect of the Social Environment on Alcohol Use: An Event-Level Study Among Young Adults.

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    Smit, Koen; Groefsema, Martine; Luijten, Maartje; Engels, Rutger; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test (a) whether drinking motives predict event-level drinking on weekend evenings; (b) whether the number of friends present in social situations was associated with drinking on weekend evenings; and (c) whether drinking motives moderate the association between friends present and drinking. We linked individual-level drinking motives (measured at baseline) to event-level data assessed every Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evening over 5 weeks. The number of drinks and male and female friends present in the situation were assessed at 9 p.m., 10 p.m., 11 p.m., midnight, and 1 a.m. In total, 197 young adults (51.3% male) completed 11,516 event-level assessments. Multilevel models by gender revealed that higher enhancement motives predicted a greater number of drinks consumed in a given moment, but only among women. The higher the number of male and female friends present in a situation, the more drinks consumed by both genders. Last, drinking motives moderated the association between the number of friends present and the number of drinks. For women, higher enhancement motives predicted more drinks in situations with more male friends. For men, higher coping motives predicted more drinks in situations with no friends and in situations with more female friends. Lower coping motives predicted more drinks with more male friends. Higher conformity motives predicted fewer drinks with more female friends. Drinking motives appear to moderate event-level factors rather than directly predict drinking on weekend evenings. Depending on the motives for drinking, event-level factors (e.g., friends present in a situation) have a strong effect on an individual's drinking.

  5. Are uric acid plasma levels different between unipolar depression with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özten, Eylem; Kesebir, Sermin; Eryılmaz, Gül; Tarhan, Nevzat; Karamustafalıoğlu, Oğuz

    2015-05-15

    The aim of our study is to compare uric acid plasma levels in patients with unipolar depression between those with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity and those without. Our hypothesis is that uric acid plasma levels may be higher in unipolar depressive patients with adult ADHD than without ADHD. Sixty four patients diagnosed with MDD were investigated, among which 28 patients had been diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM5. 28 patients were ADHD. 36 patients were diagnosed as not having ADHD. One of the criteria was including cases that had not started using medication for the current depressive episode. The control group (HC) consisted of 43 healthy staff members from our hospital who had no prior psychiatric admission or treatment history and matched with the patient group in terms of age and gender. Blood samples were obtained, and plasma uric acid levels were recorded in mg/dl after being rotated for 15min in a centrifuge with 3000 rotations and kept at -80°C. Uric acid plasma levels 5.1±1.6 in unipolar depression and ADHD group, 4.6±1.8 in unipolar depression group. Uric acid plasma levels were higher in the comorbid unipolar depression and ADHD group than in the unipolar depression and healthy control (HC) groups (F= 4.367, p= 0.037). There was no correlation between ADHD (predominantly inattentive type) and uric acid plasma levels (p>0.05). The limitation of this study is the small number of sample and one of the criteria was including cases that had not started using medication for the current depressive episode. The identification of a different etiologic process of biological markers may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in drive and impulsivity and may suggest different potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-05-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure.

  7. Measurement of radon concentration in water by means of {alpha}, {gamma} spectrometry. Radon concentration in ground and spring water in Hiroshima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn, T{sub 1/2}=3.8235{+-}0.0003d) is {alpha}-ray releasing nuclide, so that it can not be detected by {gamma}-ray measurement. But, the daughter nuclides {sup 214}Pb (T{sub 1/2}=26.8 min) and {sup 214}Bi (T{sub 1/2}=19.9 min) release {gamma}-ray, accordingly they are measured by Ge detector. Their radioactive equilibrium is kept in the closed vessel, because their half-lives are shorter than that of radon. We developed a measurement method of radon concentration by means of {gamma}-spectrometry. We applied this method to catch radon in the atmosphere by active carbon. The same principle can be applied to radon in water. Radon concentrations in the ground water were measured in 22 points in the Higashi-Hiroshima city and 82 points in the Hiroshima prefecture. The efficiencies of {gamma}-ray were determined. The radon concentration showed between 11 and 459 Bq/l and the average was 123 Bq/l. The high concentration of radon was distributed in the spring of granitic layer and higher concentration of radon were observed in the ground water of fault. (S.Y.)

  8. Burden of disease associated with lower levels of income among US adults aged 65 and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetkin, Erica I; Jia, Haomiao

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons aged 65 years and older represent a heterogeneous group whose prevalence in the USA is expected to markedly increase. Few investigations have examined the total burden of disease attributable to lower levels of income in a single number that accounts for morbidity and mortality. Methods We ascertained respondents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores and mortality status from the 2003 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with mortality follow-up through 31 December 2011. A mapping algorithm based on respondents' age and answers to the 4 core Healthy Days questions was used to obtain values of a preference-based measure of HRQOL, the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) index, which enables quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to be calculated. We included only respondents aged 65 years and older at the baseline, yielding a total sample size of 4952. We estimated mean QALYs according to different categories of income based on the percentage of Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Results After adjusting for age, gender and education, the remaining QALYs decreased with each successive decrement of category of income, ranging from 18.4 QALY (≥500% FPL) to 8.6 QALY (<100% FPL). Compared with participants with a mean income of ≥250% FPL, participants with an income <250% FPL had significant losses in QALY for most of the sociodemographic groups examined. In contrast, persons with a lower educational attainment did not show a corresponding loss in QALY according to income category. Conclusions This study confirmed the association between lower income category and greater burden of disease, as measured by QALYs lost, among the US population aged 65 years and older. Our findings provide additional evidence of the role played by other key determinants of health and how factors not traditionally addressed by the healthcare system impact the life

  9. Genomic risk models improve prediction of longitudinal lipid levels in children and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan E. Wineinger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In clinical medicine, lipids are commonly measured biomarkers used to assess an individual’s risk for cardiovascular disease, heart attack, and stroke. Accurately predicting longitudinal lipid levels based on genomic information can inform therapeutic practices and decrease cardiovascular risk by identifying high-risk patients prior to onset. Using genotyped and imputed genetic data from 523 unrelated Caucasian Americans from the Bogalusa Heart Study, surveyed on 4,026 occasions from 4 to 48 years of age, we generated various lipid genomic risk models based on previously reported markers. We observed a significant improvement in prediction over non-genetic risk models in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (increase in the squared correlation between observed and predicted values, d=0.032, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (d=0.053, total cholesterol (d=0.043, and triglycerides (d=0.031. Many of our approaches are based on an n-fold cross-validation procedure that are, by design, adaptable to a clinical environment.

  10. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Phenylalanine Levels on Cognitive Outcomes in Adults With Phenylketonuria: Effects Across Tasks and Developmental Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is due to an inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe), leading to its accumulation in the brain. Phe levels can be controlled following a protein-free diet, but cognitive impairments are still present. A number of questions remain to be answered related to which type of metabolic control is important, the age when it is important, the cognitive functions which are most affected and, the best tests to use to monitor cognitive health. Method: We investigated the impact of metabolic control at different ages on cognitive performance in 37 early treated adults with PKU. Results: (a) Phe variation was as associated to performance as average Phe showing that stable dietary control is as important as strict control; (b) For some tasks, current and adult Phe were stronger predictors of performance than childhood or adolescent Phe, showing the importance of a strict diet even in adulthood; and (c) The relationship between performance and Phe levels varied depending on time and cognitive domain. For some functions (sustained attention, visuomotor coordination), Phe at the time of testing was the best predictor. While for other functions (visual attention, executive functions) there was a diminishing or stable relationship across time. Conclusion: Results show the importance of selecting the right tasks to monitor outcomes across ages, but also that the impact of bio-chemical disruptions is different for different functions, at different ages. We show how inherited metabolic diseases offer us a unique vantage point to inform our understanding of brain development and functioning. PMID:28240926

  12. Deriving ozone dose-response of photosynthesis in adult forest trees from branch-level cuvette gas exchange assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Then, C. [Unit of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Federal Office and Research Centre for Forests, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany)], E-mail: christiane.then@uibk.ac.at; Loew, M.; Matyssek, R. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wieser, G. [Unit of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Federal Office and Research Centre for Forests, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2008-06-15

    Branch-level gas exchange provided the basis for assessing ozone flux in order to derive the dose-response relationship between cumulative O{sub 3} uptake (COU) and carbon gain in the upper sun crown of adult Fagus sylvatica. Fluxes of ozone, CO{sub 2} and water vapour were monitored simultaneously by climatized branch cuvettes. The cuvettes allowed branch exposure to an ambient or twice-ambient O{sub 3} regime, while tree crowns were exposed to the same O{sub 3} regimes (twice-ambient generated by a free-air canopy O{sub 3} exposure system). COU levels higher than 20 mmol m{sup -2} led to a pronounced decline in carbon gain under elevated O{sub 3}. The limiting COU range is consistent with findings on neighbouring branches exposed to twice-ambient O{sub 3} through free-air fumigation. The cuvette approach allows to estimate O{sub 3} flux at peripheral crown positions, where boundary layers are low, yielding a meso-scale within-crown resolution of photosynthetic foliage sensitivity under whole-tree free-air O{sub 3} fumigation. - Branch-level O{sub 3} dose dependence of photosynthesis derived from cuvette assessment yields sun-crown foliage sensitivity under whole-tree free-air O{sub 3} fumigation.

  13. Coping strategies in Spanish older adults: a MIMIC model of socio-demographic characteristics and activity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Laura; Dumitrache, Cristina G; García, Alfonso J; Cordón-Pozo, Eulogio

    2016-11-02

    The aim of this study was to analyze the combined effect of socio-demographic characteristics and activity level on coping strategies and to test which of these variables has a greater impact on coping. A sample of 243 men and women aged 55-99 years old was selected from different elderly activity centers in Granada, Spain, using a convenience sampling. Associations between eight coping strategies measured by Coping Strategies Inventory and the above mentioned variables were examined using a Multiple Indicator and Multiple Causes model. Age was negatively related with problem solving, express emotions and social support. Activity level was positively related with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, express emotions and social support and it was negatively associated with social withdrawal. Gender only predicted the scores in self-criticism and living alone was related with higher emotional expression. Participation in creative activities, attending University for the third age and practicing physical exercise were related with differences in the use of several coping strategies. There is a complex relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, activity level and the coping strategies used by the elderly. It is important to understand this relationship in order to identify older adults who use ineffective coping, and to subsequently include them in intervention programs to improve their coping abilities.

  14. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila G. Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls.Objective:To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests.Method:Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot.Results:No differences (p>0.05 were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01.Conclusion:Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging.

  15. Long-term exposure to paraquat alters behavioral parameters and dopamine levels in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, Josiane W; Cognato, Giana P; Christoff, Raissa R; Roesler, Laura N; Leite, Carlos E; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Mauricio R; Vianna, Monica R; Bonan, Carla D

    2014-04-01

    Chronic exposure to paraquat (Pq), a toxic herbicide, can result in Parkinsonian symptoms. This study evaluated the effect of the systemic administration of Pq on locomotion, learning and memory, social interaction, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels, and dopamine transporter (DAT) gene expression in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish received an i.p. injection of either 10 mg/kg (Pq10) or 20 mg/kg (Pq20) of Pq every 3 days for a total of six injections. Locomotion and distance traveled decreased at 24 h after each injection in both treatment doses. In addition, both Pq10- and Pq20-treated animals exhibited differential effects on the absolute turn angle. Nonmotor behaviors were also evaluated, and no changes were observed in anxiety-related behaviors or social interactions in Pq-treated zebrafish. However, Pq-treated animals demonstrated impaired acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory in the Y-maze task. Interestingly, dopamine levels increased while DOPAC levels decreased in the zebrafish brain after both treatments. However, DAT expression decreased in the Pq10-treated group, and there was no change in the Pq20-treated group. The amount of TH protein showed no significant difference in the treated group. Our study establishes a new model to study Parkinson-associated symptoms in zebrafish that have been chronically treated with Pq.

  16. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure.

  17. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (Tbody, incr) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (Tincr, max) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate Tincr, max in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used Tincr, max as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on Tincr, max for specified durations of exposure.

  18. Geospatial Relationships between Awareness and Utilization of Community Exercise Resources and Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Dondzila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is unclear if community-based fitness resources (CBFR translate to heightened activity levels within neighboring areas. The purpose of this study was to determine whether awareness and utilization of fitness resources and physical activity differed depending on residential distance from CBFR. Methods. Four hundred and seventeen older adults (72.9±7.7 years were randomly recruited from three spatial tiers (≤1.6, >1.6 to ≤3.2, and >3.2 to 8.0 km surrounding seven senior centers, which housed CBFR. Participants completed questionnaires on health history, CBFR, and physical activity, gathering data on CBFR awareness, utilization, and barriers, overall levels, and predictors to engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Results. Across spatial tiers, there were no differences in positive awareness rates of CBFR or CBFR utilization. Engagement in MVPA differed across spatial tiers P3.2 to 8.0 km radius having the highest mean energy expenditure. Across all sites, age and income level P<0.05 were significant predictors of low and high amounts of MVPA, respectively, and current health status and lack of interest represented barriers to CBFR utilization P<0.05. Conclusion. Closer proximity to CBFR did not impact awareness or utilization rates and had an inverse relationship with physical activity.

  19. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2016-10-18

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  20. UVR protection influences fructosamine level after sun exposure of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mianowska, Beata; Narbutt, Joanna; Young, Antony Richard; Fendler, Wojciech; Małachowska, Beata; Młynarski, Wojciech; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Seasonal variation in glycated hemoglobin levels has been observed, and sun exposure has been considered as one of the factors associated with this relationship. Fructosamine is a short-time marker of blood protein glycation. We investigated the effect of seven days of sunbathing on blood fructosamine concentration in healthy volunteers using different ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protections. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: group A - used a UVA and UVB absorbing sunscreen (N = 15), group B - used a UVB absorbing sunscreen (N = 18), and group C - followed uncontrolled sun protection habits (N = 22). Overall, the fructosamine concentration did not change after sun exposure (baseline 248.8 μmol/l, 25-75%: 238.5 to 258.8 μmol/l vs. after 247.3 μmol/l, 25-75%: 234.9 to 261.8 μmol/l, P = 0.6637). Median change of fructosamine differed significantly between groups (A: -1.90 μmol/l, 25-75%: -17.10 to 1.80 μmol/l vs. B: -3.80 μmol/l, 25-75%: -18.50 to 2.40 μmol/l vs. C: +4.05 μmol/l, 25-75%: -3.20 to 22.0 μmol/l; one-way ANOVAP = 0.0277). After age adjustment and combining groups A and B, the difference in change of fructosamine concentration was statistically significant between groups A + B (decrease) vs. group C (increase, P = 0.0193). Appropriate sunscreen use during sunbathing resulted in decreased fructosamine concentrations, while inadequate UVR protection resulted in its increase. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

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    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  2. Educational level and adult mortality in Russia: an analysis of routine data 1979 to 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnikov, V M; Leon, D A; Adamets, S; Andreev, E; Deev, A

    1998-08-01

    The investigation of socio-economic differences in mortality in Russia was effectively prohibited in the Soviet period. The extent and nature of any such differences is of considerable interest given the very different principles upon which Russian society has been organised for most of this century compared to the West where socio-economic differences in health have been extensively documented. Using cross-sectional data on mortality in Russia around the 1979 and 1989 Censuses, we have analysed mortality gradients according to length of education. Our results show that educational differences in mortality are at least as big as seen in Western countries, and are most similar to the recently reported differences observed for other former communist countries such as the Czech Republic, Estonia and Hungary. As observed in many other countries the strength of association of mortality with education declines with age, varies by cause of death and is generally stronger among men than women. Differentials are particularly large for accidents and violence, where for men and women the mortality rate among those with primary or basic secondary education is over twice that of people with higher education. Even larger effects are seen for causes directly related to alcohol (including alcoholic cirrhosis and accidental poisoning by alcohol), and for infectious and parasitic diseases and respiratory diseases. These educational differences may in part be related to educational differences in alcohol consumption. Of particular significance is the fact that there are indications that socio-economic differences in mortality have widened considerably in the 1990s, a period during which there was a huge increase in the national burden of alcohol-related deaths. This widening of socio-economic differences at this time suggest that these increases in consumption were especially acute among those with less education. At a more general level the fact that large educational differences in

  3. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

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    Al-Eisa ES

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Einas S Al-Eisa,1 Ahmad H Alghadir,1 Sami A Gabr1,2 1Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in healthy older adults.Methods: A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25, moderate (n=20, and physically active (n=35. Serum 25(OHD (25-hydroxy vitamin D levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively.Results: Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5% compared to females (26.25%. Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OHD concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OHD concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores

  4. CD4 cell levels during treatment for tuberculosis (TB in Ethiopian adults and clinical markers associated with CD4 lymphocytopenia.

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    Sten Skogmar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical correlations and significance of subnormal CD4 levels in HIV-negative patients with TB are unclear. We have determined CD4 cell levels longitudinally during anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT in patients, with and without HIV co-infection, and their associations with clinical variables. METHOD: Adults diagnosed with TB (maximum duration of ATT for 2 weeks, and with no history of antiretroviral therapy (ART in HIV-positive subjects were included consecutively in eight out-patient clinics in Ethiopia. Healthy individuals were recruited for comparison at one of the study health centers. Data on patient characteristics and physical findings were collected by trained nurses following a structured questionnaire at inclusion and on follow-up visits at 2 and 6 months. In parallel, peripheral blood CD4 cell levels were determined. The evolution of CD4 cell levels during ATT was assessed, and the association between clinical characteristics and low CD4 cell levels at baseline was investigated using regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 1116 TB patients were included (307 HIV-infected. Among 809 HIV-negative patients, 200 (25% had subnormal CD4 cell counts (<500 cells/mm(3, with <350 cells/mm(3 in 82 (10% individuals. CD4 cell levels increased significantly during the course of ATT in both HIV+ and HIV- TB-patients, but did not reach the levels in healthy subjects (median 896 cells/mm(3. Sputum smear status, signs of wasting (low mid upper arm circumference (MUAC, and bedridden state were significantly associated with low CD4 cell counts. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of Ethiopian TB patients have subnormal CD4 cell counts before starting treatment. Low CD4 cell levels are associated with smear positive disease and signs of wasting. The continuous increase of CD4 cell counts during the course of ATT suggest a reversible impact of active TB on CD4 cell homeostasis, which may be considered in interpretation of CD4 cell counts in HIV

  5. The hemostatic status of pediatric recipients of adult liver grafts suggests that plasma levels of hemostatic proteins are not regulated by the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, Ton; Platto, Marco; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Colledan, Michele; Porte, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma levels of coagulation factors differ profoundly between adults and children, but are remarkably stable throughout adulthood. It is unknown which factors determine plasma levels of coagulation factors in a given individual. We hypothesized that the liver, which synthesizes coagulation factors,

  6. Characteristics of U.S. Adults with Usual Daily Folic Acid Intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco, Angela M.; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Guo, Jing; Carriquiry, Alicia; Berry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration mandated that by 1998, all enriched cereal grain products (ECGP) be fortified with folic acid in order to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. The Institute of Medicine established the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for folic acid (1000 µg/day for adults) in 1998. We characterized U.S. adults with usual daily folic acid intake exceeding the UL. Using NHANES 2003–2010 data, we estimated the percentage of 18,321 non-pregnant adults with usual daily ...

  7. Impact of Increasing Dietary Calcium Levels on Calcium Excretion and Vitamin D Metabolites in the Blood of Healthy Adult Cats.

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    Nadine Paßlack

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium (Ca concentrations might affect regulatory pathways within the Ca and vitamin D metabolism and consequently excretory mechanisms. Considering large variations in Ca concentrations of feline diets, the physiological impact on Ca homeostasis has not been evaluated to date. In the present study, diets with increasing concentrations of dicalcium phosphate were offered to ten healthy adult cats (Ca/phosphorus (P: 6.23/6.02, 7.77/7.56, 15.0/12.7, 19.0/17.3, 22.2/19.9, 24.3/21.6 g/kg dry matter. Each feeding period was divided into a 10-day adaptation and an 8-day sampling period in order to collect urine and faeces. On the last day of each feeding period, blood samples were taken.Urinary Ca concentrations remained unaffected, but faecal Ca concentrations increased (P < 0.001 with increasing dietary Ca levels. No effect on whole and intact parathyroid hormone levels, fibroblast growth factor 23 and calcitriol concentrations in the blood of the cats were observed. However, the calcitriol precursors 25(OHD2 and 25(OHD3, which are considered the most useful indicators for the vitamin D status, decreased with higher dietary Ca levels (P = 0.013 and P = 0.033. Increasing dietary levels of dicalcium phosphate revealed an acidifying effect on urinary fasting pH (6.02 and postprandial pH (6.01 (P < 0.001, possibly mediated by an increase of urinary phosphorus (P concentrations (P < 0.001.In conclusion, calcitriol precursors were linearly affected by increasing dietary Ca concentrations. The increase in faecal Ca excretion indicates that Ca homeostasis of cats is mainly regulated in the intestine and not by the kidneys. Long-term studies should investigate the physiological relevance of the acidifying effect observed when feeding diets high in Ca and P.

  8. Serum levels of vitamin E forms and risk of cognitive impairment in a Finnish cohort of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Solomon, Alina; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Hooshmand, Babak; Cecchetti, Roberta; Fratiglioni, Laura; Soininen, Hilkka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Mecocci, Patrizia; Kivipelto, Miia

    2013-12-01

    Vitamin E includes eight natural antioxidant compounds (four tocopherols and four tocotrienols), but α-tocopherol has been the main focus of investigation in studies of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the association between serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, markers of vitamin E oxidative/nitrosative damage (α-tocopherylquinone, 5-nitro-γ-tocopherol) and incidence of cognitive impairment in a population-based study. A sample of 140 non-cognitively impaired elderly subjects derived from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia (CAIDE) study was followed-up for 8years to detect cognitive impairment, defined as development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's dementia. The association between baseline serum vitamin E and cognitive impairment was analyzed with multiple logistic regression after adjusting for several confounders. The risk of cognitive impairment was lower in subjects in the middle tertile of the γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio than in those in the lowest tertile: the multiadjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.27 (0.10-0.78). Higher incidence of cognitive impairment was found in the middle [OR (95% CI): 3.41 (1.29-9.06)] and highest [OR (95% CI): 2.89 (1.05-7.97)] tertiles of the 5-NO2-γ-tocopherol/γ-tocopherol ratio. Analyses of absolute serum levels of vitamin E showed lower risk of cognitive impairment in subjects with higher levels of γ-tocopherol, β-tocotrienol, and total tocotrienols. Elevated levels of tocopherol and tocotrienol forms are associated with reduced risk of cognitive impairment in older adults. The association is modulated by concurrent cholesterol concentration. Various vitamin E forms might play a role in cognitive impairment, and their evaluation can provide a more accurate measure of vitamin E status in humans. © 2013.

  9. The Effect of Zonisamide on Sex Hormones Level and Testis Histological Changes in Adult MaleRat

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    M Mallaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aim: Zonisamide is an inhibitor for glutamate neurotransmitter and gamma aminobutiric acid (GABA-mediators. It also increases the total levels of serotonin. According to the importance of this drug in psychotherapy, its side effects on the endocrine system seem to be very important. This study was aimed to determine the effects of zonisamide on pituitary-gonad axis and spermatogenesis. Methods: In this experimental study, 50 adult male Wistar rats were divided in five groups of ten. The control group did not receive any medical treatment. The sham group received 1 ml distilled water as a solvent and three experimental groups were treated with 50, 100, 200 mg/ kg of zonisamide orally for 28 days.At the day of 29, blood samples and preparation of tissue section were taken from all groups. Serum concentrations of hormones were measured via Radio Immuno Assay (RIA. Using the SPSS software, the results were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that 100 and 200(mg/kg.b.w of zonisamide could reduce the serum level of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, while it increased the LH concentration. It should be noted that 200(mg/kg.b.w of drug also enhanced the FSH level (P<0/001. Also, a considerable decline was observed in spermatogenesis chain at high doses of zonisamide. Conclusion: This study showed that high doses of zonisamide decrease the serum concentration of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone and the number of spermatogenic cells. It also increased the serum FSH and LH levels. Therefore, it is proposed that zonisamide may decrease the function of reproductive activity. Key words: Zonisamide, Reproduction, Rat

  10. Physical activity levels and associated socio-demographic factors in Bangladeshi adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Ahmed, M S A Mansur; Zaman, Mohammad Mostafa

    2017-01-11

    Low level of physical activity (PA) has become an important public health problem even in low-income countries. The objectives of this study were to measure PA levels, determine the prevalence of low PA and identify socio-demographic factors associated with it in Bangladeshi adults. Data from 792 (urban, 395; rural, 397) Bangladeshi adults (25-64 years) were included in this population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2011. Global Physical Activity Questionnaire version 2 (GPAQ-2) was used to measure PA. The metabolic equivalent task (MET) in minutes per week was calculated to determine total PA. Participants were categorized into low, moderate and high PA groups. Logistic regression was used to assess socio-demographic factors associated with low level of PA. Median MET-minute of total PA per week was almost double in the rural area (1720) than the urban area (960). The overall prevalence of low PA was 50.3% (95% CI: 46.8-53.8), urban 59.5% (54.7-64.3) and rural 41.9% (37.0-46.8). Women in general were more inactive (women 63.1% [58.3-67.9], men 39.3% [34.6-44.0]). The main contributions to total PA were from work (urban 40.0%, rural 77.0%) and active commute (57.0%, 21.0%). Leisure-time PA represented a very small proportion (<3.0%). Multiple logistic regressions found a significant association of urban residence (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5-3.2), women (2.1; 1.4-3.9), oldest age group 55-64 years (15.6; 7.5-32.2) compared to youngest age group 25-34 years, graduation or further education (8.6; 4.1-17.7), and higher socio-economic class (2.4; 1.4-4.2) compared to poor with insufficient PA. This study identifies low PA in a rural and urban population in Bangladesh and that further large-scale population studies are warranted.

  11. Marital status and educational level associated to obesity in Greek adults: data from the National Epidemiological Survey

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    Kapantais Efthymios

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is an important public health issue and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. The aim of the present study was to determine associations of overweight (OW, obesity (OB and abdominal obesity (AO with marital status and educational level in Greek adults of both genders based on data from the National Epidemiological Survey on the prevalence of obesity. Methods The selection was conducted by stratified sampling through household family members of Greek children attending school during 2003. A total of 17,341 Greek men and women aged from 20 to 70 years participated in the survey and had anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference for the calculation of prevalence of OW, OB and AO. WHO cut-offs were used to define overweight and obesity categories. Waist circumference of more than 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women defined AO. Marital status and educational level were recorded using a specially designed questionnaire and were classified into 4 categories. Results The overall prevalence of OB was 22.3% (25.8% in men, 18.4% in women, that of OW 35.2% (41.0% in men, 29.8% in women and that of AO 26.4% in men and 35.9% in women. Ahigher risk of OB was found in married men (OR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.85-2.81 and married women (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.73-3.10 than in the respective unmarried ones. Also, a higher risk of AO was found in married men (OR: 3.40; 95% CI: 2.86-4.03 and in married women (OR: 2.40; 95% CI 2.00-2.88 compared to unmarried ones. The risk for being obese was lower among educated women (primary school, OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60-0.96, high school, OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.46-0.74 and University, OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.49-0.81 than among illiterates. No significant differences were found among men. Conclusions In Greek adults, marital status was significantly associated with obesity and abdominal obesity status in both genders while educational level was

  12. Marital status and educational level associated to obesity in Greek adults: data from the National Epidemiological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity is an important public health issue and its prevalence is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. The aim of the present study was to determine associations of overweight (OW), obesity (OB) and abdominal obesity (AO) with marital status and educational level in Greek adults of both genders based on data from the National Epidemiological Survey on the prevalence of obesity. Methods The selection was conducted by stratified sampling through household family members of Greek children attending school during 2003. A total of 17,341 Greek men and women aged from 20 to 70 years participated in the survey and had anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference) for the calculation of prevalence of OW, OB and AO. WHO cut-offs were used to define overweight and obesity categories. Waist circumference of more than 102 cm in men and 88 cm in women defined AO. Marital status and educational level were recorded using a specially designed questionnaire and were classified into 4 categories. Results The overall prevalence of OB was 22.3% (25.8% in men, 18.4% in women), that of OW 35.2% (41.0% in men, 29.8% in women) and that of AO 26.4% in men and 35.9% in women. Ahigher risk of OB was found in married men (OR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.85-2.81) and married women (OR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.73-3.10) than in the respective unmarried ones. Also, a higher risk of AO was found in married men (OR: 3.40; 95% CI: 2.86-4.03) and in married women (OR: 2.40; 95% CI 2.00-2.88) compared to unmarried ones. The risk for being obese was lower among educated women (primary school, OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60-0.96, high school, OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.46-0.74 and University, OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.49-0.81) than among illiterates. No significant differences were found among men. Conclusions In Greek adults, marital status was significantly associated with obesity and abdominal obesity status in both genders while educational level was inversely

  13. Effects of sulpiride on mRNA levels of steroid 5alpha-reductase isozymes in prostate of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Pilar; Torres, Jesús M; Vílchez, Pablo; Del Moral, Raimundo G; Ortega, Esperanza

    2008-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is implicated in prostate growth and in the development and regulation of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). PRL may exert its effects on prostate in synergism with androgens. The most active androgen in the prostate is the 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) obtained from testosterone by the 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-R) enzyme, which is expressed in the prostate as two isozymes, 5alpha-R1 and 5alpha-R2. In this study, sulpiride, a prolactin-secretion inductor, was administered to male rats. mRNA levels of 5alpha-R1 and 5alpha-R2 were measured in prostate of controls and sulpiride-treated rats, using one-step quantitative RT-PCR coupled with laser-induced fluorescence capillary electrophoresis (LIF-CE). Results demonstrated that sulpiride-induced hyperprolactinemia is associated with an increase in mRNA levels of both 5alpha-R1 and 5alpha-R2 in prostate of adult rats. Although a direct effect of sulpiride on prostate gland cannot be ruled out, hyperprolactinemia may be a factor to be considered in aging males, in whom prostatic diseases such as BPH and PCa are more frequent.

  14. Reduced level of the BCL11B protein is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

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    Nobuyuki Kurosawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL develops in a small proportion of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I-infected individuals. However, the mechanism by which HTLV-I causes ATLL has not been fully elucidated. To provide fundamental insights into the multistep process of leukemogenesis, we have mapped the chromosomal abnormalities in 50 ATLL cases to identify potential key regulators of ATLL. RESULTS: The analysis of breakpoints in one ATLL case with the translocations t(14;17(q32;q22-23 resulted in the identification of a Kruppel zinc finger gene, BCL11B, which plays a crucial role in T-cell development. Among the 7 ATLL cases that we examined by immunofluorescence analysis, 4 displayed low and one displayed moderate BCL11B signal intensities. A dramatically reduced level of the BCL11B protein was also found in HTLV-I-positive T-cell lines. The ectopic expression of BCL11B resulted in significant growth suppression in ATLL-derived cell lines but not in Jurkat cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our genetic and functional data provide the first evidence that a reduction in the level of the BCL11B protein is a key event in the multistep progression of ATLL leukemogenesis.

  15. Impact of Increasing Dietary Calcium Levels on Calcium Excretion and Vitamin D Metabolites in the Blood of Healthy Adult Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paßlack, Nadine; Schmiedchen, Bettina; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J.; Stumpff, Friederike; Kohn, Barbara; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary calcium (Ca) concentrations might affect regulatory pathways within the Ca and vitamin D metabolism and consequently excretory mechanisms. Considering large variations in Ca concentrations of feline diets, the physiological impact on Ca homeostasis has not been evaluated to date. In the present study, diets with increasing concentrations of dicalcium phosphate were offered to ten healthy adult cats (Ca/phosphorus (P): 6.23/6.02, 7.77/7.56, 15.0/12.7, 19.0/17.3, 22.2/19.9, 24.3/21.6 g/kg dry matter). Each feeding period was divided into a 10-day adaptation and an 8-day sampling period in order to collect urine and faeces. On the last day of each feeding period, blood samples were taken. Results Urinary Ca concentrations remained unaffected, but faecal Ca concentrations increased (P cats were observed. However, the calcitriol precursors 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, which are considered the most useful indicators for the vitamin D status, decreased with higher dietary Ca levels (P = 0.013 and P = 0.033). Increasing dietary levels of dicalcium phosphate revealed an acidifying effect on urinary fasting pH (6.02) and postprandial pH (6.01) (P cats is mainly regulated in the intestine and not by the kidneys. Long-term studies should investigate the physiological relevance of the acidifying effect observed when feeding diets high in Ca and P. PMID:26870965

  16. RT-PCR standardization and bone mineralization after low-level laser therapy on adult osteoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Bomfim, Fernando R. C.; Sella, Valéria R. G.; Zanaga, Jéssica Q.; Pereira, Nayara S.; Nouailhetas, Viviane L. A.; Plapler, Hélio

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Osteoblasts are capable to produce different compounds directly connected to bone mineralization process. This study aims to standardize the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for adult osteoblasts to observe the effect of low level laser therapy on bone mineralization. Methods: Five-millimeter long fragments obtained from the mead femoral region of male Wistar rats were assigned into group A (n=10, laser) and group B (n=10, no laser), submitted to mechanic and enzymatic digestion. After 7 days, cultures of group A were irradiated daily on a single spot with a GaInAs laser, λ=808nm, 200mW/cm2, 2J/cm2, bean diameter of 0,02mm, 5 seconds for 6 days. Group B was manipulated but received no laser irradiation. After 13 days the cells were trypsinized for 15 minute and stabilized with RNA later® for RNA extraction with Trizol®. cDNA synthesis used 10μg of RNA and M-MLV® enzyme. PCR was accomplished using the β-actin gene as a control. Another aliquot was fixed for Hematoxylin-Eosin and Von Kossa staining to visualize bone mineralization areas. Results: Under UV light we observed clearly the amplification of β-actin gene around 400bp. HE and Von Kossa staining showed osteoblast clusters, a higher number of bone cells and well defined mineralization areas in group A. Conclusion: The cell culture, RNA extraction and RT-PCR method for adult osteoblasts was effective, allowing to use these methods for bone mineralization studies. Laser improved bone mineralization and further studies are needed involving osteogenesis, calcium release mechanisms and calcium related channels.

  17. Association of television viewing with fasting and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose levels in adults without diagnosed diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, David W; Salmon, Jo; Healy, Genevieve N; Shaw, Jonathan E; Jolley, Damien; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville

    2007-03-01

    We examined the associations of television viewing time with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose (2-h PG) levels in Australian adults. A total of 8,357 adults aged > 35 years who were free from diagnosed diabetes and who attended a population-based cross-sectional study (Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study [AusDiab]) were evaluated. Measures of FPG and 2-h PG were obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Self-reported television viewing time (in the previous week) was assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S) and beta-cell function (HOMA-%B) were calculated based on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. After adjustment for confounders and physical activity time, time spent watching television in women was positively associated with 2-h PG, log fasting insulin, and log HOMA-%B and inversely associated with log HOMA-%S (P or = 4.0) for 2-h PG in women were 0 (reference), 0.009, 0.047, 0.473, and 0.501, respectively (P for trend = 0.02). Our findings highlight the unique deleterious relationship of sedentary behavior (indicated by television viewing time) and glycemic measures independent of physical activity time and adiposity status. These relationships differed according to sex and type of glucose measurement, with the 2-h PG measure being more strongly associated with television viewing. The findings suggest an important role for reducing sedentary behavior in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, especially in women.

  18. Assessment of Musculoskeletal Strength and Levels of Fatigue during Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, L C; D Souza, Urban John; Shivaprakash, G

    2017-02-01

    Some of the physiological factors and athletic performance might show variation along the phases of menstrual cycle. The alterations seen in these physiological parameters of various systems relating to oscillations in hormonal levels do affect the autonomic nervous system and metabolic functions. Former studies heave inconclusively about the influence of hormones on exercise performance, predominantly muscle strength and rate of fatigue during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Studies regarding influence of these variations during bleeding phase were not done. To evaluate the muscle strength variations and also the rate of fatigue during various phases of the menstrual cycle in young adults. This was a prospective study conducted among 100 healthy adult female volunteers aged 18-24 years, with normal regular menstrual cycles persistent between 26- 32 days (average of 28 days), for a minimum of last 6 months. Muscle strength was assessed by calculating the work done and fatigue rate using Mosso's ergograph and by handgrip dynamometer strength. Each subject was evaluated consecutively for two menstrual cycles in all three phases which were classified as Phase 1- Menstrual phase, Phase 2- Follicular phase and Phase 3- Luteal phase. The data obtained was analysed by statistical tool One-way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc Tukeys test. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. The amount of work done and handgrip strength was significantly higher in phase 2 (pmenstrual cycle. In terms of fatigue rate percentage, phase 2 showed significantly lesser values (pmenstrual cycle. We conclude that the cyclical variation in endogenous reproductive hormones increases the muscle strength in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus provide support for the influence of these hormones in regulation of these parameters in the premenopausal age group.

  19. Severely Obese Adolescents and Adults Exhibit a Different Association of Circulating Levels of Adipokines and Leukocyte Expression of the Related Receptors with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello E. Rigamonti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obese adults frequently exhibit a low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance, which have been hypothesized to be established early in childhood. Aim of this study was to evaluate the age-dependent relationships between inflammatory state and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and adults. Clinical and metabolic parameters, circulating adipokines (TNF-α, adiponectin, and leptin, ghrelin, their leukocyte receptors (TNFR1, ADIPOR2, OBRL and GHSR1a, and acute phase reactants (CRP and white blood cells were assessed in lean and obese adolescents compared with the adult counterparts. Only obese adults had higher HOMA-IR, insulin, and triglycerides compared to the lean group. An inflammatory state was present in obese adolescents and adults, as demonstrated by the higher values of CRP and neutrophils. There were no group differences in circulating levels of TNF-α and leukocyte expression of TNFR1. Adiponectin concentrations and leukocyte expression of ADIPOR2 were higher in the lean groups than in the corresponding obese counterparts. For leptin and leukocyte expression of OBRL, the results were opposed. Circulating levels of ghrelin were higher in lean adolescents and adults than the related lean groups, while there was a higher leukocyte expression of GHSR1a in (only lean adults than obese adults. When the analysis was performed in (lean or obese adults, TNF-α, neutrophils, leptin, and GHSR1a were predictors of HOMA-IR. None of the considered independent variables accounted for the degree of insulin resistance in the adolescent group. In conclusion, a dissociation between the low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance is supposed to exist in the early phases of obesity.

  20. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W;

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening of GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed......, commercially available immunoradiometric assay (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) to establish valid normative data for this analysis. We studied the diagnostic value of free IGF-I in relation to total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations in adults who were suspected of GHD. A GH provocative test, using oral...

  1. Microglial numbers attain adult levels after undergoing a rapid decrease in cell number in the third postnatal week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodemova, Maria; Kimyon, Rebecca S; De, Ishani; Small, Alissa L; Collier, Lara S; Watters, Jyoti J

    2015-01-15

    During postnatal development, microglia, CNS resident innate immune cells, are essential for synaptic pruning, neuronal apoptosis and remodeling. During this period microglia undergo morphological and phenotypic transformations; however, little is known about how microglial number and density is regulated during postnatal CNS development. We found that after an initial increase during the first 14 postnatal days, microglial numbers in mouse brain began declining in the third postnatal week and were reduced by 50% by 6weeks of age; these "adult" levels were maintained until at least 9months of age. Microglial CD11b levels increased, whereas CD45 and ER-MP58 declined between P10 and adulthood, consistent with a maturing microglial phenotype. Our data indicate that both increased microglial apoptosis and a decreased proliferative capacity contribute to the developmental reduction in microglial numbers. We found no correlation between developmental reductions in microglial numbers and brain mRNA levels of Cd200, Cx3Cl1, M-Csf or Il-34. We tested the ability of M-Csf-overexpression, a key growth factor promoting microglial proliferation and survival, to prevent microglial loss in the third postnatal week. Mice overexpressing M-Csf in astrocytes had higher numbers of microglia at all ages tested. However, the developmental decline in microglial numbers still occurred, suggesting that chronically elevated M-CSF is unable to overcome the developmental decrease in microglial numbers. Whereas the identity of the factor(s) regulating microglial number and density during development remains to be determined, it is likely that microglia respond to a "maturation" signal since the reduction in microglial numbers coincides with CNS maturation.

  2. The effect of neonatal maternal stress on plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, leptin, and ghrelin in adult male rats exposed to acute heterotypic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubová, A; Štofková, A; Jurčovičová, J; Šlamberová, R

    2016-12-22

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is important for maintenance of homeostasis during stress. Recent studies have shown a connection between the HPA axis and adipose tissue. The present study investigated the effect of acute heterotypic stress on plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), leptin, and ghrelin in adult male rats with respect to neonatal maternal social and physical stressors. Thirty rat mothers and sixty of their male progeny were used. Pups were divided into three groups: unstressed control (C), stressed by maternal social stressor (S), stressed by maternal social and physical stressors (SW). Levels of hormones were measured in adult male progeny following an acute swimming stress (10 min) or no stress. ELISA immunoassay was used to measured hormones. The ACTH and CORT levels were significantly increased in all groups of adult progeny after acute stress; however, CORT levels were significantly lower in both neonatally stressed groups compared to controls. After acute stress, plasma leptin levels were decreased in the C and SW groups but increased in the S group. The data suggest that long-term neonatal stressors lead to lower sensitivity of ACTH receptors in the adrenal cortex, which could be a sign of stress adaptation in adulthood. Acute stress in adult male rats changes plasma levels of leptin differently relative to social or physical neonatal stressors.

  3. Temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolite levels in bedtime, morning, and 24-h urine samples for 50 adults in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marsha K; Sobus, Jon R; Barr, Dana Boyd; Croghan, Carry W; Chen, Fu-Lin; Walker, Richard; Alston, Lillian; Andersen, Erik; Clifton, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control insects in both agricultural and residential settings worldwide. Few data are available on the temporal variability of pyrethroid metabolites in the urine of non-occupationally exposed adults. In this work, we describe the study design and sampling methodology for the Pilot Study to Estimate Human Exposures to Pyrethroids using an Exposure Reconstruction Approach (Ex-R study). Two major objectives were to quantify the concentrations of several pyrethroid metabolites in bedtime, first morning void (FMV), and 24-h urine samples as concentration (wet weight), specific-gravity (SG) corrected, creatinine (CR) corrected, and excretion rate values for 50 Ex-R adults over a six-week monitoring period and to determine if these correction approaches for urine dilution reduced the variability of the biomarker levels. The Ex-R study was conducted at the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA and at participants' homes within a 40-mile radius of this facility. Recruitment of participants and field activities occurred between October 2009 and May 2011. Participants, ages 19-50 years old, provided daily food, activity, and pesticide-use diaries and collected their own urine samples (bedtime, FMV, and 24-h) during weeks 1, 2, and 6 of a six-week monitoring period. A total of 2503 urine samples were collected from the study participants. These samples were analyzed for the pyrethroid metabolites 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis/trans-DCCA), and 2-methyl-3-phenylbenzoic acid (MPA) using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Only 3-PBA was frequently detected (>50%) in the adult urine samples. Median urinary 3-PBA levels were 0.88 ng/mL, 0.96 ng/mL-SG, 1.04 ng/mg, and 1.04 ng/min for concentration, SG-corrected, CR-corrected, and excretion rate values, respectively

  4. Effects of low level laser treatment on the survival of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult Hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Fai So; Mason Chin Pang Leung; Qi Cui

    2014-01-01

    Injury to axons close to the neuronal bodies in the mammalian central nervous system causes a large proportion of parenting neurons to degenerate. It is known that optic nerve transection close to the eye in rodents leads to a loss of about half of retinal ganglion cells in 1 week and about 90% in 2 weeks. Using low level laser treatment in the present study, we demonstrated that treatment with helium-neon (660 nm) laser with 15 mW power could delay retinal ganglion cell death after optic nerve axotomy in adult hamsters. The effect was most apparent in the ifrst week with a short period of treatment time (5 minutes) in which 65–66% of retinal ganglion cells survived the optic nerve axotomy whereas 45–47% of retinal ganglion cells did so in optic nerve axotomy controls. We also found that single dose and early commencement of laser irradiation were important in protecting retinal ganglion cells following optic nerve axotomy. These ifndings thus convincingly show that appropriate laser treatment may be neuroprotective to retinal gan-glion cells.

  5. Association between serum ferritin levels and risk of the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Rui; Luo, Dan; Li, Shuang; Xiao, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular protein that can store and release iron and act as a buffer against iron deficiency and iron overload. Ferritin is widely used as a clinical biomarker to evaluate iron status. Increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. However, serum ferritin concentrations differ significantly according to sex and ethnicity, and the data concerning the relationship between serum ferritin concentrations and MetS in Asian men and women are conflicting. This study aimed to explore the relationship between serum ferritin and MetS in Chinese population. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric data collected on 8,441 adults aged 18 and older in 2009 as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a large-scale longitudinal, household-based survey in China. Data was collected by trained physicians and biomarkers were measured with Hitachi Clinical Autoanalyzer 7600 D model and P model. Median levels of serum ferritin were significantly higher in men compared with women (121.9 vs. 51.0 ng/ml, P serum ferritin. The odds ratios increased progressively across the ferritin quartiles (Pserum ferritin concentrations are associated with the metabolic syndrome among men and women in China.

  6. Alterations in intracellular ionic calcium levels in isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes due to the generation of free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, K.P.; Nazeran, H.; Hagler, H.K. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Oxygen-derived free radical production has been documented to occur on reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium. Intracellular ionic calcium ((Ca{sup ++}){sub i}) levels in isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes (M) exposed to free radicals were evaluated using the fluorescent calcium indicator, fura-2. The effect of different time periods of free radical exposure and the level of extracellular Ca{sup ++} concentration on altering (Ca{sup ++}){sub i} was examined. The free radical generating system (FRGS) utilized consisted of a HEPES buffered physiological salt solution containing 2.3 mM purine, 2.4. {mu}M iron-loaded transferrin and 0.01 U/ml xanthine oxidase. M maintained in HEPES buffer or the HEPES buffer containing purine and iron-loaded transferrin continued to stimulate, exhibited relatively uniform 340/380 ratios and maintained a rod shape for extended time periods. M continuously exposed to the FRGS showed a significant increase in (Ca{sup ++}){sub i}, became unresponsive to stimulation at 31 {plus minus} 7 (SE) min and eventually exhibited contracture. Exposure to the FRGS for 10 min resulted in a response similar to continuous exposure. M exposed to the FRGS for 5 min exhibited regular Ca{sup ++} transients for 55{plus minus}5 min. M exposed to the FRGS for 10 min and maintained in 2.5 mM Ca{sup ++} versus 1.25 mM Ca{sup ++}, accumulated significantly higher (CA{sup ++}){sub i}. Quiescent myocytes continuously exposed to the FRGS also exhibited a significant increase in (Ca{sup ++}){sub i} over time. Thus, a brief period of free radical exposure may induce subsequent damage. Alterations in Ca{sup ++} flux resulting from the generation of free radicals may possibly contribute to the development of Ca{sup ++} overload and myocardial arrhythmias.

  7. Surface anatomy of major anatomical landmarks of the neck in an adult population: A Ct Evaluation of Vertebral Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Masroor; Soames, Roger; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Jaffar; Khan, Adnan

    2017-09-01

    To compare the projectional surface anatomy of healthy individuals in an adult population with those with a thyroid mass, using computed tomography (CT). Sixteen slice CT images of 101 individuals were analyzed using a 32-bit Radiant DICOM viewer to establish the relationships among major anatomical landmarks in the neck and their vertebral levels. The structures investigated included: hard palate (HP), hyoid bone (HB) including body and lesser horns, soft palate (SP), thyroid gland (TG) (both superior and inferior poles), thyroid gland anteroposterior (APD) and superoinferior (SID) diameters, thyroid isthmus (TI) superoinferior dimension, epiglottis, vertebral arteries (right and left), and both right and left parotid glands (superior and inferior extents). The vertebral levels noted most frequently were: body of hyoid bone (C4, 42.71%); lesser horns of hyoid bone (C3, 36.46%); thyroid gland superior pole (C6, 31.25%); and thyroid gland inferior pole (T2, 30.2%). TG-ID, TG-APD, and TG-SID were not significantly different between males and females in the healthy group; however, there was a significant gender difference in thyroid gland inferior diameter in the pathology group [males 2.16(±1.16) vs. females 3.37(±1.30), P = 0.01, paired sample t-test]. Further studies are needed to determine whether neck pathology in those with a thyroid mass affects the dimensions of the thyroid gland. Moreover, the surface anatomy of the neck should be revisited using modern imaging techniques to address inconsistencies in anatomy and clinical reference texts. Clin. Anat. 30:781-787, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Income level and chronic ambulatory care sensitive conditions in adults: a multicity population-based study in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forastiere Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A relationship between quality of primary health care and preventable hospitalizations has been described in the US, especially among the elderly. In Europe, there has been a recent increase in the evaluation of Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSC as an indicator of health care quality, but evidence is still limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether income level is associated with higher hospitalization rates for ACSC in adults in a country with universal health care coverage. Methods From the hospital registries in four Italian cities (Turin, Milan, Bologna, Rome, we identified 9384 hospital admissions for six chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma among 20-64 year-olds in 2000. Case definition was based on the ICD-9-CM coding algorithm suggested by the Agency for Health Research and Quality - Prevention Quality Indicators. An area-based (census block income index was used for each individual. All hospitalization rates were directly standardised for gender and age using the Italian population. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between income level (quintiles and hospitalization rates (RR, 95% CI separately for the selected conditions controlling for age, gender and city of residence. Results Overall, the ACSC age-standardized rate was 26.1 per 10.000 inhabitants. All conditions showed a statistically significant socioeconomic gradient, with low income people being more likely to be hospitalized than their well off counterparts. The association was particularly strong for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (level V low income vs. level I high income RR = 4.23 95%CI 3.37-5.31 and for congestive heart failure (RR = 3.78, 95% CI = 3.09-4.62. With the exception of asthma, males were more vulnerable to ACSC hospitalizations than females. The risks were higher among 45-64 year

  9. Effect of GenF20 Plus on serum IGF-1 levels in healthy adults: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonawane N

    2015-03-01

    baseline values as the covariates, it was found to be statistically significantly different (GenF20 Plus: 22.69±40.62 ng/mL, placebo: -4.31±16.79 ng/mL; P<0.05. The changes in IGF-1 values in the <40 years subgroup were not found to be statistically significant. No statistically significant difference over placebo was seen for the other variables. Conclusion: GenF20 Plus increased serum IGF-1 levels in subjects ≥40 years of age who physiologically have reduced IGF-1 levels. However, significant changes in other parameters were not seen, probably due to the short duration of treatment. Further studies with longer treatment duration and large sample size are warranted to understand the clinical benefits of GenF20 Plus, especially in adults above 40 years of age. Keywords: IGF-1, herbal supplement, human growth hormone, HGH, aging 

  10. Cross-Country Variation in Adult Skills Inequality: Why Are Skill Levels and Opportunities so Unequal in Anglophone Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy; Green, Francis; Pensiero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This article examines cross-country variations in adult skills inequality and asks why skills in Anglophone countries are so unequal. Drawing on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's recent Survey of Adult Skills and other surveys, it investigates the differences across countries and country groups in inequality in both…

  11. Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the Hiroshima atomic bomb at distances of 1.27 to 1.46 kilometers from the hypocenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Y; Nagatomo, T; Hoshi, M; Kondo, S

    1987-04-01

    Sixteen ornamental tile samples were collected from 1982 to 1983 from the rooftops of two buildings at Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan. Quartz grains 50-150 microns in size extracted from the samples were analyzed for their thermoluminescence (TL) intensities. Conversion of TL intensity to 60Co gamma exposure resulted in the following estimates: 40.5 to 27.6 mC kg-1 (157 to 107 R) for five samples (one each) collected from five sites at distances of 1.27 to 1.34 km from the hypocenter of the atomic bomb detonated in 1945; 23.7 +/- 1.4 mC kg-1 (92 +/- 5 R) for three samples from one site at a distance of 1.39 km; 21.4 to 17.0 mC kg-1 (83 to 66 R) for three samples (one sample per site) from three sites at distances of 1.40 to 1.43 km; 19.8 +/- 1.3 mC kg-1 (77 +/- 5 R) for four samples from one site at a distance of 1.45 km; and 13.2 mC kg-1 (51 R) for one sample at a distance of 1.46 km. At face value, these estimates are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than previous estimates based on the tentative 1965 radiation dose estimates for atomic bomb survivors (a tentative dosimetry model proposed in 1965), but agree within +32% to -13% (+15% on the average) with recent estimates using modern computational techniques using an improved model of the atomic bomb explosion.

  12. The influence of obesity on blood mercury levels for U.S. non-pregnant adults and children: NHANES 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Korrick, Susan A; Fayad, Raja

    2015-04-01

    In animal studies obesity is associated with higher blood and tissue mercury concentrations; however human studies are lacking. Although the mechanism underlying this association is uncertain, obesity may alter the metabolism and distribution of methylmercury. We determined whether obesity influenced blood mercury levels, the majority of which was methylmercury, for U.S. non-pregnant adults (≥20 years) and children (2-19 years) after controlling for methylmercury intake through fish and shellfish consumption, and other confounders. We completed secondary data analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) for participants who consumed fish/shellfish within 24h of blood collection for mercury analysis. Weighted least squares regression models related blood mercury levels (the dependent variable) to methylmercury exposure (μg) from fish consumed in the previous 24h, body mass index (BMI) (for adults), BMI z-scores (for children), and other confounders. In adjusted models, blood mercury levels were inversely correlated with BMI for adults [β, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.54 (-0.90, -0.18)]. For children, blood mercury levels were inversely correlated with BMI z-scores but the trend was not significant [β (95% CI)=-0.016 (-0.066, 0.035)]. When obese adults or children were compared with those who were overweight/normal weight, blood mercury averaged 22% lower for obese adults (95% CI: -33%, -8.2%), while blood mercury did not differ significantly for obese children [β (95% CI)=-1.7% (-31%, +39%)]. After adjusting for the main, if not exclusive, exogenous source of methylmercury exposure (through fish/shellfish intake) and other confounders, our results support potential changes in the metabolism, distribution or excretion of methylmercury with increasing BMI (for adults). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors affecting the stability of blood lipid and lipoprotein levels from youth to adulthood: evidence from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G; Thomson, Russell; Cleland, Verity J; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effect of lifestyle changes on the stability of blood lipid and lipoprotein levels from youth to adulthood. Prospective cohort study. Australia. Five hundred thirty-nine young adults who underwent measurement at baseline in 1985 when aged 9, 12, or 15 years and again at follow-up between 2004 and 2006. Changes in adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, saturated fat intake, smoking, and socioeconomic position. Child and adult blood lipid levels. Using established cut points, we found that substantial proportions of individuals with high-risk blood lipid and lipoprotein levels at baseline no longer had high-risk levels at follow-up. Of the participants who had high-risk levels in youth, those with greater increases in adiposity or who commenced or continued smoking were more likely to maintain high-risk blood lipid and lipoprotein levels (P adulthood affect whether an individual maintains, loses, or develops high-risk blood lipid and lipoprotein levels in adulthood. Interventions that promote weight control in the first instance, but also physical activity, not smoking, and improved socioeconomic position in the transition from youth to adulthood, are likely to be of benefit in preventing adult dyslipidemia.

  14. Total blood mercury levels and depression among adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Hin H Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2005-2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5-27. RESULTS: Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36-0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status. However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40 even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50-1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding.

  15. Obesity paradox and mortality in adults with and without incident type 2 diabetes: a matched population-level cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrick, Ellena; Sperrin, Matthew; Buchan, Iain E; Renehan, Andrew G

    2017-01-01

    Among adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), several (but not all) studies show that being overweight (body mass index (BMI): 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) or obese I (BMI: 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2)) near the time of diagnosis, is unexpectedly associated with reduced all-cause mortality compared with normal weight-the obesity paradox. We addressed whether this observation is causal (eg, a true protective effect); due to confounding (including effect modification); or due to selection ('collider') bias. We performed a matched population-level cohort study using primary care records from Salford, UK (1995-2012) in 10 464 patients with incident T2D paired (1:3) with 31 020 individuals who never developed T2D. We estimated HRs for associations of BMI with all-cause mortality using Cox models, stratified by smoking status. Median follow-up was 8.7 years. For never smokers, the hazard of all-cause mortality increased from 25 kg/m(2), in a linear manner, with increasing BMI in the T2D cohort (HR per 5 kg/m(2): 1.23, ptrendparadox in ever smokers, with and without T2D, argued against a selection bias, but supported a contribution of effect modification by smoking (pinteraction=0.009). Results were stable to various sensitivity analyses. In this cohort, the obesity paradox is mainly explained by smoking as an effect modifier. These findings indicate that the obesity paradox does not challenge standard weight management recommendations among T2D patients.

  16. Immune function is related to adult carotenoid and bile pigment levels, but not to dietary carotenoid access during development, in female mallard ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael W; McGraw, Kevin J

    2013-07-15

    Immune function can be modulated by multiple physiological factors, including nutrition and reproductive state. Because these factors can vary throughout an individual's lifetime as a result of environmental conditions (affecting nutrition) or life-history stage (e.g. entering the adult reproduction stage), we must carefully examine the degree to which developmental versus adult conditions shape performance of the immune system. We investigated how variation in dietary access to carotenoid pigments - a class of molecules with immunostimulatory properties that females deposit into egg yolks - during three different developmental time points affected adult immunological and reproductive traits in female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). In males and females of other avian species, carotenoid access during development affects carotenoid assimilation ability, adult sexual ornamentation and immune function, while carotenoid access during adulthood can increase immune response and reproductive investment (e.g. egg-laying capacity, biliverdin deposition in eggshells). We failed to detect effects of developmental carotenoid supplementation on adult immune function [phytohemagglutinin-induced cutaneous immune response, antibody production in response to the novel antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), or oxidative burst, assessed by changes in circulating nitric oxide levels], carotenoid-pigmented beak coloration, ovarian development, circulating carotenoid levels or concentration of bile pigments in the gall bladder. However, we did uncover positive relationships between circulating carotenoid levels during adulthood and KLH-specific antibody production, and a negative relationship between biliverdin concentration in bile and KLH-specific antibody production. These results are consistent with the view that adult physiological parameters better predict current immune function than do developmental conditions, and highlight a possible, previously unstudied relationship

  17. Dietary factors associated with obesity indicators and level of sports participation in Flemish adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delecluse Christophe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity develops when energy intake continuously exceeds energy expenditure, causing a fundamental chronic energy imbalance. Societal and behavioural changes over the last decades are held responsible for the considerable increase in sedentary lifestyles and inappropriate dietary patterns. The role of dietary fat and other dietary factors in the aetiology and maintenance of excess weight is controversial. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the dietary factors associated with body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, and to analyse whether dietary intake varies between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Methods Data for this cross-sectional study, including anthropometric measurements, 3-day diet diary and physical activity questionnaire, were collected by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health (SPAH between October 2002 and April 2004. Results of 485 adult men and 362 women with plausible dietary records were analysed. Analyses of covariance were performed to determine the differences in dietary intake between normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, and between subjects with different levels of sports participation. Results Total energy intake, protein and fat intake (kcal/day were significantly higher in obese subjects compared to their lean counterparts in both genders. Percentage of energy intake from fat was significantly higher in obese men compared to men with normal weight or WC. Energy percentages from carbohydrates and fibres were negatively related to BMI and WC in men, whereas in women a higher carbohydrate and fibre intake was positively associated with obesity. Alcohol intake was positively associated with WC in men. Subjects participating in health related sports reported higher intake of carbohydrates, but lower intake of fat compared to subjects not participating in sports. Conclusion This study supports the evidence that

  18. Chemokine levels and parasite- and allergen-specific antibody responses in children and adults with severe or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangala, B.; Vovor, A.; Gantin, R. G.; Agbeko, Y. F.; Lechner, C. J.; Huang, X.; Köhler, C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine and antibody response profiles were investigated in children and adults with severe or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria; the aim was to reveal which profiles are associated with severe disease, as often seen in nonimmune children, or with mild and uncomplicated disease, as seen in semi-immune adults. Blood samples were obtained from children under 5 years of age as well as adults with falciparum malaria. Classification of malaria was performed according to parasite densities and hemoglobin concentrations. Plasma levels of chemokines (IL-8, IP-10, MCP-4, TARC, PARC, MIP-1δ, eotaxins) were quantified, and antibody responses (IgE, IgG1, and IgG4) to P. falciparum, Entamoeba histolytica-specific antigen, and mite allergen extracts were determined. In children with severe malaria proinflammatory, IL-8, IP10, MIP-1δ, and LARC were at highly elevated levels, suggesting an association with severe disease. In contrast, the Th2-type chemokines TARC, PARC, and eotaxin-2 attained in children the same levels as in adults suggesting the evolution of immune regulatory components. In children with severe malaria, an elevated IgG1 and IgE reactivity to mite allergens and intestinal protozoan parasites was observed. In conclusion, exacerbated proinflammatory chemokines together with IgE responses to mite allergens or E. histolytica-specific antigen extract were observed in children with severe falciparum malaria. PMID:25883801

  19. The Association between IGF-1 Polymorphisms, IGF-1 Serum Levels, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmilla M. M. Licht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 levels, and cognition are interconnected in healthy adults. Data of 277 participants (mean age: 42.4 years of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study on IGF-1 promoter polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum level, spatial working memory (SWM, paired associate learning (PAL, and IQ tests were analyzed. (MANOVAs were applied to confirm the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels and between IGF-1 levels and cognition. Three groups were distinguished based on specific IGF-1 polymorphism alleles: a homozygote 192 bp/192 bp genotype, a heterozygote 192 bp/x genotype, and a noncarrier x/x genotype. Although different IGF-1 levels were found for the three genotypes, performance on all cognitive tasks and IQ measures was similar. Despite the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels, no association was found between cognition and IGF-1 levels. It seems that IGF-1 does not play a role in the cognitive performance of healthy middle-aged adults. Possible, IGF-1 fulfills a more developmental and protective role in cognition which becomes apparent during childhood, old-age, or disease.

  20. The Association between IGF-1 Polymorphisms, IGF-1 Serum Levels, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; van Turenhout, Lise C.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Koppes, Lando L. J.; van Mechelen, Willem; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Drent, Madeleine L.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 levels, and cognition are interconnected in healthy adults. Data of 277 participants (mean age: 42.4 years) of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study on IGF-1 promoter polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum level, spatial working memory (SWM), paired associate learning (PAL), and IQ tests were analyzed. (M)ANOVAs were applied to confirm the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels and between IGF-1 levels and cognition. Three groups were distinguished based on specific IGF-1 polymorphism alleles: a homozygote 192 bp/192 bp genotype, a heterozygote 192 bp/x genotype, and a noncarrier x/x genotype. Although different IGF-1 levels were found for the three genotypes, performance on all cognitive tasks and IQ measures was similar. Despite the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels, no association was found between cognition and IGF-1 levels. It seems that IGF-1 does not play a role in the cognitive performance of healthy middle-aged adults. Possible, IGF-1 fulfills a more developmental and protective role in cognition which becomes apparent during childhood, old-age, or disease. PMID:25114679

  1. Age differences of salivary alpha-amylase levels of basal and acute responses to citric acid stimulation between Chinese children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemin eYang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear how salivary alpha-amylase (sAA levels respond to mechanical stimuli in different age groups. In addition, the role played by the sAA gene (AMY1 copy number and protein expression (glycosylated and non-glycosylated in sAA activity has also been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed saliva samples collected before and after citric acid stimulation from 47 child and 47 adult Chinese subjects. We observed that adults had higher sAA activity and sAA glycosylated levels (glycosylated sAA amount/total sAA amount in basal and stimulated saliva when compared with children, while no differences were found in total or glycosylated sAA amount between them. Interestingly, adults showed attenuated sAA activity levels increase over those of children after stimulation. Correlation analysis showed that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and AMY1 copy number×total sAA amount were all positively correlated with sAA activity before and after stimulation in both groups. Interestingly, correlation r between sAA levels (glycosylated sAA amount and total sAA amount and sAA activity decreased after stimulation in children, while adults showed an increase in correlation r. In addition, the correlation r between AMY1 copy number×total sAA amount and sAA activity was higher than that between AMY1 copy number, total sAA amount and sAA activity, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and the positive interaction between AMY1 copy number and total sAA amount are crucial in influencing sAA activity before and after stimulation in children and adults.

  2. The Effects of Three Sessions of Running on a Negative Slope on Serum Levels of Liver Enzymes in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezaei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three sessions of running on a negative slope (eccentric contraction on changes of the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanin aminotransferaze (ALT in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: 20 adult male rats were divided randomly into two equal groups (exercise and control. Levels of AST and ALT in both groups were measured in a fasting state, 24 hours before and 24 hours after the last session of training.Results: Exercise increased the levels of serum AST and ALT enzymes, significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: Eccentric exercise, without allowing enough time for returning to the pre-exercise state, leads to the damage of some body organs such as the liver.

  3. Identification of stair climbing ability levels in community-dwelling older adults based on the geometric mean of stair ascent and descent speed: The GeMSS classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayagoitia, Ruth E; Harding, John; Kitchen, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to develop a quantitative approach to identify three stair-climbing ability levels of older adults: no, somewhat and considerable difficulty. Timed-up-and-go test, six-minute-walk test, and Berg balance scale were used for statistical comparison to a new stair climbing ability classifier based on the geometric mean of stair speeds (GeMSS) in ascent and descent on a flight of eight stairs with a 28° pitch in the housing unit where the participants, 28 (16 women) urban older adults (62-94 years), lived. Ordinal logistic regression revealed the thresholds between the three ability levels for each functional test were more stringent than thresholds found in the literature to classify walking ability levels. Though a small study, the intermediate classifier shows promise of early identification of difficulties with stairs, in order to make timely preventative interventions. Further studies are necessary to obtain scaling factors for stairs with other pitches.

  4. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Liu, Kiang [Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Steve Morris, J. [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States); Guo, Zhongqin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia (China); Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); He, Ka, E-mail: kahe@unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  5. Cognitive-behavioral therapy augmentation of SSRI reduces cortisol levels in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnick, Christopher B; Wetherell, Julie L; White, Kamila S; Andreescu, Carmen; Dixon, David; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    Elevated cortisol in stress and aging, such as has been seen in late-life anxiety disorders, is postulated to accelerate cognitive and physiological decline in this large and increasing population. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in older adults. On the other hand, there is very little research examining the effect of combining these therapies on peak cortisol levels. For the current analyses, we examined the effectiveness of CBT augmentation on peak cortisol levels in older adults diagnosed with GAD. The sample consisted of 42 individuals with late-life GAD who received an acute course of the SSRI escitalopram and then entered a 16-week randomized phase. Twenty-one participants were randomized to receive 16 sessions of CBT in addition to continuing escitalopram and the remaining 21 participants continued on escitalopram without CBT. Generalized estimating equations were performed to assess the effectiveness of CBT augmentation on peak cortisol levels (30 min after waking). Older adults with GAD who received both escitalopram and CBT demonstrated a significant reduction in peak cortisol levels at posttreatment compared to the group who received escitalopram without CBT augmentation. CBT augmentation of SSRI treatment reduced peak cortisol levels for older adults with GAD. Since persistently high cortisol levels in aging are thought to increase age-related cognitive and medical problems, our findings suggest that there may be a benefit to health and cognition of CBT augmentation for late-life anxiety disorders. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Long-term exposure to xenoestrogens alters some brain monoamines and both serum thyroid hormones and cortisol levels in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashwa M. Saied

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the effect of long-term treatment with the phytoestrogen soy isoflavone [(SIF; 43 mg/kg body weight/day] and/or the plastics component bisphenol-A [(BPA; 3 mg/kg body weight/day] on some monoamines in the forebrain and both serum thyroid hormones and cortisol levels of adult rats. Significant increases in serotonin (5-HT and norepinephrine (NE level, and significant decreases in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA level and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio, were observed after treatment with SIF or BPA. Level of dopamine (DA was increased in SIF-treated group and decreased in BPA-treated group. Activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO was decreased in all treated groups. The level of serum thyroid hormones (fT3 and fT4 was increased after treatment with SIF and decreased after exposure to BPA, while cortisol level was increased in all treated groups. It may be concluded that long-term exposure to SIF or BPA disrupts monoamine levels in the forebrain of adult rats through alteration in the metabolic pathways of amines and disorders of thyroid hormones and cortisol levels.

  7. Determining the Relationship between U.S. County-Level Adult Obesity Rate and Multiple Risk Factors by PLS Regression and SVM Modeling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC has shown that the obesity rate doubled among adults within the past two decades. This upsurge was the result of changes in human behavior and environment. Partial least squares (PLS regression and support vector machine (SVM models were conducted to determine the relationship between U.S. county-level adult obesity rate and multiple risk factors. The outcome variable was the adult obesity rate. The 23 risk factors were categorized into four domains of the social ecological model including biological/behavioral factor, socioeconomic status, food environment, and physical environment. Of the 23 risk factors related to adult obesity, the top eight significant risk factors with high normalized importance were identified including physical inactivity, natural amenity, percent of households receiving SNAP benefits, and percent of all restaurants being fast food. The study results were consistent with those in the literature. The study showed that adult obesity rate was influenced by biological/behavioral factor, socioeconomic status, food environment, and physical environment embedded in the social ecological theory. By analyzing multiple risk factors of obesity in the communities, may lead to the proposal of more comprehensive and integrated policies and intervention programs to solve the population-based problem.

  8. Neural activity and the levels of high energy phosphates during deprivation of oxygen and/or glucose in hippocampal slices of immature and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabetani, M; Okada, Y; Kawai, S; Nakamura, H

    1995-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between neural activity and cerebral energy metabolism during anoxia or ischemia in neural tissue of different ages, hippocampal slices were prepared from four-, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats. For the index of the neural activity, the population spikes were recorded in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA3 area. ATP and phosphocreatine levels in the slices were measured during oxygen and/or glucose deprivation. After deprivation of both oxygen and glucose, population spikes of the slices from four, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats ceased completely in 14.2, 11.8, 9.4 and 5.3 min, respectively. The level of ATP at the time of cessation of population spike in four-, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats was 37.4, 30.2, 28.5 and 56.4% of the original concentrations. After deprivation of glucose only, the decay time of the population spikes of the slices from four-, seven- and 10-day-old and adult rats was 17.8, 14.5, 9.0 and 10.0 min and at the time of population spikes cessation the level of ATP was 99.8, 84.2, 79.3 and 49%, respectively. After deprivation of oxygen only, population spikes of the slices from four, seven- and 10-day old and adult rats ceased completely in 257, 283, 109 and 8.5 min, respectively. The level of ATP at the time of population spikes cessation was 50, 40, 36.6 and 94.4% of the initial values, respectively. These results indicate that the immature rat is extremely resistant to oxygen deprivation from a functional and a metabolic view, whereas in the adult rat, preservation of neural activity depends much on both oxygen and glucose. During glucose deprivation, population spikes of the slices of immature and mature rats ceased rapidly although the level of ATP is preserved at high levels. This suggests that glucose plays an important role in the preservation of neural activity in addition to its major function as an energy substrate especially in immature animals.

  9. SU-F-207-14: Low Contrast Detectability (LCD) at Different Diagnostic Reference Levels for Adult Abdominal CT Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y [Mem Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Using diagnostic reference levels (DRL) to optimize CT protocols has potential to reduce radiation dose and meet regulatory requirements. However, DRL’s tend to be misconstrued as dose limits, are typically designed for specific patient populations, and are assumed to have acceptable image quality (AIQ) associated with them. To determine the image quality that is associated with established DRL’s for adult abdominal CT studies, a LCD phantom study was employed. Methods: A CT phantom (CIRS) containing three columns of 7 spherical targets, ranging from 10mm to 2.4 mm, that are 5, 10, and 20 HU below the background (HUBB) matrix was scanned with a GE HD750 64 slice scanner. The phantom was scanned at the NEXT 2006 25th CTDIvol of 12 mGy, the NCRP 172 achievable dose (AD) CTDIvol of 17 mGy and 75th CTDIvol of 25 mGy and at the ACR recommended CTDIvol of 25 mGy. It was also scanned at a CTDIvol 20% greater than the AD at 20 mGy and the ACR maximum threshold of 30 mGy. Results: At the NEXT 2006 25th percentile CTDIvol of 12 mGy, a 6.3 mm low contrast lesion was detectable in the 20 HUBB; 6.3 mm in the 10 HUBB and 10 mm in the 5 HUBB column. Increasing the CTDIvol to the NCRP 172 AD of 17 mGy, an additional 4.8 mm lesion was visualized in the 20 HUBB column. At 20 mGy, an additional 4.8 mm lesion was detectable in the 10 HUBB column. No further lesions were visible between 20 and 30 mGy. However, conspicuity of all lesions increased with each additional step up in CTDI. Conclusion: Optimizing radiation dose to achieve AIQ is a critical aspect of any dose optimization committee. Hence, judicious monitoring of radiation exposure to patients has to be balanced with diagnostic image quality.

  10. Aralar mRNA and protein levels in neurons and astrocytes freshly isolated from young and adult mouse brain and in maturing cultured astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoman; Hertz, Leif; Peng, Liang

    2012-12-01

    Intense glucose-based energy metabolism and glutamate synthesis by astrocytes require malate-aspartate-shuttle (MAS) activity to regenerate NAD⁺ from NADH formed during glycolysis, since brain lacks significant glycerophosphate shuttle activity. Aralar is a necessary aspartate/glutamate exchanger for MAS function in brain. Based on cytochemical immunoassays the absence of aralar in adult astrocytes was repeatedly reported. This would mean that adult astrocytes must regenerate NAD⁺ by producing lactate from pyruvate, eliminating its use by oxidative and biosynthetic pathways. We alternatively used astrocytes and neurons from adult brain, freshly isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, to determine aralar protein by a specific antibody and its mRNA by real-time PCR. Both protein and mRNA expressions were identical in adult neurons and astrocytes and similar to whole brain levels. The same level of aralar expression was reached in well-differentiated astrocyte cultures, but not until late development, coinciding with the late-maturing brain capability for glutamate formation and degradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W

    1997-01-01

    fraction of the total IGF-I circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. However, our knowledge of the clinical or physiological value of determination of free IGF-I in serum is limited at present. In adults, the diagnostic value of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3......, unmeasurable free IGF-I values in 34 of the prepubertal children (3.3%). All individuals over 8 yr of age had measurable free IGF-I levels that amounted to approximately 1% of the total IGF-I concentrations. Free IGF-I levels were below--2 SD in 56 of 79 GHD patients (sensitivity, 71%) and above--2 SD in 24...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed...

  12. Effects of Ethanol on the Expression Level of Various BDNF mRNA Isoforms and Their Encoded Protein in the Hippocampus of Adult and Embryonic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Shojaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare the effects of oral ethanol (Eth alone or combined with the phytoestrogen resveratrol (Rsv on the expression of various brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF transcripts and the encoded protein pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of pregnant and embryonic rats. A low (0.25 g/kg body weight (BW/day dose of Eth produced an increase in the expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and a decrease in that of the exon IX in embryos, but failed to affect BDNF transcript and pro-BDNF protein expression in adults. However, co-administration of Eth 0.25 g/kg·BW/day and Rsv led to increased expression of BDNF exons I, III and IV and to a small but significant increase in the level of pro-BDNF protein in maternal rats. A high (2.5 g/kg·BW/day dose of Eth increased the expression of BDNF exons III and IV in embryos, but it decreased the expression of exon IX containing BDNF mRNAs in the maternal rats. While the high dose of Eth alone reduced the level of pro-BDNF in adults, it failed to change the levels of pro-BDNF in embryos. Eth differentially affects the expression pattern of BDNF transcripts and levels of pro-BDNF in the hippocampus of both adult and embryonic rats.

  13. Positive correlation between circulating cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (hCAP18/LL-37) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, Brian M; Barker, Tyler; McKinnon, Toni

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transcription of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is induced by binding of the bioactive form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, to the vitamin D receptor. Significant levels of the protein hCAP18/LL-37 are found in the blood and may protect against......-aged adults. FINDINGS: Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and plasma levels of hCAP18 were determined in 19 healthy middle-aged (mean of 50.1 years) adult men and women. Plasma hCAP18 concentrations correlated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in subjects with 25(OH)D levels 32 ng/ml (r = 0.19, p...... = 0.63). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that plasma hCAP18 levels correlate with serum 25(OH)D levels in subjects with concentrations of 25(OH)D 32 ng/ml and that vitamin D status may regulate systemic levels of hCAP18/LL-37....

  14. Lack of correlation between MMF dose and MPA level in pediatric and young adult cardiac transplant patients: does the MPA level matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajarski, Robert J; Crowley, Dennis C; Zamberlan, Mary C; Lake, Kathleen D

    2004-09-01

    To determine the correlation between mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) dose and mycophenolic acid (MPA) level as well as its impact on rejection among young cardiac transplant recipients (OHT), trough concentrations of MPA and its metabolite, mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG), were measured following MMF doses of 1200 mg/m2/d (max 3000 mg/d). Corresponding endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) grades and calcineurin inhibitor levels were recorded with simultaneous MPA/MPAG levels. Correlation coefficients were derived between MMF dose and MPA/MPAG levels. Contingency analysis evaluated the relation between MPA level and EMB score. Twenty-six patients (median age 15.4 years) had 120 MPA/MPAG levels measured. Average MMF dose was 1208.8 mg/m2/d with median MPA and MPAG concentrations: 2.1 (therapeutic: 1.0-3.5 microg/mL) and 48 microg/mL (reference range: 35-100 microg/mL), respectively. Only 50% of patients consistently achieved therapeutic levels with standard dosing. No correlation was found between MMF dose and MPA/MPAG levels. In the presence of therapeutic calcineurin inhibition, EMB grade > or = 2 occurred more with MPA concentrations MMF dose does not correlate with MPA/MPAG levels, and standard MMF dosing fails to consistently achieve 'therapeutic' MPA concentrations. An MPA trough level or = 2. Concentration rather than dose-driven management is a more prudent strategy when using MMF.

  15. The impact of friends on young adults' drinking over the course of the evening: An event-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrul, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine whether young adults' alcohol consumption during the course of an evening was affected by the number of friends present, and the interaction between participants' gender and number of friends present. Design Participants used the internet-based cellphone-optimized assessment techniqu

  16. Atypical Brain Activation during Simple & Complex Levels of Processing in Adult ADHD: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, T. Sigi; Bookheimer, Susan; McGough, James J.; Phillips, Joseph M.; McCracken, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Executive dysfunction in ADHD is well supported. However, recent studies suggest that more fundamental impairments may be contributing. We assessed brain function in adults with ADHD during simple and complex forms of processing. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging with forward and backward digit spans to investigate…

  17. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Katja; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2006-09-01

    In parallel laboratory experiments, we determined the effect of a typical representative of organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon, on AChE activity, lipid, protein and glycogen content, weight change, feeding activity and mortality of juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). Organophosphorous pesticides (OP) are among the most extensively used pesticides, which have replaced organochlorine pesticides. OPs inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in neurotoxicity. They have more widespread effects on non-target organisms than do organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to link effect of diazinon on target enzyme to energy reserves and to integrated biomarker responses in juvenile and adult P. scaber. The non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) for AChE activity after diazinon exposure in two weeks toxicity study with isopods was below 5 microg/g diazinon. There was a good agreement between concentrations at which AChE and survival were affected (10 microg/g diazinon in juveniles, 100 microg/g diazinon in adults). We revealed a link among AChE activity, protein content and mortality. Glycogen and lipid content, feeding activity and weight change were not affected in two weeks diazinon exposure up to 100 microg/g diazinon. Juveniles were affected at concentrations that were an order of magnitude lower than those provoking similar effects on adults. Recommendations are made for future toxicity studies with terrestrial isopods.

  18. Dopamine levels in the mosquito Aedes aegypti during adult development, following blood feeding and in response to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Schwartz, Alex; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine, a catecholamine neurotransmitter, is important for insect development and is known to be involved in insect stress responses. In the current study, dopamine was analysed in Aedes aegypti heads by HPLC. We found that immediately after adult emergence, males have significantly higher...

  19. CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 variants and level of neuroticism in young adult Mexican American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, José R; Gizer, Ian R; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-04-01

    A lifetime history of alcohol dependence has been associated with elevations in neuroticism in Mexican American young adults. The identification of genetic markers associated with neuroticism and their influence on the development of alcohol use disorders (AUD) may contribute to our understanding of the relationship between personality traits and the increased risk of AUD in Mexican Americans. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between neuroticism and 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR) α5-subunit (CHRNA5) and α3-subunit (CHRNA3) genes in young adult Mexican American men and women. Participants were 465 young adult Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Neuroticism was assessed using the Maudsley Personality Inventory. The minor alleles of four CHRNA5 polymorphisms (rs588765, rs601079, rs680244 and rs555018) and three CHRNA3 polymorphisms (rs578776, rs6495307 and rs3743078) showed associations with neuroticism. Several of these SNPs also displayed nominal associations with DSM-IV alcohol and nicotine dependence, but tests of mediation suggested that these relations could be partially explained by the presence of co-occurring neuroticism. These findings suggest that genetic variations in nicotinic receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism, which in turn is involved in the development of AUDs and nicotine dependence in Mexican American young adults.

  20. Best Short Stories. Middle Level. 10 Stories for Young Adults--With Lessons for Teaching the Basic Elements of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Raymond

    This workbook contains ten short stories by modern masters aimed at young adult readers, with each story followed by a concise lesson on a basic element of literature (such as plot, setting, or mood) clearly illustrated in the story. Some of the authors represented in the book are John Updike, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Carson McCullers, and Ray…

  1. Total and carboxylated osteocalcin associate with insulin levels in young adults born with normal or very low birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi M Paldánius

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Osteocalcin (OC, a bone-derived protein, has been implicated in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism. Young adults born with very low birth weight (VLBW have altered glucose regulation and lower bone mineral density (BMD compared with those born at term. The aim of this study was to explore the association between bone and glucose metabolism in healthy young adults born prematurely or at term. METHODS: The cohort of this cross-sectional study comprised 332 non-diabetic young adults (age 18 to 27 years born either preterm with VLBW (n = 163 or at term (n = 169. OC, carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC and markers of glucose metabolism were measured at fasting and after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. RESULTS: VLBW adults were shorter, had lower BMD (p<0.001 and higher fasting OC (p = 0.027 and cOC (p = 0.005 than term-born subjects. They also had higher 2-hour insulin (p = 0.001 and glucose (p = 0.037 concentrations. OGTT induced a significant reduction in OC (p<0.001, similar in both groups. OC reduction was not associated with OGTT-induced increases in insulin (p = 0.54. However, fasting total OC and cOC correlated negatively with fasting insulin after adjustment for age, gender, BMD and VLBW status (r = -0.182, p = 0.009 and r = -0.283, p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adults born with VLBW have higher OC and cOC than their peers born at term. This may in part reflect the mechanisms that underlie their lower BMD and decreased insulin sensitivity. Serum OC appears to be negatively associated with long-term glucose regulation whereas acute changes during OGTT may be mediated via other mechanisms.

  2. The ratio between serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1, 2 and 3) decreases with age in healthy adults and is increased in acromegalic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Main, K; Blum, W F

    1994-01-01

    administration. Serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 decrease with age in normal adults and are elevated in active acromegaly due to excessive GH secretion. However, the individual ratios between serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in acromegalic and healthy adults have not been described previously....

  3. The ratio between serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and the IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1, 2 and 3) decreases with age in healthy adults and is increased in acromegalic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Main, K; Blum, W F;

    1994-01-01

    administration. Serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 decrease with age in normal adults and are elevated in active acromegaly due to excessive GH secretion. However, the individual ratios between serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in acromegalic and healthy adults have not been described previously....

  4. The biological age of 14-year-old boys and success in adult soccer: do early maturers predominate in the top-level game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Castagna, Carlo; Calleja-González, Julio; Jukic, Igor; Idrizovic, Kemal; Stojanovic, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Talent identification and development in soccer is often biased by maturation-related differences of young athletes. However, there is no information available about success rates for youth maturing at different tempos to achieve success in elite adult soccer. The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of different maturational groups among boys playing soccer, and to track them for competence in adult performance. A prospective cohort study design was used to follow 55, 14-year-old boys playing in Serbian youth soccer Division I over eight years. At the age of 14, biological age using skeletal age rates was determined, and participants were categorized as early maturers (EaM), normal maturers (NoM), and late maturers (LaM). Game competence for adult soccer at age 22 was described as elite if an individual played for clubs competing in top-five international soccer leagues (La Liga, Premier League, Bundesliga, Serie A, and Ligue 1), and/or has become a member of an adult National team. Among boys in our study group, 43.8% were categorized as EaM, 35.4% as NoM, and 20.8% as LaM (P = 0.11). A significant difference in biological age was found among maturational groups at age 14, with EaM > NoM > LaM (P > 0.0001). When assessed for adult soccer competence, 33.3% of participants (16 out of 48 players) succeed in achieving elite level. Elite soccer competence acquired 60.1% players from the group of LaM, 38.1% from NoM, and 11.8% from EaM (P > 0.0001). Our comparative analysis suggests that soccer excludes early maturing boys and favors late maturing boys as level of performance increases.

  5. Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-J; Lee, H-J; So, B; Son, J S; Yoon, D; Song, W

    2016-06-20

    The novel myokine irisin has been reported as a therapeutic target for metabolic disease. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on circulating irisin levels and their associations with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Twenty eight overweight/obese adults (BMI>23 kg/m(2)) were included in this study and compared before and after 8 weeks of exercise program (60 min/day, 5 times in a week). The subjects, in both aerobic and resistance training, showed significant improvement in anthropometric parameters and exercise capacities including maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength. Interestingly, the circulating irisin was significantly increased in resistance training group (p=0.002) but not in aerobic training (p=0.426) compared to control group. In addition, we found the positive correlation between change of the circulating irisin and muscle mass (r=0.432, p=0.022) and the negative correlation between change of the circulating irisin and fat mass (r=-0.407, p=0.031). In the present pilot study, we found that circulating irisin level was increased by 8 weeks of resistance training in overweight/obese adults, suggesting that resistance training could be the efficient exercise type in overweight/obese considering positive change of body composition concomitant with increase of irisin levels.

  6. [Voluntary wheel running enhances cell proliferation and expression levels of BDNF, IGF1 and WNT4 in dentate gyrus of adult mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jia-Ling; Ma, Li; Ma, Lan; Tao, Ye-Zheng

    2014-10-25

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays important roles in learning, memory and mood regulation. External factors, such as physical exercise, have been found to modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Voluntary running enhances cell proliferation in subgranular zone (SGZ) and increases the number of new born neurons in rodents, but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we used BrdU assay to identify proliferating cells in 2-month-old C57BL/6 mice after 15 days of voluntary wheel running test. mRNA and protein levels for several neural factors in dentate gyrus, Ammon's horn, and cortex were also analyzed by RT-qPCR and Western blot assay after 15 days of voluntary wheel running. Our data show that voluntary wheel running for 15 days elevated the number of proliferation cells in dentate gyrus and significantly up-regulated the mRNA levels of Bdnf, Igf1 and Wnt4. The protein levels of BDNF and IGF1 in dentate gyrus were also increased after voluntary wheel running. These results indicate that the increase of adult hippocampal neurogenesis caused by voluntary wheel running for 15 days might be through up-regulating BDNF, IGF1 and WNT4 in dentate gyrus.

  7. Patient Portals as a Tool for Health Care Engagement: A Mixed-Method Study of Older Adults With Varying Levels of Health Literacy and Prior Patient Portal Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Taya; Shoemake, Jocelyn; Nilsen, Marci Lee; Czaja, Sara; Beach, Scott; DeVito Dabbs, Annette

    2017-03-30

    Growing evidence that patient engagement improves health outcomes and reduces health care costs has fueled health providers' focus on patient portals as the primary access point for personal health information and patient-provider communication. Whereas much attention has been given to identifying characteristics of older adults who do and do not adopt patient portals and necessary adaptions to portal design, little is known about their attitudes and perceptions regarding patient portal use as a tool for engagement in their health care within the context of health literacy, experience navigating Web-based health information, and previous patient portal use. The specific aims of this study were to explore attitudes toward portal adoption and its perceived usefulness as a tool for health care engagement among adults (65 years and older) who have varying levels of health literacy and degrees of prior patient portal use. A phone survey of 100 community dwelling adults gathered sociodemographic, health, and technology related information. Older adults were purposefully selected for 4 follow-up focus groups based on survey responses to health literacy and previous patient portal use. A mixed-method approach was used to integrate phone survey data with thematic analysis of 4 focus groups. Due to variability in attitudes between focus group participants, an individual case analysis was performed and thematic patterns were used as the basis for subgroup formation. Differences in health literacy, comfort navigating health information on the Web, and previous portal experience explained some but not all differences related to the 7 themes that emerged in the focus groups analysis. Individual cases who shared attitudes were arranged into 5 subgroups from least to most able and willing to engage in health care via a patient portal. The subgroups' overall portal adoption attitudes were: (1) Don't want to feel pushed into anything, (2) Will only adopt if required, (3) Somebody

  8. Angiogenesis related genes NOS3, CD14, MMP3 and IL4R are associated to VEGF gene expression and circulating levels in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Abdelsalam; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Dadé, Sébastien; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Murray, Helena; Masson, Christine; Lamont, John; Fitzgerald, Peter; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis. The aim was to assess the genetic connections between the angiogenesis-related NOS3, CD14, MMP3, IL4R, IL4 genes and VEGF expression and plasma levels. Methods The associations between VEGF plasma levels with the polymorphisms of NOS3, CD14, MMP3, IL4R, and IL4 were assessed in 403 healthy unrelated adults. The epistatic and environmental interactions were explored, including four VEGF-related polymorphisms...

  9. The presence of anti-endomysial antibodies and the level of anti-tissue transglutaminases can be used to diagnose adult coeliac disease without duodenal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, R; Imperatore, N; Capone, P; De Palma, G D; De Stefano, G; Gerbino, N; Caporaso, N; Rispo, A

    2014-11-01

    The new ESPGHAN guidelines for diagnosis of paediatric coeliac disease suggest to avoid biopsy in genetically pre-disposed and symptomatic individuals with positive anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA) and anti-tissue transglutaminases (a-tTG). However, duodenal biopsy remains the gold standard in adult coeliac disease. To establish the cut-off values of a-tTG, which would: predict the presence of duodenal histology (Marsh ≥2) diagnostic for coeliac disease; and predict the presence of villous atrophy (Marsh 3) in adults. We performed an observational prospective study including all consecutive adult patients with suspected coeliac disease. All subjects were tested for EMA and a-tTG. Coeliac disease diagnosis was made in presence of Marsh ≥2, a-tTG >7 U/mL and positive EMA. A ROC curve was constructed to establish the best specificity cut-off of a-tTG levels, which would predict the presence of Marsh ≥2 and Marsh 3 at histology. The study included 310 patients with positive antibodies. Histology showed Marsh 1 in 8.7%, Marsh 2 in 3.5%, Marsh 3 in 87.7%. The best cut-off value of a-tTG for predicting Marsh ≥2 was 45 U/mL (sensitivity 70%; specificity 100%; PPV 100%; NPV 24.1%); the best cut-off for predicting villous atrophy was 62.4 U/mL (sensitivity 69%, specificity 100%; PPV 100%; NPV 31%). The diagnosis of coeliac disease can be reached without histology in adult patients with positive EMA and a-tTG levels >45 U/mL. An a-tTG level >62.4 was diagnostic for villous atrophy. These results could contribute to improving the diagnosis of coeliac disease by allowing for a significant reduction in diagnosis-related costs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Levels of 17beta-estradiol receptors expressed in embryonic and adult zebrafish following in vivo treatment of natural or synthetic ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Chandrasekar

    Full Text Available The nuclear receptors encompass a group of regulatory proteins involved in a number of physiological processes. The estrogen receptors (ERs, of which one alpha and one beta form exist in mammals function as transcription factors in response to 17beta-estradiol (E2. In zebrafish there are three gene products of estrogen receptors and they are denoted esr1 (ERalpha, esr2a (ERbeta2 and esr2b (ERbeta1. Total RNA of zebrafish early life stages (<3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours post fertilization and of adult fish (liver, intestine, eye, heart, brain, ovary, testis, gill, swim bladder and kidney were isolated following in vivo exposures. Using specific primers for each of the three zebrafish ERs the expression levels were quantified using real time PCR methodology. It was shown that in absence of exposure all three estrogen receptors were expressed in adult fish. The levels of expression of two of these three ER genes, the esr1 and esr2a were altered in organs such as liver, intestine, brain and testis in response to ligand (E2, diethylstilbestrol or 4-nonylphenol. During embryogenesis two of the three receptor genes, esr1 and esr2b were expressed, and in presence of ligand the mRNA levels of these two genes increased. The conclusions are i estrogen receptor genes are expressed during early development ii altered expression of esr genes in response to ligand is dependent on the cellular context; iii the estrogenic ligand 4-nonylphenol, a manufactured compound commonly found in sewage of water treatment plants, acts as an agonist of the estrogen receptor during development and has both agonist and antagonist properties in tissues of adult fish. This knowledge of esr gene function in development and in adult life will help to understand mechanisms of interfering mimicking endocrine chemicals in vivo.

  11. Relationships among Cortical Glutathione Levels, Brain Amyloidosis, and Memory in Healthy Older Adults Investigated In Vivo with (1)H-MRS and Pittsburgh Compound-B PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, G C; Mao, X; Kang, G; Chang, E; Pandya, S; Vallabhajosula, S; Isaacson, R; Ravdin, L D; Shungu, D C

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated as an important pathologic mechanism in the development of Alzheimer disease. The purpose of this study was to assess whether glutathione levels, detected noninvasively with proton MR spectroscopy, are associated with brain amyloidosis and memory in a community-dwelling cohort of healthy older adults. Fifteen cognitively healthy subjects were prospectively enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent (1)H-MR spectroscopy of glutathione, a positron-emission tomography scan with an amyloid tracer, and neuropsychological testing by using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Associations among glutathione levels, brain amyloidosis, and memory were assessed by using multivariate regression models. Lower glutathione levels were associated with greater brain amyloidosis in the temporal (P = .03) and parietal (P = .05) regions, adjusted for apolipoprotein E ε4 carrier status. There were no significant associations between glutathione levels and cognitive scores. This study found an association between cortical glutathione levels and brain amyloidosis in healthy older adults, suggesting a potential role for (1)H-MR spectroscopy measures of glutathione as a noninvasive biomarker of early Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Exploration research of older adults' ability level division%老年人能力等级划分方式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红艳; 王黎; 王志稳; 雷洋; 谢红

    2013-01-01

    目的:对老年人能力等级划分方式进行探索性研究,探讨可行的老年人能力等级划分方案,为社区和养老机构开展长期护理服务,老年人选取合适的养老护理服务等提供参考。方法:应用层次分析法和秩和比法对581例老年人能力进行综合评价。结果:通过综合评价得出老年人能力的四级型、七级型划分方式。结论:老年人能力包括日常生活活动能力、心理状态、社会参与状况等多方面,需要使用综合评价技术对其进行统筹考虑和有效区分,得出合理的能力划分方式;划分结果对提供长期护理服务、确保老年人安全、维持与促进老年人健康具有重要的指导意义。%Objective:To explore the ability level division of older adults and to probe the best ability division schemes so as to provide basis for long-term care service provided in community and facilities, and for older adults to choose appropriate service. Methods:Totally 581 older adults' ability was synthetically evaluated by using the method of analytic hierarchy process and rank-sum ratio. Results:Older adult's ability was explorative divided into four-level and seven-level. Conclusion:The division of older adults' ability should be divided according to activities of daily living, mental status and social involvement to relfect their ability status. So synthetic evaluation technique should be used to get reasonable division, and the results of synthetic evaluation are meaningful for making long-term care plans and ensuring older adults' safety and health.

  13. Relationships among sense of coherence, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults according to path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewake, Nanae; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sakai, Rie; Yamada, Shima; Nima, Yuko; Tomoe, Miki; Kakuta, Satoko; Iwasaki, Masanori; Soh, Inho; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2017-03-27

    Sense of coherence (SOC) is a measurement of ability of an individual to cope with psychological stress and remain in good health. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among SOC score, oral health status, nutritional status and care need level of older adults using path analysis. We enrolled 53 older adults (17 men and 36 women) who were attending a day care service (mean age 80.4 ± 6.5 years). SOC was assessed using a 13-item, seven-scale instrument. Oral health status (number of present teeth, denture use) and nutritional status (assessed with Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form) were also evaluated. Path analysis was used to examine the relationship of SOC with other related factors, including care need level. The mean SOC score was 57.0 ± 13.9. Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form results showed that one participant (1.8%) was malnourished, 26 (49.1%) were at risk of malnutrition and 26 (49.1%) had normal nutritional status. Participants with high SOC scores showed a strong positive attitude, had a relatively large number of teeth, were in good nutritional condition and showed low care need levels. The present results showed that maintaining a high SOC level and good oral health help to reduce care need levels in older adults, and also prevent a worsening of their nutritional condition. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••:••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Association Between County-Level Characteristics and Eye Care Use by US Adults in 22 States After Accounting for Individual-Level Characteristics Using a Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Beckles, Gloria L; Cheng, Yiling J; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2016-10-01

    Individual-level characteristics are associated with eye care use. The influence of contextual factors on vision and eye health, as well as health behavior, is unknown. To examine the association between county-level characteristics and eye care use after accounting for individual-level characteristics using a conceptual framework. This investigation was a cross-sectional study of respondents 40 years and older participating in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys between 2006 and 2010 from 22 states that used the Visual Impairment and Access to Eye Care module. Multilevel regressions were used to examine the association between county-level characteristics and eye care use after adjusting for individual-level characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, annual household income, employment status, health care insurance coverage, eye care insurance coverage, personal established physician, poor vision or eye health, and diabetes status). Data analysis was performed from March 23, 2014, to June 7, 2016. Eye care visit and receipt of a dilated eye examination in the past year. Among 117 295 respondents who resided in 828 counties, individual-level data were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. All county-level variables were aggregated at the county level from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys except for a high geographic density of eye care professionals, which was obtained from the 2010 Area Health Resource File. After controlling for individual-level characteristics, the odds of reporting an eye care visit in the past year were significantly higher among people living in counties with high percentages of black individuals (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.24; P = .04) or low-income households (aOR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.25; P = .045) or with a high density of eye care professionals (aOR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.07-1.29; P important to address contextual

  15. Can the everyday technology use questionnaire predict overall functional level among older adults with mild cognitive impairment or mild-stage alzheimer's disease? - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryd, Charlotta; Nygård, Louise; Malinowsky, Camilla; Öhman, Annika; Kottorp, Anders

    2017-03-01

    The number of older adults living with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing and they are often expected to live in their own homes without support, despite limited ability to perform daily life activities. The Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ) has proven to be able to separate these groups and might also have potential to predict overall functional level (need of assistance in daily life activities) among them. To investigate whether the ETUQ can predict overall functional level among older adults with MCI or mild-stage AD. Participants were older adults with a mean age of 76 years with MCI (n = 28) or mild-stage AD (n = 39). A three-step scale indicating (i) independence, (ii) need for minimal assistance or (iii) need for moderate to maximal assistance in daily life was dichotomised in two ways and used as outcome variables in two logistic regression models. Predictors in both models were perceived ability to use everyday technology (ET) and amount of relevant everyday technologies measured by the ETUQ. Ethical approval was obtained from the regional Ethical Committee. Perceived ability to use ET discriminated individuals who were independent or in need of minimal support from those in need of moderate to maximal assistance (OR = 1.82, p development of clinical cut-off criteria. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  17. Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douple, Evan B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M.; Preston, Dale L.; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200 000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

  18. Cosmic-ray-induced sup 6 sup 3 Ni -A potential confounder of fast-neutron-induced sup 6 sup 3 Ni in copper samples from Hiroshima

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Wallner, A; Fästermann, T; Knie, K; Heisinger, B; Nolte, E; Korschinek, G; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Carroll, K L

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the determination of sup 6 sup 3 Ni in copper samples has been suggested as a means to assess fast-neutron fluences in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In those samples, sup 6 sup 3 Ni (half-life: 100.07 years) was produced by MeV neutrons from the A-bomb explosions via the reaction sup 6 sup 3 Cu(n,p) sup 6 sup 3 Ni. For large distances from the hypocenters, cosmic-ray-induced production of sup 6 sup 3 Ni might also be important and, therefore, it is calculated here. The effective probability f sup * which is required to quantify the cosmic-ray-induced production by stopped muons, was measured, and a value of (12.6 +-1.6)% obtained. The cross-section for the cosmic-ray-induced production by fast muons was measured to be (0.64 +-0.33) mb, at a muon energy of 100 GeV. To validate the proposed method, cosmic-ray-induced production of sup 3 sup 2 P in sulfur and of sup 3 sup 9 Ar in granite was also calculated, and reasonable agreement with literature values was found. Our estimates indicate that as many as (4 ...

  19. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behavior using the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) between dental and civil engineering students in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jorge A; Jaramillo, Fredy; Kador, Itzjak; Masuoka, David; Tong, Liyue; Ahn, Chul; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Hiroshima University - Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of dental and civil engineering students in Colombia. The HU-DBI's survey consisting of twenty dichotomous responses (agree-disagree) regarding tooth brushing, was completed at University Antonio Narino for the dental students and the University of Cauca for the civil engineering students. The Spanish version of the HU-DBI questionnaire was taken by 182 of 247 dental students and 411 of 762 engineering students. The data was-statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and backward logistic regression. Compared to the engineering students, the dental students were more likely to agree with questions such as "I am bothered by the color of my gums"(OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7),"I think I can clean my teeth well without using toothpaste" (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.5-5.9), "I have used a dye to see how clean my teeth are" (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3), and "I have had my dentist tell me that I brush very well" (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.1). The dental education curriculum in a dental school compared to a civil engineering school in Colombia indicated that a three-phase curriculum in didactics and clinics increased oral health attitudes and behavior from entry to graduation.

  20. Impact of varying levels of sanitation on mortality of Tribolium castaneum eggs and adults during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijwani, Monika; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Flinn, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an economically important pest in flour mills, was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to two, 24-h heat treatments. One hundred eggs or 100 adults of T. castaneum were exposed inside each 20-cm diameter by 15-cm high PVC rings holding 0.1-, 0.2-, 1.0-, 3.0-, 6.0-, and 10.0-cm-deep wheat flour to simulate different sanitation levels that may exist in a flour mill. These rings were placed on the first and third floors of a pilot flour mill. On the first floor, temperatures inside rings with eggs reached 50 degrees C in 7-11 h only in 0.1- and 0.2-cm-deep flour treatments. In all other treatments the maximum temperatures attained generally were below 50 degrees C and inversely related to flour depth. Adults of T. castaneum on this floor were less susceptible than eggs. The egg mortality decreased linearly with an increase in flour depth, whereas that of adults decreased exponentially. All eggs and adults in rings on the third floor were killed irrespective of flour depth, because temperatures inside rings reached 50 degrees C in 15-17 h and were held above 50 degrees C for 6-8 h with the maximum temperatures ranging between 55.0 and 57.0 degrees C. Although the protective effects of flour on survival of T. castaneum eggs and adults were evident only if temperatures did not reach 50 degrees C, removal of flour accumulations is essential to improve heat treatment effectiveness.

  1. Correlations between the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus: the CALLISTO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Suk Min; Baek, Sang Hong; Jeon, Hui Kyung; Kang, Seok-Min; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Hyung Seop; Rha, Seung Woon; Park, Jong Seon; Seong, In Whan; Ahn, Young Keun; Yoon, Jung Han; Cha, Tae Joon

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and cardiovascular risk factors in Korean adults. We reviewed 1,561 patients with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus with hsCRP levels measured within the past year. Four cardiovascular risk groups were determined: low (risk), moderate (2 risk), high (10-20%) and very high (>20%) risk, according to the number of risk factors and the Framingham/NCEP ATP III risk score. The correlations between the hsCRP level and cardiovascular risk factors (age, smoking, hypertension, lipid profiles and familial history of premature coronary heart disease) were investigated. The mean and median hsCRP (mg/L) levels were 1.32 ± 9.69 and 0.29 (range: 0.01-7.48), respectively. Men had a higher median level of hsCRP than women (plevels of hs CRP significantly increased from the low to the very high risk group (0.15, 0.23, 0.27 and 0.47, respectively) and were significantly correlated with age, the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index (BMI), the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio, the LDL-C/total cholesterol (TC) ratio, the HDL-C/TC ratio, the HDL-C/triglyceride (TG) ratio and the TC/TG ratio. Neither smoking, the LDL-C level nor the TG level affected the hsCRP level. In a multivariate regression analysis, age, the HDL-C level, the LDL-C/TC ratio and BMI were found to be independently correlated with the hsCRP level. There is a significant relationship between the degree of cardiovascular risk and the hsCRP level in Korean adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Assessing the hsCRP levels may thus provide additive value in predicting cardiovascular risks.

  2. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMizuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin (OT is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history and OT concentrations among healthy adults.Method: Eighty-one adults (50 women and 31 men with 18- to 48-month-old children were recruited using a snowball sample in Tokyo, Japan. Urine samples were collected for OT measurement. Less severe (low and moderate childhood maltreatment history, including physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, was assessed using the self-report questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Less severe physical abuse was significantly associated with higher OT concentration after adjusting for age (p=0.014. Also, less severe forms of physical abuse were independently significantly associated with higher OT concentration after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment (p=0.027. A positive dose-response association between the number of less severe childhood maltreatment types and OT concentration was observed (p=0.031. Conclusion: A history of less severe forms of childhood physical abuse was associated with higher OT concentration in healthy adults. Poly-victimization of several types of less severe childhood maltreatment was also associated with higher OT concentrations. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment might enhance OT concentrations in order to cope with social stress.

  3. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  4. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    OpenAIRE

    Franco,Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; André L. F. Rodacki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceiv...

  5. Older Swedish Adults with High Self-Perceived Health Show Optimal 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Whereas Vitamin D Status Is Low in Patients with High Disease Burden

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    Martin Carlsson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Controversy pervades the definition of adequate and optimal vitamin D status. The Institutes of Medicine have recommended serum 25(OHD levels above 50 nmol/L based upon evidence related to bone health, but some experts, including the Endocrine Society and International Osteoporosis Foundation, suggest a minimum serum 25(OHD level of 75 nmol/L to reduce the risk of falls and fractures in older adults. In a cross-sectional study, we compared vitamin D status in people ≥75 years selected from four groups with a frailty phenotype, combined with a control group free from serious illness, and who considered themselves completely healthy. Only 13% of the 169 controls were vitamin D deficient (S-25(OHD < 50 nmol/L, in contrast with 49% of orthopedic patients with hip fractures (n = 133, 31% of stroke patients (n = 122, 39% of patients visiting the hospital’s emergency department ≥4 times a year (n = 81, and 75% of homebound adult residents in long-term care nursing homes (n = 51. The mean vitamin D concentration of the healthy control group (74 nmol/L was similar to a suggested optimal level based on physiological data and mortality studies, and much higher than that of many officially recommended cut-off levels for vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L. The present study provides a basis for planning and implementing public guidelines for the screening of vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D treatment for frail elderly patients.

  6. Acceptable noise level as a deciding factor for prescribing hearing aids for older adults with cochlear hearing loss e A scoping review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hemanth Narayan Shetty; Swathi Subbanna

    2015-01-01

    Older adults often find it difficult to perceive speech, especially in noisy conditions. Though hearing aid is one of the rehabilitative devices available to older adults to alleviate hearing loss, some of them may experience annoyance through hearing aid and hence reject it, may be due to circuitry noise and/or background noise. Acceptable noise level is a direct behavioural measure to estimate the extent of how much a person is able to put up with noise while simultaneously listening to speech. Acceptable noise level is a central auditory measure and it is not influenced by age, gender, presentation level or speaker. Using this measure, we can quantify the annoyance level experienced by an individual. This in-formation is of utmost importance and caution should be paid before setting the parameters in hearing aid, especially for those who are unable to accept noise. In this review article, an attempt has been made to document how to optimize the hearing aid program by setting parameters such as noise reduction circuit, microphone sensitivity and gain. These adjustments of parameters might help to reduce rejection rate of hearing aids, especially in those individuals who are annoyed by background noise. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production & hosting by Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd On behalf of PLA General Hospital Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  7. Low-fasting triglyceride levels are associated with non-invasive markers of advanced liver fibrosis among adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z G; Tsugawa, Y; Tapper, E B; Lai, M; Afdhal, N; Robson, S C; Mukamal, K J

    2015-07-01

    Elevated fasting triglyceride is often associated with metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common form of chronic liver disease. On the other hand, as liver disease progresses, patients may develop hepatocellular dysfunction that impairs triglyceride production. To test the hypothesis that lower fasting triglyceride levels may paradoxically indicate more advanced liver disease. A cross-sectional analysis of 11 947 adults aged 20 years or older without chronic viral hepatitis from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 was performed to analyze the relationships between fasting triglyceride levels and five validated non-invasive indices of liver fibrosis, including Fibrosis 4 Score (FIB4), NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS), Ast-Platelet Ration Index, AST/ALT ratio and BARD. Low-fasting triglyceride levels were consistently associated with elevated liver fibrosis indices. Individuals in the lowest quintile of triglycerides (TG) had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.0 (95% CI, 1.7-5.2; P triglyceride levels were inversely associated with liver fibrosis indicators in American adults, especially among white men. Our findings suggest that sequential lipid measurements may serve as a useful disease marker in the management of chronic liver disease patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High interleukin-6 plasma levels are associated with low HDL-C levels in community-dwelling older adults: The InChianti study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Giovanni; Volpato, Stefano; Blè, Alessando; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Lauretani, Fulvio; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Fellin, Renato; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to low HDL-C and CHD is essential for planning treatment strategies. Clinical studies have demonstrated that cytokines might affect both concentration and composition of plasma lipoproteins, including HDLs. Methods We investigated the possible association between low HDL-C levels, defined as ≤10th gender specific percentile, and circulating markers of inflammation (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and CRP) in a population of 1044 community dwelling older Italian subjects from the InChianti study. Results Using logistic regression analysis we demonstrated that IL-6 levels (III versus I tertile, OR: 2.10; 1.10–3.75), TG (III versus I tertile OR: 27.45; 8.47–88.93), fasting insulin (III versus I tertile OR: 2.84; 1.50–5.42), and age (OR: 1.038; 1.002–1.075) were associated with low HDL-C independent of smoking, BMI, waist circumference, hypertension, diabetes, physical activity, alcohol intake, oral hypoglycaemics, CRP, IL-18, and TNF-α levels. The adjusted attributable risk of low HDL-C in the exposed group (III tertile of IL-6) was 54%. Conclusions The present study provides the epidemiological evidence that besides triglycerides, fasting insulin, and age, IL-6 is one of the main correlates of low HDL-C levels in older individuals. PMID:16787648

  9. Maternal protein restriction during gestation and lactation in the rat results in increased brain levels of kynurenine and kynurenic acid in their adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honório de Melo Martimiano, Paula; de Sa Braga Oliveira, André; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Croyal, Mikaël; Aguesse, Audrey; Grit, Isabelle; Ouguerram, Khadija; Lopes de Souza, Sandra; Kaeffer, Bertrand; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Early malnutrition is a risk factor for depression and schizophrenia. Since the offspring of malnourished dams exhibit increased brain levels of serotonin (5-HT), a tryptophan-derived neurotransmitter involved in the pathophysiology of these mental disorders, it is believed that the deleterious effects of early malnutrition on brain function are due in large part to altered serotoninergic neurotransmission resulting from impaired tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. However, tryptophan is also metabolized through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway yielding several neuroactive compounds including kynurenic (KA), quinolinic (QA) and xanthurenic (XA) acids. Nevertheless, the impact of perinatal malnutrition on brain kynurenine pathway metabolism has not been examined to date. Here, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous quantification of tryptophan and a set of seven compounds spanning its metabolism through the serotonin and kynurenine pathways, in the brain of embryos and adult offspring of rat dams fed a protein-restricted (PR) diet. Protein-restricted embryos showed reduced brain levels of Trp, serotonin and KA, but not of KYN, XA, or QA. In contrast, PR adult rats exhibited enhanced levels of Trp in the brainstem and cortex along with increased concentrations of 5-HT, kynurenine and XA. The levels of XA and KA were also increased in the hippocampus of adult PR rats. These results show that early protein deficiency induces selective and long-lasting changes in brain kynurenine metabolism. Given the regulatory role of KYN pathway metabolites on brain development and function, these changes might contribute to the risk of developing psychiatric disorders induced by early malnutrition. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Cheng Xu

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2012.Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL. Odds ratios (ORs of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio.Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044, 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018 for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone.The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men.

  11. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

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    Faisal A. Barwais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™ was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001 was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day. Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day, p < 0.001, moderate- (33% (1 h/day p < 0.001, vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day, p < 0.001, and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day, p < 0.001. Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns.

  12. The prevalence of mental disorders in adults in different level general medical facilities in Kenya: a cross-sectional study

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    Kuria Mary W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility that a significant proportion of the patients attending a general health facility may have a mental disorder means that psychiatric conditions must be recognised and managed appropriately. This study sought to determine the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in adult (aged 18 years and over inpatients and outpatients seen in public, private and faith-based general hospitals, health centres and specialised clinics and units of general hospitals. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 10 health facilities. All the patients in psychiatric wards and clinics were excluded. Stratified and systematic sampling methods were used. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Data were collected over a 4-week period in November 2005 using various psychiatric instruments for adults. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS V. 11.5. Results A total of 2,770 male and female inpatients and outpatients participated in the study. In all, 42% of the subjects had symptoms of mild and severe depression. Only 114 (4.1% subjects had a file or working diagnosis of a psychiatric condition, which included bipolar mood disorder, schizophrenia, psychosis and depression. Conclusion The 4.1% clinician detection rate for mental disorders means that most psychiatric disorders in general medical facilities remain undiagnosed and thus, unmanaged. This calls for improved diagnostic practices in general medical facilities in Kenya and in other similar countries.

  13. Decreased chronic morbidity but elevated HIV associated cytokine levels in HIV-infected older adults receiving HIV treatment: benefit of enhanced access to care?

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    Portia C Mutevedzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of HIV with chronic morbidity and inflammatory markers (cytokines in older adults (50+years is potentially relevant for clinical care, but data from African populations is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To examine levels of chronic morbidity by HIV and ART status in older adults (50+years and subsequent associations with selected pro-inflammatory cytokines and body mass index. METHODS: Ordinary, ordered and generalized ordered logistic regression techniques were employed to compare chronic morbidity (heart disease (angina, arthritis, stroke, hypertension, asthma and diabetes and cytokines (Interleukins-1 and -6, C-Reactive Protein and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha by HIV and ART status on a cross-sectional random sample of 422 older adults nested within a defined rural South African population based demographic surveillance. RESULTS: Using a composite measure of all morbidities, controlling for age, gender, BMI, smoking and wealth quintile, HIV-infected individuals on ART had 51% decreased odds (95% CI:0.26-0.92 of current morbidity compared to HIV-uninfected. In adjusted regression, compared to HIV-uninfected, the proportional odds (aPOR of having elevated inflammation markers of IL6 (>1.56 pg/mL was nearly doubled in HIV-infected individuals on (aPOR 1.84; 95%CI: 1.05-3.21 and not on (aPOR 1.94; 95%CI: 1.11-3.41 ART. Compared to HIV-uninfected, HIV-infected individuals on ART had >twice partial proportional odds (apPOR=2.30;p=0.004 of having non-clinically significant raised hsCRP levels(>1 ug/mL; ART-naïve HIV-infected individuals had >double apPOR of having hsCRP levels indicative of increased heart disease risk(>3.9 ug/mL;p=0.008. CONCLUSIONS: Although HIV status was associated with increased inflammatory markers, our results highlight reduced morbidity in those receiving ART and underscore the need of pro-actively extending these services to HIV-uninfected older adults, beyond mere provision at fixed clinics. Providing

  14. Effect of anti-sclerostin therapy and osteogenesis imperfecta on tissue-level properties in growing and adult mice while controlling for tissue age.

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    Sinder, Benjamin P; Lloyd, William R; Salemi, Joseph D; Marini, Joan C; Caird, Michelle S; Morris, Michael D; Kozloff, Kenneth M

    2016-03-01

    Bone composition and biomechanics at the tissue-level are important contributors to whole bone strength. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a candidate anabolic therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis that increases bone formation, bone mass, and bone strength in animal studies, but its effect on bone quality at the tissue-level has received little attention. Pre-clinical studies of Scl-Ab have recently expanded to include diseases with altered collagen and material properties such as osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Scl-Ab on bone quality by determining bone material composition and tissue-level mechanical properties in normal wild type (WT) tissue, as well as mice with a typical OI Gly➔Cys mutation (Brtl/+) in type I collagen. Rapidly growing (3-week-old) and adult (6-month-old) WT and Brtl/+ mice were treated for 5weeks with Scl-Ab. Fluorescent guided tissue-level bone composition analysis (Raman spectroscopy) and biomechanical testing (nanoindentation) were performed at multiple tissue ages. Scl-Ab increased mineral to matrix in adult WT and Brtl/+ at tissue ages of 2-4wks. However, no treatment related changes were observed in mineral to matrix levels at mid-cortex, and elastic modulus was not altered by Scl-Ab at any tissue age. Increased mineral-to-matrix was phenotypically observed in adult Brtl/+ OI mice (at tissue ages>3wks) and rapidly growing Brtl/+ (at tissue ages>4wks) mice compared to WT. At identical tissue ages defined by fluorescent labels, adult mice had generally lower mineral to matrix ratios and a greater elastic modulus than rapidly growing mice, demonstrating that bone matrix quality can be influenced by animal age and tissue age alike. In summary, these data suggest that Scl-Ab alters the matrix chemistry of newly formed bone while not affecting the elastic modulus, induces similar changes between Brtl/+ and WT mice, and provides new insight into the interaction between tissue age and

  15. Smoking status and urine cadmium above levels associated with subclinical renal effects in U.S. adults without chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Mary Ellen; Wong, Lee-Yang; Osterloh, John D

    2011-07-01

    Tobacco smoke is a major source of adult exposure to cadmium (Cd). Urine Cd levels (CdU) above 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 μgCd/g creatinine have been associated with increased rates of microproteinuria and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The two study objectives were to determine the prevalence and relative risk (RR) by smoking status for CdU above 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 μgCd/g creatinine in U.S. adults; and to describe geometric mean CdU by smoking status, age, and sex. NHANES 1999-2006 data for adults without chronic kidney disease were used to compute prevalence rates above the three CdU in current and former cigarette smokers, and non-smokers. RRs for smokers adjusted for age and sex were computed by logistic regression. Analysis of covariance was used to calculate geometric means of CdU adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, log urine creatinine, and interaction terms: age-smoking status and sex-smoking status. At selected ages, adjusted RR for exceeding each risk-associated CdU was highest for current smokers (3-13 times), followed by former smokers (2-3 times), compared to non-smokers. Adjusted RR for smokers increased with age and was higher in females than males. Adjusted geometric means of CdUs increased with age, were higher in females than in males regardless of smoking status, and were higher in current smokers than former smokers, who had higher levels than non-smokers at any age. Cigarette smoking greatly increases RR of exceeding renal risk-associated CdU. Former smokers retain significant risk of exceeding these levels compared to non-smokers. CdU increased with age, particularly in current smokers.

  16. Second to fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) and adult sex hormone levels: new data and a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönekopp, Johannes; Bartholdt, Luise; Beier, Lothar; Liebert, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    The relative length of the second (index) to the fourth (ring) finger (2D:4D) is a putative negative correlate of prenatal testosterone (T) exposure. Therefore, 2D:4D (and to a lesser extent D(r-l), the difference between 2D:4D in the right hand and in the left hand) has often been used to study effects of prenatal androgenization on human behavior and cognition. However, evidence suggests that 2D:4D may also be related to levels of circulating sex hormones in adults. This would question the validity of 2D:4D as a means of studying the effects of prenatal sex hormones. Here we present new data from two non-clinical samples (64 women and 102 men) regarding the relationships of 2D:4D and D(r-l) with circulating sex hormone levels. We then present a meta-analytic review of all the present evidence regarding this issue. The results suggest that, in the normal population, 2D:4D and D(r-l) are not associated with adult sex hormone levels. The findings from this current study add to the growing body of evidence demonstrating that 2D:4D is a suitable tool to study the effects of prenatal androgenization on human behavior and cognition.

  17. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-08-13

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269-0.798), 0.639 (0.383-1.065), and 0.614 (0.365-1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498-1.200), 0.602 (0.382-0.947), and 0.603 (0.381-0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes.

  18. Aerobic exercise training-induced changes in serum adropin level are associated with reduced arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Shumpei; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Sato, Koji; Fujita, Satoshi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2015-11-15

    Aging-induced arterial stiffening is reduced by aerobic exercise training, and elevated production of nitric oxide (NO) participates in this effect. Adropin is a regulator of endothelial NO synthase and NO release, and circulating adropin level decreases with age. However, the effect of habitual aerobic exercise on circulating adropin levels in healthy middle-aged and older adults remains unclear. We sought to determine whether serum adropin level is associated with exercise training-induced changes in arterial stiffness. First, in a cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between serum adropin level and both arterial stiffness and cardiorespiratory fitness in 80 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (65.6 ± 0.9 yr). Second, in an intervention study, we examined the effects of 8-wk aerobic exercise training on serum adropin level and arterial stiffness in 40 healthy middle-aged and older subjects (67.3 ± 1.0 yr) divided into two groups: aerobic exercise training and sedentary controls. In the cross-sectional study, serum adropin level was negatively correlated with carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.437, P aerobic exercise training intervention, and training-induced changes in serum adropin level were correlated with training-induced changes in carotid β-stiffness (r = -0.399, P exercise-induced reduction of arterial stiffness.

  19. Serum Gamma-glutamyltransferase Levels Predict the Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Li; Wei-Hua, Lu; Rong, Ai; Jian-Hong, Yang; Zi-Hua, Zhou; Zhong-Zhi, Tang

    2015-08-01

    Progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) may be more predictive of future coronary heart disease events than a baseline CAC score. We determined whether serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity can independently predict the progression of CAC in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients (n = 326) without symptomatic cardiovascular (CV) disease were evaluated by CAC imaging. The CAC scores were assessed at baseline and after 20 ± 4 months. Serum GGT activities were significantly higher in progressors compared with nonprogressors (39 ± 16 vs. 27 ± 11 U/L, P < .001). Multivariable analyses demonstrated that GGT activity retained a strong association with CAC progression after adjustment for CV risk factors. Additionally, there was a graded association between GGT activity quartile and annualized CAC progression. In asymptomatic patients with T2DM, we prospectively found that serum GGT activity may be an independent predictor of CAC progression but not a predictor of CAC incidence.

  20. Lower limb muscle coactivation levels in healthy younger and older adults during functional dual-task gait

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    Camilla Zamfolini Hallal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of daily cognitive task on stiffness of old and young female adults during the gait. The study included 17 physically active younger and 18 older women, with low risk of falls. The volunteers were asked to walk on the treadmill at two different gait conditions: normal gait and functional dual-task gait. The electromyographic signals were collected of the lower limb muscles. The percentage of coactivation for the tibialis anterior/gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior/soleus were significantly higher in elderly than in younger in the normal gait and dual-task gait. Our results suggest that the elderly have a greater stiffness in the ankle joint during gait normal and daily dual task gait. Thus, we conclude that challenging cognitively situations during the gait may increase the risk of falls in this population.

  1. Serum aflatoxin levels of the healthy adult population living in the north and south regions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevtap; Sabuncuoglu, Suna; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Sahin, Gönül; Giray, Belma Kocer

    2014-11-01

    To determine the serum concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) in the healthy adult population living in both the Black Sea and Mediterranean regions of Turkey and to investigate the regional, seasonal and gender variability in aflatoxins (AF) exposure in these regions. Serum AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 concentrations were analysed by HPLC. Settings In total, four hundred and eighty-four serum samples were analysed. Four hundred and eighty-four healthy adult volunteers living in rural areas of the Black Sea and Mediterranean regions of Turkey were studied. The mean serum concentration of total AF in the Black Sea region was 1·33 ppb (min-max 0·15-3·38 ppb) and 0·90 ppb (min-max 0·18-2·48 ppb) for summer and winter, respectively. In the Mediterranean region, the mean serum concentration of total AF was determined as 0·55 ppb (range 0·04-1·72 ppb) for summer and 0·45 ppb (range 0·12-1·43 ppb) for winter. The total AF concentrations in serum samples were statistically higher in summer compared with winter for the two regions. The differences between the regions were statistically significant concerning all samples, with higher total AF concentrations in the Black Sea region. The overall results suggest that the Turkish population living in these two regions is continuously exposed to AF, particularly in the summer, and that mycotoxin contamination in food should be monitored routinely for food safety and human health.

  2. Epidemiological Study Of Burn Cases And Their Mortality Experiences Amongst Adults From A Tertiary Level Care Centre

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    Kumar P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: How to use hospital statistics in establishing epidemiology of burns amongst adults? Objectives: To identify epidemiological determinants for Ii Various burn injuries and ii their mortality experiences. Study design: Hospital based study carried out for a period of one year (1st January 1991 to 31st December 1991. Settings: Wards of department of Burn & Plastic Surgery, BJ Medical College, Ahmedabad. Participants: 386 adults (20 years and above admitted at the centre for burn injuries during 1991. Study variables: Epidemiological determinants (age, sex, temporal, place, etc. for various burn injuries and the determinants of mortality (type of burn, extent of burn, referral time lag etc. Outcome profile: Common profile of burn victims with relation to the epidemiological factors and other factors responsible for high mortality in burn cases. Statistical analysis: Chi- square and Z tests. Results:Burns occured more in females specially in the age group of 20-24 years. Eighty five percent were flame burns. Flame burns were more in females, while electric burns were more in males. Burns were less during monsoon (27.7% than winter (32.6% and summer (39.6%, but electric burns were twice more common during monsoon. Maximum burns (81.9% were domestic, occurring mainly either in kitchen or living room. They were seen more in late evening. Sixty two percent cases were severe as total burn surface area (TBSA was >40%. Case fatality correlated positively with TBSA and death was almost universal with TBSA >60%. Early referral reduced fatality significantly in less severe burns (TBSA<40% but failed to influence it in severe burns. Appraisal of alleged suicide cases (2.6% and of stove bursting (4.4% revealed that young females carry additional risk of burn injuries.

  3. Plantar pressure differences among adults with mild flexible flatfoot, severe flexible flatfoot and normal foot when walking on level surface, walking upstairs and downstairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jun Na; Wang, Jue; Qiu, Yu Sheng

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] This study observed the plantar pressure between flexible flatfoot and normal foot on different walking conditions to find out if flexible flatfoot needs the treatment and how the plantar pressure change while walking upstairs and downstairs. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen adults with mild flexible flatfoot, fifteen adults with severe flexible flatfoot and fifteen adults with normal foot were examined while walking on a level surface, walking up and down 10 cm and 20 cm stairs. The max force and the arch index were acquired using the RSscan system. The repeated measures ANOVA was performed to analyze the data. [Results] Compared with normal foot, both max force and arch index of severe flatfoot were significantly increased on different walking conditions. When walking down 10 cm and 20 cm stairs, the plantar data of both normal foot and flatfoot were significantly increased. [Conclusion] The plantar pressure of severe flexible flatfoot were significantly larger than that of normal foot on different walking conditions. In addition, the arches of both normal foot and flatfoot were obviously deformed when walking downstairs. It is therefore necessary to be treated for severe flexible flatfoot to prevent further deformation.

  4. Sequences upstream of the homologous cis-elements of the Adh adult enhancer of Drosophila are required for maximal levels of Adh gene transcription in adults of Scaptodrosophila lebanonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaceit, Montserrat; Orengo, Dorcas; Juan, Elvira

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of cis-regulatory elements is of particular interest for our understanding of the evolution of gene regulation. The Adh gene of Drosophilidae shows interspecific differences in tissue-specific expression and transcript levels during development. In Scaptodrosophila lebanonensis adults, the level of distal transcripts is maximal between the fourth and eighth day after eclosion and is around five times higher than that in D. melanogaster Adh(S). To examine whether these quantitative differences are regulated by sequences lying upstream of the distal promoter, we performed in vitro deletion mutagenesis of the Adh gene of S. lebanonensis, followed by P-element-mediated germ-line transformation. All constructs included, as a cotransgene, a modified Adh gene of D. melanogaster (dAdh) in a fixed position and orientation that acted as a chromosomal position control. Using this approach, we have identified a fragment of 1.5 kb in the 5' region, 830 bp upstream of the distal start site, which is required to achieve maximal levels of distal transcript in S. lebanonensis. The presence of this fragment produces a 3.5-fold higher level of distal mRNA (as determined by real time quantitative PCR) compared with the D. melanogaster dAdh cotransgene. This region contains the degenerated end of a minisatellite sequence expanding farther upstream and does not correspond to the Adh adult enhancer (AAE) of D. melanogaster. Indeed, the cis-regulatory elements of the AAE have been identified by phylogenetic footprinting within the region 830 bp upstream of the distal start site of S. lebanonensis. Furthermore, the deletions Delta-830 and Delta-2358 yield the same pattern of tissue-specific expression, indicating that all tissue-specific elements are contained within the region 830 bp upstream of the distal start site. PMID:15166155

  5. Expression levels of the innate response gene RIG-I and its regulators RNF125 and TRIM25 in HIV-1-infected adult and pediatric individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Alan M A; Amoedo, Nívea D; Pezzuto, Paula; Afonso, Adriana O; Martínez, Ana M B; Silveira, Jussara; Sion, Fernando S; Machado, Elizabeth S; Soares, Marcelo A; Giannini, Ana L M

    2013-07-31

    TLRs (Toll-like receptors) and RLRs (RIG-I-like receptors) mediate innate immune responses by detecting microorganism invasion. RIG-I activation results in the production of interferon (IFN) type 1 and IFN responsive genes (ISGs). As the ubiquitin ligases RNF125 and TRIM25 are involved in regulating RIG-I function, our aim was to assess whether the levels of these three genes vary between healthy and HIV-infected individuals and whether these levels are related to disease progression. Gene expression analyses for RIG-I, RNF125, and TRIM25 were performed for HIV-infected adults and the children's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Reverse transcription-quantitative PCRs (RT-qPCRs) were performed in order to quantify the expression levels of RIG-I, RNF125 and TRIM25 from PBMCs purified from control or HIV-infected individuals. Controls express higher levels of the three genes when compared to HIV-infected patients. These expressions are clearly distinct between healthy and progressors, and are reproduced in adults and children. In controls, RNF125 is the highest expressed gene, whereas in progressors, RIG-I is either the highest expressed gene or is expressed similarly to RNF125 and TRIM25. A pattern of expression of RIG-I, RNF125, and TRIM25 genes in HIV patients is evident. The high expression of RNF125 in healthy individuals reflects the importance of keeping RIG-I function off, inhibiting unnecessary IFN production. Consistent with this assumption, RNF125 levels are lower in HIV patients and importantly, the RNF125/RIG-I ratio is lower in patients who progress to AIDS. Our results might help to predict disease progression and unveil the role of poorly characterized host genes during HIV infection.

  6. A cross-sectional study of differences in 6-min walk distance in healthy adults residing at high altitude versus sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to determine if adult residents living at high altitude have developed sufficient adaptation to a hypoxic environment to match the functional capacity of a similar population at sea level. To test this hypothesis, we compared the 6-min walk test distance (6MWD) in 334 residents living at sea level vs. at high altitude. Methods We enrolled 168 healthy adults aged ≥35 years residing at sea level in Lima and 166 individuals residing at 3,825 m above sea level in Puno, Peru. Participants completed a 6-min walk test, answered a sociodemographics and clinical questionnaire, underwent spirometry, and a blood test. Results Average age was 54.0 vs. 53.8 years, 48% vs. 43% were male, average height was 155 vs. 158 cm, average blood oxygen saturation was 98% vs. 90%, and average resting heart rate was 67 vs. 72 beats/min in Lima vs. Puno. In multivariable regression, participants in Puno walked 47.6 m less (95% CI -81.7 to -13.6 m; p < 0.01) than those in Lima. Other variables besides age and height that were associated with 6MWD include change in heart rate (4.0 m per beats/min increase above resting heart rate; p < 0.001) and percent body fat (-1.4 m per % increase; p = 0.02). Conclusions The 6-min walk test predicted a lowered functional capacity among Andean high altitude vs. sea level natives at their altitude of residence, which could be explained by an incomplete adaptation or a protective mechanism favoring neuro- and cardioprotection over psychomotor activity. PMID:24484777

  7. The level of DNA damage in adult grasshoppers Chorthippus biguttulus (Orthoptera, Acrididae) following dimethoate exposure is dependent on the insects' habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Julia; Kubok, Magdalena; Dziewięcka, Marta; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Augustyniak, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The comet assay was used to study the DNA damage that was induced by dimethoate in the hemocyte cells of adult Chorthippus biguttulus grasshoppers (Insecta: Orthoptera) that originated from two sites with varying levels of pollution. The primary focus of the study was to examine whether continuous exposure to environmental stress can modify the effect of pesticides on genome stability. After three days of acclimation to laboratory conditions, the level of DNA damage in the hemocytes of Bow-winged grasshoppers was within a similar range in the insects from both areas. However, the level of DNA damage following dimethoate treatment was significantly higher in the insects from the reference area (Pogoria) than in the individuals from the heavily polluted location (Szopienice). Four hours after pesticide treatment, the Tail DNA (TDNA) in the hemocytes of the male and female specimens from Pogoria was as high as 75% and 50% respectively, whereas the values in males and females from Szopienice only reached 30% and 20%, respectively. A rapid decrease in DNA damage was observed in both populations 24 h after the pesticide application. The habitat of an insect (site), the administration of the dimethoate (treatment), and the period following the application of the pesticide (time), all significantly influenced the levels of DNA damage. No interactions related to TDNA were observed between the variables 'sex' and 'treatment'. Similarly, the variable 'sex', when analyzed alongside 'treatment' and 'site' (the area from which the insects were collected), or 'treatment' and 'time' had no influence on TL. Exposure to dimethoate undoubtedly contributed to the formation of DNA damage in the hemocytes of adult C. biguttulus. However, the level of damage was clearly dependent on the place where the insects were captured.

  8. Methoxychlor-induced alteration in the levels of HSP70 and clusterin is accompanied with oxidative stress in adult rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithinathan, S; Saradha, B; Mathur, P P

    2009-01-01

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, has been reported to induce abnormalities in male reproductive tract. However, the insight into the mechanisms of gonadal toxicity induced by methoxychlor is not well known. We investigated whether treatment with methoxychlor would alter the levels of stress proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP), and clusterin (CLU), and oxidative stress-related parameters in the testis of adult male rats. Animals were exposed to a single dose of methoxychlor (50 mg/kg body weight) orally and were terminated at various time points (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 h) using anesthetic ether. The levels of HSP70, CLU, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and lipid peroxidation levels were evaluated in a 10% testis homogenate. A sequential reduction in the activities of catalase and SOD with concomitant increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) was observed. These changes elicited by methoxychlor were very significant between 6-12 h of posttreatment. Immunoblot analysis of HSP revealed the expression of HSP72, an inducible form of HSP, at certain time points (3-24 h) following exposure to methoxychlor. Similarly, the levels of secretory CLU (sCLU) were also found to be elevated between 3-24 h of treatment. The present data demonstrate methoxychlor-elicited increase in the levels of inducible HSP72 and sCLU, which could be a part of protective mechanism mounted to reduce cellular oxidative damage.

  9. Temporal changes in nutritional state affect hypothalamic POMC peptide levels independently of leptin in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Aaron J; Stuart, Ronald C; Attard, Courtney A; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Nillni, Eduardo A; Low, Malcolm J

    2014-04-15

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons constitute a critical anorexigenic node in the central nervous system (CNS) for maintaining energy balance. These neurons directly affect energy expenditure and feeding behavior by releasing bioactive neuropeptides but are also subject to signals directly related to nutritional state such as the adipokine leptin. To further investigate the interaction of diet and leptin on hypothalamic POMC peptide levels, we exposed 8- to 10-wk-old male POMC-Discosoma red fluorescent protein (DsRed) transgenic reporter mice to either 24-48 h (acute) or 2 wk (chronic) food restriction, high-fat diet (HFD), or leptin treatment. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassays, we discovered that acute fasting and chronic food restriction decreased the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), and β-endorphin in the hypothalamus, together with decreased DsRed fluorescence, compared with control ad libitum-fed mice. Furthermore, acute but not chronic HFD or leptin administration selectively increased α-MSH levels in POMC fibers and increased DsRed fluorescence in POMC cell bodies. HFD and leptin treatments comparably increased circulating leptin levels at both time points, suggesting that transcription of Pomc and synthesis of POMC peptide products are not modified in direct relation to the concentration of plasma leptin. Our findings indicate that negative energy balance persistently downregulated POMC peptide levels, and this phenomenon may be partially explained by decreased leptin levels, since these changes were blocked in fasted mice treated with leptin. In contrast, sustained elevation of plasma leptin by HFD or hormone supplementation did not significantly alter POMC peptide levels, indicating that enhanced leptin signaling does not chronically increase Pomc transcription and peptide synthesis.

  10. Reappraisal of Blood Lead Levels and Relation to Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase, Zinc Protoporphyrin and Urinary ALA Level in Thai Normal Adults and Lead Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharachai Rujirojkul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available All studied participants of 65 lead-exposed workers and 52 non lead-exposed persons who voluntarily participated and signed consents were interviewed about their working duration, type of work, risk behavior and personal data. Blood and urine samples were drawn for PbB, d-ALAD, ZPP and ALAU analysis respectively. The mean PbB level for workers in lead smelters, 22.4 +/- 17.9 microgram/dl (range 1.3-67.2 microgram/dl was found higher than that for the non-exposed persons (mean = 5.0 +/- 2.4 microgram/dl, range 2.0-13.2 microgram/dl. In relative to previous studies, mean PbB concentration found in the unexposed persons tended to decreased follows the reduced use of leaded gasoline in 1996 in Thailand. A highly significant negative correlation (R2 = 0.86 was observed between PbB concentration and d-ALAD activities among lead exposed persons. Statistical analysis showed that d-ALAD activities significantly decreased (p10 microgram/dl. ZPP measurement is simple and inexpensive, but less sensitive and could be used for screening only in those high lead contaminated persons (PbB>40 microgram/dl. ALAU measurement cannot be served as early biochemical indices of lead exposure both in lead exposed and non-lead exposed persons.

  11. Levels of arsenic, mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and manganese in serum and whole blood of resident adults from mining and non-mining communities in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Yeboah, Philip O; Osae, Shiloh; Adu-Kumi, Sam

    2016-08-01

    Human beings working or living near an industrial site where toxic chemicals such as As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and or their compounds are used or indiscriminately discharged into the environment, are constantly exposed to such chemicals via ingestion (drinking or eating), dermal contact or inhalation (breathing). However, in developing countries such as Ghana, limited data on levels of the aforementioned chemicals in whole blood and serum of human beings as a result of exposure to the aforementioned chemicals from mining communities and non-mining communities is preventing effective policy formulation to protect human health. Hence, this study was undertaken to measure the levels of the aforementioned toxic chemicals in whole blood and serum of 300 resident adults from mining (Tarkwa Nsuaem Municipality Assembly (TNMA) and Prestea Huni Valley District (PHVD)) and non-mining (Cape Coast Metropolis) communities in Ghana, using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Blood samples were taken from 200 resident adults (105 males and 95 females) from mining and 100 resident adults (60 males and 40 males) from non-mining communities in the study area following the completion of an informed consent and the issuance of ethical clearance by the Ghana Health Service Ethical Committee. The mean concentrations for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of residents from mining communities were as follows: 38 ± 320 μg/L, 63 ± 0.23 μg/L, 303 ± 117 μg/L, 3300 ± 953, 195 ± 90 μg/L, 28 ± 14 μg/L and 1405 ± 458 μg/L, respectively; while the levels of measured toxic chemicals in the serum of resident adults from mining communities were as follows: 65 ± 14 μg/L, 358 ± 22 μg/l, 134 ± 12 μg/L, 3590 ± 254 μg/L, 401 ± 113 μg/L, 58 ± 5.8 μg/L and 49 ± 31 μg/L, respectively, for As, Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn and were found to have exceeded the permissible WHO guideline values.

  12. The relationship between dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls and IGF-I serum levels in healthy adults: evidence from a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio P Luzardo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs have been associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases like cancer, diabetes and growth disorders. Because it has been suggested that organohalogenated contaminants could influence IGF-I levels in adults, the potential relationship between DL-PCBs and IGF-I serum levels was studied in 456 healthy adults from a representative sample of the general population of the Canary Islands (Spain. DESIGN: Free circulating serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured through an ELISA methodology, while the serum levels of the 12 DL-PCBs congeners (IUPAC numbers # 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS. RESULTS: DL-PCBs 156 and 167, Total DL-PCBs body burden (∑PCBs: sum over the 12 measured DL-PCBs, and Total toxic burden (in terms of toxic equivalence to dioxins: ∑TEQs showed a trend of inverse association with IGF-I serum levels in the whole studied population. After adjusting for potential confounders, including gender, body mass index (BMI, age, and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3, younger (18-45 years women with lower BMI (<27 kg/m(2 and detectable levels of DL-PCB-156 showed significantly lower IGF-I levels than those in the same age and BMI subgroup with non-detectable levels of DL-PCB-156 (p<0.001. Similarly, ∑PCBs and ∑TEQs showed a tendency to an inverse association with IGF-I levels in the same group of women (p=0.017 and p=0.019 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that DL-PCBs could be involved in the regulation of the IGF-system in a way possibly influenced by gender, age and BMI. Although these results should be interpreted with caution, such circumstances could contribute to explain the development of diseases associated to the IGF system.

  13. Adult cognitive ability and educational level in relation to concussions in childhood and adolescence: a population study of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Thomas W; Frøsig, Anna J; Engberg, Aase W

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of concussion(s) suffered through childhood and adolescence with completed level of school education and cognitive ability in young adulthood. Educational level and scores on a test of cognitive ability were obtained for a cohort of 130,298 young men processed by the Danish draft board. Of these, 6146 had, at some age from birth onwards, been briefly admitted to hospital with a main discharge diagnosis of concussion. A further 402 had two such concussions and 48 had three or more. Educational level and cognitive ability test scores were negatively associated with the number of concussions and the age at concussion(s). Most markedly, compared to the 123,684 non-concussed men, those with two or more concussions had lower educational levels (OR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.26-0.89), as also did those sustaining one concussion between the age of 13 up to the time of testing (OR = 0.47: 0.42-0.52). Since concussions do not generally have long-term effects, the results suggest that lower educational level is primarily a risk factor for sustaining a concussion at all ages, but in particular in adolescence more than in childhood and in the case of multiple concussions. It should, however, be recognized that, in some proportion of cases, the educational deficits have probably arisen as a consequence of the persistent symptoms of a lengthy post-concussional syndrome.

  14. Analysis on the Level of Assertiveness of the Athletes Took Part in Eliminations for Adults Taekwondo National Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner YILMAZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several elements may affect assertiveness. Woman's traditional sister or caretaker role causes her sometimes to become aggressive by behaving in a stiff, authoritarian way and sometimes passive. The aim of this study is to research the level of as sertiveness of the athletes took part in the Turkey Taekwondo National Team eliminations in 2014. 106 males at the average age of 21, 12 and 56 females at the average age of 20,39 took part in the research. RAE (Rathus Assertiveness Schedule developed by Rathus in 1977 and adapted to Turkish by Nilüfer Voltan Acar (1980 was used to determine the level of assertiveness. In conclusion, no significant difference was found between males and females in terms of assertiveness level scores.

  15. Association of serum ferritin levels with smoking and lung function in the Korean adult population: analysis of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Goag, Eun Kyung; Lee, Su Hwan; Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Song, Joo Han

    2016-01-01

    Iron-catalyzed oxidative stress contributes to lung injury after exposure to various toxins, including cigarette smoke. An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance is considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Ferritin is a key protein in iron homeostasis, and its capacity to oxidize and sequester the metal preventing iron prooxidant activity implicates its possible role in the alteration of antioxidant imbalance. We investigated the relationship among cigarette smoking, lung function, and serum ferritin concentration in a large cohort representative of the Korean adult population. Among 50,405 participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2014, 15,239 adult subjects older than 40 years with serum ferritin levels and spirometric data were selected for this study. The mean age was 56.5 years for men (43%) and 56.9 years for women (57%). The prevalence of airway obstruction was 13.4%, which was significantly higher in men than in women, and increased in former or current smokers. The median levels of serum ferritin were highest in the airway obstruction group, followed by the restrictive pattern group, and lowest in the normal lung function group. The median ferritin levels were increased by smoking status and amounts in each spirometric subgroup. In multivariable regression analysis, serum ferritin was positively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, whereas the smoking amount was negatively associated with the adjustment with age, sex, height, and weight. Serum ferritin levels were increased in former or current smokers and were increased with smoking amount in all subgroups of participants categorized according to spirometric results. The result was also evident in the subgroups divided by obstructive severity. While smoking amount was inversely related to lung function, higher levels of serum ferritin were associated with enhanced

  16. Association of serum ferritin levels with smoking and lung function in the Korean adult population: analysis of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chan Ho Lee, Eun Kyung Goag, Su Hwan Lee, Kyung Soo Chung, Ji Ye Jung, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Joo Han Song Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Iron-catalyzed oxidative stress contributes to lung injury after exposure to various toxins, including cigarette smoke. An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance is considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Ferritin is a key protein in iron homeostasis, and its capacity to oxidize and sequester the metal preventing iron prooxidant activity implicates its possible role in the alteration of antioxidant imbalance. We investigated the relationship among cigarette smoking, lung function, and serum ferritin concentration in a large cohort representative of the Korean adult population. Materials and methods: Among 50,405 participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2014, 15,239 adult subjects older than 40 years with serum ferritin levels and spirometric data were selected for this study. Results: The mean age was 56.5 years for men (43% and 56.9 years for women (57%. The prevalence of airway obstruction was 13.4%, which was significantly higher in men than in women, and increased in former or current smokers. The median levels of serum ferritin were highest in the airway obstruction group, followed by the restrictive pattern group, and lowest in the normal lung function group. The median ferritin levels were increased by smoking status and amounts in each spirometric subgroup. In multivariable regression analysis, serum ferritin was positively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, whereas the smoking amount was negatively associated with the adjustment with age, sex, height

  17. Association between dental-oral health in young adults and salivary glutathione, lipid peroxidation and sialic acid levels and carbonic anhydrase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Öztürk

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between salivary oxidative stress and dental-oral health. Healthy young adults, matched for gender and age, with (N = 21, 10 men, mean age: 20.3 ± 1 years and without (N = 16, 8 men, mean age: 21.2 ± 1.8 years caries were included in this study. The World Health Organization (WHO caries diagnostic criteria were used for determining the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT index. The oral hygiene and gingival status were assessed using the simplified oral hygiene index and gingival index, respectively. Unstimulated salivary total protein, glutathione (GSH, lipid peroxidation and total sialic acid levels, carbonic anhydrase activity, and salivary buffering capacity were determined by standard methods. Furthermore, salivary pH was measured with pH paper and salivary flow rate was calculated. Simplified oral hygiene index and gingival index were not significantly different between groups but DMFT scores were significant (P < 0.01. Only, GSH values were significantly different (P < 0.05 between groups (2.2 and 1.6 mg/g protein in young adults without caries and with caries, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between DMFT and GSH (r = -0.391; P < 0.05; Pearson's correlation coefficient. Our results suggest that there is an association between caries history and salivary GSH levels.

  18. Dietary intakes and diet quality according to levels of organic food consumption by French adults: cross-sectional findings from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Julia; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to assess dietary profiles of adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort according to different levels of organic food consumption using detailed self-reported data on organic food intakes. Food intakes were obtained using an organic food frequency questionnaire (Org-FFQ). The participants were ranked into five groups (quintiles, Q) according to the proportion of organic foods in their diet. To determine diet quality, two scores were computed reflecting adherence to food-based recommendations (mPNNS-GS) and the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet). Relationships between levels of organic food consumption and dietary characteristics were assessed using multivariable-adjusted ANCOVA models. The NutriNet-Santé Study. French adults from the NutriNet-Santé Study (n 28 245). Intakes of foods of plant origin increased along with the contribution of organic foods to the diet while a reverse trend was identified for dairy products, cookies and soda (P-trendorganic food consumers exhibited better diet quality, although intermediate organic food consumers showed better adherence to specific nutritional recommendations related to animal products. The study provides new insights into the understanding of organic food consumption as a part of a healthy diet and sheds some light on the dietary profiles of different categories of organic food consumers. These results underline strong dietary behaviour correlates associated with organic food consumption that should be controlled for in future aetiological studies on organic foods and health.

  19. Effects of intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy with idarubicin and high dose cytarabine on minimal residual disease levels in newly diagnosed adult precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Bradstock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An intensive induction regimen, consisting of idarubicin and high dose cytarabine, was assessed in 19 adult patients, median age 44 years, with newly diagnosed precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Patients achieving a complete response (CR were given an attenuated consolidation course. The primary endpoints were induction death rate and incidence of serious non-hematological toxicity. Grades 3–4 diarrhoea occurred in 47% of patients during induction. Two patients (11% died during induction therapy, and 2 were withdrawn due to resistant disease or prolonged marrow hypoplasia. Fifteen patients achieved CR (79%, but levels of minimal residual disease (MRD after induction were comparable with those previously observed using a modified pediatric protocol. Overall survival at 5 years was 36.8% while leukemia-free survival was 44.1%. An intensive AML protocol used in adults with ALL resulted in substantial toxicity and provided similar levels of cytoreduction to conventional ALL protocols, without improving long-term outcomes.

  20. Dopamine levels in the mosquito Aedes aegypti during adult development, following blood feeding and in response to heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Schwartz, Alex; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert

    2006-01-01

    concentrations of dopamine than females, and that dopamine concentrations decrease with age in both sexes. Dopamine levels increase in females following a blood meal suggesting that dopamine might be involved in ovarian- and/or egg-development. We also found that female mosquitoes have a higher tolerance...... to a short term thermal stress in a water bath than males up to 44 degrees C, however, both sexes die if exposed to short term temperatures between 44 and 45 degrees C. Finally, we did not find any indication that dopamine levels were associated with short time thermal stress response in female mosquitoes....

  1. Outcomes of a skiing program on level and stability of self-esteem and physical self in adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbin, Jean-Marc; Ninot, Grégory

    2008-03-01

    This study explored the intraindividual level and variability of global self-esteem and physical self-worth in adults with spinal cord injury over three consecutive periods, 4 weeks at home, 1 week in an adapted skiing program, and 4 weeks at home. Ten participants responded twice a day over a period of 9 weeks with the Physical Self Inventory, a six-item questionnaire with a visual analogue scale. The results showed that the program significantly increased the level of global self-esteem, physical self-worth, and three subdomains. The variability of the physical condition, sport competence, and physical strength subdomains was diminished after the program. The changes are discussed in terms of impact of a specific adapted physical activities program on physical self conceived as a complex system.

  2. «Université virtuelle française» à l'Université de Hiroshima : Essai de créer les cours de la langue française reliés à Internet

    OpenAIRE

    平手, 友彦

    2003-01-01

    Nous avons installe un site ≪Universite virtuelle frangaise≫ a l'Universite de Hiroshima. Ce site a pour but I'enseignement de la langue francaise par Internet. Dans ce contexte, le mot ≪Universite virtuelle≫ n'indique pas la simulation d'une universite reelle par des images de synthese tridimensionnelles, mais la possibilite d'acceder n'importe quand, depuis n'importe ou et aussi souvent qu'on le souhaite sur le site grace au WEB. Notre site se compose actuellement de quatre cours caracteris...

  3. 论小说《广岛—最有活力的城市》的矛盾冲突%On the Conflicts in Hiroshima-the Liveliest City in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南晶

    2012-01-01

    This paper interprets the conflicts in Hiroshima-the Liveliest City in Japan from four views,including two understanding of "liveliest": sadness in happy city,humor in sorrowful city and wandering between tradition and civilization.%从四个角度解读《广岛——日本"最具活力的"城市》的矛盾冲突,包括"Liveliest"的两种解读,悲伤于快乐的城市,幽默于悲伤的城市和游走于传统与文明之间。

  4. Effects of Nativity, Length of Residence, and County-Level Foreign-Born Density on Mental Health Among Older Adults in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunha; Kim, Giyeon; Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-12-01

    Using the 2004-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data that are linked to county-level data from the Area Health Resources Files, this study examined whether the healthy immigrant effect applies to mental health of foreign-born older adults. Additionally, testing a protective ethnic density effect on older foreign-born individuals' mental health, this study examined how the percentage of foreign-born population in the county affected the relationship between older adults' immigration status (U.S.-nativity and length of residence in the U.S.) and their mental health status. The sample included 29,011 individuals (level-1) from 920 counties (level-2) across 50 states and D.C. Using the Mental Component Summary of the Short-Form 12, the Kessler Index (K-6), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), U.S.-born individuals (n = 24,225), earlier immigrants (≥15 years in the U.S.; n = 3866), and recent immigrants (U.S.; n = 920) were compared. The results indicate that recent immigrants showed worse mental health on all three measures compared with U.S.-born individuals and on the K-6 and PHQ-2 compared with earlier immigrants. Higher county-level foreign-born densities were associated with worse mental health status of individuals. However, the significant interactions found in the full conditional multilevel models indicated that the high foreign-born density functioned as a risk factor for worse mental health only among recent immigrants but not among the U.S.-born. In conclusion, the results revealed the vulnerability of older recent immigrants, especially those living in the counties with high foreign-born densities.

  5. Sweet Temptations: How Does Reading a Fotonovela About Diabetes Affect Dutch Adults with Different Levels of Literacy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops van 't Jagt, Ruth; Hoeks, Jacobus; Duizer, E.; Baron, M.; Molina, G. B.; Unger, J. B.; Jansen, C. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that health-related fotonovelas—booklets that portray a dramatic story using photographs and captions—may be effective health communication tools, especially for readers with a low level of literacy. In this experiment, effects on knowledge and behavioral intentions were

  6. Level of training and experience in physicians performing interhospital transfers of adult patients in the internal medicine department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, P; Folkestad, L; Brabrand, M

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To establish the level of training doctors who participate in interhospital transfers in Denmark. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to every hospital department in Denmark with acute internal medicine admissions. RESULTS: Eighty-nine internal medicine departments were contacted and 84...

  7. [Ascorbic acid consumption and serum levels in smokers and non-smokers adult men in Hermosillo, Sonora, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Rosa Olivia; Wyatt, C Jane; Saavedra, Javier; Ornelas, Alicia

    2002-12-01

    Ascorbic acid is one of the important antioxidant nutrients that can aid in the prevention of oxidative cellular damage. Adequate dietary intake is essential as humans can not synthesize this vitamin. It has been reported that smokers require higher dietary intakes to maintain their serum levels. The objective of this study was to determine serum levels of ascorbic acid in young male smokers and non smokers in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. In addition, their dietary intake of ascorbic acid was determined by a 24 h dietary recall. The dietary intake of ascorbic acid in 12 smokers was 64 +/- 11 mg/d and in 13 non smokers it was 70 +/- 12 mg/d. The smokers in this study did not meet the dietary recommendation of 100 mg/d. Serum ascorbic acid values in smokers and non smokers were 24.2 +/- 6.9 mumol/L and 30.9 +/- 3.7 mumol/L respectively. No significant difference was found among the 2 groups. Although the average serum ascorbic acid values fell within the range considered normal, 50% of the smokers had individual values that were below 23 mumol/L, indicating that these subjects have hipovitaminosis. A positive correlation between intake and serum levels was obtained for smokers (r = 0.71; p = 0.03). The results of this study suggest smokers may be at increased risk for chronic diseases due to their low intake and low serum levels of ascorbic acid.

  8. Does the level of expressed emotion (LEE) questionnaire have the same factor structure for adolescents as it has for adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, William W.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Gerlsma, Coby; Meeus, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Background The level of expressed emotion (LEE) is a four-factor questionnaire that measures expressed emotion (EE) as perceived by the recipient. These factors are: perceived lack of emotional support, perceived intrusiveness, perceived irritation, and perceive criticism. The four factors of the LE

  9. Acceptable noise level (ANL) with Danish and non-semantic speech materials in adult hearing-aid users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Lantz, Johannes; Nielsen, Lars Holme;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is used for quantification of the amount of background noise subjects accept when listening to speech. This study investigates Danish hearing-aid users' ANL performance using Danish and non-semantic speech signals, the repeatability of ANL, and the association...

  10. Theory of Mind and Executive Control Deficits in Typically Developing Adults and Adolescents with High Levels of Autism Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçen, Elif; Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by profound difficulties in empathic processing and executive control. Whilst the links between these processes have been frequently investigated in populations with autism, few studies have examined them at the subclinical level. In addition, the contribution of alexithymia, a trait characterised by…

  11. Theory of Mind and Executive Control Deficits in Typically Developing Adults and Adolescents with High Levels of Autism Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçen, Elif; Frederickson, Norah; Petrides, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterised by profound difficulties in empathic processing and executive control. Whilst the links between these processes have been frequently investigated in populations with autism, few studies have examined them at the subclinical level. In addition, the contribution of alexithymia, a trait characterised by…

  12. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: Theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.M. Paulides (Maarten); E. Neufeld; A. Christ (A.); N. Kuster (Niels); G.C. van Rhoon (Gerard)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR wb) are provided to keep the

  13. Neonatal morphine administration leads to changes in hippocampal BDNF levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in the adult life of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozisky, J R; Laste, G; de Macedo, I C; Santos, V S; Krolow, R; Noschang, C; Vanzella, C; Bertoldi, K; Lovatel, G A; de Souza, I C C; Siqueira, I R; Dalmaz, C; Caumo, W; Torres, I L S

    2013-03-01

    It is know that repeated exposure to opiates impairs spatial learning and memory and that the hippocampus has important neuromodulatory effects after drug exposure and withdrawal symptoms. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to assess hippocampal levels of BDNF, oxidative stress markers associated with cell viability, and TNF-α in the short, medium and long term after repeated morphine treatment in early life. Newborn male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of morphine (morphine group) or saline (control group), 5 μg in the mid-scapular area, starting on postnatal day 8 (P8), once daily for 7 days, and neurochemical parameters were assessed in the hippocampus on postnatal days 16 (P16), 30 (P30), and 60 (P60). For the first time, we observed that morphine treatment in early life modulates BDNF levels in the medium and long term and also modulates superoxide dismutase activity in the long term. In addition, it was observed effect of treatment and age in TNF-α levels, and no effects in lactate dehydrogenase levels, or cell viability. These findings show that repeated morphine treatment in the neonatal period can lead to long-lasting neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of male rats, and indicate the importance of cellular and intracellular adaptations in the hippocampus after early-life opioid exposure to tolerance, withdrawal and addiction.