WorldWideScience

Sample records for level waste solutions

  1. Low-level waste management - suggested solutions for problem wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechin, W.H.; Armstrong, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Problem wastes are those wastes which are difficult or require unusual expense to place into a waste form acceptable under the requirements of 10 CFR 61 or the disposal site operators. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been investigating the use of various solidification agents as part of the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for several years. Two of the leading problem wastes are ion exchange resins and organic liquids. Ion exchange resins can be solidified in Portland cement up to about 25 wt % resin, but waste forms loaded to this degree exhibit significantly reduced compressive strength and may disintegrate when immersed in water. Ion exchange resins can also be incorporated into organic agents. Mound Laboratory has been investigating the use of a joule-heated glass melter as a means of disposing of ion exchange resins and organic liquids in addition to other combustible wastes

  2. Electrochemical processing of low-level waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Ebra, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of treating low-level Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste solutions by an electrolytic process has been demonstrated. Although the economics of the process are marginal at the current densities investigated at the laboratory scale, there are a number of positive environmental benefits. These benefits include: (1) reduction in the levels of nitrate and nitrite in the waste, (2) further decontamination of 99 Tc and 106 Ru, and (3) reduction in the volume of waste

  3. Radiolytic gas formation in high-level liquid waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodda, B.-G.; Dix, Siegfried; Merz, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level fission product waste solutions originating from the first-cycle raffinate stream of spent fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing have been investigated gas chromatographically for their radiolytic and chemical gas production. The solutions showed considerable formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide, whereas atmospheric oxygen was consumed completely within a short time. In particular, carbon dioxide resulted from the radiolytic degradation of entrained organic solvent. After nearly complete degradation of the organic solvent, the influence of hydrazine and nitrogen dioxide on hydrogen formation was investigated. Hydrazinium hydroxide led to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen. After 60 d, the concentration of dinitrogen oxide had reduced to zero, whereas the amount of nitrogen formed had reached a maximum. This may be explained by simultaneous chemical and radiolytic reactions leading to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen and photolytic fission of dinitrogen oxide. Addition of sodium nitrite resulted in the rapid formation of dinitrogen oxide. The rate of hydrogen production was not changed significantly after the addition of hydrazine or nitrite. The results indicate that under normal operating conditions no dangerous hydrogen radiolysis yields should develop in the course of reprocessing and high-level liquid waste tank storage. Organic entrainment may lead to enhanced radiolytic decomposition and thus to considerable hydrogen production rates and pressure build-up in closed systems. (author)

  4. Chemical hazards from decontamination solutions in low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, L.; Miller, A.; Turney, J.; Naughton, M.; IMPELL Corp., Walnut Creek, CA; Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Recent regulations are focussing more attention on the non-radioactive matrix materials associated with radioactive wastes. Decontamination of operating facilities is becoming a more significant source of low-level waste. This study reviewed the chemical and biological hazards of over 50 decontamination processes. Seventeen of the most prominent hard and soft decontamination processes were examined in detail. The chemical and biological hazards of these seventeen are presented in this paper. These hazards influence the choice of radwaste processing and packaging operations and methods. Federal, state and local regulations further impact on operations and waste disposal. Hazards to personnel, in plant and off-site, resulting from the decontamination cycle are evaluated. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. Partitioning high-level waste from alkaline solution: A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1993-05-01

    Most chemical partitioning procedures are designed for acidic feed solutions. However, the high-level waste solutions in the underground storage tanks at US Department of Energy defense production sites are alkaline. Effective partitioning procedures for alkaline solutions could decrease the need to acidify these solutions and to dissolve the solids in acid, which would simplify subsequent processing and decrease the generation of secondary waste. The author compiles candidate technologies from his review of the chemical literature, experience, and personal contacts. Several of these are recommended for evaluation

  6. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  7. Removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solution : a laboratory investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, S.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Various methods were investigated in the laboratory for the removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solutions of reprocessing plant origin. The methods included batch equilibration with different ion exchangers and sorbents, column testing and chemical precipitation. A column method using zinc-activated carbon mixture and a chemical precipitation method using ferrous salt along with sodium sulphite were found to be promising for plant scale application. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Pore solution chemistry of simulated low-level liquid waste incorporated in cement grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    Expressed pore solutions from simulated low level liquid waste cement grouts cured at room temperature, 50 degree C and 90 degree C for various duration were analyzed by standard chemical methods and ion chromatography. The solid portions of the grouts were formulated with portland cement, fly ash, slag, and attapulgite clay in the ratios of 3:3:3:1. Two different solutions simulating off-gas condensates expected from vitrification of Hanford low level tank wastes were made. One is highly alkaline and contains the species Na + , P0 4 3- , N0 2 - , NO 3 - and OH - . The other is carbonated and contains the species, Na + , PO 4 3- , NO 2 - , NO 3 - , and CO 3 2- . In both cases phosphate rapidly disappeared from the pore solution, leaving behind sodium in the form of hydroxide. The carbonates were also removed from the pore solution to form calcium carbonate and possibly calcium monocarboaluminate. These reactions resulted in the increase of hydroxide ion concentration in the early period. Subsequently there was a significant reduction OH - and Na + ion concentrations. In contrast high concentration of N0 2 - and N0 3 - were retained in the pore solution indefinitely

  9. Community Solutions for Solid Waste Pollution, Level 6. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  10. Thermoelastic analysis of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste repositories in salt. A semi-analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.

    1977-04-01

    An underground repository containing heat generating, High Level Waste or Spent Unreprocessed Fuel may be approximated as a finite number of heat sources distributed across the plane of the repository. The resulting temperature, displacement and stress changes may be calculated using analytical solutions, providing linear thermoelasticity is assumed. This report documents a computer program based on this approach and gives results that form the basis for a comparison between the effects of disposing of High Level Waste and Spent Unreprocessed Fuel

  11. Corrosion of carbon steel in saturated high-level waste salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    High level waste stored as crystallized salts is to be removed from carbon steel tanks by water dissolution. Dissolution of the saltcake must be performed in a manner which will not impact the integrity of the tank. Corrosion testing was performed to determine the amount of corrosion inhibitor that must be added to the dissolution water in order to ensure that the salt solution formed would not induce corrosion degradation of the tank materials. The corrosion testing performed included controlled potential slow strain rate, coupon immersion, and potentiodynamic polarization tests. These tests were utilized to investigate the susceptibility of the cooling coil material to stress corrosion cracking in the anticipated environments. No evidence of SCC was observed in any of the tests. Based on these results, the recommended corrosion requirements were that the temperature of the salt solution be less than 50 degrees C and that the minimum hydroxide concentration be 0.4 molar. It was also recommended that the hydroxide concentration not stay below 0.4 molar for longer than 45 days

  12. The disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Proposed solutions and uses in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, J.F.A.

    1992-06-01

    The characteristics of high level radioactive waste produced in nuclear plants similar to that used in Brazil is presented. Subsequently it is described the international experience, and the way to apply such knowledge to the Brazilian situation, defining the magnitude of the problem, applying a methodology to select sites, and choosing areas for the location of a repository. Once such areas are defined, it is presented the behaviour of rock mass, similar to those found in the brazilian territory, based on the requirements for a high radioactive waste repository site. Finally, two Projects are presented for countries with lithologies similar to that of Brazil. The first one is choosing sites for a high radioactive waste repository program, and the second is an investigation of rock mass responses program. (author)

  13. The role of the national low level waste repository operator in delivering new solutions for the management of low level wastes in the UK - 16217

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkingshaw, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The UK National Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) is located near to the village of Drigg in West Cumbria. It is the principal site for disposal of solid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) in the United Kingdom. This paper describes the program of work currently being undertaken by the site's operators, (LLW Repository Ltd and its newly appointed Parent Body Organisation), to extend the life of the LLWR and reduce the overall cost of LLW management to the UK taxpayer. The current focus of this program is to prevent disposal capacity being taken up at LLWR by waste types which lend themselves to alternative treatment and/or disposition routes. The chosen approach enables consignors to segregate LLW at source into formats which allow further treatment for volume reduction or, (for wastes with lower levels of activity), consignment in the future to alternative disposal facilities. Segregated waste services are incorporated into LLW Disposal commercial agreements between the LLWR operator and waste consignors. (author)

  14. Glasses used in the solidification of high level radioactive waste: their behaviour in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1983-02-01

    Because of their amorphous structure, glasses are particularly suitable matrixes for the solidification of the mixture of radionuclides included in the high level wastes from reactor fuel reprocessing. They are not sensitive to variations in the fractions present of different waste oxides and are resistent to the effects of irradiation. In particular, borosilicate glasses have been investigated for around 25 years and the vitrification techniques have been tested on the technological scale. The environmental conditions within a final waste repository are expected to be such that the chemical resistance of glasses to attack by groundwaters is of special interest. In the present report the corrosion behaviour is described, with emphasis being placed upon the most significant controlling parameters. Since experimental determination of corrosion rates must be done in relatively short-time experiments, the results of which can depend strongly upon the measurement methods employed, it is necessary to carry out a critical assessment of the techniques commonly used in laboratory work. Experimental results are illustrated by means of selected examples. Particular emphasis is placed upon the effects of increased temperatures and of irradiation. The models which have been proposed for the estimation of the long-term corrosion behaviour of glasses are not yet fully sufficient and improvements are required. Furthermore, the actual corrosion rates which are fed into such models must be replaced by values more appropriate for the actual environmental conditions to which the glasses are most likely to be exposed within high level waste repositories. It should be noted, however, that even with current conservative input data on corrosion rates, typical estimated lifetimes for vitrified waste blocks are of the order of 10 5 years. The report concludes with recommendations concerning the most useful areas for further investigations. (author)

  15. Geologic disposal as optimal solution of managing the spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Ionescu, A.; Deaconu, V.

    2002-01-01

    To date there exist three alternatives for the concept of geological disposal: 1. storing the high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on ground repositories; 2. solutions implying advanced separation processes including partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and eventual disposal in outer space; 3. geological disposal in repositories excavated in rocks. Ground storing seems to be advantageous as it ensures a secure sustainable storing system over many centuries (about 300 years). On the other hand ground storing would be only a postponement in decision making and will be eventually followed by geological disposal. Research in the P and T field is expected to entail a significant reduction of the amount of long-lived radioactive waste although the long term geological disposal will be not eliminated. Having in view the high cost, as well as the diversity of conditions in the countries owning power reactors it appears as a reasonable regional solution of HLW disposal that of sharing a common geological disposal. In Romania legislation concerning of radioactive waste is based on the Law concerning Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management in View of Final Disposal. One admits at present that for Romania geological disposal is not yet a stressing issue and hence intermediate ground storing of SNF will allow time for finding a better final solution

  16. Solutions for Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    To safely and securely dispose of highlevel and long-lived radioactive waste, this material needs to be stored for a period of time that is very long compared to our everyday experience. Underground disposal facilities need to be designed and constructed in suitable geological conditions that can be confidently demonstrated to contain and isolate the hazardous waste from our environment for hundreds of thousands of years. Over this period of time, during which the safety of an underground waste repository system must be assured, the waste's radioactivity will decay to a level that cannot pose a danger to people or the environment. The archaeological record can help in visualizing such a long period of time. Climates change, oceans rise and vanish, and species evolve in the course of a one hundred millennia. Rocks bear witness to all of these changes. Geologists in their search for safe repositories for the long-term disposal of high level radioactive waste have identified rock formations that have proven stable for millions of years. These geological formations are expected to remain stable for millions of years and can serve as host formations for waste repositories.

  17. Comparison of international back-end solutions for low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleixo, Bruna L.; Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the use of radioactivity in different applications demands maximum attention due to its potential risks, a unique assessment of the matter is impossible to reach. When compared to other hazardous waste categories or even domestic waste, the amount of radioactive waste generated is not significant. The objective of this work is to analyze the variation associated to the amount of radioactive waste storage in many places. The results showed that this amount is increasing, a fact coherent to the growth in the last years of both the nuclear energy applications and the share of nuclear energy in the global market. (author)

  18. Comparison of international back-end solutions for low and intermediate level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, Bruna L.; Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: bla@ctdn.b, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In spite of the fact that the use of radioactivity in different applications demands maximum attention due to its potential risks, a unique assessment of the matter is impossible to reach. When compared to other hazardous waste categories or even domestic waste, the amount of radioactive waste generated is not significant. The objective of this work is to analyze the variation associated to the amount of radioactive waste storage in many places. The results showed that this amount is increasing, a fact coherent to the growth in the last years of both the nuclear energy applications and the share of nuclear energy in the global market. (author)

  19. Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D.

    1995-04-01

    Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO 3 , quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite

  20. Transport of a solute pulse through the bentonite barrier of deep geological high-level waste storage facilities in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormenzana Lopez, J.L.; Alonso Diaz-Teran, J.; Gonzalez- Herranz, E.

    1997-01-01

    Spain like Sweden, Finland, Canada and other countries has opted for an open nuclear fuel cycle, and to store the unreprocessed spent fuel in a stable geological formation. Sweden, Finland and Canada have chosen granite rock for their high-level waste storage facilities. Their Performance Assessment of disposal systems have all obtained to the same result. The greatest annual doses are caused by I 129 in the gap between the fuel rods and the cladding. The reference concept for the Spanish high-level waste storage facility in granite provides for final storage in a granite mass at a depth of 500 m in carbon steel capsules in horizontal tunnels surrounded by a bentonite buffer. It the capsule fails due to generalised corrosion, an not giving credit for the cladding, the I 129 and other radionuclides in the gap would pass immediately into the surrounding water. This paper describes the modelling of the transport of the solute through the bentonite around the capsule to determine the fraction that crosses the bentonite each year. It also analyses the sensitivity of the results to the boundary condition adopted and changes in the values of the relevant parameters. (Author)

  1. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-01-01

    sludge solids. We recommend that these results be evaluated further to determine if these solutions contain sufficient neutron poisons. We observed low general corrosion rates in tests in which carbon steel coupons were contacted with solutions of oxalic acid, citric acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acids. Wall thinning can be minimized by maintaining short contact times with these acid solutions. We recommend additional testing with oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures to measure dissolution performance of sludges that have not been previously dried. This testing should include tests to clearly ascertain the effects of total acid strength and metal complexation on dissolution performance. Further work should also evaluate the downstream impacts of citric acid on the SRS High-Level Waste System (e.g., radiochemical separations in the Salt Waste Processing Facility and addition of organic carbon in the Saltstone and Defense Waste Processing facilities)

  2. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  3. Nuclear waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  4. Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station

  5. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  6. Conditioning of radioactive waste solutions by cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejmelka, P.; Rudolph, G.; Kluger, W.; Koester, R.

    1992-02-01

    For the cementation of the low and intermediate level evaporator concentrates resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel numerous experiments were performed to optimize the waste form composition and to characterize the final waste form. Concerning the cementation process, properties of the waste/cement suspension were investigated. These investigations include the dependence of viscosity, bleeding, setting time and hydration heat from the waste cement slurry composition. For the characterization of the waste forms, the mechanical, thermal and chemical stability were determined. For special cases detailed investigations were performed to determine the activity release from waste packages under defined mechanical and thermal stresses. The investigations of the interaction of the waste forms with aqueous solutions include the determination of the Cs/Sr release, the corrosion resistance and the release of actinides. The Cs/Sr release was determined in dependence of the cement type, additives, setting time and sample size. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Reuse of hydroponic waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramasamy Rajesh; Cho, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Attaining sustainable agriculture is a key goal in many parts of the world. The increased environmental awareness and the ongoing attempts to execute agricultural practices that are economically feasible and environmentally safe promote the use of hydroponic cultivation. Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions with or without the use of artificial medium to provide mechanical support. Major problems for hydroponic cultivation are higher operational cost and the causing of pollution due to discharge of waste nutrient solution. The nutrient effluent released into the environment can have negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems as well as the potential to contaminate the groundwater utilized by humans for drinking purposes. The reuse of non-recycled, nutrient-rich hydroponic waste solution for growing plants in greenhouses is the possible way to control environmental pollution. Many researchers have successfully grown several plant species in hydroponic waste solution with high yield. Hence, this review addresses the problems associated with the release of hydroponic waste solution into the environment and possible reuse of hydroponic waste solution as an alternative resource for agriculture development and to control environmental pollution.

  8. Solubility and speciation of actinides in salt solutions and migration experiments of intermediate level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive study into the solubility of the actinides americium and plutonium in concentrated salt solutions, the release of radionuclides from various forms of conditioned ILW and the migration behaviour of these nuclides through geological material specific to the Gorleben site in Lower Saxony is described. A detailed investigation into the characterization of four highly concentrated salt solutions in terms of their pH, Eh, inorganic carbon contents and their densities is given and a series of experiments investigating the solubility of standard americium(III) and plutonium(IV) hydroxides in these solutions is described. Transuranic mobility studies for solutions derived from the standard hydroxides through salt and sand have shown the presence of at least two types of species present of widely differing mobility; one migrating with approximately the same velocity as the solvent front and the other strongly retarded. Actinide mobility data are presented and discussed for leachates derived from the simulated ILW in cement and data are also presented for the migration of the fission products in leachates derived from real waste solidified in cement and bitumen. Relatively high plutonium mobilities were observed in the case of the former and in the case of the real waste leachates, cesium was found to be the least retarded. The sorption of ruthenium was found to be largely associated with the insoluble residues of the natural rock salt rather than the halite itself. (orig./RB)

  9. Selection of Technical Solutions for the Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this publication are to identify and critically review the criteria to be considered while selecting waste management technologies; summarize, evaluate, rank and compare the different technical solutions; and offer a systematic approach for selecting the best matching solution. This publication covers the management of radioactive waste from all nuclear operations, including waste generated from research reactors, power reactors, and nuclear fuel cycle activities including high level waste (HLW) arising from reprocessing and spent nuclear fuel declared as waste (SFW), as well as low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) arising from the production and use of radionuclides in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research.

  10. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Comparison of costs for solidification of high-level radioactive waste solutions: glass monoliths vs metal matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Carlton, R.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    A comparative economic analysis was made of four solidification processes for liquid high-level radioactive waste. Two processes produced borosilicate glass monoliths and two others produced metal matrix composites of lead and borosilicate glass beads and lead and supercalcine pellets. Within the uncertainties of the cost (1979 dollars) estimates, the cost of the four processes was about the same, with the major cost component being the cost of the primary building structure. Equipment costs and operating and maintenance costs formed only a small portion of the building structure costs for all processes

  12. Radioactive wastes. The groundwork of current solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevoz, A.; Boullis, B.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Butez, M.; Bordier, G.; Vitart, X.; Hablot, I.; Chastagnet, F.

    2005-01-01

    Today the groundwork laid down by research has made processes available for the durable treatment and conditioning of all types of radioactive waste. This document illustrates the today situations in five presentations. Now standing as a national reference, the french inventory of radioactive waste, drawn up by ANDRA, has not only expanded to cover recoverable material but also features predictions of waste arisings for 2010 and 2020, including waste from the decommissioning of current installations. The current process used for spent fuel reprocessing allows extraction for recycling purpose, of uranium and plutonium, with very high recovery and purification rates. Advances in characterization and decontamination allow improvements in sorting and retrieval and conditioning to be considered for older wastes. The french National radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) is already providing optimum industrial solutions for all short-lived, low and very low level waste on its Soulaines and Morvillers sites. For several decades, Areva has been reprocessing spent fuel and conditioning ultimate waste in its La Hague plants. (A.L.B.)

  13. Behavior of technetium in alkaline solution: Identification of non-pertechnetate species in high-level nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukens, Wayne W. Jr.; Shuh, David K.; Schroeder, Norman C.; Ashley, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Technetium is a long-lived (99Tc: 213,000 year half-life) fission product found in nuclear waste and is one of the important isotopes of environmental concern. The known chemistry of technetium suggests that it should be found as pertechnetate, TcO4-, in the extremely basic environment of the nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford site. However, other chemical forms of technetium are present in significant amounts in certain tanks, and these non-pertechnetate species complicate the treatment of the waste. The only spectroscopic characterization of these non-pertechnetate species is a series of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of actual tank waste. To better understand the behavior of technetium under these conditions, we have investigated the reduction of pertechnetate in highly alkaline solution in the presence of compounds found in high-level waste. These results and the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of these species are compared to the chemical behavior and XANES spectra of the actual non-pertechnetate species. The identity of the nonpertechnetate species is surprising

  14. Siting low-level radioactive waste in Pennsylvania: socio-political problems and the search for solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    By January 1, 1996 the State of Pennsylvania must take title to and possession of all low-level radioactive waste generated within its borders and pay any damages resulting from failure to provide disposal. While ten years appears to be a comfortable time frame within which to develop a disposal facility, the path to an operating site will undoubtedly be difficult and costly in both time and money. Public opposition to waste in general and to radioactive materials in particular makes the 1996 deadline problematic. The not in my back yard battle cry highlights the conflict characterizing attempts to site any kind of hazardous material. Nuclear power plants, medical facilities, manufacturing industries, and research institutes have a high stake in successful siting. Three issues must be addressed to provide a better understanding of the dilemma facing the State: first, an overview of the development of the present legal situation is necessary to understand the mandate facing Pennsylvania; second, the nature of public intransigence and their perception of the situation sheds light on approaches which may enhance cooperation; finally, probable paths to a LLRW site which are now being discussed in draft legislation provide an assessment of how the State hopes to meet the siting challenge. A discussion of general siting difficulties will conclude the paper

  15. Radioactive waste management turning options into solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, J.

    2000-10-01

    Most of the statements from representatives of different countries and institutions focused on the status of high level radioactive waste management, including spent fuel repositories. Speakers dealing with such topics were representatives from countries applying nuclear power for electricity production. They all reported about there national programs on technical and safety aspects of radioactive waste management. The panel discussion extended to questions on political sensitivities and public acceptance; in this respect, interesting developments are taking place in Finland and Sweden. It is expected that Finland will operate a final repository for spent fuel in 10 - 15 years from now, followed close by Sweden. Other countries, however, face decisions by policy makers and elected officials to postpone dealing with waste disposal concerns. In this connection there is relevant experience in our country, too - even in the absence of spent fuel or other high level waste to be dealt with. During personal discussions with representatives of other countries not using nuclear power it was confirmed that there are similar or shared experiences. Development of publicly -accepted solutions to radioactive waste management remains an important issue. Independent of the amount or the activity of radioactive waste, the public at large remains skeptical despite the agreement among experts that disposal can be safe, technically feasible and environmentally sound. In countries not using nuclear power there are only small quantities of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Therefore, international co-operation among such countries should be an option. There was common understanding by representatives from Norway, Italy and Austria that international co-operation should be developed for treatment and disposal of such waste. For the moment however it has to be accepted that, for political reasons, it is not possible. Forced to deal with the lack of near-term solutions, the

  16. Nuclear waste management. Pioneering solutions from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Presentation outline: Background: Nuclear energy in Finland; Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Experiences; Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW); High Level Waste - Deep Geological Repository (DGR); NWM cost estimate in Finland; Conclusions: World-leading expert services

  17. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  18. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  19. Low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the current situation in the United States and a look to the future of low-level waste management are presented. Current problems and challenges are discussed, such as: the need of additional disposal sites in the future; risks and costs involved in transport of low-level wastes; reduction of low-level waste volume through smelting, incineration, and storage for wastes containing nuclides with short half lives; development of a national policy for the management of low-level waste, and its implementation through a sensible system of regulations. Establishing a success with low-level waste management should provide the momentum and public confidence needed to continue on and to resolve the technical and politically more difficult low-level waste problems

  20. Reaction of H atoms with chelators in highly basic solution: H2 production in high level liquid waste simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Jonah, C.D.; Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The rate constants for hydrogen abstraction by H from ethylene-diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), iminodiacetic acid (IDA), glycolic acid and citric acid were measured at pH 13. The predominant product of these reactions is H 2 . The rate constants obtained are more than an order of magnitude larger than the literature rates that had been measured at pH 1. These measurements are of significance for understanding the radiolytic production of H 2 in nuclear waste storage tanks. (Author)

  1. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  2. Effects of Fuel to Synthesis of CaTiO3 by Solution Combustion Synthesis for High-Level Nuclear Waste Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Choong-Hwan; Kim, Yeon-Ku; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2016-02-01

    A solution combustion process for the synthesis of perovskite (CaTiO3) powders is described. Perovskite is one of the crystalline host matrics for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) because it immobilizes Sr and Lns elements by forming solid solutions. Solution combustion synthesis, which is a self-sustaining oxi-reduction reaction between nitrate and organic fuel, the exothermic reaction, and the heat evolved convert the precursors into their corresponding oxide products above 1100 degrees C in air. To investigate the effects of amino acid on the combustion reaction, various types of fuels were used; a glycine, amine and carboxylic ligand mixture. Sr, La and Gd-nitrate with equivalent amounts of up to 20% of CaTiO3 were mixed with Ca and Ti nitrate and amino acid. X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM and TEM were conducted to confirm the formed phases and morphologies. While powders with an uncontrolled shape are obtained through a general oxide-route process, Ca(Sr, Lns)TiO3 powders with micro-sized soft agglomerates consisting of nano-sized primary particles can be prepared using this method.

  3. Scientific Solutions to Nuclear Waste Environmental Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bradley R.

    2014-01-01

    The Hidden Cost of Nuclear Weapons The Cold War arms race drove an intense plutonium production program in the U.S. This campaign produced approximately 100 tons of plutonium over 40 years. The epicenter of plutonium production in the United States was the Hanford site, a 586 square mile reservation owned by the Department of Energy and located on the Colombia River in Southeastern Washington. Plutonium synthesis relied on nuclear reactors to convert uranium to plutonium within the reactor fuel rods. After a sufficient amount of conversion occurred, the rods were removed from the reactor and allowed to cool. They were then dissolved in an acid bath and chemically processed to separate and purify plutonium from the rest of the constituents in the used reactor fuel. The acidic waste was then neutralized using sodium hydroxide and the resulting mixture of liquids and precipitates (small insoluble particles) was stored in huge underground waste tanks. The byproducts of the U.S. plutonium production campaign include over 53 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground tanks at Hanford and another 34 million gallons stored at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This legacy nuclear waste represents one of the largest environmental clean-up challenges facing the world today. The nuclear waste in the Hanford tanks is a mixture of liquids and precipitates that have settled into sludge. Some of these tanks are now over 60 years old and a small number of them are leaking radioactive waste into the ground and contaminating the environment. The solution to this nuclear waste challenge is to convert the mixture of solids and liquids into a durable material that won't disperse into the environment and create hazards to the biosphere. What makes this difficult is the fact that the radioactive half-lives of some of the radionuclides in the waste are thousands to millions of years long. (The half-life of a radioactive substance is the amount

  4. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  5. Investigations of actinides in the context of final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Trivalent actinides in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banik, N.L.; Boris Brendebach; Marquardt, Ch.M.

    2014-01-01

    The speciation of redox sensitive trivalent actinides Pu(III), Np(III), and U(III) has been studied in aqueous solution. The redox preparation, stabilization, and speciation of these trivalent actinides in aqueous systems are discussed here. The reductants investigated were rongalite, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and acetohydroxamic acid and the An(III) species have been characterized by UV-Vis and XANES spectroscopy. The results show that the effectiveness of stabilization decreases generally in the order Pu(III) > Np(III) > U(III) and that the effectiveness of each reducing agent depends on the experimental conditions. More than 80 % of Pu(III) aquo species have been stabilized up to pH 5.5, whereas the Np(III) aquo ion could be stabilized in a pH range 0-2.5, and U(III) aquo ion is sufficiently stable at pH 1.0 and below over time periods suitable for experiments. However, this study gives a basis for the characterisation of the trivalent lighter actinides involved in complexation, sorption, and solid formation reactions in the future. (author)

  6. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  7. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  8. Radioactive waste management - a safe solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This booklet sets out current United Kingdom government policy regarding radioactive waste management and is aimed at reassuring members of the public concerned about the safety of radioactive wastes. The various disposal or, processing or storage options for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are explained and sites described, and the work of the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is outlined. (UK)

  9. Selective separation of cesium from simulated high level liquid waste solution using 1,3-dioctyloxy calix[4]arene-benzo-crown-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas Kumar; Sharma, J.N.; Hubli, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    The 25,27-di(octyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 (CBC) in 1,3-alternate conformation was synthesized indigenously starting from its intermediates in good yield and purity. The extraction studies of CBC were carried out by using two different phase modifiers namely isodecyl alcohol and ortho-nitrophenyl hexyl ether. Detailed investigations on the effect of various parameters like, concentration of phase modifiers, aqueous phase acidity, ligand concentration, nitrate ion concentration and effect of temperature on extraction of cesium have been carried out. The concentration of phase modifiers was optimized to be 30 % in n-dodecane to ensure optimum extraction of cesium. Stoichiometry of the extracted complex determined by slope analysis method reveals 1:1:1 molar ratio for CsNO 3 :CBC:HNO 3 . The extraction process was found to be exothermic as determined from the plot of log K ex versus 1/T. The solvent system with a composition 0.01 M CBC/30 % phase modifier/n-dodecane was found to be effective for selective separation of cesium from simulated high level liquid waste solution. (author)

  10. Engineering solutions to the management of solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste, its safe handling and ultimate disposal, is of vital concern to engineers in the nuclear industry. The international conference 'Engineering Solutions to the Management of Solid Radioactive Waste', organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and held in Manchester in November 1991, provided a forum for the discussion and comparison of the different methods of waste management used in Europe and America. Papers presented and discussed included: the interaction between the design of containers for low level radioactive waste and the design of a deep repository, commercial low level waste disposal sites in the United States, and the development of radioactive waste monitoring systems at the Sellafield reprocessing complex. This volume is a collection of 22 papers presented at the conference. All are indexed separately. (author)

  11. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  12. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  13. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  14. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  15. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  16. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards

  17. Assessment of costs related to the implementation of management solutions on the long term for high and medium level long life radioactive wastes. ANDRA's proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    This huge document contains several volumes which propose detailed costing of the various parts of the Cigeo project after sketch studies (this project deals with the deep geological storage of high and medium level long life radioactive wastes). It notably states the various hypotheses regarding the inventory of radioactive wastes, the waste supply prediction, and works closure. This cost assessment takes the different project stages into account and a cost update. Various aspects are thus assessed, some related to investments (design studies, preliminary works, construction of the various installations, renewal of equipment during exploitation, installation dismantling and works closure, insurance, commissioning authority and engineering subcontracting), to exploitation (production and maintenance, support, activities related to safety, radiation protection and control of the environment, operating costs, utilities, storage containers, insurance), and to other expenses (tax, research and development, technological tests, control after closure)

  18. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  19. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  20. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  1. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested

  2. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  3. Is Yucca Mountain a long-term solution for disposing of US spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, M C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 January 2012, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future released a report addressing, amongst other matters, options for the managing and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel. The Blue Ribbon Commission was not chartered as a siting commission. Accordingly, it did not evaluate Yucca Mountain or any other location as a potential site for the storage or disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Nevertheless, if the Commission's recommendations are followed, it is clear that any future proposals to develop a repository at Yucca Mountain would require an extended period of consultation with local communities, tribes and the State of Nevada. Furthermore, there would be a need to develop generally applicable regulations for disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, so that the Yucca Mountain site could be properly compared with alternative sites that would be expected to be identified in the initial phase of the site-selection process. Based on what is now known of the conditions existing at Yucca Mountain and the large number of safety, environmental and legal issues that have been raised in relation to the DOE Licence Application, it is suggested that it would be imprudent to include Yucca Mountain in a list of candidate sites for future evaluation in a consent-based process for site selection. Even if there were a desire at the local, tribal and state levels to act as hosts for such a repository, there would be enormous difficulties in attempting to develop an adequate post-closure safety case for such a facility, and in showing why this unsaturated environment should be preferred over other geological contexts that exist in the USA and that are more akin to those being studied and developed in other countries.

  4. Low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography contains information on low-level radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base for January through December 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Low-Level Radioactive Wastes/Transport. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each proceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 492 references

  5. Other-than-high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The main emphasis of the work in the area of partitioning transuranic elements from waste has been in the area of high-level liquid waste. But there are ''other-than-high-level wastes'' generated by the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that are both large in volume and contaminated with significant quantities of transuranic elements. The combined volume of these other wastes is approximately 50 times that of the solidified high-level waste. These other wastes also contain up to 75% of the transuranic elements associated with waste generated by the back end of the fuel cycle. Therefore, any detailed evaluation of partitioning as a viable waste management option must address both high-level wastes and ''other-than-high-level wastes.''

  6. Processing of waste solutions from electrochemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, L.A.; Allen, R.P.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Hooper, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The use of electropolishing as a decontamination technique will be effective only if we can minimize the amount of secondary waste requiring disposal and economically recycle part of the decontamination electrolyte. Consequently, a solution purification method is needed to remove the dissolved contamination and metal in the electrolyte. This report describes the selection of a purification method for a phosphoric acid electrolyte from the following possible acid reclamation processes: ion exchange, solvent extraction, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis, and membrane separation

  7. Techniques for the solidification of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The problem of the long-term management of the high-level wastes from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel is receiving world-wide attention. While the majority of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of commercial fuels are currently being stored in stainless-steel tanks, increasing effort is being devoted to developing technology for the conversion of these wastes into solids. A number of full-scale solidification facilities are expected to come into operation in the next decade. The object of this report is to survey and compare all the work currently in progress on the techniques available for the solidification of high-level wastes. It will examine the high-level liquid wastes arising from the various processes currently under development or in operation, the advantages and disadvantages of each process for different types and quantities of waste solutions, the stages of development, the scale-up potential and flexibility of the processes

  8. The management of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennemann, Wm.L.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste

  9. Recovery of uranium from analytical waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Anitha, M.; Singh, D.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion fuels are considered as advance fuel for the nuclear reactor. Liquid waste containing significant quantity of uranium gets generated during chemical characterization of dispersion fuel. The present paper highlights the effort in devising a counter current solvent extraction process based on the synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 to recover uranium from such waste solutions. A typical analytical waste solution was found to have the following composition: U 3 O 8 (∼3 g/L), Al: 0.3 g/L, V: 15 ppm, Phosphoric acid: 3M, sulphuric acid : 1M and nitric acid : 1M. The aqueous solution is composed of mixture of either 3M phosphoric acid and 1M sulphuric acid or 1M sulphuric acid and 1M nitric acid, keeping metallic concentrations in the above mentioned range. Different organic solvents were tested. Based on the higher extraction of uranium with synergistic mixture of 0.5M D2EHPA + 0.125M Cyanex 923, it was selected for further investigation in the present work

  10. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  11. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  12. Low-level radioactive waste management. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious environmental problems facing Canadians. From the early industrial uses of radioactive material in the 1930s to the development of nuclear power reactors and the medical and experimental use of radioisotopes today, there has been a steady accumulation of waste products. Although the difficulties involved in radioactive waste management are considerable, responsible solutions are possible. This paper will discuss low-level radioactive waste, including its production, the amounts in storage, the rate of waste accumulation and possible strategies for its management. (author). 2 figs

  13. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite

  14. Certification Plan, low-level waste Hazardous Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the organization and methodology for the certification of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) handled in the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). This plan also incorporates the applicable elements of waste reduction, which include both up-front minimization and end-product treatment to reduce the volume and toxicity of the waste; segregation of the waste as it applies to certification; an executive summary of the Waste Management Quality Assurance Implementing Management Plan (QAIMP) for the HWHF and a list of the current and planned implementing procedures used in waste certification. This plan provides guidance from the HWHF to waste generators, waste handlers, and the Waste Certification Specialist to enable them to conduct their activities and carry out their responsibilities in a manner that complies with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Waste generators have the primary responsibility for the proper characterization of LLW. The Waste Certification Specialist verifies and certifies that LBL LLW is characterized, handled, and shipped in accordance with the requirements of WHC-WAC. Certification is the governing process in which LBL personnel conduct their waste generating and waste handling activities in such a manner that the Waste Certification Specialist can verify that the requirements of WHC-WAC are met

  15. Solutions for energy recovery of animal waste from leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe; Pană, Constantin; Mihaescu, Lucian; Cernat, Alexandru; Negurescu, Niculae; Mocanu, Raluca; Negreanu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal fats in blend with diesel fuel for energy valorification through combustion. • Animal waste from tanneries as fuel and for biogas production. • Experimental tests using animal fats as fuel for diesel engines. • Experimental tests modifying the characteristic parameters. - Abstract: Secondary products from food and leather industries are regarded as animal wastes. Conversion of these animal wastes into fuels represents an energy recovery solution not only because of their good combustion properties, but also from the viewpoint of supply stability. A tannery factory usually processes 60–70 t/month of crude leathers, resulting in 12–15 t/month of waste. Fats, which can be used as the input fuel for diesel engines (in crude state or as biodiesel), represent 10% of this animal waste, while the rest are proteins that can be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Herein, we analyse two approaches to the use of animal waste from tanneries: as fuel for diesel engines and for biogas generation for heat production. Diesel fuelling and fuelling by animal wastes are compared in terms of the engine performance and pollutant emissions. The effects of animal waste usage on the pollutant emissions level, exhaust gas temperature, indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, and engine efficiency are analysed. The energy recovery technologies for animal waste, which are analysed in this work, can be easily implemented and can simultaneously solve the problem posed by animal wastes by using them as an alternative to fossil fuels. Animal fats can be considered an excellent alternative fuel for diesel engines without major constructive modifications.

  16. Development of chemical decontamination for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Seigo; Omata, Kazuo; Obinata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Kanamori, Osamu.

    1995-01-01

    During routine intermittent inspection and maintenance at nuclear power plants, a considerable quantity of low level radioactive waste is generated requiring release from the nuclear site or treating additionally. To decontaminate this waste for safe release from the nuclear power plant, the first step could be washing the waste in Methylene chloride, CH 2 Cl 2 , to remove most of the paint coating. However, CH 2 Cl 2 washing does not completely remove the paint coating from the waste, which in the next step is shot blasted with plastic bead media to loose and remove the remaining paint coating. Following in succession, in the third step, the waste is washed in a chelate solution, after which most waste is decontaminated and suitable to be released for recycling. The residual chelate solution may be decomposed into nontoxic carbon dioxide and water by an electrolysis process and then safely discharged into the environment. (author)

  17. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the essential aims in the waste management is to reduce as much as possible the waste volumes to be stored or disposed of, and to concentrate and immobilize as much as possible the radioactivity contained in the waste. This document describes the treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid waste prior to its conditioning for storage and disposal. This report aims primarily at compiling the experience gained in treating low- and intermediate-active solid wastes, one of the major waste sources in nuclear technology. Apart from the description of existing facilities and demonstrated handling schemes, this report provides the reader with the basis for a judgement that facilitates the selection of appropriate solutions for a given solid-waste management problem. It thus aims at providing guidelines in the particular field and indicates new promising approaches that are actually under investigation and development

  18. Mixed waste: An alternative solution. The utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seizert, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of mixed waste is one of significant interest to the utility industry. The interest is focused on the current regulatory scheme of dual regulation. A fundamental concern of the commercial nuclear utilities resulting from dual regulation is that there are currently no facilities in the US to dispose of mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste. The lack of available sites renders mixed waste an orphan, requiring generators of such material to store the waste on-site. This in turn causes commercial nuclear power plants to be subjected to the full gamut of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation in addition to the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Superimposing dual regulatory schemes will have impacts which extend far beyond the mere management of mixed waste. Certainly the burdens, complexities and costs of complying with the overlapping regulatory schemes will not have a commensurate increase in protection from the real risks being addressed. For these reasons, the commercial nuclear utility industry is working toward an alternative solution which will protect the public health and the environment from all hazards of mixed waste and will minimize the impacts on both the regulators and the regulated community

  19. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  20. Final repositories for high-level radioactive waste; Endlagerung hochradioaktiver Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-10-15

    The brochure on final repositories for high-level radioactive waste covers the following issues: What is the origin of radioactive wastes? How large are the waste amounts? What is going to happen with the wastes? What is the solution for the Waste disposal? A new site search is started. Safety requirements for the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Comparison of host rocks. Who is responsible and who will pay? Final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes worldwide. Short summary: History of the search for a final repository for high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  1. Design concepts of definitive disposal for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Alonso V, G.

    2007-01-01

    It is excessively known the importance about finding a solution for the handling and disposition of radioactive waste of all level. However, the polemic is centered in the administration of high level radioactive waste and the worn out fuel, forgetting that the more important volumes of waste its are generated in the categories of low level wastes or of very low level. Depending on the waste that will be confined and of the costs, several technological modalities of definitive disposition exist, in function of the depth of the confinement. The concept of deep geologic storage, technological option proposed more than 40 years ago, it is a concept of isolation of waste of long half life placed in a deep underground installation dug in geologic formations that are characterized by their high stability and their low flow of underground water. In the last decades, they have registered countless progresses in technical and scientific aspects of the geologic storage, making it a reliable technical solution supported with many years of scientific work carried out by numerous institutions in the entire world. In this work the design concepts that apply some countries for the high level waste disposal that its liberate heat are revised and the different geologic formations that have been considered for the storage of this type of wastes. (Author)

  2. The future of very low level radioactive wastes in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled that nuclear plants produce various radioactive wastes, that the Cigeo project is the proposed solution to store these radioactive wastes, this article more particularly addresses the issue of very low level radioactive wastes which are now the main matter of concern for the IRSN as their quantity is expected to increase during the years to come (notably in relationship with nuclear reactor lifetime extension), and as present storage capacities will soon be saturated. The author first outlines that these wastes are not very dangerous but very cumbersome. Among these so-defined 'very low level' wastes, 30 to 50 per cent could be considered as harmless, but are now processed as dangerous wastes through costly processes. Various possibilities are then envisaged such as a diversification of storage options

  3. High level waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.; Bonniaud, R.; Jouan, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper deals with solidification of radioactive wastes. The vitrification process has been selected, the Marcoule vitrification plant and the operation are described. Prospects for vitrification of fission product solutions from La Hague reprocessing plant are given

  4. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report

  5. Current high-level waste solidification technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology has been developed in the U.S. and abroad for solidification of high-level waste from nuclear power production. Several processes have been demonstrated with actual radioactive waste and are now being prepared for use in the commercial nuclear industry. Conversion of the waste to a glass form is favored because of its high degree of nondispersibility and safety

  6. Low-level waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalph, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the organization and methodology for the certification of solid low-level waste (LLW) and mixed-waste (MW) generated at any of the facilities or major work activities of the Engineered Process Application (EPA) organization. The primary LLW and MW waste generating facility operated by EPA is the 377 Building. This plan does not cover the handling of hazardous or non-regulated waste, though they are mentioned at times for completeness

  7. Low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbay, H.; Chapuis, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    During dismantling operations of nuclear facilities radioctive and non radioactive wastes are produced. The distinction between both kinds of wastes is not easy. In each dismantling operation special care and rules are defined for the separation of wastes. Each case must be separately studied. The volume and the surface activites are analyzed. Part of the wastes had been disposed in a public environment. The regulations, the international recommendations, thetheoretical and experimental investigations in this field are presented. A regulation principle and examples of radioactivity limits, on the basis of international recommendations, are provided. Those limits are calculated from individual radiation dose that may reach human beings [fr

  8. Concept development for saltstone and low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1987-03-01

    A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a cement wasteform, saltstone, and placed in surface vaults. Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Planning for new Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal could incorporate concepts developed for saltstone disposal

  9. Vitrification of high level wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1984-02-01

    A brief historical background of the research and development work conducted in France over 25 years is first presented. Then, the papers deals with the vitrification at (1) the UP1 reprocessing plant (Marcoule) and (2) the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants (La Hague). 1) The properties of glass required for high-level radioactive waste vitrification are recalled. The vitrification process and facility of Marcoule are presented. (2) The average characteristics (chemical composition, activity) of LWR fission product solution are given. The glass formulations developed to solidify LWR waste solution must meet the same requirements as those used in the UP1 facility at Marcoule. Three important aspects must be considered with respect to the glass fabrication process: corrosiveness of the molten glass with regard to metals, viscosity of the molten glass, and, volatization during glass fabrication. The glass properties required in view of interim storage and long-term disposal are then largely developed. Two identical vitrification facilities are planned for the site: T7, to process the UP2 throughput, and T7 for the UP3 plant. A prototype unit was built and operated at Marcoule

  10. Stabilization and disposal of Argonne-West low-level mixed wastes in ceramicrete waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D. B.; Singh, D.; Strain, R. V.; Tlustochowicz, M.; Wagh, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    The technology of room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics or Ceramicretetrademark technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East is being used to treat and dispose of low-level mixed wastes through the Department of Energy complex. During the past year, Ceramicretetrademark technology was implemented for field application at ANL-West. Debris wastes were treated and stabilized: (a) Hg-contaminated low-level radioactive crushed light bulbs and (b) low-level radioactive Pb-lined gloves (part of the MWIR number s ign AW-W002 waste stream). In addition to hazardous metals, these wastes are contaminated with low-level fission products. Initially, bench-scale waste forms with simulated and actual waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and an acid phosphate solution, and the wastes. Size reduction of Pb-lined plastic glove waste was accomplished by cryofractionation. The Ceramicretetrademark process produces dense, hard ceramic waste forms. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results showed excellent stabilization of both Hg and Pb in the waste forms. The principal advantage of this technology is that immobilization of contaminants is the result of both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. Based on bench-scale studies, Ceramicretetrademark technology has been implemented in the fabrication of 5-gal waste forms at ANL-West. Approximately 35 kg of real waste has been treated. The TCLP is being conducted on the samples from the 5-gal waste forms. It is expected that because the waste forms pass the limits set by the EPAs Universal Treatment Standard, they will be sent to a radioactive-waste disposal facility

  11. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, S.R.; Goldstein, M.E.

    1983-12-01

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  12. Stability of High-Level Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Vienna, John D.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of the proposed effort is to use a new approach to develop solution models of complex waste glass systems and spent fuel that are predictive with regard to composition, phase separation, and volatility. The effort will also yield thermodynamic values for waste components that are fundamentally required for corrosion models used to predict the leaching/corrosion behavior for waste glass and spent fuel material. This basic information and understanding of chemical behavior can subsequently be used directly in computational models of leaching and transport in geologic media, in designing and engineering waste forms and barrier systems, and in prediction of chemical interactions.

  13. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report aims at giving the reader details of the experience gained in the treatment of both low- and intermediate-level radioactive liquid wastes. The treatment comprises those operations to remove radioactivity from the wastes and those that change only its chemical composition, so as to permit its discharge. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the satisfactory treatment of such wastes. Although there are no universally accepted definitions for low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes, the IAEA classification (see section 3.2) is used in this report. The two categories differ from one another in the fact that for low-level liquids the actual radiation does not require shielding during normal handling of the wastes. Liquid wastes which are not considered in this report are those from mining and milling operations and the high-level liquid wastes resulting from fuel reprocessing. These are referred to in separate IAEA reports. Likewise, wastes from decommissioning operations are not within the scope of this report. Apart from the description of existing methods and facilities, this report is intended to provide advice to the reader for the selection of appropriate solutions to waste management problems. In addition, new and promising techniques which are either being investigated or being considered for the future are discussed

  14. Organic complexing agents in low and medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.; Persson, G.

    1985-11-01

    Low and medium level radioactive wastes will contain various organic agents, such as ion exchange resins (mainly in the operational wastes), plastics and cellulose (mainly in the reprocessing wastes and in the decommissioning wastes) and bitumen (mainly in the reprocessing wastes). The degradation of these organics will lead to the formation of complexing agents that possibly could affect the release of radionuclides from an underground repository and the subsequent transport of these nuclides. The solution chemistry of the actinides may be totally dominated by the presence of such organic degradation products within the repository. However, hydrolysis and formation of carbonates (and possibly humates) will most likely dominate solubility and speciation outside the immediate vicinity of the repository. The minor quantities of strong complexing agents (in the reprocessing waste), notably aminopolycarboxylic acids (EDTA, DTPA) and possibly organic phosphates (DBP) could significantly affect speciation and sorption behaviour of primarily the trivalent actinides even outside the repository. (author)

  15. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan's radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan's population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California's. If everyone's backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan's contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R ampersand D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC

  16. High level waste at Hanford: Potential for waste loading maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.R.; Bailey, A.W.

    1995-09-01

    The loading of Hanford nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is limited by phase-related phenomena, such as crystallization or formation of immiscible liquids, and by breakdown of the glass structure because of an excessive concentration of modifiers. The phase-related phenomena cause both processing and product quality problems. The deterioration of product durability determines the ultimate waste loading limit if all processing problems are resolved. Concrete examples and mass-balance based calculations show that a substantial potential exists for increasing waste loading of high-level wastes that contain a large fraction of refractory components

  17. Cermets for high level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cermet materials are currently under investigation as an alternate for the primary containment of high level wastes. The cermet in this study is an iron--nickel base metal matrix containing uniformly dispersed, micron-size fission product oxides, aluminosilicates, and titanates. Cermets possess high thermal conductivity, and typical waste loading of 70 wt % with volume reduction factors of 2 to 200 and low processing volatility losses have been realized. Preliminary leach studies indicate a leach resistance comparable to other candidate waste forms; however, more quantitative data are required. Actual waste studies have begun on NFS Acid Thorex, SRP dried sludge and fresh, unneutralized SRP process wastes

  18. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  19. The different solutions for the waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillion, E.

    2001-01-01

    Created in 1979, the National agency for the management of radioactive waste (A.N.D.R.A.) is a public establishment in charge of the management of radioactive waste produced in France. It is independent from waste producers and watches over the long term protection of man and his environment, at any step of radioactive waste management. It has for mission to check the waste quality and to conceive, to establish, to build and to manage storage centers where waste are stored according their characteristics. (N.C.)

  20. Incineration of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussmann, H.; Klemann, D.; Mallek, H.

    1986-01-01

    At present, various incinerators for radioactive waste are operated with more or less good results worldwide. Both, plant manufacturers and plant owners have repeatedly brought about plant modifications and improvements over the last 10 years, and this is true for the combustion process and also for the waste gas treatment systems. This paper attempts to summarize requirements, in general, by owner/operators for the plants which are designed and erected today

  1. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  2. Carbon Market and Integrated Waste Solutions : a Case Study of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Carbon Market and Integrated Waste Solutions : a Case Study of Indonesia ... dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve sustainable development ... with a view to devising integrated waste management solutions in urban centres ... and disseminate them through national, regional and international networks.

  3. Treatment of organic waste solutions containing tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnik, S.

    The two processes developed in the laboratory for treating waste solutions containing TBP, namely TBP separation with phosphoric acid and saponification were tested on a semi-industrial scale. A waste solution from the first phase of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant was used

  4. The waste management program VUB-AZ: An integrated solution for nuclear biomedical waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covens, P.; Sonck, M.; Eggermont, G.; Meert, D.

    2001-01-01

    unit will be compared with the MDA obtained by different handheld monitors. All results will be finally correlated to the different proposed clearance levels. These clearance levels can easily be met through on-site storage for radionuclides with half-life less than 1 year. For a waste stream of 1000 packages or more a year, a management software is indispensable. The software 'WasteMan' was developed on-site. This user-friendly software takes care of the entire storage procedure and allows a complete bookkeeping of the daily nuclear waste streams. Based on the sophisticated waste collection procedure, the WasteMan software allows both a complete inventory of the storage facility and a full traceability of all waste packages from production to either clearance or disposal. At the same time all necessary documents for either clearance or disposal are generated automatically. The data-exchange between several interfaces enables timesaving administration. In addition to these technical aspects a general analysis of the economic impact of such an on- site decay program will be made for a medium sized university with hospital, yielding a serious reduction of waste handling costs. This waste storage program, including the complete measurement set-up and the necessary management software, was recently installed in a second university, proving the general applicability of the whole concept for biomedical nuclear waste. Many hospitals and other biomedical centres however produce small quantities of nuclear waste for which investments, like measurement equipment and decay rooms, are not cost-effective. The installation of a regional centre for nuclear biomedical waste will be presented here as an alternative solution for this problem

  5. Energy from waste: a wholly acceptable waste-management solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the 'waste management hierarchy' and why it should be treated as a checklist and not a piece of unquestioning dogma. The role of energy from waste (EfW) is examined in depth to show that it is a rigorous and environmentally sound waste-management option which complements other components of the waste-management hierarchy and assists resource conservation. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Conflict resolution in low-level waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Siting a low-level waste facility is only one part of the low-level waste management process. But it is a crucial part, a prism that focuses many of the other issues in low-level waste management. And, as the 1990 and 1992 milestones approach, siting has a urgency that makes the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques especially appropriate, to avoid protracted and expensive litigation and to reach creative and durable solutions. Drawing upon literature in the ADR field, this paper discusses ADR techniques as they apply to low-level waste management and the groundwork that must be laid before they can be applied. It also discusses questions that can arise concerning the terms under which negotiations are carried out. The paper then give suggestions for achieving win/win negotiations. Potential objections to negotiated agreements and potential answers to those objections are reviewed, and some requisites for negotiation are given

  7. Update on low-level waste compacts and state agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenan, M.; Rabbe, D.; Thompson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This article updates information on the following agencies involved in low-level radioactive wastes: Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Central Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Commission; Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Compact; Massachusetts Low-Level radioactive Waste Management Board; Michigan Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority; Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission; Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact; Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management; Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Board; Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management;Southwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

  8. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  9. Waste management outlook for mountain regions: Sources and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semernya, Larisa; Ramola, Aditi; Alfthan, Björn; Giacovelli, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Following the release of the global waste management outlook in 2015, the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), through its International Environmental Technology Centre, is elaborating a series of region-specific and thematic waste management outlooks that provide policy recommendations and solutions based on current practices in developing and developed countries. The Waste Management Outlook for Mountain Regions is the first report in this series. Mountain regions present unique challenges to waste management; while remoteness is often associated with costly and difficult transport of waste, the potential impact of waste pollutants is higher owing to the steep terrain and rivers transporting waste downstream. The Outlook shows that waste management in mountain regions is a cross-sectoral issue of global concern that deserves immediate attention. Noting that there is no 'one solution fits all', there is a need for a more landscape-type specific and regional research on waste management, the enhancement of policy and regulatory frameworks, and increased stakeholder engagement and awareness to achieve sustainable waste management in mountain areas. This short communication provides an overview of the key findings of the Outlook and highlights aspects that need further research. These are grouped per source of waste: Mountain communities, tourism, and mining. Issues such as waste crime, plastic pollution, and the linkages between exposure to natural disasters and waste are also presented.

  10. Inhibition of nuclear waste solutions containing multiple aggressive anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congdon, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibition of localized corrosion of carbon steel in caustic, high-level radioactive waste solutions was studied using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans, supplemented by partially immersed coupon tests. The electrochemical tests provided a rapid and accurate means of determining the relationship between the minimum inhibitor requirements and the concentration of the aggressive anions in this system. Nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were identified as aggressive anions, however, no synergistic effects were observed between these anions. This observation may have important theoretical implications because it tends to contradict the behavior of aggressive anions as predicted by existing theories for localized corrosion. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. The importance of community trust in advancing solutions to the low-level radioactive waste problem in the port hope Ontario area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the author gave a personal account from an ''Eldorado kid'' whose father worked at the local plant of Port Hope, to a small businessman concerned by the stigma attached nationally to his home place. Starting inn 1976, nightly news reports of contaminated houses, schools and ravines transformed the town into ''the radioactive hotbed of the country''. The management of the conflict situation is then analyzed. The author recalled the multi-phased process of resolving the waste issue. The issue was felt to represent a stigma problem more than a health problem. (A.L.B.)

  12. Solidification of radioactive waste solutions by pelletization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, A.H.; Koester, R.; Rudolph, G.

    1980-04-01

    A possible way of performing the cement fixation of radioactive wastes is the incorporation into cement pellets on a pan pelletizer, followed by embedding the pellets into an inactive cement matrix. This procedure is suitable for various types of waste, particularly for medium level liquid wastes, and can be used both at drum disposal and at in-situ solidification. This report describes some initial studies on the pelletization technique using a laboratory pelletizer. Formation and size of the pellets have been found to be determined by speed, angle, and load of the pan, ratio and mode of addition of the liquid and solid components, ect. Pellets in various compositions have been produced from cement and water or simulated waste solution, in some cases with the addition of bentonite for improving cesium retention. Some mechanical properties of the pellets such as fall height of fresh pellets, development of hardness (crush test), impact and abrasion resistance, have been determined. Some preliminary experiments were done on backfilling the void space between the pellets - about 40 per cent of the bulk volume - with cement grouts of appropriate compositions. (orig.) [de

  13. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  14. Low-level waste workshops. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 specifies that each state is responsible for the disposal of the low-level waste which is generated within its boundaries. The Act states that such wastes can be most safely and efficiently managed on a regional basis through compacts. It also defines low-level waste as waste which is not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product material as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Policy Act also stipulates that regional agreements or compacts shall not be applicable to the transportation, management, or disposal of low-level radioactive waste from atomic energy defense activities or federal research and development activities. It also specifies that agreements or compacts shall take affect on January 1, 1986, upon Congressional approval. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Office. The grant was to be used to fund workshops for legislation on low-level radioactive waste issues. The purpose of the workshops was to provide discussion specifically on the Midwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Legislators from the states which were eligible to join the compact were invited: Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Virginia, Kansas and Nebraska were also eligible but had joined other compacts. Consequently, they weren't invited to the workshops. The Governor's office of West Virginia expressed interest in the compact, and its legislators were invited to attend a workshop. Two workshops were held in March. This report is a summary of the proceedings which details the concerns of the compact and expresses the reasoning behind supporting or not supporting the compact

  15. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M andO 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  16. Spectroscopic and first-principles calculation studies of the chemical forms of palladium ion in nitric acid solution for development of disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinta; Sato, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Tomoko; Nakaya, Masato; Yoshino, Masahito; Nagasaki, Takanori; Inaba, Yusuke; Takeshita, Kenji; Onoe, Jun

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the chemical forms of palladium (Pd) ion in nitric acid solution, using XAFS/UV-vis spectroscopic and first-principles methods in order to develop the disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear liquid wastes (HLLW: radioactive metal ions in 2 M nitric acid solution). The results of theoretical calculations and XAFS/UV-vis spectroscopy indicate that Pd is a divalent ion and forms a square-planar complex structure coordinated with four nitrate ions, [Pd(NO3)4]2-, in nitric acid solution. This complex structure is also thermodynamically predicted to be most stable among complexes [Pd(H2O)x(NO3)4-x]x-2 (x = 0-4). Since the overall feature of UV-vis spectra of the Pd complex was independent of nitric acid concentration in the range 1-6 M, the structure of the Pd complex remains unchanged in this range. Furthermore, we examined the influence of γ-ray radiation on the [Pd(NO3)4]2- complex, using UV-vis spectroscopy, and found that UV-vis spectra seemed not to be changed even after 1.0 MGy irradiation. This implies that the Pd complex structure will be still stable in actual HLLW. These findings obtained above are useful information to develop the vitrification processes for disposal of HLLW.

  17. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  18. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  19. IEN Low-level-radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The control, treatment and disposal of the low-level radioactive waste produced in the units of IEN-CNEN, in Brazil are presented, in details. These wastes are generated from a particle accelerator (CV-28 cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). (Author) [pt

  20. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  1. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  2. Low-level radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the non-technical problems associated with the social and political obstacles to the secure disposal of low level radioactive waste. The author reviews thirty years' experience managing non-military wastes. The merits of available options are considered

  3. New developments for medium and low level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boen, A.J.-R.; Pujadas, S.M.-V.

    1997-01-01

    Converting ultimate waste material into a stable, inert product is beneficial, notably in the case of potentially very toxic wastes. Vitrification, in which a glass or glass-ceramic material is fabricated from a particular waste form, is now a proven solution. This high-temperature process uses additives-notably silica-if necessary to form a glass network. Vitrification confines the waste by forming a stable, inert, nontoxic material suitable for safe disposal; it usually also results in a significant volume reduction having a major effect on the disposal cost. France is actively engaged in an ongoing research effort in this area, not only to enhance the production capacity and the containment quality, but also to extend the process to low and medium level wastes such as those produced in nuclear power stations

  4. Vitrification of high-level radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1993-12-01

    The main objective is to summarize work conducted on glasses as waste forms for high-level radioactive fission product solutions up to the late 1980's (section I and II). Section III addresses the question, whether waste forms designed for the immobilization of radioactive residues can be used for the same purpose for hazardous wastes. Of particular interest are those types of hazardous wastes, e.g., fly ashes from municipal combustion plants, easy to convert into glasses or ceramic materials. A large number of base glass compositions has been studied to vitrify waste from reprocessing but only borosilicate glasses with melting temperatures between 1100 C and 1200 C and very good hydrolytic stability is used today. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Very low level waste disposal in France. A key tool for the management for decommissioning wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetzer, Michel [Andra - Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactives, Chatenay-Malabry (France). Direction Industrielle

    2015-07-01

    At the end of the 90{sup th}, France had to deal with the emerging issue of the management of wastes resulting from decommissioning operations of nuclear facilities. A specific regulation was issued and Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, developed a dedicated near surface disposal facility to accommodate very low level radioactive wastes. After more than 10 years of operation, this facility demonstrated it can provide efficient and flexible solutions for the management of decomissioning wastes.

  6. Low-level-waste-treatment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton, S.D.; Goeller, H.E.; Holladay, D.W.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The initial draft of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook has been prepared and submitted to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for review and comment. A revised draft is scheduled to be delivered to DOE Headquarters in December 1982. The Handbook is designed to be useful to all individuals and groups concerned with low-level wastes. It is one of several volumes that will ultimately comprise a Low-Level Waste Technology Handbook. The objective of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook is to present an overview of current practices related to the segregation, classification, volume reduction, solidification, handling, packaging, and transportation of LLW for disposal in a shallow land burial facility. The Handbook is intended to serve as a guide to individuals interested in the treatment and handling of low-level radioactive waste. The Handbook will not explicitly tell the user how to design and operate LLW treatment facilities, but rather will identify (1) kinds of information required to evaluate the options, (2) methods that may be used to evaluate these options, and (3) limitations associated with the selection of the treatment options. The focus of the Handbook is providing guidance on how to do waste treatment for disposal by shallow land burial

  7. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  8. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-01-01

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F - ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions

  9. The best solution to our Nation's waste management problem: Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikel, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) being the best solution today to the Nation's problem of permanent storage of transuranic radioactive waste produced by the defense industry, WIPP is also involved in finding the solution for another national problem: the education of our youth. The youth of America have grown up thinking that science and math are too hard, or not interesting. We, the parents of our Nation's leaders of tomorrow, must find a solution to this dilemma. It is the mission of the Waste Isolation Division Educational Programs to create programs to promote quality education in the classroom and to enhance each student's interest in mathematics and the sciences

  10. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance

  11. Conceptual designs for waste quality checking facilities for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driver, S.; Griffiths, M.; Leonard, C.D.; Smith, D.L.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises work carried out on the design of facilities for the quality checking of Intermediate and Low Level Radioactive Waste and Hazardous Waste. The procedures used for the quality checking of these categories of waste are summarised. Three building options are considered: a separate LLW facility, a combined facility for LLW and HW and a Waste Quality Checking Facility for the three categories of waste. Budget Cost Estimates for the three facilities are given based on 1991 prices. (author)

  12. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage

  13. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections

  14. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage

  15. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs

  16. Landfill disposal of very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivities of very low level wastes are very low. VLLW can be disposed by simple and economic burial process. This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide. The disposal of VLLW in China is also briefly discussed and suggested here. (author)

  17. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, N.V.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Banks, C.J.; Humphreys, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  18. Importance of waste composition for Life Cycle Assessment of waste management solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisinella, Valentina; Götze, Ramona; Conradsen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    The composition of waste materials has fundamental influence on environmental emissions associated with waste treatment, recycling and disposal, and may play an important role also for the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of waste management solutions. However, very few assessments include effects...... of the waste composition and waste LCAs often rely on poorly justified data from secondary sources. This study systematically quantifiesy the influence and uncertainty on LCA results associated with selection of waste composition data. Three archetypal waste management scenarios were modelled with the waste...... LCA model EASETECH based on detailed waste composition data from the literature. The influence from waste composition data on the LCA results was quantified with a step-wise Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach involving contribution, sensitivity, uncertainty and discernibility analyses...

  19. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Berreth, J.R.; Freeby, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle

  20. Treatment and immobilization of intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Partridge, J.A.; Richardson, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    A new program underway at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to develop and demonstrate treatment and immobilization technologies for intermediate-level wastes (ILW) generated in the nuclear fuel cycle is discussed. ILW are defined as those liquid and solid radioactive wastes, other than high-level wastes and fuel cladding hulls, that in packaged form have radiation dose readings greater than 200 millirem/hr at the packaged surface and 10 millirem/hr at three feet from the surface. The IAEA value of 10 4 Ci/m 3 for ILW defines the upper limit. For comparative purposes, reference is also made to certain aspects of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Initial work has defined the sources, quantities and types of wastes which comprise ILW. Because of the wide differences in composition (e.g., acids, salt solutions, resins and zeolites, HEPA filters, etc.) the wastes may require different treatments, particularly those wastes containing volatile contaminants. The various types of ILW have been grouped into categories amenable to similar treatment. Laboratory studies are underway to define treatment technologies for liquid ILW which contain volatile contaminants and to define immobilization parameters for the residues resulting from treatment of ILW. Immobilization agents initially being evaluated for the various residues include cement, urea-formaldehyde, and bitumen although other immobilization agents will be studied. The program also includes development of acceptable test procedures for the final immobilized products as well as development of proposed criteria for storage, transportation, and disposal of the immobilized ILW

  1. Partitioning of rhodium and ruthenium between Pd–Rh–Ru and (Ru,Rh)O{sub 2} solid solutions in high-level radioactive waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Toru, E-mail: toru@gipc.akita-u.ac.jp [Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, 1-1, Tegatagakuenmachi, Akita City, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Ohira, Toshiaki [Center for Engineering Science, Akita University, 1-1, Tegatagakuenmachi, Akita City, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Komamine, Satoshi; Ochi, Eiji [Research and Development Department, Reprocessing Business Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, 4-108, Okitsuke, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The partitioning of rhodium and ruthenium between Pd–Rh–Ru alloy with a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure and (Ru,Rh)O{sub 2} solid solution has been investigated between 1273 and 1573 K at atmospheric oxygen fugacity. The rhodium and ruthenium contents in FCC increase, while the RhO{sub 2} content in (Ru,Rh)O{sub 2} decreases with increasing temperature due to progressive reduction of the system. Based on the experimental results and previously reported thermodynamic data, the thermodynamic mixing properties of FCC phase and (Ru,Rh)O{sub 2} have been calibrated in an internally consistent manner. Phase equilibrium of platinum grope metals in an HLW glass was calculated by using the obtained thermodynamic parameters.

  2. Technical solutions for waste treatment in the Belene project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büttner, K.; Eichhorn, H.

    2011-01-01

    Outline: In June 2010 NUKEM Technologies GmbH was awarded a contract from ATOMSTROYEXPORT JSC to perform the complete work package related to designing and completion of the equipment for treatment of radioactive waste on the turn-key basis for Belene NPP. Technical Solutions: Waste Streams and Technologies at UKC and UKS; Concentration Plant; Thermal Treatment of Resins Sorting Facility; Biological Waste Water Treatment; Conditioning – Cementation • Sorting of Radwaste; Plasma Facility; Grouting; Filter Press; Monitoring and Tracking

  3. Disposal of high level and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The waste products from the nuclear industry are relatively small in volume. Apart from a few minor gaseous and liquid waste streams, containing readily dispersible elements of low radiotoxicity, all these products are processed into stable solid packages for disposal in underground repositories. Because the volumes are small, and because radioactive wastes are latecomers on the industrial scene, a whole new industry with a world-wide technological infrastructure has grown up alongside the nuclear power industry to carry out the waste processing and disposal to very high standards. Some of the technical approaches used, and the Regulatory controls which have been developed, will undoubtedly find application in the future to the management of non-radioactive toxic wastes. The repository site outlined would contain even high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuels being contained without significant radiation dose rates to the public. Water pathway dose rates are likely to be lowest for vitrified high-level wastes with spent PWR fuel and intermediate level wastes being somewhat higher. (author)

  4. The low-level radioactive waste crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author, the goals of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act have not been met. That act stipulated that regional disposal sites were to be established by 1986. To date, no new sites have been established and none are anywhere near the construction phase. Congress, responding to existing impasse, has extended the deadline to the end of 1992 with the passage of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. The reasons for the impasse are no mystery: local intransigence regarding waste of any kind, public fears of radiation hazards, and politicians' anxieties about their constituents' fears. The focus of this paper is the viability of ongoing attempts to overcome public intransigence in the case of disposal siting for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW)

  5. Industrial Water Waste, Problems and the Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the long term development in Indonesia has changed agricultural sector to the industrial sector. This development can apparently harm our own people. This is due to the waste that is produced from factories. The waste from various factories seems to have different characteristics. This defference encourages us to be able to find out different of methods of managing waste so that cost can be reduced, especially in water treatment. In order that industrial development and environmental preservation can run together in balance, many institutions involved should be consider, especially in the industrial chain, the environment, and human resource, these three elements can be examined in terms of their tolerance to waste.

  6. Environment friendly solutions of plastics waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzada, F.N.; Riffat, T.; Pirzada, M.D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The use of plastics is growing worldwide. Consequently, the volume of plastic waste is also increasing. Presently, more than 100 million tons per year of plastic is being produced globally. In U.S. alone more than 10 million tons of plastic is being dumped in landfills as waste, where it can persist for decades. This has resulted in exhausting old landfills. Public awareness on environment is also making it difficult to find new sites for landfills. This has led to increased emphasis on treatment and recycling of plastic wastes. Volume reduction of plastic waste has some unique problems. They arise from the intrinsic chemical inertness of polymeric materials and toxic nature of their degradation byproducts. The paper reviews the present state of plastic waste management including land filling, incineration and recycling technologies. The technical problems associated with each of these processes have been discussed. There is also brief description of ongoing R and D for finding improved methods of plastic waste handling with their promises and problems. The role of tougher legislation in developing better recycling methods and degradable plastics has also been evaluated. The claims made by the proponents of degradable polymers have also been critically reviewed. (authors)

  7. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  8. Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993

  9. Clearance level and industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Toichi

    1999-01-01

    Defining the clearance level enables the radioactive waste with lower radioactivity than a certain level to be the general industrial waste and therefore consideration for public acceptance is essential. For this, it is necessary to understand laws concerning not only atomic power and radioactivity but also disposal and cleaning of general waste. It is also necessary that the waste below the clearance level should be as much as possible handled in the modern common concept of recycling of resources. In 1996, the weight of industrial waste was about 400 million tons, of which 40% was disposed by burning and dehydration, 39% was re-used and 21% was subjected to the final disposal like reclamation. Reduction, re-use and recycling of the generated waste are required for making the society with recycling of resources. Scrap concrete materials below the clearance level of 0.6 million tons are estimated to be generated by dismantling the light water reactor of 1 million kW output and profitable technology for recycling the scrap is under investigation. (K.H.)

  10. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  11. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  12. Low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-08-01

    In the development and utilization of nuclear energy, variety of radioactive wastes arise. A largest part is low level radioactive wastes. In Japan, they are concentrated and solidified, and stored in drums. However, no low level wastes have yet been finally disposed of; there are now about 260,000 drums of such wastes stored on the sites. In Japan, the land is narrow, and its structure is geologically unstable, so that the sea disposal is sought. On the other hand, the development of technology for the ground disposal has lagged behind the sea disposal until recently because of the law concerned. The following matters are described: for the sea disposal, preparatory technology studies, environment safety assessment, administrative measures, and international control; for the ground disposal, experiments, surveys, disposal site selection, and the concept of island repositories.

  13. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990

  14. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  15. Heat transfer in high-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, B.R.; Hogg, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer in the storage of high-level liquid wastes, calcining of radioactive wastes, and storage of solidified wastes are discussed. Processing and storage experience at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are summarized for defense high-level wastes; heat transfer in power reactor high-level waste processing and storage is also discussed

  16. French high level wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet, A.J.; Sombret, C.G.

    1980-06-01

    The first French spent fuel reprocessing plant went on stream in 1956 at Marcoule. Since then, all French irradiated fuels and some foreign spent fuels have been reprocessed either in this plant or in a subsequent plant built at La Hague. Marcoule is primarily devoted to metallic fuels, and La Hague to oxide fuels. The fission products solutions generated by reprocessing are acid liquids. They are stored on site in double walled stainless steel tanks fitted with a cooling device to deal with thermal release due to radioactive decay. Although these liquids are retrievable and can be transfered from one tank to another, and in spite of the fact that no disturbance such as overheating or leakage has ever occurred, a decision was made to solidify these solutions in order to make interim storage and, later on, ultimate disposal, safer and easier to control. Glass was chosen, because it is a flexible medium to deal with and it answers the quality requirements of ultimate disposal as well as the manufacturing constraints, such as equipment corrosion, volatilization during fabrication, and suitability to casting into canisters

  17. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  18. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  19. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongkwon [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Um, Wooyong, E-mail: wooyong.um@pnnl.gov [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Choung, Sungwook [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl–KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl–KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl–KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl–KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  20. The low-level waste handling challenge at the Feed Materials Production Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.E.; Diehl, D.E.; Gardner, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The management of low-level wastes from the production of depleted uranium at the Feed Materials Production Center presents an enormous challenge. The recovery of uranium from materials contaminated with depleted uranium is usually not economical. As a result, large volumes of wastes are generated. The Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio has established an aggressive waste management program. Simple solutions have been applied to problems in the areas of waste handling and waste minimization. The success of this program has been demonstrated by the reduction of low-level waste inventory at the Feed Materials Production Center

  1. The low-level waste handling challenge at the Feed Materials Production Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.E.; Diehl, D.E.; Gardner, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    The management of low-level wastes from the production of depleted uranium at the Feed Materials Production Center presents an enormous challenge. The recovery of uranium from materials contaminated with depleted uranium is usually not economical. As a result, large volumes of wastes are generated. The Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio has established an aggressive waste management program. Simple solutions have been applied to problems in the areas of waste handling and waste minimization. The success of this program has been demonstrated by the reduction of low-level waste inventory at the Feed Materials Production Center. 8 refs., 4 figs

  2. Treatment of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.

    1978-05-01

    The methods described of low and intermediate level waste treatment are based exclusively on operating experience gathered with the KfK facilities for waste management, the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK), the ALKEM fuel element fabrication plant, the MZFR, KNK and FR 2 reactors as well as at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and at the state collecting depot of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The processing capacities and technical status are similar to that in 1976. With an annual throughput of 10000 m 3 of solid and liquid raw wastes, an aggregate activity of 85000 Ci, 500 kg of U and 2 kg of Pu, final waste in the amount of 500 m 3 was produced which was stored in the ASSE II salt mine. (orig.) [de

  3. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  4. Solid low level waste management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980's the nuclear industry began focusing a great deal of attention on minimizing the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) that required disposal. This was driven by several factors including rising disposal costs, increased regulatory pressures, and increased pressure from other organizations such as INPO. In the 1990's most utilities are faced with intense competition in the electrical generation market. The survival of a utility is based on their ability to produce electricity by the most efficient and economical means available. Waste management related costs are a substantial portion of most utilities O ampersand M budgets. Disposal site access denial continues to be a major factor in waste management program decision, and the pressures to minimize waste volumes from outside organizations is greater than ever

  5. State compacts and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, for the first time, low-level waste (LLW) was brought to the attention of policy makers in most states. For several decades, technical personnel had regulated and managed LLW, but elected officials and their staff had been largely ignorant of the origins and destination of low-level radioactive materials. Events in the fall of 1979 set in motion a sequence of events that has compelled the continuing attention of policy makers in every state in the nation. In December 1979, the Executive Committee of the National Governors' Association appointed an eight-member task force, chaired by Governor Bruce Babbitt of Arizona, to review low-level waste management and to formulate state policy by July 1980. The principal findings were as follows: 1. LLW could be managed most efficiently, both technically and politically, at the state level. 2. Each state should take responsibility for its own waste. 3. The creation of a regional waste management system by means of interstate compacts offered the best promise of creating new disposal capacity. 4. Regions should be allowed to exclude waste generated outside their borders after a specified date

  6. Immobilisation of high level nuclear reactor wastes in SYNROC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A E; Kesson, S E; Ware, N G; Hibberson, W; Major, A [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Inst. of Advanced Studies

    1979-03-15

    It is stated that the elements occurring in high-level nuclear reactor wastes can be safely immobilised by incorporating them within the crystal lattices of the constituent minerals of a synthetic rock (SYNROC). The preferred form of SYNROC can accept up to 20% of high level waste calcine to form dilute solid solutions. The constituent minerals, or close structural analogues, have survived in a wide range of geochemical environments for periods of 20 to 2,000 Myr whilst immobilising the same elements present in nuclear wastes. SYNROC is unaffected by leaching for 24 hours in pure water or 10 wt % NaCl solution at high temperatures and pressure whereas borosilicate glasses completely decompose in a few hours in much less severe hydrothermal conditions. The combination of these leaching results with the geological evidence of long-term stability indicates that SYNROC would be vastly superior to glass in its capacity to safely immobilise nuclear wastes, when buried in a suitable geological repository. A dense, compact, mechanically strong form of SYNROC suitable for geological disposal can be produced by a process as economical as that which incorporates radioactive waste in borosilicate glasses.

  7. Processing of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Although low-level wastes have been generated and have required processing for more than two decades now, it is noteworthy that processing methods are continuing to change. The changes are not only attributable to improvements in technology, but are also the result of changing regulations and economics and uncertainties regarding the future availabilities of burial space for disposal. Indeed, because of the changes which have and are taking place in the processing of low-level waste, an overview of the current situation is in order. This presentation is a brief overview of the processing methods generally employed to treat the low-level wastes generated from both fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle sources. The presentation is far too brief to deal with the processing technologies in a comprehensive fashion, but does provide a snapshot of what the current or typical processing methods are and what changes are occurring and why

  8. Recovery of fission products from acidic waste solutions thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, W.W.; Darlington, W.B.; Dubois, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Fission products, e.g., palladium, ruthenium and technetium, are removed from aqueous, acidic waste solutions thereof. The acidic waste solution is electrolyzed in an electrolytic cell under controlled cathodic potential conditions and technetium, ruthenium, palladium and rhodium are deposited on the cathode. Metal deposit is removed from the cathode and dissolved in acid. Acid insoluble rhodium metal is recovered, dissolved by alkali metal bisulfate fusion and purified by electrolysis. In one embodiment, the solution formed by acid dissolution of the cathode metal deposit is treated with a strong oxidizing agent and distilled to separate technetium and ruthenium (as a distillate) from palladium. Technetium is separated from ruthenium by organic solvent extraction and then recovered, e.g., as an ammonium salt. Ruthenium is disposed of as waste by-product. Palladium is recovered by electrolysis of an acid solution thereof under controlled cathodic potential conditions. Further embodiments wherein alternate metal recovery sequences are used are described. (U.S.)

  9. Application of SYNROC to high-level defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewhey, J.D.; Hoenig, C.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Rozsa, R.B.; Coles, D.G.; Ryerson, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    The SYNROC method for immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes is currently being applied to US defense wastes in tank storage at Savannah River, South Carolina. The minerals zirconolite, perovskite, and hollandite are used in SYNROC D formulations to immobilize fission products and actinides that comprise up to 10% of defense waste sludges and coexisting solutions. Additional phase in SYNROC D are nepheline, the host phase for sodium; and spinel, the host for excess aluminum and iron. Up to 70 wt % of calcined sludge can be incorporated with 30 wt % of SYNROC additives to produce a waste form consisting of 10% nepheline, 30% spinel, and approximately 20% each of the radioactive waste-bearing phases. Urea coprecipitation and spray drying/calcining methods have been used in the laboratory to produce homogeneous, reactive ceramic powders. Hot pressing and sintering at temperatures from 1000 to 1100 0 C result in waste form products with greater than 97% of theoretical density. Hot isostatic pressing has recently been implemented as a processing alternative. Characterization of waste-form mineralogy has been done by means of XRD, SEM, and electron microprobe. Leaching of SYNROC D samples is currently being carried out. Assessment of radiation damage effects and physical properties of SYNROC D will commence in FY81

  10. Synergistic extraction behaviour of americium from simulated acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Veeraraghavan, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of americium has been investigated with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (PBI) and oxodonors viz. tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and di-n-butyl octanamide (DBOA) using dodecane as the diluent from 1-6 M HNO 3 media. It is observed that D Am remains unaltered with PBI concentration (in the range 0.06-0.1 M) at 1.47 M TBP in the entire range of HNO 3 concentration. PBI and TBP in combination appears more promising compared to other synergistic systems. The possibility of using this mixture for americium removal from high level liquid waste solution has been explored. Extraction studies indicated that prior removal of uranium by 20% TBP in dodecane is helpful in the quantitative recovery of americium in three contacts. Effect of lanthanides on D Am is found to be marginal. (orig.)

  11. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  12. Development of integrated radioactive waste packaging and conditioning solutions in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibley, Peter; Butter, Kevin; Zimmerman, Ian [EnergySolutions EU Ltd., Swindon, Wiltshire (United Kingdom); Viermann, Joerg [GNS Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Messer, Matthias [GNS Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Service mbH, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In order to offer a more cost effective, safer and efficient Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) management service, EnergySolutions EU Ltd. and Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) have been engaged in the development of integrated radioactive waste retrieval, packaging and conditioning solutions in the UK. Recognising the challenges surrounding regulatory endorsement and on-site implementation in particular, this has resulted in an alternative approach to meeting customer, safety regulator and disposability requirements. By working closely with waste producers and the organisation(s) responsible for endorsing radioactive waste management operations in the UK, our proposed solutions are now being implemented. By combining GNS' off-the-shelf, proven Ductile Cast Iron Containers (DCICs) and water removal technologies, with EnergySolutions EU Ltd.'s experience and expertise in waste retrieval, safety case development and disposability submissions, a fully integrated service offering has been developed. This has involved significant effort to overcome technical challenges such as onsite equipment deployment, active commissioning, conditioning success criteria and disposability acceptance. Our experience in developing such integrated solutions has highlighted the importance of working in collaboration with all parties to achieve a successful and viable outcome. Ultimately, the goal is to ensure reliable, safe and effective delivery of waste management solutions. (authors)

  13. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  14. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  15. Overview on the Multinational Collaborative Waste Storage and Disposal Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARGEANU, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The main drivers for a Safe, Secure and Global Energy future become clear and unequivocal: Security of supply for energy sources, Low-carbon electricity generation and Extended nuclear power assuring economic nuclear energy production, safe nuclear facilities and materials, safe and secure radioactive waste management and public acceptance. Responsible use of nuclear power requires that – in addition to safety, security and environmental protection associated with NPPs operation – credible solutions to be developed for dealing with the radioactive waste produced and especially for a responsible long term radioactive waste management. The paper deals with the existing multinational initiative in nuclear fuel cycle and the technical documents sustaining the multinational/regional disposal approach. Meantime, the paper far-reaching goal is to highlight on: What is offering the multinational waste storage and disposal solutions in terms of improved nuclear security ‽

  16. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  18. New sorbents and ion exchangers for nuclear waste solution remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Peng, G.Z.; Cahill, R.A.; Bellinghausen, P.; Aly, H.I.; Scott, K.; Wang, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    There is now a concerted effort underway to clean up the accumulated nuclear wastes as the major sites around the country. Because of the complexity of the mixtures in the holding tanks highly specific exchangers are required to fulfill a multitude of desired tasks. These include removal of Cs + , Sr 2+ , Tc, Actinides and possible recovery of rare and precious metals. No one exchanger or sequestrant can accomplish these tasks and a variety of exchangers in a multistep process will be required. The behavior of a number of inorganic ion exchangers in a multistep process will be required. The behavior of a number of inorganic ion exchangers and new organo-inorganic exchangers towards Cs + , Sr 2+ and rare-earth ions in acid and basic media will be described. Preliminary data on the effect of high levels of sodium nitrate on the uptake of these ions will also be presented, as well as the changes observed in selectivity in simulated waste solutions. A possible separation scheme based on these data will be described

  19. Low-level radioactive waste treatment technology. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Each generator of low-level radioactive waste must consider three sequential questions: (1) can the waste in its as-generated form be packaged and shipped to a disposal facility; (2) will the packaged waste be acceptable for disposal; and (3) if so, is it cost effective to dispose of the waste in its as-generated form. These questions are aimed at determining if the waste form, physical and chemical characteristics, and radionuclide content collectively are suitable for shipment and disposal in a cost-effective manner. If not, the waste management procedures will involve processing operations in addition to collection, segregation, packaging, shipment, and disposal. This handbook addresses methods of treating and conditioning low-level radioactive waste for shipment and disposal. A framework is provided for selection of cost-effective waste-processing options for generic categories of low-level radioactive waste. The handbook is intended as a decision-making guide that identifies types of information required to evaluate options, methods of evaluation, and limitations associated with selection of any of the processing options

  20. Soil-structure interaction effects on high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Heymsfeld, E.

    1991-01-01

    High Level Waste Tanks consist of steel tanks located in concrete vaults which are usually completely embedded in the soil. Many of these tanks are old and were designed to seismic standards which are not compatible with current requirements. The objective if this paper is to develop simple methods of modeling SSI effects for such structures and to obtain solutions for a range of parameters that can be used to identify significant aspects of the problem

  1. Photochemical oxidation: A solution for the mixed waste dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prellberg, J.W.; Thornton, L.M.; Cheuvront, D.A. [Vulcan Peroxidation Systems, Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Numerous technologies are available to remove organic contamination from water or wastewater. A variety of techniques also exist that are used to neutralize radioactive waste. However, few technologies can satisfactorily address the treatment of mixed organic/radioactive waste without creating unacceptable secondary waste products or resulting in extremely high treatment costs. An innovative solution to the mixed waste problem is on-site photochemical oxidation. Liquid-phase photochemical oxidation has a long- standing history of successful application to the destruction of organic compounds. By using photochemical oxidation, the organic contaminants are destroyed on-site leaving the water, with radionuclides, that can be reused or disposed of as appropriate. This technology offers advantages that include zero air emissions, no solid or liquid waste formation, and relatively low treatment cost. Discussion of the photochemical process will be described, and several case histories from recent design testing, including cost analyses for the resulting full-scale installations, will be presented as examples.

  2. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues

  3. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  4. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  5. Siting a low-level waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In processes to site disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste, volunteerism and incentives packages hold more promise for attracting host communities than they have for attracting host states. But volunteerism and incentives packages can have disadvantages as well as advantages. This paper discusses their pros and cons and summarizes the different approaches that states are using in their relationships with local governments

  6. Removal of radionuclides from partitioning waste solutions by adsorption and catalytic oxidation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Isoo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kubota, Masumitsu [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology (RIST), Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Adsorption of radionuclides with inorganic ion exchangers and catalytic oxidation of a complexant were studied for the decontamination of waste solutions generated in past partitioning tests with high-level liquid waste. Granulated ferrocyanide and titanic acid were used for adsorption of Cs and Sr, respectively, from an alkaline solution resulting from direct neutralization of an acidic waste solution. Both Na and Ba inhibited adsorption of Sr but Na did not that of Cs. These exchangers adsorbed Cs and Sr at low concentration with distribution coefficients of more than 10{sup 4}ml/g from 2M Na solution of pH11. Overall decontamination factors (DFs) of Cs and total {beta} nuclides exceeded 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 3}, respectively, at the neutralization-adsorption step of actual waste solutions free from a complexant. The DF of total {alpha} nuclides was less than 10{sup 3} for a waste solution containing diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). DTPA was rapidly oxidized by nitric acid in the presence of a platinum catalyst, and radionuclides were removed as precipitates by neutralization of the resultant solution. The DF of {alpha} nuclides increased to 8x10{sup 4} by addition of the oxidation step. The DFs of Sb and Co were quite low through the adsorption step. A synthesized Ti-base exchanger (PTC) could remove Sb with the DF of more than 4x10{sup 3}. (author)

  7. Removal of radioactive materials from waste solutions via magnetic ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, T.E.; Kochen, R.L.; Price, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Ferrite waste treatment was found to be effective in removing actinides from simulated Rocky Flats process waste solutions. With a one-stage ferrite treatment, plutonium concentrations were consistently reduced from 10 -4 g/l to less than 10 -8 g/l, and americium concentrations were lowered from 10 -7 g/l to below 10 -10 g/l. In addition, siginficantly less solid was produced as compared with the flocculant precipitation technique now employed at Rocky Flats. Aging of ferrite solids and elevated beryllium and phosphate concentrations were identified as interferences in the ferrite treatment of process waste, but neither appeeared serious enough to prevent implementation in plant operations

  8. Methods for removing transuranic elements from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Connor, C.; Sedlet, J.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-11-01

    This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  9. Success in siting low-level radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.; McCauley, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Government of Canada is about to conclude a legal agreement with three municipalities that will result in a $260-million 10-year multi-phase project to cleanup low-level radioactive wastes and contaminated soils and establish long-term low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Over the last two decades, numerous efforts were undertaken to resolve this long-standing environmental issue. Finally, the communities where the wastes are located came forward with resolutions that they were willing to develop local solutions to the problem. All three municipalities, facilitated by Government funding and assistance, put forward their own local solution to their own waste problem. Government accepted the municipalities' proposals as the basis of a comprehensive approach for dealing with the local problem. Negotiations ensued on Principles of Understanding under which the cleanup would proceed and new long-term waste management facilities would be established. Government's acceptance of the negotiated Principles led to the preparation of a legal agreement that was subsequently signed by each of the municipalities and is now about to be ratified by the Government of Canada. Resolution of the issue will be a major milestone in the Government's environmental agenda. The project will result in an environmentally-responsible, safe, and publicly-accepted approach to the long-term management of the wastes and remove one of the largest contaminated sites issues from the Government's agenda. It also advances the Government's nuclear waste policy and indicates to waste producers that the Government is developing and implementing solutions for wastes for which it is responsible. A key lesson for the Government of Canada in this process has been the advantages of a locally-generated solution. Through the process, the Government empowered the local municipalities to develop their own solution to the local waste problem. It facilitated and supported that effort

  10. DOE low-level waste long term technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program is to provide a low-level waste management system by 1986. Areas of concentration are defined as: (1) Waste Generation Reduction Technology, (2) Process and Handling Technology, (3) Environmental Technology, (4) Low-Level Waste Disposal Technology. A program overview is provided with specific examples of technical development. 2 figures

  11. Low level radioactive waste management and discharge policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, T.; Oezdemir, C.; Uslu, I.

    2005-01-01

    The legal infrastructure in Turkey for the management of low-level radioactive waste covers the liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. Management of these radioactive wastes is briefly described in this paper. Moreover, delay and decay tank systems that are used to collect and store the low level radioactive wastes as a part of low-level radioactive effluent discharge policy are introduced. (author)

  12. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Australian Government is committed to establishing two purpose-built facilities for the management of Australia's radioactive waste; the national repository for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level ('low level') waste, and the national store for storage of long-lived intermediate level ('intermediate level') waste. It is strongly in the interests of public security and safety to secure radioactive waste by disposal or storage in facilities specially designed for this purpose. The current arrangements where waste is stored under ad hoc arrangements at hundreds of sites around Australia does not represent international best practice in radioactive waste management. Environmental approval has been obtained for the national repository to be located at Site 40a, 20 km east of Woomera in South Australia, and licences are currently being sought from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to site, construct and operate the facility. The national repository may be operating in 2004 subject to obtaining the required licences. The national store will be located on Australian Government land and house intermediate level waste produced by Australian Government departments and agencies. The national store will not be located in South Australia. Short-listing of potentially suitable sites is expected to be completed soon

  13. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options

  14. Use of segregation techniques to reduce stored low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Viana, R.; Vianna Mariano, N.; Antonio do Amaral, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the use of segregation techniques in reducing the stored Low Level Waste on Intermediate Waste Repository 1, at Angra Nuclear Power Plant Site, from 1701 to 425 drums of compacted waste. (author)

  15. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  16. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, D.M.; Rowe, J.G.; Reichel, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident

  17. Low-level wastes pathways at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmoine, R.; Casseau, L.Ph.

    1999-01-01

    First, what are, for EDF, the main issues dealing with the future management of low level wastes (LLW) will be recalled; and followed by a description of what are the implications of implementing these management principles: areas zoning, set up of pathways, traceability of the wastes and associated controls. The origin of the wastes will then be described using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; the description will specifically address the spreading of wastes production in time. LLW management at EDF will then be envisaged: storage in a specific discharge, pathways for treatment and elimination of wastes with acceptable radiological impact and costs. The example of LLW oils will be developed: particularly as far as hypothesis and results concerning the radiological impacts are concerned. The choice of incineration will then be justified, however expected difficulties to implement it industrially will be pointed out. Other on going studies and their main results will be mentioned: the present time is a turning point on that issue between thought and action; to be on going dismantling must take into account the emerging principles and give rise to good communication. (author)

  18. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  19. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-11-01

    Without reprocessing, spent LWR fuel itself is generally considered an acceptable waste form. With reprocessing, borosilicate glass canisters, have now gained general acceptance for waste immobilization. The current first choice for disposal is emplacement in an engineered structure in a mined cavern at a depth of 500-1000 meters. A variety of rock types are being investigated including basalt, clay, granite, salt, shale, and volcanic tuff. This paper gives specific coverage to the national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and the United States. The French nuclear program assumes prompt reprocessing of its spent fuels, and France has already constructed the AVM. Two larger borosilicate glass plants are planned for a new French reprocessing plant at La Hague. France plans to hold the glass canisters in near-surface storage for a forty to sixty year cooling period and then to place them into a mined repository. The FRG and Japan also plan reprocessing for their LWR fuels. Both are currently having some fuel reprocessed by France, but both are also planning reprocessing plants which will include waste vitrification facilities. West Germany is now constructing the PAMELA Plant at Mol, Belgium to vitrify high level reprocessing wastes at the shutdown Eurochemic Plant. Japan is now operating a vitrification mockup test facility and plans a pilot plant facility at the Tokai reprocessing plant by 1990. Both countries have active geologic repository programs. The United State program assumes little LWR fuel reprocessing and is thus primarily aimed at direct disposal of spent fuel into mined repositories. However, the US have two borosilicate glass plants under construction to vitrify existing reprocessing wastes

  20. Management for low and intermediate level wastes in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    A research and demonstration project was developed, to offer management options for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The project considered: the experience of other countries; the laws and regulations according to internationally accepted standards; criteria and recommendations; the technical, socio-political realities, and the expectation of our countrie related to the nuclear power plants. Preliminary guidelines for waste acceptance critetia were established. The solution for shallow land burial was a multibarrier system. Since, there is no final decision about the repository localization it was decided that the waste produced by nuclear power plants will be kept on-site and those from medicine, agriculture, industry and research are sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP for treatment and temporary storage. (Author/M.C.K.) [pt

  1. EPRI'S low-level waste management R ampersand D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.

    1997-01-01

    The immediate challenges facing every organization today are to improve its productivity and increase customer satisfaction. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) responded to this challenge by broadening the scope of its low-level waste (LLW) management program. EPRI offered utilities on-site assistance in evaluating and optimizing their liquid- and solid-waste management programs. The goal is to identify open-quotes cheaper, better, and easierclose quotes solutions, which are documented in a series of reports. These provide step-by-step evaluation processes and straightforward implementation methods. Utility professionals are provided with the necessary technical information and justification for informed waste management decisions. The resulting average annual savings is consistently in excess of $700,000 per facility. The program continues to grow and serves as a model for a number of existing and emerging EPRI programs

  2. China's Scientific Investigation for Liquid Waste Treatment Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liangjin, B.; Meiqiong, L.; Kelley, D.

    2006-01-01

    Post World War II created the nuclear age with several countries developing nuclear technology for power, defense, space and medical applications. China began its nuclear research and development programs in 1950 with the establishment of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) located near Beijing. CIAE has been China's leader in nuclear science and technical development with its efforts to create advanced reactor technology and upgrade reprocessing technology. In addition, with China's new emphasis on environmental safety, CIAE is focusing on waste treatment options and new technologies that may provide solutions to legacy waste and newly generated waste from the full nuclear cycle. Radioactive liquid waste can pose significant challenges for clean up with various treatment options including encapsulation (cement), vitrification, solidification and incineration. Most, if not all, nuclear nations have found the treatment of liquids to be difficult, due in large part to the high economic costs associated with treatment and disposal and the failure of some methods to safely contain or eliminate the liquid. With new environmental regulations in place, Chinese nuclear institutes and waste generators are beginning to seek new technologies that can be used to treat the more complex liquid waste streams in a form that is safe for transport and for long-term storage or final disposal. [1] In 2004, CIAE and Pacific Nuclear Solutions, a division of Pacific World Trade, USA, began discussions about absorbent technology and applications for its use. Preliminary tests were conducted at CIAE's Department of Radiochemistry using generic solutions, such as lubricating oil, with absorbent polymers for solidification. Based on further discussions between both parties, it was decided to proceed with a more formal test program in April, 2005, and additional tests in October, 2005. The overall objective of the test program was to apply absorbent polymers to various waste streams

  3. Low level radioactive liquid waste decontamination by electrochemical way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronche, E.

    1994-10-01

    As part of the work on decontamination treatments for low level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes, the study of an electro-chemical process has been chosen by the C.E.A. at the Cadarache research centre. The first part of this report describes the main methods used for the decontamination of aqueous solutions. Then an electro-deposition process and an electro-dissolution process are compared on the basis of the decontamination results using genuine radioactive aqueous liquid waste. For ruthenium decontamination, the former process led to very high yields (99.9 percent eliminated). But the elimination of all the other radionuclides (antimony, strontium, cesium, alpha emitters) was only favoured by the latter process (90 percent eliminated). In order to decrease the total radioactivity level of the waste to be treated, we have optimized the electro-dissolution process. That is why the chemical composition of the dissolved anode has been investigated by a mixture experimental design. The radionuclides have been adsorbed on the precipitating products. The separation of the precipitates from the aqueous liquid enabled us to remove the major part of the initial activity. On the overall process some operations have been investigated to minimize waste embedding. Finally, a pilot device (laboratory scale) has been built and tested with genuine radioactive liquid waste. (author). 77 refs., 41 tabs., 55 figs., 4 appendixes

  4. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  5. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  6. Denitration and chemical precipitation of medium level liquid wastes and conditioning of high level wastes from low level liquid wastes by a roll dryer and subsequent vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.; Dix, S.; Harms, R.

    1987-01-01

    Medium level liquid waste (MAW) from the reprocessing need after being fixed in cement an additional shielding to meet required radiation limits for handling and transportation. Normally this shielding consists of concrete and its weight and volume is several times higher than that of the waste product itself. By means of caesium separation using nickel-potassium-hexacyanoferrate and after few years of interim storage waiting for the decay of Ruthenium and Antimony the activities will be reduced below permissible values. (13 MBq/l in waste solution for Cs, 28 MBq/l for Sb and 34 MBq/l for Ru). Below these limits there is no need for additional shielding after cementation in a 400 l drum. Experimental results show, that Caesium can be precipitated and separated effectively not only in laboratory but also in a larger scale under hot cell conditions. The process investigated in this work has been developed from the FIPS process for vitrification of highly radioactive fission product solutions. It consists of: denitration, precipitation, sludge separation, drying and melting

  7. Radioactive Waste...The Problem and Some Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jean-Pierre

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear safety is a highly technical and controversial subject that has caused much heated debate and political concern. This article examines the problems involved in managing radioactive wastes and the techniques now used. Potential solutions are suggested and the need for international cooperation is stressed. (Author/MA)

  8. Food waste in Central Europe – challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Boer Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is an important issue in the global economy. In the EU many activities aimed at this topic are carried out, however in Central Europe is still quite pristine. There is lack of reliable data on food waste quantities in this region, and not many preventive actions are taken. To improve this situation the STREFOWA (Strategies to Reduce and Manage Food Waste in Central Europe was initiated. It is an international project (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland, founded by the Interreg Central Europe programme, running from July 2016 to June 2019. Its main purpose is to provide solutions to prevent and manage food waste throughout the entire food supply chain. The results of STREFOWA will have positive economical, social and environmental impacts.

  9. Food waste in Central Europe - challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Jan; Kobel, Przemysław; Dyjakon, Arkadiusz; Urbańska, Klaudia; Obersteiner, Gudrun; Hrad, Marlies; Schmied, Elisabeth; den Boer, Emilia

    2017-11-01

    Food waste is an important issue in the global economy. In the EU many activities aimed at this topic are carried out, however in Central Europe is still quite pristine. There is lack of reliable data on food waste quantities in this region, and not many preventive actions are taken. To improve this situation the STREFOWA (Strategies to Reduce and Manage Food Waste in Central Europe) was initiated. It is an international project (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland), founded by the Interreg Central Europe programme, running from July 2016 to June 2019. Its main purpose is to provide solutions to prevent and manage food waste throughout the entire food supply chain. The results of STREFOWA will have positive economical, social and environmental impacts.

  10. Low-level radioactive waste management: French and foreign regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes radioactive waste management regulations applied in USA, CANADA, SCANDINAVIA and FRANCE. For low level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to adapt waste management regulations which were firt definite for high level radioactive wastes. So the exemption concept is a simplification method of regulations applied to low radiation sources

  11. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  12. Management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redon, A.; Mamelle, J.; Chambon, M.

    1977-01-01

    The world wide needs in reprocessing will reach the value of 10.000 t/y of irradiated fuels, in the mid of the 80's. Several countries will have planned, in their nuclear programme, the construction of reprocessing plants with a 1500 t/y capacity, corresponding to 50.000 MWe installed. At such a level, the solidification of the radioactive waste will become imperative. For this reason, all efforts, in France, have been directed towards the realization of industrial plants able of solidifying the fission products as a glassy material. The advantages of this decision, and the reasons for it are presented. The continuing development work, and the conditions and methods of storing the high-level wastes prior to solidification, and of the interim storage (for thermal decay) and the ultimate disposal after solidification are described [fr

  13. Low-level radiation waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubofcik, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a low-level radiation waste container set for use in conjunction with an open-topped receptacle. It comprises: a receptacle liner having a closed end and an open end, the receptacle liner sized for deployment as an inserted liner in an open-topped receptacle for collecting low-level radiation waste material within the receptacle liner within the open-topped receptacle; a cover sized and shaped to fit over the open top of the open-topped receptacle and the receptacle liner therein with the cover is in a closed position. The cover having a depending skirt which, when the cover is in the closed position, extends downwardly to overlap the open-topped receptacle adjacent the open top thereof and a portion of the receptacle liner received therein; and the receptacle liner and cover being fabricated of flexible radiation shielding material

  14. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety

  15. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  16. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  17. Low-level waste disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    A design has been proposed for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that should provide the desired isolation under all foreseeable conditions. Although slightly more costly than current practices; this design provides additional reliability. This reliability is desirable to contribute to the closure of the fuel cycle and to demonstrate the responsible management of the uranium cycle by reestablishing confidence in the system

  18. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification

  19. Application of a glass furnace system to low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.; Armstrong, K.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981 Mound began a study to determine the feasibility of using an electrically heated glass furnace for the treatment of low-level radioactive wastes generated at commercial nuclear power facilities. Experiments were designed to determine: Whether the technology offered solutions to industry waste disposal problems, and if so; whether is could meet what were thought to be critical requirements for radioactive thermal waste processing. These requirements include: high quality combustion of organic constituents, capture and immobilization of radioactivity, integrity of final waste form, and cost effectiveness. To address these questions a variety of wastes typical of the types generated by nuclear power facilities, including not only standard trash but also wastes of high aqueous and/or inorganic content, were spiked with waste radioisotopes predominant in plant wastes and processed in the glass furnace. The results of this study indicate that the unit is capable of fully meeting the addressed needs of the nuclear industry for power plant waste processing

  20. Review of available options for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The scope of this report includes: descriptions of the options available; identification of important elements in the selection process; discussion and assessment of the relevance of the various elements for the different options; cost data indicating the relative financial importance of different parts of the systems and the general cost level of a disposal facility. An overview of the types of wastes included in low level waste categories and an approach to the LLW management system is presented. A generic description of the disposal options available and the main activities involved in implementing the different options are described. Detailed descriptions and cost information on low level waste disposal facility concepts in a number of Member States are given. Conclusions from the report are summarized. In addition, this report provides a commentary on various aspects of land disposal, based on experience gained by IAEA Member States. The document is intended to complement other related IAEA publications on LLW management and disposal. It also demonstrates that alternatives solutions for the final disposal of LLW are available and can be safely operated but the choice of an appropriate solution must be a matter for national strategy taking into account local conditions. 18 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  1. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID number-sign 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 μ to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solut

  2. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  3. Disposal of 'De Minimis' level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri bin Othman

    1991-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that any increase in radiation dose will enhance the danger risk of radiation effect, there is no safety limit that can be used in the context of waste disposal. However, ICRP document No. 46(1985) recommended for there to be a dose or risk limit that can be considered as negligible thereby doing away with the necessarily to have a legal procedure for radiation protection. Various radiation level terminology such as negligible level, threshold level and exemption level have been introduced. But the one receiving most attention is de Minimis level since it has a legal connection. Several countries have allowed the exemption of radioactive materials in Malaysia are only involved with small quantities, consideration should be given to the use of de Minimis level

  4. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  5. IEN low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-09-01

    The low-level radioactive waste produced in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is generated basically from three distinct modes: a particle accelerator (CV-28 Cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and the operation of a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). In the Cyclotron unit, all water flow from hot labs as well as from the decontamination laundry is retained in special tank with homogenizing system and a remote control, that signalizes when the tank gets a pre-specified level. Samples homogenized from the tank are colected for previous analysis. (Author) [pt

  6. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N.; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1 h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG o ), enthalpy (ΔH o ), and entropy (ΔS o ) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 deg. C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  7. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N.; Duran, Celal [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1 h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 deg. C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  8. Cementation of the solid radioactive waste with polymer-cement solutions using the method of impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, O.

    2015-01-01

    Cementation of solid radioactive waste (SRW), i.e. inclusion of solid radioactive waste into cement matrix without cavities - is one of the main technological processes used for conditioning low and intermediate level radioactive waste. At FSUE 'Radon' the industrialized method of impregnation has been developed and since 2003 has been using for cementation of solid radioactive waste. The technology is that the polymer-cement solution, having high penetrating properties, is supplied under pressure through a tube to the bottom of the container in which solid radioactive waste has preliminarily been placed. The polymer-cement solution is evenly moving upwards through the channels between the particles of solid radioactive waste, fills the voids in the bulk volume of the waste and hardens, forming a cement compound, the amount of which is equal to the original volume. The aim of the investigation was a selection of a cement solution suitable for SRW impregnation (including fine particles) without solution depletion and bottom layers stuffing. It has been chosen a polymer: PHMG (polyhexamethylene-guanidine), which is a stabilizing and water-retaining component of the cement solution. The experiments confirm that the polymer increases the permeability of the cement solution by a 2-2.5 factor, the viscosity by a 1.2 factor, the stability of the consistency by a 1.5-1.7 factor, and extends the operating range of the W/C ratio to 0.5-1.1. So it is possible to penetrate a volume of SRW bigger by a 1.5-2.0 factor. It has been proved, that PHMG polymer increases strength and frost-resistance of the final compounds by a 1.8-2.7 factor, and contributes to fast strength development at the beginning of hardening and it decreases Cs-137 leashing rate by a 1.5-2 factor

  9. A novel Canadian solution for processing and disposal of mixed liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A.; Husain, S.; Grey, M.; Elwood, C.; White, T.; Wigle, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Bruce Power contracted with Kinectrics for the disposal of its accumulated mixed liquid waste (MLW) inventory. The waste consists of solvent, PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls) and non-PCB contaminated oils and aqueous waste drums. The radioactivity in the wastes is principally due to cobalt-60, cesium-137 and tritium. Historically, MLW drums originating from Canadian utilities were shipped to a licensed US facility for destruction via incineration. This option is relatively expensive considering the significant logistics and destruction costs involved. In addition, restrictions now apply on importation of PCB containing wastes in to the US. Because of this, Kinectrics developed a wholly Canadian solution for the disposal of the MLW. Disposal of Bruce Power's MLW was conceived to be carried out in three phases. Phase 1: Develop an overall plan for disposal of the accumulated wastes, Phase 2: Dispose the PCB oil waste drums (highest priority), and Phase 3: Dispose all other waste drums. Phases 1 & 2 have been completed and Phase 3 is currently underway with 17 drums having been disposed so far. A description of the key activities undertaken to date are described in this paper. This work sets the stage for the future management of MLW based exclusively or largely on disposal within Canada. All key technical, regulatory and logistical issues pertaining to the receipt, handling, processing and shipment of the wastes were addressed. Equipment was installed for basic processing of the incoming wastes. Based on Pathways methodology, it was shown that the wastes can be shipped to unlicensed facilities within Canada without exceeding the 10 μSv per annum exposure to the critical individual. Despite this and for compliance with ALARA, wastes exceeding self-imposed threshold levels of radioactivity will be solidified and shipped for storage as radioactive waste. (author)

  10. A novel Canadian solution for processing and disposal of mixed liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Husain, S.; Grey, M. [Candesco, Toronto, ON (Canada); Elwood, C.; White, T.; Wigle, K. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In 2009, Bruce Power contracted with Kinectrics for the disposal of its accumulated mixed liquid waste (MLW) inventory. The waste consists of solvent, PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls) and non-PCB contaminated oils and aqueous waste drums. The radioactivity in the wastes is principally due to cobalt-60, cesium-137 and tritium. Historically, MLW drums originating from Canadian utilities were shipped to a licensed US facility for destruction via incineration. This option is relatively expensive considering the significant logistics and destruction costs involved. In addition, restrictions now apply on importation of PCB containing wastes in to the US. Because of this, Kinectrics developed a wholly Canadian solution for the disposal of the MLW. Disposal of Bruce Power's MLW was conceived to be carried out in three phases. Phase 1: Develop an overall plan for disposal of the accumulated wastes, Phase 2: Dispose the PCB oil waste drums (highest priority), and Phase 3: Dispose all other waste drums. Phases 1 & 2 have been completed and Phase 3 is currently underway with 17 drums having been disposed so far. A description of the key activities undertaken to date are described in this paper. This work sets the stage for the future management of MLW based exclusively or largely on disposal within Canada. All key technical, regulatory and logistical issues pertaining to the receipt, handling, processing and shipment of the wastes were addressed. Equipment was installed for basic processing of the incoming wastes. Based on Pathways methodology, it was shown that the wastes can be shipped to unlicensed facilities within Canada without exceeding the 10 μSv per annum exposure to the critical individual. Despite this and for compliance with ALARA, wastes exceeding self-imposed threshold levels of radioactivity will be solidified and shipped for storage as radioactive waste. (author)

  11. Disposal of high level radioactive wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, L.A.M.; Carvalho Bastos, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of high-activity radioactive wastes is the most serious problem for the nuclear industry. Among the solutions, the disposal of wastes in approriated geological formations is the most realistic and feasible. In this work the methods used for geological disposal, as well as, the criteria, programs and analysis for selecting a bite for waste disposal are presented [pt

  12. National high-level waste systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  13. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs

  14. The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

  15. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  16. CONDITIONING OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL WASTE AT FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM JUELICH GMBH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbach, H.

    2003-01-01

    This contribution to the group of low-level, intermediate, mixed and hazardous waste describes the conditioning of intermediate-level mixed waste (dose rate above 10 mSv/h at the surface) from Research Centre Juelich (FZJ). Conditioning of the waste by supercompaction is performed at Research Centre Karlsruhe (FZK). The waste described is radioactive waste arising from research at Juelich. This waste includes specimens and objects from irradiation experiments in the research reactors Merlin (FRJ-1) and Dido (FRJ-2) at FZJ. In principle, radioactive waste at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH is differentiated by the surface dose rate at the waste package. Up to a surface dose rate of 10 mSv/h, the waste is regarded as low-level. The radioactive waste described here has a surface dose rate above 10 mSv/h. Waste up to 10 mSv/h is conditioned at the Juelich site according to different conditioning methods. The intermediate-level waste can only be conditioned by supercompaction in the processing facility for intermediate-level waste from plant operation at Research Centre Karlsruhe. Research Centre Juelich also uses this waste cell to condition its intermediate-level waste from plant operation

  17. An update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, P.L.; Barker, R.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office

    1993-03-01

    This paper gives an overview and update of a national database of low-level radioactive waste in Canada. To provide a relevant perspective, Canadian data are compared with US data on annual waste arisings and with disposal initiatives of the US compacts and states. Presented also is an assessment of the data and its implications for disposal solutions in Canada.

  18. Handling and storage of high-level liquid wastes from reprocessing of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterwalder, L.

    1982-01-01

    The high level liquid wastes arise from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels, which are dissolved in aqueous acid solution, and the plutonium and unburned uranium removed in the chemical separation plant. The remaining solution, containing more than 99% of the dissolved fission products, together with impurities from cladding materials, corrosion products, traces of unseparated plutonium and uranium and most of the transuranic elements, constitutes the high-level waste. At present, these liquid wastes are usually concentrated by evaporation and stored as an aqueous nitric acid solution in high-integrity stainless-steel tanks. There is now world-wide agreement that, for the long term, these liquid wastes should be converted to solid form and much work is in progress to develop techniques for the solidification of these wastes. This paper considers the design requirements for such facilities and the experience gained during nearly 30 years of operation. (orig./RW)

  19. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  20. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.; Allender, J.S.; Stone, J.A.; Gordon, D.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Westberry, C.F. III.

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150 0 C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables

  1. Solute transport in fractured rock - applications to radionuclide waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1990-12-01

    Flow and solute transport in fractured rocks has been intensively studied in the last decade. The increased interest is mainly due to the plans in many countries to site repositories for high level nuclear waste in deep geologic formations. All investigated crystalline rocks have been found to be fractured and most of the water flows in the fractures and fracture zones. The water transports dissolved species and radionuclides. It is thus of interest to be able to understand and to do predictive modelling of the flowrate of water, the flowpaths and the residence times of the water and of the nuclides. The dissolved species including the nuclides will interact with the surrounding rock in different ways and will in many cases be strongly retarded relative to the water velocity. Ionic species may be ion exchanged or sorbed in the mineral surfaces. Charges and neutral species may diffuse into the stagnant waters in the rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the mobile water. These effects will be strongly dependent on how much rock surface is in contact with the flowing water. It has been found in a set of field experiments and by other observations that not all fractures conduct water. Furthermore it is found that conductive fractures only conduct the water in a small part of the fracture in what is called channels or preferential flowpaths. This report summarizes the present concepts of water flow and solute transport in fractured rocks. The data needs for predictive modelling are discussed and both field and laboratory measurement which have been used to obtain data are described. Several large scale field experiments which have been specially designed to study flow and tracer transport in crystalline rocks are described. In many of the field experients new techniques have been developed and used. (81 refs.) (author)

  2. Removal of radioactive ions from nuclear waste solutions by electrodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S [Radia Industries Co. Ltd., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1978-10-01

    Removal of radioactive ions was studied from low and medium level radioactive waste solutions by electrodialysis using ion exchange membranes. The test solutions contained /sup 137/Cs/sup +/, /sup 106/Ru/sup 3 +/ or fission products (F.P.) as active ions and NaCl, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ as inactive coexisting salts. The decontamination factor of the active ions was in the order: /sup 137/Cs/sup +/ (greater than 99%) > /sup 90/Sr/sup 2 +/ > F.P. > /sup 106/Ru/sup 3 +/. The dialysis time required to attain the saturation was the shortest for monovalent cations K/sup +/, Cs/sup +/ and Na/sup +/, intermediate for divalent cation Sr/sup 2 +/, and the longest for trivalent cation Ru/sup 3 +/. The ratio of the decontamination factor of an active ion eta sub( a) to the desalination factor of an inactive ion eta sub( b) was nearly equal to unity for /sup 24/Na, /sup 42/K, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr. On the other hand, the apparent selective permeability of an active ion (A/sup +/) against Na/sup +/ ion, T sub(Na/sup +/) sup( a) was higher than unity for all the active ions tested, and was in the order of /sup 137/Cs > /sup 90/Sr > /sup 42/K > /sup 24/Na, where T sub(Na/sup +/) sup( a) is defined by the ratio of ..gamma..sub( a) to ..gamma..sub(Na/sup +/) with ..gamma..sub( a) being the ratio of dilution of A in the diluate the ..gamma..sub(Na/sup +/) being that of Na/sup +/ in the same diluate. The decontamination factor of the active ions did not depend significantly on the species and concentration of the coexistent salts or on the concentration of the active ions.

  3. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Vazquez, Antonio.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.) [es

  4. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  5. High-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Liikala, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the U.S. will be converted to an encapsulated solid and shipped to a Federal repository for retrievable storage for extended periods. Meanwhile the development of concepts for ultimate disposal of the waste which the Federal Government would manage is being actively pursued. A number of promising concepts have been proposed, for which there is high confidence that one or more will be suitable for long-term, ultimate disposal. Initial evaluations of technical (or theoretical) feasibility for the various waste disposal concepts show that in the broad category, (i.e., geologic, seabed, ice sheet, extraterrestrial, and transmutation) all meet the criteria for judging feasibility, though a few alternatives within these categories do not. Preliminary cost estimates show that, although many millions of dollars may be required, the cost for even the most exotic concepts is small relative to the total cost of electric power generation. For example, the cost estimates for terrestrial disposal concepts are less than 1 percent of the total generating costs. The cost for actinide transmutation is estimated at around 1 percent of generation costs, while actinide element disposal in space is less than 5 percent of generating costs. Thus neither technical feasibility nor cost seems to be a no-go factor in selecting a waste management system. The seabed, ice sheet, and space disposal concepts face international policy constraints. The information being developed currently in safety, environmental concern, and public response will be important factors in determining which concepts appear most promising for further development

  6. Nuclear waste disposal: Can there be a resolution? Past problems and future solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahearne, J [Scientific Research Society, Sigma Xi, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Why does the high level waste problem have to be solved now? There are perhaps three answers to that question. First, to have a recovery of nuclear power. But a lack of resolution of the high level waste problem is not the principal reason that nuclear power has foundered and, consequently, solving it will not automatically revive nuclear power. However, if the nuclear industry is adamantly convinced that this is the key to reviving nuclear power, then the nuclear industry should demonstrate its conviction by putting much greater effort into resolving the high level waste problem technically, not through public relations. For example, a substantial effort on the actinide burning approach might demonstrate, in the old American phrase, 'putting your money where your mouth is'. Second, the high level waste problem must be solved now because it is a devil's brew. However, chemical wastes last longer, as we all know, than do the radioactive wastes. As one expert has noted: 'There is real risk in nuclear power, just as there is real risk in coal power.... For some of [these risks], like the greenhouse effect, the potential damage is devastating. While for others, like nuclear accidents, the risk is limited, but imaginations are not. For still others, like the risk posed by a high-level waste repository, there is essentially nothing outside the imagination of the gullible.' Furthermore, any technical solution or any solution to a risky problem requires one to think carefully. It is often better to do it right than quickly. A third reason for requiring it to be solved right now is that HLW disposal is a major technical problem blocking a potentially valuable energy source. But we need a new solution. The current solutions are not working. I believe that we ought to recognize the failure of the geologic repository approach. I believe the federal government should identify, with industry's assistance, the best techniques for surface storage. Some federal locations should be

  7. Nuclear waste disposal: Can there be a resolution? Past problems and future solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahearne, J.

    1990-01-01

    Why does the high level waste problem have to be solved now? There are perhaps three answers to that question. First, to have a recovery of nuclear power. But a lack of resolution of the high level waste problem is not the principal reason that nuclear power has foundered and, consequently, solving it will not automatically revive nuclear power. However, if the nuclear industry is adamantly convinced that this is the key to reviving nuclear power, then the nuclear industry should demonstrate its conviction by putting much greater effort into resolving the high level waste problem technically, not through public relations. For example, a substantial effort on the actinide burning approach might demonstrate, in the old American phrase, 'putting your money where your mouth is'. Second, the high level waste problem must be solved now because it is a devil's brew. However, chemical wastes last longer, as we all know, than do the radioactive wastes. As one expert has noted: 'There is real risk in nuclear power, just as there is real risk in coal power.... For some of [these risks], like the greenhouse effect, the potential damage is devastating. While for others, like nuclear accidents, the risk is limited, but imaginations are not. For still others, like the risk posed by a high-level waste repository, there is essentially nothing outside the imagination of the gullible.' Furthermore, any technical solution or any solution to a risky problem requires one to think carefully. It is often better to do it right than quickly. A third reason for requiring it to be solved right now is that HLW disposal is a major technical problem blocking a potentially valuable energy source. But we need a new solution. The current solutions are not working. I believe that we ought to recognize the failure of the geologic repository approach. I believe the federal government should identify, with industry's assistance, the best techniques for surface storage. Some federal locations should be

  8. Saltstone: cement-based waste form for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Defense waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will include decontamination and disposal of approximately 400 million liters of waste containing NaNO 3 , NaOH, Na 2 SO 4 , and NaNO 2 . After decontamination, the salt solution is classified as low-level waste. A cement-based waste form, saltstone, has been designed for disposal of Savannah River Plant low-level radioactive salt waste. Bulk properties of this material have been tailored with respect to salt leach rate, permeability, and compressive strength. Microstructure and mineralogy of leached and unleached specimens were characterized by SEM and x-ray diffraction analyses. The disposal system for the DWPF salt waste includes reconstitution of the crystallized salt as a solution containing 32 wt % solids. This solution will be decontaminated to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr and then stabilized in a cement-based waste form. Laboratory and field tests indicate that this stabilization process greatly reduces the mobility of all of the waste constitutents in the surface and near-surface environment. Engineered trenches for subsurface burial of the saltstone have been designed to ensure compatibility between the waste form and the environment. The total disposal sytem, saltstone-trench-surrounding soil, has been designed to contain radionuclides, Cr, and Hg by both physical encapsulation and chemical fixation mechanisms. Physical encapsulation of the salts is the mechanism employed for controlling N and OH releases. In this way, final disposal of the SRP low-level waste can be achieved and the quality of the groundwater at the perimeter of the disposal site meets EPA drinking water standards

  9. Women, e-waste, and technological solutions to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Lucy; Magee, Amanda; Hale, Benjamin

    2014-06-14

    In this paper, we argue that a crossover class of climate change solutions (which we term "technological solutions") may disproportionately and adversely impact some populations over others. We begin by situating our discussion in the wider climate discourse, particularly with regard to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Basel Convention. We then suggest that many of the most attractive technological solutions to climate change, such as solar energy and electric car batteries, will likely add to the rapidly growing stream of electronic waste ("e-waste"). This e-waste may have negative downstream effects on otherwise disenfranchised populations. We argue that e-waste burdens women unfairly and disproportionately, affecting their mortality/morbidity and fertility, as well as the development of their children. Building on this, we claim that these injustices are more accurately captured as problems of recognition rather than distribution, since women are often institutionally under-acknowledged both in the workplace and in the home. Without institutional support and representation, women and children are deprived of adequate safety equipment, health precautions, and health insurance. Finally, we return to the question of climate justice in the context of the human right to health and argue for greater inclusion and recognition of women waste workers and other disenfranchised groups in forging future climate agreements. Copyright © 2014 McAllister, Magee. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  10. An eco friendly solution to the food waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. Reddy; Kumar, G. Madhav

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, waste disposal at workmen camp is one of the major problems being faced by many nations across the world. In the workmen colony at Chittapur, a series of kitchens were built for cooking purpose and a number of small canteens are also functioning. Considerable quantity of food waste is collected daily from these eateries and disposed at a faraway place. Food waste is highly degradable in nature, if not disposed properly it causes problems related to environmental pollution. Hence, it is very important to identify an environment friendly process rather than opt for land filling or any disposal method. We worked together to find a suitable eco-friendly solution for the food waste disposal at Chittapur site and suggested that biogas production through anaerobic digestion is a solution for the disposal and utilization of food waste for better purpose. This resulted in setting up a 500 kg per day food waste treatment biogas plant at Chittapur. This establishment is the first time in the construction industry at workmen camp in India. Anaerobic Digestion has been recognized as one of the best options that is available for treating food waste, as it generates two valuable end products, biogas and compost. Biogas is a mixture of CH4 and CO2 about (55:45). Biogas generated can be used for thermal applications such as cooking or for generating electricity. The digested slurry is a well stabilized organic manure and can be used as soil fertilizer. Plant design is to handle 500 kg of food waste /day. 27 kg LPG is obtained from 500kg of kitchen waste. The Value of 27 kg of LPG is Rs.2700/day. Daily 1000 litres of digested effluent was obtained. It is good organic manure with plant micro nutrients and macro nutrients. This can be used for growing plants and in agriculture. The value of manure per day is Rs.250/-. The annual revenue is Rs.10.62 lakhs and the annual expenditure is 1.8 lakhs. The net benefit is 8.82 lakhs. Payback period is 2.1 years. This process

  11. A perspective on the management of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champ, D.R.; Charlesworth, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    In Canada, low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is defined as all radioactive waste except spent fuel waste and tailings. At the time of the conference, the current practice was storage, but programs are underway to dispose of LLRW. AECL has applied for licensing of an intrusion-resistant underground structure. A comprehensive approach to LLRW management calls for: waste stream identification, waste characterization, waste segregation and characterization, waste processing, waste emplacement (storage or disposal); general principles are discussed under these headings. Performance assessment of disposal involves mathematical modelling. Progress has been slow, so if the Canadian nuclear industry does not eventually decide on a joint strategy for LLRW disposal, the federal government may have to impose a solution. 10 refs., 2 figs

  12. Distillation as a pretreatment process of waste scintillation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, J.C.

    1988-05-01

    A process to pretreat scintillation solutions composed basically of PPO, POPOP, TOLUENE and ANTAROX, utilized by radioimmunoassay laboratories, is described. The technique employed is distillation which permits a waste reduction to about 40% of the initial volume with the recovery of the solvent (toluene). The recovered toluene can be resued for the same purpose, since it is free of radioactive material as assured by quality control procedures. (author) [pt

  13. Process for denitrating waste solutions containing nitrates and actinides with simultaneous separation of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    1986-01-01

    The invention is intended to reduce the acid and nitrate content of nitrate waste solutions, to reduce the total salt content of the waste solution, to remove the actinides contained in it by precipitation, without any danger of violent reactions or an increase in the volume of the waste solution. The invention achieves this by mixing the waste solution with diethyl oxalate at room temperature and heating the mixture to at least 80 0 C. (orig./PW) [de

  14. Solidification of low-level radioactive liquid waste using a cement-silicate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandlund, R.W.; Hayes, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive use has been made of silicate and Portland cement for the solidification of industrial waste and recently this method has been successfully used to solidify a variety of low level radioactive wastes. The types of wastes processed to date include fuel fabrication sludges, power reactor waste, decontamination solution, and university laboratory waste. The cement-silicate process produces a stable solid with a minimal increase in volume and the chemicals are relatively inexpensive and readily available. The method is adaptable to either batch or continuous processing and the equipment is simple. The solid has leaching characteristics similar to or better than plain Portland cement mixtures and the leaching can be further reduced by the use of ion-exchange additives. The cement-silicate process has been used to solidify waste containing high levels of boric acid, oils, and organic solvents. The experience of handling the various types of liquid waste with a cement-silicate system is described

  15. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  16. Long-range low-level waste management needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloyna, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    In all waste management considerations, it is necessary to establish the waste source; characterize the waste components; determine treatability; evaluate specific details that comprise a systems approach to overall waste management; and implement practical collection, packaging, storage disposal and monitoring technology. This paper evaluates management considerations by defining the source and magnitude of low-level wastes (LLW), relating LLW disposal, defining principles of LLW burial, and listing LLW burial considerations. 17 refs

  17. Management of radioactive waste in France-policy, issues, and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamborini, J.

    1996-01-01

    The French nuclear industry has conducted a study to define a policy and an organization to deal with the waste generated from nuclear power plants, the fuel cycle industries, and medicine, research, and other industrial nuclear applications. This has resulted in the introduction of an organization which, by appropriate and responsible management, can guarantee to protect people and the environment while ensuring industrial effectiveness. The body in charge of waste management in France is the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) created in 1979. The French policy is based on waste classification and the related solutions for the evacuation of these wastes. High-level and long-lived waste management is regulated by a law passed Dec 30, 1991. The law outlines the research program to be conducted. Three main research objectives are prescribed: 1. reduction of the waste volumes and toxicity (partitioning and transmutation); 2. assessment of the waste isolation properties of deep geologic formations by underground research laboratories; 3. development of solidification processes and storage techniques for long-term interim storage in near-surface facilities. This research will be implemented within a 15 yr period. At present, applications are submitted to the authorities for the construction of underground research laboratories. At the end of this period, reports will be submitted to parliament. It will have to choose among various options. The construction of a deep geologic repository, if this option is chosen, will need the passage of a new law

  18. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe 2 O 3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90 0 C, with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe 2 O 3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms

  19. Assessment of LANL solid low-level waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section's capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans and procedures and identify particular areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, Chapter III sets forth the requirements and guidelines for preparation and implementation of criteria, plans and procedures to be utilized in the management of solid low-level waste. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Suggested outlines for these documents are presented as Appendix A

  20. Application of EPA regulations to low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The survey reported here was conducted with the intent of identifying categories of low-level radioactive wastes which would be classified under EPA regulations 40 CFR Part 261 as hazardous due to the chemical properties of the waste. Three waste types are identified under these criteria as potential radioactive mixed wastes: wastes containing organic liquids; wastes containing lead metal; and wastes containing chromium. The survey also indicated that certain wastes, specific to particular generators, may also be radioactive mixed wastes. Ultimately, the responsibility for determining whether a facility's wastes are mixed wastes rest with the generator. However, the uncertainties as to which regulations are applicable, and the fact that no legal definition of mixed wastes exists, make such a determination difficult. In addition to identifying mixed wastes, appropriate methods for the management of mixed wastes must be defined. In an ongoing study, BNL is evaluating options for the management of mixed wastes. These options will include segregation, substitution, and treatments to reduce or eliminate chemical hazards associated with the wastes listed above. The impacts of the EPA regulations governing hazardous wastes on radioactive mixed waste cannot be assessed in detail until the applicability of these regulations is agreed upon. This issue is still being discussed by EPA and NRC and should be resolved in the near future. Areas of waste management which may affect generators of mixed wastes include: monitoring/tracking of wastes before shipment; chemical testing of wastes; permits for treatment of storage of wastes; and additional packaging requirements. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  2. Processing vessel for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi

    1998-01-01

    Upon transferring an overpack having canisters containing high level radioactive wastes sealed therein and burying it into an underground processing hole, an outer shell vessel comprising a steel plate to be fit and contained in the processing hole is formed. A bury-back layer made of dug earth and sand which had been discharged upon forming the processing hole is formed on the inner circumferential wall of the outer shell vessel. A buffer layer having a predetermined thickness is formed on the inner side of the bury-back layer, and the overpack is contained in the hollow portion surrounded by the layer. The opened upper portion of the hollow portion is covered with the buffer layer and the bury-back layer. Since the processing vessel having a shielding performance previously formed on the ground, the state of packing can be observed. In addition, since an operator can directly operates upon transportation and burying of the high level radioactive wastes, remote control is no more necessary. (T.M.)

  3. Immobilization and Waste Form Product Acceptance for Low Level and TRU Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzscheiter, E.W.; Harbour, J.R.

    1998-05-01

    The Tanks Focus Area is supporting technology development in immobilization of both High Level (HLW) and Low Level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The HLW process development at Hanford and Idaho is patterned closely after that of the Savannah River (Defense Waste Processing Facility) and West Valley Sites (West Valley Demonstration Project). However, the development and options open to addressing Low Level Waste are diverse and often site specific. To start, it is important to understand the breadth of Low Level Wastes categories

  4. Specific transport and storage solutions: Waste management facing current and future stakes of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, Helene; Gagner, Laurent; Gendreau, Francoise; Presta, Anne

    2006-01-01

    With major projects ongoing or being planned, and also with the daily management of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities, the role of transport and/or storage packaging has been often overlooked. Indeed, the packaging development process and transport solutions implemented are a key part of the waste management challenge: protection of people and environment. During over four decades, the AREVA Group has developed a complete and coherent system for the transport of waste produced by nuclear industries. The transport solutions integrate the factors to consider, as industrial transportation needs, various waste forms, associated hazards and current regulations. Thus, COGEMA LOGISTICS has designed, licensed and manufactured a large number of different transport, storage and dual purpose cask models for residues and all kinds of radioactive wastes. The present paper proposes to illustrate how a company acting both as a cask designer and a carrier is key to the waste management issue and how it can support the waste management policy of nuclear producers through their operational choices. We will focus on the COGEMA LOGISTICS technical solutions implemented to guarantee safe and secure transportation and storage solutions. We will describe different aspects of the cask design process, insisting on how it enables to fulfill both customer needs and regulation requirements. We will also mention the associated services developed by the AREVA Business Unit Logistics (COGEMA LOGISTICS, TRANSNUCLEAR, MAINCO, and LEMARECHAL CELESTIN) in order to manage transportation of liquid and solid waste towards interim or final storage sites. The paper has the following contents: About radioactive waste; - Radioactive waste classification; - High level activity waste and long-lived intermediate level waste; - Long-lived low level waste; - Short-lived low- and intermediate level waste; - Very low level waste; - The radioactive waste in nuclear fuel cycle; - Packaging design and

  5. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  6. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  7. The management of intermediate level wastes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of current practices and research in Sweden on the management of intermediate level wastes is given. Intermediate level wastes include spent resins, filters and core components from the six power reactors in operation; radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel development at Studsvik and from non-nuclear applications are a minor contribution. (Auth.)

  8. High level waste canister emplacement and retrieval concepts study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Several concepts are described for the interim (20 to 30 years) storage of canisters containing high level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate level-TRU wastes. It includes requirements, ground rules and assumptions for the entire storage pilot plant. Concepts are generally evaluated and the most promising are selected for additional work. Follow-on recommendations are made

  9. Decontamination of waste radioactive polluted solutions in radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simova, G.; Boyadzhiev, A.; Mikhajlov, M.G.; Shopov, N.

    1979-01-01

    The decontamination capacity of solutions of the trivial cleaning Bulgarian preparations ''Mipro'', ''Sana'', ''Synthek'' and ''Univer'' for different surfaces (steel, glass, PVC and linoleum) contaminated with cesium-134, strontium-85 or cerium-144 chlorides, was studied. Concentrations from 5 to 15 g/l of the solutions used in this study displayed a degree of cleaning over 90%. Higher concentration of the solution does not improve its cleaning capacity. For evaluation of foam formation by the solutions, the so called ''foam column stability coefficient'' has been adopted. This coefficient represents the ratio between the height of the foam column and the time of its half life, referred to the time for the foam column formation when blown through with a constant air current. On the basis of this index, solutions of the preparation ''Mipro'' proved to be the best ones for decontamination - in the whole investigated concentration span, the foam column stability coefficient for the solutions of this preparation is with two orders lower than the respective coefficient of the other preparations. It was experimentally established that radiation treatment of radio-contaminated solutions reduces the foam column stability coefficient. Radiation treatment should be carried out in a gamma field, realizing at least one megarad within an acceptable for the liquid wastes time period. (A.B.)

  10. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J

    2016-10-01

    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Glasses used for the high level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1983-06-01

    High level radioactive wastes generated by the reprocessing of spent fuels is an important concern in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the status of the knowledge about glasses used for the treatment of these liquids [fr

  12. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, significant progress has been made towards siting national, purpose-built facilities for Australian radioactive waste. In 2001, after an eight year search, a preferred site and two alternatives were identified in central-north South Australia for a near-surface repository for Australian low level (low level and short-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste. Site 52a at Everts Field West on the Woomera Prohibited Area was selected as the preferred site as it performs best against the selection criteria, particularly with respect to geology, ground water, transport and security. Two alternative sites, Site 45a and Site 40a, east of the Woomera-Roxby Downs Road, were also found to be highly suitable for the siting of the national repository. A project has commenced to site a national store for intermediate (long-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste on Commonwealth land for waste produced by Commonwealth agencies. Public input has been sought on relevant selection criteria

  13. Disposal of high level nuclear wastes: Thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RANA Mukhtar Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of soil, water or air, due to a failure of containment or disposal of high level nuclear wastes, can potentially cause serious hazards to the environment or human health. Essential elements of the environment and radioactivity dangers to it are illustrated. Issues of high level nuclear waste disposal are discussed with a focus on thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics. Major aspects of the issues are analyzed and described briefly to build a perception of risks involved and ethical implications. Nuclear waste containment repository should be as close as possible to thermodynamic equilibrium. A clear demonstration about safety aspects of nuclear waste management is required in gaining public and political confidence in any possible scheme of permanent disposal. Disposal of high level nuclear waste offers a spectrum of environment connected challenges and a long term future of nuclear power depends on the environment friendly solution of the problem of nuclear wastes.

  14. Disposal of high level nuclear wastes: thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of soil, water or air, due to a failure of containment or disposal of high level nuclear wastes, can potentially cause serious hazards to the environment or human health. Essential elements of the environment and radioactivity dangers to it are illustrated. Issues of high level nuclear waste disposal are discussed with a focus on thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics. Major aspects of the issues are analyzed and described briefly to build a perception of risks involved and ethical implications. Nuclear waste containment repository should be as close as possible to thermodynamic equilibrium. A clear demonstration about safety aspects of nuclear waste management is required in gaining public and political confidence in any possible scheme of permanent disposal. Disposal of high level nuclear waste offers a spectrum of environment connected challenges and a long term future of nuclear power depends on the environment friendly solution of the problem of nuclear wastes. (authors)

  15. Solid, low-level radioactive waste certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities accept solid, low-level radioactive waste from onsite and offsite generators. This manual defines the certification program that is used to provide assurance that the waste meets the Hanford Site waste acceptance criteria. Specifically, this program defines the participation and responsibilities of Westinghouse Hanford Company Solid Waste Engineering Support, Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance, and both onsite and offsite waste generators. It is intended that waste generators use this document to develop certification plans and quality assurance program plans. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved in providing assurance that generators have implemented a waste certification program. This assurance involves review and approval of generator certification plans, and review of generator's quality assurance program plans to ensure that they address all applicable requirements. The document also details the Westinghouse Hanford Company Waste Management Audit and Surveillance Program. 5 refs

  16. Low-risk alternative waste forms for problematic high-level and long-lived nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Moricca, S.; Day, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The highest cost component the nuclear waste clean up challenge centres on high-level waste (HLW) and consequently the greatest opportunity for cost and schedule savings lies with optimising the approach to HLW cleanup. The waste form is the key component of the immobilisation process. To achieve maximum cost savings and optimum performance the selection of the waste form should be driven by the characteristics of the specific nuclear waste to be immobilised, rather than adopting a single baseline approach. This is particularly true for problematic nuclear wastes that are often not amenable to a single baseline approach. The use of tailored, high-performance, alternative waste forms that include ceramics and glass-ceramics, coupled with mature process technologies offer significant performance improvements and efficiency savings for a nuclear waste cleanup program. It is the waste form that determines how well the waste is locked up (chemical durability), and the number of repository disposal canisters required (waste loading efficiency). The use of alternative waste forms for problematic wastes also lowers the overall risk by providing high performance HLW treatment alternatives. The benefits tailored alternative waste forms bring to the HLW cleanup program will be briefly reviewed with reference to work carried out on the following: The HLW calcines at the Idaho National Laboratory; SYNROC ANSTO has developed a process utilising a glass-ceramic combined with mature hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) technology and has demonstrated this at a waste loading of 80 % and at a 30 kg HIP scale. The use of this technology has recently been estimated to result in a 70 % reduction in waste canisters, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass technology; Actinide-rich waste streams, particularly the work being done by SYNROC ANSTO with Nexia Solutions on the Plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield in the UK, which if implemented is forecast to result in substantial

  17. Waste acceptance product specifications for vitrified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Sproull, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 mandated that all high-level waste (HLW) be sent to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. DOE published the Environmental Assessment in 1982 which identified borosilicate glass as the chosen HLW form. 1 In 1985 the Department of Energy instituted a Waste Acceptance Process to assure that DWPF glass waste forms would be acceptable to such a repository. This assurance was important since production of waste forms will precede repository construction and licensing. As part of this Waste Acceptance Process, the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) formed the Waste Acceptance Committee (WAC). The WAC included representatives from the candidate repository sites, the waste producing sites and DOE. The WAC was responsible for developing the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) which defined the requirements the waste forms must meet to be compatible with the candidate repository geologies

  18. R and D Activities on high-level nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shosuke

    1985-01-01

    High-level liquid waste (HLLW) at Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been generated from reprocessing of spent fuels from the light water reactors, and successfully managed since 1977. At the time of 1984, about 154m 3 of HLLW from 170 tons of spent fuels were stored in three high-integrity stainless steel tanks (90m 3 for each) as a nitric acid aqueous solution. The HLLW arises mainly from the first cycle solvent extraction phase. Alkaline solution to scrub the extraction solvent is another source of HLLW. The Advisory Committee on Radioactive Waste Management reported the concept on disposal of high-level waste (HLW) in Japan in 1980 report, that the waste be solidified into borosilicate glass and then be disposed in deep geologic formation so as to minimize the influence of the waste on human environment, with the aid of multibarrier system which is the combination of natural barrier and engineered barrier

  19. Thermo-aeraulics of high level waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrave, Herve; Gaillard, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Franck; Ranc, Guillaume; Duret, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the research undertaken in response to axis 3 of the 1991 radioactive waste management act, and possible solutions concerning the processes under consideration for conditioning and long-term interim storage of long-lived radioactive waste. The notion of 'long-term' is evaluated with respect to the usual operating lifetime of a basic nuclear installation, about 50 years. In this context, 'long-term' is defined on a secular time scale: the lifetime of the facility could be as long as 300 years. The waste package taken into account is characterized notably by its high thermal power release. Studies were carried out in dedicated facilities for vitrified waste and for spent UOX and MOX fuel. The latter are not considered as wastes, owing to the value of the reusable material they contain. Three primary objectives have guided the design of these long-term interim storage facilities: - ensure radionuclide containment at all times; - permit retrieval of the containers at any time; - minimize surveillance; - maintenance costs. The CEA has also investigated surface and subsurface facilities. It was decided to work on generic sites with a reasonable set of parameters values that should be applicable at most sites in France. All the studies and demonstrations to date lead to the conclusion that long-term interim storage is technically feasible. The paper addresses the following items: - Long-term interim storage concepts for high-level waste; - Design principles and options for the interim storage facilities; - General architecture; - Research topics, Storage facility ventilation, Dimensioning of the facility; - Thermo-aeraulics of a surface interim storage facility; - VALIDA surface loop, VALIDA single container test campaign, Continuation of the VALIDA program; - Thermo-aeraulics of a network of subsurface interim storage galleries; - SIGAL subsurface loop; - PROMETHEE subsurface loop; - Temperature behaviour of the concrete structures; - GALATEE

  20. Thermo-aeraulics of high level waste storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrave, Herve; Gaillard, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Franck; Ranc, Guillaume [CEA/Valrho, B.P. 17171, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Duret, Bernard [CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the research undertaken in response to axis 3 of the 1991 radioactive waste management act, and possible solutions concerning the processes under consideration for conditioning and long-term interim storage of long-lived radioactive waste. The notion of 'long-term' is evaluated with respect to the usual operating lifetime of a basic nuclear installation, about 50 years. In this context, 'long-term' is defined on a secular time scale: the lifetime of the facility could be as long as 300 years. The waste package taken into account is characterized notably by its high thermal power release. Studies were carried out in dedicated facilities for vitrified waste and for spent UOX and MOX fuel. The latter are not considered as wastes, owing to the value of the reusable material they contain. Three primary objectives have guided the design of these long-term interim storage facilities: - ensure radionuclide containment at all times; - permit retrieval of the containers at any time; - minimize surveillance; - maintenance costs. The CEA has also investigated surface and subsurface facilities. It was decided to work on generic sites with a reasonable set of parameters values that should be applicable at most sites in France. All the studies and demonstrations to date lead to the conclusion that long-term interim storage is technically feasible. The paper addresses the following items: - Long-term interim storage concepts for high-level waste; - Design principles and options for the interim storage facilities; - General architecture; - Research topics, Storage facility ventilation, Dimensioning of the facility; - Thermo-aeraulics of a surface interim storage facility; - VALIDA surface loop, VALIDA single container test campaign, Continuation of the VALIDA program; - Thermo-aeraulics of a network of subsurface interim storage galleries; - SIGAL subsurface loop; - PROMETHEE subsurface loop; - Temperature behaviour of the concrete

  1. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Russell, P.J.; Avery, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive research investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low level and intermediate level waste immobilized in cement. Several topics have been investigated which include: (a) the study of the formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates; (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments; (c) colloid sorption behaviour; (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates; (e) characteristics of near-field materials in EC repository simulation tests; and (f) colloid migration behaviour. These experimental investigations should provide data and a basis for the development of transport models and leaching mechanisms, and thus relate directly to the part of the Task 3 programme concerned with migration and retention of radionuclides in the near field. 114 Figs.; 39 Tabs.; 12 Refs

  2. Inheritance from low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Makuuchi, Keizo; Inoue, Tomio; Komoda, Fumio; Maeda, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    A benefit born as an inheritance from low-level radioactive waste is considered. In the present study, a direct economic scale of application of radiation in Japanese industry, agriculture and medicine is taken as parameter for quantifying the size of benefit. In 2006, the economic scale is about 21 billion dollars (b$) for industry, 2.5b$ for agriculture and 14b$ for medicine. Economic scale covered the all fields is totaled 37b$. Due to those benefit, one can drive a car and play an internet, pleasure the dinning food. Diagnosis and treatment by nuclear medicine can possible to survive the millions of lives and resulting in improving the quality of life, decreasing pain and suffering. However, most Japanese (80%>) may not aware those benefits to date. This report is prepared for aiming at disseminating those benefits to our peoples. (author)

  3. Draft low level waste technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information

  4. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  5. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence

  6. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, Xiangdong.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Guetat, P.; Garbay, H.

    1991-01-01

    The politics of radioactive waste management is a part of waste management and activity levels are one of the components of potential waste pollutions in order to assume man and environment safety. French regulations about personnel and public' radiation protection defines clearly the conditions of radioactive waste processing, storage, transport and disposal. But below some activity levels definite by radiation protection laws, any administrative procedures or processes can be applied for lack of legal regulations. So regulations context is not actually ready to allow a rational low-level radioactive waste management. 15 refs.; 4 tabs.; 3 figs

  8. Measurement of Solute Diffusion Behavior in Fractured Waste Glass Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saripalli, Kanaka P.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of aqueous phase diffusion coefficients of solutes through fractured media is essential for understanding and modeling contaminants transport at many hazardous waste disposal sites. No methods for earlier measurements are available for the characterization of diffusion in fractured glass blocks. We report here the use of time-lag diffusion experimental method to assess the diffusion behavior of three different solutes (Cs, Sr and Pentafluoro Benzoic Acid or PFBA) in fractured, immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) glass forms. A fractured media time-lag diffusion experimental apparatus that allows the measurement of diffusion coefficients has been designed and built for this purpose. Use of time-lag diffusion method, a considerably easier experimental method than the other available methods, was not previously demonstrated for measuring diffusion in any fractured media. Hydraulic conductivity, porosity and diffusion coefficients of a solute were experimentally measured in fractured glass blocks using this method for the first time. Results agree with the range of properties reported for similar rock media earlier, indicating that the time-lag experimental method can effectively characterize the diffusion coefficients of fractured ILAW glass media

  9. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government's system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government's program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

  10. The immobilization of High Level Waste Into Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah; Martono, H.

    1998-01-01

    High level liquid waste is generated from the first step extraction in the nuclear fuel reprocessing. The waste is immobilized with boro-silicate glass. A certain composition of glass is needed for a certain type of waste, so that the properties of waste glass would meet the requirement either for further process or for disposal. The effect of waste loading on either density, thermal expansion, softening point and leaching rate has been studied. The composition of the high level liquid waste has been determined by ORIGEN 2 and the result has been used to prepare simulated high level waste. The waste loading in the waste glass has been set to be 19.48; 22.32; 25.27; and 26.59 weight percent. The result shows that increasing the waste loading has resulted in the higher density with no thermal expansion and softening point significant change. The increase in the waste loading increase that leaching rate. The properties of the waste glass in this research have not shown any deviation from the standard waste glass properties

  11. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation

  12. Mining techniques and some aspects of high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, J.A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The solutions to many problems of underground waste disposal involve mine engineering. This article attempts to highlight chosen issues and thereby create an overall impression, avoiding emphasis on single-aspect calculation. High level waste (H.L.W.) dominates current radioactive waste studies because of its specific characteristics and is therefore dealt with in this paper. However, depending on the method of disposal the other categories of radio active waste might become problems by themselves because of the relatively large quantities involved. (Auth.)

  13. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  14. Low-level radioactive waste minimization for health care institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years medical waste has been the subject of considerable public and governmental attention. This has been, in part, due to the media's attraction to unfortunate instances of environmental pollution caused by hazardous and medical wastes. While a considerable amount of information is currently available on the treatment and disposal practices for hazardous wastes, a shortfall of information exists on the subject of medical wastes. Such wastes are generated by various health care institutions. Medical waste is a wide and all encompassing term which refers to a variety of wastes. This presentation addresses medical low-level (LLW) radioactive waste; its generation, recovery and handling. The development of generic waste minimization models and greater use of alternative technologies are part of the discussion

  15. Long-term high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive program to isolate all US nuclear wastes from the human environment. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Waste (NEW) has full responsibility for managing the high-level wastes resulting from defense activities and additional responsiblity for providing the technology to manage existing commercial high-level wastes and any that may be generated in one of several alternative fuel cycles. Responsibilities of the Three Divisions of DOE-NEW are shown. This strategy document presents the research and development plan of the Division of Waste Products for long-term immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. These high-level wastes contain more than 99% of the residual radionuclides produced in the fuels and targets during reactor operations. They include essentially all the fission products and most of the actinides that were not recovered for use

  16. Cs separation from nitric acid solutions of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, K.; Pieronczyk, W.; Strnad, J.; Feldmaier, F.

    1989-01-01

    It was the objective of this study to selectively separate active caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from acid radioactive waste solutions (especially MAW and HAWC). The following 'strategy' was designed for a separation process: synthesis of reagents which are acid-resistant and selective for caesium; precipitation of Cs + and separation of the precipitates by filtration or centrifugation or precipitation of Cs + and separation of the precipitates by flotation; caesium separation by liquid-liquid extraction. As precipitating agents, sodium tetraphenylborate (kalignost) and several of its fluorine derivatives were examined. (orig./RB) [de

  17. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Stanton, C.; Patterson, R.G.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 2 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics of technetium-99. This report also includes discussions about waste streams in which technetium-99 can be found, waste forms that contain technetium-99, and technetium-99's behavior in the environment and in the human body

  18. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references

  19. Low level radioactive liquid waste treatment at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Lasher, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    A new Process Waste Treatment Plant has been constructed at ORNL. The wastes are processed through a precipitation-clarification step and then through an ion exchange step to remove the low-level activity in the waste before discharge into White Oak Creek

  20. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 3 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of carbon-14. The report also discusses waste streams that contain carbon-14, waste forms that contain carbon-14, and carbon-14 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  1. Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrin, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    In medical establishments, radioisotopes are used in diagnostic techniques, in chemotherapy or in radioimmunology. Hospitable radioactive wastes are characterized by polymorphism and low activity levels in a great volume. These wastes are also associated with infectivity and toxicity. This paper makes a balance and describes new radioactive waste management proposals. 4 refs.; 3 tabs.; 1 fig

  2. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes: technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present

  3. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes: technical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present.

  4. Radioactive waste and special waste disposal in salt domes - phoney waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmel, E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper tries to make aware of the fact that an indefinite safe disposal of anthropogeneous wastes in underground repositories is impossible. Suspicion is raised that the Gorleben-Rambow salt dome has never been studied for its suitability as a repository, but that it was simply taken for granted. Safety analyses are meant only to conceal uncertainty. It is demanded to immediately opt out of the ultimate disposal technique for radioactive and special wastes in salt caverns. (DG) [de

  5. Photometric estimation of plutonium in product solutions and acid waste solutions using flow injection analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhas, A.J.A.; Dharmapurikar, G.R.; Kumaraguru, K.; Vijayan, K.; Kapoor, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flow injection analysis technique is employed for the measurement of plutonium concentrations in product nitrate solutions by measuring the absorbance of Pu(III) at 565 nm and of Pu(IV) at 470 nm, using a Metrohm 662 photometer, with a pyrex glass tube of 2 nm (ID) inserted in the light path of the detector serving as a flow cell. The photometer detector never comes in contact with radioactive solution. In the case of acid waste solutions Pu is first purified by extraction chromatography with 2-ethyl hexyl hydrogen 2 ethyl hexyl phosphonate (KSM 17)- chromosorb and the Pu in the eluate in complexed with Arsenazo III followed by the measured of absorbance at 665 nm. Absorbance of reference solutions in the desired concentration ranges are measured to calibrate the system. The results obtained agree with the reference values within ±2.0%. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  6. Effects of waste content of glass waste forms on Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of the waste content of glass waste forms of Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs are evaluated by their impact on the number of waste canisters produced. Changes in waste content affect onsite Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) costs as well as offsite shipping and repository emplacement charges. A nominal 1% increase over the 28 wt % waste loading of DWPF glass would reduce disposal costs by about $50 million for Savannah River wastes generated to the year 2000. Waste form modifications under current study include adjustments of glass frit content to compensate for added salt decontamination residues and increased sludge loadings in the DWPF glass. Projected cost reductions demonstrate significant incentives for continued optimization of the glass waste loadings. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  8. Community Solutions to Solid Waste Pollution. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Grade 6. [Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    This publication, the last in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for sixth grade students focusing on community solutions to solid waste pollution. Waste management activities included in this unit seek to…

  9. Options for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Laughton, A.S.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste within the fuel cycle, especially the high-level wastes from reprocessing of nuclear fuel, is currently a matter of particular concern. In the short term (meaning a timescale of tens of years) management by engineered storage is considered to provide a satisfactory solution. Beyond this, however, the two main alternative options which are considered in the paper are: (a) disposal by burial into geologic formations on land; and (b) disposal by emplacement into or onto the seabed. Status of our present knowledge on the land and seabed disposal options is reviewed together with an assessment of the extent to which their reliability and safety can be judged on presently available information. Further information is needed on the environmental behaviour of radioactivity in the form of solidified waste in both situations in order to provide a more complete, scientific assessment. Work done so far has clarified the areas where further research is most needed - for instance modelling of the environmental transfer processes associated with the seabed option. This is discussed together with an indication of the research programmes which are now being pursued

  10. Synroc - a multiphase ceramic for high level nuclear waste immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.; Vance, E.R.; Hart, K.P.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Mercer, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Many natural minerals - particularly titanates - are very durable geochemically, having survived for millions of years with very little alteration. Moreover, some of these minerals have quantitatively retained radioactive elements and their daughter products over this time. The Synroc concept mimics nature by providing an all-titanate synthetic mineral phase assemblage to immobilise high level waste (HLW) from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations for safe geological disposal. In principle, many chemically hazardous inorganic wastes arising from industry could also be immobilised in highly durable ceramics and disposed of geologically, but in practice the cost structure of most industries is such that lower cost waste management solutions - for example, the development of reusable by-products or the use of cements rather than ceramics - have to be devised. In many thousands of aqueous leach tests at ANSTO, mostly at 70-90 deg C, Synroc has been shown to be exceptionally durable. The emphases of the recent ANSTO program have been on tailoring of the Synroc composition to varying HLW compositions, leach testing of Synroc containing radioactive transuranic actinides, study of leaching mechanisms by SEM and TEM, and the development and costing of a conceptual fully active Synroc fabrication plant design. A summary of recent results on these topics will be presented. 29 refs., 4 figs

  11. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  12. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended.

  13. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended

  14. Recovery of thorium along with uranium 233 from Thorex waste solution employing Chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priya, S.; Reghuram, D.; Kumaraguru, K.; Vijayan, K.; Jambunathan, U.

    2003-01-01

    The low level waste solution, generated from Thorex process during the processing of U 233 , contains thorium along with traces of Th 228 and U 233 . Chitosan, a natural bio-polymer derived from Chitin, was earlier used to recover the uranium and americium. The studies were extended to find out its thorium sorption characteristics. Chitosan exhibited very good absorption of thorium (350 mg/g). Chitosan was equilibrated directly with the low level waste solution at different pH after adjusting its pH, for 60 minutes with a Chitosan to aqueous ratio of 1:100 and the raffinates were filtered and analysed. The results showed more than 99% of thorium and U 233 could be recovered by Chitosan between pH 4 and 5. Loaded thorium and uranium could be eluted from the Chitosan by 1M HNO 3 quantitatively. (author)

  15. Cermet high level waste forms: a pregress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-06-01

    The fixation of high level radioactive waste from both commercial and DOE defense sources as cermets is currently under study. This waste form consists of a continuous iron-nickel base metal matrix containing small particles of fission product oxides. Preliminary evaluations of cermets fabricated from a variety of simulated wastes indicate they possess properties providing advantages over other waste forms presently being considered, namely thermal conductivity, waste loading levels, and leach resistance. This report describes the progress of this effort, to date, since its initiation in 1977

  16. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  17. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 Area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pretreating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste

  18. High Level Waste (HLW) Processing Experience with Increased Waste Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Engineering requested characterization of glass samples that were taken after the second melter had been operational for about 5 months. After the new melter had been installed, the waste loading had been increased to about 38 weight percentage after a new quasicrystalline liquidus model had been implemented. The DWPF had also switched from processing with refractory Frit 200 to a more fluid Frit 320. The samples were taken after DWPF observed very rapid buildup of deposits in the upper pour spout bore and on the pour spout insert while processing the high waste loading feedstock. These samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques to determine the cause of the crystallization. The pour stream sample was homogeneous, amorphous, and representative of the feed batch from which it was derived. Chemical analysis of the pour stream sample indicated that a waste loading of 38.5 weight per cent had been achieved. The data analysis indicated that surface crystallization, induced by temperature and oxygen fugacity gradients in the pour spout, caused surface crystallization to occur in the spout and on the insert at the higher waste loadings even though there was no crystallization in the pour stream

  19. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  20. Reduction of waste solution volume generated on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, for the reduction of volume of metal oxides generated in cathode chamber, the optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. Also, the required time to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal was estimated through experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out. The optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber for the reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Also, when the initial uranium concentration of the soils were 7-20 Bq/g, the required times to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal were 25-40 days. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out.

  1. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  2. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  3. A nationwide low-level waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The National Governors' Association, in conjunction with the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program, invited various representatives of states, regions, and federal agencies to comment on their perceptions of what major features would constitute a nationwide low-level waste management system. Three meetings were conducted and this report summarizes results of those meetings. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 placed primary responsibility on the states for disposal of low-level waste. Although initial efforts of states have been directed toward establishing compacts, it is evident that a successful long term system requires significant cooperation and communication among states, regions, federal agencies, and Congress

  4. A model for a national low level waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenhorn, James A.

    2009-01-01

    A national program for the management of low level waste is essential to the success of environmental clean-up, decontamination and decommissioning, current operations and future missions. The value of a national program is recognized through procedural consistency and a shared set of resources. A national program requires a clear waste definition and an understanding of waste characteristics matched against available and proposed disposal options. A national program requires the development and implementation of standards and procedures for implementing the waste hierarchy, with a specitic emphasis on waste avoidance, minimization and recycling. It requires a common set of objectives for waste characterization based on the disposal facility's waste acceptance criteria, regulatory and license requirements and performance assessments. Finally, a national waste certification program is required to ensure compliance. To facilitate and enhance the national program, a centralized generator services organization, tasked with providing technical services to the generators on behalf of the national program, is necessary. These subject matter experts are the interface between the generating sites and the disposal facility(s). They provide an invaluable service to the generating organizations through their involvement in waste planning prior to waste generation and through championing implementation of the waste hierarchy. Through their interface, national treatment and transportation services are optimized and new business opportunities are identified. This national model is based on extensive experience in the development and on-going management of a national transuranic waste program and management of the national repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Low Level Program at the Savannah River Site also successfully developed and implemented the waste hierarchy, waste certification and waste generator services concepts presented below. The Savannah River Site

  5. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The disposition of actinide elements released from high-level waste glasses into a tuff groundwater in laboratory tests at 90 degrees C at various glass surface area/leachant volume ratios (S/V) between dissolved, suspended, and sorbed fractions has been measured. While the maximum release of actinides is controlled by the corrosion rate of the glass matrix, their solubility and sorption behavior affects the amounts present in potentially mobile phases. Actinide solubilities are affected by the solution pH and the presence of complexants released from the glass, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chloride, radiolytic products, such as nitrate and nitrite, and carbonate. Sorption onto inorganic colloids formed during lass corrosion may increase the amounts of actinides in solution, although subsequent sedimentation of these colloids under static conditions leads to a significant reduction in the amount of actinides in solution. The solution chemistry and observed actinide behavior depend on the S/V of the test. Tests at high S/V lead to higher pH values, greater complexant concentrations, and generate colloids more quickly than tests at low S/V. The S/V also affects the rate of glass corrosion

  6. Concentration of High Level Radioactive Liquid Waste. Basic data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvenelle, A.; Masson, M.; Garrido, M.H. [DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP, BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to enhance its knowledge about the concentration of high level liquid waste (HLLW) from the nuclear fuel reprocessing process, a program of studies was defined by Cea. In a large field of acidity, it proposes to characterize the concentrated solution and the obtained precipitates versus the concentration factor. Four steps are considered: quantification of the salting-out effect on the concentrate acidity, acquisition of solubility data, precipitates characterisation versus the concentration factor through aging tests and concentration experimentation starting from simulated fission products solutions. The first results, reported here, connect the acidity of the concentrated solution to the concentration factor and allow us to precise the field of acidity (4 to 12 N) for the next experiments. In this field, solubility data of various elements (Ba, Sr, Zr...) are separately measured at room temperature, in nitric acid in a first time, then in the presence of various species present in medium (TBP, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}). The reactions between these various elements are then investigated (formation of insoluble mixed compounds) by following the concentration cations in solution and characterising the precipitates. (authors)

  7. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  8. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies

  9. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J M [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-03-01

    The aims and options for the management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from the generation of nuclear power are outlined. The status of developments in reprocessing, waste solidification and geologic burial in major countries is reviewed. Some generic assessments of the potential radiological impacts from geologic repositories are discussed, and a perspective is suggested on risks from radiation.

  10. Process for denitrating waste solutions containing nitric acid actinides simultaneously separating the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    1984-01-01

    The invention should reduce the acid and nitrate content of waste solutions containing nitric acid as much as possible, should reduce the total salt content of the waste solution, remove the actinides contained in it by precipitation and reduce the α radio-activity in the remaining solution, without having to worry about strong reactions or an increase in the volume of the waste solution. The invention achieves this by mixing the waste solution with diethyl oxalate at room temperature and heating the mixture to at least 80 0 C. (orig.) [de

  11. High-level radioactive waste glass and storage canister design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Management of high-level radioactive wastes is a primary concern in nuclear operations today. The main objective in managing these wastes is to convert them into a solid, durable form which is then isolated from man. A description is given of the design and evaluation of this waste form. The waste form has two main components: the solidified waste and the storage canister. The solid waste form discussed in this study is glass. Waste glasses have been designed to be inert to water attack, physically rugged, low in volatility, and stable over time. Two glass-making processes are under development at PNL. The storage canister is being designed to provide high-integrity containment for solidified wastes from processing to terminal storage. An outline is given of the steps in canister design: material selection, stress and thermal analyses, quality verification, and postfill processing. Examples are given of results obtained from actual nonradioactive demonstration tests. 14 refs

  12. Description of a ceramic waste form and canister for Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.L.; Allender, J.S.; Gould, T.H. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    A canistered ceramic waste form for possible immobilization of Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level radioactive wastes is described. Characteristics reported for the form include waste loading, chemical composition, heat content, isotope inventory, mechanical and thermal properties, and leach rates. A conceptual design of a potential production process for making this canistered form are also described. The ceramic form was selected in November 1981 as the primary alternative to the reference waste form, borosilicate glass, for making a final waste form decision for SRP waste by FY-1983. 11 tables

  13. Report of the Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Radiation Policy Council formed a Task Force in May 1980 to consider the problems associated with low-level radioactive waste disposal. Two major objectives were developed by the Task Force: (1) To recommend Federal policy for improving coordination and implementation of Federal and non-Federal programs that have been established to obtain solutions to existing low-level waste disposal problems, and (2) to recommend Federal policy for disposal of low-level waste containing minimal activity for which alternative disposal methods to existing shallow land burial practices may be acceptable for protecting the public health. These wastes constitute a significant fraction of what is currently classified as low-level radioactive wastes. Included are most of the wastes currently destined for shallow land burial from medical and research institutions, as well as from other sources. Such wastes include liquid scintillation vials, dry solids, animal carcasses, and paper trash; there are many items included which are needlessly classified, on a purely arbitrary basis, as radioactive waste merely because they contain detectable radioactive materials. It is this waste which is of major concern

  14. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces

  15. Overview: Defense high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Defense high-level waste generated by atomic energy defense activities is stored on an interim basis at three U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) operating locations; the Savannah River Plant in South Carolina, the Hanford Site in Washington, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in Idaho. Responsibility for the permanent disposal of this waste resides with DOE's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management. The objective of the Defense High-Level Wast Technology Program is to develop the technology for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of all U.S. defense high-level waste. New and readily retrievable high-level waste are immobilized for disposal in a geologic repository. Other high-level waste will be stabilized in-place if, after completion of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, it is determined, on a site-specific basis, that this option is safe, cost effective and environmentally sound. The immediate program focus is on implementing the waste disposal strategy selected in compliance with the NEPA process at Savannah River, while continuing progress toward development of final waste disposal strategies at Hanford and Idaho. This paper presents an overview of the technology development program which supports these waste management activities and an assessment of the impact that recent and anticipated legal and institutional developments are expected to have on the program

  16. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  17. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  18. Land disposal alternatives for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.; Lindeman, R.; Saulnier, G.; Adam, J.; Sutherland, A.; Gruhlke, J.; Hung, C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop data regarding the effectiveness and costs of the following options for disposing of specific low-level nuclear waste streams; sanitary landfill; improved shallow land burial; intermediate depth disposal; deep well injection; conventional shallow land burial; engineered surface storage; deep geological disposal; and hydrofracturing. This will be accomplished through the following steps: (1) characterize the properties of the commercial low-level wastes requiring disposal; (2) evaluate the various options for disposing of this waste, characterize selected representative waste disposal sites and design storage facilities suitable for use at those sites; (3) calculate the effects of various waste disposal options on population health risks; (4) estimate the costs of various waste disposal options for specific sites; and (5) perform trade-off analyses of the benefits of various waste disposal options against the costs of implementing these options. These steps are described. 2 figures, 2 tables

  19. Decision Assessment of Clearance Level on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Gunandjar

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive waste on the safe level activity containing very small radioactive material gives small radiology influence to the human, it is not necessary to control by regulatory body. The radioactive waste on the safe level activity is safe to release as the common waste. For exemption of the control, it is required the safe activity level limits in which the value of clearance level is fulfilled by regulatory body, however until now it is not decided yet. The exemption decision is obtained if its activity is lower than or same with clearance level based on the annual effective dose receiving by public on the value is lower than or same with 0,01 mSv. The exposure pathways of radioactive waste to the human have important role for determination of clearance level. The decision assessment of clearance level on the radioactive waste management has been done by analysis of radioactive exposure pathways to the human for activities of the disposal and the recycle of solid wastes, also the release of liquid and gas effluent. For solid waste disposal, the exposure pathway was evaluated since the transportation of packed waste from the treatment facility to the disposal facility and during its operation. Exposure pathways for solid waste recycle consist of the pathways for handling and transportation of cleared material to the recycling facility, the fabrication and the utilization of its product. Exposure pathways for liquid and gas releases occur since its releases to the environment up to the human (public) by specific traffic lane. (author)

  20. Improved polyphase ceramic form for high-level defense nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, A.B.; Morgan, P.E.D.; Clarke, D.R.; Flintoff, J.J.; Shaw, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    An improved ceramic nuclear waste form and fabrication process have been developed using simulated Savannah River Plant defense high-level waste compositions. The waste form provides flexibility with respect to processing conditions while exhibiting superior resistance to ground water leaching than other currently proposed forms. The ceramic, consolidated by hot-isostatic pressing at 1040 0 C and 10,000 psi, is composed of six major phases, nepheline, zirconolite, a murataite-type cubic phase, magnetite-type spinel, a magnetoplumbite solid solution, and perovskite. The waste form provides multiple crystal lattice sites for the waste elements, minimizes amorphous intergranular material, and can accommodate waste loadings in excess of 60 wt %. The fabrication of the ceramic can be accomplished with existing manufacturing technology and eliminates the effects of radionuclide volatilization and off-gas induced corrosion experienced with the molten processes for vitreous form production

  1. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  2. DOUBLE SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT HIGH LEVEL WASTE CHEMISTRY OPTIMIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WASHENFELDER DJ

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of River Protection (ORP) has a continuing program for chemical optimization to better characterize corrosion behavior of High-Level Waste (HLW). The DOE controls the chemistry in its HLW to minimize the propensity of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in nitrate-containing solutions. By improving the control of localized corrosion and SCC, the ORP can increase the life of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) carbon steel structural components and reduce overall mission costs. The carbon steel tanks at the Hanford Site are critical to the mission of safely managing stored HLW until it can be treated for disposal. The DOE has historically used additions of sodium hydroxide to retard corrosion processes in HLW tanks. This also increases the amount of waste to be treated. The reactions with carbon dioxide from the air and solid chemical species in the tank continually deplete the hydroxide ion concentration, which then requires continued additions. The DOE can reduce overall costs for caustic addition and treatment of waste, and more effectively utilize waste storage capacity by minimizing these chemical additions. Hydroxide addition is a means to control localized and stress corrosion cracking in carbon steel by providing a passive environment. The exact mechanism that causes nitrate to drive the corrosion process is not yet clear. The SCC is less of a concern in the newer stress relieved double shell tanks due to reduced residual stress. The optimization of waste chemistry will further reduce the propensity for SCC. The corrosion testing performed to optimize waste chemistry included cyclic potentiodynamic volarization studies. slow strain rate tests. and stress intensity factor/crack growth rate determinations. Laboratory experimental evidence suggests that nitrite is a highly effective:inhibitor for pitting and SCC in alkaline nitrate environments. Revision of the corrosion control

  3. Regulatory dilemmas of a trans-solutional problem: Spatial and temporal isolation of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsrud, J.H. [State College, PA (United States). Sierra Club National Nuclear Waste Task Force

    1999-04-01

    This paper explores the `trans-solutional` nature of nuclear waste control - that it is in essence beyond human solution. To protect present and future human health, radioactive wastes require effective isolation from the biosphere for the full hazardous life of the wastes. Waste sequestration is essential to protect human beings, other forms of life in the bio-system, and the environment from adverse mutational impacts of exposures to ionizing radiation experienced in excess of those received from naturally-occurring background sources. The linear hypothesis of dose-response describes the relationship of radiation exposures to health at least with respect to cancer induction and hereditary genetic effects. The issue of risks of low-level radiation effects remains in controversy, with pressures exerted on regulators to ignore or minimize those impacts. However, recent research indicates that chronic low-dose exposures via inhalation and ingestion pathways may also give rise to non-fatal non-cancer deleterious health effects. Fatal cancers, now the primary measure of radiation injury in setting standards, may be less significant to a population in the long run than more subtle low-level impacts affecting genetic material. The latter, hard to identify or measure, may reduce developmental and reproductive capability. Given the hazardous longevity of high-level wastes, it is imperative that both protective standards and waste regulation be framed within an ethic of species responsibility. In our half century we have generated vast amounts of long-lived waste, with more promised in the coming millennium. The regulatory obligation is to isolate all nuclear wastes to best prevent any releases to the biosphere now but also to assure future generations an equal opportunity when our `disposal` methods inevitably fail over future time, to be able to retrieve and continue to isolate the wastes that we have caused to be produced. lt follows that the standards must not calculate

  4. Regulatory dilemmas of a trans-solutional problem: Spatial and temporal isolation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsrud, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores the 'trans-solutional' nature of nuclear waste control - that it is in essence beyond human solution. To protect present and future human health, radioactive wastes require effective isolation from the biosphere for the full hazardous life of the wastes. Waste sequestration is essential to protect human beings, other forms of life in the bio-system, and the environment from adverse mutational impacts of exposures to ionizing radiation experienced in excess of those received from naturally-occurring background sources. The linear hypothesis of dose-response describes the relationship of radiation exposures to health at least with respect to cancer induction and hereditary genetic effects. The issue of risks of low-level radiation effects remains in controversy, with pressures exerted on regulators to ignore or minimize those impacts. However, recent research indicates that chronic low-dose exposures via inhalation and ingestion pathways may also give rise to non-fatal non-cancer deleterious health effects. Fatal cancers, now the primary measure of radiation injury in setting standards, may be less significant to a population in the long run than more subtle low-level impacts affecting genetic material. The latter, hard to identify or measure, may reduce developmental and reproductive capability. Given the hazardous longevity of high-level wastes, it is imperative that both protective standards and waste regulation be framed within an ethic of species responsibility. In our half century we have generated vast amounts of long-lived waste, with more promised in the coming millennium. The regulatory obligation is to isolate all nuclear wastes to best prevent any releases to the biosphere now but also to assure future generations an equal opportunity when our 'disposal' methods inevitably fail over future time, to be able to retrieve and continue to isolate the wastes that we have caused to be produced. lt follows that the standards must not calculate

  5. Processing results of 1800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated rinse solution was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 reactor shield tank. Approximately 6.8 m 3 (1,800 pi) of waste was generated and placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 2--5 cm in depth, with the average depth of about 6 cm. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/mL while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pCi/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. The resulting solution after treatment had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml

  6. Treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste solution by natural clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouky, M.I.; El-Massry, E.H.; Khalifa, S.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Natural inorganic exchangers. Was used to remove caesium, cobalt and europium using zinc sulfate as coagulant also different clay minerals. These calys include, feldrspare, aswanly, bentionite, hematite, mud, calcite, basalt, magnetite, kaoline sand stone, limonite and sand. The factros affecting the removal process namely PH, particle size, temperature and weight of the clay have been studied. Highest removal for Cs-137, Co-60 and Eu-152 and 154 was achived by asswanly and bentonite. Sand stone is more effective than the other clays. Removal of Cs-137 from low level waste solution is in the order the sequence, aswanly (85.5%)> bentonite (82.2%)> sandstone (65.4%). Solidified cement products have been evaluated to determine optimum conditions of mixing most sludges contained clays by testing mechanical strength and leaching rates of the waste products. The solidified waste forms were found more acceptable for handing, storage and ultimate disposal

  7. Properties and characteristics of high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper has briefly reviewed many of the characteristics and properties of high-level waste glasses. From this review, it can be noted that glass has many desirable properties for solidification of high-level wastes. The most important of these include: (1) its low leach rate; (2) the ability to tolerate large changes in waste composition; (3) the tolerance of anticipated storage temperatures; (4) its low surface area even after thermal shock or impact

  8. Cement encapsulation of low-level waste liquids. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.N.; Houston, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of liquid high-level radioactive waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was essential to ensuring the success of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. By chemically separating the HLW from liquid waste, it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in the volume of HLW to be vitrified. In addition, pretreatment made it possible to remove sulfates, which posed several processing problems, from the HLW before vitrification took place

  9. Centralized cement solidification technique for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Izumida, Tatsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A centralized cement solidification system has been developed to enable a single facility to solidify such low-level radioactive wastes as liquid waste, spent ion exchange resin, incineration ash, and miscellaneous solid wastes. Since the system uses newly developed high-performance cement, waste loading is raised and deterioration of waste forms after land burial prevented. This paper describes the centralized cement solidification system and the features of the high-performance cement. Results of full-scale pilot plant tests are also shown from the viewpoint of industrial applicability. (author)

  10. The Savannah River Plant low-level waste segregation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, V.B.

    1987-01-01

    To extend the life of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Radioactive Waste Burial Ground, a sitewide program has been implemented to segregate waste that is essentially free of contamination from routine radioactive waste. Much of the low-level waste disposed of as radioactive has no detectable contamination and can be buried in a sanitary landfill. A Landfill Monitoring Facility (LMF) will be constructed at SRP to house the state-of-the-art technology required to provide a final survey on the candidate waste streams that had previously been classified as radioactive. 3 figs

  11. Characterization of low and medium level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambell, R.A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The work reported was carried out during the first year of the Commission of the European Community's programme on the characterization of low and medium level waste forms. Ten reference waste forms plus others of special national interest have been identified covering PWR, BWR, GCR and reprocessing wastes. The immobilising media include the three main matrices: cement, polymers and bitumen, and a glass. Characterization is viewed as one input to quality assurance of the waste form and covers: waste-matrix compatibility, radiation effects, leaching, microbiological attack, shrinkage and swelling, ageing processes and thermal effects. The aim is a balanced programme of comparative data, predictive modelling and an undserstanding of basic mechanisms

  12. The incineration of solid radioactive waste: a centralized solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernborg, G.; Broden, K.; Oehrn, G.

    1985-01-01

    Almost all the combustible low-level β- and γ-radioactive waste from Sweden, and even some waste from German nuclear power plants, is treated in an incineration plant at Studsvik. To date most of the ash has been put into 100-litre drums, which in turn have been put in 200-litre drums with concrete in between. Recently, methods have been developed and equipment installed for homogeneous solidification of the ash into concrete. Over the years since the start-up of the plant in 1976 the incinerator has worked with a high availability factor. Personnel doses and activity releases to the environment are well below limits set by regulatory authorities. (orig.)

  13. Properties of slag concrete for low-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Wong, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag was incorporated in the concrete mix used for construction of low-level radioactive waste disposal vaults. The vaults were constructed as six 100 x 100 x 25 ft cells with each cell sharing internal walls with the two adjacent cells. The vaults were designed to contain a low-level radioactive wasteform called saltstone and to isolate the saltstone from the environment until the landfill is closed. Closure involves backfilling with native soil, installation of clay cap, and run-off control. The design criteria for the slag-substituted concrete included compressive strength, 4000 psi after 28 days; slump, 6 inch; permeability, less than 10 -7 cm/sec; and effective nitrate, chromium and technetium diffusivities of 10 -8 , 10 -12 and 10 -12 cm 2 /sec, respectively. The reducing capacity of the slag resulted in chemically reducing Cr +6 to Cr +3 and Tc +7 to Tc +4 and subsequent precipitation of the respective hydroxides in the alkaline pore solution. Consequently, the concrete vault enhances containment of otherwise mobile waste ions and contributes to the overall protection of the groundwater at the disposal site

  14. Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of high- level calcined waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms are being evaluated as candidates for immobilization of the high level calcined waste stored onsite at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing a mixture of simulated nonradioactive high level calcined waste, talc, silicon and aluminum metal additives. The waste forms were characterized for density, chemical durability, and glass and crystalline phase compositions. The results indicate improved density and chemical durability as the silicon content is increased

  15. Management of low level waste generated from ISER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushina, Tomoyuki

    1987-01-01

    Low level wastes are generated during nuclear power plant operation. In the case of ISER, low level wastes from the reactor are basically the same as of existing light water reactors. Various low level wastes, including solid, liquid and gaseous, are listed and discussed. In normal operation, high-activity wastes are not subjected to any treatment. For contaminated equipment or reactor parts, it may be desirable to transfer most of the activity to liquid phase through an appropriate decontamination procedure. Highly active solid wastes are usually fixed in a solid form through incorporation into either concrete or asphalt as containment material. Decantation and filtration treatments are usually sufficient before dilution and release of liquid wastes into the environment. Except for ordinary gas filtration, there in normally no other treatment. Under certain circumstances, however, it may be important to apply the decay storage before release to the atmosphere. In accidental circumstances, specific filtration is recommended or even sometimes needed. There are some alternatives for storage and-or disposal of low level wastes. In many cases, shallow land burial is chosen as a realistic method for storage and-or disposal of solid waste. In chosing a disposal method, the radiation dose rate from solid wastes or the specific activity should be taken into account. Boric acid is a retarder for cement setting. This effect of boric acid is inhibited by adding a complexing agent before mixing the waste with cement. (Nogami, K.)

  16. 77 FR 64361 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level Waste Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level... for low-level waste. DATES: Submit comments by November 15, 2012. Comments received after this date...

  17. Removal of fission products from waste solutions using 16 different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, M.A.; Hanif, J.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the nuclear sites use pits in the surrounding soils for the storage/disposal of low active waste (LAW) solutions. The characteristics of the soil if not suitable for the fixation or adsorption of the radioactive nuclides, may cause migration of these nuclides to hydrosphere. The phenomenon has the risk of radio toxic pollution for the living bodies therefore minerals composing the soil and their adsorption properties need to be investigated. For this purpose 16 different soil samples were collected from all over Pakistan. Mineralogical composition of the soils was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that most of the samples contained clay minerals, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. Studies for the removal of fission products like, /sup 137/Cs. /sup 60/Sr and activation product /sup 60/CO from solution were carried out on these samples. The sorption experiments were performed by batch technique using radioactive as tracers. Distribution co-efficient were determined by mixing he element solution at pH 3 with the soil at soil solution ratios of 1 to 20. It is revealed from the experimental data that efficient removal of fission products from solutions is achieved by soil samples containing clay mineral montmorillonite, followed by little and kaolinite. These soils thus can be effectively used for the disposal of low level radioactive waste solutions without causing any environmental hazard. (author)

  18. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035

  19. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-08-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035.

  20. Classification of the Z-Pinch Waste Stream as Low-Level Waste for Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singledecker, Steven John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The purpose of this document is to describe the waste stream from Z-Pinch Residual Waste Project that due to worker safety concerns and operational efficiency is a candidate for blending Transuranic and low level waste together and can be safely packaged as low-level waste consistent with DOE Order 435.1 requirements and NRC guidance 10 CFR 61.42. This waste stream consists of the Pu-ICE post-shot containment systems, including plutonium targets, generated from the Z Machine experiments requested by LANL and conducted by SNL/NM. In the past, this TRU waste was shipped back to LANL after Sandia sends the TRU data package to LANL to certify the characterization (by CCP), transport and disposition at WIPP (CBFO) per LANL MOU-0066. The Low Level Waste is managed, characterized, shipped and disposed of at NNSS by SNL/NM per Sandia MOU # 11-S-560.

  1. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vath, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas have been selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting

  2. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It represents a major update and expansion of the Analysis presented to Congress in our summary report, Managing Commercial High-Level Radioactive Waste, published in April of 1982 (NWPA). This new report is intended to contribute to the implementation of NWPA, and in particular to Congressional review of three major documents that DOE will submit to the 99th Congress: a Mission Plan for the waste management program; a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal; and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the waste program. The assessment was originally focused on the ocean disposal of nuclear waste. OTA later broadened the study to include all aspects of high-level waste disposal. The major findings of the original analysis were published in OTA's 1982 summary report

  3. Radiation transport in high-level waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The waste form selected for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, NY is borosilicate glass. The maximum radiation level at the surface of a canister filled with the high-level waste form is prescribed by repository design criteria for handling and disposition of the vitrified waste. This paper presents an evaluation of the radiation transport characteristics for the vitreous waste form expected to be produced at West Valley and the resulting neutron and gamma dose rates. The maximum gamma and neutron dose rates are estimated to be less than 7500 R/h and 10 mRem/h respectively at the surface of a West Valley canister filled with borosilicate waste glass

  4. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  5. Successfully burying low-level waste for fun and profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, T.R.; Kirner, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    The state of Washington, now receiving more than half the nation's waste, is here to provide a practical review of the benefits of having a low-level waste disposal site and to provide our perspective on how the state of Washington carries out its responsibilities through regulation of that disposal site. This information is offered in the hope that it may be useful to other states when they accept their responsibility to provide for the disposal of their low-level radioactive waste. The 1980 Low-Level Waste Policy Act very directly gave the responsibility for finding and developing new waste disposal capacity to the states. Through the process of compacting, the states have begun to accept this responsibility. From Washington's perspective, however, the progress shown to date, especially in some states generating very large amounts of waste, has not been adequate to meet the 1986 deadline

  6. Characteristics of solidified high-level waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The object of the report is to contribute to the establishment of a data bank for future preparation of codes of practice and standards for the management of high-level wastes. The work currently in progress on measuring the properties of solidified high-level wastes is being studied

  7. The storage center of very-low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The low level radioactive wastes have a radioactivity level as same as the natural radioactivity. This wastes category and their storage has been taken into account by the french legislation. This document presents the storage principles of the site, containment, safety and the Center organization. (A.L.B.)

  8. Guidelines for interim storage of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.; Castagnacci, A.; Clymer, G.; Kelly, J.; Naughton, M.; Saunders, P.; Stoner, P.; Walker, N.; Cazzolli, R.; Dettenmeier, R.; Loucks, L.; Rigsby, M.; Spall, M.; Strum, M.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents an overview of on-site storage of Low Level Waste while providing guidelines for using the complete Interim On-Site Storage of Low Level Waste report series. Overall, this report provides a methodology for planning and implementing on-site storage

  9. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  10. Innovative waste management solutions: An outlook for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    At a conference on various aspects of waste management, papers were presented on the effects of landfills, plastic debris in the marine environment, skills development and training in the waste industry, composting, remediation of contaminated soils, disposal methods, sludge derived byproducts, recycling, waste management economics, municipal solid waste management, ship-generated waste, managing waste in national parks, and septic tank sludge treatment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for five papers from this conference.

  11. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  12. Review of high-level waste form properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison

  13. Recovery of fission products from waste solutions utilizing controlled cathodic potential electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, W.W.; Darlington, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    Fission products, e.g., palladium, rhodium and technetium, are recovered from aqueous waste solutions thereof, e.g., aged Purex alkaline waste solutions. The metal values from the waste solutions are extracted by ion exchange techniques. The metals adsorbed by the ion exchange resin are eluted and selectively recovered by controlled cathodic potential electrolysis. The metal values deposited on the cathode are recovered and, if desired, further purified

  14. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Russell, P.J.; Avery, R.G.

    1991-03-01

    A comprehensive investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low and intermediate level waste immobilised in cement. Several topics have been investigated using a wide range of advanced physico-chemical and analytical techniques. These include: (a) the study of formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates, (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments, (c) colloid sorption behaviour, (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates, and (e) preliminary assessment of colloid migration behaviour. It has been shown that the generation of colloids in cement leachates can arise from a process of nucleation and growth leading to an amorphous phase which is predominantly calcium silicate hydrate. Such colloidal material has a capacity for association with polyvalent rare earths and actinides and these may be significant in the source term and processes involving radionuclide retention in the near field. It has also been shown that the near-field aqueous chemistry (pH, Ca 2+ concentration) has a marked effect on colloid behaviour (deposition and stability). A mechanistic approach to predict colloid sorption affinity has been developed which highlights the importance of colloid characteristics and the nature of the ionic species. (author)

  15. Current DOE direction in low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.; Dolenc, M.R.; Shupe, M.W.; Waldo, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing revised DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapter III of the revised order provides prescriptive requirements for managing low-level waste and is the subject of this paper. The revised order requires that all DOE low-level radioactive and mixed waste be systematically managed, using an approach that considers the combination of waste management practices used in waste generation reduction, segregation, treatment, packaging, storage, and disposal. The Order defines performance objectives for protecting groundwater, for protecting against intrusion, and for maintaining adequate operational practices. A performance assessment will be required to ensure that waste management operations comply with these performance objectives. DOE implementation of the revised Order includes work in the areas of leach testing, waste stabilization, waste certification, facility monitoring, and management of unique waste streams. This paper summarizes the status of this work and the current direction DOE is taking in managing low-level waste under DOE 5820.2A

  16. Low level waste management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, A.D.; Truitt, D.J.; Logan, J.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1986-02-01

    EG and G Idaho, Inc. is the lead contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) National Low Level Waste Management Program, established in 1979. In this role, the company uses its waste management expertise to provide management and technical direction to support the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) in a manner that protects the environment and the public health and safety while improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Program activities are divided into two areas: defense-related and commercial nuclear reactor programs. The defense program was established to develop technology improvements, provide technology transfer, and to ensure a more efficient and uniform system for low level waste disposal. To achieve the program's goals, it is necessary to improve, document, and, where necessary, develop new methods for waste generation reduction, waste treatment, shallow-land burial, greater confinement disposal, and measures to correct existing site deficiencies. The commercial low level waste management program provides support to assist the states in developing an effective national low level waste management system and provides technical assistance for siting of regional commercial LLW disposal sites. The program provides technical and informational support to state officials, low level waste generators, managers, and facility operators to resolve low level waste problems and to improve the systems' overall effectiveness. Procedures are developed and documented and made available to commercial users through this program. Additional work is being conducted to demonstrate the stabilization and closure of low level radioactive waste disposal sites and develop the criteria and procedures for acceptance of such sites by the Department of Energy after closure has been completed. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  17. Ammonia nitrogen removal from aqueous solution by local agricultural wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azreen, I.; Lija, Y.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Excess ammonia nitrogen in the waterways causes serious distortion to environment such as eutrophication and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Ammonia nitrogen removal from synthetic solution was investigated by using 40 local agricultural wastes as potential low cost adsorbent. Some of the adsorbent were able to remove ammonia nitrogen with adsorption capacity ranging from 0.58 mg/g to 3.58 mg/g. The highest adsorption capacity was recorded by Langsat peels with 3.58 mg/g followed by Jackfruit seeds and Moringa peels with 3.37 mg/g and 2.64 mg/g respectively. This experimental results show that the agricultural wastes can be utilized as biosorbent for ammonia nitrogen removal. The effect of initial ammonia nitrogen concentration, pH and stirring rate on the adsorption process were studied in batch experiment. The adsorption capacity reached maximum value at pH 7 with initial concentration of 500 mg/L and the removal rate decreased as stirring rate was applied.

  18. Partitioning and recovery of neptunium from high level waste streams of PUREX origin using 30% TBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, J.N.; Murali, M.S.; Balarama Krishna, M.V.; Iyer, R.H.; Chitnis, R.R.; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    237 Np is one of the longest-lived nuclides among the actinides present in the high level waste solutions of reprocessing origin. Its separation, recovery and transmutation can reduce the problem of long term storage of the vitrified waste to a great extent. With this objective, the present work was initiated to study the extraction of neptunium into TBP under the conditions relevant to high level waste, along with uranium and plutonium by oxidising it to hexavalent state using potassium dichromate and subsequently recovering it by selective stripping. Three types of simulated HLW solutions namely sulphate bearing (SB), with an acidity of ∼ 0.3 M and non-sulphate wastes originating from the reprocessing of fuels from pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) with acidities of 3.0 M HNO 3 were employed in these studies. The extraction of U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) was very high for PHWR- and FBR-HLW solutions, whereas for the SB-HLW solution, these values were less but reasonably high. Quantitative recovery of neptunium and plutonium was achieved using a stripping solution containing 0.1 M H 2 O 2 and 0.01 M ascorbic acid at an acidity of 2.0 M. Since, cerium present in the waste solutions is expected to undergo oxidation in presence of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , its extraction behaviour was also studied under similar conditions. Based on the results, a scheme was formulated for the recovery of neptunium along with plutonium and was successfully applied to actual high level waste solution originating from the reprocessing of research reactor fuels. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  19. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures

  20. Low- and intermediate-level waste management practices in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.H.

    1982-05-01

    Low- and intermediate-level wastes arise in Canada from the operation of nuclear power stations, nuclear research establishments, nuclear fuel and radioisotope production facilities, as well as from many medical, research and industrial organizations. Essentially all of the solid radioactive wastas are stored in a retrievable fashion at five waste management areas from which a portion is expected to be transferred to future disposal facilities. Waste processing for volume reduction and stabilization is becoming an increasingly important part of low-level waste management because of the advantages it provides for both interim storage currently, and permanent disposal in the future

  1. Evaluation of solidified high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of the IAEA waste management programme is to coordinate and promote development of improved technology for the safe management of radioactive wastes. The Agency accomplished this objective specifically through sponsoring Coordinated Research Programmes on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High Level Waste Products'' in 1977. The primary objectives of this programme are to review and disseminate information on the properties of solidified high-level waste forms, to provide a mechanism for analysis and comparison of results from different institutes, and to help coordinate future plans and actions. This report is a summary compilation of the key information disseminated at the second meeting of this programme

  2. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  3. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D.

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ''Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?'' That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation's mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation's mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ''Which mixed waste has no treatment option?'' Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology

  4. Pelleted waste form for high-level ICPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, K.M.; Priebe, S.J.; Cole, H.S.; Taki, B.D.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated zirconia type calcined waste is pelletized on a 41-cm dia disc pelletizer using 5% bentonite, 2% metakaolin, and 2% boric acid as a solid binder and 7M phosphoric plus 4M nitric acid as a liquid binder. After heat treatment at 800 0 C for 2 hours, the pellets are impact resistant and have a leach resistance of 10 -4 g/cm 2 /day, based on Soxhlet leaching for 100 hours at 95 0 C with distilled water. An integrated pilot plant is being fabricated to verify the process. 1 figure, 4 tables

  5. Pelleted waste form for high-level ICPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, K.M.; Priebe, S.J.; Cole, H.S.; Taki, B.d.

    1979-01-01

    Simulated zirconia-type calcined waste is pelletized on a 41-cm diameter disc pelletizer using 5% bentonite, 2% metakaolin, and 2% boric acid as a solid binder and 7M phosphoric plus 4M nitric acid as a liquid binder. After heat treatment at 800 0 C for 2 hours the pellets are impact resistant and have a leach resistance of 10 -4 g/cm 2 . day, based on Soxhlet leaching for 100 hours at 95 0 C with distilled water. An integrated pilot plant is being fabricated to verify the process. 1 figure, 4 tables

  6. CIGeO geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, Gerald; Bolia, Jelana

    2014-01-01

    Andra is the sole French organization responsible for the radioactive waste management in the country. Its work relies extensively on the legal basis provided by several major laws (Waste Act of 1991 and the Planning Act of 2006), which shaped the main principles of the waste management strategy and determined the corresponding implementation tools. Andra's industrial activities are essentially based around three of its national disposal facilities. Two of these operational facilities, by their design and comprehensive monitoring system, are considered worldwide as solid and proven reference solutions for the concerned types of radioactive waste. Andra is also charged with designing a future deep geological repository for intermediate-level long-lived and high-level waste and researching potential management and disposal solutions for the graphite and radium-bearing waste. The purpose of this article is to update the information to the readers about the Cigeo geological disposal project for high-level radioactive waste in France (authors)

  7. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  8. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heafield, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes. The paper is based on an IAEA report of the same title published during 1983 in the Technical Reports Series. The paper provides illustrative background material on the characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The principles important in the storage of high-level wastes are reviewed in conjunction with the radiological and socio-political considerations involved. Four fundamentally different storage concepts are described with reference to published information and the safety aspects of particular storage concepts are discussed. Finally, overall conclusions are presented which confirm the availability of technology for constructing and operating conditioned high-level waste storage facilities for periods of at least several decades. (author)

  9. Canadian high-level radioactive waste management system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Gray, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    In Canada responsibility for the management of radioactive wastes rests with the producer of those wastes. This fundamental principle applies to such diverse wastes as uranium mine and mill tailings, low-level wastes from universities and hospitals, wastes produced at nuclear research establishments, and wastes produced at nuclear generating stations. The federal government has accepted responsibility for historical wastes for which the original producer can no longer be held accountable. Management of radioactive wastes is subject to the regulatory control of the Atomic Energy Control Board, the federal agency responsible for regulating the nuclear industry. In this paper the authors summarize the current situation concerning the management of high level (used nuclear fuel) wastes. In 1981 the two governments also announced that selection of a disposal site would not proceed, and responsibility for site selection and operation would not be assigned until the Concept for used fuel disposal had been reviewed and assessed. Thus the concept assessment is generic rather than site specific. The Concept that has been developed has been designed to conform with safety and performance criteria established by the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is based on burial deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield, using a multi-barrier approach with a series of engineered and natural barriers: these include the waste form, container, buffer and backfill, and the host rock

  10. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing sorbent materials to prevent the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Screening studies identified promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent, adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt %), activated charcoal (6 wt %), synthetic zeolite (20 wt %), and soil (73 wt %) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing sorbent materials to prevent the migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Screening studies identified promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite of clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent, adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 2 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  12. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Engineered sorbent barriers for low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Mitchell, S.J.; Buelt, J.L.

    1986-12-01

    The Engineered Sorbent Barriers Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating sorbent materials to prevent the migration of soluble radio nuclides from low-level waste sites. These materials would allow water to pass, preventing the bathtub effect at humid sites. Laboratory studies identifield promising sorbent materials for three key radionuclides: for cesium, greensand; for cobalt, activated charcoal; and for strontium, synthetic zeolite or clinoptilolite. Mixtures of these sorbent materials were tested in 0.6-m-diameter columns using radioactive leachates. To simulate expected worst-case conditions, the leachate solution contained the radionuclides, competing cations, and a chelating agent and was adjusted to a pH of 5. A sorbent barrier comprised of greensand (1 wt%), activated charcoal (6 wt%), synthetic zeolite (20 wt%), and local soil (73 wt%) achieved the decontamination factors necessary to meet the regulatory performance requirements established for this study. Sorbent barriers can be applied to shallow-land burial, as backfill around the waste or engineered structures, or as backup to other liner systems. 7 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs

  14. New York State's low-level radioactive waste storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spath, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Like their counterparts in other states, low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) generators in New York State face the prospect of being unable to transfer their LLRW off site beginning January 1, 1993. How long will those generators be able to accumulate and store LLRW on site before activities producing the waste are seriously interrupted? Would a centralized storage facility be a more economically viable solution for medical and academic institutions? The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority is conducting a study that seeks to answer these and a variety of related questions over the coming year. This paper describes the origin and design of the study. It reviews the plans for generator-specific data collection, the method for assessing generator storage capability, and the approach to evaluating economic viability. In pursuing this study, the Energy Authority has attempted to incorporate the views of the broad spectrum of LLRW interests. The formation and role of the Study Review Panel, established specifically for that purpose, is discussed. Finally, the paper reviews some of the more interesting questions and issues raised in the development of the study and relates the study to the State's other LLRW management activities, particularly its Interim LLRW Management Plan. (author)

  15. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  16. Impacts of hazardous waste regulation on low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharples, F.E.; Eyman, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Since passage of the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), major changes have occurred in the regulation of hazardous waste. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also greatly modified its interpretation of how these regulations apply to wastes from federal facilities, including defense wastes from US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. As a result, the regulatory distinctions between low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and hazardous waste are becoming blurred. This paper discusses recent statutory and regulatory changes and how they might affect the management of LLW at DOE facilities. 6 references

  17. Bioprocessing of low-level radioactive and mixed hazard wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Biologically-based treatment technologies are currently being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to aid in volume reduction and/or reclassification of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous wastes prior to processing for disposal. The approaches taken to treat low-level radioactive and mixed wastes will reflect the physical (e.g., liquid, solid, slurry) and chemical (inorganic and/or organic) nature of the waste material being processed. Bioprocessing utilizes the diverse metabolic and biochemical characteristics of microorganisms. The application of bioadsorption and bioflocculation to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive waste are strategies comparable to the use of ion-exchange resins and coagulants that are currently used in waste reduction processes. Mixed hazardous waste would require organic as well as radionuclide treatment processes. Biodegradation of organic wastes or bioemulsification could be used in conjunction with radioisotope bioadsorption methods to treat mixed hazardous radioactive wastes. The degradation of the organic constituents of mixed wastes can be considered an alternative to incineration, while the use of bioemulsification may simply be used as a means to separate inorganic and organics to enable reclassification of wastes. The proposed technology base for the biological treatment of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous waste has been established. Biodegradation of a variety of organic compounds that are typically found in mixed hazardous wastes has been demonstrated, degradative pathways determined and the nutritional requirements of the microorganisms are understood. Accumulation, adsorption and concentration of heavy and transition metal species and transuranics by microorganisms is widely recognized. Work at the INEL focuses on the application of demonstrated microbial transformations to process development

  18. Multipurpose container for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Pearson, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for disposing of low-level radioactive waste, comprising the steps of (a) introducing the waste into a multipurpose container, the multipurpose container comprising a polymeric inner container disposed within a concrete outer shell, the shape of the inner container conforming substantially to the shape of the outer shell's inner surface, (b) transporting the waste in the same multipurpose container to a storage location, and (c) storing the container at the storage location

  19. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  20. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going

  1. Spray drying test of simulated borated waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Zhou Lianquan; Fan Zhiwen; Sun Qi; Lin Xiaolong

    2007-01-01

    Performance and the effecting factors of spray drying of simulated borated waste solutions is studied for three contaeting methods between the atomized beads and the heated air, in which boron concentration is around 21000 ppm. The contacting modes are centrifugal atomizing co-current flow, pneumatic atomizing co-current flow and mixed flow. The results show that a free-flowing product in all these tests when the temperature of the solutions is between 62 degree C and 64 degree C, the inlet temperature of the spray drying chamber is between 210 degree C and 220 degree C, the temperature of the outlet of the spray drying chamber is between 110 and 120 degree C, the flow rate of the pressure air is 8.0 m 3 /h, the rotational speed of the centrifugal atomizer is 73.0 m/s. The diameters of the powder product which account for 95% of the feed range from 0.356 mm to 0.061 mm. The production capacity and water content in the powder increase in the order of pneumatic atomizing co-current flow, mixed flow and centrifugal atomizing co-current flow. The volume reduction coeffecient of spray drying is in the ranged of 0.22 and 0.27. (authors)

  2. Environmental effects of disposal of intermediate-level wastes by shale fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.

    1978-01-01

    Shale fracturing is a process currently being used at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the permanent disposal of locally generated, intermediate-level waste solutions. In this process, the waste is mixed with a solids blend of cement and other additives; the resulting grout is then injected into an impermeable shale formation at a depth of 700 to 1000 ft. A few hours after completion of the injection, the grout sets and the radioactive waste are fixed in the shale formation. An analysis of environmental effects of normal operation and possible accident situations is discussed

  3. Overview of the performance objectives and scenarios of TWRS Low-Level Waste Disposal Program. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pre-treating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. Assuming the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If the disposal system is not acceptable, then the waste will be subject to possible retrieval followed by some other disposal solution. Westinghouse Hanford Company is also planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing

  4. Data base for radioactive waste management: review of low-level radioactive waste disposal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, J.J.; Gray, D.F.; Oztunali, O.I.

    1981-11-01

    This document is prepared in three volumes and provides part of the technical support to the draft environmental impact statement (NUREG-0782) on a proposed regulation, 10CFR Part 61, setting forth licensing requirements for land disposal of low level radioactive waste. Volume 1 is a summary and analysis of the history of low level waste disposal at both commercial and government disposal facilities

  5. EPA's high-level waste standards and waste package performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.

    1985-01-01

    The seven assurance requirements EPA was considering were these: (1) Disposal systems shall not depend on active institutional controls for more than 100 years after disposal; (2) Long-term disposal system performance should be monitored for a reasonable time as a supplement to other types of protection; (3) Disposal systems shall be marked and their locations recorded in all appropriate government records; (4) Disposal systems shall be designed with several different types of barriers, both natural and engineered; (5) Sites should not be located where scarce or easily accessible resources are located; (6) Site selection should consider the relative isolation offered by potential alternatives; and (7) Wastes shall be recoverable for a reasonable time after disposal. (orig./PW)

  6. Treatment of radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Management options for three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which a large number of generators were surveyed for information on potentially hazardous low-level wastes. The general management targets adopted for mixed wastes are immobilization, destruction, and reclamation. It is possible that these targets may not be practical for some wastes, and for these, goals of stabilization or reduction of hazard are addressed. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, segregation, and substitution have been considered for organic liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, and decontamination and re-use have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, containment, substitution, chemical reduction, and biological removal have been considered. For each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has necessarily included assessment/estimation of the effect of the treatment on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present. 10 refs

  7. Low-Level Radioactive Waste temporary storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 gave responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste to the States. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 attached additional requirements for specific State milestones. Compact regions were formed and host States selected to establish disposal facilities for the waste generated within their borders. As a result of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the existing low-level radioactive waste disposal sites will close at the end of 1992; the only exception is the Richland, Washington, site, which will remain open to the Northwest Compact region only. All host States are required to provide for disposal of low-level radioactive waste by January 1, 1996. States also have the option of taking title to the waste after January 1, 1993, or taking title by default on January 1, 1996. Low-level radioactive waste disposal will not be available to most States on January 1, 1993. The most viable option between that date and the time disposal is available is storage. Several options for storage can be considered. In some cases, a finite storage time will be permitted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the generator site, not to exceed five years. If disposal is not available within that time frame, other options must be considered. There are several options that include some form of extension for storage at the generator site, moving the waste to an existing storage site, or establishing a new storage facility. Each of these options will include differing issues specific to the type of storage sought

  8. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghel, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  9. Management of low- and intermediate level waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This presentation describes how the management of radioactive waste is organised in Sweden, where Swedish law places the responsibility for such management with the waste generators. The four nuclear utilities have formed a joint company, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, to handle the nuclear waste. The Swedish waste management system includes a final repository for short-lived low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) and an interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel and long-lived waste. Some very low-level, short-lived waste is disposed of in shallow-land repositories at the nuclear power stations. The final repository is situated in underground rock caverns close to the Forsmark nuclear power plant. The rock caverns have been excavated to a depth of more than 50 m beneath the Baltic Sea floor. LLW is compacted into bales or packaged in metal drums or cases that can be transported in standard freight containers. Radioactive materials used in other sectors such as hospitals are collected and packaged at Studsvik and later deposited in the deep repository. ILW is mixed with cement or bitumen and cast in cement or steel boxes or metal drums. The final repository has different chambers for different kinds of waste. The environmental impact of the repository is negligible. Because Sweden's nuclear power plants and the SKB facilities all are located on the coast, all the waste transport can be conducted by sea. The costs of managing and disposing of Sweden's nuclear waste are small compared to the price of electricity

  10. Management of very low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapalain, E.; Damoy, J.; Joly, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This document comprises 3 articles. The first article presents the concern of very low-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear installations, the second article describes the management of the wastes issued from the dismantling operations of the ALS (linear accelerator of Saclay) and of the Saturn synchrotron both located in Saclay Cea's center. The last article presents the storage facility which is specifically dedicated to very low-level radioactive wastes. This storage facility, which is located at Morvilliers, near the 'Centre de l Aube' (used to store the low-, and medium-level, short-lived radioactive wastes), will receive the first packages next summer. Like the other storage facilities, it will be managed by ANDRA (national radioactive waste management agency)

  11. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  12. Methods of Disposing Of High-Level Radioactive Waste: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abumurade, K.

    2002-01-01

    High level nuclear waste from both commercial reactors and defense industry presents a difficult problem to the scientific community as well as the public. The solutions to this problem is still debatable both technically and ethically. There are few methods proposed for disposing of high level waste. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. However, the very deep underground geologic repository is the best choice for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes. The cost benefit equation of nuclear power production and its waste is discussed. However, the public should be educated about this matter to minimize the gap between them and the nuclear power community including scientists industry, and governments. (Author) 15 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  14. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds that are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  15. Commission administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report is one in a series of commission option documents prepared for the US Department of Energy, designed to assist regional low-level waste compact commissions in their organization, administration and efforts to effectively manage waste within their regions. In particular, this report addresses topics related to commission administrative procedures, personnel, procurement and finance

  16. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Chapters are devoted to the following: introduction; a brief description of low-level radioactive wastes and their management; system-side issues; waste reduction and packaging; transportation; disposal; issues for further study; and summary of recommendations. Nine appendices are included

  17. Low-level waste packaging--a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Hebbard, L.B. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This paper emphasizes managerial responsibility for assuring that facility waste is properly packaged. Specifically, existing packaging regulations are summarized, several actual violations are reviewed and, lastly, some recommendations are made to assist managerial personnel in fulfilling their responsibility to ensure that low-level waste is packaged safely and properly before shipment to the disposal site

  18. Facility for low-level solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Miyamoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    A facility for low-level solid waste compaction, encapsulation and storage is described. Solid wastes are compacted in 200 l drums and stored over concrete platforms covered with canvas, for decay or for interim storage before transport to the final disposal site. (Author) [pt

  19. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C.R.

    1996-09-19

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  20. Low-level waste management at the Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, O.; Blanco, D.; Vallarino, V.; Calisto, W.

    1986-01-01

    A general overview of low-level radioactive waste management at the Nuclear Investigation Centre (CIN) of Uruguay is presented. The CIN is a pilot centre of research and development of techniques for implementing measurements for radioactive waste storage and control. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Characteristics of medically related low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, G.J. Jr.; Teele, B.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes a survey that identified the current sources of medically generated radioactive wastes. Included are recommendations on how to reduce the volume of medically-related material classified as low-level radioactive wastes, to improve handling techniques for long-lived radioisotopes, and for options for the use of radioactive materials in medical studies. 8 refs., 11 tabs

  2. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to contribute to the implementation of Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The major conclusion of that review is that NWPA provides sufficient authority for developing and operating a waste management system based on disposal in geologic repositories. Substantial new authority for other facilities will not be required unless major unexpected problems with geologic disposal are encountered. OTA also concludes that DOE's Draft Mission Plan published in 1984 falls short of its potential for enhancing the credibility and acceptability of the waste management program

  3. Solidification of low-level wastes by inorganic binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.T.; Shimojo, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kajikawa, A.; Karasawa, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The use of an alkali activated slag binder has been studied for solidification and stabilization of low-level wastes in nuclear power stations and spent fuel processing facilities. The activated slag effectively formed waste products having good physical properties with high waste loading for sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, calcium pyrophosphate/phosphate and spent ion-exchange resins. Moreover, the results of the study suggest the slag has the ability to become a common inorganic binder for the solidification of various radioactive wastes. This paper also describes the fixation of radionuclides by the activated slag binder

  4. Overview of treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.

    1986-01-01

    The consideration of alternative technologies in low-level waste management is assumed to be partly a response to current demands for lower risk in waste disposal. One of the determinants of risk in waste disposal is the set of characteristics of the materials placed into disposal cells, i.e., the products of treatment and conditioning operations. The treatment and conditioning operations that have been applied to waste streams are briefly examined. Three operations are the most important determinants of the stability that will contribute to reducing risk at the disposal cell: compaction, high-integrity containers, and solidification. The status of these three operations is reviewed

  5. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, R.; Shafranek, L.F.; Stevens, W.R. III.

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in accord with recommendations from the Du Pont Company, has started construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The facility should be completed by the end of 1988, and full-scale operation should begin in 1990. This facility will immobilize in borosilicate glass the large quantity of high-level radioactive waste now stored at the plant plus the waste to be generated from continued chemical reprocessing operations. The existing wastes at the Savannah River Plant will be completely converted by about 2010. 21 figures

  6. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  7. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  8. Final closure of a low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal facility operated by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs near La Hague, France was opened in 1969 and is scheduled for final closure in 1996. The last waste package was received in June 1994. The total volume of disposed waste is approximately 525,000 m 3 . The site closure consists of covering the disposal structures with a multi-layer impervious cap system to prevent rainwater from infiltrating the waste isolation system. A monitoring system has been set up to verify the compliance of infiltration rates with hydraulic performance objectives (less than 10 liters per square meter and per year)

  9. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts

  10. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy.

  11. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy

  12. Treatment of uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.; Rao, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainties arise from a number of different sources in low-level waste performance assessment. In this paper the types of uncertainty are reviewed, and existing methods for quantifying and reducing each type of uncertainty are discussed. These approaches are examined in the context of the current low-level radioactive waste regulatory performance objectives, which are deterministic. The types of uncertainty discussed in this paper are model uncertainty, uncertainty about future conditions, and parameter uncertainty. The advantages and disadvantages of available methods for addressing uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment are presented. 25 refs

  13. Loviisa starts low-level operating waste disposal in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, J.

    1996-01-01

    At an early stage Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) decided to construct a waste repository for Loviisa NPP. The suitability of the power plant site for final disposal of low- and intermediate- level operating waste was studied. In the site report in 1982 the plant site was found to be geologically suitable and economically feasible for construction. The necessary preparations started in 1992. The repository will be constructed in three phases. The first phase will cover the transport tunnel, construction of one maintenance waste tunnel and the excavation of another maintenance waste tunnel together with a hall for solidified wastes. This phase will be finished by the end of 1996. During the second phase in the beginning of next century the remaining already excavated rooms will be furnished. Finally in the third phase the repository will be extended for the decommissioning waste somewhere around years 2020-2025. (3 figs., 1 tab.)

  14. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  15. Operation of low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.C.; Drolet, T.S.; Stewart, W.B.; Campbell, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ontaro Hydro's radioactive waste incinerator designed to reduce the volume of low-level combustible wastes from nuclear generating station's was declared in-service in September 1977. Hiterto about 1500 m 3 of combustible waste have been processed in over 90 separate batches. The process has resulted in 40:1 reduction in the volume and 12.5:1 reduction in the weight of the Type 1 wastes. The ultimate volume reduction factor after storage is 23:1. Airborne emissions has been maintained at the order of 10 -3 to 10 -5 % of the Derived Emission Limits. Incineration of radioactive combustible wastes has been proven feasible, and will remain as one of the most important processes in Ontario Hydro's Radioactive Waste Management Program

  16. Engineering-scale vitrification of commercial high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Hanson, M.S.; Knowlton, D.E.

    1980-04-01

    To date, technology for immobilizing commercial high-level waste (HLW) has been extensively developed, and two major demonstration projects have been completed, the Waste Solidification Engineering Prototypes (WSEP) Program and the Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (NWVP). The feasibility of radioactive waste solidification was demonstrated in the WSEP program between 1966 and 1970 (McElroy et al. 1972) using simulated power-reactor waste composed of nonradioactive chemicals and HLW from spent, Hanford reactor fuel. Thirty-three engineering-scale canisters of solidified HLW were produced during the operations. In early 79, the NWVP demonstrated the vitrification of HLW from the processing of actual commercial nuclear fuel. This program consisted of two parts, (1) waste preparation and (2) vitrification by spray calcination and in-can melting. This report presents results from the NWVP

  17. Alternative techniques for low-level waste shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.; Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Experience to date relative to the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) indicates that the physical stability of the disposal unit and the hydrologic isolation of the waste are the two most important factors in assuring disposal site performance. Disposal unit stability can be ensured by providing stable waste packages and waste forms, compacting backfill material, and filling the void spaces between the packages. Hydrologic isolation can be achieved though a combination of proper site selection, subsurface drainage controls, internal trench drainage systems, and immobilization of the waste. A generalized design of a LLW disposal site that would provide the desired long-term isolation of the waste is discussed. While this design will be more costly than current practices, it will provide additional confidence in predicted and reliability and actual site performance

  18. Experimental study on intermediate level radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakura, Tadashi; Abe, Hirotoshi; Okazawa, Takao; Hattori, Seiichi; Maki, Yasuro

    1977-01-01

    In the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes, multilayer package will be adopted. The multilayer package consists of cement-solidified waste and a container such as a drum - can with concrete liner or a concrete container. So, on the waste to be cement-solidified in such container, experimental study was carried out as follows. (1) Cement-solidification method. (2) Mechanical behaviour of cement-solidified waste. The mechanical behaviour of the containers was studied by the finite element method and experiment, and the function of pressure-balancing valves was also studied. The following data on processing intermediate level radioactive wastes were obtained. (1) In the case of cement-solidified waste, the data to select the suitable solidifying material and the standard mixing proportion were determined. (2) The basic data concerning the uniaxial compressive strength of cement-solidified waste, the mechanical behaviour of cement-solidified waste packed in a drum under high hydrostatic pressure, the shock response of cement-solidified waste at the time of falling and so on were obtained. (3) The pressure-balancing valves worked at about 0.5 Kg/cm 2 pressure difference inside and outside a container, and the deformation of a drum cover was 10 to 13 mm. In case of the pressure difference less than 0,5 Kg/cm 2 , the valves shut, and water flow did occur. (auth.)

  19. Characterization of high level waste for minor actinides by chemical separation and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, M.S.; Bhattacharayya, A.; Kar, A.S.; Tomar, B.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of minor actinides present in of High Level Waste (HLW) solutions originating from the power reactors is important in view of management of radioactive wastes and actinide partitioning. Several methods such as ICP-MS, X-ray fluorescence methods, ICP-AES, alpha spectrometry are used in characterizing such types of wastes. As alpha spectrometry is simple and reliable, this technique has been used for the estimation of minor actinides after devising steps of separation for estimating Np and Pu present in HLW solutions of PHWR origin. Using a wealth of knowledge appropriate to the solution chemistry of actinides, the task of separation, though appears easy, it is challenging job for a radiochemist handling high-dose HLW samples, for obtaining clean alpha peaks for Np and Pu. This paper reports on the successful attempt made to quantify 241 Am, 244 Cm, Pu (239 mainly) and 237 Np present in HLW-PHWR obtained from PREFRE, Tarapur

  20. Management of low level wastes at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, N.; Ochi, E.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), after start-up of the commercial operation, radioactive wastes will be generated. Wastes generated from a reprocessing plant generally consist of many kinds of characteristics in view of ''activity level'', ''nuclide composition'', ''chemical properties'', ''physical properties'', and so on. For stable operation of a reprocessing plant, we should t reat , ''condition'' and ''dispose'' these wastes considering these wastes characteristics. To contribute to the nuclear fuel cycle project, it is important to evaluate technologies such as, ''Treatment'', ''Conditioning'' and ''Final Disposal'', not only for technical but also for economical aspects. Considering the final disposal in the future, the basic policy in ''Treatment'' and ''Conditioning'' at RRP is shown below: Recover and reuse chemicals (such as nitric acid and TBP, etc.) in plant; Radioactive waste shall be divided, classified and managed according to activity level, nuclide composition, the radiation level, its physical properties, chemical properties, etc.; Treat them based on ''classification'' management with proper combination; Condition them as intermediate forms in order to keep flexibility in the future disposal method; Original volume of annually generated wastes at RRP is estimated as 5600m3 except highly radioactive vitrified waste, and these wastes shall be treated in the following units, which are now under commisioning, in order to reduce and stabilize wastes. Low-level concentrated liquid waste to be treated with a ''Drying and peptization'' unit; Spent solvent to be treated with a ''Pyrolysis and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; Relatively low-level non-alfa flammable wastes to be treated with a ''Incineration and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; CB/BP (Channel Box and Burnable Poison) to be processed with a ''Cutting'' unit; Other wastes to be kept as their generated state with a ''Intermediate storage''. As a result of these

  1. Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Cooley, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability

  2. Criteria for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes is storage without the intention of retrieval. But in such storage, it may be useful and in some cases necessary to have the possibility of retrieval at least for a certain period of time. In order to propose some criteria for HLW disposal, one has to examine how this basic concept is to be applied. HLW is waste separated as a raffinate in the first cycle of solvent extraction in reprocessing. Such waste contains the bulk of fission products which have long half lives, therefore the safety of a disposal site, at least after a certain period of time, must be intrinsic, i.e. not based on human intervention. There is a consensus that such a disposal is feasible in a suitable geological formation in which the integrity of the container will be reinforced by several additional barriers. Criteria for disposal can be proposed for all aspects of the question. The author discusses the aims of the safety analysis, particularly the length of time for this analysis, and the acceptable dose commitments resulting from the release of radionuclides, the number and role of each barrier, and a holistic analysis of safety external factors. (Auth.)

  3. Low-level waste institutional waste incinerator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.

    1980-04-01

    Literature surveyed indicated that institutional LLW is composed of organic solids and liquids, laboratory equipment and trash, and some pathological waste. Some toxic and hazardous chemicals are included in the variety of LLW generated in the nation's hospitals, universities, and research laboratories. Thus, the incinerator to be demonstrated in this program should be able to accept each of these types of materials as feedstock. Effluents from the DOE institutional incinerator demonstration should be such that all existing and proposed environmental standards be met. A design requirement was established to meet the most stringent flue gas standards. LLW incineration practice was reviewed in a survey of institutional LLW generators. Incinerator manufacturers were identified by the survey, and operational experience in incineration was noted for institutional users. Manufacturers identified in the survey were contacted and queried with regard to their ability to supply an incinerator with the desired capability. Special requirements for ash removal characteristics and hearth type were imposed on the selection. At the present time, an incinerator type, manufacturer, and model have been chosen for demonstration

  4. Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bostick, D.T.; Beck, D.E.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the final forms that have been proposed for radioactive-containing solid wastes and to determine their application to the solid wastes that will result from the treatment of newly generated liquid low-level waste (NGLLLW) and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes. Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions. The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Longer cement curing times (>28 d) and high ionic strengths of the leachates, such as those that occur in seawater, also decrease the leach rates of these radionuclides. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms. However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere

  5. Field lysimeter facility for evaluating the performance of commercial solidified low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.B.; Graham, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Analyzing the potential migration of radionuclides from sites containing solid low-level wastes requires knowledge of contaminant concentrations in the soil solution surrounding the waste. This soil solution concentration is generally referred to as the source term and is determined by such factors as the concentration of radionuclides in the solid waste, the rate of leachate formation, the concentration of dissolved species in the leachate, any solubility reactions occurring when the leachate contacts the soil, and the rate of water flow in the soil surrounding the waste. A field lysimeter facility established at the Hanford site is being used to determine typical source terms in arid climates for commercial low-level wastes solidifed with cement, Dow polymer (vinyl ester-styrene), and bitumen. The field lysimeter facility consists of 10, 3-m-deep by 1.8-m-dia closed-bottom lysimeters situated around a 4-m-deep by 4-m-dia central instrument caisson. Commercial cement and Dow polymer waste samples were removed from 210-L drums and placed in 8 of the lysimeters. Two bitumen samples are planned to be emplaced in the facility's remaining 2 lysimeters during 1984. The central caisson provides access to the instrumentation in the individual lysimeters and allows selective sampling of the soil and waste. Suction candles (ceramic cups) placed around the waste forms will be used to periodically collect soil-water samples for chemical analysis. Meteorological data, soil moisture content, and soil temperature are automatically monitored at the facility. Characterization of the soils and waste forms have been partially completed. These data consist of moisture release characteristics, particle-size distribution, and distributions and concentrations of radionuclides in the waste forms. 11 references, 12 figures, 5 tables

  6. The importance of international cooperation in the field of high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of international collaboration in the field of radioactive waste management and points out how cooperation has benefited the U.S. civilian waste management program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) oversees the handling, transportation, storage, and final deposition of high-level radioactive wastes for the U.S. commercial sector. Because OCRWM shares many of the same waste management concerns as various other countries with nuclear programs, and since one country's waste management program will ultimately have an impact on the waste management programs of other countries, it is clearly in the interest of all countries to work together in search of solutions to common waste management problems. To facilitate this. cooperation, OCRWM is a participating member of international organizations, such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA. OCRWM further has in place several bilateral agreements with various individual countries and with the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). Other international waste management initiatives are also currently being considered. (author)

  7. Seventh annual DOE LLWMP participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The following sessions were held: International Low-Level Waste Management Activities; Low-Level Waste Disposal; Characteristics and Treatment of Low-Level Waste; Environmental Monitoring and Performance; Greater Confinement and Alternative Disposal Methods; Low-Level Waste Management; Corrective Measures; Performance Prediction and Assessment; and Siting New Defense and Commercial Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

  8. An overview of the geochemical code MINTEQ: Applications to performance assessment for low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.R.; Opitz, B.E.; Graham, M.J.; Eary, L.E.

    1987-03-01

    The MINTEQ geochemical computer code, developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), integrates many of the capabilities of its two immediate predecessors, MINEQL and WATEQ3. The MINTEQ code will be used in the Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program to perform the calculations necessary to simulate (model) the contact of low-level waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments of the interaction of ground water with solidified low-level wastes. The code can calculate ion speciation/solubilitya, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. Under the Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program, the composition of effluents (leachates) from column and batch experiments, using laboratory-scale waste forms, will be used to develop a geochemical model of the interaction of ground water with commercial, solidified low-level wastes. The wastes being evaluated include power-reactor waste streams that have been solidified in cement, vinyl ester-styrene, and bitumen. The thermodynamic database for the code was upgraded preparatory to performing the geochemical modeling. Thermodynamic data for solid phases and aqueous species containing Sb, Ce, Cs, or Co were added to the MINTEQ database. The need to add these data was identified from the characterization of the waste streams. The geochemical model developed from the laboratory data will then be applied to predict the release from a field-lysimeter facility that contains full-scale waste samples. The contaminant concentrations migrating from the waste forms predicted using MINTEQ will be compared to the long-term lysimeter data. This comparison will constitute a partial field validation of the geochemical model

  9. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  10. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  11. Low-level radioactive waste management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Although reviews of disposal practices and site performance indicated that there were no releases to the environment that would affect public health and safety, it became clear that: (a) several burial grounds were not performing as expected; (b) long-term maintenance of closed trenches could be a costly problem, and (c) more cost-effective methods could be developed for the treatment, packing, and disposal of low-level waste. As a result of these reviews, the Department of Energy developed the Low-level Waste Management Program to seek improvements in existing practices, correct obvious deficiencies, and develop site closure techniques that would avoid expensive long-term maintenance and monitoring. Such technology developments provide a better understanding of the physical and technical mechanisms governing low-level waste treatment and disposal and lead to improvement in the performance of disposal sites. The primary means of disposal of low-level waste has been the accepted and regulated practice of shallow land disposal, i.e., placement of low-level waste in trenches 5 to 10 meters deep with several meters of special soil cover. Department of Energy waste is primarily disposed at six major shallow land disposal sites. Commercial waste is currently disposed of at three major sites in the nation - Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington; and Beatty, Nevada. In the late 1970's public concern arose regarding the management practices of sites operated by the civilian sector and by the Department of Energy

  12. Low- and intermediate-level waste management practices in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, M.

    1982-01-01

    At present, disposal of low-level radioactive wastes is yet to be carried out in Japan. Liquid wastes, except for the diluted discharge of very low-level waste into the environment, are mostly solidified with cement or bitumen to be packed in 200 litre drums and put in storage. Solid wastes, on the other hand, are mostly put into in 200 litre drums, some of them being incinerated beforehand. Efforts are being made to develop technology for reducing the production of wastes. Regarding sea disposal, a test dumping program has been forestalled by the opposition of South Pacific islanders, but we are endeavoring to promote their understandings on this matter. Regarding land disposal, first we are going to start centralized storage, then shift to underground disposal

  13. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  14. Waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, S.J. Jr.; Carr, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the United States of America the selected method for disposal of radioactive waste is mined repositories located in suitable geohydrological settings. Currently four types of host rocks are under consideration: tuff, basalt, crystalline rock and salt. Development of waste package designs for incorporation in mined salt repositories is discussed. The three pertinent high-level waste forms are: spent fuel, as disassembled and close-packed fuel pins in a mild steel canister; commercial high-level waste (CHLW), as borosilicate glass in stainless-steel canisters; defence high-level waste (DHLW), as borosilicate glass in stainless-steel canisters. The canisters are production and handling items only. They have no planned long-term isolation function. Each waste form requires a different approach in package design. However, the general geometry and the materials of the three designs are identical. The selected waste package design is an overpack of low carbon steel with a welded closure. This container surrounds the waste forms. Studies to better define brine quantity and composition, radiation effects on the salt and brines, long-term corrosion behaviour of the low carbon steel, and the leaching behaviour of the spent fuel and borosilicate glass waste forms are continuing. (author)

  15. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  16. Status of vitrification for DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Vitrification is being considered by the Department of Energy for solidification of many low-level mixed waste streams. Some of the advantages, requirements, and potential problem areas are described. Recommendations for future efforts are presented

  17. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  18. Institutional options for state management of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper concerns ''institutional'' (legal, organizational, and political) aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Its point of departure is the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. With federal law and political consensus now behind the policy of state responsibility for low level waste, the question becomes, how is this new policy to be implemented. The questions of policy implementation are essentially institutional: What functions must a regional low level waste management system perform. What entities are capable of performing them. How well might various alternatives or combinations of alternatives work. This paper is a preliminary effort to address these questions. It discusses the basic functions that must be performed, and identifies the entities that could perform them, and discusses the workability of various alternative approaches

  19. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made

  20. Packaging and transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.S.; Streatfield, R.E.

    1987-02-01

    The paper presents an overview of Nirex proposals for the packaging and transport of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste, as well as the regulatory requirements which must be met in such operations. (author)

  1. Low-Level Radioactive Waste siting simulation information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a simulation exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The siting simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, can involve 14-70 participants (or more), and requires approximately eight hours to complete. The exercise is available for use by states, regional compacts, or other organizations for use as part of the planning process for low-level waste disposal facilities. This information package describes the development, content, and use of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation. Information is provided on how to organize a workshop for conducting the simulation. 1 ref., 1 fig

  2. Low-level radioactive waste in the northeast: revised waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste generated in the eleven Northeast states has undergone significant change since the inital 1982 analysis and projection. These revised projections incorporate improved data reporting and evidence of sharp declines in certain categories of waste. Volumes in the 1982-1983 period reflect waste shipped for disposal as reported by disposal site operators. Projected waste volumes represent waste intended for disposal. The recent dramatic changes in source reduction and waste management practices underscore the need for annual review of waste volume projections. The volume of waste shipped for off-site disposal has declined approximately 12% in two years, from an average 1,092,500 ft 3 annually in 1979 to 1981 to an average annual 956,500 ft 3 in 1982 to 1983; reactor waste disposal volumes declined by about 39,000 ft 3 or 7% during this period. Non-reactor waste volumes shipped for disposal declined by over 70,000 ft 3 or 15% during this period. The data suggest that generators increased their use of such management practices as source reduction, compaction, or, for carbon-14 and tritium, temporary storage followed by disposal as non-radioactive waste under the NRC de minimus standard effective March 1981. Using the Technical Subcommittee projection methodology, the volume of low-level waste produced annually in the eleven states, individually and collectively, is expected to increase through the year 2000, but at a significantly lower rate of increase than initially projected. By the year 2000, the Northeast is projected to generate 1,137,600 ft 3 of waste annually, an increase of about 20% over 1982 to 1983 average volume

  3. Leaching behavior of various low-level waste solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akihiko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Matsuzuru, Hideo; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the leaching of radioactive nuclides from low-level wastes solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics. Considerations are made on the effects of type of solidification matrix and waste; type, amount and exchange frequency of leachate; type and conditions of embedding soil; temperature and pressure; and secular deterioration. It is assumed that a waste composite is entirely immersed in leachate and that the amount of the leachate is large compared to the surface area of the waste. Cement solid is characterized by its high alkalinity and porosity while plastic and bitumen solids are dense and neutral. The content of waste in a composite is low for cement and high for plastics. It is generally high in bitumen solid though it should be reduced if the solid is likely to bulge. The leaching of 137 Cs from cement solid is slightly dependent on the waste-cement ratio while it increases with increasing waste content in the case of plastic or bitumen solid. For 60 Co, the leaching from cement solid depends on the alkalinity of the cement material used though it is not affected by the waste-cement ratio. In the case of plastics and bitumen, on the other hand, the pH value of the waste have some effects on the leaching of 60 Co; the leaching decreases with increasing pH. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Improved cement solidification of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Cementation was the first and is still the most widely applied technique for the conditioning of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Compared with other solidification techniques, cementation is relatively simple and inexpensive. However, the quality of the final cemented waste forms depends very much on the composition of the waste and the type of cement used. Different kinds of cement are used for different kinds of waste and the compatibility of a specific waste with a specific cement type should always be carefully evaluated. Cementation technology is continuously being developed in order to improve the characteristics of cemented waste in accordance with the increasing requirements for quality of the final solidified waste. Various kinds of additives and chemicals are used to improve the cemented waste forms in order to meet all safety requirements. This report is meant mainly for engineers and designers, to provide an explanation of the chemistry of cementation systems and to facilitate the choice of solidification agents and processing equipment. It reviews recent developments in cementation technology for improving the quality of cemented waste forms and provides a brief description of the various cement solidification processes in use. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Sustainable Development and High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Mikael [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Sustainable development, defined by the BrundtIand Commission as 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs', relates to a number of issues such as population, health, food, species and ecosystems, energy, industrial development, urbanization, societal issues and economy, and how these global challenges could be met within a long term strategy. It is not obvious how the principle may be applied to final disposal of radioactive waste, but the global scope of the principle suggests that no sector in society should be exempted from scrutinizing its practices in the light of the challenge presented by sustainable development. Waste management, as pointed out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, cannot be seen as a free standing practice in need of its own justification. The produced waste cannot be seen separately from the other components of nuclear production. However, the existence of very long-lived radioactive nuclei in the spent fuel warrants a careful examination of this subpractice. Health based post-closure criteria or standards for long-lived waste, usually make use of the concept of partitioning dose limit. ICRP recommends that individuals in the public do not receive a yearly dose in excess of 1 mSv as a result of releases in connection with activities involving the use of ionising radiation, and that any single facility does not generate a dose burden to individuals in excess of a fraction of this value. For an operating facility, this fraction is normally at least a factor of three. By definition, operational changes are not possible for a closed repository. It follows from this that the partitioning has another function. One interpretation is that it can allow for the simultaneous use and burdens of future generation's activities. Both the Swedish and the proposed US criteria and from EPA and NRC, as well as standards from

  6. Sustainable Development and High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable development, defined by the BrundtIand Commission as 'development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs', relates to a number of issues such as population, health, food, species and ecosystems, energy, industrial development, urbanization, societal issues and economy, and how these global challenges could be met within a long term strategy. It is not obvious how the principle may be applied to final disposal of radioactive waste, but the global scope of the principle suggests that no sector in society should be exempted from scrutinizing its practices in the light of the challenge presented by sustainable development. Waste management, as pointed out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP, cannot be seen as a free standing practice in need of its own justification. The produced waste cannot be seen separately from the other components of nuclear production. However, the existence of very long-lived radioactive nuclei in the spent fuel warrants a careful examination of this subpractice. Health based post-closure criteria or standards for long-lived waste, usually make use of the concept of partitioning dose limit. ICRP recommends that individuals in the public do not receive a yearly dose in excess of 1 mSv as a result of releases in connection with activities involving the use of ionising radiation, and that any single facility does not generate a dose burden to individuals in excess of a fraction of this value. For an operating facility, this fraction is normally at least a factor of three. By definition, operational changes are not possible for a closed repository. It follows from this that the partitioning has another function. One interpretation is that it can allow for the simultaneous use and burdens of future generation's activities. Both the Swedish and the proposed US criteria and from EPA and NRC, as well as standards from Canada, UK and

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Electrochemical probing of high-level radioactive waste tanks containing washed sludge and precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Congdon, J.W.; Oblath, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    At the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant, corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline, high-level radioactive waste is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Processes for the preparation of waste for final disposal will result in waste with low corrosion inhibitor concentrations and, in some cases, high aromatic organic concentrations, neither of which are characteristic of previous operations. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine minimum corrosion inhibitor levels indicated pitting of carbon steel near the waterline for proposed storage conditions. In situ electrochemical measurements of full-scale radioactive process demonstrations have been conducted to assess the validity of laboratory tests. Probes included pH, Eh (potential relative to a standard hydrogen electrode), tank potential, and alloy coupons. In situ results are compared to those of the laboratory tests, with particular regard given to simulated solution composition

  10. PNGMDR - Characterisation of intermediate-level long-lived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    This document presents the status of the characterization of intermediate-level long-lived wastes which are warehoused on exploited EDF sites or which will be produced during the deconstruction of first-generation reactors. It addresses aspects related to characterisation and packaging of wastes produced before 2015. More specifically, it addresses aspects related to contamination and to activation. Contamination is assessed by measurements whereas activation assessment is based on numerical simulations associated with measurements performed during parcel production. After having mentioned the concerned reactors, the document presents the methodology adopted for these assessments, and reports the progress status of the characterization process for these intermediate-level long-lived wastes

  11. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  12. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E. (comps.)

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop.

  13. Treatment technologies for non-high-level wastes (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Clark, D.E.

    1976-06-01

    Non-high-level waste arising from operations at nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, and reprocessing facilities can be treated using one of several technical alternatives prior to storage. Each alternative and the associated experience and status of development are summarized. The technology for treating non-high-level wastes is generally available for industrial use. Improved techniques applicable to the commercial nuclear fuel cycle are being developed and demonstrated to reduce the volume of waste and to immobilize it for storage. 36 figures, 59 references

  14. Low-level nuclear waste in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.

    1986-01-01

    A commercial disposal site for low-level nuclear wastes opened at Hanford in 1965. By 1971 a total of six were in operation: Hanford, Nevada, South Carolina, Kentucky, New York State, and Illinois. The history of the operation of these sites is described. Only the first three listed are still open. The effects of the large volumes of waste expected from Three Mile Island are described. This paper examines the case history of Hanford operations with low-level waste disposal for lessons that might apply in other states being considered for disposal sites

  15. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed

  16. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  17. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop

  18. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  19. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  20. Material chemistry challenges in vitrification of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear technology with an affective environmental management plan and focused attention on safety measures is a much cleaner source of electricity generation as compared to other sources. With this perspective, India has undertaken nuclear energy program to share substantial part of future need of power. Safe containment and isolation of nuclear waste from human environment is an indispensable part of this programme. Majority of radioactivity in the entire nuclear fuel cycle is high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW), which is getting generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. A three stage strategy for management of HLW has been adopted in India. This involves (i) immobilization of waste oxides in stable and inert solid matrices, (ii) interim retrievable storage of the conditioned waste product under continuous cooling and (iii) disposal in deep geological formation. Borosilicate glass matrix has been adopted in India for immobilization of HLW. Material issue are very important during the entire process of waste immobilization. Performance of the materials used in nuclear waste management determines its safety/hazards. Material chemistry therefore has a significant bearing on immobilization science and its technological development for management of HLW. The choice of suitable waste form to deploy for nuclear waste immobilization is difficult decision and the durability of the conditioned product is not the sole criterion. In any immobilization process, where radioactive materials are involved, the process and operational conditions play an important role in final selection of a suitable glass formulation. In remotely operated vitrification process, study of chemistry of materials like glass, melter, materials of construction of other equipment under high temperature and hostile corrosive condition assume significance for safe and un-interrupted vitrification of radioactive to ensure its isolation waste from human environment. The present

  1. High level waste management in Asia: R and D perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deokattey, Sangeeta; Bhanumurthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to provide an overview, about the status of R and D and current trends in high level radioactive waste management, particularly in Asian countries. The INIS database (for the period 1976 to 2010) was selected for this purpose, as this is the most authoritative global source of information, in the area of Nuclear Science and Technology. Appropriate query formulations on the database, resulted in the retrieval of 4322 unique bibliographic records. Using the content analysis method (which is both a qualitative as well as a quantitative research method), all the records were analyzed. Part One of the analysis details Scientometric R and D indicators, such as the countries and the institutions involved in R and D, the types of publications, and programmes and projects related to High Level Waste management. Part Two is a subject-based analysis, grouped under the following broad categories: I. Waste Processing 1. Partitioning and transmutation (including ADS) II. Waste Immobilization 1. Glass waste forms and 2. Crystalline ceramics and other waste forms III. Waste Disposal 1. Performance assessment and safety evaluation studies 2. Geohydrological studies a. Site selection and characterization, b. In situ underground experiments, c. Rock mechanical characterization 3. Deep geological repositories a. Sorption, migration and groundwater chemistry b. Engineered barrier systems and IV. Waste Packaging Materials. The results of this analysis are summarized in the study. (author)

  2. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.C.; Ortiz, J.R.; Sanchez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, it is necessary to establish, in a few years, a definitive repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in order to satisfy the necessities of Mexico for the next 50 years. Consequently, it is required to estimate the volumes of the radioactive waste generated annually, the stored volumes to-date and their projection to medium-term. On this subject, the annual average production of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from the electricity production by means of nuclear power reactors is 250 m 3 /y which consist of humid and dry solid waste from the 2 units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant having a re-use efficiency of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, the applications in medicine, industry and research generate 20 m 3 /y of solid waste, 280 m 3 /y of liquid waste and approximately 10 m 3 /y from 300 spent sealed radioactive sources. The estimation of the total volume of these waste to the year 2035 is 17500 m 3 corresponding to the 46% of the volume generated by the operation and maintenance of the 2 units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, 34% to the decommissioning of these 2 units at the end of their useful life and 20% to the waste generated by applications in medicine, industry and research. (author)

  3. Managing commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The article is a summary of issues raised during US Congress deliberations on nuclear waste policy legislation. It is suggested that, if history is not to repeat itself, and the current stalemate on nuclear waste is not to continue, a comprehensive policy is needed that addresses the near-term problems of interim storage as part of an explicit and credible program for dealing with the longer term problem of developing a final isolation system. Such a policy must: 1) adequately address the concerns and win the support of all the major interested parties, and 2) adopt a conservative technical and institutional approach - one that places high priority on avoiding the problems that have repeatedly beset the program in the past. It is concluded that a broadly supported comprehensive policy would contain three major elements, each designed to address one of the key questions concerning Federal credibility: commitment in law to the goals of a comprehensive policy; credible institutional mechanisms for meeting goals; and credible measures for addressing the specific concerns of the states and the various publics. Such a policy is described in detail. (Auth.)

  4. Study of shrimp shell derivatives for treating of low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayeripour, S. [Tonkabon Islamic Azad Univ., Tonkabon (Iran, Islamic Republic of). College of the Environment; Malmasi, S. [North Tehran Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). College of the Environment

    2006-07-01

    Chitin derivatives can be used to treat liquid wastes that include heavy metals of radionuclides. In this study, 4 types of chitin derivatives from shrimp shell waste were investigated for their potential in decontaminating and treating low-level radioactive liquid waste (LLW). The adsorption of caesium (Cs); cobalt (Co); and manganese (Mn) isotopes on chitin derivatives were investigated using a batch and column system with variations in diameter, pH, and length of treatment. Chitin derivatives included shrimp shells; de-mineralized shrimp shells; chitin extracted from shrimp shells; and chitosan extracted from shrimp shell waste. Three types of simulated solutions were prepared to study and compare adsorption performance: (1) a mono cationic solution consisting of stable isotopes; (2) a solution containing 3 stable cations; and (3) a simulated radioactive waste containing Cs-137, Co-60, and Mn-54. Results of the experiments showed that all 4 chitin derivatives were capable of adsorbing the isotopes. Despite its low pH, chitosan showed the highest adsorption efficiency. It was concluded that shrimps shells provided unreliable results under different operating conditions. The demineralized shells were suitable for removing Co from solutions. Row shells were not recommended as a suitable adsorbent for radionuclides removal. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Treatment and Conditioning of Radioactive Waste Solution by Natural Clay Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouky, M.I.; Abdel-Raouf, M.W.; El-Massry, E.H.; Khalifa, S.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical precipitation processes have been used for the treatment of radioactive elements from aqueous solution. The volume reduction is not very great and storage facilities are expensive. There are some radionuclides which are so difficult to be precipitated by this common method, so they may be precipitated by adding solid materials such as natural inorganic exchangers. In this woek, improvement the removal of caesium, cobalt and europium with zinc sulfate as coagulant and different clay minerals have been investigated. These include, Feldespare, Aswanly, Bentionite, Hematite, Mud, Calcite, Basalt, Magnetite, Kaoline, Sand stone, Limonite and Sand. The parameters affecting the precipitation process such as pH, particle size, temperature and weight of the clay have been studied. The results indicate that, the highest removal for Cs-137, Co-60 and Eu-152 and154 by Asswanly, Bentonite and Sand stone is more than the other clays. Removal of Cs-137 from low level waste solution with these three natural clays took the sequence, Aswanly (85.5%) > Bentonite (82.2%) > Sandstone (65.4%). Solidified cement products have been evaluated to determine mechanical strength and leaching rates of the waste products. The solidified waste forms were found more acceptable for handling ,storage and ultimate disposal

  6. Treatment methods for radioactive mixed wastes in commercial low-level wastes - technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Kempf, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment options for the management of three generic categories of radioactive mixed waste in commercial low-level wastes (LLW) have been identified and evaluated. These wastes were characterized as part of a BNL study in which LLW generators were surveyed for information on potential chemical hazards in their wastes. The general treatment options available for mixed wastes are destruction, immobilization, and reclamation. Solidification, absorption, incineration, acid digestion, wet-air oxidation, distillation, liquid-liquid solvent extraction, and specific chemical destruction techniques have been considered for organic liquid wastes. Containment, segregation, decontamination, and solidification or containment of residues, have been considered for lead metal wastes which have themselves been contaminated and are not used for purposes of waste disposal shielding, packaging, or containment. For chromium-containing wastes, solidification, incineration, wet-air oxidation, acid digestion, and containment have been considered. Fore each of these wastes, the management option evaluation has included an assessment of testing appropriate to determine the effect of the option on both the radiological and potential chemical hazards present

  7. Regional waste treatment with monolith disposal for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    An alternative system is proposed for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. This system, called REgional Treatment with MOnolith Disposal (RETMOD), is based on integrating three commercial technologies: automated package warehousing, whole-barrel rotary kiln incineration, and cement-based grouts for radioactive waste disposal. In the simplified flowsheet, all the sludges, liquids, resins, and combustible wastes are transported to regional facilities where they are incinerated. The ash is then mixed with special cement-based grouts, and the resulting mixture is poured into trenches to form large waste-cement monoliths. Wastes that do not require treatment, such as damaged and discarded equipment, are prepositioned in the trenches with the waste-cement mixture poured on top. The RETMOD system may provide higher safety margins by conversion of wastes into a solidified low-leach form, creation of low-surface area waste-cement monoliths, and centralization of waste processing into a few specialized facilities. Institutional problems would be simplified by placing total responsibility for safe disposal on the disposal site operator. Lower costs may be realized through reduced handling costs, the economics of scale, simplified operations, and less restrictive waste packaging requirements

  8. Flammable gas tank waste level reconciliation tank 241-SX-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Northwest was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document states that Tank SX-105 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit criterion, based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the Welty Report is the basis for this letter report. The Welty Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Welty Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unaccounted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Welty Report tracked Tank SX-105 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 20.75 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unaccounted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford and Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation are interested in determining the validity of unexplained surface level changes reported in the Welty Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unaccounted for surface level changes as shown in the Welty Report from 1973 through 1980. Tank SX-105 initially received waste from REDOX starting the second quarter of 1955. After June 1975, the tank primarily received processed waste (slurry) from the 242-S Evaporator/Crystallizer and transferred supernate waste to Tanks S-102 and SX-102. The Welty Report shows a cumulative change of 20.75 in. from June 1973 through December 1980

  9. Analysis of low-level wastes. Review of hazardous waste regulations and identification of radioactive mixed wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1985-12-01

    Regulations governing the management and disposal of hazardous wastes have been promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. These were reviewed and compared with the available information on the properties and characteristics of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). In addition, a survey was carried out to establish a data base on the nature and composition of LLW in order to determine whether some LLW streams could also be considered hazardous as defined in 40 CFR Part 261. For the survey, an attempt was made to obtain data on the greatest volume of LLW; hence, as many large LLW generators as possible were contacted. The list of 238 generators contacted was based on information obtained from NRC and other sources. The data base was compiled from completed questionnaires which were returned by 97 reactor and non-reactor facilities. The waste volumes reported by these respondents corresponded to approximately 29% of all LLW disposed of in 1984. The analysis of the survey results indicated that three broad categories of LLW may be radioactive mixed wastes. They include: waste containing organic liquids, disposed of by all types of generators; wastes containing lead metal, i.e., discarded shielding or lead containers; wastes containing chromates, i.e., nuclear power plant process wastes where chromates are used as corrosion inhibitors. Certain wastes, specific to particular generators, were identified as potential mixed wastes as well. 8 figs., 48 tabs

  10. Removal of actinides from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions with bidentate organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1975-08-01

    The neutral bidentate organophosphorus reagents DBDECMP (dibutyl-N,N-diethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate) and its dihexyl analogue DHDECMP are candidate extractants for removal of actinides from certain acidic waste streams produced at the U. S. ERDA Hanford and Idaho Falls sites. Various chemical and physical properties including availability, cost, purification, alpha radiolysis, and aqueous phase solubility of DBDECMP and DHDECMP are reviewed. A conceptual flowsheet employing a 15 percent DBDECMP (or DHDECMP)--CCl 4 extractant for removal (and recovery) of Am and Pu from Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility acid waste stream (CAW solution) was successfully demonstrated in laboratory-scale mixer-settler tests; this extraction scheme can be used to produce an actinide-free waste. A 30 percent DBDECMP-xylene flowsheet is being tested at the Idaho Falls site for removal of U, Np, Pu, and Am from Idaho Chemical Processing Plant first-cycle high-level raffinate to produce an actinide-free (less than 10 nCi alpha activity/gram) waste. (auth)

  11. Solidification of intermediate level liquid waste - ILLW, CEMEX waste form qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Andrea, V.; Guerra, M.; Pancotti, F.; Maio, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the Sogin EUREX Facility about 125 m 3 of intermediate level radioactive waste and about 113 m 3 of low level radioactive waste, produced during the re-processing of MTR and CANDU fuel, are stored. Solidification of these wastes is planned in order to fulfill the specific requirements established by the Safety Authority, taking into account the criteria set up in a Technical Guide on the issue of radioactive waste management. The design of a cementation plant (CEMEX) of all liquid radioactive wastes is currently ongoing. The process requires that the liquid waste is neutralized with NaOH (NaOH 19 M) and metered into 440 liter drum together with the cement, while the mixture is stirred by a lost paddle ('in drum mixing process'). The qualification of the Waste Form consists of all the activities demonstrating that the final cemented product has the minimum requirements (mechanical, chemical and physical characteristics) compliant with all the subsequent management phases: long-term interim storage, transport and long-term disposal of the waste. All tests performed to qualify the conditioning process for immobilizing first extraction cycle (MTR and CANDU) and second extraction cycle liquid wastes, gave results in compliance with the minimum requirements established for disposal

  12. In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell

  13. Method of processing low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Acid fractionation for low level liquid waste cleanup and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D. II; McIntyre, C.V.; Mizia, R.E.; Schindler, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, low level liquid wastes containing small amounts of radionuclides are concentrated via a thermosyphon evaporator for calcination with high level waste, and the evaporator condensates are discharged with other plant wastewater to a percolation pond. Although all existing discharge guidelines are currently met, work has been done to reduce all waste water discharges to an absolute minimum. In this regard, a 15-tray acid fractionation column will be used to distill the mildly acidic evaporator condensates into concentrated nitric acid for recycle in the plant. The innocuous overheads from the fractionator having a pH greater than 2, are superheated and HEPA filtered for atmospheric discharge. Nonvolatile radionuclides are below detection limits. Recycle of the acid not only displaces fresh reagent, but reduces nitrate burden to the environment, and completely eliminates routine discharge of low level liquid wastes to the environment

  15. ''FIXBOX'' - a new technique for the reliable conditioning of plutonium waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchertseifer, H.; Sommer, E.; Steinemann, M.; Bart, G.

    1994-01-01

    ''FIXBOX'' - A new technique and facility for the conditioning of plutonium waste solutions has been developed and brought into operation in the Hot-laboratory at PSI, for the solidification of the waste from the research programmes. The facility is situated in glove-boxes for handling alpha activity and gamma-shielded for conditioning of fission product-containing waste. This report gives a brief description of the FIXBOX facility, the procedure and the first results of the cementation of plutonium waste solutions. As a result of this solidification, the actinide waste is homogeneous and strongly bound in the cement. The presence of gluconic acid and other complexing agents in the waste solution will not disturb this process. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  16. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  17. Removal of cesium and strontium from low active waste solutions by zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Savita; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Ion exchange, crystallographic and thermal characteristics of sodium, cesium and strontium forms of locally available synthetic zeolites have been investigated. X-ray and differential thermal analyses have confirmed that the synthetic materials AR1 and 4A belonged to the mordenite and A type families of zeolites respectively. Equilibrium uptake of cesium and strontium ions by sodium forms of zeolite was studied as a function of time, pH and sodium concentration. It was found that the rate of sorption by AR1 was higher than that by 4A. In regard to pH, distribution of nuclides on zeolites was found to pass through maxima at a pH value of around 9. Sodium ion interfered with the sorption of cesium and strontium by zeolites. However, at sodium concentration ≤ 0.01 M, distribution coefficient values for these nuclides were sufficiently high to merit consideration of these zeolites for low level waste treatment. Lab-scale column runs using 5 ml beds of materials showed that the zeolites AR1 and 4A were very effective in removing cesium and strontium nuclides respectively from large volumes (a decontamination factor of 50 for a throughput of 6000 bed volumes) of actual low level waste solutions. Thus, the zeolite system has a potential future for large scale application in the treatment of low level wastes. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  18. On-Site Decontamination System for Liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste - 13010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OSMANLIOGLU, Ahmet Erdal [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Kucukcekmece Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-07-01

    This study is based on an evaluation of purification methods for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) by using natural zeolite. Generally the volume of liquid low-level waste is relatively large and the specific activity is rather low when compared to other radioactive waste types. In this study, a pilot scale column was used with natural zeolite as an ion exchanger media. Decontamination and minimization of LLLW especially at the generation site decrease operational cost in waste management operations. Portable pilot scale column was constructed for decontamination of LLW on site. Effect of temperature on the radionuclide adsorption of the zeolite was determined to optimize the waste solution temperature for the plant scale operations. In addition, effect of pH on the radionuclide uptake of the zeolite column was determined to optimize the waste solution pH for the plant scale operations. The advantages of this method used for the processing of LLLW are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  19. Chemical activation of tea waste and use for the removal of chromium (Vi) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.; Bhatti, I.; Ansari, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Tea waste is the residue left after the preparation of tea. At present the tea waste is regarded as a waste product having no use. In this study, tea waste is converted into an adsorbent. Tea waste is chemically activated with phosphoric acid at low temperature 450 degree C. This activated carbon is then utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of Chromium (VI) from aqueous solution. The various sorption parameters i.e pH, sorbent dose sorbate concentration, shaking time and shaking speed are first optimized. 75% of chromium from aqueous solution is effectively removed at pH 2. The best optimum conditions were obtained when 1 gm of sorbent was agitated at 100 rpm with 60 mg/l of sorbate for 50 minutes. Better results were obtained when low concentrations of sorbates were used. Hence tea waste could also be successfully used for the sorption of Chromium (VI), from industrial waste water. (author)

  20. Issues in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbrook, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    All industry finds itself today enmeshed in a morass of regulation, political apathy and public antagonism when it comes to hazardous industrial waste. Our industry is a world-class leader on all three fronts. There are no disposal facilities in Canada for radioactive wastes and the prognosis for the future is bleak. As the industry gets older, more and more facilities will be closed and require decommissioning. New facilities require plans for the long-term management of their wastes. Indeed, one major public issue with the nuclear industry is the fate of the wastes produced. In looking at the situation in which we find ourselves today with respect to the long-term management of naturally-occurring low-level radioactive wastes, one must wonder where we are going in the future, and whether indeed is an end in sight