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Sample records for level results suggest

  1. Effects of Counselor Facilitative Level on Client Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Harry B.; Rowe, Wayne

    1977-01-01

    University students (N=48) were individually tested for suggestibility in one of three conditions. Results indicated subjects of higher rated experimenters would demonstrate more suggestibility than subjects of lower rated experimenters. Results did not indicate that subject interaction with lower rated experimenters would elicit less…

  2. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  3. Enhancing Middle-Level General Music: Suggestions from the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    In his book "Teaching Music in the Secondary Schools," Charles Hoffer reported a lack of consensus among music educators when considering the essential components of a middle-level general music course. Today, this condition persists. The increasingly diverse nature of students and schools makes a singular, model curriculum for middle-level…

  4. Low-level waste management - suggested solutions for problem wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechin, W.H.; Armstrong, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Problem wastes are those wastes which are difficult or require unusual expense to place into a waste form acceptable under the requirements of 10 CFR 61 or the disposal site operators. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been investigating the use of various solidification agents as part of the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for several years. Two of the leading problem wastes are ion exchange resins and organic liquids. Ion exchange resins can be solidified in Portland cement up to about 25 wt % resin, but waste forms loaded to this degree exhibit significantly reduced compressive strength and may disintegrate when immersed in water. Ion exchange resins can also be incorporated into organic agents. Mound Laboratory has been investigating the use of a joule-heated glass melter as a means of disposing of ion exchange resins and organic liquids in addition to other combustible wastes

  5. Top-level categories of constitutively organized material entities--suggestions for a formal top-level ontology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Vogt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Application oriented ontologies are important for reliably communicating and managing data in databases. Unfortunately, they often differ in the definitions they use and thus do not live up to their potential. This problem can be reduced when using a standardized and ontologically consistent template for the top-level categories from a top-level formal foundational ontology. This would support ontological consistency within application oriented ontologies and compatibility between them. The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO is such a foundational ontology for the biomedical domain that has been developed following the single inheritance policy. It provides the top-level template within the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies Foundry. If it wants to live up to its expected role, its three top-level categories of material entity (i.e., 'object', 'fiat object part', 'object aggregate' must be exhaustive, i.e. every concrete material entity must instantiate exactly one of them.By systematically evaluating all possible basic configurations of material building blocks we show that BFO's top-level categories of material entity are not exhaustive. We provide examples from biology and everyday life that demonstrate the necessity for two additional categories: 'fiat object part aggregate' and 'object with fiat object part aggregate'. By distinguishing topological coherence, topological adherence, and metric proximity we furthermore provide a differentiation of clusters and groups as two distinct subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates, resulting in six additional subcategories of material entity.We suggest extending BFO to incorporate two additional categories of material entity as well as two subcategories for each of the three categories of material entity aggregates. With these additions, BFO would exhaustively cover all top-level types of material entity that application oriented ontologies may use as templates. Our

  6. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  7. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  8. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppel, C. [Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  9. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  10. Suggested state requirements and criteria for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site regulatory program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratliff, R.A.; Dornsife, B.; Autry, V.; Gronemyer, L.; Vaden, J.; Cashman, T.

    1985-08-01

    Description of criteria and procedure is presented for a state to follow in the development of a program to regulate a LLW disposal site. This would include identifying those portions of the NRC regulations that should be matters of compatibility, identifying the various expertise and disciplines that will be necessary to effectively regulate a disposal site, identifying the resources necessary for conducting a confirmatory monitoring program, and providing suggestions in other areas which, based on experiences, would result in a more effective regulatory program

  11. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback: Level of evidence in mental and brain disorders and suggestions for good clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; McGonigal, A; Lopez, R; Daudet, C; Kotwas, I; Bartolomei, F

    2015-12-01

    The technique of electroencephalographic neurofeedback (EEG NF) emerged in the 1970s and is a technique that measures a subject's EEG signal, processes it in real time, extracts a parameter of interest and presents this information in visual or auditory form. The goal is to effectuate a behavioural modification by modulating brain activity. The EEG NF opens new therapeutic possibilities in the fields of psychiatry and neurology. However, the development of EEG NF in clinical practice requires (i) a good level of evidence of therapeutic efficacy of this technique, (ii) a good practice guide for this technique. Firstly, this article investigates selected trials with the following criteria: study design with controlled, randomized, and open or blind protocol, primary endpoint related to the mental and brain disorders treated and assessed with standardized measurement tools, identifiable EEG neurophysiological targets, underpinned by pathophysiological relevance. Trials were found for: epilepsies, migraine, stroke, chronic insomnia, attentional-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, addictive disorders, psychotic disorders. Secondly, this article investigates the principles of neurofeedback therapy in line with learning theory. Different underlying therapeutic models are presented didactically between two continua: a continuum between implicit and explicit learning and a continuum between the biomedical model (centred on "the disease") and integrative biopsychosocial model of health (centred on "the illness"). The main relevant learning model is to link neurofeedback therapy with the field of cognitive remediation techniques. The methodological specificity of neurofeedback is to be guided by biologically relevant neurophysiological parameters. Guidelines for good clinical practice of EEG NF concerning technical issues of electrophysiology and of learning are suggested. These require validation by

  12. Ecologically relevant levels of multiple, common marine stressors suggest antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rolanda; Marshall, Dustin

    2017-07-24

    Stressors associated with global change will be experienced simultaneously and may act synergistically, so attempts to estimate the capacity of marine systems to cope with global change requires a multi-stressor approach. Because recent evidence suggests that stressor effects can be context-dependent, estimates of how stressors are experienced in ecologically realistic settings will be particularly valuable. To enhance our understanding of the interplay between environmental effects and the impact of multiple stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources, we conducted a field experiment. We explored the impact of multiple, functionally varied stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources experienced during early life history in a common sessile marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina. Natural spatial environmental variation induced differences in conspecific densities, allowing us to test for density-driven context-dependence of stressor effects. We indeed found density-dependent effects. Under high conspecific density, individual survival increased, which offset part of the negative effects of experiencing stressors. Experiencing multiple stressors early in life history translated to a decreased survival in the field, albeit the effects were not as drastic as we expected: our results are congruent with antagonistic stressor effects. We speculate that when individual stressors are more subtle, stressor synergies become less common.

  13. Facultative methanotrophy: false leads, true results, and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jeremy D; DiSpirito, Alan A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Methanotrophs are a group of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms characterized by their ability to utilize methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Early studies suggested that growth on methane could be stimulated with the addition of some small organic acids, but initial efforts to find facultative methanotrophs, i.e., methanotrophs able to utilize compounds with carbon-carbon bonds as sole growth substrates were inconclusive. Recently, however, facultative methanotrophs in the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa, and Methylocystis have been reported that can grow on acetate, as well as on larger organic acids or ethanol for some species. All identified facultative methanotrophs group within the Alphaproteobacteria and utilize the serine cycle for carbon assimilation from formaldehyde. It is possible that facultative methanotrophs are able to convert acetate into intermediates of the serine cycle (e.g. malate and glyoxylate), because a variety of acetate assimilation pathways convert acetate into these compounds (e.g. the glyoxylate shunt of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, the citramalate cycle, and the methylaspartate cycle). In this review, we summarize the history of facultative methanotrophy, describe scenarios for the basis of facultative methanotrophy, and pose several topics for future research in this area. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing for variation in taxonomic extinction probabilities: a suggested methodology and some results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Several important questions in evolutionary biology and paleobiology involve sources of variation in extinction rates. In all cases of which we are aware, extinction rates have been estimated from data in which the probability that an observation (e.g., a fossil taxon) will occur is related both to extinction rates and to what we term encounter probabilities. Any statistical method for analyzing fossil data should at a minimum permit separate inferences on these two components. We develop a method for estimating taxonomic extinction rates from stratigraphic range data and for testing hypotheses about variability in these rates. We use this method to estimate extinction rates and to test the hypothesis of constant extinction rates for several sets of stratigraphic range data. The results of our tests support the hypothesis that extinction rates varied over the geologic time periods examined. We also present a test that can be used to identify periods of high or low extinction probabilities and provide an example using Phanerozoic invertebrate data. Extinction rates should be analyzed using stochastic models, in which it is recognized that stratigraphic samples are random varlates and that sampling is imperfect

  15. Suggestions on R and D work of high-level radioactive waste disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    The difference between repository and generic underground facilities is described. Some differences and similarities of site selection between the low and medium radioactive waste disposal, nuclear power station and high-level radioactive waste repository are also discussed here. We trend to extremely emphasize the safety of high-level radioactive waste disposal because of high toxicity, long half-life and long safety disposal period of this kind of radioactive wastes; because radioactive waste in the repository is of high specific activities and buried in depth, it would be difficult to meddle with its safety. In case of repository system being destroyed, the author considers that in the stages of regional and area site selection, the first task is to investigate regional tectonic stability. Some problems about disposal options and others are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  16. Low level processing of diode spectrometry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippot, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic measurements in gamma spectrometry on slightly radioactive samples have led to study low levels existing in the spectra and to develop suitable processing methods. These methods and the advance that they represent in reading sensitivity are now applicable to all types of spectrum. The principles of this automatic reading are briefly summarized, leading to a description of the modifications which proved necessary to increase sensitivity. Three sample spectra are used to illustrate the arguments employed to achieve this result. The conclusions from the corresponding measurements provide a clearer understanding of the quality of the responses obtained during the initial reading. The application of these methods to systematic measurements is considered in the case of atmospheric aerosols. The owerall results obtained since 1969 are presented [fr

  17. Eight common genetic variants associated with serum DHEAS levels suggest a key role in ageing mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangju Zhai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS is the most abundant circulating steroid secreted by adrenal glands--yet its function is unknown. Its serum concentration declines significantly with increasing age, which has led to speculation that a relative DHEAS deficiency may contribute to the development of common age-related diseases or diminished longevity. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data with 14,846 individuals and identified eight independent common SNPs associated with serum DHEAS concentrations. Genes at or near the identified loci include ZKSCAN5 (rs11761528; p = 3.15 × 10(-36, SULT2A1 (rs2637125; p =  2.61 × 10(-19, ARPC1A (rs740160; p =  1.56 × 10(-16, TRIM4 (rs17277546; p =  4.50 × 10(-11, BMF (rs7181230; p = 5.44 × 10(-11, HHEX (rs2497306; p =  4.64 × 10(-9, BCL2L11 (rs6738028; p = 1.72 × 10(-8, and CYP2C9 (rs2185570; p = 2.29 × 10(-8. These genes are associated with type 2 diabetes, lymphoma, actin filament assembly, drug and xenobiotic metabolism, and zinc finger proteins. Several SNPs were associated with changes in gene expression levels, and the related genes are connected to biological pathways linking DHEAS with ageing. This study provides much needed insight into the function of DHEAS.

  18. Regulating private human suborbital flight at the international and European level: Tendencies and suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Zwaan, Tanja; Moro-Aguilar, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    In the context of the FAST20XX project (Future High-Altitude High-Speed Transport) that started in 2009 under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union (EU), the authors reexamined the legal status of private human suborbital flight, and researched whether it might be regulated as aviation or as spaceflight. International space law is ambiguous as to accommodating suborbital activities. While some provisions of the UN outer space treaties would seem to exclude them, generally there is not any explicit condition in terms of reaching orbit as a requirement for application. International air law presents equal difficulties in dealing with this activity. The classic definition of "aircraft" as contained in the Annexes to the Chicago Convention does not really encompass the kind of rocket-powered vehicles that are envisaged here. As a result, it is unclear whether the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), or both could be involved in an eventual international regulation of suborbital flight. In the absence of a uniform international regime, each state has the sovereign right to regulate human suborbital flights operating within its airspace. So far, two practical solutions have been realised or proposed, and will be analyzed. On the one hand, the USA granted power for regulation and licensing over private human suborbital flight to the Office of Commercial Space Transportation of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA/AST). Subsequent regulations by the FAA have set out a series of requirements for companies that want to operate these flights, enabling a market to develop. On the other side of the Atlantic, both the European Space Agency (ESA) and a group of representatives of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) of the European Union (EU) seem to rather regard this activity as aviation, potentially subject to the regulation and certification competences of EASA

  19. Biogeochemical analysis of ancient Pacific Cod bone suggests Hg bioaccumulation was linked to paleo sea level rise and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribeth S. Murray

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Deglaciation at the end of the Pleistocene initiated major changes in ocean circulation and distribution. Within a brief geological time, large areas of land were inundated by sea-level rise and today global sea level is 120 m above its minimum stand during the last glacial maximum. This was the era of modern sea shelf formation; climate change caused coastal plain flooding and created broad continental shelves with innumerable consequences to marine and terrestrial ecosystems and human populations. In Alaska, the Bering Sea nearly doubled in size and stretches of coastline to the south were flooded, with regional variability in the timing and extent of submergence. Here we suggest how past climate change and coastal flooding are linked to mercury bioaccumulation that could have had profound impacts on past human populations and that, under conditions of continued climate warming, may have future impacts. Biogeochemical analysis of total mercury (tHg and 13C/15N ratios in the bone collagen of archaeologically recovered Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus bone shows high levels of tHg during early/mid-Holocene. This pattern cannot be linked to anthropogenic activity or to food web trophic changes, but may result from natural phenomena such as increases in productivity, carbon supply and coastal flooding driven by glacial melting and sea-level rise. The coastal flooding could have led to increased methylation of Hg in newly submerged terrestrial land and vegetation. Methylmercury is bioaccumulated through aquatic food webs with attendant consequences for the health of fish and their consumers, including people. This is the first study of tHg levels in a marine species from the Gulf of Alaska to provide a time series spanning nearly the entire Holocene and we propose that past coastal flooding resulting from climate change had the potential to input significant quantities of Hg into marine food webs and subsequently to human consumers.

  20. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C.; Shinneman, Douglas; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2018-01-01

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  1. Intraspecific niche models for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) suggest potential variability in population-level response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Kaitlin C; Shinneman, Douglas J; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2018-03-14

    Unique responses to climate change can occur across intraspecific levels, resulting in individualistic adaptation or movement patterns among populations within a given species. Thus, the need to model potential responses among genetically distinct populations within a species is increasingly recognized. However, predictive models of future distributions are regularly fit at the species level, often because intraspecific variation is unknown or is identified only within limited sample locations. In this study, we considered the role of intraspecific variation to shape the geographic distribution of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an ecologically and economically important tree species in North America. Morphological and genetic variation across the distribution of ponderosa pine suggest the need to model intraspecific populations: the two varieties (var. ponderosa and var. scopulorum) and several haplotype groups within each variety have been shown to occupy unique climatic niches, suggesting populations have distinct evolutionary lineages adapted to different environmental conditions. We utilized a recently-available, geographically-widespread dataset of intraspecific variation (haplotypes) for ponderosa pine and a recently-devised lineage distance modeling approach to derive additional, likely intraspecific occurrence locations. We confirmed the relative uniqueness of each haplotype-climate relationship using a niche-overlap analysis, and developed ecological niche models (ENMs) to project the distribution for two varieties and eight haplotypes under future climate forecasts. Future projections of haplotype niche distributions generally revealed greater potential range loss than predicted for the varieties. This difference may reflect intraspecific responses of distinct evolutionary lineages. However, directional trends are generally consistent across intraspecific levels, and include a loss of distributional area and an upward shift in elevation. Our results

  2. Dependence of the appearance-based perception of criminality, suggestibility, and trustworthiness on the level of pixelation of facial images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmoja, Merle; Eamets, Triin; Härma, Hanne-Loore; Bachmann, Talis

    2012-10-01

    While the dependence of face identification on the level of pixelation-transform of the images of faces has been well studied, similar research on face-based trait perception is underdeveloped. Because depiction formats used for hiding individual identity in visual media and evidential material recorded by surveillance cameras often consist of pixelized images, knowing the effects of pixelation on person perception has practical relevance. Here, the results of two experiments are presented showing the effect of facial image pixelation on the perception of criminality, trustworthiness, and suggestibility. It appears that individuals (N = 46, M age = 21.5 yr., SD = 3.1 for criminality ratings; N = 94, M age = 27.4 yr., SD = 10.1 for other ratings) have the ability to discriminate between facial cues ndicative of these perceived traits from the coarse level of image pixelation (10-12 pixels per face horizontally) and that the discriminability increases with a decrease in the coarseness of pixelation. Perceived criminality and trustworthiness appear to be better carried by the pixelized images than perceived suggestibility.

  3. Levels and patterns of nucleotide variation in domestication QTL regions on rice chromosome 3 suggest lineage-specific selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfa Xie

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa--indica and tropical japonica--as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.

  4. Plasma level of cyclophilin A is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and suggests presence of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Surya; Venugopal, Anila; Kutty, V Raman; A, Vinitha; G, Divya; Chitrasree, V; Mullassari, Ajit; Pratapchandran, N S; Santosh, K R; Pillai, M Radhakrishna; Kartha, C C

    2014-02-07

    Cyclophilin A, an immunophilin is secreted from human monocytes activated by high glucose. Given its role as an inflammatory mediator of vascular tissue damage associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, we examined plasma levels of cyclophilin A in normal healthy volunteers and patients with type 2 diabetes (DM), with or without coronary artery disease (CAD). Study subjects comprised of 212 patients with DM and CAD,101 patients with diabetes, 122 patients with CAD and 121 normal healthy volunteers. Diabetes was assessed by HbA1c levels while coronary artery disease was established by a positive treadmill test and/or coronary angiography. Plasma cyclophilin A was measured using a cyclophilin A ELISA Kit. Relationship of plasma cyclophilin A levels with blood markers of type 2 diabetes, blood lipid levels and medication for diabetes and coronary artery disease were also explored. Plasma Cyclophilin levels were higher in diabetes patients with or without CAD compared to normal subjects (P levels and HbA1C levels were positively associated with increased plasma cyclophilin. Patients using metformin had reduced levels of plasma cyclophilin (p levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides had no significant association with plasma cyclophilin levels. In patients with increased serum CRP levels, plasma cyclophilin A was also elevated (p = 0.016). Prevalence odds for DM, DM + CAD and CAD are higher in those with high cyclophilin values, compared to those with lower values, after adjusting for age and sex, indicating strong association of high cyclophilin values with diabetes and vascular disease. Our study demonstrates that patients with type 2 diabetes have higher circulating levels of cyclophilin A than the normal population. Plasma cyclophilin levels were increased in patients with diabetes and coronary artery disease suggesting a role of this protein in accelerating vascular disease in type 2 diabetes. Considering the evidence that

  5. Low Level Evidence Suggests That Librarian-Led Instruction in Evidence Based Practice is Effective Regardless of Instructional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Alcock

    2017-06-01

    studies which included descriptive statistics and many also included inferential statistics intended to show significance. Differences between groups were assessed with parametric measures in 9 studies and non-parametric measures in 15 studies. Good to high statistical significance on at least 1 measurement was achieved in 23 studies. Given the absence of effect sizes, the level of differences between study groups could not be determined. Conclusion – Numerous pedagogical methods are used in librarian-led instruction in evidence based practice. However, there is a paucity of high level evidence and the literature suggests that no instructional method is demonstrated to be more effective than another.

  6. Repertoire Analysis of Antibody CDR-H3 Loops Suggests Affinity Maturation Does Not Typically Result in Rigidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliazko R. Jeliazkov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody’s antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop for thousands of recent homology models of the human peripheral blood cell antibody repertoire using rigidity theory. We found no clear delineation in the flexibility of naïve and antigen-experienced antibodies. To account for possible sources of error, we additionally analyzed hundreds of human and mouse antibodies in the Protein Data Bank through both rigidity theory and B-factor analysis. By both metrics, we observed only a slight decrease in the CDR-H3 loop flexibility when comparing affinity matured antibodies to naïve antibodies, and the decrease was not as drastic as previously reported. Further analysis, incorporating molecular dynamics simulations, revealed a spectrum of changes in flexibility. Our results suggest that rigidification may be just one of many biophysical mechanisms for increasing affinity.

  7. HIV Protease Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy Is Associated With Decreased Progesterone Levels, Suggesting a Potential Mechanism Contributing to Fetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R.; Yudin, Mark H.; Murphy, Kellie E.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background. Protease inhibitor (PI)–based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. Methods. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Results. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Conclusions. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25030058

  8. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  9. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent: retrospective results from a tertiary clinic suggesting an association with facial dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D; Thyssen, J P

    2016-10-01

    Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. Patch test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (P trend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis, age >40 years and facial dermatitis in adjusted binary logistic regression analysis. Current clinical relevance of contact allergy to thiuram mix was 59.3%. Patients with contact allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole had a concomitant reaction to thiuram mix in 35.2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Coral reef growth in an era of rapidly rising sea level: predictions and suggestions for long-term research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R W; Smith, S V

    1988-01-01

    Coral reef growth is intimately linked to sea level. It has been postulated that over the next century, sea level will rise at a probable average rate of 15 mm/year, in response to fossil fuel emissions, heating, and melting of the Antarctic ice cap. This predicted rate of sea level rise is five times the present modal rate of vertical accretion on coral reef flats and 50% greater than the maximum vertical accretion rates apparently attained by coral reefs. We use these predictions and observations to offer the following hypothesis for reef growth over the next century. The vertical accretion rates of protected reef flats will accelerate from the present modal rate up to the maximum rate, in response to the more rapidly rising sea level. This more rapid vertical accretion rate will be insufficient to keep up with sea level rise, if present predictions prove to be correct. Less protected reef flats will slow their rate of growth as they become inundated and subjected to erosion by progressively larger waves. This projected sea level rise and postulated reef response will provide an opportunity for long- term studies of the response of coral reef systems to a predictable and measurable forcing function.

  11. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.; Paterson, A.; Edgar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  12. HIV protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R; Yudin, Mark H; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Potential increase in coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise suggested by considering hydrodynamic attenuation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José F.; Saco, Patricia M.; Sandi, Steven; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo

    2017-07-01

    The future of coastal wetlands and their ecological value depend on their capacity to adapt to the interacting effects of human impacts and sea-level rise. Even though extensive wetland loss due to submergence is a possible scenario, its magnitude is highly uncertain due to limited understanding of hydrodynamic and bio-geomorphic interactions over time. In particular, the effect of man-made drainage modifications on hydrodynamic attenuation and consequent wetland evolution is poorly understood. Predictions are further complicated by the presence of a number of vegetation types that change over time and also contribute to flow attenuation. Here, we show that flow attenuation affects wetland vegetation by modifying its wetting-drying regime and inundation depth, increasing its vulnerability to sea-level rise. Our simulations for an Australian subtropical wetland predict much faster wetland loss than commonly used models that do not consider flow attenuation.

  14. Recent experimental results on level densities for compound reaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    There is a problem related to the choice of the level density input for Hauser-Feshbach model calculations. Modern computer codes have several options to choose from but it is not clear which of them has to be used in some particular cases. Availability of many options helps to describe existing experimental data but it creates problems when it comes to predictions. Traditionally, different level density systematics are based on experimental data from neutron resonance spacing which are available for a limited spin interval and one parity only. On the other hand reaction cross section calculations use the total level density. This can create large uncertainties when converting the neutron resonance spacing to the total level density that results in sizable uncertainties in cross section calculations. It is clear now that total level densities need to be studied experimentally in a systematic manner. Such information can be obtained only from spectra of compound nuclear reactions. The question is does level densities obtained from compound nuclear reactions keep the same regularities as level densities obtained from neutron resonances- Are they consistent- We measured level densities of 59-64 Ni isotopes from proton evaporation spectra of 6,7 Li induced reactions. Experimental data are presented. Conclusions of how level density depends on the neutron number and on the degree of proximity to the closed shell ( 56 Ni) are drawn. The level density parameters have been compared with parameters obtained from the analysis of neutron resonances and from model predictions

  15. Results of level 1 PSA in Trillo 1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Lopez, C.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1991, C. N. Trillo I was requested by the Spanish Regulatory Body (CSN) to perform a PSA that should include: - Level 1 PSA at power - Internal flooding analysis - Level 2 PSA including containment capacity analysis. - External event analyses (fires, external flooding, seismic events and other external events) - Risk analysis for off power conditions (shutdown and low power) - Risk analysis due to other sources of radioactivity In 1992 the Project Plan was issued and the PSA team for the performance of Level 1 PSA was established. Before finishing the Project, it was decided to develop a Phase B to take into account some important modifications that had been accomplished in the Plant and that, probably, could affect the results. Level 1 PSA was finished in March 1998. Both the results of the study and the main conclusions derived from the importance, uncertainty and sensibility analysis performed are presented in this paper. These results de not include the internal flooding analysis conclusions and correspond to PSA revision 0 that is currently being evaluated by the Spanish Regulatory Body. (Author)

  16. Evaluating forensic biology results given source level propositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Hicks, Tacha; Champod, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    The evaluation of forensic evidence can occur at any level within the hierarchy of propositions depending on the question being asked and the amount and type of information that is taken into account within the evaluation. Commonly DNA evidence is reported given propositions that deal with the sub-source level in the hierarchy, which deals only with the possibility that a nominated individual is a source of DNA in a trace (or contributor to the DNA in the case of a mixed DNA trace). We explore the use of information obtained from examinations, presumptive and discriminating tests for body fluids, DNA concentrations and some case circumstances within a Bayesian network in order to provide assistance to the Courts that have to consider propositions at source level. We use a scenario in which the presence of blood is of interest as an exemplar and consider how DNA profiling results and the potential for laboratory error can be taken into account. We finish with examples of how the results of these reports could be presented in court using either numerical values or verbal descriptions of the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

  18. Serum Levels of Human MIC-1/GDF15 Vary in a Diurnal Pattern, Do Not Display a Profile Suggestive of a Satiety Factor and Are Related to BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also suggest that this cytokine may play a role in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis. To further characterize the role of MIC-1/GDF15 in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis in man, we have examined diurnal and food associated variation in serum levels and whether variation in circulating levels relate to BMI in human monozygotic twin pairs. We found that the within twin pair differences in serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were significantly correlated with within twin pair differences in BMI, suggesting a role for MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of energy balance in man. MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels altered slightly in response to a meal, but comparison with variation its serum levels over a 24 hour period suggested that these changes are likely to be due to bimodal diurnal variation which can alter serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy homeostasis in man, most probably due to actions on long-term regulation of energy homeostasis.

  19. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolova Svetla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.

  20. Low educational level effects on the performance of healthy adults on a Neuropsychological Protocol suggested by the Commission on Neuropsychology of the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Belzunces dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive measures and impact of education on cognitive performance (CP of low educational levels healthy adults (LELHA on a Neuropsychological Protocol (NP suggested by the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia. METHOD: 138 subjects from an Education Program for Adults divided into two, age and gender matched groups of 69 subjects, answered the NP: Group 1 (mean of 6.9±2.95 months of formal education and Group 2, 47.8±10 months. Data were compared as z-scores. RESULTS: The mean IQ was 77.1±5.50 and 79.4±3.30 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001. Both performed below the normal curve and Group 1 worse than 2. CP correlated with schooling, especially executive functions (54.1% vs 36.2% and language (52.9% vs 25.7%. CONCLUSION: LELHA showed significant cognitive impairment in verbal and visuospatial areas. If these results had been obtained in epilepsy patients they would be interpreted as global cognitive impairment.

  1. Concomitant changes in radiation resistance and trehalose levels during life stages of Drosophila melanogaster suggest radio-protective function of trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paithankar, Jagdish Gopal; Raghu, Shamprasad Varija; Patil, Rajashekhar K

    2018-04-20

    During development, various life stages of Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster) show different levels of resistance to gamma irradiation, with the early pupal stage being the most radiation sensitive. This provides us an opportunity to explore the biochemical basis of such variations. The present study was carried out to understand the mechanisms underlying radiation resistance during life stages of D. melanogaster. Homogenates from all the life stages of D. melanogaster were prepared at stipulated age. These homogenates were used for the determination of (1) enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, D. melanogaster glutathione peroxidase (DmGPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST); (2) reducing non-enzymatic antioxidants: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reduced glutathione (GSH) and non-reducing non-enzymatic antioxidant trehalose; and (3) levels of protein carbonyl (PC) content. Age-dependent changes in radiation resistance and associated biochemical changes were also studied in young (2 d) and old (20 and 30 d) flies. TAC and GSH were found high in the early pupal stage, whereas catalase and DmGPx were found to increase in the early pupal stage. The non-feeding third instar (NFTI) larvae were found to have high levels of SOD and GST, besides NFTI larvae showed high levels of trehalose. A remarkable decrease was observed in radiation resistance and trehalose levels during the early pupal stage. The PC level was the highest during early pupal stage and was the lowest in NFTI larvae. Older flies showed high level of PC compared with young flies. In vitro increments in trehalose concentration correspond to reduced formation of PCs, suggesting a protective role of trehalose against free radicals. A strong correlation between levels of trehalose and PC formation suggests amelioration of proteome damage due to ionizing radiation (IR). Stages with high trehalose levels showed protected proteome and high radiation resistance, suggesting a

  2. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program. 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Second Grade, Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the second grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  3. Suggested Curriculum Guidelines for an Effective Bilingual Program, 1972-1973. Destrezas Comunicativas del Idioma Espanol. Spanish Language Skills. Third Grade, Level 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artesia Public Schools, NM.

    This volume contains suggested curriculum guidelines for an effective bilingual program, with specific focus on Spanish language skills for the third grade level. The philosophy of the program views bilingual education as a vehicle and pedagogical tool to be used to better prepare all children to function in society. The point of departure for…

  4. Impact and Suggestion of Column-to-Surface Vertical Correction Scheme on the Relationship between Satellite AOD and Ground-Level PM2.5 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As China is suffering from severe fine particle pollution from dense industrialization and urbanization, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD has been widely used for estimating particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5. However, the correlation between satellite AOD and ground-level PM2.5 could be influenced by aerosol vertical distribution, as satellite AOD represents the entire column, rather than just ground-level concentration. Here, a new column-to-surface vertical correction scheme is proposed to improve separation of the near-surface and elevated aerosol layers, based on the ratio of the integrated extinction coefficient within 200–500 m above ground level (AGL, using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP aerosol profile products. There are distinct differences in climate, meteorology, terrain, and aerosol transmission throughout China, so comparisons between vertical correction via CALIOP ratio and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH were conducted in different regions from 2014 to 2015, combined with the original Pearson coefficient between satellite AOD and ground-level PM2.5 for reference. Furthermore, the best vertical correction scheme was suggested for different regions to achieve optimal correlation with PM2.5, based on the analysis and discussion of regional and seasonal characteristics of aerosol vertical distribution. According to our results and discussions, vertical correction via PBLH is recommended in northwestern China, where the PBLH varies dramatically, stretching or compressing the surface aerosol layer; vertical correction via the CALIOP ratio is recommended in northeastern China, southwestern China, Central China (excluding summer, North China Plain (excluding Beijing, and the spring in the southeast coast, areas that are susceptible to exogenous aerosols and exhibit the elevated aerosol layer; and original AOD without vertical correction is

  5. Low educational level effects on the performance of healthy adults on a Neuropsychological Protocol suggested by the Commission on Neuropsychology of the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Erich Belzunces; Tudesco, Ivanda de Souza Silva; Caboclo, Luis Otávio S F; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2011-10-01

    To assess cognitive measures and impact of education on cognitive performance (CP) of low educational levels healthy adults (LELHA) on a Neuropsychological Protocol (NP) suggested by the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia. 138 subjects from an Education Program for Adults divided into two, age and gender matched groups of 69 subjects, answered the NP: Group 1 (mean of 6.9 ± 2.95 months of formal education) and Group 2, 47.8 ± 10 months. Data were compared as z-scores. The mean IQ was 77.1 ± 5.50 and 79.4 ± 3.30 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001). Both performed below the normal curve and Group 1 worse than 2. CP correlated with schooling, especially executive functions (54.1% vs 36.2%) and language (52.9% vs 25.7%). LELHA showed significant cognitive impairment in verbal and visuospatial areas. If these results had been obtained in epilepsy patients they would be interpreted as global cognitive impairment.

  6. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-1 Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Suggested Format for Reporting Test... Difference Table C-1 spec. Pass or fail Low 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm 3 4 5 6 Medium 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm...

  7. Genome-wide analysis suggests high level of microsynteny and purifying selection affect the evolution of EIN3/EIL family in Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Li, Dahui; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    The ethylene-insensitive3/ethylene-insensitive3-like ( EIN3/EIL ) proteins are a type of nuclear-localized protein with DNA-binding activity in plants. Although the EIN3/EIL gene family has been studied in several plant species, little is known about comprehensive study of the EIN3/EIL gene family in Rosaceae. In this study, ten, five, four, and five EIN3/EIL genes were identified in the genomes of pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri ), mei ( Prunus mume ), peach ( Prunus persica ) and strawberry ( Fragaria vesca ), respectively. Twenty-eight chromosomal segments of EIL/EIN3 gene family were found in four Rosaceae species, and these segments could form seven orthologous or paralogous groups based on interspecies or intraspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) analysis. Moreover, the highly conserved regions of microsynteny were found in four Rosaceae species. Subsequently it was found that both whole genome duplication and tandem duplication events significantly contributed to the EIL/EIN3 gene family expansion. Gene expression analysis of the EIL/EIN3 genes in the pear revealed subfunctionalization for several PbEIL genes derived from whole genome duplication. It is noteworthy that according to environmental selection pressure analysis, the strong purifying selection should dominate the maintenance of the EIL/EIN3 gene family in four Rosaceae species. These results provided useful information on Rosaceae EIL/EIN3 genes, as well as insights into the evolution of this gene family in four Rosaceae species. Furthermore, high level of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae plants suggested that a large-scale genome duplication event in the EIL/EIN3 gene family was predated to speciation.

  8. Genome-wide analysis suggests high level of microsynteny and purifying selection affect the evolution of EIN3/EIL family in Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ethylene-insensitive3/ethylene-insensitive3-like (EIN3/EIL proteins are a type of nuclear-localized protein with DNA-binding activity in plants. Although the EIN3/EIL gene family has been studied in several plant species, little is known about comprehensive study of the EIN3/EIL gene family in Rosaceae. In this study, ten, five, four, and five EIN3/EIL genes were identified in the genomes of pear (Pyrus bretschneideri, mei (Prunus mume, peach (Prunus persica and strawberry (Fragaria vesca, respectively. Twenty-eight chromosomal segments of EIL/EIN3 gene family were found in four Rosaceae species, and these segments could form seven orthologous or paralogous groups based on interspecies or intraspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny analysis. Moreover, the highly conserved regions of microsynteny were found in four Rosaceae species. Subsequently it was found that both whole genome duplication and tandem duplication events significantly contributed to the EIL/EIN3 gene family expansion. Gene expression analysis of the EIL/EIN3 genes in the pear revealed subfunctionalization for several PbEIL genes derived from whole genome duplication. It is noteworthy that according to environmental selection pressure analysis, the strong purifying selection should dominate the maintenance of the EIL/EIN3 gene family in four Rosaceae species. These results provided useful information on Rosaceae EIL/EIN3 genes, as well as insights into the evolution of this gene family in four Rosaceae species. Furthermore, high level of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae plants suggested that a large-scale genome duplication event in the EIL/EIN3 gene family was predated to speciation.

  9. Contrasting levels of heavy metals in the feathers of urban pigeons from close habitats suggest limited movements at a restricted scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantz, Adrien; Pottier, Marie-Anne; Karimi, Battle; Corbel, Hélène; Aubry, Emmanuel; Haussy, Claudy; Gasparini, Julien; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse

    2012-01-01

    Despite restrictions in emissions, heavy metals may remain a major environmental issue due to their numerous sources and their persistence. Here, we assessed current levels of 4 metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead, Zinc) in the feathers of 91 feral pigeons (Columba livia) from 7 sites in the urbanized region of Paris. Elements were detected in all pigeons, indicating that metals persist in urbanized areas. The ratio between metal concentrations in the feathers vs. in the environment calculated using data from other studies was 2–90 times higher for cadmium than for other metals, underlying its ecological importance. Concentrations in the feathers depended on locality, suggesting that pigeons remain in local habitats at this restricted scale, as expected from previous observations. Overall, our study suggests that urban feral pigeons may represent a good model system for metal biomonitoring. Highlights: ► We measured the concentrations of 4 heavy metals in pigeon feathers through Paris. ► Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Zinc were present in pigeons from all 7 sites. ► Metals thus still persist in the city though their emissions have been reduced. ► Metal concentrations in the feathers depended on the local origin of the pigeons. ► These differences suggest limited pigeon movements at a very restricted scale. - Concentrations of metals in the feathers of Parisian feral pigeons (Columba livia) strongly differ at a restricted spatial scale, suggesting limited movements in urban areas.

  10. Preliminary results about Electrodeposition of Cobalt at laboratory level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, N.

    1992-01-01

    As of an organic compound, an extraction and Cobalt electrodeposition method had been developed as a part of fabrication aim of a sealed radioactive source with objective to the construction of density meter prototype. It was performed preliminary test of electrodeposition in the laboratory level in a simple cell. The used electrolyte had been a sulphate solution obtained by extraction of an organic solution. It is obtained a Co film by electrodeposition at 55 o C temperature and with an approximately Co concentration in 70 g/lt. (Author) 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (``burps``) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections.

  12. PSA results for Hanford high level waste Tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) that includes consideration of external events for the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (''burps'') a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is underway in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. This PSA for Tank 101-SY, which did not consider the pump experiment or future tank-remediation activities, involved three distinct tasks. First, the accident sequence analysis identified and quantified those potential accidents whose consequences result in tank material release. Second, characteristics and release paths for the airborne and liquid radioactive source terms were determined. Finally, the consequences, primarily onsite and offsite potential health effects resulting from radionuclide release, were estimated, and overall risk curves were constructed. An overview of each of these tasks and a summary of the overall results of the analysis are presented in the following sections

  13. Experimental data suggesting that inflammation mediated rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction results from secondary hypoxia rather than from direct effects of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid eWeidinger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response (SIR comprises direct effects of inflammatory mediators (IM and indirect effects, such as secondary circulatory failure which results in tissue hypoxia (HOX. These two key components, SIR and HOX, cause multiple organ failure (MOF. Since HOX and IM occur and interact simultaneously in vivo, it is difficult to clarify their individual pathological impact. To eliminate this interaction, precision cut liver slices (PCLS were used in this study aiming to dissect the effects of HOX and IM on mitochondrial function, integrity of cellular membrane and the expression of genes associated with inflammation. HOX was induced by incubating PCLS or rat liver mitochondria at pO2<1% followed by reoxygenation (HOX/ROX model. Inflammatory injury was stimulated by incubating PCLS with IM (IM model. We found upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression only in the IM model, while heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression was upregulated only in the HOX/ROX model. Elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6 was found in both models reflecting converging pathways regulating the expression of this gene. Both models caused damage to hepatocytes resulting in the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed only during the hypoxic phase in the HOX/ROX model. The reoxygenation phase of HOX, but not IM, drastically impaired mitochondrial electron supply via complex I and II. Additional experiments performed with isolated mitochondria showed that free iron, released during HOX, is likely a key prerequisite of mitochondrial dysfunction induced during the reoxygenation phase. Our data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, previously observed in in vivo SIR-models is the result of secondary circulatory failure inducing HOX rather than the result of a direct interaction of IM with liver cells.

  14. Factors Affecting Result in Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK Level 6: Reading Section and Preparation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  15. Multi-level comparisons of cloacal, skin, feather and nest-associated microbiota suggest considerable influence of horizontal acquisition on the microbiota assembly of sympatric woodlarks and skylarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, H Pieter J; Falcao Salles, Joana; Tieleman, B Irene

    2017-12-01

    Working toward a general framework to understand the role of microbiota in animal biology requires the characterisation of animal-associated microbial communities and identification of the evolutionary and ecological factors shaping their variation. In this study, we described the microbiota in the cloaca, brood patch skin and feathers of two species of birds and the microbial communities in their nest environment. We compared patterns of resemblance between these microbial communities at different levels of biological organisation (species, individual, body part) and investigated the phylogenetic structure to deduce potential microbial community assembly processes. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon data of woodlarks (Lullula arborea) and skylarks (Alauda arvensis), we demonstrated that bird- and nest-associated microbiota showed substantial OTU co-occurrences and shared dominant taxonomic groups, despite variation in OTU richness, diversity and composition. Comparing host species, we uncovered that sympatric woodlarks and skylarks harboured similar microbiota, dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria. Yet, compared with the nest microbiota that showed little variation, each species' bird-associated microbiota displayed substantial variation. The latter could be partly (~ 20%) explained by significant inter-individual differences. The various communities of the bird's body (cloaca, brood patch skin and feathers) appeared connected with each other and with the nest microbiota (nest lining material and surface soil). Communities were more similar when the contact between niches was frequent or intense. Finally, bird microbiota showed significant phylogenetic clustering at the tips, but not at deeper branches of the phylogeny. Our interspecific comparison suggested that the environment is more important than phylogeny in shaping the bird-associated microbiotas. In addition, variation among individuals and among body parts

  16. Genome-wide identification of physically clustered genes suggests chromatin-level co-regulation in male reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimegård, Johan; Kundu, Snehangshu; Pendle, Ali; Irish, Vivian F; Shaw, Peter; Nakayama, Naomi; Sundström, Jens F; Emanuelsson, Olof

    2017-04-07

    Co-expression of physically linked genes occurs surprisingly frequently in eukaryotes. Such chromosomal clustering may confer a selective advantage as it enables coordinated gene regulation at the chromatin level. We studied the chromosomal organization of genes involved in male reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana. We developed an in-silico tool to identify physical clusters of co-regulated genes from gene expression data. We identified 17 clusters (96 genes) involved in stamen development and acting downstream of the transcriptional activator MS1 (MALE STERILITY 1), which contains a PHD domain associated with chromatin re-organization. The clusters exhibited little gene homology or promoter element similarity, and largely overlapped with reported repressive histone marks. Experiments on a subset of the clusters suggested a link between expression activation and chromatin conformation: qRT-PCR and mRNA in situ hybridization showed that the clustered genes were up-regulated within 48 h after MS1 induction; out of 14 chromatin-remodeling mutants studied, expression of clustered genes was consistently down-regulated only in hta9/hta11, previously associated with metabolic cluster activation; DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed that transcriptional activation of the clustered genes was correlated with open chromatin conformation. Stamen development thus appears to involve transcriptional activation of physically clustered genes through chromatin de-condensation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Rolling circle amplification-based analysis of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus isolates from Tamil Nadu, India, suggests a low level of genetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushawaha, Akhilesh Kumar; Rabindran, Ramalingam; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2018-03-01

    Cassava mosaic disease is a widespread disease of cassava in south Asia and the African continent. In India, CMD is known to be caused by two single-stranded DNA viruses (geminiviruses), Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosdaic virus (SLCMV). Previously, the diversity of ICMV and SLCMV in India has been studied using PCR, a sequence-dependent method. To have a more in-depth study of the variability of the above viruses and to detect any novel geminiviruses associated with CMD, sequence-independent amplification using rolling circle amplification (RCA)-based methods were used. CMD affected cassava plants were sampled across eighty locations in nine districts of the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Twelve complete sequence of coat protein genes of the resident geminiviruses, comprising 256 amino acid residues were generated from the above samples, which indicated changes at only six positions. RCA followed by RFLP of the 80 samples indicated that most samples (47) contained only SLCMV, followed by 8, which were infected jointly with ICMV and SLCMV. In 11 samples, the pattern did not match the expected patterns from either of the two viruses and hence, were variants. Sequence analysis of an average of 700 nucleotides from 31 RCA-generated fragments of the variants indicated identities of 97-99% with the sequence of a previously reported infectious clone of SLCMV. The evidence suggests low levels of genetic variability in the begomoviruses infecting cassava, mainly in the form of scattered single nucleotide changes.

  18. Low-Level Evidence Suggests that Perceived Ability to Evaluate and Trust Online Health Information is Associated with Low Health Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Alcock

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To review, based on research evidence, the correlation between low health literacy and four outcomes of interest: (1 the ability to evaluate online health information based on (2 perceived reliability and accuracy, (3 trust in the Internet as an information source, and (4 the application of established evaluation criteria. Design – Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Setting –MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete as well as articles discovered through the snowball method. Subjects – 38 studies identified through a systematic literature search. Methods – An exhaustive list of potential articles was gathered through searching five online databases and Google Scholar, and hand searching of references. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in a two-phase screening process in which two researchers participated to address reliability. Data, including study characteristics and metadata, predictors, assessment methods, and outcomes, were extracted from relevant studies, and then synthesized narratively. Main Results – Following duplication removal 13,632 records were retrieved, 254 of which were identified for full-text assessment. Thirty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria. All studies were non-experimental and therefore graded as a low level of evidence; 35 were cross-sectional designs, 1 a focus group, and 2 were observational studies. Studies varied widely in population definition and sample size and were published between 2001 and 2013, primarily in North America. Overall, a positive association was identified between health literacy and outcomes related to the ability to evaluate or trust Internet health information, while findings were inconsistent related to perceived quality of information and the application of evaluative criteria. Four studies examined the impact of health literacy levels on one or more of the outcomes of interest. The most prevalent

  19. HOMA, BMI, and Serum Leptin Levels Variations during Antiviral Treatment Suggest Virus-Related Insulin Resistance in Noncirrhotic, Nonobese, and Nondiabetic Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grasso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and viral load decay in nondiabetic and noncirrhotic genotype 1 chronic HCV patients during peginterferon and ribavirin treatment and the possible influence of BMI and leptin as metabolic confounders. Methods. 75 consecutive noncirrhotic, nonobese, and nondiabetic patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treated with peginterferon alpha 2a plus ribavirin were evaluated. HOMA-IR, serum leptin, and BMI were measured in all patients at baseline and at weeks 12 and 48, whereas viral load was measured at the same time points and then 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. HOMA-IR was significantly associated with both BMI and leptin at baseline. During peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment, there was a significant reduction of HOMA-IR at weeks 12 and 48 from baseline (P=0.033 and 0.048, resp. in patients who achieved an early viral load decay (EVR, a trend not observed in patients who not achieved EVR. No variations during treatment were observed regarding BMI and leptin irrespective of EVR. Conclusion. The early reduction of HOMA-IR but not of BMI and leptin during antiviral treatment in noncirrhotic, chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who achieved EVR suggests a viral genesis of insulin resistance in patients with nonmetabolic phenotype.

  20. HOMA, BMI, and Serum Leptin Levels Variations during Antiviral Treatment Suggest Virus-Related Insulin Resistance in Noncirrhotic, Nonobese, and Nondiabetic Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Alessandro; Malfatti, Federica; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Marenco, Simona; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Labanca, Sara; Cordera, Renzo; Testa, Roberto; Picciotto, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and viral load decay in nondiabetic and noncirrhotic genotype 1 chronic HCV patients during peginterferon and ribavirin treatment and the possible influence of BMI and leptin as metabolic confounders. Methods. 75 consecutive noncirrhotic, nonobese, and nondiabetic patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C treated with peginterferon alpha 2a plus ribavirin were evaluated. HOMA-IR, serum leptin, and BMI were measured in all patients at baseline and at weeks 12 and 48, whereas viral load was measured at the same time points and then 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Results. HOMA-IR was significantly associated with both BMI and leptin at baseline. During peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment, there was a significant reduction of HOMA-IR at weeks 12 and 48 from baseline (P = 0.033 and 0.048, resp.) in patients who achieved an early viral load decay (EVR), a trend not observed in patients who not achieved EVR. No variations during treatment were observed regarding BMI and leptin irrespective of EVR. Conclusion. The early reduction of HOMA-IR but not of BMI and leptin during antiviral treatment in noncirrhotic, chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients who achieved EVR suggests a viral genesis of insulin resistance in patients with nonmetabolic phenotype.

  1. A suggested emergency medicine boot camp curriculum for medical students based on the mapping of Core Entrustable Professional Activities to Emergency Medicine Level 1 milestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba S

    2016-03-01

    simulation cases assessed students’ skills. Results: Students (n=9 reported increased confidence in the following procedures: intubation (1.5–2.1, thoracostomy (1.1–1.9, and central venous catheterization (1.3–2 (a three-point Likert-type scale, with 1= not yet confident/able to perform with supervision to 3= confident/able to perform without supervision. Psychomotor skills testing showed on average, 26% of students required verbal prompting with performance errors, 48% with minor performance errors, and 26% worked independently without performance errors. All participants reported: 1 increased knowledge and confidence in covered topics and 2 overall satisfaction with simulation experience. Conclusion: Mapping the Core EPAs for Entering Residency to the EM milestones at Level 1 identifies educational gaps for graduating medical students seeking a career in EM. Educators designing EM boot camps for medical students should consider these identified gaps, procedures, and clinical conditions during the development of a core standardized curriculum. Keywords: emergency medicine, clerkship, medical education, competency, EPA 10, milestones

  2. Results of survey for assessing awareness level regarding radiological hazards of tobacco smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S. N. A.

    2009-01-01

    Human consumption of tobacco is as old as human history. However, injurious health effects due to tobacco smoking may not be evident to the public at large. This article presents results of a questionnaire based on a survey carried out in the metropolitan city of Lahore of Pakistan with an aim to understand the awareness level of the general population about the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking. Some 3600 participants from different educational backgrounds from all segments of the society participated in this survey. Analysis of the data collected concluded that the awareness level of the representative participants regarding the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking was alarmingly poor. These results suggest that a nationwide mass media campaign may be launched by the government authorities in Health and Environment departments to enlighten the general public in this respect to avoid tobacco-smoking-associated health risks. (authors)

  3. Results of a multinational study suggest the need for rapid diagnosis and early antiviral treatment at the onset of herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya

    2015-01-01

    survived, with sequelae. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05), Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.93), and symptomatic periods of 2 to 7 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.79) and >7 days (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.15) until the commencement...... of treatment predicted unfavorable outcomes. The outcome in HME patients is related to a combination of therapeutic and host factors. This study suggests that rapid diagnosis and early administration of antiviral treatment in HME patients are keys to a favorable outcome....

  4. The proteolytic profile of human cancer procoagulant suggests that it promotes cancer metastasis at the level of activation rather than degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Nalise Low Ah; Krause, Jason; Blatch, Gregory L; Muramoto, Koji; Sakka, Kazuo; Sakka, Makiko; Naudé, Ryno J; Wagner, Leona; Wolf, Raik; Rahfeld, Jens-Ulrich; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Mielicki, Wojciech P; Frost, Carminita L

    2015-10-01

    Proteases are essential for tumour progression and many are over-expressed during this time. The main focus of research was the role of these proteases in degradation of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM), thereby enabling metastasis to occur. Cancer procoagulant (CP), a protease present in malignant tumours, but not normal tissue, is a known activator of coagulation factor X (FX). The present study investigated the function of CP in cancer progression by focussing on its enzymatic specificity. FX cleavage was confirmed using SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS and compared to the proteolytic action of CP on ECM proteins, including collagen type IV, laminin and fibronectin. Contrary to previous reports, CP cleaved FX at the conventional activation site (between Arg-52 and Ile-53). Additionally, degradation of FX by CP occurred at a much slower rate than degradation by conventional activators. Complete degradation of the heavy chain of FX was only visible after 24 h, while degradation by RVV was complete after 30 min, supporting postulations that the procoagulant function of CP may be of secondary importance to its role in cancer progression. Of the ECM proteins tested, only fibronectin was cleaved. The substrate specificity of CP was further investigated by screening synthetic peptide substrates using a novel direct CP assay. The results indicate that CP is not essential for either cancer-associated blood coagulation or the degradation of ECM proteins. Rather, they suggest that this protease may be required for the proteolytic activation of membrane receptors.

  5. In silico peptide-binding predictions of passerine MHC class I reveal similarities across distantly related species, suggesting convergence on the level of protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Elna; Karlsson, Maria; Lundegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Morten; Wallin, Stefan; Paulsson, Kajsa; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes found in the vertebrate genome, and they encode proteins that play an essential role in the adaptive immune response. Many songbirds (passerines) have been shown to have a large number of transcribed MHC class I genes compared to most mammals. To elucidate the reason for this large number of genes, we compared 14 MHC class I alleles (α1-α3 domains), from great reed warbler, house sparrow and tree sparrow, via phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling and in silico peptide-binding predictions to investigate their functional and genetic relationships. We found more pronounced clustering of the MHC class I allomorphs (allele specific proteins) in regards to their function (peptide-binding specificities) compared to their genetic relationships (amino acid sequences), indicating that the high number of alleles is of functional significance. The MHC class I allomorphs from house sparrow and tree sparrow, species that diverged 10 million years ago (MYA), had overlapping peptide-binding specificities, and these similarities across species were also confirmed in phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences. Notably, there were also overlapping peptide-binding specificities in the allomorphs from house sparrow and great reed warbler, although these species diverged 30 MYA. This overlap was not found in a tree based on amino acid sequences. Our interpretation is that convergent evolution on the level of the protein function, possibly driven by selection from shared pathogens, has resulted in allomorphs with similar peptide-binding repertoires, although trans-species evolution in combination with gene conversion cannot be ruled out.

  6. Loss of Niemann-Pick C1 or C2 protein results in similar biochemical changes suggesting that these proteins function in a common lysosomal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali S Dixit

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the endolysosomal system. NPC disease results from a defect in either of two distinct cholesterol-binding proteins: a transmembrane protein, NPC1, and a small soluble protein, NPC2. NPC1 and NPC2 are thought to function closely in the export of lysosomal cholesterol with both proteins binding cholesterol in vitro but they may have unrelated lysosomal roles. To investigate this possibility, we compared biochemical consequences of the loss of either protein. Analyses of lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from brain and liver revealed similar decreases in buoyant densities of lysosomes from NPC1 or NPC2 deficient mice compared to controls. The subcellular distribution of both proteins was similar and paralleled a lysosomal marker. In liver, absence of either NPC1 or NPC2 resulted in similar alterations in the carbohydrate processing of the lysosomal protease, tripeptidyl peptidase I. These results highlight biochemical alterations in the lysosomal system of the NPC-mutant mice that appear secondary to lipid storage. In addition, the similarity in biochemical phenotypes resulting from either NPC1 or NPC2 deficiency supports models in which the function of these two proteins within lysosomes are linked closely.

  7. A suggestion of reference data for flow distribution at ankle and foot level using quantitative 99Tc-HDP three-phase bone scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøndevold, Niklas; Reving, Sofie; Møller, Nette

    2012-01-01

    To determine reference intervals for quantitative 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) three-phase bone scintigraphy regarding flow distribution at ankle and mid-foot level.......To determine reference intervals for quantitative 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) three-phase bone scintigraphy regarding flow distribution at ankle and mid-foot level....

  8. Serum levels of human MIC-1/GDF15 vary in a diurnal pattern, do not display a profile suggestive of a satiety factor and are related to BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres...

  9. The Analysis of Curriculum Development Studies Which are Applied For Effective Science Teaching at Primary Level in Turkey and Suggestions to Problems Encountered

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi YAĞBASAN; Murat DEMİRBAŞ

    2005-01-01

    In this study, curriculum development studies for effective science teaching were analyzed in Turkey, solution suggestions were made by determining the confronted problems. The studies for curriculum analysis toward science teaching were done by covering applications of modern science teaching started in 1970s, curriculum of science teaching made in 1990s and applications of science teaching curriculum put into practice in 2000. It was determined that new science teaching studies that will be...

  10. Morphological changes within Florida Bay as a result of sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    Data from Florida Bay indicates that from 10,000 year BP to 6000 BP, the rate of sea level rise averaged about 10 mm/yr. The rate slowed at the end of this period flooding the shallow shelves surrounding the reef platforms of the western Atlantic. The relative flat South Florida shelf, because of its slight tilt to the southwest is an ideal local to assess the effects of this flooding. From 6000 BP to the present, numerous banks were formed within Florida Bay. A morphological model of bank formation based on the sea level oscillations was constructed from analysis of over 120 cores. These cores record sedimentological changes which are correlated to climatic events. In the central bay, the sediment accumulation was controlled by variations in rate of progressive sea-level rise. The Key West sea-level record shows that sea level has been rising incrementally over the last century. Between 1931 and 1950, sea level rose at a rate of 5 mm/yr. After 1950, it remained stable until 1971, when it again began to rise, but at a rate of 3 mm/yr. On the leeward side of mud banks, these variations resulted in shifts in sediment- accumulation rates, with accretion increasing during rising sea level and decreasing during stable periods. Between late 1970 and early 1972, a sharp jump in sea-level rise occurred that was approximately 10 cm higher than the preceding period. This jump coincided with a strongly positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a la Niña (negative ENSO), and a negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Water driven northward into Florida Bay eroded banks along the northern coastline, increased sediment accumulation in the northern lakes, and increased accretion rates on the banks. In addition to the sedimentological variations in the central portion of the bay, there was significant changes along the northern fringe. Around 1950, the northern fringe of the bay morphed from a fresh water environment to a marine environment. As a result, carbonate production

  11. LONG-TERM TREATMENT RESULTS OF BONE SARCOMA PATIENTS WITH CONSIDERATION OF SERUM METALLOPROTEINASE LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Babkina

    2015-01-01

    МP- 9 > 377 ng/ml. The worst 5-year survival (33% was found in the patients with serum ММP-2 levels of less than 160 ng/ml and ММP-9 of more than 377 ng/ml. Conclusion: The results obtain suggest that the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 could be associated with pathophysiological changes related to growth and metastatic process of bone sarcomas and osteosarcoma, in particular. This area could be an object for further studies on levels of these biomarkers and their prognostic value in bone malignancies.

  12. High-resolution study of levels in the astrophysically important nucleus 26Mg and resulting updated level assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsley, P.; Brümmer, J. W.; Faestermann, T.; Fox, S. P.; Hammache, F.; Hertenberger, R.; Meyer, A.; Neveling, R.; Seiler, D.; de Séréville, N.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2018-04-01

    Background: The 22Ne(α ,n )25Mg reaction is an important source of neutrons for the s -process. Direct measurement of this reaction and the competing 22Ne(α ,γ )26Mg reaction are challenging due to the gaseous nature of both reactants, the low cross section and the experimental challenges of detecting neutrons and high-energy γ rays. Detailed knowledge of the resonance properties enables the rates to be constrained for s -process models. Purpose: Previous experimental studies have demonstrated a lack of agreement in both the number and excitation energy of levels in 26Mg. To try to resolve the disagreement between different experiments, proton and deuteron inelastic scattering from 26Mg have been used to identify excited states. Method: Proton and deuteron beams from the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratorium at Garching, Munich, were incident upon enriched 26MgO targets. Scattered particles were momentum-analyzed in the Q3D magnetic spectrograph and detected at the focal plane. Results: Reassignments of states around Ex=10.8 -10.83 MeV in 26Mg suggested in previous works have been confirmed. In addition, new states in 26Mg have been observed, two below and two above the neutron threshold. Up to six additional states above the neutron threshold may have been observed compared to experimental studies of neutron reactions on 25Mg, but some or all of these states may be due to 24Mg contamination in the target. Finally, inconsistencies between measured resonance strengths and some previously accepted Jπ assignments of excited 26Mg states have been noted. Conclusion: There are still a large number of nuclear properties in 26Mg that have yet to be determined and levels that are, at present, not included in calculations of the reaction rates. In addition, some inconsistencies between existing nuclear data exist that must be resolved in order for the reaction rates to be properly calculated.

  13. Early results of studies on the levels of depleted uranium excreted by Balkan residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priest, N.D.; Thirlwell, M.

    2002-01-01

    Urine samples collected from residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo were analysed to determine their natural and depleted uranium content using MC-ICP-MS. All may have been exposed to depleted uranium released as a consequence of the deployment of armour-piercing rounds by the US Air Force. A 236 U tracer was employed to determine chemical recovery. Early results suggest that the levels of natural and depleted uranium excretion by the subjects, which ranged in age from 1 to 71 years, ranged from 2.8 - 58.2 ng d -1 and 1.3 - 46.3 ng d -1 , respectively. The results suggest accumulated body burdens of depleted uranium ranging from close to zero to 46 μg. All the body burdens predicted are lower than published values for the uranium content of the body (90μg) and health effects are not predicted. Further studies are underway to check the provenance of the results. (author)

  14. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  15. Reasons for nonadherence to the dapivirine vaginal ring: narrative explanations of objective drug-level results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Stadler, Jonathan; Naidoo, Sarita; Katz, Ariana W K; Laborde, Nicole; Garcia, Morgan; Reddy, Krishnaveni; Mansoor, Leila E; Etima, Juliane; Zimba, Chifundo; Chitukuta, Miria; Soto-Torres, Lydia

    2018-07-17

    MTN-020/ASPIRE trial and IPM-027/Ring Study recently proved the dapivirine vaginal ring was safe and effective with consistent use. To optimize the ring's impact, the barriers and facilitators to ring adherence must be understood and addressed. Former ASPIRE participants were stratified by age group (18-21; 22-45) and randomly selected at seven sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe, 12-17 months after trial exit. Using in-depth interviews or focus group discussions, ring use barriers were explored using structured guides and visual tools including individual-level depictions of dapivirine levels detected in plasma and returned rings. A total of 187 were enrolled; 37% were 18-21 years when they began ASPIRE. Most (75%) had drug-level results, suggesting inconsistent ring use throughout ASPIRE. Participants viewed themselves as adherent, while simultaneously describing regular instances and reasons for ring removal (e.g. for sex or menses). Less adherent women reported fears that partners would oppose the ring or feel it during sex. High adherers expressed altruistic motivations for ring use. Women of all ages attributed young women's nonadherence to their tendency to be less 'serious' about the future, HIV prevention and the study; motivated predominantly by benefits; more fearful of fertility-related consequences; and to having less relationship control. When presented with objective adherence data, participants provided reasons for intermittent ring use, while simultaneously portraying themselves as consistent ring users. Further research is needed to understand how women could use the ring in a way that fits into the context of their relationships and their lives while still conferring adequate HIV prophylaxis.

  16. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  17. Herd-level interpretation of test results for epidemiologic studies of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette; Gardner, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values......), the factors affecting these estimates, and available software for calculations. We present new aspects and considerations concerning the effect of precision and bias in estimation of individual-test performance on herd-test performance and suggest methods (pooled testing, targeted sampling of subpopulations...... with higher prevalence, and use of combinations of tests) to improve herd-level sensitivity when the expected within-herd prevalence is low....

  18. Main factors determining the KNP units 5 and 6 safety level according to the PSA level 1 result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, B.; Marinova, B.; Nenkova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a powerful tool for ascertainment of the safety level reached at nuclear power plants operation. The results of PSA determine very clearly the functions, systems, equipment or operator actions that have to be improved in order to increase the plant safety level as a whole. The present report presents the main results of the last upgraded revision of PSA level 1 of units 5 and 6 of KNPP. The objective of the report is to lay emphasis on the factors determining the result obtained, i.e. to demonstrate the scopes whose improvement leads to an increase of the safety level reached at the units power operation. In the frame of the study presented the following categories of initiating events are included: Internal initiating events; Initiating events result of internal fires; Initiating events result of seismic action; Floods. Only the reactor core is considered as a source of radioactive contamination. Only initiating events related to the reactor work on power are analyzed. Unit 5 of KNPP is accepted as a basic unit for the study. All modifications and design changes implemented up to year 2000 are taken into account. The results of PSA level 1 for units 5 and 6 of KNPP covering the risk of internal initiators are presented. The assessment of the core damage due to internal initiators is based on the analysis of 18 groups of initiating events. 932 consequences and two groups of initial events are identified, leading to core damage. As a result of the quantitative calculation, over 15000 minimal cuts for the core damage are obtained. The first 80 cuts bear over 75% of the frequency obtained, and the first 700 cuts bear over 90%. Distribution of the core damage frequency by different groups of initiators is presented in tables and diagrams. A comparison of the result obtained for the reactor core damage of KNPP units 5 and 6 with assessment obtained for similar power plants is presented. The data for different NPPs are taken

  19. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  20. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  1. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radioactive contamination level of vehicles resulted from transporting fine rare-earth minerals by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Kaichun; Yu Boyong; Gao Shengwei

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents monitoring results of radioactive contamination level of steel open wagon surface resulted from transporting fine rare-earth minerals. Under promising transport conditions (the packaging consists of two layers of plastic bags and two layers of plastic net sacks, each package contains 50 kg of minerals, each vehicle carries 60 t), the surface radioactivity (total α and total β) of 16 vehicles on two lines from Baotou to Wujiachuan (924 km) and from Baotou to Sankeshu (2236 km) was measured before loading, after unloading and washing, using α and β surface contamination detector. The results showed that the radioactive contamination level of the vehicle surface after unloading appeared significantly different. The contamination level of vehicle bases was higher than that of both sides, long distance vehicles was higher than that of short distance vehicles. The radioactive contamination level of vehicles surface after washing was below the standard limits, these vehicles can be used for ordinary goods transport

  3. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  4. Experimental Results on the Level Crossing Intervals of the Phase of Sine Wave Plus Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Neji; Munakata, Tsutomu; Mimaki, Tadashi

    1993-03-01

    Experimental study was made on the level crossing intervals of a phase process of a sine wave plus narrow-band Gaussian noise. Since successive level crossings of phase do not necessarily occur alternately in the upward and downward direction due to the phase jump beyond 2π, the usual definitions of the probability densities of the level crossing intervals for continuous random processes are not applicable in the case of the phase process. Therefore, the probability densities of level crossing intervals of phase process are newly defined. Measurements of these densities were performed for noise having lowpass spectra of Gaussian and 7th order Butterworth types. Results are given for various values of the signal-to-noise power ratio and of the crossing level, and compared with corresponding approximation developed under the assumption of quasi-independence. The validity of the assumption depends on the spectrum shape of the noise.

  5. Association of serum prostate-specific antigen levels with the results of the prostate needle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaziroudsari, Hamid; Mirzaei, Arezoo; Maleki, Nasrollah

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the relationship of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels with outcomes of prostate needle biopsy in men 50 or more years old. We measured serum PSA levels in 1472 healthy men 50 or more years old. Men who had serum PSA values 4.0ng/mL or higher underwent digital rectal examination. If there were either an elevated PSA level (≥4ng/mL) or abnormal digital rectal examination, a transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was performed. The mean serum total PSA level was 13.73±11.44ng/mL, and the mean serum free PSA level was 4.99±0.97ng/mL. Of the 260 men who had serum total PSA levels of≥4ng/mL, 139 underwent biopsy. Of these 139 men, 45 (32.4%) had prostate cancer. Benign prostatic hyperplasia with or without prostatitis was diagnosed in 94 patients (67.6%). There was no significant correlation between age and histologic results of prostate needle biopsy (P-value=0.469). The serum free PSA showed no significant correlation with histologic results of prostate needle biopsy, whereas the serum total PSA level had a significant correlation in patients with adenocarcinoma compared with other diagnosis. The overall frequency of detection of prostate adenocarcinoma was 32.4%. This study revealed that no level of PSA was associated with a 100% positive predictive value and negative biopsy can occur virtually at any PSA level. There is a need to create awareness among the general population and health professionals for an early diagnosis of this common form of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of results of skeleton gammagraphy with CEA and TPA levels in mammary gland carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makaiova, I.; Kausitz, J.; Hupka, S.; Michalikova, B.; Vivodova, M.; Simko, S.; Urbanova, M.; Bohunicky, L.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is submitted of the results obtained with whole-body skeleton gammagraphy using 99m Tc-MDP and levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and tissue polypeptide antigen in 147 patients with breast cancer. In 123 cases (83.7%) the results agreed, i.e., in 72 patients the negative results and in 51 patients the positive results of skeleton gammagraphy with at least one of the above tumor markers. In other 15 cases (10.2%) the positivity of the tumor marker was confirmed by extraosseous tumor manifestations. The reasons are discussed of possible disagreement in the results and a preliminary thought is proposed on the use of assessment of tumor antigen levels in combination with skeleton gammagraphy and other imaging methods, in monitoring patients with breast cancer. (author)

  7. Baseline results of the first malaria indicator survey in Iran at the health facility level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghizadeh-Asl Rahim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge, particularly in developing countries. Delivery of prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases, detection of malaria epidemics within one week of onset and control them in less than a month, regular disease monitoring and operational classification of malaria are among the major responsibilities of the national malaria programme. The study was conducted to determine these indicators at the different level of primary health care facilities in malaria-affected provinces of Iran Methods In this survey, data was collected from 223 health facilities including health centres, malaria posts, health houses and hospitals as well as the profile of all 5, 836 recorded malaria cases in these facilities during the year preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics (i.e. frequencies, percentages were used to summarize the results and Chi square test was used to analyse data. Results All but one percent of uncomplicated cases took appropriate and correctly-dosed of anti-malarial drugs in accordance to the national treatment guideline. A larger proportion of patients [85.8%; 95% CI: 84.8 - 86.8] were also given complete treatment including anti-relapse course, in line with national guidelines. About one third [35.0%; 95% CI: 33.6 - 36.4] of uncomplicated malaria cases were treated more than 48 hours after first symptoms onset. Correspondingly, half of severe malaria cases took recommended anti-malarial drugs for severe or complicated disease more than 48 hours of onset of first symptoms. The latter cases had given regular anti-malarial drugs promptly. The majority of malaria epidemics [97%; 95% CI: 90.6 - 100] in study areas were detected within one week of onset, but only half of epidemics were controlled within four weeks of detection. Just half of target districts had at least one health facility/emergency site with adequate supply and equipment stocks. Nevertheless

  8. The results of transrectal prostate biopsy in patients with low levels of prostate specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Sancaktutar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the resultsof prostate biopsy of patients who had the prostatespecificantigen (PSA levels below 4 ng/ml.Material and methods: The medical records of 63 patientswho underwent transrectal prostate biopsy, betweenJanuary 2005 and December 2011, due to suspicionof prostate cancer with the PSA levels under 4 ng/mlwere retrospectively reviewed.Results: Transrectal Prostate biopsy was performed to63 patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 12 (19%patients. The mean value of PSA was 2.5 ng/ml. TheGleason score of Prostate cancer patients was 6,8 (5-7and the number of positive cores were 3.Conclusions: The rate of prostate cancer was found as19% in patients with levels of PSA under 4 ng/ml and thisratio is compatible with the results of previous reports.

  9. Updating the results of glacier contribution to the sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyurgerov, Mark B.; Abdalati, Waleed Dr. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    I have completed an update of global glacier volume change. All data of glacier annual mass balances, surface area over the period 1945/46 till 2004, outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets were included in this update. As the result global glacier volume change have been calculated, also in terms of glacier contribution to sea level change. These results were sent to Working Group 1 and 2 of IPCC-4 as the basis for modeling of sea level towards the end of 2100. In this study I have concentrated on studying glacier systems of different scales, from primary (e.g. Devon ice cap) to regional (e.g. Canadian Arctic), continental scale (e,g., entire Arctic), and global (e.g., change in glacier volume and contribution to sea level rise).

  10. The effect of base image window level selection on the dimensional measurement accuracy of resultant three-dimensional image displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmis, A.P.; Hearn, T.C.; Reynolds, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of base image window level selection on direct linear measurement of knee structures displayed using new magnetic resonance (MR)-based three-dimensional reconstructed computer imaging techniques. Methods: A prospective comparative study was performed using a series of three-dimensional knee images, generated from conventional MR imaging (MRI) sections. Thirty distinct anatomical structural features were identified within the image series of which repeated measurements were compared at 10 different window grey scale levels. Results: Statistical analysis demonstrated an excellent raw correlation between measurements and suggested no significant difference between measurements made at each of the 10 window level settings (P>0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that unlike conventional MR or CT applications, grey scale window level selection at the time of imaging does not significantly affect the visual quality of resultant three-dimensional reconstructed images and hence the accuracy of subsequent direct linear measurement. The diagnostic potential of clinical progression from routine two-dimensional to advanced three-dimensional reconstructed imaging techniques may therefore be less likely to be degraded by inappropriate MR technician image windowing during the capturing of image series

  11. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  12. Loss of laforin or malin results in increased Drp1 level and concomitant mitochondrial fragmentation in Lafora disease mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mamta; Agarwal, Saloni; Bhadauriya, Pratibha; Ganesh, Subramaniam

    2017-04-01

    Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive form of a fatal disorder characterized by the myoclonus epilepsy, ataxia, psychosis, dementia, and dysarthria. A hallmark of LD is the presence of abnormal glycogen inclusions called Lafora bodies in the affected tissues including the neurons. LD can be caused by defects either in the laforin phosphatase coded by the EPM2A gene or in the malin E3 ubiquitin ligase coded by the NHLRC1 gene. The mouse models of LD, created by the targeted disruption of the LD genes, display several neurodegenerative changes. Prominent among them are the autophagic defects, abnormally large lysosomes, neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid beta deposits, and abnormal mitochondria. However, whether or not such neurodegenerative changes are a direct effect of the loss of laforin/malin was not unequivocally established. Here, we show that laforin- or malin-deficient neurons and fibroblasts display a significantly higher number of fragmented mitochondria. Loss of laforin or malin resulted in increased levels of the mitochondrial fission GTPase Drp1, its enhanced mitochondrial targeting, and increased intracellular calcium levels. Intriguingly, laforin and malin display opposite effects on the cellular level of parkin, an ubiquitin ligase of Drp1; loss of laforin led to reduced levels of parkin while the loss of malin resulted in increased parkin levels. Laforin and malin, however, interact with and positively regulate the activity of parkin, thus explaining the molecular basis of increased Drp1 levels in LD tissues. Our results suggest that laforin and malin are novel regulators of mitochondrial quality control pathway and that the mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the increased Drp1 levels could underlie neuropathology in LD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relevance of PLUREL's results to policies at EU, national, regional and local level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    and results to policies and policy development at the EU-level, as well as the national and regional level. PLUREL has peri-urban land use relationships as its main focus. This includes analysis of drivers, consequences, policies and scenarios for the future. Even though PLUREL aims for pan-European coverage...... of natural resources as well as an attractive development in general. Besides these spatial relevant sector policies, the EU enforces legislation which is translated into spatial explicit instruments on sub-regional level. E.g. the Habitat and Birds Directive caused the development of Natura 2000 areas......, an EU-wide network of nature protection areas. The implementation of Trans-European Networks through funding programmes is another sector policy having an impact on land-use change and rural-urban relations. On the sub-regional scale the perception on overall goals like sustainability can be very...

  14. Characteristics of the development of the radiological situation resulting from the accident, intervention levels and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.T.; Demin, V.F.; Kutkov, V.A.; Bariakhtar, V.G.; Petriaev, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    Great efforts have been made in the frame of the national and international research programs to get complete data on the radioactive releases, environmental contamination and radiological situation resulted from the Chernobyl accident. Beginning from the first publication (IAEA meeting, August 1986) these data have been considerably improved and added. The most important change of them with their influence on the decision making in the mitigation activity and the current situation is described and analyzed. The national and international regulatory documents at the moment of the accident were neither complete nor perfect in some necessary aspects especially in respect to the countermeasures at the intermediate and long-term phases. New documents have been worked out during the intervention activity. From 1986 series of documents were developed on the national and international levels. These documents are considered and analyzed in the context of their practical implementation and by the modern experience and research results. The history of countermeasures adopted on the different intervention phases are described. These documents mainly establish intervention levels in terms of averted doses and regulate only radiation protection. They don't content any intervention levels in terms of residual doses and risk, which are necessary for regulation of social and health protection of population suffered from the accident. Other restriction for the optimal regulation comes from use of the effective dose for establishing intervention levels. These and other respective aspects are discussed

  15. Level-set-based reconstruction algorithm for EIT lung images: first clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Peyman; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Pulletz, Sven; Frerichs, Inéz; Adler, Andy

    2012-05-01

    We show the first clinical results using the level-set-based reconstruction algorithm for electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data. The level-set-based reconstruction method (LSRM) allows the reconstruction of non-smooth interfaces between image regions, which are typically smoothed by traditional voxel-based reconstruction methods (VBRMs). We develop a time difference formulation of the LSRM for 2D images. The proposed reconstruction method is applied to reconstruct clinical EIT data of a slow flow inflation pressure-volume manoeuvre in lung-healthy and adult lung-injury patients. Images from the LSRM and the VBRM are compared. The results show comparable reconstructed images, but with an improved ability to reconstruct sharp conductivity changes in the distribution of lung ventilation using the LSRM.

  16. Level-set-based reconstruction algorithm for EIT lung images: first clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmati, Peyman; Adler, Andy; Soleimani, Manuchehr; Pulletz, Sven; Frerichs, Inéz

    2012-01-01

    We show the first clinical results using the level-set-based reconstruction algorithm for electrical impedance tomography (EIT) data. The level-set-based reconstruction method (LSRM) allows the reconstruction of non-smooth interfaces between image regions, which are typically smoothed by traditional voxel-based reconstruction methods (VBRMs). We develop a time difference formulation of the LSRM for 2D images. The proposed reconstruction method is applied to reconstruct clinical EIT data of a slow flow inflation pressure–volume manoeuvre in lung-healthy and adult lung-injury patients. Images from the LSRM and the VBRM are compared. The results show comparable reconstructed images, but with an improved ability to reconstruct sharp conductivity changes in the distribution of lung ventilation using the LSRM. (paper)

  17. Learning semantic query suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Bron, M.; Hollink, L.; Huurnink, B.; de Rijke, M.

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide

  18. Suggested improvements to the definitions of Standardized Plant Analysis of Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) performance shaping factors, their levels and multipliers and the nominal tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laumann, Karin; Rasmussen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the definitions and content of eight performance shaping factors (PSFs) used in Standardized Plant Analysis of Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) and their levels and multipliers. Definitions of nominal tasks are also discussed. The discussion is based on a review of literature on PSFs, interviews with consultants who have carried out SPAR-H analysis in the petroleum industry and an evaluation of human reliability analysis reports based on SPAR-H analysis. We concluded that SPAR-H definitions and descriptions of the PSFs are unclear and overlap too much, making it difficult for the analyst to choose between them and select the appropriate level. This reduces inter-rater reliability and thus the consistency of SPAR-H analyses. New definitions of the PSFs, levels and multipliers are suggested with the aim to develop more specific definitions of the PSFs in order to increase the inter-rater reliability of SPAR-H. Another aim was to construct more varied and more nuanced levels and multipliers to improve the capacity of SPAR-H analysis to capture the degree of difficulty faced by operators in different scenarios. We also suggest that only one of two nominal SPAR-H tasks should be retained owing to the difficulty in distinguishing between them. - Highlights: • The SPAR-H guidelines should be revised. • Descriptions of the PSFs should be improved. • New definitions should reduce overlap between the PSFs. • The multipliers are based on an “old” method and should be revised. • Some PSF levels and multipliers in SPAR-H are not logical.

  19. Main Aspects and Results of Level 2 PSA for KNPP WWER-1000/B320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancheva, Kaliopa

    2014-01-01

    The PSA Level 2 for Kozloduy NPP (KNPP) is an update of an older study with wider scope of analysis. The older study represented the status of the units up to 2001. The current PSA Level 2 is based on the PSA Level 1 and represents the status of the units up to 2007 year concerning the systems and procedures included in PSA level 1 and status up to 2011 for the systems and procedures (e.g. SAMG) related to containment and severe accident aspects. The study is performed after the PSA level 1 has been finished and approved by the customer. Compare to the older analysis all modes of operation for analyzed in PSA level 1 event groups as well Spent Fuel Pool accidents are investigated. The analysis consists of both deterministic and probabilistic analysis. As part of deterministic analysis a contemporary containment strength analysis and accident progression deterministic analysis using last version of MELCOR are performed. The probabilistic analysis contains of two part: Interface PSA and CET are calculated using Riskspectrum program code. Two types of models for CET have been developed: one for conditional probabilities calculations and a set of simplified CET's for each PDS group-for integral model. The purpose of the first model is to be able to perform quick calculations and for sensitivity analyses as well. The simplified CET's are used for integral calculation of the model. Source Term analysis is mainly based on the MELCOR analyses results. All characteristics of the releases have been defined, i.e. location, mass, energy of radionuclide groups and activity of the released isotopes (most important are reported only). The main goals of the study are to analyze the status of the containment, systems designed to prevent containment failure and operator action required under the severe accident and to give quantitative assessment of the risk parameter LERF (Large Early Release Frequency). This report will present main aspects, results, finding and

  20. Correlation of analysis with high level vibration test results for primary coolant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Costello, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic tests on a modified 1/2.5-scale model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant piping were performed using a large shaking table at Tadotsu, Japan. The High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program was part of a cooperative study between the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Brookhaven National Laboratory, NRC/BNL) and Japan (Ministry of International Trade and Industry/Nuclear Power Engineering Center). During the test program, the excitation level of each test run was gradually increased up to the limit of the shaking table and significant plastic strains, as well as cracking, were induced in the piping. To fully utilize the test results, NRC/BNL sponsored a project to develop corresponding analytical predictions for the nonlinear dynamic response of the piping for selected test runs. The analyses were performed using both simplified and detailed approaches. The simplified approaches utilize a linear solution and an approximate formulation for nonlinear dynamic effects such as the use of a deamplification factor. The detailed analyses were performed using available nonlinear finite element computer codes, including the MARC, ABAQUS, ADINA and WECAN codes. A comparison of various analysis techniques with the test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values in the overall response values. A summary of the correlation analyses was presented before the BNL. This paper presents a detailed description of the various analysis results and additional comparisons with test results

  1. Results after ten years of field testing low-level radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Larsen, I.L.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. Ion-exchange resins from a commercial nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using portland cement and vinyl esterstyrene. These waste forms are being tested to: (a) obtain information on performance of waste forms in typical disposal environments, (b) compare field results with bench leach studies, (c) develop a low-level waste data base for use in performance assessment source term calculations, and (d) apply the DUST computer code to compare predicted cumulative release to actual field data. The program, funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), includes observed radionuclide releases from waste forms in field lysimeters. The purpose of this paper is to present the experimental results of two lysimeter arrays over 10 years of operation, and to compare those results to bench test results and to DUST code predicted releases. Further analysis of soil cores taken to define the observed upward migration of radionuclides in one lysimeter is also presented

  2. Prediction of high level vibration test results by use of available inelastic analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a cooperative study between the United States and Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan agreed to perform a test program that would subject a large scale piping model to significant plastic strains under excitation conditions much greater than the design condition for nuclear power plants. The objective was to compare the results of the tests with state-of-the-art analyses. Comparisons were done at different excitation levels from elastic to elastic-plastic to levels where cracking was induced in the test model. The program was called the high Level Vibration Test (HLVT). The HLVT was performed on the seismic table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center in Japan. The test model was constructed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system which was previously tested by NUPEC as part of their seismic proving test program. A comparison of various analysis techniques with test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values than in the overall response values. This prediction error is magnified as the plasticity in the test model increases. There is no significant difference in the peak responses between the simplified and the detailed analyses. A comparison between various detailed finite element model runs indicates that the material properties and plasticity modeling have a significant impact on the plastic strain responses under dynamic loading reversals. 5 refs., 12 figs

  3. Benefits resulting from 1- and 6-hour parathyroid hormone and calcium levels after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard J; Tewfik, Marc A; Hier, Michael P; Tamilia, Michael; Mac Namara, Elizabeth; Young, Jonathan; Black, Martin J

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have established the efficacy of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcemia monitoring using parathyroid hormone (PTH) and corrected calcium levels at 1 and 6 hours. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of managing patients based on the above findings with respect to: duration of hospital stays, rates of transient hypocalcemia, number of blood tests, cost savings, and discharge from the hospital as early as 8 hours post-thyroidectomy without compromising safety. This is a prospective study involving 95 total thyroidectomy patients using historical data as controls. The previous protocol was modified in that all blood tests ceased for patients meeting the 6-hour critical level of PTH > or = 28 ng/L and simultaneous corrected calcium > or = 2.14 mmol/L (8.56 mg/dL). Furthermore, patients with 1-hour PTH levels cost savings of 766 Canadian dollars per patient. The new algorithm resulting from PTH and corrected calcium monitoring at 1 and 6 hours post-thyroidectomy has led to significant cost savings for our institution. It has also translated into greater patient satisfaction as a result of fewer blood tests, a lower incidence of transient hypocalcemia, and significantly shorter hospital stays.

  4. BDNF serum levels in schizophrenic patients during treatment augmentation with sarcosine (results of the PULSAR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-08-30

    Finding a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of BDNF and its changes during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine. 57 individuals with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms completed a 6-month RCT prospective study. The patients received 2g of sarcosine (n=27) or placebo (n=30) daily. At the beginning, after 6 weeks and 6 months BDNF levels were measured. Severity of symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). BDNF serum levels were stable after 6 weeks and 6 months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group comparing to placebo, however there was no correlations between serum BDNF concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum BDNF concentrations cannot be used as a predictor of the improvement resulting from adding sarcosine. Our results indicate that either BDNF is not involved in the NMDA-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action or global changes in BDNF concentrations induced by amino-acid cannot be detected in blood assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Results after nine years of field testing low-level radioactive waste forms using lysimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Jastrow, J.D.; Sanford, W.E.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms. Ion-exchange resins from a nuclear power station were solidified into waste forms using Portland cement and vinyl ester-styrene. These waste forms are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. This paper reviews radionuclide releases from those waste forms in the first 9 years of sampling. Included is a discussion of the recently discovered upward migration of radionuclides. Also, lysimeter data are applied to a performance assessment source term model, and initial results are presented

  6. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  7. Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-Level Airport Operations and Management Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper identifies important topical knowledge areas required of individuals employed in airport operations and management positions. A total of 116 airport managers and airfield operations personnel responded to a survey that sought to identify the importance of various subject matter for entry level airport operations personnel. The results from this study add to the body of research on aviation management curriculum development and can be used to better develop university curriculum and supplemental training focused on airport management and operations. Recommendations are made for specialized airport courses within aviation management programs. Further, this study identifies for job seekers or individuals employed in entry level positions those knowledge requirements deemed important by airport managers and operations personnel at different sized airports.

  8. Optical dating results of beachrock, eolic dunes and sediments applied to sea-level changes study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatumi, S.H.; Kowata, E.A.; Gozzi, G.; Kassab, L.R.P.; Suguio, K.; Barreto, A.M.F.; Bezerra, F.H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Quartz and feldspar crystals were selected from the samples as eolic dunes, beach-rock and marine terraces, all collected in the coast area of Paraiba State, located in northeastern Brazil, in order to obtain ages of deposition of the sediments. It is a systematic study in the area. The results of the ages will be used in local sea-level changes study and a correlation between highstands of marine oxygen-isotopes stages will be made. Optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence have been measured and the regeneration method with multiple aliquot protocol was applied to obtain the paleodose values. Preliminaries ages spanning 3.2-229 kyr were evaluated

  9. Optical dating results of beachrock, eolic dunes and sediments applied to sea-level changes study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatumi, S.H. E-mail: tatumi@fatecsp.br; Kowata, E.A.; Gozzi, G.; Kassab, L.R.P.; Suguio, K.; Barreto, A.M.F.; Bezerra, F.H.R

    2003-05-01

    Quartz and feldspar crystals were selected from the samples as eolic dunes, beach-rock and marine terraces, all collected in the coast area of Paraiba State, located in northeastern Brazil, in order to obtain ages of deposition of the sediments. It is a systematic study in the area. The results of the ages will be used in local sea-level changes study and a correlation between highstands of marine oxygen-isotopes stages will be made. Optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence have been measured and the regeneration method with multiple aliquot protocol was applied to obtain the paleodose values. Preliminaries ages spanning 3.2-229 kyr were evaluated.

  10. LEVEL OF TOXICITY WATER AREA «TULENIY» AS A RESULT OF BIOASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sokolsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the toxicity of marine waters area " tuleniy ".Location. Area " tuleniy ".Methods. Determining the level of toxicity of marine waters area "seal" method for biological testing was conducted according tothe guidelines approved by the Ministry of natural resources (guidance on the definition of ..., 2002; Dolzhenko, 1978. Guide prepared by the Center for Russian register of hydraulic structures and the state water cadastre of the MNR of Russia jointly with specialists of the Institute Committee of Russia and the UNION of ecological problems of the Ministry of Ukraine. The basis of the proposed system of marine toxicity biotests based on the results of generalization of experimental research based on the problem of pollution of water bodies and numerous literature data, making it possible to identify features of the response of aquatic organisms of different taxonomic groups to toxic impurities of different nature and origin. Experimental studies were conducted on the culture of marine unicellular algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum on planktonic crustacea Acartia tonsa, the larvae of the chironomid Chironomus gr.salinarius and juvenile guppies Poecillia reticulata Peters.Results. Comparative analysis of the results of research from 2001 to 2006 showed no acute toxic effect on the test object zooplankton and phytoplanton.Main conclusions. Throughout the study period (2001-2003, 2005-2006, you must allocate the spring of 2002, when it was recorded,the average of the lowest five years of research, the level of toxicity of water for the analyzed area.Considering the results of biological testing of the surveyed area by periods, it should be noted that the average level of toxicity of the waters did not undergo significant changes and were on the same level, not exceeding 17,6% (table. 1. According to the classification shown in table 2, the water in the surveyed area is assessed as "non-toxic".

  11. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  12. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant.

  13. Preliminary results of measurement of natural environmental radiation levels and doses to population in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiliang; He Miaoting; Shu Qi

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the preliminary results of measurement of natural environmental radiation levels in China with RSS-111 high pressure ionization chamber and estimated doses to population are reported. A total of 2,723 indoor locales throughout China were measured. The results showed that the average absorbed dose rates in air due to gamma radiation for indoors and outdoors were 11.0 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 and 7.4 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively, and those due to cosmic rays were 3.2 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 and 3.7 x 10 -8 Gy.h -1 , respectively. The annual average effective dose equivalent to population was 919 μSv, including 630 μSv from natural gamma radiation and 289 μSv from cosmic rays

  14. Allowable residual contamination levels for decommissioning. Part 2. A summary of example results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper contains a description of the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for decommissioning facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm 2 ) and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are discussed for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement for a selected annual dose limit. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste. 6 references, 1 figures, 4 tables

  15. Use of oral antineoplastic in special situations in a third level hospital: real life results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Ferrari-Piquero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the effectiveness and safety of oral antineoplastic drugs (ANEOs that are authorized in special situations in a third-level hospital and to compare the results obtained with the clinical evidence used for this authorization. Method: Descriptive observational and retrospective study. We included all adult patients who started treatment with ANEO in special situations during the year 2016. We collected demographic, treatment-related and clinical variables (overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS. Adverse reactions and detected interactions were collected. An unadjusted comparison was made between the results of the available evidence and those of the study patients. Results: 34 patients were treated, 50% were men, the median age was 58 years (38-80 and they presented ECOG 1 in 64.7%. Most of the treated patients were diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer, treated with trifluridine-tipiracil, followed by palbociclib in breast cancer, obtaining results similar to those of the evidence. The median PFS was 2.8 months (95% CI 0.8- 4.8 and the 8-month SG (95% CI 3.4-12.5 for all patients. 26% of patients required dose reduction because of treatment toxicity. We found 13 interactions, which affected 15 patients, only two of category X. Conclusions: The effectiveness of ANEO in special situations in our center is similar to that of available evidence. The impact on survival is low and adverse effects are common.

  16. Electroacupuncture Modulates Reproductive Hormone Levels in Patients with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Results from a Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehua Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA on serum FSH, E2, and LH levels, women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI were treated with EA once a day, five times a week for the first four weeks and once every other day, three times a week, for the following two months, and then were followed up for three months. Serum E2, FSH, and LH levels were measured at baseline, at the end of treatment, and during followup. A total of 11 women with POI were included in this prospective consecutive case series study. Compared with baseline, patients’ serum E2 increased, FSH decreased, and LH decreased (P=0.002, 0.001, and 0.002, resp. after EA treatment, and these effects persisted during followup. With treatment, 10 patients resumed menstruation (10/11, 90.91%, whereas one patient remained amenorrhea. During followup, two patients, including the one with amenorrhea during treatment, reported absence of menstruation. Temporary pain occurred occasionally, and no other adverse events were found during treatment. The results suggest that EA could decrease serum FSH and LH levels and increase serum E2 level in women with POI with little or no side effects; however, further randomized control trials are needed.

  17. Results and insights of a level-1 internal event PRA of a PWR during mid-loop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analysis that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. The objective of this paper is to present the approach utilized in the level-1 PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A comparison of the results with those of other shutdown studies is provided. Relevant safety issues such as plant and hardware configurations, operator training, and instrumentation and control is discussed

  18. Wage Inequalities: A Result of Different Levels and Fields of Tertiary Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjan Petek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the impact of tertiary education on the amounts of wages in Slovenia for 2011. We use micro data from the statistical survey Structure of Earnings Statistics and micro data from the survey of graduates from tertiary education. We found out that there are significant differences in the amounts of wages as regards the level and field of education. Region and activity of the company where the person is employed also plays an important role in wage determination. Also the effects of gender and public/private sector are statistically significant. Using the average wage per hour as dependent variable gives similar results as the average annual wages.

  19. Laboratory corrosion tests on candidate high-level waste container materials: Results from the Belgian programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Kursten, B.; Iseghem, P. Van

    2004-01-01

    The Belgian SAFIR-2 concept foresees the geological disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste in stainless steel containers and overpacks placed in a concrete gallery backfilled with Boom clay or a bentonite-type backfill. In addition to earlier in situ experiments, we used a laboratory approach to investigate the corrosion properties of selected stainless steels in Boom clay and bentonite environments. In the SAFIR-2 concept, AISI 316L hMo is the main candidate overpack material. As an alternative, we also investigated the higher alloyed stainless steel UHB 904L. Our study focused on localised corrosion and in particular pitting. We used cyclic potentiodynamic polarisation measurements to determine the pit nucleation potential E NP and the protection potential E PP . The evolution of the corrosion potential with time was determined by monitoring the open circuit potential in synthetic clay-water over extended periods. In this paper we present and discuss some results from our laboratory programme, focusing on long-term interactions between the stainless steel overpack and the backfill materials. We describe in particular the influence of chloride and thio-sulphate ions on the pitting corrosion behaviour. The results show that, under geochemical conditions typical for geological disposal, i.e. [Cl-] ∼ 30 mg/L for a Boom clay backfill and [Cl-] ∼ 90 mg/L for a bentonite backfill, neither AISI 316L hMo nor UHB 904L is expected to present pitting problems. An important factor in the long-term prediction of the corrosion behaviour however, is the robustness of the model for the evolution of the geochemistry of the backfill. Indeed, at chloride levels higher than 1000 mg/L, we predict pitting corrosion for AISI 316L hMo. (authors)

  20. Intermediate and high level earthquakes testing at the HDR - overview, objectives, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehlicka, P.; Malcher, L.

    1981-01-01

    The main objective of these earthquake investigations is the verification of calculation methods relating to structure dynamics which are used for the seismic design of nuclear power plants. Structures analyzed by tests and precalculations were the reactor building, the reactor pressure vessel, two large-diameter piping systems and one of the flood water tanks. Excitation methods used were eccentric mass shakers, snapback devices, explosives and solid propellant rockets. Some of the tests involving excitation of the building by shakers and two of the blast tests were carried out with the reactor pressure vessel and the pipes under operating conditions. The precalculations using both linear and nonlinear methods were made by German industry groups, independent experts groups and international partners. Soil-structure interaction can be determined accurately by means of simplified methods using frequency dependent soil springs. The reduction in the eigenfrequencies of the building when the load was increased by a factor of 25 could be predicted. Comparison of the results obtained for the vibrational behaviour of the building show that a simplification to the rotationally symmetric shell model appears to be a reasonable compromise between simple beam models and sophisticated 3D-shell models. The strong decrease in eigenfrequencies observed in the experiments during the transition from empty to partly filled reactor pressure vessel, and the resultant change of the mode shapes was perfectly reflected if the virtual mass of water was introduced in the calculation. Damping values evaluated from the measurements demonstrate that for some structures damping can remain low, even at levels of response leading to local yielding, while for other structures damping was very high at a rather low level of response. It appears that the use of generalized damping values for the seismic analysis of mechanical and structural systems is not appropriate. (orig./HP)

  1. Results of interagency effort to determine carbon-14 source term in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Meyer, G.L.; Neiheisel, J.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary estimate of the risks from the shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes by EPA in 1984-1985 indicated that Carbon-14 caused virtually all of the risk and that these risks were relatively high. Therefore, an informal interagency group, which included the US Department of Energy, US Geological Survey, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and US Environmental Protection Agency, formed in 1985 to obtain up-to-date information on the activity and chemical form of Carbon-14 in the different types of LLW and how Carbon-14 behaves after disposal. The EPA acted as a focal point for collating the information collected by all of the Agencies and will publish a report in Fall 1986 on the results of the Carbon-14 data collection effort. Of particular importance, the study showed that Carbon-14 activity in LLW was overestimated approximately 2000%. This paper summarizes results of the Carbon-14 data collection effort. 40 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  2. Results and insights of a level-1 internal event PRA of a PWR during mid-loop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M.; Holmes, B.; Su, R.F.; Dang, V.; Siu, N.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.; Lin, J.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analysis that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by BNL and SNL. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. The objective of this paper is to present the approach utilized in the level-1 PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A comparison of the results with those of other shutdown studies is provided. Relevant safety issues such as plant and hardware configurations, operator training, and instrumentation and control is discussed

  3. Results based on 124 cases of breast cancer and 97 controls from Taiwan suggest that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP309) in the MDM2 gene promoter is associated with earlier onset and increased risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ying-Fang; Leu, Jyh-Der; Chen, Su-Mei; Lin, I-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism 309 (SNP309, T -> G) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene is important for tumor development; however, with regards to breast cancer, inconsistent associations have been reported worldwide. It is speculated that these conflicting results may have arisen due to different patient subgroups and ethnicities studied. For the first time, this study explores the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 genotype on Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Genomic DNA was obtained from the whole blood of 124 breast cancer patients and 97 cancer-free healthy women living in Taiwan. MDM2 SNP309 genotyping was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The multivariate logistic regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analyzing the risk association and significance of age at diagnosis among different MDM2 SNP309 genotypes, respectively. Compared to the TT genotype, an increased risk association with breast cancer was apparent for the GG genotype (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.04 to 8.95), and for the TG genotype (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 0.90 to 5.00) after adjusting for age, cardiovascular disease/diabetes, oral contraceptive usage, and body mass index, which exhibits significant difference between cases and controls. Furthermore, the average ages at diagnosis for breast cancer patients were 53.6, 52 and 47 years for those harboring TT, TG and GG genotypes, respectively. A significant difference in median age of onset for breast cancer between GG and TT+TG genotypes was obtained by the log-rank test (p = 0.0067). Findings based on the current sample size suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype may be associated with both the risk of breast cancer and an earlier age of onset in Taiwanese women

  4. Treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): results from a randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Matthias; Giuliano, François; Baygani, Simin K; Melby, Thomas; Sontag, Angelina

    2014-10-01

    To assess treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind study of men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). After a 4-week placebo lead-in period, men aged ≥45 years with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥13 and a maximum urinary flow rate of ≥4 to ≤15 mL/s received placebo (172 men), tadalafil 5 mg (171), or tamsulosin 0.4 mg (168) once daily for 12 weeks. Treatment Satisfaction Scale-BPH (TSS-BPH) responses were assessed based on median treatment differences using the van Elteren test. Overall treatment satisfaction was greater for tadalafil vs placebo (P = 0.005), based on greater satisfaction with efficacy (P = 0.003); neither overall treatment satisfaction nor satisfaction with efficacy was greater for tamsulosin vs placebo (P ≥ 0.409). For individual questions, 66.5% of men rated tadalafil treatment as 'effective/very effective' (Question 1, Q1) vs placebo (P = 0.011), 72.6% would 'definitely/probably recommend their treatment' (Q3; P = 0.043), 71.8% were generally 'very satisfied/satisfied with their medication' (Q8; P BPH by baseline age (≤65/>65 years), history of erectile dysfunction (yes/no), LUTS/BPH severity (IPSSlevel (<300/≥300 ng/dL), and age-specific predicted prostate volume (<40/≥40 mL) showed no statistically significant treatment-subgroup interactions. Men with recent prior α-blocker therapy reported greater treatment satisfaction with tadalafil vs placebo, with only borderline difference for men without prior therapy. Treatment satisfaction was greater with tadalafil vs placebo, with no significant difference between tamsulosin and placebo. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  5. A null mutation of Hhex results in abnormal cardiac development, defective vasculogenesis and elevated Vegfa levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallaq, Haifa; Pinter, Emese; Enciso, Josephine; McGrath, James; Zeiss, Caroline; Brueckner, Martina; Madri, Joseph; Jacobs, Harris C; Wilson, Christine M; Vasavada, Hemaxi; Jiang, Xiaobing; Bogue, Clifford W

    2004-10-01

    The homeobox gene Hhex has recently been shown to be essential for normal liver, thyroid and forebrain development. Hhex(-/-) mice die by mid-gestation (E14.5) and the cause of their early demise remains unclear. Because Hhex is expressed in the developing blood islands at E7.0 in the endothelium of the developing vasculature and heart at E9.0-9.5, and in the ventral foregut endoderm at E8.5-9.0, it has been postulated to play a critical role in heart and vascular development. We show here, for the first time, that a null mutation of Hhex results in striking abnormalities of cardiac and vascular development which include: (1) defective vasculogenesis, (2) hypoplasia of the right ventricle, (3) overabundant endocardial cushions accompanied by ventricular septal defects, outflow tract abnormalities and atrio-ventricular (AV) valve dysplasia and (4) aberrant development of the compact myocardium. The dramatic enlargement of the endocardial cushions in the absence of Hhex is due to decreased apoptosis and dysregulated epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT). Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) levels in the hearts of Hhex(-/-) mice were elevated as much as three-fold between E9.5 and E11.5, and treatment of cultured Hhex(-/-) AV explants with truncated soluble Vegfa receptor 1, sFlt-1, an inhibitor of Vegf signaling, completely abolished the excessive epithelial-mesenchymal transformation seen in the absence of Hhex. Therefore, Hhex expression in the ventral foregut endoderm and/or the endothelium is necessary for normal cardiovascular development in vivo, and one function of Hhex is to repress Vegfa levels during development.

  6. Use of oral antineoplastic in special situations in a third level hospital: real life results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Muñoz, Carmen; Rodriguez-Quesada, Pedro Pablo; Ferrari-Piquero, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    To analyse the effectiveness and safety of oral antineoplastic drugs  (ANEOs) that are authorized in special situations in a third-level hospital and to  compare the results obtained with the clinical evidence used for this  authorization. Descriptive observational and retrospective study. We included all  adult patients who started treatment with ANEO in special situations during the  year 2016. We collected demographic, treatment-related and clinical variables  (overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS)). Adverse reactions and  detected interactions were collected. An unadjusted comparison was made  between the results of the available evidence and those of the study patients. 34 patients were treated, 50% were men, the median age was 58  years (38-80) and they presented ECOG 1 in 64.7%. Most of the treated  patients were diagnosed with advanced colorectal cancer, treated with  trifluridine-tipiracil, followed by palbociclib in breast cancer, obtaining results  similar to those of the evidence. The median PFS was 2.8 months (95% CI 0.8- 4.8) and the 8-month SG (95% CI 3.4-12.5) for all patients. 26% of patients  required dose reduction because of treatment toxicity. We found 13 interactions,  which affected 15 patients, only two of category X. The effectiveness of ANEO in special situations in our center is  similar to that of available evidence. The impact on survival is low and adverse  effects are common. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Results of Sludge Mobilization Testing at Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Waste stored in the Tank 241-AZ-101 at the US DOE Hanford is scheduled as the initial feed for high-level waste vitrification. Tank 241-AZ-101 currently holds over 3,000,000 liters of waste made up of a settled sludge layer covered by a layer of liquid supernant. To retrieve the waste from the tank, it is necessary to mobilize and suspend the settled sludge so that the resulting slurry can be pumped from the tank for treatment and vitrification. Two 223.8-kilowatt mixer pumps have been installed in Tank 241-AZ-101 to mobilize the settled sludge layer of waste for retrieval. In May of 2000, the mixer pumps were subjected to a series of tests to determine (1) the extent to which the mixer pumps could mobilize the settle sludge layer of waste, (2) if the mixer pumps could function within operating parameters, and (3) if state-of-the-art monitoring equipment could effectively monitor and quantify the degree of sludge mobilization and suspension. This paper presents the major findings and results of the Tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump tests, based on analysis of data and waste samples that were collected during the testing. Discussion of the results focuses on the effective cleaning radius achieved and the volume and concentration of sludge mobilized, with both one and two pumps operating in various configurations and speeds. The Tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pump tests were unique in that sludge mobilization parameters were measured using actual waste in an underground storage tank at the hanford Site. The methods and instruments that were used to measure waste mobilization parameters in Tank 241-AZ-101 can be used in other tanks. It can be concluded from the testing that the use of mixer pumps is an effective retrieval method for the mobilization of settled solids in Tank 241-AZ-101

  8. Preliminary results of mercury levels in raw and cooked seafood and their public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernanda do N; Korn, Maria Graças A; Brito, Geysa B; Ferlin, Stacy; Fostier, Anne H

    2016-02-01

    Mercury is toxic for human health and one of the main routes of exposure is through consumption of contaminated fish and shellfish. The objective of this work was to assess the possible mercury contamination of bivalves (Anomalocardia brasiliana, Lucina pectinata, Callinectes sapidus), crustacean (C. sapidus) and fish (Bagre marinus and Diapterus rhombeus) collected on Salinas da Margarida, BA (Brazil), a region which carciniculture, fishing and shellfish extraction are the most important economic activities. The effect of cooking on Hg concentration in the samples was also studied. The results showed that Hg concentration was generally higher in the cooked samples than in raw samples. This increase can be related to the effect of Hg pre-concentration, formation of complexes involving mercury species and sulfhydryl groups present in tissues and/or loss of water and fat. The highest concentrations were found in B. marinus samples ranging 837.0-1585.3 μg kg(-1), which exceeded those recommended by Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). In addition, Hg values found in the other samples also suggest the monitoring of the Hg concentrations in seafood consumed from the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone's level of tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Melnick, Rachel L; Crozier, Jayne; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Strem, Mary D; Shao, Jonathan; Zhang, Dapeng; Sicher, Richard; Meinhardt, Lyndel; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-09-01

    An understanding of the tolerance mechanisms of Theobroma cacao used against Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frosty pod rot, is important for the generation of stable disease-tolerant clones. A comparative view was obtained of transcript populations of infected pods from two susceptible and two tolerant clones using RNA sequence (RNA-Seq) analysis. A total of 3009 transcripts showed differential expression among clones. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated shifts in 152 different metabolic pathways between the tolerant and susceptible clones. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analyses of 36 genes verified the differential expression. Regression analysis validated a uniform progression in gene expression in association with infection levels and fungal loads in the susceptible clones. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression at a low level of infection and fungal load. Principal coordinate analyses of real-time qRT-PCR data separated the gene expression patterns between susceptible and tolerant clones for pods showing malformation. Although some genes were constitutively differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defence responses were induced at low fungal load in the tolerant clones. Several elicitor-responsive genes were highly expressed in tolerant clones, suggesting rapid recognition of the pathogen and induction of defence genes. Expression patterns suggested that the jasmonic acid-ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defence pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, being enhanced by reduced brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Finally, several genes associated with hypersensitive response-like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones. © 2014

  10. Results of the Safety probabilistic analysis of Level 2 of the CNSNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez M, R.; Godinez S, V.

    2004-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) it has concluded the one develop of their Probabilistic Analysis of Safety (APS) of Level 2. The reach of the study it considers internal events to full power and it was developed on the base of the methodology of the NUREG-1150, for what you it was built an Event Tree of the Progression of the Accident (APET) to analyze the 25 States of Damage to the Plant (PDS) obtained of the APS Nl of the CNSNS. In the APET are considered the phenomenology of severe accidents, the performance of mitigation systems and actions of the operator that could modify the evolution of a severe accident in the CNLV, as well as the diverse modes of failure of the primary container and it identifies the trajectories of liberation of radioactive material to the exterior. The conditional probabilities of failure of the primary container were obtained and it was characterized the time so much to which happens the liberation of radioactive material as the quantity of the term liberated source. Also, to establish the times and parameters of the evolution of accidents were selected representative accident sequences of the diverse accident types and their conditions were simulated by means of the MELCOR computer code. Also it was developed a code of parametric compute type XSOR, specific for Laguna Verde, with which it was carried out the estimate of the term source in each one of the release trajectories. In this work the main characteristic ones are presented and results of the APS N2 developed in the CNSNS and they are compared against the model and results of the EIP of the CNLV. (Author)

  11. Effects of container material on PCT leach test results for high-level nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, S.B.; Pegg, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    A glass-based waste form used for the immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes should exhibit good resistance to aqueous corrosion since typically this is the primary process by which radionucleides could be released into the environment upon failure of other barriers. In the USA, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) provides a set of requirements to ensure the consistency of the waste forms produced and specifies the Product Consistency Test (PCT) as a measure of relative chemical durability. While the PCT procedure permits usage of both Teflon and stainless steel vessels for testing of simulated development glasses, Teflon is not permitted for testing of production glasses due to radiative degradation. The results presented in this paper indicate that there are very significant differences between tests conducted in the two types of vessels due to the well-known permeability of Teflon to atmospheric carbon dioxide which results in lowering of the solution pH and a consequent reduction in the leach rate of silicate glasses. A wide range of nuclear waste glass compositions was subjected to the PCT procedure using both Teflon and stainless steel vessels. The magnitude of the effect (up to a factor of four for B, Na, Li concentrations) depends strongly on glass composition, therefore the isolated checks performed previously were inconclusive. The permeability to CO, of two types of Teflon vessels specified in the PCT procedure was directly measured using buffer solutions: ingress of CO, is linear in time, strongly pH-dependent, and was as high as 100 ppm after 7 days. In actual PCT tests in Teflon vessels, the total CO, content was 560 ppm after 87 days and 1930 ppm after one year

  12. Slice Test Results of the ATLAS Barrel Muon Level-1 Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Alviggi, M G; Bocci, V; Brambilla, Elena; Canale, V; Caprio, M A; Cardarelli, R; Cataldi, G; De Asmundis, R; Della Volpe, D; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Distante, L; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Iengo, P; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Perrino, R; Petrolo, E; Primavera, M; Salamon, A; Santonico, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Severi, M; Spagnolo, S; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; 9th Workshop On Electronics For LHC Experiments - LECC 2003

    2003-01-01

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment makes use of the Resistive Plate Chambers detectors for particle tracking in the barrel region. The level-1 muon trigger system has to measure and discriminate muon transverse momentum, perform a fast and coarse tracking of the muon candidates, associate them to the bunch crossing corresponding to the event of interest, measure the second coordinate in the non-bending projection. The on-detector electronics first collects front-end signals coming from the two inner RPC stations on the low-pT PAD boards, each one covering a region of DetaxDphi=0.2x0.2, and hosting four Coincidence Matrix ASICs. Each CMA performs the low-pT trigger algorithm and data readout on a region of DetaxDphi=0.2x0.1. Data coming from the four CMAs are assembled by the low-pT PAD logic. Each low-pT PAD board sends data to the corresponding high-pT PAD boards, located on the outer RPC station. Four CMA on each board make use of the low-pT trigger result and of the front-end signals coming from...

  13. The TETRA-II Experiment to Observe Terrestrial Gamma Flashes at Ground Level - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, M. L.; Adams, C.; Al-Nussirat, S.; Bai, S.; Banadaki, Y.; Bitzer, P. M.; Hoffmann, J.; Khosravi, E.; Legault, M.; Orang, M.; Pleshinger, D. J.; Rodriguez, R.; Smith, D.; Trepanier, J. C.; Sunda-Meya, A.; Zimmer, N.

    2017-12-01

    An upgraded version of the TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array (TETRA-II) consists of an array of BGO scintillators to detect bursts of gamma rays from thunderstorms at ground level in four separate locations: the campus of Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana; the campus of the University of Puerto Rico at Utuado, Puerto Rico; the Centro Nacional de Metrologia de Panama (CENAMEP) in Panama City, Panama; and the Severe Weather Institute and Radar & Lightning Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. The original TETRA-I array of NaI scintillators at Louisiana State University detected 37 millisecond-scale bursts of gamma rays at energies 50 keV-2 MeV associated with nearby (brief description of the TETRA-I observations, a description of TETRA-II, and preliminary results of the first events observed by TETRA-II will be presented including frequency and time history of events, spectral information, and correlation with local radar and radio data.

  14. Characterization of a low-level radioactive waste grout: Sampling and test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1992-12-01

    WHC manages and operates the grout treatment facility at Hanford as part of a DOE program to clean up wastes stored at federal nuclear production sites. PNL provides support to the grout disposal program through pilot-scale tests, performance assessments, and formulation verification activities. in 1988 and 1989, over one million gallons of a low-level radioactive liquid waste was processed through the facility to produce a grout waste that was then deposited in an underground vault. The liquid waste was phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW) generated in decontamination of the N Reactor. PNL sampled and tested the grout produced during the second half of the PSW campaign to support quality verification activities prior to grout vault closure. Samples of grout were obtained by inserting nested-tube samplers into the grout slurry in the vault. After the grout had cured, the inner tube of the sampler was removed and the grout samples extracted. Tests for compressive strength, sonic velocity, and leach testing were used to assess grout quality; results were compared to those from pilot-scale test grouts made with a simulated PSW. The grout produced during the second half of the PSW campaign exceeded compressive strength and leachability formulation criteria. The nested tube samplers were effective in collecting samples of grout although their use introduced greater variability into the compressive strength data

  15. Tracking How Science Resources Result in Educator- and Community-Level Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J. B.; Fitzhugh, G.; LaConte, K.; Holland, A.

    2017-12-01

    Learners frequently need to access increasingly complex information to help them understand our changing world. More and more libraries are transforming themselves into places where learners not only access STEM information, but interact with professionals and undertake hands-on learning. Libraries are beginning to position themselves as part of learning ecosystems that contribute to a collective impact on the community. Traveling STEM exhibits are catalyzing these partnerships and engaging students, families, and adults in repeat visits through an accessible venue: their public library. This talk will explore impacts from two STAR Library Network's (STAR_Net) exhibitions (Discover Earth and Discover Tech) on partnerships, the circulation of STEM resources, and the engagement of learners. The STAR_Net project's summative evaluation utilized mixed methods to investigate project implementation and its outcomes. Methods included pre- and post-exhibit surveys administered to staff from each library that hosted the exhibits; interviews with staff from host libraries; patron surveys; exhibit-related circulation records; web metrics regarding the online STAR_Net community of practice; and site visits. The latter provides a more complete view of impacts on the community, including underserved audiences. NASA@ My Library is a new STAR_Net initiative, which provides STEM facilitation kits, training, and other resources to 75 libraries nationwide. Initial results will be presented that show high levels of engagement by librarians and strong response rate from patrons on surveys.

  16. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  17. Conformational changes in Sindbis virions resulting from exposure to low pH and interactions with cells suggest that cell penetration may occur at the cell surface in the absence of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Angel M.; Ferreira, Davis; Horton, Michelle; Saad, Ali; Tsuruta, Hiro; Johnston, Robert; Klimstra, William; Ryman, Kate; Hernandez, Raquel; Chiu Wah; Brown, Dennis T.

    2004-01-01

    Alphaviruses have the ability to induce cell-cell fusion after exposure to acid pH. This observation has served as an article of proof that these membrane-containing viruses infect cells by fusion of the virus membrane with a host cell membrane upon exposure to acid pH after incorporation into a cell endosome. We have investigated the requirements for the induction of virus-mediated, low pH-induced cell-cell fusion and cell-virus fusion. We have correlated the pH requirements for this process to structural changes they produce in the virus by electron cryo-microscopy. We found that exposure to acid pH was required to establish conditions for membrane fusion but that membrane fusion did not occur until return to neutral pH. Electron cryo-microscopy revealed dramatic changes in the structure of the virion as it was moved to acid pH and then returned to neutral pH. None of these treatments resulted in the disassembly of the virus protein icosahedral shell that is a requisite for the process of virus membrane-cell membrane fusion. The appearance of a prominent protruding structure upon exposure to acid pH and its disappearance upon return to neutral pH suggested that the production of a 'pore'-like structure at the fivefold axis may facilitate cell penetration as has been proposed for polio (J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1342) and human rhino virus (Mol. Cell 10 (2002) 317). This transient structural change also provided an explanation for how membrane fusion occurs after return to neutral pH. Examination of virus-cell complexes at neutral pH supported the contention that infection occurs at the cell surface at neutral pH by the production of a virus structure that breaches the plasma membrane bilayer. These data suggest an alternative route of infection for Sindbis virus that occurs by a process that does not involve membrane fusion and does not require disassembly of the virus protein shell

  18. Serum levels of TSP-1, NF-κB and TGF-β1 in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients in northern China suggest PCOS is associated with chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meimei; Gao, Jiayin; Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Peiling; Wang, Hongli; Ren, Xiaopang; Li, Changmin

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and nuclear factor kappaβ (NF-κβ) in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with and without insulin resistance and after treatment with cyproterone acetate/ethinyloestradiol with or without concomitant metformin. Prospective. Patients with PCOS and healthy women were recruited. Patients were subdivided into obese and nonobese based on body mass index. Patients with PCOS were also grouped according to homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2·69 or PCOS phenotype. Patients with PCOS-IR were treated with a 6-month course of cyproterone acetate/ethinyloestradiol with or without concomitant metformin. Inflammatory markers were examined at baseline, and after 6 months of treatment. A total of 445 women with PCOS (mean age 25·9 ± 2·7 years; 298 obese, 147 nonobese) and 213 normal controls (mean age 24·9 ± 3·0 years) were included. Regardless of obesity status, testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio, HOMA-IR, TSP-1 and NF-κB in the PCOS groups were significantly higher than in the control group, whereas TSP-1 was lower in the PCOS groups (all, P PCOS without IR had lower TSP-1 levels than control patients (P Treatment with cyproterone acetate/ethinyloestradiol with addition of metformin reduced the level of NF-κB, TGF-β1 and HOMA-IR and increased the level of TSP-1. These results support the association between PCOS and chronic inflammation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Could the eventual results of the NSABP* 39/RTOG** 0413 trial for partial breast irradiation (PBI) be improved by combining spherical applicators and whole breast irradiation? Radiobiology suggests it may.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, B J

    2010-01-01

    There may be unacceptable risks associated with the relatively large single doses of irradiation prescribed over five days instead of over six weeks for three of the four trial arms of the NSABP39/RTOG 0413 clinical trial seeking to enlist 4,300 patients. The first arm prescribes 60 Gray (Gy) in two Gy fractions over six weeks, which is the present standard. The dose implications of the other three arms with reference to this standard were examined using the ID2 formalism. Particularly poor (non-homogeneous) dose distributions characterise spherical applicators like "MammoSite" used as a sole device for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The alternative treatment, APBI done by 3-D conformal radiation, may also have a drawback, namely a sudden sharp cut-off in dose which may cause cosmetic problems due to circumscribed fibrosis and edema. Some recently published results from this trial reveal an alarming level of complications. The possible causes of these complications and poor cosmetic outcomes and how to avoid them are examined. An obstacle to the more widespread use of the "MammoSite type of device is that the device is not allowed closer than 5-7 mm from the skin or ribs; a possible remedy for this restriction is offered. It is also intended to make the relevant radiobiological principles usable for surgical oncologists.

  20. Treating metabolic syndrome's metaflammation with low level light therapy: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tania M.; Kato, Ilka T.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of morbidities such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and obesity (especially abdominal). Metabolic alterations are observed in major insulin target organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and therefore mortality. Tissue alterations are characterized by immune cells infiltrates (especially activated macrophages). Released inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce chronic inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome, since inflammatory pathways are activated in the neighboring cells. The intra-abdominal adipose tissue appears to be of particular importance in the onset of the inflammatory state, and strategies contributing to modulate the inflammatory process within this adipose tissue can mitigate the metabolic syndrome consequences. Considering the low level light therapy (LLLT) recognized benefits in inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized this therapeutic approach could promote positive effects in modulating the inflammatory state of metabolic syndrome. That being the scope of this study, male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a high-fat/high-fructose diet among 8 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome. Animals were then irradiated on the abdominal region during 21 days using an 850 nm LED (6 sessions, 300 seconds per session, 60 mW output power, ~6 J/cm2 fluence, ~19 mW/cm2 fluence rate). Before and during treatment, blood was sampled either from the retroorbital plexus or from tail puncture for glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides analysis. So far our results indicate no alterations on these metabolic parameters after LLLT. For further investigations, blood was collected for plasma inflammatory cytokine quantification and fresh ex vivo samples of liver and intra-abdominal adipose tissue were harvested for immunohistochemistry purposes.

  1. The risk of cancer as a result of elevated levels of nitrate in drinking water and vegetables in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Pinky; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Nagarnaik, Pranav; Ensink, Jeroen H J

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrates on the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer development. Nitrate converted to nitrite under reducing conditions of gut results in the formation of N-nitrosamines which are linked to an increased gastric cancer risk. A population of 234 individuals with 78 cases of GI cancer and 156 controls residing at urban and rural settings in Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India were studied for 2 years using a case-control study. A detailed survey of 16 predictor variables using Formhub software was carried out. Nitrate concentrations in vegetables and primary drinking water supplies were measured. The logistic regression model showed that nitrate was statistically significant in predicting increasing risk of cancer when potential confounders were kept at base level (P value of 0.001 nitrate in drinking water; 0.003 for nitrate in vegetable) at P nitrate in drinking water at >45 mg/L level of nitrate was associated with a higher risk of GI cancers. Analysis suggests that nitrate concentration in drinking water was found statistically significant in predicting cancer risk with an odds ratio of 1.20.

  2. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  3. Analysis of Student and School Level Variables Related to Mathematics Self-Efficacy Level Based on PISA 2012 Results for China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, H. Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the student and school level variables that affect students' self-efficacy levels in mathematics in China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece based on PISA 2012 results. In line with this purpose, the hierarchical linear regression model (HLM) was employed. The interschool variability is estimated at approximately 17% in…

  4. School-Level Genetic Variation Predicts School-Level Verbal IQ Scores: Results from a Sample of American Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently revealed that average IQ scores vary significantly across macro-level units, such as states and nations. The reason for this variation in IQ, however, has remained at the center of much controversy. One of the more provocative explanations is that IQ across macro-level units is the result of genetic differences, but…

  5. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  6. A Critical Evaluation of Survey Results of Vitamin A and Fe Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nationwide survey was conducted to ascertain the levels of Vitamin A and Fe in wheat and maize flours, sugar and vegetable oils and some flour-based processed foods to assess compliance to the Nigerian Industrial Standard. Samples were collected from factories and markets in all the 36 states of the six geopolitical ...

  7. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Kimberly A; Miniat, Chelcy F; Vose, James M

    2016-03-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion-tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a 'demand limitation' driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) 'hydraulic limitation' of water movement from the roots to the leaves; and (3) 'non-stomatal' limitations imposed by declining leaf water status within the leaf. Model results suggest that species-specific 'economics' of stomatal behaviour may play an important role in differentiating species along the continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviour; specifically, we show that non-stomatal and demand limitations may reduce stomatal conductance and increase leaf water potential, promoting wide safety margins characteristic of isohydric species. We used model results to develop a diagnostic framework to identify the most likely limiting mechanism to stomatal functioning during drought and showed that many of those features were commonly observed in field observations of tree water use dynamics. Direct comparisons of modelled and measured stomatal conductance further indicated that non-stomatal and demand limitations reproduced observed patterns of tree water use well for an isohydric species but that a hydraulic limitation likely applies in the case of an anisohydric species. Published 2015. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Inverse association of leptin levels with renal cell carcinoma: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridopoulos, Themistoklis N; Petridou, Eleni Th; Dessypris, Nick; Terzidis, Agapios; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Chrousos, George P

    2009-01-01

    Leptin is primarily produced in adipose tissue and appears to play a modulatory role between metabolism and immunity. Given that obesity, a state of chronic inflammation, is an established risk factor for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), we investigated the association between plasma leptin levels and RCC risk. This case-control study included 70 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed RCC and 280 age-, gender- and district of residence-matched controls. Anthropometric data, socio-demographic variables, medical history, lifestyle habits and dietary data were derived from a personal interview. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels were determined using standard commercial kits. Adjusted odds ratios for RCC risk were derived through multiple logistic regression analyses. Leptin levels were inversely associated with RCC risk (OR: 0.53, CI: 0.28- 0.99, p = 0.05), even after controlling for potential confounding factors, such as Body Mass Index (BMI), recent weight change, history of diabetes mellitus and other obesity related hormones, notably adiponectin. The precise mechanism linking obesity with RCC remains unclear; however, the inverse association of leptin with RCC might be attributed, at least in part, to hormonal cross-talk with complex neuron-endocrine and immune circuits. These findings, if confirmed in prospective and interventional studies, might further elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  9. Serum immunoglobulin and complement levels in prematures with parenteral feeding--preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaro, G; Morena, C; Uxa, F; Candusso, M; Trappan, A; de Vonderweid, U

    1993-01-01

    Immunoglobulins IgA, IgG and IgM and complement factors C3 and C4 have been measured in a population of premature infants to evaluate their degree of immunological maturity. All the infants were receiving complete parenteral nutrition. In parallel, the same parameters were measured in twenty two full term, healthy neonates. To explore maturation and liver function, the authors used other proteins as nutritional markers. Differences in the immunoglobulins, but not in the complement fractions were seen between the two groups. Two applications are suggested: incidence of infections and post partum maturation.

  10. First results on enzymatic activities in two salt marsh soils under different hydromorphic level and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trasar-Cepeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt-marsh soils are soils characterized by non-permanent hydric saturation that, depending on factors like duration of submersion periods, are dominated by different salt-tolerant plant species. The composition of microbial communities is an essential component in trophic dynamics and biogeochemical processes in salt marshes, and determines the level of enzymatic activities, which catalyze the conversion of complex molecules into simpler ones. Despite of this, the enzymatic activities in marsh-soils has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the enzymatic activities in two soil profiles of marsh-soils under different water saturation level and dominated by different plant species [Juncus maritimus Lam and Spartina maritima (Curtis Fernald (Sp]. In both soils, the enzymatic activities were much lower than the levels typically found in terrestrial ecosystems. The enzymatic activities were measured both in air-dried and in re-moistened and incubated soil samples. In air-dried samples, the enzymatic activities were higher in Juncus than in Spartina soil and tended to decrease with depth, being sharper the decrease in Juncus than in Spartina soil. Re-moistened and pre-incubated soils showed a general increase in all the enzymatic activities and throughout the whole soil profile, especially in Spartina soils. Hydrolase activities showed a strong and positive relationship with organic matter content both in air-dried and in re-moistened soil samples, higher in these latter. In general, oxidoreductase activities only showed this relationship in re-moistened soil samples. More studies, preferably using freshly collected soil samples, are needed to understand the relationship between enzymatic activities and these environmental conditions.

  11. New results on order and spacing of levels for two- and three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Martin, A.; Richard, J.M.; Taxil, P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors propose sufficient conditions on the potential binding a two-body system to compare; the energy of a state with angular momentum iota+1 to the average of the energies of the neighbouring states with angular momentum iota, the spacings of the successive iota = O excitations. Applications to quarkonium physics are given. The authors also find a condition giving the sign of the parameter Δ controlling the pattern of levels obtained by perturbing the lowest positive parity excitation of a three-body system bound by harmonic oscillator two body forces

  12. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Radon levels in underground workplaces – results of a nationwide survey in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisi, Rosabianca; Orlando, Claudia; Orlando, Paolo; Amici, Mario; Simeoni, Carla

    2012-01-01

    In Italy an extensive survey has been carried out with the aim to evaluate annual average radon concentration in underground workplaces. The survey covered 933 underground rooms located in 311 bank workplaces spread throughout in all Italian regions; at this scope the sampling was stratified random in order to be representative on national scale. The annual radon concentration was estimated by using passive radon dosemeters (NRPB/SSI type holder and CR-39 as detector): the devices were exposed for a period of about 3 months and 4 cycles were performed to cover a solar year. The radon levels in underground workplaces ranged from 27 to 4851 Bq/m 3 with an overall mean value of 153 Bq/m 3 . As expected, radon distribution is not uniform throughout Italy: in several regions high radon annual averages have been found, confirming previous surveys. The analysis of data shows a high variability among regions and intra-region but low spread among rooms belonging to the same workplace. About 5% of underground workplaces displayed radon concentration exceeding 400 Bq/m 3 , and the 4.4% exceeds 500 Bq/m 3 , the national action level for the exposure to natural radioactivity in workplaces.

  15. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  16. Visualization on supercomputing platform level II ASC milestone (3537-1B) results from Sandia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geveci, Berk (Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY); Fabian, Nathan; Marion, Patrick (Kitware, Inc., Clifton Park, NY); Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2010-09-01

    This report provides documentation for the completion of the Sandia portion of the ASC Level II Visualization on the platform milestone. This ASC Level II milestone is a joint milestone between Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratories. This milestone contains functionality required for performing visualization directly on a supercomputing platform, which is necessary for peta-scale visualization. Sandia's contribution concerns in-situ visualization, running a visualization in tandem with a solver. Visualization and analysis of petascale data is limited by several factors which must be addressed as ACES delivers the Cielo platform. Two primary difficulties are: (1) Performance of interactive rendering, which is most computationally intensive portion of the visualization process. For terascale platforms, commodity clusters with graphics processors(GPUs) have been used for interactive rendering. For petascale platforms, visualization and rendering may be able to run efficiently on the supercomputer platform itself. (2) I/O bandwidth, which limits how much information can be written to disk. If we simply analyze the sparse information that is saved to disk we miss the opportunity to analyze the rich information produced every timestep by the simulation. For the first issue, we are pursuing in-situ analysis, in which simulations are coupled directly with analysis libraries at runtime. This milestone will evaluate the visualization and rendering performance of current and next generation supercomputers in contrast to GPU-based visualization clusters, and evaluate the performance of common analysis libraries coupled with the simulation that analyze and write data to disk during a running simulation. This milestone will explore, evaluate and advance the maturity level of these technologies and their applicability to problems of interest to the ASC program. Scientific simulation on parallel supercomputers is traditionally performed in four

  17. Savannah River Plant low-level waste incinerator: Operational results and technical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irujo, M.J.; Bucci, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Volume reduction of solid and liquid low-level waste has been demonstrated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in the Waste Management Beta-Gamma Incinerator facility (BGI). The BGI uses a two-stage, controlled-air incinerator capable of processing 180 kg/hr (400 lbs/hr) of solid waste or 150 liters/hr (40 gal/hr) of liquid waste. These wastes are pyrolyzed in a substoichiometric air environment at 900 to 1100 degrees Celsius in the primary chamber. Products of partial combustion from the primary chamber are oxidized at 950 to 1150 degrees Celsius in the secondary chamber. A spray dryer, baghouse,and HEPA filter unit cool and filter the incinerator offgases. 2 refs., 9 tabs

  18. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  19. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  20. Revisiting global mean sea level budget closure : Preliminary results from an integrative study within ESA's Climate Change Initiative -Sea level Budget Closure-Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, H.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global mean sea level budget is revisited over two time periods: the entire altimetry era, 1993-2015 and the Argo/GRACE era, 2003-2015 using the version '0' of sea level components estimated by the SLBC-CCI teams. The SLBC-CCI is an European Space Agency's project on sea level budget closure using CCI products. Over the entire altimetry era, the sea level budget was performed as the sum of steric and mass components that include contributions from total land water storage, glaciers, ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and total water vapor content. Over the Argo/GRACE era, it was performed as the sum of steric and GRACE based ocean mass. Preliminary budget analysis performed over the altimetry era (1993-2015) results in a trend value of 2.83 mm/yr. On comparison with the observed altimetry-based global mean sea level trend over the same period (3.03 ± 0.5 mm/yr), we obtain a residual of 0.2 mm/yr. In spite of a residual of 0.2 mm/yr, the sea level budget result obtained over the altimetry era is very promising as this has been performed using the version '0' of the sea level components. Furthermore, uncertainties are not yet included in this study as uncertainty estimation for each sea level component is currently underway. Over the Argo/GRACE era (2003-2015), the trend estimated from the sum of steric and GRACE ocean mass amounts to 2.63 mm/yr while that observed by satellite altimetry is 3.37 mm/yr, thereby leaving a residual of 0.7 mm/yr. Here an ensemble GRACE ocean mass data (mean of various available GRACE ocean mass data) was used for the estimation. Using individual GRACE data results in a residual range of 0.5 mm/yr -1.1 mm/yr. Investigations are under way to determine the cause of the vast difference between the observed sea level and the sea level obtained from steric and GRACE ocean mass. One main suspect is the impact of GRACE data gaps on sea level budget analysis due to lack of GRACE data over several months since 2011. The current action plan

  1. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 238 U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 μR/h, with an US average of 8.5 μR/h. The nationwide average concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 238 U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively

  2. Iranian Language Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives on English Result Series at Intermediate Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Azadsarv; Mohammad Taghvaee; Ali Zangoei; Emad Kishani Farahani

    2014-01-01

    As the means of transferring knowledge between teachers and students, coursebooks play a significant role in educational practices all over the world. Evaluation of coursebooks is also of great significance as it manages to a better understanding of the nature of a specific teaching/learning situation. The present study is an attempt to evaluate English Result coursebook from both Iranian EFL learners’ and teachers’ perspectives. Seventy three students and 16 teachers participated in this stu...

  3. Results from probabilistic safety analysis level 2 for Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velev, V.; Mancheva, K.

    2006-01-01

    The study considers full power operation analysis results and impact of strategies and modernisation implementations of Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4. In this paper the following issues are discussed: the development of Severe Accident Management Guidelines and Symptom Based Emergency Operating Procedures, installation of brand new system as Emergency Filter Ventilation System, Passive Autocatalytic Hydrogen recombiners, etc. In order to respond to the objectives of the study, the analyses assets the impact of different initiating events on risk based on the frequencies of various plant damage states, the confinement failure and the radiological release frequencies and finally estimates the total risk as frequency of radiological releases

  4. Associations of blood lead levels with reproductive hormone levels in men and postmenopausal women: Results from the SPECT-China Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Nie, Xiaomin; Sun, Honglin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Jing; Xia, Fangzhen; Zhao, Li; Zheng, Yanjun; Shen, Zhoujun; Lu, Yingli

    2016-11-01

    We examined whether blood lead levels (BLLs) were associated with reproductive hormone levels in a cross-sectional study using data from the SPECT-China study. We selected 2286 men and 1571 postmenopausal women without hormone replacement therapy. BLLs, blood cadmium, total testosterone (TT), oestradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) levels were measured. The results showed that median values (interquartile range) of BLLs were 44.00 μg/L (29.00-62.30) for men and 41.00 μg/L (27.00-59.81) for postmenopausal women. In linear regression, after adjusting for age, current smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diabetes and blood cadmium level, TT (P for trend = 0.001) and SHBG (P for trend < 0.001) levels were still positively associated with BLLs in men. Meanwhile, significant positive associations were found for BLLs with SHBG (P for trend = 0.002), FSH (P for trend = 0.001) and LH (P for trend = 0.026) levels in postmenopausal women. Additionally, the association between BLL and SHBG was modified by dysglycaemia (P for interaction = 0.03) in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, BLLs were associated with reproductive hormone levels in the general population of Chinese men and postmenopausal women, which may have important implications for human health. Concerted efforts to reduce adult lead exposure are warranted.

  5. Results of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial by stroke subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Benavente, Oscar; Goldstein, Larry B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The SPARCL trial showed that atorvastatin 80 mg/d reduces the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular events in patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We tested the hypothesis that the benefit of treatment varies according to index event stroke...... subtype. METHODS: Subjects with stroke or TIA without known coronary heart disease were randomized to atorvastatin 80 mg/d or placebo. The SPARCL primary end point was fatal or nonfatal stroke. Secondary end points included major cardiovascular events (MCVE; stroke plus major coronary events). Cox...... regression models testing for an interaction with treatment assignment were used to explore potential differences in efficacy based on stroke subtype. RESULTS: For subjects randomized to atorvastatin versus placebo, a primary end point occurred in 13.1% versus 18.6% of those classified as having large vessel...

  6. Simvastatin Does Not Affect Vitamin D Status, but Low Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Dyslipidemia: Results from a Randomised, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rejnmark

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Statin drugs act as inhibitors of the 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase enzyme early in the mevalonate pathway, thereby reducing the endogenous cholesterol synthesis. In recent studies, it has been suggested from epidemiological data that statins also may improve vitamin D status, as measured by increased plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD levels. We now report the results from a randomised controlled trial on effects of simvastatin on plasma 25OHD levels. Design and Methods. We randomised 82 healthy postmenopausal women to one year of treatment with either simvastatin 40 mg/d or placebo and performed measurement at baseline and after 26 and 52 weeks of treatment. The study was completed by 77 subjects. Results. Compared with placebo, plasma levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins decreased in response to treatment with simvastatin, but our study showed no effect of simvastatin on vitamin D status. However, plasma levels of triglycerides were inversely associated with tertiles of plasma 25OHD levels and changes in plasma triglycerides levels correlated inversely with seasonal changes in vitamin D status. Conclusion. Our data do not support a pharmacological effect of statins on vitamin D status, but do suggest that vitamin D may influence plasma lipid profile and thus be of importance to cardiovascular health.

  7. State Level Point-of-Sale Policy Priority as a Result of the FSPTCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Combs, Todd; Jones, Janice; Sorg, Amy A

    2015-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) give the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) unprecedented power to regulate tobacco products. One of the most significant provisions of the law allows state and local governments to adopt and enforce tobacco control legislation restricting the time, place, and manner (but not the content) of tobacco advertising. However, there is still reluctance among states and localities for mass adoption of laws due to challenges associated with legal feasibility and lack of U.S.-based evidence in effectiveness. The Center for Public Health Systems Science conducted interviews with key tobacco control contacts in 48 states at two time points (2012 and 2014) since the passage of the FSPTCA to assess the influence of the law on point-of-sale policy development in their state tobacco programs. Logistic regression results show that point-of-sale policy importance is growing post-FSPTCA, and that key influencers of this importance are states' tobacco control histories and environments, including that related to excise taxes and smoke free air policies. The adoption of smokefree and tax policies has become commonplace across the U.S., and the quality and extent of these laws and prevailing political will increasingly impact the ability of states to work in emerging tobacco control policy areas including those directed at the point of sale.

  8. Decreased Polycystin 2 Levels Result in Non-Renal Cardiac Dysfunction with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Duong, Sophie L; Nguyen, Lily; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for polycystin 2 (Pkd2) lead to polycystic kidney disease, however the main cause of mortality in humans is cardiac related. We previously showed that 5 month old Pkd2+/- mice have altered calcium-contractile activity in cardiomyocytes, but have preserved cardiac function. Here, we examined 1 and 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice to determine if decreased amounts of functional polycystin 2 leads to impaired cardiac function with aging. We observed changes in calcium handling proteins in 1 month old Pkd2+/- mice, and these changes were exacerbated in 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice. Anatomically, the 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice had thinner left ventricular walls, consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy, and the left ventricular ejection fraction was decreased. Intriguingly, in response to acute isoproterenol stimulation to examine β-adrenergic responses, the 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice exhibited a stronger contractile response, which also coincided with preserved localization of the β2 adrenergic receptor. Importantly, the Pkd2+/- mice did not have any renal impairment. We conclude that the cardiac-related impact of decreased polycystin 2 progresses over time towards cardiac dysfunction and altered adrenergic signaling. These results provide further evidence that polycystin 2 provides a critical function in the heart, independent of renal involvement.

  9. State level point-of-sale policy priority as a result of the FSPTCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Moreland-Russell PhD MPH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA give the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA unprecedented power to regulate tobacco products. One of the most significant provisions of the law allows state and local governments to adopt and enforce tobacco control legislation restricting the time, place, and manner (but not the content of tobacco advertising. However, there is still reluctance among states and localities for mass adoption of laws due to challenges associated with legal feasibility and lack of U.S.-based evidence in effectiveness. The Center for Public Health Systems Science conducted interviews with key tobacco control contacts in 48 states at two time points (2012 and 2014 since the passage of the FSPTCA to assess the influence of the law on point-of-sale policy development in their state tobacco programs. Logistic regression results show that point-of-sale policy importance is growing post-FSPTCA, and that key influencers of this importance are states' tobacco control histories and environments, including that related to excise taxes and smoke free air policies. The adoption of smokefree and tax policies has become commonplace across the U.S., and the quality and extent of these laws and prevailing political will increasingly impact the ability of states to work in emerging tobacco control policy areas including those directed at the point of sale.

  10. The Preoperative Level of B-Type Natriuretic Peptides and the Results of Clinical and Functional Studies of Cardiosurgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kozlov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the plasma content of B-type natriuretic peptides in coronary heart disease patients prepared for surgery under extracorporeal circulation and to assess the association of the level of these biomarkers with the data of clinical and functional studies. Material and methods. The levels of active B-type natriuretic peptide were determined by immunofluoresence assay in the blood of 52 patients aged 57.8±1 years. The patients’ baseline clinical condition was in New York Heart Association (NYHA Functional Class I—IV. The left ventricular ejection fraction was 59.6±1.2%. The plasma concentration of the inactive N-terminal fragment of the BNP prohormone (NT-proBNP was estimated by electric chemiluminescence technique in 61 patients aged 54.6±1.18 years. The patients’ clinical condition was in NYHA Functional Class II—IV. The left ventricular ejection fraction was 51.5±1.6%. Results. The plasma content of B-type natriuretic peptide in the examinees was 48.5±5.9 pg/ml. The level of the biomarker correlated with the NYHA functional class (r=0.4; p=0.005, the electrocardiographic signs of postinfarct cardiosclerosis (r=0.29; p=0.04, and left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.41; p=0.003, and end-systolic volume (r=0.32; p=0.03. The plasma concentration of inactive NT-proBNP was 659.4±91.6 pg/ml. The level of the biomarker correlated with the NYHA functional class (r=0.4; p=0.002, the stage of circulatory insufficiency as described by I. D. Strazhesko and V. Kh. Vasilenko (r=0.49; p=0.001, and left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.45; p=0.001, and end-diastolic (r=0.39; p=0.002 and end-systolic (r=0.42; p=0.001 volumes. In patients with the values of the biomarker of less than 1000 pg/ml, the latter was related to age (r=0.3; p=0.047. Conclusion. The study of the level of B-type natriuretic peptides in cardiosurgical patients with coronary heart disease, prepared for surgery under extracorporeal circulation, suggests

  11. Sea level muon spectrum and muon charge ratio derived from CERN results for nucleon-nucleus inelastic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P

    1979-01-01

    The sea level cosmic ray spectrum and muon charge ratio have been estimated by using the energy moments of the cross section for proton- air inelastic collisions. These energy moments have been determined by interpolation from CERN results for proton-nucleus inelastic interactions in pion production. The derived results are compared with previous work. (26 refs).

  12. Results of Washington's phase two study on closure requirements for the Hanford commercial low-level waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.C.; Hana, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the closure design objectives and cover alternatives resulting from the state of Washington's phase two study on closure and long-term care for the Hanford commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Four approaches to dealing with subsidence and two cover design alternatives are discussed in this paper, along with information on each layer of each cover. Objectives for closure of the Hanford low-level waste facility are also discussed

  13. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  14. Correlation between the results of in vitro and in vivo chromosomal damage tests in consideration of exposure levels of test chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Eiji; Aruga, Chinami; Muto, Shigeharu; Baba, Nobuyuki; Uno, Yoshifumi

    2018-01-01

    We examined the correlation between the results of in vitro and in vivo chromosomal damage tests by using in-house data of 18 pharmaceutical candidates that showed positive results in the in vitro chromosomal aberration or micronucleus test using CHL/IU cells, and quantitatively analyzed them especially in regard to exposure levels of the compounds. Eight compounds showed that the exposure levels [maximum plasma concentration (C max ) and AUC 0-24h ] were comparable with or higher than the in vitro exposure levels [the lowest effective (positive) concentration (LEC) and AUC vitro  = LEC (μg/mL) × treatment time (h)]. Among them, 3 compounds were positive in the in vivo rodent micronucleus assays using bone marrow cells. For 2 compounds, cytotoxicity might produce false-positive results in the in vitro tests. One compound showed in vitro positive results only in the condition with S9 mix which indicated sufficient concentration of unidentified active metabolite(s) might not reach the bone marrow to induce micronuclei. These facts suggested that the in vivo exposure levels being equal to or higher than the in vitro exposure levels might be an important factor to detect in vivo chromosomal damage induced by test chemicals.

  15. Abnormal levels of adipokines in adolescent offspring of women with type 1 diabetes - Results from the EPICOM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine

    2017-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate long-term consequences of diabetes during pregnancy, we determined adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescents born by women with type 1 diabetic (T1D) or non-diabetic mothers, and determined associations between adiponectin and leptin levels in adolescence...... and the magnitude of intrauterine hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin and leptin and calculated leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR) in 271 offspring of T1D women (index offspring) (13-20years), and 297 matched control offspring. Anthropometry included total body fat (TBF) by dual......-energy X-ray absorptiometry and an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Adiponectin levels were lower in index females (-8.0% (95% CI; -13.9, -1.6)), but not in index males (0.4% (95% CI; -7.3, 8.6)). Leptin levels were approximately 30% higher in index than control offspring, irrespective of gender...

  16. The different requirement of L-T4 therapy in congenital athyreosis compared with adult-acquired hypothyroidism suggests a persisting thyroid hormone resistance at the hypothalamic-pituitary level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagattini, Brunella; Cosmo, Caterina Di; Montanelli, Lucia; Piaggi, Paolo; Ciampi, Mariella; Agretti, Patrizia; Marco, Giuseppina De; Vitti, Paolo; Tonacchera, Massimo

    2014-11-01

    Levothyroxine (l-T4) is commonly employed to correct hormone deficiency in children with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and in adult patients with iatrogenic hypothyroidism. To compare the daily weight-based dosage of the replacement therapy with l-T4 in athyreotic adult patients affected by CH and adult patients with thyroid nodular or cancer diseases treated by total thyroidectomy. A total of 36 adult patients (27 females and nine males) aged 18-29 years were studied; 13 patients (age: 21.5±2.1, group CH) had athyreotic CH treated with l-T4 since the first days of life. The remaining 23 patients (age: 24±2.7, group AH) had hypothyroidism after total thyroidectomy (14 patients previously affected by nodular disease and nine by thyroid carcinoma with clinical and biochemical remission). Patient weight, serum free thyroid hormones, TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg, and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies were measured. Required l-T4 dosage was evaluated. At the time of the observations, all patients presented free thyroid hormones within the normal range and TSH between 0.8 and 2 μIU/ml. Patients had undetectable Tg and anti-thyroid antibodies. The daily weight-based dosage of the replacement therapy with l-T4 to reach euthyroidism in patients of group CH was significantly higher than that in those of group AH (2.16±0.36 vs 1.73±0.24 μg/kg, Phypothyroidism, patients of group CH required a daily l-T4 dose/kg higher than group AH patients, despite higher levels of TSH. The different requirement of replacement therapy between adult patients with congenital and those with surgical athyroidism could be explained by a lack of thyroid hormones since fetal life in CH, which could determine a different set point of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  18. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  19. An Analysis of Turkey's PISA 2015 Results Using Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Dogu; Karadag, Özge

    2017-01-01

    In the field of education, most of the data collected are multi-level structured. Cities, city based schools, school based classes and finally students in the classrooms constitute a hierarchical structure. Hierarchical linear models give more accurate results compared to standard models when the data set has a structure going far as individuals,…

  20. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  1. Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon Sea Level and Linear Model Results forced by Various Wind Products for the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackert, Eric C.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare TOPEX/Posaidon (T/P) sea level with sea level results from linear ocean model experiments forced by several different wind products for the tropical Pacific. During the period of this study (October 1992 - October 1995), available wind products include satellite winds from the ERS-1 scatterometer product of [HALP 97] and the passive microwave analysis of SSMI winds produced using the variational analysis method (VAM) of [ATLA 91]. In addition, atmospheric GCM winds from the NCEP reanalysis [KALN 96], ECMWF analysis [ECMW94], and the Goddard EOS-1 (GEOS-1) reanalysis experiment [SCHU 93] are available for comparison. The observed ship wind analysis of FSU [STRI 92] is also included in this study. The linear model of [CANE 84] is used as a transfer function to test the quality of each of these wind products for the tropical Pacific. The various wind products are judged by comparing the wind-forced model sea level results against the T/P sea level anomalies. Correlation and RMS difference maps show how well each wind product does in reproducing the T/P sea level signal. These results are summarized in a table showing area average correlations and RMS differences. The large-scale low-frequency temporal signal is reproduced by all of the wind products, However, significant differences exist in both amplitude and phase on regional scales. In general, the model results forced by satellite winds do a better job reproducing the T/P signal (i.e. have a higher average correlation and lower RMS difference) than the results forced by atmospheric model winds.

  2. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  3. Comparison of approximate formulas for decision levels and detection limits for paired counting with the exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    The exact probability density function for paired counting can be expressed in terms of modified Bessel functions of integral order when the expected blank count is known. Exact decision levels and detection limits can be computed in a straightforward manner. For many applications perturbing half-integer corrections to Gaussian distributions yields satisfactory results for decision levels. When there is concern about the uncertainty for the expected value of the blank count, a way to bound the errors of both types using confidence intervals for the expected blank count is discussed. (author)

  4. MATRIX 2 RESULTS OF THE FY07 ENHANCED DOE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-10-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to generate supplemental validation data that could be used to determine the applicability of the current liquidus temperature (TL) model to expanded DWPF glass composition regions of interest based on higher WLs. Two specific flowsheets were used in this study to provide such insight: (1) Higher WL glasses (45 and 50%) based on future sludge batches that have (and have not) undergone the Al-dissolution process. (2) Coupled operations supported by the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), which increase the TiO{sub 2} concentration in glass to greater than 2 wt%. Glasses were also selected to address technical issues associated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, nepheline formation, and homogeneity issues for coupled operations. A test matrix of 28 glass compositions was developed to provide insight into these issues. The glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), TL measurement and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) TiO{sub 2} concentrations up to {approx} 3.5 wt% were retained in DWPF type glasses, where retention is defined as the absence of crystalline TiO{sub 2} (i.e., unreacted or undissolved) in the as-fabricated glasses. Although this TiO{sub 2} content does not bound the projected SWPF high output flowsheet (up to 6 wt% TiO{sub 2} may be required in glass), these data demonstrate the potential for increasing the TiO{sub 2} limit in glass above the current limit of 2 wt

  5. INR targets and site-level anticoagulation control: results from the Veterans AffaiRs Study to Improve Anticoagulation (VARIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A J; Berlowitz, D R; Miller, D R; Hylek, E M; Ozonoff, A; Zhao, S; Reisman, J I; Ash, A S

    2012-04-01

    Not all clinicians target the same International Normalized Ratio (INR) for patients with a guideline-recommended target range of 2-3. A patient's mean INR value suggests the INR that was actually targeted. We hypothesized that sites would vary by mean INR, and that sites of care with mean values nearest to 2.5 would achieve better anticoagulation control, as measured by per cent time in therapeutic range (TTR). To examine variations among sites in mean INR and the relationship with anticoagulation control in an integrated system of care. We studied 103,897 patients receiving oral anticoagulation with an expected INR target between 2 and 3 at 100 Veterans Health Administration (VA) sites from 1 October 2006 to 30 September 2008. Key site-level variables were: proportion near 2.5 (that is, percentage of patients with mean INR between 2.3 and 2.7) and mean risk-adjusted TTR. Site mean INR ranged from 2.22 to 2.89; proportion near 2.5, from 30 to 64%. Sites' proportions of patients near 2.5, below 2.3 and above 2.7 were consistent from year to year. A 10 percentage point increase in the proportion near 2.5 predicted a 3.8 percentage point increase in risk-adjusted TTR (P < 0.001). Proportion of patients with mean INR near 2.5 is a site-level 'signature' of care and an implicit measure of targeted INR. This proportion varies by site and is strongly associated with site-level TTR. Our study suggests that sites wishing to improve TTR, and thereby improve patient outcomes, should avoid the explicit or implicit pursuit of non-standard INR targets. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  6. The impact of optimize solar radiation received on the levels and energy disposal of levels on architectural design result by using computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Davood; Farajzadeh Khosroshahi, Samaneh; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: ronas_66@yahoo.com, email: Safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In order to minimize the energy consumption of a building it is important to achieve optimum solar energy. The aim of this paper is to introduce the use of computer modeling in the early stages of design to optimize solar radiation received and energy disposal in an architectural design. Computer modeling was performed on 2 different projects located in Los Angeles, USA, using ECOTECT software. Changes were made to the designs following analysis of the modeling results and a subsequent analysis was carried out on the optimized designs. Results showed that the computer simulation allows the designer to set the analysis criteria and improve the energy performance of a building before it is constructed; moreover, it can be used for a wide range of optimization levels. This study pointed out that computer simulation should be performed in the design stage to optimize a building's energy performance.

  7. The effect of posthypnotic suggestion, hypnotic suggestibility, and goal intentions on adherence to medical instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Claudia; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving; Meo, Maria; Santandrea, Maura

    2008-04-01

    The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a significant interaction between suggestibility and the effects of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion enhanced adherence among high suggestible participants but lowered it among low suggestibles.

  8. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  9. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  10. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions.

  11. Probe-level linear model fitting and mixture modeling results in high accuracy detection of differential gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Sébastien

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs from Affymetrix GeneChips arrays is currently done by first computing expression levels from the low-level probe intensities, then deriving significance by comparing these expression levels between conditions. The proposed PL-LM (Probe-Level Linear Model method implements a linear model applied on the probe-level data to directly estimate the treatment effect. A finite mixture of Gaussian components is then used to identify DEGs using the coefficients estimated by the linear model. This approach can readily be applied to experimental design with or without replication. Results On a wholly defined dataset, the PL-LM method was able to identify 75% of the differentially expressed genes within 10% of false positives. This accuracy was achieved both using the three replicates per conditions available in the dataset and using only one replicate per condition. Conclusion The method achieves, on this dataset, a higher accuracy than the best set of tools identified by the authors of the dataset, and does so using only one replicate per condition.

  12. Association between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Sleep Variables: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Constance Wiener

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disordered breathing as well as high serum uric acid levels are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, studies evaluating the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and hyperuricemia are limited. We examined the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination survey's sleep variables and high serum uric acid among 6491 participants aged ≥20 years. The sleep variables included sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. The main outcome was high serum uric acid level, defined as levels of serum uric acid >6.8 mg/dL in males and >6.0 mg/dL in females. We found that snoring more than 5 nights per week, daytime sleepiness, and an additive composite score of sleep variables were associated with high serum uric acid in the age- , sex-adjusted model and in a multivariable model adjusting for demographic and lifestyle/behavioral risk factors. The association was attenuated with the addition of variables related to clinical outcomes such as depression, diabetes, hypertension, and high-cholesterol levels. Our results indicate a positive relationship between sleep variables, including the presence of snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness, and high serum uric acid levels.

  13. Field Lysimeter Investigations - test results: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program: Test results for fiscal years 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rodgers, R.D.; Hilton, L.D.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program, funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is (1) studying the degradation effects in EPICOR-II organic ion-exchange resins caused by radiation, (2) examining the adequacy of test procedures recommended in the Branch Technical Position on Waste Form to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 61 using solidified EPICOR-II resins, (3) obtaining performance information on solidified EPICOR-II ion-exchange resins in a disposal environment, and (4) determining the condition of EPICOR-II liners. Results of the final 2 (10 total) years of data acquisition from operation of the field testing are presented and discussed. During the continuing field testing, both portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms are being tested in lysimeter arrays located at Argonne National Laboratory-East in Illinois and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The experimental equipment is described and results of waste form characterization using tests recommended by the NRC's open-quotes Technical Position on Waste Formclose quotes are presented. The study is designed to provide continuous data on nuclide release and movement, as well as environmental conditions, over a 20-year period. At the end of the tenth year, the experiment was closed down. Examination of soil and waste forms is planned to be conducted next and will be reported later

  14. Relationship between Serum Levels of Metalloproteinase-8 and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 and Exercise Test Results in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mieczkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity as a part of the lifestyle is a significant factor influencing health condition. Exercises that require stamina are of particular importance. Oxygen metabolism, which is a significant part of all longer training processes, has an influence on cardiovascular and respiratory system functioning as well as all the processes taking part in maintenance of efficient homeostasis. Presentation of the correlation between exercise test results and MMP-8 (metalloproteinase-8 and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels was attempted in this work. MMP-8 is a proteolytic enzyme taking part in progression of diseases related to process of ageing. 62 healthy women in postmenopausal period were qualified for the study (mean age: 54±3.6. There was exercise test on the treadmill according to Bruce’s protocol performed. MMP-8 and TIMP-1 serum levels were measured. There was statistically important correlation between increased level of MMP-8 and increased level of TIMP-1 with lower results of exercise test observed. The conducted study provides further biochemical arguments for prophylactic role of physical activity, which lowers the risk of noninfectious diseases, typical for middle adulthood, by influencing physical capacity.

  15. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Strzelecki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9 levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Method: Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial. The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28 or placebo (n = 30 daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS. Results: MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments.

  16. Anthropometric and Athletic Performance Combine Test Results Among Positions Within Grade Levels of High School-Aged American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutzinger, Todd J; Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia M; McKay, Brianna D; Mendez, Alegra I; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-05-01

    Leutzinger, TJ, Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AM, McKay, BD, Mendez, AI, and Cramer, JT. Anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results among positions within grade levels of high school-aged American football players. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1288-1296, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate differences among player positions at 3 grade levels in elite, collegiate-prospective American football players. Participants' data (n = 7,160) were analyzed for this study (mean height [Ht] ± SD = 178 ± 7 cm, mass [Bm] = 86 ± 19 kg). Data were obtained from 12 different high school American football recruiting combines hosted by Zybek Sports (Boulder, Colorado). Eight 2-way (9 × 3) mixed factorial analysis of variances {position (defensive back [DB], defensive end, defensive lineman, linebacker, offensive lineman [OL], quarterback, running back, tight end, and wide receiver [WR]) × grade (freshmen, sophomores, and juniors)} were used to test for differences among the mean test scores for each combine measure (Ht, Bm, 40-yard [40 yd] dash, proagility [PA] drill, L-cone [LC] drill, vertical jump [VJ], and broad jump [BJ]). There were position-related differences (p ≤ 0.05) for Ht, 40 yd dash, and BJ, within each grade level and for Bm, PA, LC, and VJ independent of grade level. Generally, the results showed that OL were the tallest, weighed the most, and exhibited the lowest performance scores among positions. Running backs were the shortest, whereas DBs and WRs weighed the least and exhibited the highest performance scores among positions. These results demonstrate the value of classifying high school-aged American football players according to their specific position rather than categorical groupings such as "line" vs. "skill" vs. "big skill" when evaluating anthropometric and athletic performance combine test results.

  17. Level of agreement among Latin American glaucoma subspecialists on the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma: results of an online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel E. Grigera; Paulo Augusto Arruda Mello; Wilma Lelis Barbosa; Javier Fernando Casiraghi; Rodolfo Perez Grossmann; Alejo Peyret

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to assess the level of agreement among glaucoma experts in Latin America on key practices related to treatment and diagnosis of glaucoma. METHODS: An online questionnaire was sent to a multinational panel of glaucoma experts. The questionnaire contained 107 statements on the medical treatment (Part 1) and diagnosis (Part 2) of glaucoma, and was developed in Spanish and translated into English. Agreement was defined as >70% of respondents. RESULTS: Fifty p...

  18. Determinants of levels and changes of physical functioning in chronically ill persons: results from the GLOBE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, J; Borsboom, G; Nusselder, W; Looman, C; Schrijvers, C

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Declines in physical functioning are a common result of chronic illness, but relatively little is known about factors not directly related to severity of disease that influence the occurrence of disability among chronically ill persons. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a large number of potential determinants (sociodemographic factors, health related behaviour, structural living conditions, and psychosocial factors).
DESIGN—Longitudinal study of levels and cha...

  19. The results of STEM education methods in physics at the 11th grade level: Light and visual equipment lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungsombatsanti, A.; Ponkham, K.; Somtoa, T.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) To evaluate the efficiency of the process and the efficiency of the results (E1 / E2) of the innovative instructional lesson plan in the form of the STEM Education method in the field of physics of secondary students at the 10th grade level in physics class to determine the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria of the 70/70 standard level. 2) To study students' critical thinking skills of secondary students at the 11th grade level, and assessing skill in criteria 80 percentage 3) To compare learning achievements between students' pre-post testing after taught in STEM Education 4) To evaluate Student' Satisfaction after using STEM Education teaching by using mean compare to 5 points Likert Scale. The participant used were 40 students from grade 11 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 11 students of 1 schemes with total of 15 hours, 2) The test of critical think skills with essay type in amount of 30 items, 3) achievement test on Light and visual equipment with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 16 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The results of these findings revealed that the efficiency of the STEM based on criteria indicate that are higher than the standard level of the 70/70 at 71.51/75 2) Student has critical thinking scores that are higher than criteria 80 percentage as amount is 26 people. 3) Statistically significant of students' learning achievements to their later outcomes were differentiated between pretest and posttest at the .05 level, evidently. 4) The student' level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a good level (X ¯ = 4.33, S.D = 0.64).

  20. Kiel Canal: Past and future threats for shipping resulting from precipitation, wind surge and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Anette; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Möller, Jens; Schade, Nils; Heinrich, Hartmut; Tinz, Birger

    2017-04-01

    The Kiel Canal is the most frequented artificial waterway in the world. It connects the North Sea and the Hamburg Harbor with the Baltic Sea and has a length of about 100 km. The Canal receives its water from the upper catchment of the river Eider. Discharge from the Canal towards the North Sea is via the sluices at Brunsbüttel (90%) into river Elbe and into the Baltic Sea via the sluices at Kiel-Holtenau. A risk of closure of the Canal occurs when high precipitation in the catchment meets high water levels in the river Elbe and/or the Baltic preventing the discharge of excess Canal water. Future sea level rise jointly with other effects such as possibly increasing wind surge and precipitation will close the gap between the inner and outer water levels, so that someday the outside levels will surmount the inner one. The German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) tasked its internal Network of Experts to run a case study on the evolution of critical water levels in order to estimate risks and vulnerabilities for adaptation measures. First step of the investigation is a search for factors or combination of factors responsible for closures in the past. Candidates are factors such as higher water levels at low tides, high precipitation events on land, soil moisture and human factors like preventive water management measures. Second step will be the search for the natural criteria in climate projections. Here we report on the results of the first step of the case study with a focus on the exit towards the North Sea. There, discharge is possible only during low tide. Presently still sufficient difference in height exists between the levels in the Canal and the river Elbe allowing for a free flow of excess Canal water. Shipping is ceased when levels in the Canal surpass safety limits due to high precipitation events in the catchment jointly with high outer water levels. We used atmospheric data from ERA-Interim reanalysis instead of gauge data

  1. Endogenous levels of nitrites and nitrates in wide consumption foodstuffs: Results of five years of official controls and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Cristino, Marianna

    2013-10-15

    The massive introduction of nitrogen fertilisers, necessary to maximise the global food production, has brought about an increase of the residual amounts of nitrites and nitrates in the products. Notoriously, these compounds may exercise toxic effects. In this work the results obtained from 5years of official controls and monitoring focused on tracing quantifiable amounts of nitrites and nitrates in 1785 samples of meat, dairy, fish products and leafy vegetables are reported. A widespread presence of nitrates at low concentrations in foodstuffs was verified. High concentrations of nitrates were registered in some leafy vegetables and mussels samples, while high nitrites concentrations were registered in some spinach samples. The results confirmed the necessity to develop most controls and suggest the introduction of new legal limits related to some combinations contaminant/matrix. Such new limits may fill legislative gaps that may cause wrong interpretations of the results obtained during official controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural and functional correlates of hypnotic depth and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, William Jonathan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Vannucci, Manila; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-02-28

    This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. Functional networks identified with independent components analysis were regressed with the independent variables. Hypnotic depth ratings were positively correlated with GM volume in the frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with GM volume in the left temporal-occipital cortex. Relaxation ratings did not correlate significantly with GM volume and none of the independent variables correlated with regional WM volume measures. Self-reported deeper levels of hypnosis were associated with less connectivity within the anterior default mode network. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater GM volume in the medial frontal cortex and ACC, and lower connectivity in the DMN during hypnosis facilitate experiences of greater hypnotic depth. The patterns of results suggest that hypnotic depth and hypnotic suggestibility should not be considered synonyms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Homocysteine levels are associated with the results of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in type 2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan, Futoshi; Yonemochi, Hidetoshi; Nakagawa, Mikiko; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Masaki, Takayuki; Takahashi, Naohiko; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Eshima, Nobuoki

    2007-01-01

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction are associated with a high mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. We tested the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients not receiving insulin treatment. The study group consisted of 17 type 2 diabetic patients with high tHcy levels (>15 mmol/l, age 58±5 years, high tHcy group). The control group consisted of 23 age-matched type 2 diabetic patients with normal tHcy levels (≤15 mmol/l, age 58±9 years, normal tHcy group). Cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed by baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, plasma norepinephrine concentrations, and cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Early and delayed 123 I-MIBG myocardial uptake values were lower (p 123 I-MIBG was higher (p 123 I-MIBG at the delayed phase. Our results demonstrate that high levels of tHcy are associated with depressed cardiovascular autonomic function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  4. Serum levels of interleukin 6 in schizophrenic patients during treatment augmentation with sarcosine (results of the PULSAR study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Urban-Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Wysokiński, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Augmentation of sarcosine, a natural inhibitor of the glycine transporter type I, normalizes glutamatergic neurotransmission, having beneficial impact on primary negative symptoms in schizophrenia and may also influence immune system and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels. Finding a relationship between initial IL-6 serum concentrations or its changes and severity of symptoms as a result of sarcosine addition to stable antipsychotic treatment. Fifity-eight individuals with schizophrenia with predominantly negative symptoms completed a 6-month randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled prospective study. Patients received 2 g of sarcosine (n = 29) or placebo (n = 30) daily per os. We measured IL-6 levels and severity of symptoms at the beginning, after 6 weeks and 6 months. As main clinical tools, we used Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia (CDSS). Augmentation with sarcosine had no effect on IL-6 serum levels in all time points. We noted significant improvements in negative symptoms, general psychopathology, and total PANSS score in the sarcosine group. We found correlation of initial serum IL-6 with severity of positive symptoms and negative association between IL-6 levels reduction and positive symptoms reduction. Sarcosine does not significantly affect IL-6 concentrations but IL-6 may be involved in mechanisms related to the presence of positive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Szyburska, Justyna; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-07-09

    Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial). The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28) or placebo (n = 30) daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments.

  6. The ATLAS level-1 trigger: Status of the system and first results from cosmic-ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aielli, G [Universita degli Studi di Roma ' Tor Vergata' and INFN Roma II, Rome (Italy); Andrei, V; Achenbach, R [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, S [INFN Bologna and Universita degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Ask, S [CERN, PH Department (Switzerland); Barnett, B M [CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bauss, B [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bellagamba, L [INFN Bologna and Universita degli Studi di Bologna (Italy); Ben Ami, S [Technion Israel Institute of Technology (Israel); Bendel, M [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Benhammou, Y [Tel Aviv University (Israel); Berge, D. [CERN, PH Department (Switzerland)], E-mail: David.Berge@cern.ch; Bianco, M [Universita degli Studi di Lecce and INFN Lecce (Italy); Biglietti, M G [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN Napoli (Italy); Bohm, C [Fysikum, University of Stockholm, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Booth, J R.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Boscherini, D [INFN Bologna and Universita degli Studi di Bologna (Italy)

    2007-10-21

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. At the design luminosity of 10{sup 34}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} there are on average 23 collisions per bunch crossing. A three-level trigger system will select potentially interesting events in order to reduce the readout rate to about 200 Hz. The first trigger level is implemented in custom-built electronics and makes an initial fast selection based on detector data of coarse granularity. It has to reduce the rate by a factor of 10{sup 4} to less than 100 kHz. The other two consecutive trigger levels are in software and run on PC farms. We present an overview of the first-level trigger system and report on the current installation status. Moreover, we show analysis results of cosmic-ray data recorded in situ at the ATLAS experimental site with final or close-to-final hardware.

  7. The ATLAS level-1 trigger: Status of the system and first results from cosmic-ray data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aielli, G.; Andrei, V.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Antonelli, S.; Ask, S.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bellagamba, L.; Ben Ami, S.; Bendel, M.; Benhammou, Y.; Berge, D.; Bianco, M.; Biglietti, M.G.; Bohm, C.; Booth, J.R.A.; Boscherini, D.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. At the design luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 there are on average 23 collisions per bunch crossing. A three-level trigger system will select potentially interesting events in order to reduce the readout rate to about 200 Hz. The first trigger level is implemented in custom-built electronics and makes an initial fast selection based on detector data of coarse granularity. It has to reduce the rate by a factor of 10 4 to less than 100 kHz. The other two consecutive trigger levels are in software and run on PC farms. We present an overview of the first-level trigger system and report on the current installation status. Moreover, we show analysis results of cosmic-ray data recorded in situ at the ATLAS experimental site with final or close-to-final hardware

  8. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationships between suggestibility, influenceability, and relaxability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Frey, Olga; Szpitalak, Malwina

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the relationships between relaxability and various aspects of suggestibility and influenceability. The Jacobson Progressive Muscle Relaxation procedure was used to induce relaxation. Tests of direct suggestibility, relating to the susceptibility of overt suggestions, and indirect suggestibility, referring to indirect hidden influence, as well as self-description questionnaires on suggestibility and the tendency to comply were used. Thayer's Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List, measuring various kinds of activation and used as a pre- and posttest, determined the efficacy of the relaxation procedure. Indirect, direct, and self-measured suggestibility proved to be positively related to the ability to relax, measured by Thayer's subscales relating to emotions. Compliance was not related to relaxability. The results are discussed in terms of the aspects of relaxation training connected with suggestibility.

  10. Results of the CRCPD survey of 1984 low-level radioactive waste: progress to mid-September, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    The survey of 1984 low-level radioactive waste by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc., is the second such survey. The previous survey was for waste generated during 1982. The CRCPD survey of 1984 LLRW requested information concerning the license, the effluents and other on-site managed wastes, details of exported waste type, the capacity for storing waste prior to shipment and its average utilization during 1984. Details of the exported waste included waste type, processing and packaging, NRC class, burial site or broker to which the waste was sent, and anticipated waste generation by year and by class through 1989. Shortcomings of the questionnaire and preliminary results are discussed. Based on the results of the two surveys of low-level radioactive waste conducted by the CRCPD, and the serious discrepancies which exist between data on waste shipped by generators and that on waste received by disposal sites, the following recommendation is made. That a single, national repository be established for all data on the generation and ultimate disposition of low-level radioactive waste. 1 figure, 1 table

  11. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Interactive web visualization tools to the results interpretation of a seismic risk study aimed at the emergency levels definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gutierrez, V.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    municipalities according to the expected actuation level and eventually, to alert levels. In this regard, the visualization tool constitutes an intuitive and useful tool that the end-user of the risk study may use to optimize and guide its application on emergency planning. The use of this type of tools can be adapted to other scenarios with different boundary conditions (seismicity level, vulnerability distribution) and user profiles (policy makers, stakeholders, students, general public) maintaining the same final goal: to improve the adaptation of the results of a scientific-technical work to the needs of other users with different backgrounds.

  13. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  14. Homocysteine levels are associated with the results of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in type 2 diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, Futoshi; Yonemochi, Hidetoshi; Nakagawa, Mikiko; Saikawa, Tetsunori [Oita University, Department of Cardiovascular Science, Faculty of Medicine, Hasama, Oita (Japan); Masaki, Takayuki; Takahashi, Naohiko; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu [Oita University, Department of Internal Medicine I, Oita (Japan); Eshima, Nobuoki [Oita University, Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Oita (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction are associated with a high mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. We tested the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients not receiving insulin treatment. The study group consisted of 17 type 2 diabetic patients with high tHcy levels (>15 mmol/l, age 58{+-}5 years, high tHcy group). The control group consisted of 23 age-matched type 2 diabetic patients with normal tHcy levels ({<=}15 mmol/l, age 58{+-}9 years, normal tHcy group). Cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed by baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, plasma norepinephrine concentrations, and cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Early and delayed {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial uptake values were lower (p<0.005 and p<0.01, respectively) and the percent washout rate of {sup 123}I-MIBG was higher (p<0.001) in the high tHcy group than in the normal tHcy group. The fasting plasma insulin concentrations (p<0.0001) and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index values (p<0.0001) were higher in the high tHcy group than in the normal tHcy group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the level of tHcy was independently predicted by the HOMA index values and the myocardial uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG at the delayed phase. Our results demonstrate that high levels of tHcy are associated with depressed cardiovascular autonomic function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  15. Disruption of Hox9,10,11 function results in cellular level lineage infidelity in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Keri A; Adam, Mike; Mahoney, Robert; Potter, S Steven

    2018-04-20

    Hox genes are important regulators of development. The 39 mammalian Hox genes have considerable functional overlap, greatly confounding their study. In this report, we generated mice with multiple combinations of paralogous and flanking Abd-B Hox gene mutations to investigate functional redundancies in kidney development. The resulting mice developed a number of kidney abnormalities, including hypoplasia, agenesis, and severe cysts, with distinct Hox functions observed in early metanephric kidney formation and nephron progenitor maintenance. Most surprising, however, was that extensive removal of Hox shared function in these kidneys resulted in cellular level lineage infidelity. Strikingly, mutant nephron tubules consisted of intermixed cells with proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and collecting duct identities, with some single cells expressing markers associated with more than one nephron segment. These results indicate that Hox genes are required for proper lineage selection/maintenance and full repression of genes involved in cell fate restriction in the developing kidney.

  16. Preliminary assessment of clinoptilolite K/Ar results from Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A potential high-level radioactive waste repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Bish, D.L.; Broxton, D.E.; Chipera, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    At Yucca Mountain, evidence for at least three distinct temporal groups of clinoptilolites can be delineated from the preliminary K/Ar dates (2--3 Ma; 4--5 Ma; 7--11 Ma). The older K/Ar dates that are similar to published illite/smectite ages (9--12 Ma) may be crystallization ages, whereas the younger dates probably represent continued diagenetic reactions of older clinoptilolites with percolating fluids. The K/Ar dates increase with depth, suggesting minimal argon loss in the deeper samples. Internal consistency of the clinoptilolite K/Ar results at different levels within the drill holes suggest that dating of K-rich zeolites may provide useful information for assessing the zeolitization at Yucca Mountain. Variations in the K/Ar dates are probably related to Ar loss during dissolution of older clinoptilolites and to contamination by finely crystalline feldspars

  17. Results of practical application of questionnaire to determine the level of dentophobia and dynamics in the doctor— patient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savina Е.А.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to develop a questionnaire for assessing the level of dentophobia and dynamics of the relationship in the «doctor-patient» in the course of treatment and to conduct its clinical trials. Material and Methods. 90 patients aged 26-56 years with chronic generalized periodontitis have been examined. The research has been conducted by Hospital Anxiety and depression (HADS questionnaire to determine the level of dentophobia; psychophysiological testing was carried out on the hardware-software complex (APC «NS-Psychotest» (LLC «Neurosoft», Russia, Ivanovo, 2007. Clinical examination included examination of the mouth and the index of assessment of hard tissue of teeth and peri-odontal tissue: a defining simplified oral hygiene index (UIG, sulcus bleeding index (IR, gingival index (PMA. The survey was carried out before the treatment and 3 months after the treatment. Statistical analysis was performed in the program Statistica. Using non-parametric methods (Wilcoxon test, criterion A2, Spearman correlation coefficient. Statistically significant differences with p < 0,05 were considered. Results. The development of the questionnaire was carried out in accordance with all generally accepted standards. The initial testing was performed easily by patients. During the clinical trials visible results of the proposed questionnaire were obtained that proved its sensitivity to the changes in dental and psychological status of the oral cavity. Conclusion. The practical application of the questionnaire determines the level of dentophobia during the first visit. The data of the questionnaire identify the differentiated deontological approach. It improves the relationship with the patient, reduces his level of dentophobia. The reduced dentophobia promotes compliance and psychologically comfortable communication in the doctor-patient system, which also contributes to the prevention of emotional burn out among dentists.

  18. Are Serum Vitamin D Levels Associated With Dry Eye Disease? Results From the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Hye Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Dry eye disease (DED is an increasingly important public health problem in Korea. Previous studies conducted in Korea have reported inconsistent results regarding the protective effects of vitamin D on DED, and these discrepancies may be related to the relatively simple questionnaire that has been used. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum vitamin D levels with DED using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI. Methods The present study evaluated data from participants in the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease (2014-2015. This group included data from 752 participants, and data from 740 participants (253 men and 487 women were analyzed in the present study. DED severity was evaluated using the OSDI. Results Higher serum vitamin D levels were associated with a non-significantly reduced risk of DED in the crude analysis (odds ratio [OR], 0.991; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.971 to 1.011 and in the adjusted analysis (OR, 0.988; 95% CI, 0.966 to 1.010. In the crude analysis of no/mild DED vs. moderate/severe DED, men exhibited a decreased risk with increasing serum vitamin D levels (OR, 0.999; 95% CI, 0.950 to 1.051, while women exhibited an increased risk (OR, 1.003; 95% CI, 0.979 to 1.027. In these analyses, we found no significant associations. Conclusions The findings of the present study support previous reports that serum vitamin D levels are not associated with DED.

  19. What can we learn from high-frequency appliance-level energy metering? Results from a field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Victor L.; Delmas, Magali A.; Kaiser, William J.; Locke, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses high-frequency appliance-level electricity consumption data for 124 apartments over 24 months to provide a better understanding of appliance-level electricity consumption behavior. We conduct our analysis in a standardized set of apartments with similar appliances, which allows us to identify behavioral differences in electricity use. The Results show that households' estimations of appliance-level consumption are inaccurate and that they overestimate lighting use by 75% and underestimate plug-load use by 29%. We find that similar households using the same major appliances exhibit substantial variation in appliance-level electricity consumption. For example, households in the 75th percentile of HVAC usage use over four times as much electricity as a user in the 25th percentile. Additionally, we show that behavior accounts for 25–58% of this variation. Lastly, we find that replacing the existing refrigerator with a more energy-efficient model leads to overall energy savings of approximately 11%. This is equivalent to results from behavioral interventions targeting all appliances but might not be as cost effective. Our findings have important implications for behavior-based energy conservation policies. - Highlights: • Hourly electricity usage was collected from 124 comparable apartments for 24 months. • Households overestimate lighting use by 75% and underestimate HVAC usage by 29%. • Households using the same appliances show substantial variations in electricity use. • Plug load accounts for the largest share of electricity use at all hours of the day. • Savings of 11% were achieved by replacing old refrigerators

  20. Evidence Suggesting Absence of Mitochondrial DNA Methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mechta, Mie; Ingerslev, Lars R; Fabre, Odile

    2017-01-01

    , 16S, ND5 and CYTB, suggesting that mtDNA supercoiled structure blocks the access to bisulfite conversion. Here, we identified an artifact of mtDNA bisulfite sequencing that can lead to an overestimation of mtDNA methylation levels. Our study supports that cytosine methylation is virtually absent...

  1. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenzer, Stefan; Crawford, Hayley; Pymm, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    these regions encode epitopes presented by ~30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ~60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions...... of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most...

  2. Summary of EPA's risk assessment results from the analysis of alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrowski, M.S.; Hung, C.Y.; Meyer, G.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential health risk and individual exposure from a broad number of disposal alternatives is an important part of EPA's program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The Agency has completed an analysis of the potential population health risks and maximum individual exposures from ten disposal methods under three different hydrogeological and climatic settings. This paper briefly describes the general input and analysis procedures used in the risk assessment for LLW disposal and presents their preliminary results. Some important lessons learned from simulating LLW disposal under a large variety of methods and conditions are identified

  3. The analysis and countermeasures of intravenous infusion operation assessment results analysis in nursing students at different levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-rong ZHAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the problems existed in nursing students at different levels in the process of intravenous infusion, to make judgmental guide towards common problems in clinical teaching, to standardize nursing students’ operations at intravenous infusion, and to avoid errors and disputes. Methods: The authors analyzed the problems in secondary, tertiary, undergraduate nursing students in three levels at a provincial hospital from 2010 to 2012 during intravenous infusion therapy; and the clinical teaching administration means were also discussed. Results: the difference of the problems existed in nursing students at different levels is not significant. P values were greater than 0.05. The top five projects that lost scores are consistent. Conclusion: The key problems that can easily cause errors and disputes are those that mostly occurred in nursing students at intravenous infusion operations. In clinical teaching, judgmental guide on common problems should be emphasized, nursing students’ operations at intravenous infusion should be standardized, the critical awareness towards clinical operations should be developed, errors and disputes should be avoided, and nursing students’ sense of professionalism should be enhanced.

  4. Decision-making Processes among Prostate Cancer Survivors with Rising PSA Levels: Results from a Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Nelson, Christian J; Peters, Ellen; Slovin, Susan F; Hall, Simon J; Hall, Matt; Herrera, Phapichaya Chaoprang; Leventhal, Elaine A; Leventhal, Howard; Diefenbach, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer survivors with a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level have few treatment options, experience a heightened state of uncertainty about their disease trajectory that might include the possibility of cancer metastasis and death, and often experience elevated levels of distress as they have to deal with a disease they thought they had conquered. Guided by self-regulation theory, the present study examined the cognitive and affective processes involved in shared decision making between physicians and patients who experience a rising PSA after definitive treatment for prostate cancer. In-depth interviews were conducted with 34 prostate cancer survivors who had been diagnosed with a rising PSA (i.e., biochemical failure) within the past 12 months. Survivors were asked about their experiences and affective responses after being diagnosed with a rising PSA and while weighing potential treatment options. In addition, patients were asked about their decision-making process for the initial prostate cancer treatment. Compared with the initial diagnosis, survivors with a rising PSA reported increased negative affect following their diagnosis, concern about the treatability of their disease, increased planning and health behavior change, heightened levels of worry preceding doctor appointments (especially prior to the discussion of PSA testing results), and a strong reliance on physicians' treatment recommendations. Prostate cancer survivors' decision-making processes for the treatment of a rising PSA are markedly different from those of the initial diagnosis of prostate cancer. Because patients experience heightened distress and rely more heavily on their physicians' recommendations with a rising PSA, interactions with the health care provider provide an excellent opportunity to address and assist patients with managing the uncertainty and distress inherent with rising PSA levels. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Comparison of elastic and inelastic analysis and test results for the defense high level waste shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.A.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the US DOE/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and DOT regulations. General Atomics designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Labs. (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This paper will compare the results of the two analytical approaches and with model testing results. The purpose of this work is to provide data to support licensing of the DHLW cask and to support the acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing

  6. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (changes on mid-ocean ridges. Although our results are consistent with the general number and timing of Paleocene to middle Miocene sequences published by workers at Exxon Production Research Company, our estimates of sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist of basal transgressive sands overlain by regressive highstand silts and quartz sands; and (2) although slope lithofacies variations are subdued, reworked sediments constitute lowstand deposits, causing the strongest, most extensive seismic reflections. Despite a primary eustatic control on sequence boundaries, New Jersey sequences were also influenced by changes in tectonics, sediment supply, and climate. During the early to middle Eocene, low siliciclastic and

  7. Serum levels of pancreatic stone protein (PSP/reg1A as an indicator of beta-cell apoptosis suggest an increased apoptosis rate in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A-MODY carriers from the third decade of life onward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacon Siobhan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-alpha (HNF1A result in the commonest type of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY. HNF1A-MODY carriers have reduced pancreatic beta cell mass, partially due to an increased rate of apoptosis. To date, it has not been possible to determine when apoptosis is occurring in HNF1A-MODY.We have recently demonstrated that beta cell apoptosis stimulates the expression of the pancreatic stone protein/regenerating (PSP/reg gene in surviving neighbour cells, and that PSP/reg1A protein is subsequently secreted from these cells. The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of PSP/reg1A are elevated during disease progression in HNF1A-MODY carriers, and whether it may provide information regarding the onset of beta-cell apoptosis. Methods We analysed serum PSP/reg1A levels and correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in subjects with HNF1A-MODY, glucokinase (GCK-MODY, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. A control group of normoglycaemic subjects was also analysed. Results PSP/reg1A serum levels were significantly elevated in HNF1A-MODY (n = 37 subjects compared to controls (n = 60 (median = 12.50 ng/ml, IQR = 10.61-17.87 ng/ml versus median = 10.72 ng/ml, IQR = 8.94-12.54 ng/ml, p = 0.0008. PSP/reg1A correlated negatively with insulin levels during OGTT, (rho = −0.40, p = 0.02. Interestingly we noted a significant positive correlation of PSP/reg1A with age of the HNF1A-MODY carriers (rho = 0.40 p = 0.02 with an age of 25 years separating carriers with low and high PSP/reg1A levels. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also had elevated serum levels of PSP/reg1A compared to controls, however this was independent of the duration of diabetes. Conclusion Our data suggest that beta cell apoptosis contributes increasingly to the pathophysiology of HNF1A-MODY in patients 25 years and over

  8. Serum levels of pancreatic stone protein (PSP)/reg1A as an indicator of beta-cell apoptosis suggest an increased apoptosis rate in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A-MODY) carriers from the third decade of life onward

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bacon, Siobhan

    2012-07-18

    AbstractBackgroundMutations in the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-alpha (HNF1A) result in the commonest type of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). HNF1A-MODY carriers have reduced pancreatic beta cell mass, partially due to an increased rate of apoptosis. To date, it has not been possible to determine when apoptosis is occurring in HNF1A-MODY.We have recently demonstrated that beta cell apoptosis stimulates the expression of the pancreatic stone protein\\/regenerating (PSP\\/reg) gene in surviving neighbour cells, and that PSP\\/reg1A protein is subsequently secreted from these cells. The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of PSP\\/reg1A are elevated during disease progression in HNF1A-MODY carriers, and whether it may provide information regarding the onset of beta-cell apoptosis.MethodsWe analysed serum PSP\\/reg1A levels and correlated with clinical and biochemical parameters in subjects with HNF1A-MODY, glucokinase (GCK-MODY), and type 1 diabetes mellitus. A control group of normoglycaemic subjects was also analysed.ResultsPSP\\/reg1A serum levels were significantly elevated in HNF1A-MODY (n = 37) subjects compared to controls (n = 60) (median = 12.50 ng\\/ml, IQR = 10.61-17.87 ng\\/ml versus median = 10.72 ng\\/ml, IQR = 8.94-12.54 ng\\/ml, p = 0.0008). PSP\\/reg1A correlated negatively with insulin levels during OGTT, (rho = −0.40, p = 0.02). Interestingly we noted a significant positive correlation of PSP\\/reg1A with age of the HNF1A-MODY carriers (rho = 0.40 p = 0.02) with an age of 25 years separating carriers with low and high PSP\\/reg1A levels. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus also had elevated serum levels of PSP\\/reg1A compared to controls, however this was independent of the duration of diabetes.ConclusionOur data suggest that beta cell apoptosis contributes increasingly to the pathophysiology of HNF1A-MODY in patients 25 years and

  9. Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment of low power and shutdown operations at a PWR: Phase 2 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Musicki, Z.; Wong, S.M.; Yang, J.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Su, R.F.; Holmes, B.; Siu, N.; Bley, D.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident and other precursor events (e.g., Diablo Canyon), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) initiated an extensive project during 1989 to carefully examine the potential risks during Low Power and Shutdown (LP ampersand S) operations. Shortly after the program began, an event occurred at the Vogtle plant during shutdown, which further intensified the effort of the LP ampersand S program. In the LP ampersand S program, one pressurized water reactor (PWR), Surry, and one boiling water reactor (BWR), Grand Gulf, were selected, mainly because they were previously analyzed in the NUREG-1150 Study. The Level-1 Program is being performed in two phases. Phase 1 was dedicated to performing a coarse screening level-1 analysis including internal fire and flood. A draft report was completed in November, 1991. In the phase 2 study, mid-loop operations at the Surry plant were analyzed in detail. The objective of this paper is to present the approach of the phase 2 study and the preliminary results and insights

  10. Evaluation of thermal ratchetting on axisymmetric thin shells at the free level of sodium: Experimental results and elastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, M.T.; Gatt, J.M.; Schoulguine, P.; Skiara, A.

    1993-01-01

    Startup operations and load variations for a FBR reactor (Fast Breeder Reactor) cause sodium level variations in the vessels which exert stresses on the emergent shells in the free level area. The loading of these shells is mainly linked to the axial thermal gradient, primary stresses being generally low or negligible as are the radial thermal gradients. Under the effect of these variable axial thermal gradients, there is a risk of progressive deformation even in the absence of primary type stresses. The simplified methods of analysis (Bree diagram, efficiency diagram) proposed in the design codes (Code Case and RCCMR) are not applicable in this specific case where primary type stresses are negligible. In recent years, many studies and experimental programmes have been undertaken in order to propose more reliable methods of analysis for these structures. This paper describes the experimental program, called VINIL, developed at the CEA at Cadarache. After a brief description of the experimental facility and of the experimental results, this paper proposes an evaluation of the risk of progressive deformation on an elastic basis: various simplified methods of analysis were used and are compared with experimental results

  11. Long-term management of wastes resulting from dismantling operations. Storing the very low-level activity wastes at Morvilliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, F.; Dutzer, M.; Beranger, V.; Lecoq, P.

    2003-01-01

    Extension of dismantling operations in France in the years to come poses the question of availability of long-term waste facility. Large amount of such wastes will be produced after progressive shutdown of the 58 pressurized water reactors now in operation, not before 2010. However, France is already confronted with dismantling of 9 power reactors (6 of which of gas cooled graphite type), the first reprocessing plant at Marcoule, as well as, dismantling of other installations, for instance the CEA reactors or laboratories. The systems of processing the dismantling waste are not different from those used for wastes resulting from nuclear operations. For the high-level or long-term intermediate level activity disposal the debates must start by 2006, as based on the results of the research conducted according to different provisions of the December 30, 1991 law. These wastes represent however small amounts from the dismantling (around 2000 t for the 9 reactors at shutdown) and they will be stored until a decision will be made. A specific storing system should be implemented by 2008-2010 for the graphite wastes (around 23,000 t) which contain significant amount of long-lived radioelements, although their gross activity is low. But the most significant amount will come from low-level or intermediate-level of short lifetime or from wastes of very low activity. The first category is stored at Storage Center at Aube (CSA), its capacity being of 1,000,000 m 3 of drums. The total volume stored by the end of 2002 amounted 136,500 m 3 with an annual delivering of 12-15,000 m 3 at design rate of 30,000 m 3 /y. This center will be able to absorb the flux increase resulting from dismantling of the decommissioned nuclear installations (around 50,000 t from the dismantling of the 9 power reactor). The Center at Aube can be also adapted for storing wastes of large sizes as for instance the lid of the reactor vessel. According to the French regulation, the wastes produced within a

  12. Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase inhibition results in unique perturbation-specific effects observed on transcript, protein and metabolite levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louw Abraham I

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, has evolved to become resistant to previously successful antimalarial chemotherapies, most notably chloroquine and the antifolates. The prevalence of resistant strains has necessitated the discovery and development of new chemical entities with novel modes-of-action. Although much effort has been invested in the creation of analogues based on existing drugs and the screening of chemical and natural compound libraries, a crucial shortcoming in current Plasmodial drug discovery efforts remains the lack of an extensive set of novel, validated drug targets. A requirement of these targets (or the pathways in which they function is that they prove essential for parasite survival. The polyamine biosynthetic pathway, responsible for the metabolism of highly abundant amines crucial for parasite growth, proliferation and differentiation, is currently under investigation as an antimalarial target. Chemotherapeutic strategies targeting this pathway have been successfully utilized for the treatment of Trypanosomes causing West African sleeping sickness. In order to further evaluate polyamine depletion as possible antimalarial intervention, the consequences of inhibiting P. falciparum spermidine synthase (PfSpdSyn were examined on a morphological, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic level. Results Morphological analysis of P. falciparum 3D7 following application of the PfSpdSyn inhibitor cyclohexylamine confirmed that parasite development was completely arrested at the early trophozoite stage. This is in contrast to untreated parasites which progressed to late trophozoites at comparable time points. Global gene expression analyses confirmed a transcriptional arrest in the parasite. Several of the differentially expressed genes mapped to the polyamine biosynthetic and associated metabolic pathways. Differential expression of corresponding parasite proteins involved in

  13. Are Dysphoric Individuals More Suggestible or Less Suggestible Than Nondysphoric Individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, Wendy L.; Morris, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    Dysphoric individuals are shown to be susceptible to interrogative suggestion, whether in the form of leading questions or interrogative pressure. The association of a clinically relevant condition of dysphoria (depression) with relatively high levels of suggestibility was investigated in a college student population (N=139). Applicability to…

  14. Normal results of post-race thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in marathon runners with elevated serum MB creatine kinase levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.J.; Silverman, L.M.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Elevated cardiac enzyme values in asymptomatic marathon runners after competition can arise from skeletal muscle through exertional rhabdomyolysis, silent injury to the myocardium, or a combined tissue source. Peak post-race levels of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase are similar to values in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Previously reported normal results of infarct-avid myocardial scintigraphy with technetium 99m pyrophosphate in runners after competition suggest a non-cardiac source but cannot exclude silent injury to the myocardium. Therefore, thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in runners immediately after competition together with determination of sequential cardiac enzyme levels. Among 15 runners tested, the average peak in serum MB creatine kinase 24 hours after the race was 128 IU/liter with a cumulative MB creatine kinase release of 117 IU/liter; these values are comparable to those in patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. Thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphic results were normal in five runners randomly selected from those who volunteered for determination of sequential blood levels. It is concluded that elevations of serum MB creatine kinase in marathon runners arise from a skeletal muscle source and that thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy is useful to assess runners for myocardial injury when clinical questions arise

  15. Protein-Level Integration Strategy of Multiengine MS Spectra Search Results for Higher Confidence and Sequence Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Zhong, Jiayong; Liu, Wanting; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Gong

    2017-12-01

    Multiple search engines based on various models have been developed to search MS/MS spectra against a reference database, providing different results for the same data set. How to integrate these results efficiently with minimal compromise on false discoveries is an open question due to the lack of an independent, reliable, and highly sensitive standard. We took the advantage of the translating mRNA sequencing (RNC-seq) result as a standard to evaluate the integration strategies of the protein identifications from various search engines. We used seven mainstream search engines (Andromeda, Mascot, OMSSA, X!Tandem, pFind, InsPecT, and ProVerB) to search the same label-free MS data sets of human cell lines Hep3B, MHCCLM3, and MHCC97H from the Chinese C-HPP Consortium for Chromosomes 1, 8, and 20. As expected, the union of seven engines resulted in a boosted false identification, whereas the intersection of seven engines remarkably decreased the identification power. We found that identifications of at least two out of seven engines resulted in maximizing the protein identification power while minimizing the ratio of suspicious/translation-supported identifications (STR), as monitored by our STR index, based on RNC-Seq. Furthermore, this strategy also significantly improves the peptides coverage of the protein amino acid sequence. In summary, we demonstrated a simple strategy to significantly improve the performance for shotgun mass spectrometry by protein-level integrating multiple search engines, maximizing the utilization of the current MS spectra without additional experimental work.

  16. Treatment and conditioning of low-level radioactive waste in Belgium: initial operating results of the Cilva facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsch, O.; Renard, C.; Deckers, J.; Luycx, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Belgian National Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Material Agency (ONDRAF), which is responsible for the management of all radioactive waste in Belgium, recently decided to commission the CILVA facility. Operation of this facility, which comprises a number of units for the treatment of low-level radwaste, has been contracted to ONDRAF's Belgoprocess subsidiary based at the Dessel site. A consortium comprising SGN and Fabricom was in charge of building the CILVA facility's waste preparation and conditioning (concrete solidification) units. The concrete solidification processes, which were devised and developed by SGN, have been qualified to secure ONDRAF certification of the process and the facility. This enabled active commissioning of the waste conditioning unit in mid-August 1994. Active commissioning of the waste preparation unit was carried out in several stages up to the beginning of 1995 in accordance with operating requirements. Initial operating results of the two units are presented. (author)

  17. Trends in Surface Level Ozone Observations from Human-health Relevant Metrics: Results from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Doherty, R. M.; Malley, C.; Cooper, O. R.; Pinto, J. P.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant formed in the atmosphere from precursor species (NOx, VOCs, CH4, CO) that is detrimental to human health and ecosystems. The global Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) initiative has assembled a global database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world. This talk will present results from the assessment focused on those indicators most relevant to human health. Specifically, the trends in ozone, comparing different time periods and patterns across regions and among metrics will be addressed. In addition, the fraction of population exposed to high ozone levels and how this has changed between 2000 and 2014 will also be discussed. The core time period analyzed for trends was 2000-2014, selected to include a greater number of sites in East Asia. Negative trends were most commonly observed at many US and some European sites, whereas many sites in East Asia showed positive trends, while sites in Japan showed more of a mix of positive and negative trends. More than half of the sites showed a common direction and significance in the trends for all five human-health relevant metrics. The peak ozone metrics indicate a reduction in exposure to peak levels of ozone related to photochemical episodes in Europe and the US. A considerable number of European countries and states within the US have shown a decrease in population-weighted ozone over time. The 2000-2014 results will be augmented and compared to the trend analysis for additional time periods that cover a greater number of years, but by necessity are based on fewer sites. Trends are found to be statistically significant at a larger fraction of sites with longer time series, compared to the shorter (2000-2014) time series.

  18. THE PROBLEM OF USING GADGETS AS A MEANS OF FALSIFICATION OF RESULTS CHECK LEVEL OF STUDENTS KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav A. Lipatov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the present research is studying of the range, technical characteristics, and also price categories of micro earphones, the devices intended for simplification by the pupil of examination and distorting the level of knowledge on control activities.Methods. The formalized interview is used as the main method of the research, i.e. a conversation on detailed developed program including a consistent design of seventeen closed and open questions, and also versions of possible answers.Results. The suppliers and sellers of micro earphones were interviewed on the Internet by mobile communication. Besides, the analysis of the relevant information posted at discussion boards, social networks, etc. is carried out. Statistical material is processed, tabulated and visually demonstrated in charts. The obtained data allow us to estimate geography, specification of types, a technical and price variety of the technical means which are used by students to falsification of results of their education. The conclusion is drawn that this type of devices in the Russian market promptly extends and is in huge demand both with students and school pupils.Scientific novelty. The opinions of suppliers and sellers regarding technical characteristics, harm to health and availability of micro earphones to pupils are studied for the first time. The range of offers and price range of these gadgets are analysed.Practical significance. The present investigation can serve as informative basis while developing the recommendations and methods of fight against application of technical means for cheating using electronic technical means at various stages of control of knowledge. These measures are necessary for identification of actual, but not fictitious level of knowledge of pupils, and improvement of quality of education in higher education institutions and schools. 

  19. Fetal Environment Is a Major Determinant of the Neonatal Blood Thyroxine Level: Results of a Large Dutch Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Mesfum, Ertirea T; Wiedijk, Brenda; Oomen, Petra; Finken, Martijn J J; Boomsma, Dorret I; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul

    2015-06-01

    The interindividual variability in thyroid hormone function parameters is much larger than the intraindividual variability, suggesting an individual set point for these parameters. There is evidence to suggest that environmental factors are more important than genetic factors in the determination of this individual set point. This study aimed to quantify the effect of genetic factors and (fetal) environment on the early postnatal blood T4 concentration. This was a classical twin study comparing the resemblance of neonatal screening blood T4 concentrations in 1264 mono- and 2566 dizygotic twin pairs retrieved from the population-based Netherlands Twin Register. Maximum-likelihood estimates of variance explained by genetic and environmental influences were obtained by structural equation modeling in data from full-term and preterm twin pairs. In full-term infants, genetic factors explained 40%/31% of the variance in standardized T4 scores in boys/girls, and shared environment, 27%/22%. The remaining variance of 33%/47% was due to environmental factors not shared by twins. For preterm infants, genetic factors explained 34%/0% of the variance in boys/girls, shared environment 31%/57%, and unique environment 35%/43%. In very preterm twins, no significant contribution of genetic factors was observed. Environment explains a large proportion of the resemblance of the postnatal blood T4 concentration in twin pairs. Because we analyzed neonatal screening results, the fetal environment is the most likely candidate for these environmental influences. Genetic influences on the T4 set point diminished with declining gestational age, especially in girls. This may be due to major environmental influences such as immaturity and nonthyroidal illness in very preterm infants.

  20. Preliminary results from the laboratory study of a flow-through fluorometer for measuring oil-in-water levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Pearson, L.; Collazzi, E.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive bench-scale test program was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Turner Instruments flow-through model 10AU and model 10 fluorometers for measuring real-time concentrations of oil in water. The results were compared with alternative total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) methods. The 10AU model was equipped with a long wavelength optical kit, the other with the short wavelength optical kit for diesel fuels and light refined oil products. The oils tested were Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil, Bunker C fuel oil and diesel fuel. It was determined that the long wavelength optical kit has minimal capacity to detect and quantify diesel fuels compared to the short wavelength kit, although the latter exhibits a lower performance level. A calibration procedure was also established for oil-in-water to convert the real-time fluorometer data to oil concentrations. Initial comparisons of these tests with standard infrared and gas chromatography procedures were promising. It was determined that fluorometer data can differentiate between various oil-in-water concentrations, but regularly gives concentration values double those of the solvent extraction, infrared or gas chromatography methods. Future studies are being planned to relate the results of this study to the chemical composition of various oils. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Design Observational study. Setting Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Results Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). Conclusions This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. PMID:27266774

  2. Preliminary investigation results as applied to utilization of Ukrainian salt formations for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhunova, S.B.; Khrushchov, D.P.; Petrichenko, O.I.

    1994-01-01

    The salt-bearing formations have been investigated in five regions of Ukraine. Upper Devonian and Lower Permian evaporite formations in Dnieper-Donets Depression and in the NW part of Donets basin are considered to be promising for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Rock salt occurs there either as bedded salts or as salt pillows and salt diapirs. Preliminary studies have resulted in selection of several candidate sites that show promise for construction of a subsurface pilot lab. Ten salt domes and two sites in bedded salts have been proposed for further exploration. Based on microstructural studies it is possible to separate the body of a salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt blocks of different genesis, i.e.: (a) blocks characteristic of initial undisturbed sedimentary structure; (b) flow zones; (c) sliding planes; (d) bodies of loose or uncompacted rock salt. Ultramicrochemical examination of inclusions in halite have shown that they are composed of more than 40 minerals. It is emphasized that to assess suitability of a structure for construction of subsurface lab, and also the potential construction depth intervals, account should be taken of the results of ultra microchemical and microstructural data

  3. Work related Changes And New Understandings Of Prevention: Results Of Multi-Level Participatory Interventions In Four SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of four SMEs’ use of a multi-level participatory self-help intervention model (the PoWRS model – Prevention of Work Related Stress). The model itself supports a new view on prevention of work-related stress in the participating companies besides the concrete...... to explicate tacit knowledge about what creates enthusiasms and stress at the work place, Multi-voting which decided two work-related changes to be initiated, a KickOff session to mark the start-up of the actual changes, continuous interviews of colleagues by the in-house facilitators, and ongoing status...... be addressed and how prevention of work-related stress can be understood. In addition to supporting a new understanding of prevention, the use of the model also results in concrete changes which become solutions to the work-place’s current and specific problems. The use of the PoWRS model thus enables an SME...

  4. Results of level-ii oncoplasty in breast cancer patients: an early experience from a tertiary care hospital in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.; Ghazanfar, S.; Quraishy, S.; Iqbal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the oncologic and cosmetic outcomes for breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservation therapy using Level II oncoplasty techniques. Methods: The prospective, non-randomised and descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Surgery, Unit IV of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from December 2009 to November 2011 in which 21 consecutive women with breast carcinoma who underwent wide local excision with remodeling mammoplasty were enrolled. All patients were reviewed by the surgeon and medical oncologist every 3 months for the first year. A grading system of 5-1 (excellent to poor) was employed and those with 3 or more were considered to have acceptable results. Results: The mean patient age was 45.38+-10.09 years (range: 26-70); 11 (52.3%) were premenopausal and 10 (47.7%) were postmenopausal; and 5 (27.8%) had family history of breast cancer. The mean size of the tumour determined by histology was 59.9+-3.18 mm (range: 25-150). Eight (30%) patients received preoperative chemotherapy to downsize the tumour. Three (14.2%) patients received preoperative radiotherapy. Mean operative time was 1.59+-0.52 hours (range: 1-2.5 hours). Mean volume of breast tissue excised from the breast containing the tumour was 545.27+-412.06 cm3 (range: 43.70-1456). Assessment of excision margins showed no tumour at the margins of 19 (90.4%) patients. Two (9.5%) patients had close but negative margins. The mean hospital stay was 7.10+-3.30 days (range: 4-15). There were early complications in 4 (19%) patients. One (4.76%) patient had late complications. Two (9.5%) patients developed tumour recurrence; both had an ipsilateral tumour recurrence. None of the patients developed metastases and one died of cardiac problem. Twenty (95.2%) patients had an acceptable post-surgical cosmetic result. Conclusion: Level II oncoplasty was a safe option in breast conservation allowing large sized and difficult-location tumour excision with good cosmetic outcome in the study

  5. Level of agreement among Latin American glaucoma subspecialists on the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma: results of an online survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Grigera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to assess the level of agreement among glaucoma experts in Latin America on key practices related to treatment and diagnosis of glaucoma. METHODS: An online questionnaire was sent to a multinational panel of glaucoma experts. The questionnaire contained 107 statements on the medical treatment (Part 1 and diagnosis (Part 2 of glaucoma, and was developed in Spanish and translated into English. Agreement was defined as >70% of respondents. RESULTS: Fifty participants from 14 countries completed the questionnaire. For the medical treatment of glaucoma, nearly all respondents (98% or greater confirmed that medical treatment as first-line therapy is preferred to surgery, prostaglandin analogs are the medication of first choice for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, longitudinal monitoring of efficacy should include intraocular pressure, structural and functional status, as well as if patients' quality of life is impaired by the high cost of medication. For the diagnosis of glaucoma section, all respondents confirmed that, after initial examination, gonioscopy should be repeated over time, standard automated perimetry is the most important functional examination for diagnosis and monitoring of primary open-angle glaucoma, central corneal thickness is important in assessment of glaucoma, and computerized imaging tests help in clinical evaluation of optic disc. CONCLUSIONS: This survey shows a high level of agreement on most aspects of glaucoma diagnosis and treatment among Latin American glaucoma experts. Areas of disagreement highlight the need for further evidence or education. These findings will be useful for guiding future efforts to optimize glaucoma practice by clinicians in Latin America.

  6. A Community-Level Initiative to Prevent Obesity: Results From Kaiser Permanente's Healthy Eating Active Living Zones Initiative in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Atiedu, Akpene; Rauzon, Suzanne; Schwartz, Pamela M; Keene, Laura; Davoudi, Mehrnaz; Spring, Rebecca; Molina, Michelle; Lee, Lynda; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Steimberg, Clara; Tinajero, Roberta; Ravel, Jodi; Nudelman, Jean; Azuma, Andrea Misako; Kuo, Elena S; Solomon, Loel

    2018-05-01

    A growing number of health systems are leading health promotion efforts in their wider communities. What impact are these efforts having on health behaviors and ultimately health status? This paper presents evaluation results from the place-based Kaiser Permanente Healthy Eating Active Living Zones obesity prevention initiative, implemented in 2011-2015 in 12 low-income communities in Kaiser Permanente's Northern and Southern California Regions. The Healthy Eating Active Living Zones design targeted places and people through policy, environmental, and programmatic strategies. Each Healthy Eating Active Living Zone is a small, low-income community of 10,000 to 20,000 residents with high obesity rates and other health disparities. Community coalitions planned and implemented strategies in each community. A population-dose approach and pre and post surveys were used to assess impact of policy, program, and environmental change strategies; the analysis was conducted in 2016. Population dose is the product of reach (number of people affected by a strategy divided by target population size) and strength (the effect size or relative change in behavior for each person exposed to the strategy). More than 230 community change strategies were implemented over 3 years, encompassing policy, environmental, and programmatic changes as well as efforts to build community capacity to sustain strategies and make changes in the future. Positive population-level results were seen for higher-dose strategies, particularly those targeting youth physical activity. Higher-dose strategies were more likely to be found in communities with the longest duration of investment. These results demonstrate that strong (high-dose), community-based obesity prevention strategies can lead to improved health behaviors, particularly among youth in school settings. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is

  7. Results from five years of treatability studies using hydraulic binders to stabilize low-level mixed waste at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K.L.; Schwendiman, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes work involving bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted low-level mixed waste. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids; treatment techniques included hydraulic systems (Portland cement with and without additives), proprietary commercial formulations, and sulphur polymer cement. Solidification was performed to immobilize hazardous heavy metals (including mercury, lead, chromium, and cadmium), and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Pretreatment options for mixed wastes are discussed, using a decision tree based on the form of mixed waste and the type of hazardous constituents. Hundreds of small concrete monoliths were formed for a variety of waste types. The experimental parameters used for the hydraulic concrete systems include the ratio of waste to dry binder (Portland cement, proprietary materials, etc.), the total percentage of water in concrete, and the amount of concrete additives. The only parameter that was used for the sulfur polymer-based monoliths is ratio of waste to binder. Optimum concrete formulations or open-quotes recipesclose quotes for a given type of waste were derived through this study, as based on results from the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure analyses and a free liquids test. Overall results indicate that high waste loadings in the concrete can be achieved while the monolithic mass maintains excellent resistance to leaching of heavy metals. In our study the waste loadings in the concrete generally fell within the range of 0.5 to 2.0 kg mixed waste per kg dry binder. Likewise, the most favorable amount of water in concrete, which is highly dependent upon the concrete constituents, was determined to be generally within the range of 300 to 330 g/kg (30-33% by weight). The results of this bench-scale study will find applicability at facilities where mixed or hazardous waste solidification is a planned or ongoing activity. 19 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. The role of suggestibility in determinations of Miranda abilities: a study of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Richard; Harrison, Kimberly S; Rogstad, Jill E; LaFortune, Kathryn A; Hazelwood, Lisa L

    2010-02-01

    Traditionally, high levels of suggestibility have been widely assumed to be linked with diminished Miranda abilities, especially in relationship to the voluntariness of waivers. The current investigation examined suggestibility on the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales in a multisite study of pretrial defendants. One important finding was the inapplicability of British norms to American jurisdictions. Moreover, suggestibility appeared unrelated to Miranda comprehension, reasoning, and detainees' perceptions of police coercion. In testing rival hypotheses, defendants with high compliance had significantly lower Miranda comprehension and ability to reason about exercising Miranda rights than their counterparts with low compliance. Implications of these findings to forensic practice are examined.

  9. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and soluble adhesion molecules in relation to magnetic resonance imaging results and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millers, A.; Metra, M.; Mastina, M.; Platkajis, A.; Kukaine, R.

    2001-01-01

    One direction of research in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity that are capable of predicting subsequent course of disease and are sensitive to intervention by immunomodulatory therapies. Adhesion molecules and tumor necrosis factor-α of the cytokine superfamily are associated with inflammation-mediated blood-brain barrier dysfunction and demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS). This study investigates the relationship between the serum level of soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (alCAM), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in 18 patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS with different clinical activity. Patients with active gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced lesions on MRI showed a higher serum level of TNF-α, sVCA-1, slCAM-1 than RR MS patients without Gd-enhanced lesions. Control individuals (n=10) without MRI abnormalities had significantly lower serum levels of the above immunological parameters. These results suggest that serum levels of TNF-α and adhesion molecules slCAM-1 in RR MS patients are correlated with Gd-enhanced MRI and disease clinical activity and that they can be used as biological markers of disease activity. The soluble form of VCAM levels in peripheral blood did not correlate with disease activity and Gd-enhanced lesions of MRI. sVCAM as an early indicator of blood-brain barrier dysfunction may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in the relapsing phase of MS course. (authors)

  10. Long term follow up results of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen level in uterine cervix cancer treated by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the long term significance of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen (Ag) as a tumor marker in uterine cervix carcinoma. The SCC antigen levels of pre-radiotherapy and serial post-radiotherapy serum were analyzed in 48 patients who received radiotherapy with histologically proven primary SCC of the uterine cervix. Pre-radiotherapy SCC Ag level was high (≥2 ng/ml) at 79.2%. After the treatment, the SCC Ag level was significantly decreased. The SCC Ag level measured at about 3 months after radiotherapy was high at 23.0%. In further follow up measurements, a rise of the SCC Ag to a high level was well associated with clinical relapse. The specificity of the elevated SCC Ag level in association with recurrent or persistent disease was 100%, and the sensitivity was 85.7%. In 3 of 4 lung metastasis cases, lung lesions were detected in chest PA before elevation of the SCC Ag level. The median lead time of the high SCC Ag level to clinical recurrence was 4 months. SCC Ag was a good tumor marker for monitoring treatment effect in patients with increased pre-treatment levels except in case of early lung metastasis. Elevation of the SCC Ag level after radiotherapy accurately predicted the treatment failure with lead time of 4 months. But, in early lung metastasis cases, the SCC level may be normal temporarily. Thus, chest PA should be checked to evaluate the presence of lung metastasis

  11. Effects of school district factors on alcohol consumption: results of a multi-level analysis among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Ejstrud, Bo; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Area-level socio-economic factors are significantly related to a population's health. This study investigates how school district-level factors affect the initiation of alcohol drinking of Danish adolescents. METHODS: A survey sample of 11,223 female and male pupils in the 7th grade...... buildings. Other school district factors were not associated with drinking initiation when controlled for individual level factors. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of socio-economic variables at school district level seems to be smaller in the welfare state of Denmark than known for other countries. However...... from 447 schools across Denmark was analysed for the outcome variable drinking initiation and a number of individual level predictors. Aggregated variables on school district level were created from national registry data for education, occupational level and household savings of residents, type...

  12. Titanium and Zirconium Levels Are Associated with Changes in MicroRNAs Expression: Results from a Human Cross-Sectional Study on Obese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioni, Laura; Angelici, Laura; Vigna, Luisella; Farronato, Giampietro; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Bollati, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this study on 90 individuals we aimed at evaluating the microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile associated with personal levels of Titanium (Ti) and Zirconium (Zr) traced in hair samples. Ti and Zr materials are broadly used for dental implants but the biological reactions triggered by a long term presence of these materials in the oral cavity still need to be assessed. MiRNAs are mechanisms that need to be investigated as they play a fundamental role in the control of gene expression following external stimuli and contribute to a wide range of pathophysiological processes. Methods Using the TaqMan® Low-Density Array, we assessed the expression levels of 377 human miRNAs in peripheral blood of 90 subjects. Hair samples were analyzed for Ti and Zr content using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. We performed multivariable regression analysis to investigate the effects of Ti and Zr exposure on miRNA expression levels. We used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software to explore the functional role of the investigated miRNAs and the related target genes. Results Seven miRNAs (miR-99b, miR-142-5p, miR-152, miR-193a-5p, miR-323-3p, miR-335, miR-494) resulted specifically associated with Zr levels. The functional target analysis showed that miRNAs are involved in mechanisms such as inflammation, skeletal and connective tissue disorders. Conclusions Our data suggest that Zr is more bioactive than Ti and show that miRNAs are relevant molecular mechanisms sensitive to Zr exposure. PMID:27611787

  13. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  14. Results of sampling the contents of the liquid low-level waste evaporator feed tank W-22 at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of the fall 1994 sampling of the contents of the liquid low- level waste (LLLW) tank W-22 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Tank W-22 is the central collection and holding tank for LLLW at ORNL before the waste is transferred to the evaporators. Samples of the tank liquid and sludge were analyzed to determine (1) the major chemical constituents, (2) the principal radionuclides, (3) the metals listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Contract Laboratory Program Inorganic Target Analyte List, (4) organic compounds, and (5) some physical properties. The organic chemical characterization consisted of the determinations of the EPA Contract Laboratory Program Target Compound List semivolatile compounds, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water-soluble volatile organic compounds were also determined. Information provided in this report forms part of the technical basis in support of (1) waste management for the active LLLW system and (2) planning for the treatment and disposal of the waste

  15. Diagnostic reference levels for common computed tomography (CT) examinations: results from the first Nigerian nationwide dose survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, Ernest U; Adejoh, Thomas; Akwo, Judith D; Emeka, Owujekwe C; Modu, Ali A; Abba, Mohammed; Adesina, Kudirat A; Omiyi, David O; Chiegwu, Uche H

    2018-01-29

    To explore doses from common adult computed tomography (CT) examinations and propose national diagnostic reference levels (nDRLs) for Nigeria. This retrospective study was approved by the Nnamdi Azikiwe University and University Teaching Hospital Institutional Review Boards (IRB: NAUTH/CS/66/Vol8/84) and involved dose surveys of adult CT examinations across the six geographical regions of Nigeria and Abuja from January 2016 to August 2017. Dose data of adult head, chest and abdomen/pelvis CT examinations were extracted from patient folders. The median, 75th and 25th percentile CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and dose-length-product (DLP) were computed for each of these procedures. Effective doses (E) for these examinations were estimated using the k conversion factor as described in the ICRP publication 103 (E DLP  =  k × DLP ). The proposed 75th percentile CTDI vol for head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis are 61 mGy, 17 mGy, and 20 mGy, respectively. The corresponding DLPs are 1310 mGy.cm, 735 mGy.cm, and 1486 mGy.cm respectively. The effective doses were 2.75 mSv (head), 10.29 mSv (chest), and 22.29 mSv (abdomen/pelvis). Findings demonstrate wide dose variations within and across centres in Nigeria. The results also show CTDI vol comparable to international standards, but considerably higher DLP and effective doses.

  16. Association of Anthropometric and Lifestyle Parameters with Fitness Levels in Greek Schoolchildren: Results from the EYZHN Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannis Arnaoutis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of the study was to evaluate physical fitness (PF and identify its anthropometric and lifestyle determinants in a sample of Greek schoolchildren.MethodsThe study sample consisted of 335,810 schoolchildren (♂: 51.3%, 6–18 years old. Students’ anthropometric parameters and PF levels—assessed via the Eurofit test battery—were measured by trained physical education teachers and evaluated according to the available norms, while their lifestyle habits were assessed through a questionnaire.ResultsIn all applied PF tests, students’ performance was negatively associated with the presence of obesity and central obesity, defined through international criteria for body mass index and waist to height ratio, respectively. According to multiple logistic regression analysis, the presence of overweight/obesity [odds ratio (OR: 4.43, 95% confidence interval (CI: 3.98–4.93], low adherence to the MD (KIDMED ≤ 3 (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09–1.48, and increased time spent in sedentary activities (>2 h per day (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03–1.29 were positively associated with poor PF, after adjusting for age and sex. In contrast, for every 1 day increase in the weekly frequency of engagement in athletic activity, the probability of poor PF decreased by 26% (OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.72–0.77. In a similar model, the presence of central obesity emerged as an even stronger possible predictor of poor PF (OR: 5.20, 95% CI: 4.66–5.78, compared to the presence of general obesity.ConclusionHigher general or abdominal adiposity, as well as the adoption of a low-quality diet and a sedentary lifestyle, is strongly associated with low PF levels during childhood.

  17. Climatology of the Iberia coastal low-level wind jet: weather research forecasting model high-resolution results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. M. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal low-level jets (CLLJ are a low-tropospheric wind feature driven by the pressure gradient produced by a sharp contrast between high temperatures over land and lower temperatures over the sea. This contrast between the cold ocean and the warm land in the summer is intensified by the impact of the coastal parallel winds on the ocean generating upwelling currents, sharpening the temperature gradient close to the coast and giving rise to strong baroclinic structures at the coast. During summertime, the Iberian Peninsula is often under the effect of the Azores High and of a thermal low pressure system inland, leading to a seasonal wind, in the west coast, called the Nortada (northerly wind. This study presents a regional climatology of the CLLJ off the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula, based on a 9 km resolution downscaling dataset, produced using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF mesoscale model, forced by 19 years of ERA-Interim reanalysis (1989–2007. The simulation results show that the jet hourly frequency of occurrence in the summer is above 30% and decreases to about 10% during spring and autumn. The monthly frequencies of occurrence can reach higher values, around 40% in summer months, and reveal large inter-annual variability in all three seasons. In the summer, at a daily base, the CLLJ is present in almost 70% of the days. The CLLJ wind direction is mostly from north-northeasterly and occurs more persistently in three areas where the interaction of the jet flow with local capes and headlands is more pronounced. The coastal jets in this area occur at heights between 300 and 400 m, and its speed has a mean around 15 m/s, reaching maximum speeds of 25 m/s.

  18. Levels and predictors of airborne and internal exposure to chromium and nickel among welders--results of the WELDOX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Tobias; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Gutwinski, Eleonore; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Hartwig, Andrea; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this analysis was to investigate levels and determinants of exposure to airborne and urinary chromium (Cr, CrU) and nickel (Ni, NiU) among 241 welders. Respirable and inhalable welding fume was collected during a shift, and the metal content was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In post-shift urine, CrU and NiU were measured by means of graphite furnace atom absorption spectrometry, with resulting concentrations varying across a wide range. Due to a large fraction below the limits of quantitation we applied multiple imputations to the log-transformed exposure variables for the analysis of the data. Respirable Cr and Ni were about half of the concentrations of inhalable Cr and Ni, respectively. CrU and NiU were determined with medians of 1.2 μg/L (interquartile range exposure-modulating variables in form of multiplicative factors and revealed slightly better model fits for Cr (R(2) respirable Cr 48%, CrU 55%) than for Ni (R(2) respirable Ni 42%, NiU 38%). The air concentrations were mainly predicted by the metal content in electrodes or base material in addition to the welding technique. Respirable Cr and Ni were good predictors for CrU and NiU, respectively. Exposure was higher when welding was performed in confined spaces or with inefficient ventilation, and lower in urine when respirators were used. In conclusion, statistical modelling allowed the evaluation of determinants of internal and external exposure to Cr and Ni in welders. Welding parameters were stronger predictors than workplace conditions. Airborne exposure was lowest inside respirators with supply of purified air. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical results from low-level laser therapy in patients with autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koev, K.; Avramov, L.; Borissova, E.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine long-term effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy (CRDs). A He-Ne Laser with continuous emission at 633 nm (01 mW/cm2) was used on five patients with autosomal dominant pedigree of Romani origin with non-syndromic CRDs. The laser radiation was applied transpupillary to the macula six times for three minutes every other day. The experiment was conducted for a period of three years. The clinical evaluation included best corrected visual acuity determination, funduscopy, Humphrey perimetry, Farnsworth Hue-28 color testing, fluorescein angiography, and full-field electroretinogram (ERG). All affected individuals presented reduced visual acuity (0.01 – 0.4) and photophobia. The funduscopic examination and fluorescein angiography revealed advanced changes including bone spicule-like pigment deposits in the midperiphery and the macular area, along with retinal atrophy, narrowing of the vessels, and waxy optic discs. The visual fields demonstrated central scotoma. The electrophysiologic examination of the patients detected an abnormal cone-rod ERG (20 – 30 μV) with photopic amplitudes more markedly reduced than the scotopic. Flicker responses were missing and Farnsworth Hue-28 test found protanopia. There was a statistically significant increase in the visual acuity (p<0.001, end of study versus baseline) for CRDs patients for the period of three years after the treatment with LLLT. Following the LLLT, the central absolute scotoma in CRDs was reduced, as was the prevalence of metamorphopsia in CRDs. This study shows that LLLT may prove be a novel long-lasting therapeutic option for both forms of CRDs. It is a highly effective treatment resulting in a long-term improvement of the visual acuity.

  20. F7 gene variants modulate protein levels in a large cohort of patients with factor VII deficiency. Results from a genotype-phenotype study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle, Gabriele; Riccardi, Federica; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Martorana, Davide; Di Perna, Caterina; Percesepe, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Annarita

    2017-08-01

    Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder caused by mutations in F7 gene with autosomal recessive inheritance. A clinical heterogeneity with poor correlation with FVII:C levels has been described. It was the objective of this study to identify genetic defects and to evaluate their relationships with phenotype in a large cohort of patients with FVII:C<50 %. One hundred twenty-three probands were genotyped for F7 mutations and three polymorphic variants and classified according to recently published clinical scores. Forty out of 123 patients (33 %) were symptomatic (43 bleedings). A severe bleeding tendency was observed only in patients with FVII:C<0.10 %. Epistaxis (11 %) and menorrhagia (32 % of females in fertile age) were the most frequent bleedings. Molecular analysis detected 48 mutations, 20 not reported in the F7 international databases. Most mutations (62 %) were missense, large deletions were 6.2 %. Compound heterozygotes/homozygotes for mutations presented lower FVII:C levels compared to the other classes (Chi 2 =43.709, p<0,001). The polymorphisms distribution was significantly different among the three F7 genotypic groups (Chi 2 =72.289, p<0,001). The presence of truncating mutations was associated with lowest FVII:C levels (Chi 2 =21.351, p=0.002). This study confirms the clinical and molecular variability of the disease and the type of symptoms. It shows a good correlation between the type of F7 mutation and/or polymorphisms and FVII:C levels, without a direct link between FVII:C and bleeding tendency. The results suggest that large deletions are underestimated and that they represent a common mechanism of F7 gene inactivation which should always be investigated in the diagnostic testing for FVII deficiency.

  1. Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Ten years of hydrologic research have been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Research included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated zone; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the saturated zone; and water chemistry. Implications specific to each research topic and those based on overlapping research topics are summarized as to their potential effect on the selection, characterization, design, operation, and decommissioning processes of future low-level radioactive-waste disposal sites. Unconsolidated deposits at the site are diverse in lithologic character and are spatially and stratigraphically complex. Thickness of these Quaternary deposits ranges from 3 to 27 meters and averages 17 meters. The unconsolidated deposits overlay 140 meters of Pennsylvanian shale, mudstone, siltstone, and coal. Approximately 90,500 cubic meters of waste were buried from August 1967 through August 1978, in 21 trenches that were constructed in glacial materials by using a cut-and-fill process. Trenches generally were constructed below grade and ranged from 11 to 180 meters long, 2.4 to 21 meters wide, and 2.4 to about 7.9 meters deep. Research on microclimate and evapotranspiration at the site was conducted from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous measurements were made of precipitation, incoming and reflected solar (shortwave) radiation, incoming and emitted terrestrial (longwave) radiation, horizontal windspeed and direction, wet- and dry-bulb air temperature, barometric pressure, soil-heat fluxes, and soil temperature. Soil-moisture content, for this research phase, was measured approximately biweekly. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated by using three techniques--energy budget, aerodynamic profile, and water

  2. Topical Mannitol Reduces Capsaicin-Induced Pain: Results of a Pilot-Level, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Helene; Kyriazis, Marylene; Reeves, K Dean; Lyftogt, John; Rabago, David

    2015-11-01

    Capsaicin specifically activates, and then gradually exhausts, the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor, a key receptor in neuropathic pain. Activation of the TRPV-1 receptor is accompanied by burning pain. A natural substance or medication that can reduce the burning pain resulting from capsaicin application may have therapeutic potential in neuropathic pain. To assess the pain-relieving effects of a mannitol-containing cream in a capsaicin-based pain model. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Outpatient pain clinic. Twenty-five adults with pain-free lips. Capsaicin .075% cream was applied to both halves of each participant's upper lip, inducing pain via stimulation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1, capsaicin) receptor, then removed after 5 minutes or when participants reported a burning pain of 8/10, whichever came first. A cream containing mannitol and the same cream without mannitol (control) were then immediately applied, 1 on each side of the lip, in an allocation-masked manner. Participants self-recorded a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0-10) pain score for each side of the lip per minute for 10 minutes. A t-test was performed to evaluate the pain score change from baseline between each side of the lip at each recording. Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to determine the overall difference between groups. Participants reached a capsaicin-induced pain level of 7.8 ± 1.0 points in 3.3 ± 1.6 minutes that was equal on both sides of the lip. Both groups reported progressive diminution of pain over the 10-minute study period. However, participants reported significantly reduced pain scores on the mannitol cream half-lip compared to control at 3 through 10 minutes (P < .05) and in AUC analysis (P < .001). Mannitol cream reduced self-reported pain scores in a capsaicin pain model more rapidly than a control cream, potentially via a TRPV1 receptor effect. Copyright © 2015 American

  3. Results from levels 2/3 fusion implementations: issues, challenges, retrospectives, and perspectives for the future an annotated perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Ivan; Bosse, Eloi; Salerno, John; Lambert, Dale A.; Das, Subrata; Ruspini, Enrique H.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Biermann, Joachim

    2008-04-01

    Even though the definition of the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) "fusion levels" were established in 1987, published 1991, revised in 1999 and 2004, the meaning, effects, control and optimization of interactions among the fusion levels have not as yet been fully explored and understood. Specifically, this is apparent from the abstract JDL definitions of "Levels 2/3 Fusion" - situation and threat assessment (SA/TA), which involve deriving relations among entities, e.g., the aggregation of object states (i.e., classification and location) in SA, while TA uses SA products to estimate/predict the impact of actions/interactions effects on situations taken by the participant entities involved. Given all the existing knowledge in the information fusion and human factors literature, (both prior to and after the introduction of "fusion levels" in 1987) there are still open questions remaining in regard to implementation of knowledge representation and reasoning methods under uncertainty to afford SA/TA. Therefore, to promote exchange of ideas and to illuminate the historical, current and future issues associated with Levels 2/3 implementations, leading experts were invited to present their respective views on various facets of this complex problem. This paper is a retrospective annotated view of the invited panel discussion organized by Ivan Kadar (first author), supported by John Salerno, in order to provide both a historical perspective of the evolution of the state-of-the-art (SOA) in higher-level "Levels 2/3" information fusion implementations by looking back over the past ten or more years (before JDL), and based upon the lessons learned to forecast where focus should be placed to further enhance and advance the SOA by addressing key issues and challenges. In order to convey the panel discussion to audiences not present at the panel, annotated position papers summarizing the panel presentation are included.

  4. Alcohol consumption and social inequality at the individual and country levels--results from an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard; Bloomfield, Kim

    2013-04-01

    International comparisons of social inequalities in alcohol use have not been extensively investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol consumption in 33 countries. Data on 101,525 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 33 countries of the GENACIS study were used. Individual SES was measured by highest attained educational level. Alcohol use measures included drinking status and monthly risky single occasion drinking (RSOD). The relationship between individuals' education and drinking indicators was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step the individual level data and country data were combined and tested in multilevel models. As country level indicators we used the Purchasing Power Parity of the gross national income, the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. For both genders and all countries higher individual SES was positively associated with drinking status. Also higher country level SES was associated with higher proportions of drinkers. Lower SES was associated with RSOD among men. Women of higher SES in low income countries were more often RSO drinkers than women of lower SES. The opposite was true in higher income countries. For the most part, findings regarding SES and drinking in higher income countries were as expected. However, women of higher SES in low and middle income countries appear at higher risk of engaging in RSOD. This finding should be kept in mind when developing new policy and prevention initiatives.

  5. [The effect of a single moderate physical exertion on serum leptin levels in patients with essential hypertension (preliminary results)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, D; Gajek, J; Jołda-Mydłowska, B

    2000-08-01

    Leptin is a product of the ob gene and is secreted by the adipose tissue. It takes part in regulation of nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine system and renal functions. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of short term moderate exercise on serum leptin levels in patients with arterial hypertension. The study group consisted of 34 patients with essential hypertension: 15 women (48.9 +/- 12.1 years old) and 19 men (43.5 +/- 14.6 years old). There were 7 patients with stage I of hypertension, 17 patients with stage II of hypertension and 10 patients with stage III of hypertension. The blood samples were taken before and after the exercise test. Serum leptin levels were assessed by radioimmunoassay. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in women then in men. The logarithm of serum leptin levels after the exercise was significantly lower than before (0.8 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.5 respectively). The moderate, short term exercise decreases serum leptin levels in the hypertensive patients.

  6. Hypnotic suggestibility, cognitive inhibition, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Zoltán; Brown, Elizabeth; Hutton, Sam; Kirsch, Irving; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Wright, Daniel B

    2009-12-01

    We examined two potential correlates of hypnotic suggestibility: dissociation and cognitive inhibition. Dissociation is the foundation of two of the major theories of hypnosis and other theories commonly postulate that hypnotic responding is a result of attentional abilities (including inhibition). Participants were administered the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C. Under the guise of an unrelated study, 180 of these participants also completed: a version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale that is normally distributed in non-clinical populations; a latent inhibition task, a spatial negative priming task, and a memory task designed to measure negative priming. The data ruled out even moderate correlations between hypnotic suggestibility and all the measures of dissociation and cognitive inhibition overall, though they also indicated gender differences. The results are a challenge for existing theories of hypnosis.

  7. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  8. Kaon-pion ratio from ISR results and the derived sea level muon spectrum from Maeda's model

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P

    1978-01-01

    The sea-level muon spectrum has been calculated using Maeda's (1973) model. The contribution of the muon flux caused by kaon decay has been included in the calculation as the kaon-pion ratio. The value used for this ratio is that determined by the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring Group, Antinucci et al. (1973). (7 refs).

  9. Relationships Between Herpetofaunal Community Structure and Varying Levels of Overstory Tree Retention in Northern Alabama: First-year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary I. Felix; Yong Wang; Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2004-01-01

    Forest managers are increasingly considering the effects their decisions have on the biodiversity of an area. However, there is often a lack of data upon which to evaluate these decisions. We conducted research to examine the relationship between silvicultural techniques, particularly shelterwood cuts with varying levels of basal area retention, and the community...

  10. Adult vaccination coverage levels among users of complementary/alternative medicine - results from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokley, Shannon; Cullen, Karen A; Kennedy, Allison; Bardenheier, Barbara H

    2008-02-22

    While many Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) practitioners do not object to immunization, some discourage or even actively oppose vaccination among their patients. However, previous studies in this area have focused on childhood immunizations, and it is unknown whether and to what extent CAM practitioners may influence the vaccination behavior of their adult patients. The purpose of this study was to describe vaccination coverage levels of adults aged > or = 18 years according to their CAM use status and determine if there is an association between CAM use and adult vaccination coverage. Data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, limited to 30,617 adults that provided at least one valid answer to the CAM supplement, were analyzed. Receipt of influenza vaccine during the past 12 months, pneumococcal vaccine (ever), and > or = 1 dose of hepatitis B vaccine was self-reported. Coverage levels for each vaccine by CAM use status were determined for adults who were considered high priority for vaccination because of the presence of a high risk condition and for non-priority adults. Multivariable analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between CAM users and vaccination status, adjusting for demographic and healthcare utilization characteristics. Overall, 36% were recent CAM users. Among priority adults, adjusted vaccination coverage levels were significantly different between recent and non-CAM users for influenza (44% vs 38%; p-value < 0.001) and pneumococcal (40% vs 33%; p-value < 0.001) vaccines but were not significantly different for hepatitis B (60% vs 56%; p-value = 0.36). Among non-priority adults, recent CAM users had significantly higher unadjusted and adjusted vaccination coverage levels compared to non-CAM users for all three vaccines (p-values < 0.001). Vaccination coverage levels among recent CAM users were found to be higher than non-CAM users. Because CAM use has been increasing over time in the U.S., it is important to continue

  11. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly A. Novick; Chelcy F. Miniat; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion–tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a ‘demand limitation’ driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) ‘hydraulic limitation’ of water movement from the roots to the leaves...

  12. Perception of the health risks resulting from health, lifestyle and professional strain of teachers of various school levels

    OpenAIRE

    Papršteinová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Perception of health risks from lifestyle and work psychic load of teachers from different school levels Introduction: It is well known that the teaching profession is associated with numerous health risks. Teachers are exposed to excessive mental work and sensory stress, long working in a forced position at increased risk of noise, infections and voice disorders. Compared with the general population, there are more frequently found diseases related to occupational stress. Aim: To determine t...

  13. Results of the Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of internal events for heavy water production reactors (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinnes, S.P.; Cramer, D.S.; Logan, V.E.; Topp, S.V.; Smith, J.A.; Brandyberry, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) performed for the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors. The Level 1 PRA for the K Reactor has been completed and includes the assessment of reactor systems response to accidents and estimates of the severe core melt frequency (SCMF). The internal events spectrum includes those events related directly to plant systems and safety functions for which transients or failures may initiate an accident

  14. NAMMU results for the regional groundwater flow in the Piceance Basin - HYDROCOIN Level 2-Test case 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.R.; Paige, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    The HYDROCOIN project is an international collaborative venture for comparing groundwater flow models and modelling strategies. Level 2 of this project concerns the validation of models in order to test their ability adequately to represent reality. This report describes calculations for the regional groundwater flow in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. This region constitutes one of the few areas where low permeability rocks, similar to those likely to be used for repository sites, have been investigated by hydrogeologists. (author)

  15. Increased alanine aminotransferase levels and associated characteristics among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients: Results from the DD2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mor, Anil; Thomsen, Reimar W.; Rungby, Jørgen

    Objectives: Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) have been linked with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We examined ALAT levels in newly diagnosed T2D...... quartile (>32IU/L / >41IU/L for women/men). As compared to people with ALAT values in the lowest quartile, those with high ALAT were younger (median age 57 vs. 64 years, pobese (median BMI 31.2 vs. 29.1 kg/m2, p=0.004), and had a larger waist circumference (111 vs. 101 cm, p....0001) and higher median CRP levels (2.8 vs. 1.8 mg/L, p=0.0147). They also had substantially poorer glucose control (HbA1c 7.40 vs. 6.90%, p=0.084; fasting blood glucose 7.56 vs. 6.86 mmol/L, pvs. 4.15 mmol/L, p=0.006), whereas blood pressure was similar...

  16. The TSH levels and risk of hypothyroidism: Results from a population based prospective cohort study in an Iranian adult's population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Meamar, Rokhsareh; Amini, Massoud; Feizi, Awat; Nasri, Maryam; Tabatabaei, Azamosadat; Faghihimani, Elham

    2017-06-01

    The aim of current study was to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels and hypothyroidism risk in the euthyroid population. In a population-based cohort study, a total of 615 individuals with a normal baseline TSH, from of total population (n=2254) in 2006, were followed up for 6years. TSH, total T4, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated based on logistic regression. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis along with area under the curve (AUC) was used to prediction of future hypothyroidism. TSH level in 2006 was a significant predictor for overt hypothyroidism, in the total population (RR=3.5) and female (RR=1.37) (all, P valuehypothyroidism from euthyroid. However, this cut off was not observed when we included only negative TPO and TgAbs people in 2006. The RR of hypothyroidism increased gradually when TSH level increased from 2.06-3.6mIU/L to >3.6mIU/L in the total population and both sexes. In women, the risk of overt hypothyroidism was significantly higher in subjects with TSH above 3.6 than those subject with THS levels≤2.05 [RR: (CI95 %), 20.57(2.-207.04), P valuehypothyroidism in future. However, it was not applicable for people with negative TPOAb and negative TgAb. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Results and prospects of personnel protection against radiation in a low and medium level waste storage center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidhauer, J.; Lasseur, C.

    1982-01-01

    The national low- and intermediate-level waste storage center (CM) located near the Channel is presented, together with its history, the various regulations governing it and their incidence on its operation. A description is given of the radiation sources and workplaces to be found in this kind of waste storage center. The radiation protection problems associated with the respective workplaces are analysed: organization, prevention, collective and individual protection, dosimetry. Occupational radiation exposures from 1970 to 1980 are presented. The various means of reducing operating workers' exposures are discussed, especially the incidence of transportation [fr

  18. Repeated monthly epicutaneous challenges with diphenylcyclopropenone result in a clinically reproducible level of contact allergy in de novo sensitized individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, K. F.; Andersen, F.; Skov, L

    2017-01-01

    Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) has been used as an experimental contact allergen in humans and for topical immunotherapy of patients with alopecia areata. However, the efficacy is mostly based on case series. Randomized controlled clinical trials are lacking(1) , as is detailed descriptions of how...... repeated topical exposure to DPCP affect the level of hypersensitivity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) has been used as an experimental contact allergen in humans and for topical immunotherapy of patients with alopecia areata. However, the efficacy is mostly based on case series. Randomized controlled clinical trials are lacking(1) , as is detailed descriptions of how...

  19. Methods and results of a PSA level 2 for a German BWR of the 900 MWe class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffler, H.; Sonnenkalb, M.

    2006-01-01

    On behalf of the federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) GRS has performed a PSA level 2 for a BWR type 69 NPP of the 900 MWe class, equipped with a N 2 inerted steel containment and a pressure suppression system. Integral deterministic accident analyses have been performed with the computer code MELCOR 1.8.5. Additional analyses have been done for those events and phenomena which are not or not sufficiently covered by MELCOR. The probabilistic event tree analysis begins with the core damage states received from PSA level 1, and it ends with the definition of release categories and the determination of their frequencies. Uncertainties about the frequency of core damage states and about events during the accident progression are taken into account by means of Monte Carlo simulations. If there is a core damage state there is a high probability (>50 %) for a very high and rapid release of radionuclides into the environment. This high conditional probability is due to the very low probability to retain a partly destroyed core inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and because the containment almost certainly fails at the bottom of the control rod drives room after melt release from the failed RPV. (authors)

  20. Bench press and push-up at comparable levels of muscle activity results in similar strength gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martin, Fernando; Tella, Victor; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) exercise evaluation is commonly used to measure the intensity of muscle contraction. Although researchers assume that biomechanically comparable resistance exercises with similar high EMG levels will produce similar strength gains over the long term, no studies have actually corroborated this hypothesis. This study evaluated EMG levels during 6 repetition maximum (6RM) bench press and push-up, and subsequently performed a 5-week training period where subjects were randomly divided into 3 groups (i.e., 6RM bench press group, 6RM elastic band push-up group, or control group) to evaluate muscle strength gains. Thirty university students with advanced resistance training experience participated in the 2-part study. During the training period, exercises were performed using the same loads and variables that were used during the EMG data collection. At baseline, EMG amplitude showed no significant difference between 6RM bench press and band push-up. Significant differences among the groups were found for percent change (Δ) between pretest and posttest for 6RM (p = 0.017) and for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (p bench press group and 6RM elastic band push-up group improved their 1RM and 6RM (Δ ranging from 13.65 to 22.21) tests significantly with similar gains, whereas control group remains unchanged. Thus, when the EMG values are comparable and the same conditions are reproduced, the aforementioned exercises can provide similar muscle strength gains.

  1. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Results of the Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of internal events for heavy water production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinnes, S.P.; Cramer, D.S.; Logan, V.E.; Topp, S.V.; Smith, J.A.; Brandyberry, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is being performed for the Savannah River site (SRS) production reactors. The Level 1 PRA for the K Reactor has been completed and includes the assessment of reactor systems response to accidents and estimates of the severe core melt frequency (SCMF). The internal events spectrum includes those events related directly to plant systems and safety functions for which transients or failures may initiate an accident. The SRS PRA has three principal objectives: improved understanding of SRS reactor safety issues through discovery and understanding of the mechanisms involved. Improved risk management capability through tools for assessing the safety impact of both current standard operations and proposed revisions. A quantitative measure of the risks posed by SRS reactor operation to employees and the general public, to allow comparison with declared goals and other societal risks

  3. Level of agreement among Latin American glaucoma subspecialists on the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma: results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigera, Daniel E; Mello, Paulo Augusto Arruda; Barbosa, Wilma Lelis; Casiraghi, Javier Fernando; Grossmann, Rodolfo Perez; Peyret, Alejo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the level of agreement among glaucoma experts in Latin America on key practices related to treatment and diagnosis of glaucoma. An online questionnaire was sent to a multinational panel of glaucoma experts. The questionnaire contained 107 statements on the medical treatment (Part 1) and diagnosis (Part 2) of glaucoma, and was developed in Spanish and translated into English. Agreement was defined as >70% of respondents. Fifty participants from 14 countries completed the questionnaire. For the medical treatment of glaucoma, nearly all respondents (98% or greater) confirmed that medical treatment as first-line therapy is preferred to surgery, prostaglandin analogs are the medication of first choice for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), longitudinal monitoring of efficacy should include intraocular pressure, structural and functional status, as well as if patients' quality of life is impaired by the high cost of medication. For the diagnosis of glaucoma section, all respondents confirmed that, after initial examination, gonioscopy should be repeated over time, standard automated perimetry is the most important functional examination for diagnosis and monitoring of primary open-angle glaucoma, central corneal thickness is important in assessment of glaucoma, and computerized imaging tests help in clinical evaluation of optic disc. This survey shows a high level of agreement on most aspects of glaucoma diagnosis and treatment among Latin American glaucoma experts. Areas of disagreement highlight the need for further evidence or education. These findings will be useful for guiding future efforts to optimize glaucoma practice by clinicians in Latin America.

  4. Changes in rRNA levels during stress invalidates results from mRNA blotting: Fluorescence in situ rRNA hybridization permits renormalization for estimation of cellular mRNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.C.; Nielsen, A.K.; Molin, Søren

    2001-01-01

    obtained by these techniques are compared between experiments in which differences in growth rates, strains, or stress treatments occur, the normalization procedure may have a significant impact on the results. In this report we present a solution to the normalization problem in RNA slot blotting...... the relative level of rRNA per cell, and slot blotting to rRNA probes, which estimates the level of rRNA per extracted total RNA, the amount of RNA per cell was calculated in a series of heat shock experiments with the gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis. It was found that the level of rRNA per cell...... decreased to 30% in the course of the heat shock. This lowered ribosome level led to a decrease in the total RNA content, resulting in a gradually increasing overestimation of the mRNA levels throughout the experiment. Using renormalized cellular mRNA levels, the HrcA-mediated regulation of the genes...

  5. Factors Associated with Low-Level Viraemia and Virological Failure: Results from the Austrian HIV Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Leierer

    Full Text Available In human immunodeficiency virus treatment adequate virological suppression is warranted, nevertheless for some patients it remains a challenge. We investigated factors associated with low-level viraemia (LLV and virological failure (VF under combined antiretroviral therapy (cART.We analysed patients receiving standard regimens between 1st July 2012 and 1st July 2013 with at least one viral load (VL measurement below the quantification limit (BLQ in their treatment history. After a minimum of 6 months of unmodified cART, the next single VL measurement within 6 months was analysed. VF was defined as HIV RNA levels ≥ 200 copies/mL and all other quantifiable measurements were classified as LLV. Factors associated with LLV and VF compared to BLQ were identified by logistic regression models.Of 2276 participants, 1972 (86.6% were BLQ, 222 (9.8% showed LLV and 82 (3.6% had VF. A higher risk for LLV and VF was shown in patients with cART interruptions and in patients with boosted PI therapy. The risk for LLV and VF was lower in patients from centres using the Abbott compared to the Roche assay to measure VL. A higher risk for LLV but not for VF was found in patients with a higher VL before cART [for >99.999 copies/mL: aOR (95% CI: 4.19 (2.07-8.49; for 10.000-99.999 copies/mL: aOR (95% CI: 2.52 (1.23-5.19] and shorter cART duration [for <9 months: aOR (95% CI: 2.59 (1.38-4.86]. A higher risk for VF but not for LLV was found in younger patients [for <30 years: aOR (95% CI: 2.76 (1.03-7.35; for 30-50 years: aOR (95% CI: 2.70 (1.26-5.79], people originating from high prevalence countries [aOR (95% CI: 2.20 (1.09-4.42] and in male injecting drug users [aOR (95% CI: 2.72 (1.38-5.34].For both VF and LLV, factors associated with adherence play a prominent role. Furthermore, performance characteristics of the diagnostic assay used for VL quantification should also be taken into consideration.

  6. Foraminal syringomyelia: suggestion for a grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, P P; D'Aliberti, G; Talamonti, G; Collice, M

    1993-01-01

    The standard treatment of foraminal syringomyelia includes foramen magnum decompression and duraplasty. Improvement or stabilization of the disease are achieved in most of cases. However, at least one third of patients are reported to receive little or no benefit. In this paper we retrospectively reviewed a series of 40 consecutive foramen magnum decompressions in order to identify the possible pre-operative outcome predictors. Based on clinical evolution, neurological impairment and radiological features, a scale of severity was fixed and retrospectively tested. A pre-operative score was obtained for each patient and was correlated with the surgical results. Then a four level grading system was derived. All grade I and grade II patients achieved good results (improvement or stabilization), whereas grade III patients showed intermediate behaviour and grade IV invariably worsened. On this basis, surgical results of foramen magnum decompression might be further improved provided that a careful pre-operative selection is made.

  7. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  8. Reduced N-acetylaspartate levels in the frontal cortex of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) users: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneman, Liesbeth; Majoie, Charles B L M; Flick, Herman; den Heeten, Gerard J

    2002-02-01

    The perceived safety of the recreational drug methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or Ecstasy, conflicts with animal evidence indicating that MDMA damages cortical serotonin (5-HT) neurons at doses similar to those used by humans. Few data are available about the effects of MDMA on the human brain. This study was designed to evaluate MDMA-related alterations in metabolite ratios with single-voxel proton ((1)H) MR spectroscopy. Fifteen male MDMA users (mean lifetime exposure, 723 tablets; mean time since last tablet, 12.0 weeks) and 12 age-matched control subjects underwent single-voxel (1)H MR spectroscopy. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), NAA/Choline (Cho), and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were measured in midfrontal gray matter, midoccipital gray matter, and right parietal white matter. Data were analyzed with linear model-based multivariate analysis of variance. NAA/Cr (P =.04) and NAA/Cho (P =.03) ratios, markers associated with neuronal loss or dysfunction, were reduced in the frontal cortex of MDMA users. Neither NAA/Cr (P =.72) nor NAA/Cho (P =.12) ratios were different between both groups in occipital gray matter and parietal white matter (P =.18). Extent of previous MDMA use and frontal cortical NAA/Cr (rho = -.50, P =.012) or NAA/Cho (rho = -.550, P spectroscopy provide evidence for neuronal abnormality in the frontal cortex of MDMA users; these are correlated with the degree of MDMA exposure. These data suggest that MDMA may be a neurotoxin in humans, as it is in animals.

  9. Approaches to learning as predictors of academic achievement: Results from a large scale, multi-level analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper; McCune, Velda; Bager-Elsborg, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between university students’ academic achievement and their approaches to learning and studying continuously attract scholarly attention. We report the results of an analysis in which multilevel linear modelling was used to analyse data from 3,626 Danish university students....... Controlling for the effects of age, gender, and progression, we found that the students’ end-of-semester grade point averages were related negatively to a surface approach and positively to organised effort. Interestingly, the effect of the surface approach on academic achievement varied across programmes....... While there has been considerable interest in the ways in which academic programmes shape learning and teaching, the effects of these contexts on the relationship between approaches to learning and academic outcomes is under-researched. The results are discussed in relation to findings from recent meta...

  10. Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals living in high level natural radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran: final results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, F.; Haeri, S.A.; Rajabpour, M.R.; Ahmadpour, M.J.; Kanda, R.; Hayata, I.; Nakamura, S.; Sugahara, T.

    2010-01-01

    The absorbed radiation dose of each individual in the HLNRA and the control area was estimated from the dose measured by an electronic pocket dosimeter (EPDTM) for one day and an optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) for one month. The accumulated doses per year and whole life in all individuals were estimated by both types of dosimeters. Using chromosomal aberrations as the main endpoint to assess the dose-effect relationship in residents of HLNRA, no positive correlation was found between the frequency of dicentric and centric ring aberrations and the cumulative dose of the inhabitants. These results as well as the earlier studies clearly show that individuals residing in HLNRAS of Ramsar have an increased frequency of detectable abnormalities in unstable aberrations. Due to some difficulties, the shape of the dose response has yet to be determined. In this paper, the methodologies applied and the results obtained from the most recent chromosome aberration studies in HLNRAS of Ramsar will be reviewed and discussed in order to conclude results and better understand such effects in particular in individuals of very HLNRAS of Ramsar. (author)

  11. Environmental radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region, KSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohery, M.; Baz, Shadiah; Kelany, Adel M.; Abdallah, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The natural radiation levels in soil and sediment samples collected from floating water from a land runway resulting from heavy rains in the Jeddah region as well as the activity in the population of its surrounding environments were studied. In the regions surrounding Jeddah, the movements of floating water may increase the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soil due to heavy rains. In addition, the technological development of industry, agriculture and other sources around the Jeddah region has increased environmental pollution, resulting in noticeable concentrations of radioactivity. The measured activity concentrations of 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the studied area suggest that they are within the world average for soils and sediments, except those for water sample no. 4; the concentration in this sample was five times higher than the world average concentration (this water is not consumable). Herein, the radioactivity concentrations that were obtained from the analysis of soil and sediment samples that were collected from the investigated area are discussed. Additionally, the absorbed dose rate (D), radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), external hazard index (H ex ), annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were evaluated. For the soil and sediment samples, the average radioactivity concentrations were determined for each site and are expressed in Becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) of dry weight, while for the measurement of both the 226 Ra and 228 Ra isotopes in the water samples, the activity concentration is expressed in picoCuries per liter (pCi/l). The obtained results were compared with other measurements from different countries. The movement of floating water around the Jeddah region increases the concentration of radioactivity due to the movement of soils with heavy rains. - Highlights: • The natural radiation levels in soil and sediment samples from floating

  12. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  13. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels are normal in Fanconi anemia: Can it be a lack of postnatal inhibition of AFP gene resulting in the elevation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Deniz; Karabacak, Recep Onur; Aslan, Oner Deniz

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels as a screening test for prenatal diagnosis of Fanconi anemia (FA). Serial measurements in maternal serum were recorded. Parents, both heterozygous for FA, had declined prenatal molecular testing. The infant was born with no somatic abnormalities, and FA was confirmed by postnatal molecular analysis. Maternal serum AFP levels during each trimester of pregnancy were normal indicating that these levels cannot be used as a screening test in prenatal diagnosis. Three-year follow-up after birth showed constantly elevated serum levels in the patient from the start, suggesting a lack of postnatal inhibition on AFP gene. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Community air monitoring for pesticides. Part 3: using health-based screening levels to evaluate results collected for a year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Pamela; Segawa, Randy; Schreider, Jay; Federighi, Veda; Neal, Rosemary; Brattesani, Madeline

    2014-03-01

    The CA Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) and the CA Air Resources Board monitored 40 pesticides, including five degradation products, in Parlier, CA, to determine if its residents were exposed to any of these pesticides and, if so, in what amounts. They included 1,3-dichloropropene, acrolein, arsenic, azinphos-methyl, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos and its degradation product, chlorthalonil, copper, cypermethrin, diazinon and its degradation product, dichlorvos, dicofol, dimethoate and its degradation product, diuron, endosulfan and its degradation product, S-ethyl dipropylcarbamothioate (EPTC), formaldehyde, malathion and its degradation product, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), methyl bromide, metolachlor, molinate, norflurazon, oryzalin, oxyfluorfen, permethrin, phosmet, propanil, propargite, simazine, SSS-tributylphosphorotrithioate, sulfur, thiobencarb, trifluralin, and xylene. Monitoring was conducted 3 days per week for a year. Twenty-three pesticides and degradation products were detected. Acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, chlorpyrifos, copper, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, MITC, and sulfur were detected in more than half the samples. Since no regulatory ambient air standards exist for these pesticides, CDPR developed advisory, health-based non-cancer screening levels (SLs) to assess acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures. For carcinogenic pesticides, CDPR assessed risk using cancer potency values. Amongst non-carcinogenic agricultural use pesticides, only diazinon exceeded its SL. For carcinogens, 1,3-dichloropropene concentrations exceeded its cancer potency value. Based on these findings, CDPR has undertaken a more comprehensive evaluation of 1,3-dichloropropene, diazinon, and the closely related chlorpyrifos that was frequently detected. Four chemicals-acrolein, arsenic, carbon disulfide, and formaldehyde-sometimes used as pesticides were detected, although no pesticidal use was reported in the area during this study. Their presence was most

  15. Criteria and results from the analysis of the problem of site selection for the construction of high level RAW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstatiev, D.; Kozhoukharova, D.; Iliev, I.; Karagyuleva, J.

    1993-02-01

    The criteria for preliminary assessment of the Bulgarian territory and the results of the selection of prospective sites for future investigation concerning the choice of the suitable places for RAW repositories are presented. The selection of the prospective terrains has been performed in two stages: 1) Categorization of the country according to the prospective conditions for suitable sites and 2) Distinguishing and preliminary assessment of the suitable sites. The number of these sites was reduced to 20 by the method of successive screening. They are located in Northwest and Southeast Bulgaria and are built of marls, clays, granite, gneiss, serpentine and and volcanic rocks. The selected 20 sites has been subjected to preliminary investigation according to a programme specially worked out for the purpose. The investigation covers the analysis and summing up of the available geographical, geomorphological, geological, seismotectonic, hydrological, climatic, hydrogeological and geotechnical data, as well as a minimum of additional field research and laboratory tests. The results of the investigation of each site are presented and discussed. 1 ref

  16. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eastment, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  17. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eastment, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  18. Incorporation of high-level wastes in SYNROC: results from recent process-engineering studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Hoenig, C.L.; Ackerman, F.J.; Peters, P.E.; Grens, J.Z.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, highlights from recent engineering research and development, in particular, results from fluidized bed calcination studies of SYNROC slurry are summarized. A schematic diagram of the envisioned SYNROC process (at this stage of development) is also presented. It shows the use of a fluidized bed calciner to prepare SYNROC powder that is then fed to a storage hopper. Bellows-type canisters are filled, evacuated, sealed and preheated. The preheated canisters are loaded into a hot isotactic pressing unit where they are densified, then removed and cooled and finally loaded into a waste storage container. After sealing, this container is decontaminated and transferred to the interim storage facility and then, ultimately, to an underground repository

  19. Experimental Results of a DC Bus Voltage Level Control for a Load-Controlled Marine Current Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Forslund

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates three load control methods for a  marine current energy converter using a vertical axis current  turbine (VACT mounted on a permanent magnet synchronous generator  (PMSG. The three cases are; a fixed AC load, a fixed pulse width  modulated (PWM DC load and DC bus voltage control of a DC  load. Experimental results show that the DC bus voltage control  reduces the variations of rotational speed by a factor of 3.5 at the cost  of slightly increased losses in the generator and transmission lines.  For all three cases, the tip speed ratio \\(\\lambda\\ can be kept close to  the expected \\(\\lambda_{opt}\\. The power coefficient is estimated to be  0.36 at \\(\\lambda_{opt}\\; however, for all three cases, the average  extracted power was about \\(\\sim 19\\\\%. A maximum power point  tracking (MPPT system, with or without water velocity measurement,  could increase the average extracted power.

  20. An Experiment to Prove the Effect of Low-Level Magnetic Fields Resulting from Ionospheric Changes on Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzelka M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation presented in the paper was performed in the laboratories of the Department of Theoretical and Experimental Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, between April 22 and June 26, 2014. We examined a homogeneous sample of male and female participants comprising a total of 49 persons aged 19 to 26. The time required for the measurement of psychophysiological parameters corresponded to 19 minutes, encompassing five stages: Basic (5 mins., Color (2 mins., Rest (5 mins., Math (2 mins., and Rest (5 mins.. All the measuring cycles were carried out using a BioGraph Infiniti device (Thought Technology, Ltd.. Generally, the impact of the environment upon living organisms constitutes a crucial problem examined by today’s science. In this context, the present article describes the results of an investigation focused on ionosphere parameter variation and its role in the basic function of the nervous system. The discussed research concentrates on the measurement and detection of changes in the region of very low electromagnetic field frequencies; the authors introduce and verify related theoretical and experimental procedures to define the effects that influence brain activity and the cardiovascular system.

  1. Design, implementation and results of a social and emotional learning program for teacher training at undergraduate and postgraduate level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Palomera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, educational research has increased its interest on affects, not just in its relation to teacher´s health but in its relation to his/her implication to the professional performance and efficiency. At the same time, there is an increasing evidence on the role of the emotional and social skills regarding welfare and development of the children and youngsters. In this way, there are a great variety of educational programs that address the emotional education of school children. However, there are just a few initiatives on teacher training, and less on formal training. In this article, two pioneer proposals, that address the emotional education for pre-service and professional teachers, are presented. Several years after its implementation, and evaluation, important information on the most appropriate methodologies to reach these results has been gathered. It seems necessary to expand this training to other higher education institutions, because of the benefits for teachers and the potential positive consequences on the student’s development. So, the aim of this work is to inspire and guide future initiatives addressed to the emotional training of teachers.

  2. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables

  3. An Experiment to Prove the Effect of Low-Level Magnetic Fields Resulting from Ionospheric Changes on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzelka, M.; Dan, J.; Šlepecky, M.; Holcner, V.; Dohnal, P.; Kadlec, R.

    2017-02-01

    The investigation presented in the paper was performed in the laboratories of the Department of Theoretical and Experimental Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, between April 22 and June 26, 2014. We examined a homogeneous sample of male and female participants comprising a total of 49 persons aged 19 to 26. The time required for the measurement of psychophysiological parameters corresponded to 19 minutes, encompassing five stages: Basic (5 mins.), Color (2 mins.), Rest (5 mins.), Math (2 mins.), and Rest (5 mins.). All the measuring cycles were carried out using a BioGraph Infiniti device (Thought Technology, Ltd.). Generally, the impact of the environment upon living organisms constitutes a crucial problem examined by today's science. In this context, the present article describes the results of an investigation focused on ionosphere parameter variation and its role in the basic function of the nervous system. The discussed research concentrates on the measurement and detection of changes in the region of very low electromagnetic field frequencies; the authors introduce and verify related theoretical and experimental procedures to define the effects that influence brain activity and the cardiovascular system.

  4. Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirico, Felice; Miressi, Salvatore; Castaldo, Clotilde; Spera, Rocco; Montagnani, Stefania; Di Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria

    2018-01-01

    The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses) than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation.

  5. Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miressi, Salvatore; Castaldo, Clotilde; Spera, Rocco; Montagnani, Stefania; Di Meglio, Franca; Nurzynska, Daria

    2018-01-01

    The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses) than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation. PMID:29351568

  6. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables.

  7. Habits and beliefs related to food supplements: Results of a survey among Italian students of different education fields and levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felice Sirico

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of food supplements, aggressive media advertising, and common beliefs that these substances have only positive effects on health and sport performance indicate a need for continuous monitoring of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate the habits and beliefs related to diet supplementation among medical, health professional, and other university/high school students by means of a cross-sectional anonymous survey online. Among the respondents aware of supplements, 37.4% were taking or had taken them in the past. Food supplement use was more common among university students (in particular, those in health professional graduate courses than high school students. Individual sport practice, rather than team sport, was associated with higher likelihood of food supplement use. Multivitamins were most commonly used, while weight-loss formulations were the least popular. Strikingly, filling nutrient gaps was statistically not considered the main reason for taking food supplements. Instead, they were used to enhance mental performance or enhance well-being. There was statistical evidence that students not enrolled in health or medical professional studies strongly agreed more often than medical students that taking food supplements prevents illness. These results indicate a striking difference between the evidence-based and personal reasons for food supplement use. Arguably, it calls for an improvement in education about diet supplementation and a change in attitude of health care providers to its implementation.

  8. Changes in the levels of radioactive fall-out and the resulting radiation doses to man in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutit, J.F.; Marley, W.G.; Mayneord, W.V.; Russell, R.S.

    1960-01-01

    In the period covered by the Council's 1956 report, that is, up to the spring of 1956, the radioactive debris falling in the United Kingdom had arisen from a large number of small nuclear explosions, chiefly in Nevada, and from a few large nuclear explosions mainly in the Pacific, especially in March, 1954. It was recognized that the doses of radiation to persons from the deposition of debris arising from the smaller nuclear explosions would be far outweighed by those from the larger explosions. The material reaching the U.K. from the latter at that time was found to have an apparent age (determined from the ratio of strontium 89 to strontium 90 which ranged from 7 to 14 months. In these circumstances the dose contributed by the isotopes of relatively short life (say, two months or less) was much less important than the dose from the long-lived isotopes such as caesium 137 and strontium 90. From the autumn of 1956 the pattern of testing changed. A high proportion of the explosions carried out were of megaton size and took place in higher latitudes in the northern hemisphere. As a result the short-lived isotopes became relatively more important and, with the heavy testing of nuclear devices in the Arctic in October, 1958, the contribution of radioactive fall-out to the background dose-rate in air in the open rose in the spring of 1959 so that, for a period of a month or two, it amounted to some 30 per cent of the natural background. This rise in dose-rate can be attributed to two main causes, namely, the increase in the rate of testing and the shorter time during which the fission products from the tests in the autumn in northern latitudes, particularly in the Arctic, have remained airborne

  9. The Message is in the Data (not the Medium): Results From a Secondary-level Environmental Science Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatland, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    I ran an extended (18 session) workshop during the 2007-2008 school year at a public Montessori elementary in Boulder Colorado. A reprise is running this year that extends to middle school students. The curriculum emphasis was on physical and environmental science, assembled in part using synoptic principles drawn from the National Research Council report "How People Learn". The curriculum was driven by story lines that began and ended in the students' zone of comprehension, in the interim extending through proximal development to open-ended inquiry. The workshop had four distinct purposes: i) Provide students an opportunity to problem-solve, ii) Break barriers between classroom learning and field science, iii) Determine what does and does not work with students at this age, iv) Begin building an alternative outreach path for professional scientists, specifically to avoid one-off presentation ('magic show') syndrome. New technology was incorporated in the workshop as needed--from thermochrons to virtual globes--but this was de- emphasized to keep focus on the subject matter. Data played a much stronger role particularly during early sessions where students were divided into 'phenomena' and 'scientist' groups in order to see both sides of the inquiry process. I present here workshop results, successes and failures, with two emphases: First on the idea that data can be an excellent way to build metacognitive skills in students around age 10. Second that-- with all due credit to Marshall McLuhan--the medium best serves by staying out of the way of the message.

  10. Changes in the levels of radioactive fall-out and the resulting radiation doses to man in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutit, J F; Marley, W G; Mayneord, W V; Russell, R S

    1960-12-01

    In the period covered by the Council's 1956 report, that is, up to the spring of 1956, the radioactive debris falling in the United Kingdom had arisen from a large number of small nuclear explosions, chiefly in Nevada, and from a few large nuclear explosions mainly in the Pacific, especially in March, 1954. It was recognized that the doses of radiation to persons from the deposition of debris arising from the smaller nuclear explosions would be far outweighed by those from the larger explosions. The material reaching the U.K. from the latter at that time was found to have an apparent age (determined from the ratio of strontium 89 to strontium 90 which ranged from 7 to 14 months. In these circumstances the dose contributed by the isotopes of relatively short life (say, two months or less) was much less important than the dose from the long-lived isotopes such as caesium 137 and strontium 90. From the autumn of 1956 the pattern of testing changed. A high proportion of the explosions carried out were of megaton size and took place in higher latitudes in the northern hemisphere. As a result the short-lived isotopes became relatively more important and, with the heavy testing of nuclear devices in the Arctic in October, 1958, the contribution of radioactive fall-out to the background dose-rate in air in the open rose in the spring of 1959 so that, for a period of a month or two, it amounted to some 30 per cent of the natural background. This rise in dose-rate can be attributed to two main causes, namely, the increase in the rate of testing and the shorter time during which the fission products from the tests in the autumn in northern latitudes, particularly in the Arctic, have remained airborne.

  11. FEM effective suggestion of guitar construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Dániel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Modal analysis of the whole guitar construction was performed. The results of eigenfrequencies were obtained. Stress in strings affects not only static loading of material, but also shift of eigenfrequencies. From obtained natural frequencies for solved spectrum such frequencies were used which coincides with assumed ribs new positions of ribs were suggested. Other ribs which do not carry out the mechanical function were removed. Also static reaction was evaluated and new position of ribs was adjusted. For final model new eigenfrequencies were computed and compared with previous ones. Significant changes were revealed in low frequencies (bellow 400 Hz where fewer amounts of natural shapes were obtained. Approximately 50% were lost by adding of ribs. For chosen frequencies of equal temperament the harmonic analysis was performed. The analysis proved ability of oscillation for frequencies far of natural frequencies. The final model satisfies the requirement of minimization of static stress in material due to strings and allows very effective oscillation of top the guitar resonance board. In comparison with literature good agreement in amplitude size of front board and amount of modes in appropriate frequencies were achieved. Suggested model even offers higher amount of natural shapes in comparison with literature, namely in high frequencies. From additional comparison of eigenfrequencies and natural shapes the influence of ribs position on natural shapes was approved.

  12. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  13. New Fe i Level Energies and Line Identifications from Stellar Spectra. II. Initial Results from New Ultraviolet Spectra of Metal-poor Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Ruth C. [SETI Institute and Astrophysical Advances, 607 Marion Place, Palo Alto, CA 94301 (United States); Kurucz, Robert L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ayres, Thomas R., E-mail: peterson@ucolick.org [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The Fe i spectrum is critical to many areas of astrophysics, yet many of the high-lying levels remain uncharacterized. To remedy this deficiency, Peterson and Kurucz identified Fe i lines in archival ultraviolet and optical spectra of metal-poor stars, whose warm temperatures favor moderate Fe i excitation. Sixty-five new levels were recovered, with 1500 detectable lines, including several bound levels in the ionization continuum of Fe i. Here, we extend the previous work by identifying 59 additional levels, with 1400 detectable lines, by incorporating new high-resolution UV spectra of warm metal-poor stars recently obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We provide gf values for these transitions, both computed as well as adjusted to fit the stellar spectra. We also expand our spectral calculations to the infrared, confirming three levels by matching high-quality spectra of the Sun and two cool stars in the H -band. The predicted gf values suggest that an additional 3700 Fe i lines should be detectable in existing solar infrared spectra. Extending the empirical line identification work to the infrared would help confirm additional Fe i levels, as would new high-resolution UV spectra of metal-poor turnoff stars below 1900 Å.

  14. Individual- and community-level determinants of social acceptance of people living with HIV in Kenya: results from a national population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Sambisa, William

    2009-09-01

    Using the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, we investigated the influence of individual- and community-level factors on accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLHIV) using three outcomes: (1) willingness to care for an infected household member, (2) willingness to buy vegetables from an infected vendor, and (3) willingness to allow an infected female teacher to continue teaching. In multilevel logistic regression models, we found that individuals who expressed greater acceptance of PLHIV were more likely to be male, older, more educated, high AIDS knowledge, and exposed to mass media. At the community level, differences in accepting attitudes were associated with community AIDS knowledge, community education, and community AIDS experience, but not for region, or place of residence. The findings suggest the important role of community factors in determining social acceptance of PLHIV. Programmatic strategies aimed at increasing these accepting attitudes should consider both individual- and community-level factors.

  15. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  16. Changes in air quality caused by reduced emission levels in Saxony-Anhalt. Results derived from a modern East German immission measuring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, U. [Saxony-Anhalt State Environmental Protection Agency, Magdeburg (Germany); Roemermann, D.; Begert, V. [Saxony-Anhalt Ministry of Environment, Magdeburg (Germany). Nature Conservation and Regional Planning

    1995-12-31

    Specific features and main fields of construction of a telemetric immission measuring system in the East German federal state of Saxony-Anhalt are shown as a result of a very rapid development in the last three years. Immission levels and resultant enormous changes in the recent years in conjunction with the drastically changed emission situation are analysed. (author)

  17. Changes in air quality caused by reduced emission levels in Saxony-Anhalt. Results derived from a modern East German immission measuring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, U [Saxony-Anhalt State Environmental Protection Agency, Magdeburg (Germany); Roemermann, D; Begert, V [Saxony-Anhalt Ministry of Environment, Magdeburg (Germany). Nature Conservation and Regional Planning

    1996-12-31

    Specific features and main fields of construction of a telemetric immission measuring system in the East German federal state of Saxony-Anhalt are shown as a result of a very rapid development in the last three years. Immission levels and resultant enormous changes in the recent years in conjunction with the drastically changed emission situation are analysed. (author)

  18. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M Hormann

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax in unconjugated (bioactive BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  19. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  20. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  1. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  2. The Effect of Memory Trace Strength on Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdek, Kathy; Roe, Chantal

    1995-01-01

    Examined the conditions under which children's memory is resistant to suggestibility versus vulnerable to suggestibility. Results suggest that children have more accurate memory for an event that occurred to them frequently, and that they are less vulnerable to suggestive influences such as biased interviewing procedures than they would be for an…

  3. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Suggestions for an updated fusion power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1976-02-01

    This document contains suggestions for a revised CTR Program strategy which should allow us to achieve equivalent goals while operating within the above constraints. The revised program is designed around three major facilities. The first is an upgrading of the present TFTR facility which will provide a demonstration of the generation of tens of megawatts electric equivalent originally envisioned for the 1985 EPR. The second device is the TTAP which will allow the integration and optimization of the plasma physics results obtained from the next generation of plasma physics experiments. The improvement in tokamak reactor operation resulting from this optimization of fusion plasma performance will enable an EPR to be designed which will produce several hundred megawatts of electric power by 1990. This will move the fusion program much closer to its goal of commercial fusion power by the turn of the century. In addition to this function the TTAP will serve as a prototype of the 1990 EPR system, thus making more certain the successful operation of this device. The third element of this revised program is an intense radiation damage facility which will provide the radiation damage information necessary for the EPR and subsequent fusion reactor facilities. The sum total of experience gained from reacting plasma experiments on TFTR, reactor grade plasma optimization and technological prototyping on TTAP, and end of life radiation damage results from the intense neutron facility will solve all of the presently foreseen problems associated with a tokamak fusion power reactor except those associated with the external nuclear systems. These external system problems such as tritium breeding and optimal power recovery can be developed in parallel on the 1990 EPR

  5. Suggested PAZ Size of Pressurized Light Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Jeong, Seung Young [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, preliminary calculation results to suggest PAZ size are presented. PSA methodology and RASCAL code were used to calculate PAZ size. Suggested radius of PAZ from the preliminary calculation results is between 0.8 and 4.8 km. These results were calculated with simple assumptions and only considered technical aspect, such as fission product release characteristics and radioactive material dispersion in environment. The actual boundaries of PAZ need to be defined by site specific information, such as local landmarks and population distribution. The results in this study can be used as base information to stakeholders and decision makers who are response in arrangement of emergency preparedness. The goals of the protective actions during nuclear accident are to prevent the occurrence of severe deterministic effects and keep the dose below the level at which protective actions and other response actions are justified to reduce the risk of stochastic effects. To meet these goals, off-site emergency zones for taking urgent protective action have to be identified in advance, i.e. during emergency preparedness phase. Especially Precautionary Action Zone (PAZ) is defined by the international requirement as the area within which arrangements should be made to implement precautionary urgent protective actions before or shortly after a major release with the aim of preventing or reducing the occurrence of severe deterministic effect. However, PAZ is not introduced in domestic emergency preparedness system.

  6. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  7. The importance of haemoglobin level and effect of transfusion in HNSCC patients treated with radiotherapy - Results from the randomized DAHANCA 5 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, Camilla Molich; Hansen, Hanne Sand; Overgaard, Marie; Grau, Cai; Johansen, Jorgen; Bentzen, Jens; Overgaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and a low level of haemoglobin (Hb) often have a poor response to radiation which may be related to hypoxia induced radioresistance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of low Hb level and its modification by transfusion in HNSCC patients treated with radiotherapy. The study was performed as a subrandomization in the DAHANCA 5 trial. Material and methods: Patients were randomized to treatment with the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole or placebo, and in addition, patients with 'low' pre-irradiation Hb values (females < 13 g/dL; males < 14.5 g/dL) were subrandomized to plus or minus transfusion. Transfusion was given with packed red blood cells with the aim to achieve a Hb level in the 'high' value range. Results: A total of 414 patients were included, 243 patients had high Hb levels and 171 patients had low Hb levels. Of the low Hb patients, 82 were randomized to receive transfusion and 89 not to receive transfusion. The treatment arms were well balanced. In the majority of patients, transfusion resulted in increased Hb levels although this tended to decline throughout treatment. Patients with high Hb levels had a significantly better probability of locoregional control, disease-specific survival and overall survival compared to 'low Hb no transfusion' patients. In the low Hb group, transfusion did not improve the outcome in locoregional control, disease-specific survival or overall survival. In multivariate analyses, T and N classifications were significant for all outcome measures, whereas there was no significant influence of transfusion or Hb level on endpoints. Conclusion: The univariate prognostic significance of high Hb level was demonstrated in patients with HNSCC treated with radiotherapy; however, transfusion prior to and during treatment did not improve the outcome in patients with low Hb values.

  8. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  9. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  10. Personality Styles and Suggestibility: A Differential Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R.; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between personality styles measured with the Portuguese adaptation of the Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised – MIPS-R and interrogative suggestibility assessed by the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale – GSS1. Hypotheses predicted individual differences in suggestibility and that these differences correspond to differences in individuals’ personality styles. The study was conducted with a sample of 258 individuals (M age ...

  11. Maxillectomy defects: a suggested classification scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinmoladun, V I; Dosumu, O O; Olusanya, A A; Ikusika, O F

    2013-06-01

    The term "maxillectomy" has been used to describe a variety of surgical procedures for a spectrum of diseases involving a diverse anatomical site. Hence, classifications of maxillectomy defects have often made communication difficult. This article highlights this problem, emphasises the need for a uniform system of classification and suggests a classification system which is simple and comprehensive. Articles related to this subject, especially those with specified classifications of maxillary surgical defects were sourced from the internet through Google, Scopus and PubMed using the search terms maxillectomy defects classification. A manual search through available literature was also done. The review of the materials revealed many classifications and modifications of classifications from the descriptive, reconstructive and prosthodontic perspectives. No globally acceptable classification exists among practitioners involved in the management of diseases in the mid-facial region. There were over 14 classifications of maxillary defects found in the English literature. Attempts made to address the inadequacies of previous classifications have tended to result in cumbersome and relatively complex classifications. A single classification that is based on both surgical and prosthetic considerations is most desirable and is hereby proposed.

  12. Inhibition of muscle fibrosis results in increases in both utrophin levels and the number of revertant myofibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Oshrat; Genin, Olga; Angelini, Corrado; Halevy, Orna; Pines, Mark

    2015-09-15

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is characterized by: near absence of dystrophin in skeletal muscles; low percentage of revertant myofibers; up-regulation of utrophin synthesis; and a high degree of muscle fibrosis. In patient quadriceps femoris biopsies (n = 6, ages between 3-9 years) an inverse correlation was observed between the levels of collagen type I - representing fibrosis - and the levels of utrophin. This correlation was independent of the patient's age and was observed in the entire muscle biopsy sections. In the mdx mice diaphragm (n = 6/group), inhibition of fibrosis by halofuginone resulted in increases in the levels of utrophin. The utrophin/fibrosis relationships were not limited to collagen type I, but also applied to other constituents of the fibrosis machinery. The inverse correlation was found also in old mdx mice with established fibrosis. In addition, inhibition of collagen type I levels was associated with increases in the numbers of revertant myofibers, both as single myofibers and in clusters in the diaphragm and the gastrocnemius. In summary, our results demonstrate an inverse correlation between the level of muscle fibrosis and the level of utrophin and that of the number of revertant myofibers. These findings may reveal common links between the fibrotic and utrophin-synthesis pathways and offer new insights into the regulation of utrophin synthesis.

  13. Quantitative histological models suggest endothermy in plesiosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna V. Fleischle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Plesiosaurs are marine reptiles that arose in the Late Triassic and survived to the Late Cretaceous. They have a unique and uniform bauplan and are known for their very long neck and hydrofoil-like flippers. Plesiosaurs are among the most successful vertebrate clades in Earth’s history. Based on bone mass decrease and cosmopolitan distribution, both of which affect lifestyle, indications of parental care, and oxygen isotope analyses, evidence for endothermy in plesiosaurs has accumulated. Recent bone histological investigations also provide evidence of fast growth and elevated metabolic rates. However, quantitative estimations of metabolic rates and bone growth rates in plesiosaurs have not been attempted before. Methods Phylogenetic eigenvector maps is a method for estimating trait values from a predictor variable while taking into account phylogenetic relationships. As predictor variable, this study employs vascular density, measured in bone histological sections of fossil eosauropterygians and extant comparative taxa. We quantified vascular density as primary osteon density, thus, the proportion of vascular area (including lamellar infillings of primary osteons to total bone area. Our response variables are bone growth rate (expressed as local bone apposition rate and resting metabolic rate (RMR. Results Our models reveal bone growth rates and RMRs for plesiosaurs that are in the range of birds, suggesting that plesiosaurs were endotherm. Even for basal eosauropterygians we estimate values in the range of mammals or higher. Discussion Our models are influenced by the availability of comparative data, which are lacking for large marine amniotes, potentially skewing our results. However, our statistically robust inference of fast growth and fast metabolism is in accordance with other evidence for plesiosaurian endothermy. Endothermy may explain the success of plesiosaurs consisting in their survival of the end-Triassic extinction

  14. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  15. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  16. Results of ground level radiation measurements in support of the 1978 aerial survey of the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Doane, R.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-09-01

    This report contains the results of a limited series of measurements at the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works site, three miles northeast of Lewiston, New York. The scope of this survey was not extensive, and the survey was conducted to support a concurrent aerial survey conducted by EG and G, Inc. Results of this survey indicate two souces of significant external gamma exposure on the site as well as several locations that retain low to intermediate levels of radioactivity in soil. Off-site soil radionuclide concentrations were well within background levels with one exception. Water radionuclide concentrations on the site in the Central Drainage Ditch are significantly above background levels but decrease with distance from the spoil pile, and are within restrictive concentration guides for off-site locations

  17. Radiographic Results of Single Level Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Spine Disease: Focusing on Changes of Segmental Lordosis in Fusion Segment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang-Bum; Jeon, Taek-Soo; Heo, Youn-Moo; Lee, Woo-Suk; Yi, Jin-Woong; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Hwang, Cheol-Mog

    2009-01-01

    Background To assess the radiographic results in patients who underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), particularly the changes in segmental lordosis in the fusion segment, whole lumbar lordosis and disc height. Methods Twenty six cases of single-level TLIF in degenerative lumbar diseases were analyzed. The changes in segmental lordosis, whole lumbar lordosis, and disc height were evaluated before surgery, after surgery and at the final follow-up. Results The segmental lordosi...

  18. Understanding the first Neolithic occupation of Cova d'En Pardo (Planes, Alicante: Preliminary results of the multidisciplinary analysis of levels VIII and VIIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Agatángelo Soler Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of excavations carried out in the Cova d'En Pardo (Planes, Alicante, specifically the levels VIII and VIIIb. The development of a multidisciplinary project has allowed to us characterize the occupation of a small cavity by the first farming communities associated with the Neolithization process of the east of Iberian Peninsula.

  19. Simultaneous Use of the Financial Literacy Level and the Financial Inclusion Degree as a Result of Financial Education Efficiency in Visegrad Group Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Frączek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate level of financial knowledge and the degree of financial integration needed in today's financialized world. This paper studies the level of financial literacy and the degree of financial inclusion among the students who study economic fields. These students are a special target group - very important for future development of financial markets. They are not only the future participants, but also the potential animators and creators of the financial market as well as the future financial advisors. The research sample comes from Visegrad Group countries (4V Countries, as the representatives from Central and Eastern Europe countries, where the level of financial literacy and degree of financial inclusion seems to be lower in comparison to the West European Countries. The research also contributes to knowledge in the area of expanding the methods of assessments of efficiency of financial education. The Authors decided to verify the new assessment of effectiveness of financial education. It will be conducted by a separate and simultaneous assessment of financial literacy and financial inclusion. The main results of research confirm the very low level of financial literacy and financial inclusion of young future economists in 4V Countries in both groups: starting and finishing the professional financial education. In addition, examining the degree of financial inclusion among the students who at the same time are educated at the basic level confirms the much lower level of informed financial inclusion.

  20. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-01-01

    Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence ...

  1. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of past sea-level variations based on different methods and techniques have been presented in a range of studies, including interpretation of beach ridge characteristics. In Denmark, Holocene beach ridge plains have been formed during the last c. 7700 years, a period characterised by both...... isostatic uplift and changes in eustatic sea-level, and therefore represent an archive of past relative sea-level variations. Here, we present preliminary results from investigation of beach ridges from Feddet, a small peninsula located in Faxe Bay (Baltic Sea) in the eastern part of Denmark. Feddet has...... been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...

  2. IInvestigations of space-time variability of the sea level in the Barents Sea and the White Sea by satellite altimetry data and results of hydrodynamic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S. A.; Zilberstein, O. I.; Popov, S. K.; Tikhonova, O. V.

    2003-04-01

    The problem of retrieving of the sea level anomalies in the Barents and White Seas from satellite can be considered as two different problems. The first one is to calculate the anomalies of sea level along the trek taking into account all amendments including tidal heights. The second one is to obtain of fields of the sea level anomalies on the grid over one cycle of the exact repeat altimetry mission. Experience results show that there is preferable to use the regional tidal model for calculating tidal heights. To construct of the anomalies fields of the sea level during the exact repeat mission (cycle 35 days for ERS-1 and ERS-2), when a density of the coverage of the area of water of the Barents and White Seas by satellite measurements achieves maximum. It is necessary to solve the problem of the error minimum. This error is based by the temporal difference of the measurements over one cycle and by the specific of the hydrodynamic regime of the both seas (tidal, storm surge variations, tidal currents). To solve this problem it is assumed to use the results of the hydrodynamic modeling. The error minimum is preformed by the regression of the model results and satellite measurements. As a version it is considered the possibility of the utilizing of the neuronet obtained by the model results to construct maps of the sea level anomalies. The comparison of the model results and the calculation of the satellite altimetry variability of the sea level of Barents and White Seas shows a good coincidence between them. The satellite altimetry data of ERS-1/2 and TOPEX/POSEIDON of Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder Project (NASA/GSFC) has been used in this study. Results of the regional tidal model computations and three dimensional baroclinic model created in the Hydrometeocenter have been used as well. This study also exploited the atmosphere date of the Project REANALYSIS. The research was undertaken with partial support from the Russian Basic Research Foundation (Project No. 01-07-90106).

  3. Study suggests Arctic sea ice loss not irreversible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    The Arctic has been losing sea ice as Earth's climate warms, and some studies have suggested that the Arctic could reach a tipping point, beyond which ice would not recover even if global temperatures cooled down again. However, a new study by Armour et al. that uses a state-of-the-art atmosphere-ocean global climate model found no evidence of such irreversibility. In their simulations, the researchers increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels until Arctic sea ice disappeared year-round and then watched what happened as global temperatures were then decreased. They found that sea ice steadily recovered as global temperatures dropped. An implication of this result is that future sea ice loss will occur only as long as global temperatures continue to rise. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048739, 2011)

  4. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trophic signatures of seabirds suggest shifts in oceanic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Tyler O.; Hyrenbach, K. David; Hagemann, Molly E.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level–based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher–trophic level to lower–trophic level prey. No species increased their trophic position. Given species prey preferences, Bayesian diet reconstructions suggest a shift from fishes to squids, a result consistent with both catch reports and ecosystem models. Machine learning models further reveal that trophic position trends have a complex set of drivers including climate, commercial fisheries, and ecomorphology. Our results show that multiple species of fish-consuming seabirds may track the complex changes occurring in marine ecosystems. PMID:29457134

  6. Assessment of salinity intrusion in the James and Chickahominy Rivers as a result of simulated sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay, East Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C; Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian

    2012-11-30

    Global sea level is rising, and the relative rate in the Chesapeake Bay region of the East Coast of the United States is greater than the worldwide rate. Sea-level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. The effects of future sea-level rise on two tributaries of Chesapeake Bay, the James and Chickahominy (CHK) Rivers, were evaluated in order to quantify the salinity change with respect to the magnitude of sea-level rise. Such changes are critical to: 1) local floral and faunal habitats that have limited tolerance ranges to salinity; and 2) a drinking-water supply for the City of Newport News, Virginia. By using the three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D), sea-level rise scenarios of 30, 50, and 100 cm, based on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program for the mid-Atlantic region for the 21st century, were evaluated. The model results indicate that salinity increases in the entire river as sea level rises and that the salinity increase in a dry year is greater than that in a typical year. In the James River, the salinity increase in the middle-to-upper river (from 25 to 50 km upstream of the mouth) is larger than that in the lower and upper parts of the river. The maximum mean salinity increase would be 2 and 4 ppt for a sea-level rise of 50 and 100 cm, respectively. The upstream movement of the 10 ppt isohaline is much larger than the 5 and 20 ppt isohalines. The volume of water with salinity between 10 and 20 ppt would increase greatly if sea level rises 100 cm. In the CHK River, with a sea-level rise of 100 cm, the mean salinity at the drinking-water intake 34 km upstream of the mouth would be about 3 ppt in a typical year and greater than 5 ppt in a dry year, both far in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary standard for total dissolved solids for drinking water. At the drinking-water intake, the number of days of salinity

  7. Prostate-specific antigen levels are higher in African-American than in white patients in a multicenter registration study: Results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Winter, Kathryn; Sause, William; Gallagher, Michael J.; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Porter, Arthur; Bondy, Melissa

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a national sample of African-American and white men with prostate cancer, and to attempt to explain any differences by using self-reported individual-level socioeconomic status adjustments. Methods and Materials: During 4((1)/(2)) months in 1994-95, 709 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study; 17.5% were African-American and 82.5% were white. Information about clinical stage, tumor grade, pretreatment PSA, type of insurance, and educational and income status was obtained. Serum PSA levels were measured and racial differences were found; how the differences were influenced by other patient- or tumor-related factors and if the differences could be explained by socioeconomic status disparities were determined. In univariate analyses, factors associated with the mean PSA levels were studied; log-converted values were used to yield a normal distribution. Multivariate analyses were done on log-linear models for description of association patterns among various categorical variables; a perfectly fitted model should have a correlation value (CV) of 1.0. Results: The mean PSA level was higher in African-Americans (14.68 ng/ml) than in whites (9.82 ng/ml) (p = 0.001). Clinical stage (p = 0.001), Gleason sum tumor grade (p = 0.0001), educational level (p = 0.001), and household income (p = 0.03) were also associated with mean PSA levels; age, type of biopsy, and insurance status were not. Disease stage (p = 0.0001), grade (p 0.0001), education (p = 0.07), and income (p = 0.02) were all associated with PSA levels for whites, but none of these factors were important for African-Americans (all p values > 0.1). The best fitted log-linear model (CV = 0.99) contained PSA ( 20), Gleason sum grade (2-5, 6-7, and 8-10), race, and two interactions: PSA by race (p = 0.0012) and PSA by Gleason sum (p = 0.0001). Models replacing race for either income (CV = 0.82) or education

  8. Sea Level History in 3D: Early results of an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, G. S.; Kucuk, H. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Newton, A.; Baldwin, K.; Johnson, C.; Stanley, J. N.; Bhatnagar, T.

    2015-12-01

    Although globally averaged sea level is rising at roughly 3 mm/yr (and is accelerating), rates of local sea-level change measured at coastlines may differ from this number by a factor of two or more; at some locations, sea level may even be falling. This is due to local processes that can match or even reverse the global trend, making it clear that reliable predictions of future impacts of sea-level rise require a firm understanding of processes at the local level. The history of local sea-level change and shoreline response is contained in the geologic record of shallow-water sediments. We report on a continuing study of sea-level history in sediments at the New Jersey continental margin, where compaction and glacial isostatic adjustment are currently adding 2 mm/yr to the globally averaged rise. We collected 570 sq km of ultra-high resolution 3D MCS data aboard the R/V Langseth in June-July 2015; innovative recording and preliminary results are described by Nedimovic et al. in this same session. The goal was to provide regional context to coring and logging at IODP Exp 313 sites 27-29 that were drilled 750 m into the New Jersey shelf in 2009. These sites recovered a nearly continuous record of post-Eocene sediments from non-marine soils, estuaries, shoreface, delta front, pro-delta and open marine settings. Existing seismic data are good but are 2D high-resolution profiles at line spacings too wide to enable mapping of key nearshore features. The Langseth 3D survey used shallow towing of a tuned air gun array to preserve high frequencies, and twenty-four 50-m PCables each 12.5 apart provided 6.25 x 3.125 m common-midpoint bins along seventy-seven 50-km sail lines. With this especially dense spatial resolution of a pre-stack time migrated volume we expect to map rivers, incised valleys, barrier islands, inlets and bays, pro-delta clinoforms, tidal deltas, sequence boundaries, debris flow aprons, and more. Seismic attributes linked to sedimentary facies and

  9. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...... and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  10. Quality control in low-level radionuclide analysis. Results of recent intercomparisons and programme for 1979/80 of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschny, O; Dybczynski, R; Tugsavul, A

    1979-05-01

    Several summary reports on the IAEA's analytical quality control programme have been issued in the past. A report mapping out areas of common interest with the ICRM has been presented to the Paris meeting of ICRM's low-level measurement techniques group in 1976 and subsequently published in environment international. General descriptions of the programme as it has developed in the past 15 years can be found in these publications, in addition detailed results of intercomparisons have been published in IAEA reports and in the open literature (about 30 publications), they are too numerous for citation here. This paper presents discussion of the results of recent intercomparisons of low level radionuclide determinations followed by a presentation of our schedule of distribution of intercomparison and reference materials for 1979 and 80.

  11. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Hospelhorn, M.B.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site

  12. A comprehensive analyzing and evaluating of the results of a wide scope comparison on the environmental level radioactive samples with γ spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong; Cheng Jianping; Wang Xuewu; Fan Jiajin; Chen Boxian

    2001-01-01

    A wide scope comparison on the environmental level radioactive samples by γ spectrometers, that has been done in 1998 - 1999, was introduced. Some original data about the comparison are presented. Comprehensive analyzing and evaluating on the comparison results have been done. A new method used for determining comparison reference values, the Model Real Time Weight Average, is adopted. The method is detailed and compared with other models. The practice shows that the Model Real Time Weight Average adopted is feasible and successful

  13. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  14. Seven Salutary Suggestions for Counselor Stamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Counselor stamina is deemed essential in the midst of a consistently challenging, complex, and changing mental health care environment. Rather than perpetuating conversations about "burnout" and "burnout prevention," this article provides a salutary or health-promoting perspective. Seven suggestions for counselor stamina are presented and…

  15. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  16. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  17. Do astrophysical measurements suggest massive neutrinos?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the solar neutrino puzzle and suggest modification in the standard solar model. It has been observed that the discrepancy between experimental measurements and theoretically produced values can be removed by considering neutrinos to process non-zero mass. (author)

  18. The role of tag suggestions in folksonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, D.G.F.M.; Halpin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Most tagging systems support the user in the tag selection process by providing tag suggestions, or recommendations, based on a popularity measurement of tags other users provided when tagging the same resource. The majority of theories and mathematical models of tagging found in the literature

  19. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  20. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  1. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  2. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    and user-generated book metadata in retrieval. We consolidated last year’s investigation into the nature of book suggestions from the LibraryThing forums and how they compare to book relevance judgements. Participants were encouraged to incorporate rich user profiles of both topic creators and other...

  3. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  4. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. European relevance of case study results. Reflections on transferability to voluntary agreement schemes at the European level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, Peter

    2000-04-01

    -wide environmental management in transnational companies; Allowing the set-up of more extensive branch networks for exchange of information and experience; Helping less experienced member states catch up; and Providing for deeper administrative competence and use of more advanced comparative methods, as the number of similar companies and productions would be greater than at the national level. Therefore, a general prejudice in favour of European level agreements seems reasonable. But the VAIE study results would warn against premature conclusions based on such general arguments. The specific experience from industrial energy efficiency agreements at the national level, as examined in the VAIE study, indicates that success depends on parameters, that are not easily reproducible at the European level. This calls for caution, so that decisions to proceed on a European level is not based excessively on consideration of abstract advantages, but are based also on more practical considerations and a careful study of specifically relevant national experience. Such considerations would seem to indicate that the combination of national and European level actions has more potential for success, than the pursuit of wholly European approaches. Most of the advantages of European level action could be exploited also by combined actions, whereas the strength of national action could simultaneously be preserved. To judge from the national experience examined in the VAIE study, action exclusively at the European level should probably be confined to highly focused actions, directed at industries that are particularly amenable to European action. It should be carefully prepared through the development of a strong bargaining position on the public side, never based on vague political threats, but always on the ability to offer tangible and substantial benefits to the private side. It would need to include targets that are either carefully worked out to be self-controlling, or are embedded in a credible

  5. Number of years of participation in some, but not all, types of physical activity during adolescence predicts level of physical activity in adulthood: Results from a 13-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Sabiston, Catherine M; Barnett, Tracie A; O'Loughlin, Erin; Ward, Stéphanie; Contreras, Gisèle; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-06-10

    Adolescent physical activity (PA) levels track into adulthood. However it is not known if type of PA participated in during adolescence is associated with PA levels later in life. We aimed to identify natural groupings of types of PA and to assess whether number of years participating in these different groupings during adolescence is related to PA level in early adulthood. 673 adolescents in Montreal, Canada, age 12-13 years at baseline (54% female), reported participation in 29 physical activities every 3 months over 5 years (1999-2005). They also reported their PA level at age 24 years (2011-12). PA groupings among the 29 physical activities were identified using factor analysis. The association between number of years participating in each grouping during adolescence and PA level at age 24 was estimated using linear regression within a general estimating equation framework. Three PA groupings were identified: "sports", "fitness and dance", and "running". There was a positive linear relationship between number of years participating in sports and running in adolescence and PA level at age 24 years (β (95% confidence interval) = 0.09 (0.04-0.15); 0.08 (0.01-0.15), respectively). There was no relationship between fitness and dance in adolescence and PA level at age 24. The association between PA participation in adolescence and PA levels in young adulthood may be specific to certain PA types and to consistency of participation during adolescence. Results suggest that efforts to establish the habit of participation in sports and running in adolescence may promote higher PA levels in adulthood.

  6. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.

  7. Does restoration of focal lumbar lordosis for single level degenerative spondylolisthesis result in better patient-reported clinical outcomes? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chanseok; Visintini, Sarah; Dunning, Cynthia E; Oxner, William M; Glennie, R Andrew

    2017-10-01

    It is controversial whether the surgical restoration of sagittal balance and spinopelvic angulation in a single level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis results in clinical improvements. The purpose of this study to systematically review the available literature to determine whether the surgical correction of malalignment in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis correlates with improvements in patient-reported clinical outcomes. Literature searches were performed via Ovid Medline, Embase, CENTRAL and Web of Science using search terms "lumbar," "degenerative/spondylolisthesis" and "surgery/surgical/surgeries/fusion". This resulted in 844 articles and after reviewing the abstracts and full-texts, 13 articles were included for summary and final analysis. There were two Level II articles, four Level III articles and five Level IV articles. Most commonly used patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were Oswestery disability index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Four articles were included for the final statistical analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the patient groups who achieved successful surgical correction of malalignment and those who did not for either ODI (mean difference -0.94, CI -8.89-7.00) or VAS (mean difference 1.57, CI -3.16-6.30). Two studies assessed the efficacy of manual reduction of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis and their clinical outcomes after the operation, and there was no statistically significant improvement. Overall, the restoration of focal lumbar lordosis and restoration of sagittal balance for single-level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis does not seem to yield clinical improvements but well-powered studies on this specific topic is lacking in the current literature. Future well-powered studies are needed for a more definitive conclusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Rashed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed. Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  9. Suggestion of a conventional Islamic calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. G.; Moklof, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    There is a complexity of the problem concerning the first sighting of the new lunar crescent, which is attributed to various astronomical, astrophysical and geographical factors. Therefore, Astronomers adopted various criteria for the new crescent visibility. Muslims around the world differ in the beginning of the Hijric months. In fact the differences are not due to different methodology of astronomical calculations, which in turn the variations of the calendar at different countries gives. Farewell Hajj of Prophet Mohamed was on Friday, the ninth of Thul'hejja of the tenth year of immigration (Biography of the Prophet Mohamed). Therefor; the beginning of the month of Thul'hejja 10 A.H is on Thursday. Our suggested calendar takes Farewell Hajj of the Prophet Mohammad to be the base of this calendar. The advantage of our suggested calendar far away from any criteria; where the adoption of criteria for the new crescent visibility is often misleading.

  10. Stress exposure results in increased peroxisomal levels of yeast Pnc1 and Gpd1, which are imported via a piggy-backing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Ritika; Williams, Chris P; van der Klei, Ida J

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (Gpd1) and nicotinamidase (Pnc1) are two stress-induced enzymes. Both enzymes are predominantly localised to peroxisomes at normal growth conditions, but were reported to localise to the cytosol and nucleus upon exposure of cells to stress. Import of both proteins into peroxisomes depends on the peroxisomal targeting signal 2 (PTS2) receptor Pex7. Gpd1 contains a PTS2, however, Pnc1 lacks this sequence. Here we show that Pnc1 physically interacts with Gpd1, which is required for piggy-back import of Pnc1 into peroxisomes. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy analyses revealed that the levels of both proteins increased in peroxisomes and in the cytosol upon exposure of cells to stress. However, upon exposure of cells to stress we also observed enhanced cytosolic levels of the control PTS2 protein thiolase, when produced under control of the GPD1 promoter. This suggests that these conditions cause a partial defect in PTS2 protein import, probably because the PTS2 import pathway is easily saturated. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  12. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

  13. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM

  14. Annurca (Malus pumila Miller cv. Annurca) apple as a functional food for the contribution to a healthy balance of plasma cholesterol levels: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Caruso, Domenico; Buonomo, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Emanuela; D'Avino, Maria; Campiglia, Pietro; Marinelli, Luciana; Novellino, Ettore

    2017-05-01

    Recent human studies have evaluated the effect of daily apple consumption on plasma cholesterol level, which is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, slightly significant effects have been generally registered although consuming more than two apples a day for several weeks. This study describes the influence of daily consumption of Annurca apples on the cholesterol levels of mildly hypercholesterolaemic healthy subjects. A monocentric, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 4-month study was conducted. The subjects (n = 250) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups (each one of 50 subjects: 28 men and 22 women). Four groups were administered one apple per day among the following: Red Delicious, Granny Smith, Fuji, Golden Delicious. The fifth group was asked to consume two Annurca apples per day, since the weight of this cultivar is on average half that of the commercial ones considered in this study. Comparing results, Annurca led to the most significant outcome, allowing a reduction in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 8.3% and 14.5%, respectively, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 15.2% (all P apple as a useful tool to contribute to the prevention of CVD risk through normal diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Application for Suggesting Restaurants Using Clustering Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Alexandra IANCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an application whose purpose is to make suggestions of restaurants to users. The application uses as input the descriptions of restaurants, reviews, user reviews available on the specialized Internet sites and blogs. In the application there are used processing techniques of natural language implemented using parsers, clustering algorithms and techniques for data collection from the Internet through web crawlers.

  16. Methods and results of the investigation of the thermomechanical behaviour of rock salt with regard to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, K.; Klarr, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the knowledge about thermal and mechanical behaviour of rock salt that has been accumulated by various R and D institutions in Germany from laboratory and in situ investigations. An important objective is to give a comprehensive overview of the investigation methods and instruments available and to discuss these methods and instruments with regard to their applicability and reliability for the investigation of the thermomechanical effects of high level radioactive waste emplacement in rock salt formations. The report is focused on the activities of the GSF-Institut fur Tieflagerung in the Asse mine regarding the disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste during the last decades. The design and the results of the most important in situ experiments are presented and discussed in detail. The results are compared to model calculations in order to evaluate the reliability of both the measurements and the calculation results. The relevance of the results for the situation in Spain is discussed in a separate chapter. As the investigations in Germany have been performed in domal salt, while the Spanish concept is based on waste disposal in bedded salt, significant differences in the thermomechanical behaviour cannot be excluded. The investigation methods, however, will be applicable. (Author)

  17. Comparison of Field Measurements and EMT Simulation Results on a Multi-Level STATCOM for Grid Integration of London Array Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasdam, Jakob; Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Simulation results are widely used in the design of electrical systems such as offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) and for determination of grid compliance. Measurements constitute an important part in the evaluation process of the OWPP, including passive and active components such as the static...... of the STATCOM for wind power integration, as well as of the validity of applying a generic model of the STATCOM without knowledge of the actual implemented control system. The proposed model is integrated into an aggregated EMT model of LAOWPP, which will be used to investigate possible resonance phenomena...... that will be shown in the paper to affect the harmonic distortion level. The STATCOM distortion level will be shown to be highly affected by the number of wind turbine generators (WTGs) in service. It will be shown that the inclusion of band rejection filters (BRFs) in the WTGs’ control loop lowers the STATCOM...

  18. Recent results on the linearity of the dose-response relationship for radiation-induced mutations in human cells by low dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traut, H.

    1987-01-01

    Five studies made by various authors in the last years are discussed, which are significant in that the response of human cells to low-dose irradiation is determined directly and not by extrapolation, and which also provide information on the mutagenic effects of low radiation doses. The results of these studies do not indicate any other than a linear response for induction of mutations by low-dose irradiation, nor are there any reasons observable for assuming the existence of a threshold dose. It is very likely therefore that cancer initiation at the low dose level also is characterized by a linear relationship. Although threshold dose levels cannot generally be excluded, and maybe are only too low to be detected by experiment, there is no plausible biophysical argument for assuming the existence of such microdose threshold. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ah Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM I value (5 μg/L among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001. The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.79–5.95 and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79 times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  20. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  1. Adult vaccination coverage levels among users of complementary/alternative medicine – results from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardenheier Barbara H

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While many Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM practitioners do not object to immunization, some discourage or even actively oppose vaccination among their patients. However, previous studies in this area have focused on childhood immunizations, and it is unknown whether and to what extent CAM practitioners may influence the vaccination behavior of their adult patients. The purpose of this study was to describe vaccination coverage levels of adults aged ≥ 18 years according to their CAM use status and determine if there is an association between CAM use and adult vaccination coverage. Methods Data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, limited to 30,617 adults that provided at least one valid answer to the CAM supplement, were analyzed. Receipt of influenza vaccine during the past 12 months, pneumococcal vaccine (ever, and ≥ 1 dose of hepatitis B vaccine was self-reported. Coverage levels for each vaccine by CAM use status were determined for adults who were considered high priority for vaccination because of the presence of a high risk condition and for non-priority adults. Multivariable analyses were conducted to evaluate the association between CAM users and vaccination status, adjusting for demographic and healthcare utilization characteristics. Results Overall, 36% were recent CAM users. Among priority adults, adjusted vaccination coverage levels were significantly different between recent and non-CAM users for influenza (44% vs 38%; p-value Conclusion Vaccination coverage levels among recent CAM users were found to be higher than non-CAM users. Because CAM use has been increasing over time in the U.S., it is important to continue monitoring CAM use and its possible influence on receipt of immunizations among adults. Since adult vaccination coverage levels remain below Healthy People 2010 goals, it may be beneficial to work with CAM practitioners to promote adult vaccines as preventive services in

  2. Serum ferritin level is higher in male adolescents with obesity: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Jin Jeon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposePrevious reports show an association between high serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome (MS in adults. In adolescents, little information is available with obesity and serum ferritin levels.MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (K-NHANES conducted during 2010 by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. A total of 849 subjects aged 10-18 years participated in the 2010 survey. A body mass index (BMI ≥95th percentile for age and sex or a BMI ≥25 was used to diagnose as obesity.ResultsThe weighted prevalence of obesity was 13.4% (62/462 in male and 8.5% (33/387 in female. We observed significantly higher serum ferritin in male than in female (mean±standard error [SE], 50.5±2.3 µU/L vs. 30.6±1.3 µU/L; P<0.0001. In male, serum ferritin is positively correlated with age (P<0.0001. White blood cell (WBC count, serum fasting blood sugar, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and ferritin levels were higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In female adolescents, WBC count, TG, insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher and HDL were lower in the obesity than in the normal group. In male, serum ferritin levels showed positive association with obesity (β=21.196, P=0.016.ConclusionSerum ferritin levels appear to be associated with obesity in Korean male adolescents.

  3. Geodetic methods to determine the relativistic redshift at the level of 10^{-18} in the context of international timescales: a review and practical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Heiner; Timmen, Ludger; Voigt, Christian; Weyers, Stefan; Peik, Ekkehard; Margolis, Helen S.; Delva, Pacôme; Wolf, Peter; Petit, Gérard

    2017-12-01

    The frequency stability and uncertainty of the latest generation of optical atomic clocks is now approaching the one part in 10^{18} level. Comparisons between earthbound clocks at rest must account for the relativistic redshift of the clock frequencies, which is proportional to the corresponding gravity (gravitational plus centrifugal) potential difference. For contributions to international timescales, the relativistic redshift correction must be computed with respect to a conventional zero potential value in order to be consistent with the definition of Terrestrial Time. To benefit fully from the uncertainty of the optical clocks, the gravity potential must be determined with an accuracy of about 0.1 m2 s^{-2} , equivalent to about 0.01 m in height. This contribution focuses on the static part of the gravity field, assuming that temporal variations are accounted for separately by appropriate reductions. Two geodetic approaches are investigated for the derivation of gravity potential values: geometric levelling and the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)/geoid approach. Geometric levelling gives potential differences with millimetre uncertainty over shorter distances (several kilometres), but is susceptible to systematic errors at the decimetre level over large distances. The GNSS/geoid approach gives absolute gravity potential values, but with an uncertainty corresponding to about 2 cm in height. For large distances, the GNSS/geoid approach should therefore be better than geometric levelling. This is demonstrated by the results from practical investigations related to three clock sites in Germany and one in France. The estimated uncertainty for the relativistic redshift correction at each site is about 2 × 10^{-18}.

  4. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  5. The influence of CA 125 and CEA levels on the results of {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in suspected recurrence of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, C.; Gruenwald, F. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Doebert, N.; Hamscho, N.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Vasvatekis, S.; Matic, V.; Woerdehoff, N.

    2004-08-01

    Background and Purpose: The follow-up of epithelial ovarian cancer (OCA) consists of clinical investigation, sonography, and tumor markers (TMs), especially CA 125. If tumor recurrence is suspected, other imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose (FDG) are often used. While there is still no consensus about the method of choice and the timing of its application, this study aims to find a TM threshold at which a PET would be appropriate. Material and Methods: A total of 90 PET studies and the associated CA 125 values (normal value <35 U/ml) were available in 71 patients during the follow-up afte primary therapy for OCA. In 48 studies a CEA value (normal value <3 ng/ml) was also available. The results of PET imaging were related to the level of TM increase. Results: In 23/90 studies the PET scan was normal. These patients had a median CA 125 of 13.3 U/ml (range 4.2-168 U/ml). In 67/90 studies the PET indicated a potential recurrence of OCA and the median CA 125 was 166.7 U/ml (range 13.3-4,060 U/ml). The TM levels were significantly different (p<0.001, U-test). With one exception, there were no normal PET scans above CA 125 levels of 30 U/ml; between 20 and 30 U/ml PET was positive in 4/7 studies. Conclusion: In suspected recurrence of OCA, if imaging modalities are to be used, an FDG PET may be considered. Since the costs of this investigation are high, it should be restricted to clinical situations where it is likely to be most effective. In this study a PET indication is worthwhile at CA 125 levels of approximately 30 U/ml. (orig.)

  6. The influence of CA 125 and CEA levels on the results of 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in suspected recurrence of epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, C.; Gruenwald, F.; Doebert, N.; Hamscho, N.; Zaplatnikov, K.; Vasvatekis, S.; Matic, V.; Woerdehoff, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The follow-up of epithelial ovarian cancer (OCA) consists of clinical investigation, sonography, and tumor markers (TMs), especially CA 125. If tumor recurrence is suspected, other imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-deoxyglucose (FDG) are often used. While there is still no consensus about the method of choice and the timing of its application, this study aims to find a TM threshold at which a PET would be appropriate. Material and Methods: A total of 90 PET studies and the associated CA 125 values (normal value <35 U/ml) were available in 71 patients during the follow-up afte primary therapy for OCA. In 48 studies a CEA value (normal value <3 ng/ml) was also available. The results of PET imaging were related to the level of TM increase. Results: In 23/90 studies the PET scan was normal. These patients had a median CA 125 of 13.3 U/ml (range 4.2-168 U/ml). In 67/90 studies the PET indicated a potential recurrence of OCA and the median CA 125 was 166.7 U/ml (range 13.3-4,060 U/ml). The TM levels were significantly different (p<0.001, U-test). With one exception, there were no normal PET scans above CA 125 levels of 30 U/ml; between 20 and 30 U/ml PET was positive in 4/7 studies. Conclusion: In suspected recurrence of OCA, if imaging modalities are to be used, an FDG PET may be considered. Since the costs of this investigation are high, it should be restricted to clinical situations where it is likely to be most effective. In this study a PET indication is worthwhile at CA 125 levels of approximately 30 U/ml. (orig.)

  7. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Diouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24 in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23 of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004. Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  8. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal) Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Adama; Thiam, Mbeugué; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diongue, Ousmane; Mégné, Ndé; Diallo, Khady; Sembène, Pape Malick; Wade, Salimata

    2016-10-10

    Background : Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition. Methodology : 156 pupils 8-11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z -score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA) in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results : PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24) in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day) in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was achieved by 54.8% ( n = 23) of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day) children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004). Conclusions : The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children.

  9. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, TOURISM, SUGGESTION OF HEALTHCITY ANDMEDICALPARK

    OpenAIRE

    KALYONCU, Kahraman

    2016-01-01

    In general these differences among the countries are mentioned: in terms of human and physical capital accumalation, technological differences, production power and depending on this production power they have difeerences for human capital power, educational structure, creativity. Therefore, these differences create the differences among the countries for productivity and efficiency level, producing the quality goods and services. Thus, we propose healthcity and medical park in terms of havin...

  10. Integrating Science and Management - Evaluation of a Collaborative Model to Accelerate the Transition of Sea Level Rise Research Results into Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, D.; DeLorme, D.; Lewitus, A.

    2015-12-01

    The development and implementation of applied research programs that maximize stakeholder collaboration and utility is a well-documented struggle for funding agencies. In 2007, NOAA initiated multi-year stakeholder engagement process to develop a regional-scale, inter-disciplinary research project that resulted in a novel approach to accelerate the application of research results into management. This process culminated in a 2009 federal funding opportunity and resultant 6-year Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise-Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM) project focused on the dynamic integration of biological models (wetlands and oysters) with inundation and storm surge models at three National Estuarine Research Reserves in Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi. The project implemented a co-management approach between a traditional principle investigator (PI) and newly created applications co-PI that led a management advisory committee. Our goal was to provide the dedicated funding and infrastructure necessary to ensure the initial relevancy of the proposed project results, to guide ongoing research efforts, and to aid the efficient incorporation of key scientific results and tools into direct management application. As the project nears completion in 2016 and modeling applications reach maturity, this presentation will discuss the programmatic approach that resulted in EESLR-NGOM as well as an evaluation of nearly 6-years of collaborative science. This evaluation will focus on the funding agency perspective, with an emphasis on assessing the pros and cons of project implementation to establish lessons-learned for related collaborative science efforts. In addition, with increased attention in the Gulf of Mexico on projected sea level rise impacts to coastal ecosystem restoration and management, a core benchmark for this evaluation will be the use of project models and tools by coastal managers and planners at local, state, and/or federal agencies.

  11. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  12. Do experiments suggest a hierarchy problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1997-09-01

    The hierarchy problem of the scalar sector of the standard model is reformulated, emphasizing the role of experimental facts that may suggest the existence of a new physics large mass scale, for instance indications of the instability of the matter, or indications in favor of massive neutrinos. In the see-saw model for the neutrino masses a hierarchy problem arises if the mass of the right-handed neutrinos is larger than approximatively 10 7 GeV: this problem, and its possible solutions, are discussed. (author)

  13. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  14. HYDROCOIN [HYDROlogic COde INtercomparison] Level 1: Benchmarking and verification test results with CFEST [Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport] code: Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabusaki, S.; Cole, C.; Monti, A.M.; Gupta, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Part of the safety analysis is evaluating groundwater flow through the repository and the host rock to the accessible environment by developing mathematical or analytical models and numerical computer codes describing the flow mechanisms. This need led to the establishment of an international project called HYDROCOIN (HYDROlogic COde INtercomparison) organized by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, a forum for discussing techniques and strategies in subsurface hydrologic modeling. The major objective of the present effort, HYDROCOIN Level 1, is determining the numerical accuracy of the computer codes. The definition of each case includes the input parameters, the governing equations, the output specifications, and the format. The Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) code was applied to solve cases 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7; the Finite Element Three-Dimensional Groundwater (FE3DGW) Flow Model was used to solve case 6. Case 3 has been ignored because unsaturated flow is not pertinent to SRP. This report presents the Level 1 results furnished by the project teams. The numerical accuracy of the codes is determined by (1) comparing the computational results with analytical solutions for cases that have analytical solutions (namely cases 1 and 4), and (2) intercomparing results from codes for cases which do not have analytical solutions (cases 2, 5, 6, and 7). Cases 1, 2, 6, and 7 relate to flow analyses, whereas cases 4 and 5 require nonlinear solutions. 7 refs., 71 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Could the description on polynuclear superhalogens by DFT be comparable with high-level ab initio results? A comparison between DFT and CCSD(T)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yin-Yin; Li, Jin-Feng; Li, Miao-Miao; Zhou, Fu-Qiang; Li, Jian-Li; Yin, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A systematic density functional theory study including 17 exchange-correlation functionals was performed on different types of superhalogens with high level coupled-cluster single double including perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) results as the reference. The superhalogens selected here cover the ranges from mononuclear to polynuclear structures and from structures with halogen-atom ligands to those with non-halogen ligands, e.g., [MgX 3 ] − , [Mg 2 X 5 ] − , and [Mg 3 X 7 ] − (X = F, Cl, CN). It is clearly indicated that three double-hybrid functionals B2T-PLYP, B2GP-PLYP, B2K-PLYP as well as the range-separated hybrid functional ωB97X are capable of providing results which approach the accuracy at the CCSD(T) level. The basis set effect is usually moderate and, in most cases, it is enough to utilize the basis set of triple-ξ quality, e.g., Def2-TZVP. In addition, the results of the HF and MP2 method are also acceptable here, especially for polynuclear superhalogens where CCSD(T) is probably unpractical

  16. Scoring methods and results for qualitative evaluation of public health impacts from the Hanford high-level waste tanks. Integrated Risk Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Gelston, G.M.; Farris, W.T.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this analysis is to qualitatively rank the Hanford Site high-level waste (HLW) tanks according to their potential public health impacts through various (groundwater, surface water, and atmospheric) exposure pathways. Data from all 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 23 of the 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program were analyzed for chemical and radiological carcinogenic as well as chemical noncarcinogenic health impacts. The preliminary aggregate score (PAS) ranking system was used to generate information from various release scenarios. Results based on the PAS ranking values should be considered relative health impacts rather than absolute risk values

  17. Estimating the threshold levels of uranium and fluorine for the development of pulmonitis and toxic lung edema resultant from accidents involving uranium hexafluoride release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasteva, G.N.; Antipin, E.B.; Bad'in, V.I.; Molokanov, A.A.; Mordasheva, V.V.; Mirkhajdarov, A.Kh.; Sorokin, A.V.; Savinova, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Threshold doses of uranium and fluorine for the development of pulmonitis and toxic edema of the lung with lethal outcome are estimated. The levels of UF 6 entry under emergency conditions are evaluated and bronchopulmonary disease is described in subjects involved in three accidents with UF 6 release which occurred in the seventies and eighties, as shown by records. The results deny the previous assumption on the leading role of uranium in a single exposure to uranium hexafluoride. Fluorine ion triggering the mechanism of reactions in systems which determine the disease outcome is vitally important [ru

  18. Metabolic cost of level-ground walking with a robotic transtibial prosthesis combining push-off power and nonlinear damping behaviors: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanggang Feng; Jinying Zhu; Qining Wang

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in robotic technology are facilitating the development of robotic prostheses. Our previous studies proposed a lightweight robotic transtibial prosthesis with a damping control strategy. To improve the performance of power assistance, in this paper, we redesign the prosthesis and improve the control strategy by supplying extra push-off power. A male transtibial amputee subject volunteered to participate in the study. Preliminary experimental results show that the proposed prosthesis with push-off control improves energy expenditure by a percentage ranged from 9.72 % to 14.99 % for level-ground walking compared with the one using non-push-off control.

  19. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Winter, K.; Sause, W.; Gallagher, M.J.; Perez, C.; Bondy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an 20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  20. Using a Concept Inventory to Assess the Reasoning Component of Citizen-Level Science Literacy: Results from a 17,000-Student Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhfer, Edward B; Cogan, Christopher B; Kloock, Carl; Wood, Gregory G; Goodman, Anya; Delgado, Natalie Zayas; Wheeler, Christopher W

    2016-03-01

    After articulating 12 concepts for the reasoning component of citizen-level science literacy and restating these as assessable student learning outcomes (SLOs), we developed a valid and reliable assessment instrument for addressing the outcomes with a brief 25-item science literacy concept inventory (SLCI). In this paper, we report the results that we obtained from assessing the citizen-level science literacy of 17,382 undergraduate students, 149 graduate students, and 181 professors. We address only findings at or above the 99.9% confidence level. We found that general education (GE) science courses do not significantly advance understanding of science as a way of knowing. However, the understanding of science's way of knowing does increase through academic ranks, indicating that the extended overall academic experience better accounts for increasing such thinking capacity than do science courses alone. Higher mean institutional SLCI scores correlate closely with increased institutional selectivity, as measured by the institutions' higher mean SAT and ACT scores. Socioeconomic factors of a) first-generation student, b) English as a native language, and c) interest in commitment to a science major are unequally distributed across ethnic groups. These factors proved powerful in accounting for the variations in SLCI scores across ethnicities and genders.

  1. Using a Concept Inventory to Assess the Reasoning Component of Citizen-Level Science Literacy: Results from a 17,000-Student Study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuhfer, Edward B.; Cogan, Christopher B.; Kloock, Carl; Wood, Gregory G.; Goodman, Anya; Delgado, Natalie Zayas; Wheeler, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    After articulating 12 concepts for the reasoning component of citizen-level science literacy and restating these as assessable student learning outcomes (SLOs), we developed a valid and reliable assessment instrument for addressing the outcomes with a brief 25-item science literacy concept inventory (SLCI). In this paper, we report the results that we obtained from assessing the citizen-level science literacy of 17,382 undergraduate students, 149 graduate students, and 181 professors. We address only findings at or above the 99.9% confidence level. We found that general education (GE) science courses do not significantly advance understanding of science as a way of knowing. However, the understanding of science’s way of knowing does increase through academic ranks, indicating that the extended overall academic experience better accounts for increasing such thinking capacity than do science courses alone. Higher mean institutional SLCI scores correlate closely with increased institutional selectivity, as measured by the institutions’ higher mean SAT and ACT scores. Socioeconomic factors of a) first-generation student, b) English as a native language, and c) interest in commitment to a science major are unequally distributed across ethnic groups. These factors proved powerful in accounting for the variations in SLCI scores across ethnicities and genders. PMID:27047612

  2. Contribution to the study of 12C excited levels resulting from the reactions 11B (P/ α0) and 11B (p, α1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longequeue, J.P.

    1963-11-01

    This work is made up of two parts. In the first part the differential cross-sections have been determined of the reactions 11 B (p,α) from 130 to 500 keV thus confirming, at the 163 keV resonance, the (2 + ) characteristics of the 16.11 MeV level of 12 C. Furthermore, the experimental results in the neighbourhood of the 163 keV resonance can be explained by the interference of the 12 C levels: 2 + at 16.11 MeV and 1 - at 17.23 MeV for the α 0 , 2 + at 16.11 MeV and 2 - at 16.58 MeV for the α 1 . In the second part the (α -8Be ) disintegration process of 12 C has been studied in the neighbourhood of the 16.11 MeV level. It is shown that, if the (α -8Be ) mode of disintegration is preponderant outside the E p = 163 keV resonance, it is also preponderant at this same resonance; a direct disintegration of the 12 C to 3 α, with an approximate magnitude of 40 per cent has however not been excluded. (author) [fr

  3. Using a Concept Inventory to Assess the Reasoning Component of Citizen-Level Science Literacy: Results from a 17,000-Student Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B. Nuhfer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After articulating 12 concepts for the reasoning component of citizen-level science literacy and restating these as assessable student learning outcomes (SLOs, we developed a valid and reliable assessment instrument for addressing the outcomes with a brief 25-item science literacy concept inventory (SLCI. In this paper, we report the results that we obtained from assessing the citizen-level science literacy of 17,382 undergraduate students, 149 graduate students, and 181 professors. We address only findings at or above the 99.9% confidence level. We found that general education (GE science courses do not significantly advance understanding of science as a way of knowing. However, the understanding of science’s way of knowing does increase through academic ranks, indicating that the extended overall academic experience better accounts for increasing such thinking capacity than do science courses alone. Higher mean institutional SLCI scores correlate closely with increased institutional selectivity, as measured by the institutions’ higher mean SAT and ACT scores. Socioeconomic factors of a first-generation student, b English as a native language, and c interest in commitment to a science major are unequally distributed across ethnic groups. These factors proved powerful in accounting for the variations in SLCI scores across ethnicities and genders.

  4. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  5. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  6. Prenatal exposure to lead in France: Cord-blood levels and associated factors: Results from the perinatal component of the French Longitudinal Study since Childhood (Elfe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Dereumeaux, Clémentine; Goria, Sarah; Berat, Bénédicte; Brunel, Serge; Pecheux, Marie; de Crouy-Chanel, Perrine; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Rambaud, Loïc; Wagner, Vérène; le Tertre, Alain; Fillol, Clémence; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Guldner, Laurence

    2018-04-01

    As a result of the ban on lead in gasoline on 2nd January 2000, the French population's exposure to lead has decreased in recent years. However, because of the acknowledged harmful cognitive effects of lead even at low levels, lead exposure remains a major public health issue. In France, few biomonitoring data are available for exposure to lead in pregnant women and newborn. The purpose of the perinatal component of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program was to describe levels of various biomarkers of exposure to several environmental pollutants, including lead, among mother-baby pairs. In this paper, we aimed to describe the distribution of cord blood lead levels (CBLL) in French mother-baby pairs, and to estimate the contribution of the main lead exposure risk factors to these levels. A total of 1968 mother-baby pairs selected from the participants of the perinatal component of the French HBM program were included in the study on lead. Lead levels were analyzed in cord blood collected at child delivery by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data collected included biological sample, socio-demographic characteristics, environmental and occupational exposure, and information on dietary factors. CBLL were quantified for 99.5% of the sample. The CBLL geometric mean was 8.30 μg/l (95% CI [7.94-8.68]) with a 95th percentile of 24.3 μg/l (95% CI [20.7-27.1]). Factors significantly associated with CBLL were tap water consumption, alcohol consumption, shellfish consumption, vegetable consumption, bread consumption, smoking, and the mother being born in countries where lead is often used. This study provides the first reference value for CBLL in a random sample of mother-baby pairs not particularly exposed to high levels of lead (24.3 μg/l). A substantial decrease in CBLL over time was observed, which confirms the decrease of exposure to lead among the general population. CBLL observed in this French study were in the range of those

  7. Area level deprivation is an independent determinant of prevalent type 2 diabetes and obesity at the national level in Germany. Results from the National Telephone Health Interview Surveys 'German Health Update' GEDA 2009 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Maier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that prevention programmes for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and obesity need to consider individual and regional risk factors. Our objective is to assess the independent association of area level deprivation with T2DM and obesity controlling for individual risk factors in a large study covering the whole of Germany. METHODS: We combined data from two consecutive waves of the national health interview survey 'GEDA' conducted by the Robert Koch Institute in 2009 and 2010. Data collection was based on computer-assisted telephone interviews. After exclusion of participants <30 years of age and those with missing responses, we included n=33,690 participants in our analyses. The outcome variables were the 12-month prevalence of known T2DM and the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2. We also controlled for age, sex, BMI, smoking, sport, living with a partner and education. Area level deprivation of the districts was defined by the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. Logistic multilevel regression models were performed using the software SAS 9.2. RESULTS: Of all men and women living in the most deprived areas, 8.6% had T2DM and 16.9% were obese (least deprived areas: 5.8% for T2DM and 13.7% for obesity. For women, higher area level deprivation and lower educational level were both independently associated with higher T2DM and obesity prevalence [highest area level deprivation: OR 1.28 (95% CI: 1.05-1.55 for T2DM and OR 1.28 (95% CI: 1.10-1.49 for obesity]. For men, a similar association was only found for obesity [OR 1.20 (95% CI: 1.02-1.41], but not for T2DM. CONCLUSION: Area level deprivation is an independent, important determinant of T2DM and obesity prevalence in Germany. Identifying and targeting specific area-based risk factors should be considered an essential public health issue relevant to increasing the effectiveness of diabetes and obesity prevention.

  8. The results of STEM education methods for enhancing critical thinking and problem solving skill in physics the 10th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soros, P.; Ponkham, K.; Ekkapim, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) compare the critical think and problem solving skills before and after learning using STEM Education plan, 2) compare student achievement before and after learning about force and laws of motion using STEM Education plan, and 3) the satisfaction of learning by using STEM Education. The sample used were 37 students from grade 10 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 10 students of 1 schemes with total of 14 hours, 2) The test of critical think and problem solving skills with multiple-choice type of 5 options and 2 option of 30 items, 3) achievement test on force and laws of motion with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 20 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have score of critical think and problem solving skills on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level .01. 2) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have achievement score on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level of .01. 3) The student'level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a high level (X ¯ = 4.51, S.D=0.56).

  9. Laboratory evaluation of the Design Analysis Associates DAA H-3613i radar water-level sensor—Results of temperature, distance, and SDI-12 tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnley, Mark V.

    2016-09-30

    The Design Analysis Associates (DAA) DAA H-3613i radar water-level sensor (DAA H-3613i), manufactured by Xylem Incorporated, was evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to manufacturer’s accuracy specifications for measuring a distance throughout the sensor’s operating temperature range, for measuring distances from 3 to 15 feet at ambient temperatures, and for compliance with the SDI-12 serial-to-digital interface at 1200-baud communication standard. The DAA H-3613i is a noncontact water-level sensor that uses pulsed radar to measure the distance between the radar and the water surface from 0.75 to 131 feet over a temperature range of −40 to 60 degrees Celsius (°C). Manufacturer accuracy specifications that were evaluated, the test procedures that followed, and the results obtained are described in this report. The sensor’s accuracy specification of ± 0.01 feet (± 3 millimeters) meets USGS requirements for a primary water-stage sensor used in the operation of a streamgage. The sensor met the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for water-level measurements during temperature testing at a distance of 8 feet from the target over its temperature-compensated operating range of −40 to 60 °C, except at 60 °C. At 60 °C, about half the measurements exceeded the manufacturer’s accuracy specification by not more than 0.005 feet.The sensor met the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for water-level measurements during distance-accuracy testing at the tested distances from 3 to 15 feet above the water surface at the HIF.

  10. Synergistic Effects of Social Isolation and Morphine Addiction on Reduced Neurogenesis and BDNF Levels and the Resultant Deficits in Cognition and Emotional State in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famitafreshi, Hamidreza; Karimian, Morteza; Fatima, Sulail

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to drugs of abuse is a devastating condition which results in deterioration of brain function. On the other hand, social isolation also produces cognitive deficits such as learning and memory impairment. This study was designed to evaluate the potential negative synergistic effects of social isolation and morphine addiction on brain functions. One hundred and two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for assessing neurogenesis and behaviour: group-housed, isolated, morphine-treated group-housed and morphine-treated isolated groups. Morphine- treated animals received BrdU (50 mg/kg; i.p.) and Morphine (0.75 mg/rat; i.p.) for 14 consecutive days, whereas, control rats received BrdU (50 mg/kg; i.p.) only. At the end of the study, Morris water maze and elevated plus maze tasks were performed to assess spatial working memory and anxiety levels, respectively. Furthermore, neurogenesis and BDNF levels were studied. Reference and working memory was markedly impaired in isolated and morphine-treated isolated rats as compared to group-housed rats and morphine-treated group-housed rats, respectively. Neurogenesis and BDNF levels were reduced in isolated and morphine-treated isolated rats as compared to group-housed rats and morphine-treated group-housed rats, respectively. Furthermore, rats in both isolated groups demonstrated low anxiety levels when compared to group housed groups. Isolation during addiction imparts devastating effects on brain. Thus, socialization of addicts can minimize addiction - induce cognitive deficits and improve neurogenesis.

  11. Spent fuel and high level waste: Chemical durability and performance under simulated repository conditions. Results of a coordinated research project 1998-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    This publication contains the results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). It provides a basis for understanding the potential interactions of waste form and repository environment, which is necessary for the development of the design and safety case for deep disposal. Types of high level waste matrices investigated include spent fuel, glasses and ceramics. Of particular interest are the experimental results pertaining to ceramic forms such as SYNROC. This publication also outlines important areas for future work, namely, standardized, collaborative experimental protocols for package-release studies, structured development and calibration of predictive models linking the performance of packaged waste and the repository environment, and studies of the long term behaviour of the wastes, including active waste samples

  12. Spherical Harmonics Analysis of the ECMWF Global Wind Fields at the 10-Meter Height Level During 1985: A Collection of Figures Illustrating Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Half-daily global wind speeds in the east-west (u) and north-south (v) directions at the 10-meter height level were obtained from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data set of global analyses. The data set covered the period 1985 January to 1995 January. A spherical harmonic expansion to degree and order 50 was used to perform harmonic analysis of the east-west (u) and north-south (v) velocity field components. The resulting wind field is displayed, as well as the residual of the fit, at a particular time. The contribution of particular coefficients is shown. The time variability of the coefficients up to degree and order 3 is presented. Corresponding power spectrum plots are given. Time series analyses were applied also to the power associated with degrees 0-10; the results are included.

  13. Low-dose factor VIII infusion in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients: pharmacokinetics evidence that daily infusion results in higher trough level than with every-other-day infusion with similar factor VIII consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, B; Lee, A; Fan, L; Li, K; Zhang, Y; Poon, M-C; Zhao, Y

    2017-05-01

    Pharmacokinetics (PK) modelling suggests improvement of trough levels are achieved by using more frequent infusion strategy. However, no clinical study data exists to confirm or quantify improvement in trough level, particularly for low-dose prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia A. To provide evidence that low dose daily (ED) prophylaxis can increase trough levels without increasing FVIII consumption compared to every-other-day (EOD) infusion. A cross-over study on 5 IU kg -1 FVIII daily vs. 10 IU kg -1 EOD infusions, each for 14 days was conducted at the PUMCH-HTC. On the ED schedule, trough (immediate prior to infusion), and peak FVIII:C levels (30 min after infusion) were measured on days 1-5; and trough levels alone on days 7, 9, 11 and 13. For the EOD schedule, troughs, peaks and 4-h postinfusion were measured on day 1; troughs and peaks on days 3, 5, and 7; troughs alone on days 9, 11 and 13 and 24-h postinfusion on days 2, 4 and 6. FVIII inhibitors were assessed on days 0 and 14 during both infusion schedules. Six patients were enrolled. PK evidence showed that daily prophylaxis achieved higher (~2 times) steady-state FVIII trough levels compared to EOD with the same total factor consumption. The daily prophylaxis had good acceptability among patients and reduced chronic pain in the joints in some patients. Our PK study shows low-dose factor VIII daily infusion results in higher trough level than with EOD infusion with similar factor VIII consumption in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Clinical importance of technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients with elevated thyroglobulin levels and negative I-131 scanning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuecuek, N.O.; Kulak, H.A.; Aras, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential contribution of Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy to the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who had elevated Tg levels and negative I-131 whole-body scan (WBS) results. In this retrospective study, we evaluated 28 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who had total or near total thyroidectomy followed by an ablative dose of I-131 at various time intervals (15 women, 13 men; mean age 43±17 years). All patients were treated with T4 suppression. After a mean follow-up period of 6.1 years (range 3-15) all patients were determined to have a high serum Tg concentrations (>2 ng/ml) and previous negative I-131 WBS results. All patients were examined for metastatic sites using Tc-99m-MIBI scan. Scans were visually evaluated for detecting lymph node metastases and/or local recurrence, lung metastases and skeletal metastases. Tc-99m-MIBI scan demonstrated lesions in 23 patients (83.3%). In five patients with negative Tc-99m-MIBI scan findings (FN results): Chest CT showed small-sized mediastinal LN metastases in 2 patients and lung metastases in another 2 patients (<1 cm); Neck CT showed small-sized cervical LN involvement in 1 patient. The sensitivity of detection for neck was 94.4%, for lung 63.6%, and for bone lesions 100%. For all scan sites taken together, the sensitivity of disease detection was 83.3%, the specificity was 50%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 96.2%, and finally negative predictive value (NPV) was 16.7%. We concluded that Tc-99m-MIBI scan should be considered as a supplementary scintigraphic method for the follow-up of patients with high serum Tg levels and negative I-131 WBS results, and it can help clinicians in making the decision to treat these patients. (author)

  15. Scoping-level Probabilistic Safety Assessment of a complex experimental facility: Challenges and first results from the application to a neutron source facility (MEGAPIE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podofillini, L.; Dang, V.N.; Thomsen, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a scoping-level application of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to selected systems of a complex experimental facility. In performing a PSA for this type of facility, a number of challenges arise, mainly due to the extensive use of electronic and programmable components and of one-of-a-kind components. The experimental facility is the Megawatt Pilot Target Experiment (MEGAPIE), which was hosted at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). MEGAPIE demonstrated the feasibility of a liquid lead-bismuth target for spallation facilities at a proton beam power level of 1 MW. Given the challenges to estimate initiating event frequencies and failure event probabilities, emphasis is placed on the qualitative results obtainable from the PSA. Even though this does not allow a complete and appropriate characterization of the risk profile, some level of importance/significance evaluation was feasible, and practical and detailed recommendations on potential system improvements were derived. The second part of the work reports on a preliminary quantification of the facility risk. This provides more information on risk significance, which allows prioritizing the insights and recommendations obtained from the PSA. At the present stage, the limited knowledge on initiating and failure events is reflected in the uncertainties in their probabilities as well as in inputs quantified with bounding values. Detailed analyses to improve the quantification of these inputs, many of which turn out to be important contributors, were out of the scope of this study. Consequently, the reported results should be primarily considered as a demonstration of how quantification of the facility risk by a PSA can support risk-informed decisions, rather than precise figures of the facility risk

  16. Additive effects of LPL, APOA5 and APOE variant combinations on triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemia: results of the ICARIA genetic sub-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdivielso Pedro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG is a well-established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the influence of several genetic variants in genes related with triglyceride (TG metabolism has been described, including LPL, APOA5 and APOE. The combined analysis of these polymorphisms could produce clinically meaningful complementary information. Methods A subgroup of the ICARIA study comprising 1825 Spanish subjects (80% men, mean age 36 years was genotyped for the LPL-HindIII (rs320, S447X (rs328, D9N (rs1801177 and N291S (rs268 polymorphisms, the APOA5-S19W (rs3135506 and -1131T/C (rs662799 variants, and the APOE polymorphism (rs429358; rs7412 using PCR and restriction analysis and TaqMan assays. We used regression analyses to examine their combined effects on TG levels (with the log-transformed variable and the association of variant combinations with TG levels and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.69 mmol/L, including the covariates: gender, age, waist circumference, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results We found a significant lowering effect of the LPL-HindIII and S447X polymorphisms (p APOE-ε4 allele were significantly associated with an independent additive TG-raising effect (p p p p p p p = 0.042 and having one single raising polymorphism (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.39-2.87; p p Conclusion Our results showed a significant independent additive effect on TG levels of the LPL polymorphisms HindIII, S447X, D9N and N291S; the S19W and -1131T/C variants of APOA5, and the ε4 allele of APOE in our study population. Moreover, some of the variant combinations studied were significantly associated with the absence or the presence of hypertriglyceridemia.

  17. Rice pectin methylesterase inhibitor28 (OsPMEI28) encodes a functional PMEI and its overexpression results in a dwarf phenotype through increased pectin methylesterification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Phuong; Jeong, Ho Young; Jeon, Seung Ho; Kim, Donghyuk; Lee, Chanhui

    2017-01-01

    Pectin methylesterases (PMEs, EC 3.1.1.11) belonging to carbohydrate esterase family 8 cleave the ester bond between a galacturonic acid and an methyl group and the resulting change in methylesterification level plays an important role during the growth and development of plants. Optimal pectin methylesterification status in each cell type is determined by the balance between PME activity and post-translational PME inhibition by PME inhibitors (PMEIs). Rice contains 49 PMEIs and none of them are functionally characterized. Genomic sequence analysis led to the identification of rice PMEI28 (OsPMEI28). Recombinant OsPMEI28 exhibited inhibitory activity against commercial PME protein with the highest activities detected at pH 8.5. Overexpression of OsPMEI28 in rice resulted in an increased level of cell wall bound methylester groups and differential changes in the composition of cell wall neutral monosaccharides and lignin content in culm tissues. Consequently, transgenic plants overexpressing OsPMEI28 exhibited dwarf phenotypes and reduced culm diameter. Our data indicate that OsPMEI28 functions as a critical structural modulator by regulating the degree of pectin methylesterification and that an impaired status of pectin methylesterification affects physiochemical properties of the cell wall components and causes abnormal cell extensibility in rice culm tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomonitoring of chemicals in biota of two wetland protected areas exposed to different levels of environmental impact: results of the "PREVIENI" project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerranti, Cristiana; Perra, Guido; Alessi, Eva; Baroni, Davide; Caserta, Dante; Caserta, Donatella; De Sanctis, Augusto; Fanello, Emiliano Leonida; La Rocca, Cinzia; Mariottini, Michela; Renzi, Monia; Tait, Sabrina; Zaghi, Carlo; Mantovani, Alberto; Focardi, Silvano Ettore

    2017-08-18

    The PREVIENI project (funded by the Ministry of Environment) investigated the exposure to endocrine disrupters in samples of human population and environmental biota in Italy. The environmental biomonitoring considered two Italian WWF Oasis, with the aim to compare the presence and effects of endocrine disruptors in organisms from two protected natural areas, respectively, upstream and downstream a chemical emission site. Chemical analysis of pollutants' tissue levels was made on tissues from earthworm, barbell, trout, and coot, selected as bioindicator organisms. The contaminants considered were as follows: the perfluorinated compounds perfuoroctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 58 congeners), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, 13 congeners), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds), toxic trace elements, the phthalate di-2-ethylexyl phthalate (DEHP) and its primary metabolite, bisphenol A, synthetic musk compounds (musk xylene, musk ketone, tonalide, and galaxolide), and p-nonylphenol. The analyses showed low concentrations of most pollutants in all species from both areas, compared to available literature; noticeable exceptions were the increases of DEHP's primary metabolite, PBDE, PAHs, Hg, and Pb in barbells, and of PCB and Cd in earthworms from the downstream area. The results showed the presence of endocrine disruptors, including those considered as "non-persistent," in bioindicators from protected areas, albeit at low levels. The results provide a contribution to the evaluation of reference values in biota from Mediterranean Europe and support the relevance of monitoring exposure to pollutants, in particular for freshwater environment, also in protected areas.

  19. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-28

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

  20. Placebo-suggestion modulates conflict resolution in the Stroop Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama

    Full Text Available Here, we ask whether placebo-suggestion (without any form of hypnotic induction can modulate the resolution of cognitive conflict. Naïve participants performed a Stroop Task while wearing an EEG cap described as a "brain wave" machine. In Experiment 1, participants were made to believe that the EEG cap would either enhance or decrease their color perception and performance on the Stroop task. In Experiment 2, participants were explicitly asked to imagine that their color perception and performance would be enhanced or decreased (non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion. We observed effects of placebo-suggestion on Stroop interference on accuracy: interference was decreased with positive suggestion and increased with negative suggestion compared to baseline. Intra-individual variability was also increased under negative suggestion compared to baseline. Compliance with the instruction to imagine a modulation of performance, on the other hand, did not influence accuracy and only had a negative impact on response latencies and on intra-individual variability, especially in the congruent condition of the Stroop Task. Taken together, these results demonstrate that expectations induced by a placebo-suggestion can modulate our ability to resolve cognitive conflict, either facilitating or impairing response accuracy depending on the suggestion's contents. Our results also demonstrate a dissociation between placebo-suggestion and non-hypnotic imaginative suggestion.

  1. Suggestion for a natural gas development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    First, this work presents some aspects concerning the reserves and the future of natural gas consumption in Brazil. Then, from the results of a case-study about the implementation of a natural gas distribution company in Fortaleza (Ceara), we analyse under which conditions the business of natural gas distribution is economically interesting (subject of the M.Sc. thesis developed by the author). In possession of this results, the author proposes directions for a Natural Gas Policy in Brazil, approaching also aspects of Tariffs Policy. (author)

  2. Faecal analysis suggests generalist diets in three species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overlap in other arthropod taxa ingested was low across species and seasons, suggesting an opportunistic component to their foraging behaviour. We distinguished plant matter in faecal samples of all species in all seasons, reflecting either voluntary or accidental ingestion. The results of this study suggest that the ...

  3. Suggestion on Information Sharing for AP implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hye Won; Kim, Min Su; Koh, Byung Marn [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Under the Additional Protocol, States should provide the IAEA with expanded declarations of activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and other nuclear activities, and with expanded access to the relevant information and sites to allow the IAEA to verify the completeness of these declarations. The AP to the Safeguards Agreement (the Additional Protocol) was signed on June 21{sup st}, 1999 and entered into force on February 19{sup th}, 2004. ROK submitted initial declarations in August 2004. Since then, ROK has been submitting annual updated reports of initial declaration on every May 15{sup th}. To achieve successful implementation, it is necessary to collect the information for each individual article in Article 2 of the AP and verify the declared information provided by facility operators. Therefore, the cooperation among the ministries and offices concerned is a prerequisite for successful implementation of AP. Unfortunately, the formal procedure for inter-organizational information sharing and cooperation is not established. This paper will briefly outline the AP declarations and suggest the information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations for effective and efficient implementation of AP. The State authority has responsibility for AP implementation and it should verify correctness and completeness of the information declared by facility operators before submitting the declarations. The close cooperation and information sharing among the ministries, offices and organizations are indispensable to effective and efficient implementation of AP.

  4. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  5. Considerations about ISO 14001, and suggestions for the next revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2006-01-01

    . The standard is a process standard that leaves room for interpretation at company level as well as among lead auditors from certifying bodies. A case study is presented and shows lack of life cycle thinking in product development. The paper suggests changes of ISO 14001:2004 in order to include a clear product...

  6. Loss of population levels of immunity to malaria as a result of exposure-reducing interventions: consequences for interpretation of disease trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra C Ghani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistence of malaria as an endemic infection and one of the major causes of childhood death in most parts of Africa has lead to a radical new call for a global effort towards eradication. With the deployment of a highly effective vaccine still some years away, there has been an increased focus on interventions which reduce exposure to infection in the individual and -by reducing onward transmission-at the population level. The development of appropriate monitoring of these interventions requires an understanding of the timescales of their effect. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using a mathematical model for malaria transmission which incorporates the acquisition and loss of both clinical and parasite immunity, we explore the impact of the trade-off between reduction in exposure and decreased development of immunity on the dynamics of disease following a transmission-reducing intervention such as insecticide-treated nets. Our model predicts that initially rapid reductions in clinical disease incidence will be observed as transmission is reduced in a highly immune population. However, these benefits in the first 5-10 years after the intervention may be offset by a greater burden of disease decades later as immunity at the population level is gradually lost. The negative impact of having fewer immune individuals in the population can be counterbalanced either by the implementation of highly-effective transmission-reducing interventions (such as the combined use of insecticide-treated nets and insecticide residual sprays for an indefinite period or the concurrent use of a pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine or prophylactic therapy in children to protect those at risk from disease as immunity is lost in the population. CONCLUSIONS: Effective interventions will result in rapid decreases in clinical disease across all transmission settings while population-level immunity is maintained but may subsequently result in increases in clinical disease many

  7. Suggesting a new European language policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    Conflict is the most intriguing aspect of contact linguistics. Throughout history ever since the Tower of Babel was left unfinished, contacts between speakers of different languages have unavoidably resulted in conflicts between speakers of those languages. Without any doubt, the European Union (EU)--above all after the decision to enlarge the community--has accepted the multidisciplinary symbolic function of language and culture as a basis for European political unification. Accordingly, European Union policy makers have had to analyze conflicts caused by monolingualism and multilingualism, all aspects of contact linguistics. Can these conflicts be solved, minimized or neutralized by strategies of language planning, language policies and language politics? Initial results of European language policy strategies permit at least a cautious measure of optimism and open broad perspectives for the future of a New Multilingualism which will be discussed in our contribution.

  8. Suggesting a New European Language Policy

    OpenAIRE

    H. Nelde, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Conflict is the most intriguing aspect of contact linguistics. Throughout history ever since the Tower of Bable was left unfinished, contacts between speakers of different languages have unavoidably resulted in conflicts between speakers of those languages. Without any doubt, the European Union (EU) – above all after the decision to enlarge the community – has accepted the multidisciplinary symbolic function of language and culture as a basis for European political unification....

  9. Suggestion of Islamic Insurance Company Model

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Ibrahim Nazal

    2015-01-01

    This study is one of very few studies which have investigated Islamic Insurance Companies as solution. It explained its operations also comparing with Traditional Insurance Companies and theoretical Islamic insurance models. As result to this study Islamic Insurance companies are profit organization. It helps Islamic banks but it costs customer to face expect risk. Islamic Insurance companies have many ways to get profits and consider all customers installments grants. Its operation gap comes...

  10. Stress levels in parents of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during the back-to-school period: results of an international survey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprieno, Urania; Gagliano, Antonella

    2016-10-01

    The back-to-school stress survey was an international, non-clinical opinion survey, which aimed to compare stress levels in parents of children with/without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the back-to-school period. Here, we present results relating to the Italian sample, comparing them with European data. The questionnaire was built using a modified Holmes and Rahe stress scale. Parents of children with/without ADHD evaluated potentially stress-causing situations on a scale from 1 (low stress) to 10 (high stress). In Italy, 107 parents of children with ADHD (mean age ± SD 40.3±7.3 years) and 105 parents of children without ADHD (mean age 42.2±6.6 years) participated in the survey. The mean age of children with ADHD was 10.3±3.1 years; 77.6% were male, 72.9% had been diagnosed with at least one comorbid condition - in particular conduct disorder (24.3%), learning disorders/dyslexia (23.4%) and language/communication disorder (19.6%) - and 32.7% were receiving ADHD medication. Parents of children with ADHD showed significantly higher stress levels (p≤0.005) compared with the non-ADHD group in all areas analyzed that were related to the return to school. Significant differences between groups (Pchildren with ADHD suffer significantly higher stress levels compared with parents of children without ADHD. Considering parental stress is important for the management of children with ADHD, as stress can affect the control of behavioral symptoms of children.

  11. A bi-level intervention to improve oral hygiene of older and disabled adults in low-income housing: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisine, S; Schensul, J J; Goldblatt, R; Radda, K; Foster-Bey, C; Acosta-Glynn, C; Miron-Carcamo, L; Ioannidou, E

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a bi-level intervention, using a cognitive-behavioral theoretical approach, to improve the oral hygiene of older adults and the disabled in community-based low income senior housing. The bi-level pilot intervention consisted of an on-site tailored adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) session and two oral health fairs, supported by a resident campaign committee, to change community norms. All materials were available in English and Spanish. Participants completed a survey consisting of 12 domains that provided the basis for tailoring the AMI and shaping the campaigns. The domains were activities of daily living (ADLs), access to oral health information, oral hygiene status, dental knowledge, hygiene behaviors, importance of oral hygiene, self-efficacy/locus of control, diet, intentions, self-management worries/fears, perceived risk and dry mouth. Each participant received clinical assessments consisting of full-mouth plaque score (PS) and gingival index (GI) before the intervention and at three months. Twenty-seven residents with at least one tooth completed all phases of the study. The mean number of domains requiring attention was 4.5 (SD 1.6) with a range of one to seven. Mean baseline PS was 83% (SD 16%) which improved significantly to 58% (SD 31%); mean baseline GI was 1.15 (SD 0.61) and improved significantly to 0.49 (SD 0.46). This pilot study supports the feasibility and acceptability of a tailored oral hygiene intervention among older and disabled adults living in low income senior housing. Although a small sample, the study demonstrated significant improvements in both plaque and gingival scores three months after the bi-level intervention.

  12. Personal child and mother carbon monoxide exposures and kitchen levels: methods and results from a randomized trial of woodfired chimney cookstoves in Guatemala (RESPIRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk R; McCracken, John P; Thompson, Lisa; Edwards, Rufus; Shields, Kyra N; Canuz, Eduardo; Bruce, Nigel

    2010-07-01

    During the first randomized intervention trial (RESPIRE: Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) in air pollution epidemiology, we pioneered application of passive carbon monoxide (CO) diffusion tubes to measure long-term personal exposures to woodsmoke. Here we report on the protocols and validations of the method, trends in personal exposure for mothers and their young children, and the efficacy of the introduced improved chimney stove in reducing personal exposures and kitchen concentrations. Passive diffusion tubes originally developed for industrial hygiene applications were deployed on a quarterly basis to measure 48-hour integrated personal carbon monoxide exposures among 515 children 0-18 months of age and 532 mothers aged 15-55 years and area samples in a subsample of 77 kitchens, in households randomized into control and intervention groups. Instrument comparisons among types of passive diffusion tubes and against a continuous electrochemical CO monitor indicated that tubes responded nonlinearly to CO, and regression calibration was used to reduce this bias. Before stove introduction, the baseline arithmetic (geometric) mean 48-h child (n=270), mother (n=529) and kitchen (n=65) levels were, respectively, 3.4 (2.8), 3.4 (2.8) and 10.2 (8.4) p.p.m. The between-group analysis of the 3355 post-baseline measurements found CO levels to be significantly lower among the intervention group during the trial period: kitchen levels: -90%; mothers: -61%; and children: -52% in geometric means. No significant deterioration in stove effect was observed over the 18 months of surveillance. The reliability of these findings is strengthened by the large sample size made feasible by these unobtrusive and inexpensive tubes, measurement error reduction through instrument calibration, and a randomized, longitudinal study design. These results from the first randomized trial of improved household energy technology in a developing country and

  13. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  14. Inoculating against eyewitness suggestibility via interpolated verbatim vs. gist testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansky, Ainat; Tenenboim, Einat

    2011-01-01

    In real-life situations, eyewitnesses often have control over the level of generality in which they choose to report event information. In the present study, we adopted an early-intervention approach to investigate to what extent eyewitness memory may be inoculated against suggestibility, following two different levels of interpolated reporting: verbatim and gist. After viewing a target event, participants responded to interpolated questions that required reporting of target details at either the verbatim or the gist level. After 48 hr, both groups of participants were misled about half of the target details and were finally tested for verbatim memory of all the details. The findings were consistent with our predictions: Whereas verbatim testing was successful in completely inoculating against suggestibility, gist testing did not reduce it whatsoever. These findings are particularly interesting in light of the comparable testing effects found for these two modes of interpolated testing.

  15. Metacognition of agency is reduced in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin B; Hedman, Love R A

    2017-11-01

    A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated. These results indicate that highly suggestible individuals have aberrant metacognition of agency and may be a valuable population for studying distortions in the sense of agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Flooding Model as the Analysis of the Sea Level Increase as a Result of Global Warming in Coastal Area in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Kurniawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The melting of ice layers, as a direct impact on global warming, is indicated from a lesser thickness of ice layers is specifically causing an increase on the sea level. Lampung, as a province that has an ecosistem of regional coast, can be estimated to submerge. Flood modelling can be done to know the estimated flood range. The model of the flooded region is taken from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission(SRTM data, which is nomalized to get the visualisation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM. The purpose of this research is to know the estimated region of provincial coast of Lampung that is going to be flooded because of the raising of sea surface. This research uses flood inundation technique that uses one of the GIS mapping software. The result can be used as consideration to achieve policy in the building of regional coast. The regions that are flooded based on the scenario of the raising of two and three meter surface sea level are East Lampung Regency, West Lampung Regency, South Lampung Regency, Tanggamus Regency, Pesawaran Regency, and Bandar Lampung.

  17. A Study on the Risk Reduction Effect by MLCS (Mid-loop Level Control System) of EUAPR using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Eden

    2016-01-01

    The EU-APR design has been developed in order to expand and diversify the global nuclear power market of APR1400. For the improvement of shutdown risk for the EUAPR, the mid-loop level control system (MLCS) is considered during mid-loop operation for the EU-APR, which is not incorporated into SKN 3 and 4 (APR1400 Type) in Korea. Commonly, the risk associated with the NPP can be identified through the PSA. Thus, this paper discusses the low power and shutdown (LPSD) risk reduction effect by MLCS using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result. LPSD level 1 PSA models for EU-APR have been developed. The risk reduction effect by MLCS is discussed. Because the loss of shutdown cooling function during mid-loop is one of the most vulnerable events, the MLCS have a significant influence on CDF in LPSD PSA. The shutdown risk of domestic power plants would likely be reduced if the MLCS is adopted in all operating NPPs in Korea during the mid-loop operation. It is expected that this work will contribute to reduce shutdown risk of domestic power plants

  18. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  19. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  20. Additive effects of LPL, APOA5 and APOE variant combinations on triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemia: results of the ICARIA genetic sub-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a well-established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the influence of several genetic variants in genes related with triglyceride (TG) metabolism has been described, including LPL, APOA5 and APOE. The combined analysis of these polymorphisms could produce clinically meaningful complementary information. Methods A subgroup of the ICARIA study comprising 1825 Spanish subjects (80% men, mean age 36 years) was genotyped for the LPL-HindIII (rs320), S447X (rs328), D9N (rs1801177) and N291S (rs268) polymorphisms, the APOA5-S19W (rs3135506) and -1131T/C (rs662799) variants, and the APOE polymorphism (rs429358; rs7412) using PCR and restriction analysis and TaqMan assays. We used regression analyses to examine their combined effects on TG levels (with the log-transformed variable) and the association of variant combinations with TG levels and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.69 mmol/L), including the covariates: gender, age, waist circumference, blood glucose, blood pressure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results We found a significant lowering effect of the LPL-HindIII and S447X polymorphisms (p hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:20429872

  1. Neonatal bone marrow transplantation of ADA-deficient SCID mice results in immunologic reconstitution despite low levels of engraftment and an absence of selective donor T lymphoid expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, Denise A; Jin, Xiangyang; Cotoi, Daniel; Mi, Tiejuan; Yu, Xiao-Jin; Skelton, Dianne C; Dorey, Frederick; Kellems, Rodney E; Blackburn, Michael R; Kohn, Donald B

    2008-06-15

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) may be treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without prior cytoreductive conditioning, although the mechanism of immune reconstitution is unclear. We studied this process in a murine gene knockout model of ADA-deficient SCID. Newborn ADA-deficient pups received transplants of intravenous infusion of normal congenic bone marrow, without prior cytoreductive conditioning, which resulted in long-term survival, multisystem correction, and nearly normal lymphocyte numbers and mitogenic proliferative responses. Only 1% to 3% of lymphocytes and myeloid cells were of donor origin without a selective expansion of donor-derived lymphocytes; immune reconstitution was by endogenous, host-derived ADA-deficient lymphocytes. Preconditioning of neonates with 100 to 400 cGy of total body irradiation before normal donor marrow transplant increased the levels of engrafted donor cells in a radiation dose-dependent manner, but the chimerism levels were similar for lymphoid and myeloid cells. The absence of selective reconstitution by donor T lymphocytes in the ADA-deficient mice indicates that restoration of immune function occurred by rescue of endogenous ADA-deficient lymphocytes through cross-correction from the engrafted ADA-replete donor cells. Thus, ADA-deficient SCID is unique in its responses to nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation, which has implications for clinical bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy.

  2. The impact of hypnotic suggestibility in clinical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Schnur, Julie B; David, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility has been described as a powerful predictor of outcomes associated with hypnotic interventions. However, there have been no systematic approaches to quantifying this effect across the literature. This meta-analysis evaluates the magnitude of the effect of hypnotic suggestibility on hypnotic outcomes in clinical settings. PsycINFO and PubMed were searched from their inception through July 2009. Thirty-four effects from 10 studies and 283 participants are reported. Results revealed a statistically significant overall effect size in the small to medium range (r = .24; 95% Confidence Interval = -0.28 to 0.75), indicating that greater hypnotic suggestibility led to greater effects of hypnosis interventions. Hypnotic suggestibility accounted for 6% of the variance in outcomes. Smaller sample size studies, use of the SHCS, and pediatric samples tended to result in larger effect sizes. The authors question the usefulness of assessing hypnotic suggestibility in clinical contexts.

  3. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  4. [Subjective Level of Information and Information Needs of Patients with an Approved Rehabilitation Application and Patients at the End of Rehabilitation Results of a Written Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Anna Lena; Schreiber, Dora; Falk, Johannes; Deck, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to identify the subjective level of information and information needs of patients with an approved rehabilitation application and patients at the end of rehabilitation with regard to preferred subjects and kind of information transfer. Method Written survey with N=283 patients with approved rehabilitation application and N=388 patients at the end of rehabilitation. Results Both groups reported high information needs particularly regarding treatments during rehabilitation, rehabilitation aftercare and rehabilitation aims. A conversation with their physician, a brochure and a website are the preferred information pathways. Conclusion Taking into account the topics for which both groups require information and the preference regarding the kind of information transfer can make a valuable contribution for the development of needs-oriented information material. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Effects of substrate type and arsenic dosage level on arsenic behavior in grassland microcosms. Part I. Preliminary results on 74As transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggan, S.

    1977-01-01

    Microcosm design is an important factor in interpreting results obtained from studies of the environmental effects, mobility and persistence of contaminants. The behavior of pentavalent arsenic and a radioarsenic tracer was studied in three substrate types exposed to differing levels of stable As dosage. Soil cores excised intact from a natural grassland ecosystem were considered to most reliably represent the natural system under study since they retained the soil structure, and closely simulated the abiotic and biotic complexity, of the grassland ecosystem. The behavior of 74 As in the components of intact soil core microcosms differed appreciably from that observed for the other microcosm types where soil underwent manipulation. These differences were explained primarily on the basis of differences in soil structure

  6. Stimulation of d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases transcriptional levels in presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate resulting to enhanced lactic acid production by Lactobacillus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhvi, Mamata; Zendo, Takeshi; Iida, Hiroshi; Gokhale, Digambar; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    The present study revealed the effect of nitrogen sources on lactic acid production and stimulation of d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) of parent Lactobacillus lactis NCIM 2368 and its mutant RM2-24 generated after UV mutagenesis. Both the parent and mutant strains were evaluated for d-lactic acid production in control and modified media. The modified media did not show remarkable effect on lactic acid production in case of parent whereas mutant exhibited significant enhancement in d-lactic acid production along with the appearance of l-lactic acid in the broth. Both LDH activities and specific activities were found to be higher in mutant than the parent strain. These results suggested that the diammonium hydrogen phosphate in modified media triggered the expression of LDH genes leading to enhanced lactic acid production. This observation has been proved by studying the expression levels of d- and l-LDH genes of parent and mutant in control and modified media using quantitative RT-PCR technique. In case of mutant, the transcriptional levels of d-LDH and l-LDH increased ∼17 fold and ∼1.38 fold respectively in modified medium compared to the values obtained with control medium. In case of parent, no significant change in transcriptional levels of d- and l-LDH was found when the cells were grown in either control medium or modified medium. This study suggested that the mutant, RM2-24 has l-LDH gene which is expressed in presence of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 resulting in l-lactic acid production. Co-production of l-lactic acid in d-lactic acid fermentation may be detrimental in the PLA production. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer development based on chronic active gastritis and resulting gastric atrophy as assessed by serum levels of pepsinogen and Helicobacter pylori antibody titer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeichi; Kato, Jun; Inoue, Izumi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Oka, Masashi; Watanabe, Mika; Enomoto, Shotaro; Niwa, Toru; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Masataka; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-03-15

    Our study investigated the relationship between gastric cancer development and activity of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis or the resulting chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A cohort of 4,655 healthy asymptomatic subjects, in whom serum pepsinogen (PG) and H. pylori antibody titer had been measured to assess the activity and stage of H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, was followed for up to 16 years, and cancer development was investigated. In subjects with a serologically diagnosed healthy stomach (H. pylori-negative/CAG-negative), cancer incidence rate was low, at 16/100,000 person-years. With the establishment of H. pylori infection and progression of chronic gastritis, significant stepwise cancer risk elevations were seen from CAG-free subjects (H. pylori-positive/CAG-negative) [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.7-54.7] to subjects with CAG (H. pylori-positive/CAG-positive) (HR = 17.7, 95% CI = 5.4-108.6) and finally to subjects with metaplastic gastritis (H. pylori-negative/CAG-positive) (HR = 69.7, 95% CI = 13.6-502.9). In H. pylori-infected CAG-free subjects, significantly elevated cancer risk was observed in the subgroup with active inflammation-based high PG II level or potent immune response-based high H. pylori antibody titer; the former was associated with a particularly high risk of diffuse-type cancer, and both subgroups showed high cancer incidence rates of around 250/100,000 person-years, comparable to that in subjects with CAG. No such risk elevation was observed in H. pylori-infected subjects with CAG. These results clearly indicate that gastric cancer develops mainly from the gastritis-atrophy-metaplasia-cancer sequence and partly from active inflammation-based direct carcinogenesis, and that serum levels of PG and H. pylori antibody titer provide indices of cancer development in H. pylori-infected subjects. © 2013 UICC.

  8. Burning mouth syndrome: results of screening tests for vitamin and mineral deficiencies, thyroid hormone, and glucose levels-experience at Mayo Clinic over a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morr Verenzuela, Claudia S; Davis, Mark D P; Bruce, Alison J; Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2017-09-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a disorder characterized by chronic mouth pain in the absence of objective clinical abnormalities. Vitamin or mineral deficiencies may have a role in BMS, but data regarding the prevalence and relevance of hematinic deficiencies are conflicting. We aimed to determine the frequency of specific laboratory abnormalities in patients with BMS. We retrospectively reviewed the results of screening blood tests in patients with BMS at our institution between January 2003 and December 2013. Among 659 patients with BMS, the most common decreased values or deficiencies were vitamin D 3 (15%), vitamin B 2 (15%), vitamin B 6 (5.7%), zinc (5.7%), vitamin B 1 (5.3%), thyrotropin (TSH) (3.2%), vitamin B 12 (0.8%), and folic acid (0.7%). Laboratory values for fasting blood glucose and TSH were increased in 23.7% and 5.2%, respectively. In patients with symptoms of BMS, our results suggest it is reasonable to screen for fasting blood glucose, vitamin D (D 2 and D 3 ), vitamin B 6 , zinc, vitamin B 1 , and TSH. Deficiencies of vitamin B 12 and folic acid were rare (<1% abnormal). © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Manoel CSA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging" studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P , older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P , dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P or had experienced a history of falls with

  10. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  11. High accuracy results for the energy levels of the molecular ions H+2, D+2 and HD+, up to J = 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karr, J Ph; Hilico, L

    2006-01-01

    We present a nonrelativistic calculation of the rotation-vibration levels of the molecular ions H + 2 , D + 2 and HD + , relying on the diagonalization of the exact three-body Hamiltonian in a variational basis. The J = 2 levels are obtained with a very high accuracy of 10 -14 au (for most levels) representing an improvement by five orders of magnitude over previous calculations. The accuracy is also improved for the J = 1 levels of H + 2 and D + 2 with respect to earlier works. Moreover, we have computed the sensitivities of the energy levels with respect to the mass ratios, allowing these levels to be used for metrological purposes

  12. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Melin, Amanda D; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  13. Hypnotic suggestibility predicts the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect in a non-hypnotic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated how the magnitude the word blindness suggestion effect on Stroop interference depended on hypnotic suggestibility when given as an imaginative suggestion (i.e. not post-hypnotic suggestion) and under conditions in which hypnosis was not mentioned. Hypnotic suggestibility is shown to be a significant predictor of the magnitude of the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect under these conditions. This is therefore the first study to show a linear relationship between the imaginative word blindness suggestion effect and hypnotic suggestibility across the whole hypnotizability spectrum. The results replicate previous findings showing that highs respond to the word blindness suggestion to a greater extent than lows but extend previous work by showing that the advantage for those higher on the hypnotizability spectrum occurs even in a non-hypnotic context. Negative attitudes about hypnosis may not explain the failure to observe similar effects of the word blindness suggestion in less hypnotizable individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation of skin test results and specific immunoglobulin E blood levels with nasal provocation testing for house-dust mite allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, Boris R; Huppertz, Tilman; Boessert, Patrick; Bast, Florian; Fruth, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy for house-dust mite (HDM) allergies is associated with lower success rates when compared with similar treatments for other inhalant allergens, such as grass or birch. One reason might be the greater difficulty in diagnosing patients with assumed HDM allergies because symptoms occur perennially and may differ from those of a conventional allergic rhinitis. The aim of the study was to compare the different methods of diagnosis in patients with assumed HDM allergy. We performed a retrospective analysis of nasal provocation tests (NPT) from patients (n = 161) evaluated for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (n = 127) and Dermatophagoides farinae (n = 104) allergies, and compared the results with other allergen testing methods (skin-prick test [SPT], intracutaneous test, and allergen specific immunoglobulin E levels [sIgE] to detect sensitization). Receiver operating characteristic curves were used for the analyses and the areas under the curve were calculated. For D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae, 86 and 70 complete data files, respectively, were available. For both tested HDMs, the results of the receiver operating characteristic curves showed a significant correlation for SPT and sIgE, with the results of the NPT (area under the curve, 0.742 to 0.763) but not for the intracutaneous test. In patients with a positive SPT (≥3 mm), an allergy was confirmed by the NPT in 69% of cases for D. pteronyssinus and 71% for D. farinae. A positive sIgE result (ImmunoCAP class of ≥2) was verified by the NPT in 69% of cases (D. pteronyssinus) and 70% (D. farinae). The predictability value for a positive NPT result is best for SPT and sIgE. Nevertheless, even if the results of both test systems are combined, the positive predictive value that was achieved was only 0.77 for D. pteronyssinus and 0.69 for D. farinae. Therefore, in patients eligible for immunotherapy for HDM, an NPT should be performed before the start of the therapy to verify a clinically

  15. Societal benefits from EU reduction measures to decrease lead levels in the environment; Combining results from the EU funded projects INTARESE and HEIMTSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierkens J. G. E. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper combines the results of two Sixth Framework Program EU research projects aimed at developing and testing methods for integrated assessment of health risks from environmental stressors, i.e. the INTARESE and the HEIMTSA project, both of which covered a case study on environmental lead. The INTARESE case study on lead in Europe was meant to illustrate the use of the Integrated Monitoring Framework Strategy to assess the health outcome of environmental pollution by evaluating the associations between lead in various environmental compartments (air, soil, dust, drinking water and diet and lead concentrations in blood (B-Pb for various age-related sub-populations. The case study was aimed to investigate whether environmental, exposure and biomonitoring data at general population level, covering all EU member states, could be integrated. The HEIMTSA case study on the other hand involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR in response to current and future legislation. Analysing environmental data, significant correlations were found between B-Pb and the concentrations of Pb in air and diet. The significant decrease of the Pb in air over time from 0.31 μg/m3 (P95: 0.94; n=98 prior to 1990 to 0.045 μg/m3 (P95:0.11; n=256 in 2007 (latest

  16. Longitudinal changes and seasonal variations in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in different age groups: results of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schoor, N. M.; Knol, D. L.; Deeg, D. J. H.; Peters, F. P. A. M. N.; Heijboer, A. C.; Lips, P.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D levels remained fairly stable during ageing with increasing levels in persons aged 55-65 years old and decreasing levels in persons aged 65-88 years old. The seasonal variation was larger than the longitudinal change. Our findings implicate that vitamin D supplementation becomes more

  17. Spent fuel and high level waste: Chemical durability and performance under simulated repository conditions. Results of a coordinated research project 1998-2004. Part 2: Results of a previously unpublished CRP: Performance of high level waste forms and packages under repository conditions. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1991-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the CRP (Coordinated Research Projekt) on the 'Performance of High Level Waste Forms and Packages under Repository Conditions' was to contribute to the development and implementation of proper and sound technologies for HLW and spent fuel management. Special emphasis was given to the identification of various waste form properties and the study of their long term durability in simulated repository conditions. Another objective was to promote the co-operation and exchange of information between Member States on experimental concerning behaviour of the waste form. The CRP was composed of research contracts and agreements with Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, India, Japan, Russia, and the United States of America. The publication includes 14 individual contributions of the participants to the CRP, which are indexed separately.

  18. Thyrotrophin levels and coronary artery calcification: Cross-sectional results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Staniak, Henrique Lane; Pereira, Alexandre C; Foppa, Murilo; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2017-11-01

    There is little information about the association between thyrotrophin (TSH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our aim was to analyse the association between TSH quintiles and subclinical atherosclerosis measured by CAC, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and who self-reported cardiovascular disease. We included euthyroid subjects and individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCHypo) and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCHyper). Logistic regression models evaluated CAC >100 Agatston units as the dependent variable, and increasing quintiles of TSH as the independent variable, adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Our sample included 3836 subjects, mean age 49 years (interquartile range 44-56); 1999 (52.1%) were female, 3551 (92.6%) were euthyroid, 239 (6.2%) had SCHypo and 46 (1.2%) had SCHyper. The frequency of women, White people and never smokers as well as body mass index and insulin resistance increased according to quintiles. The 1st quintile for TSH (0-0.99 mIU/L) was associated with CAC >100, using the 3rd quintile (1.39-1.85 mIU/L) as reference (adjusted OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35, P=.027), but no association was shown for the 5th quintile (2.68-35.5 mIU/L) compared to the 3rd. Restricting the analysis to euthyroid subjects did not change the results. For women, but not for men, we observed a U-shaped curve with 1st and 5th TSH quintiles associated with CAC>100. Low and low-normal (1st quintile) TSH levels were associated with CAC>100 Agatston units in a sample with subclinical thyroid disorders and euthyroid subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of a participatory organizational-level occupational health intervention on job satisfaction, exhaustion and sleep disturbances: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Framke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether the implementation of a participatory organizational-level intervention aiming to improve the working environment with a focus on the core task at work, increased job satisfaction and reduced exhaustion and sleep disturbances among pre-school employees. Methods The study sample consisted of 41 intervention group pre-schools with 423 employees and 30 control group pre-schools with 241 employees. The intervention lasted 25 months and consisted of seminars, workshops, and workplace specific intervention activities that were developed by focusing on the core task at work. We analyzed within-group changes in the three outcome variables from baseline to follow-up with t-tests for paired samples, separately for intervention and control group. Between-group differences in changes in the three outcome variables were analyzed using a mixed model with a repeated statement to account for the clustering effect of workplaces. Results Within-group analyses showed that exhaustion decreased statistically significantly in both the intervention and the control group. There were no statistically significantly changes in job satisfaction and sleep disturbances. Between-group analyses showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for changes in any of the outcome variables, neither in the unadjusted or in the adjusted analyses. Conclusions We found no evidence that participating in an organizational-level occupational health intervention aiming to improve the working environment with a focus on the core task at work has an effect on pre-school employees’ job satisfaction, exhaustion and sleep disturbances. Trial registration ISRCTN16271504 , November 15, 2016.

  20. The effect of an organizational level participatory intervention in secondary vocational education on work-related health outcomes: results of a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn M. C. Schelvis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related stress is highly prevalent in the educational sector. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an organizational level, participatory intervention on need for recovery and vitality in educational workers. It was hypothesized that the intervention would decrease need for recovery and increase vitality. Methods A quasi-experiment was conducted at two secondary Vocational Education and Training schools (N = 356 with 12- and 24-months follow-up measurements. The intervention consisted of 1 a needs assessment phase, wherein staff and teachers developed actions for happy and healthy working under supervision of a facilitator, and 2 an implementation phase, wherein these actions were implemented by the management teams. Mixed model analysis was applied in order to assess the differences between the intervention and control group on average over time. All analyses were corrected for baseline values and several covariates. Results No effects of the intervention were found on need for recovery, vitality and most of the secondary outcomes. Two small, statistically significant effects were in unfavorable direction: the intervention group scored on average over time significantly lower on absorption (i.e. a subscale of work engagement and organizational efficacy than the control group. Conclusions Since no beneficial effects of this intervention were found on the primary and most of the secondary outcomes, further implementation of the intervention in its current form is not eligible. We recommend that future organizational level interventions for occupational health 1 incorporate an elaborate implementation strategy, 2 are more specific in relating actions to stressors in the context, and 3 are integrated with secondary preventive, individual focused stress management interventions. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR3284 (date registered: February 14 2012.

  1. Dose levels of the occupational radiation exposures in Poland based on results from the accredited dosimetry service at the IFJ PAN, Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzanowski, Maciej; Kopeć, Renata; Obryk, Barbara; Olko, Paweł

    2011-03-01

    Individual dosimetry service based on thermoluminescence (TLD) detectors has started its activity at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ) in Krakow in 1965. In 2002, the new Laboratory of Individual and Environment Dosimetry (Polish acronym LADIS) was established and underwent the accreditation according to the EN-PN-ISO/IEC 17025 standard. Nowadays, the service is based on the worldwide known standard thermoluminescent detectors MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P), developed at IFJ, processed in automatic thermoluminescent DOSACUS or RE2000 (Rados Oy, Finland) readers. Laboratory provides individual monitoring in terms of personal dose equivalent H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07) in photon and neutron fields, over the range from 0.1 mSv to 1 Sv, and environmental dosimetry in terms of air kerma K(a) over the range from 30 μGy to 1 Gy and also ambient dose equivalent H*(10) over the range from 30 μSv to 1 Sv. Dosimetric service is currently performed for ca. 3200 institutions from Poland and abroad, monitored on quarterly and monthly basis. The goal of this paper is to identify the main activities leading to the highest radiation exposures in Poland. The paper presents the results of statistical evaluation of ∼ 100,000 quarterly H(p)(10) and K(a) measurements performed between 2002 and 2009. Sixty-five per cent up to 90 % of all individual doses in Poland are on the level of natural radiation background. The dose levels between 0.1 and 5 mSv per quarter are the most frequent in nuclear medicine, veterinary and industrial radiography sectors.

  2. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggioni, Lorenzo; Paolicchi, Fabio; Bastiani, Luca; Guido, Davide; Caramella, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Medical students tend to overstate their knowledge of radiation protection (RP). • Overall RP knowledge of young doctors and students is suboptimal. • RP teaching to undergraduates and postgraduates needs to be substantially improved. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the awareness of radiation protection issues and the knowledge of dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiology residents, and radiography students at an academic hospital. Material and methods: A total of 159 young doctors and students (including 60 radiology residents, 56 medical students, and 43 radiography students) were issued a questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions divided into three separated sections (i.e., demographic data, awareness about radiation protection issues, and knowledge about radiation dose levels of common radiological examinations). Results: Medical students claimed to have at least a good knowledge of radiation protection issues more frequently than radiology residents and radiography students (94.4% vs 55% and 35.7%, respectively; P < 0.05), with no cases of perceived excellent knowledge among radiography students. However, the actual knowledge of essential radiation protection topics such as regulations, patient and tissue susceptibility to radiation damage, professional radiation risk and dose optimisation, as well as of radiation doses delivered by common radiological procedures was significantly worse among medical students than radiology residents and radiography students (P < 0.05). Those latter significantly outperformed radiology residents as to knowledge of radiation protection issues (P < 0.01). Overall, less than 50% of survey respondents correctly answered all questions of the survey. Conclusions: Radiology residents, radiography students and medical students have a limited awareness about radiation protection, with a specific gap of knowledge concerning real radiation doses of daily radiological

  3. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faggioni, Lorenzo, E-mail: lfaggioni@sirm.org [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa (Italy); Paolicchi, Fabio [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa (Italy); Bastiani, Luca [Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124, Pisa (Italy); Guido, Davide [Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Via Forlanini 2, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Caramella, Davide [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Medical students tend to overstate their knowledge of radiation protection (RP). • Overall RP knowledge of young doctors and students is suboptimal. • RP teaching to undergraduates and postgraduates needs to be substantially improved. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the awareness of radiation protection issues and the knowledge of dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiology residents, and radiography students at an academic hospital. Material and methods: A total of 159 young doctors and students (including 60 radiology residents, 56 medical students, and 43 radiography students) were issued a questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions divided into three separated sections (i.e., demographic data, awareness about radiation protection issues, and knowledge about radiation dose levels of common radiological examinations). Results: Medical students claimed to have at least a good knowledge of radiation protection issues more frequently than radiology residents and radiography students (94.4% vs 55% and 35.7%, respectively; P < 0.05), with no cases of perceived excellent knowledge among radiography students. However, the actual knowledge of essential radiation protection topics such as regulations, patient and tissue susceptibility to radiation damage, professional radiation risk and dose optimisation, as well as of radiation doses delivered by common radiological procedures was significantly worse among medical students than radiology residents and radiography students (P < 0.05). Those latter significantly outperformed radiology residents as to knowledge of radiation protection issues (P < 0.01). Overall, less than 50% of survey respondents correctly answered all questions of the survey. Conclusions: Radiology residents, radiography students and medical students have a limited awareness about radiation protection, with a specific gap of knowledge concerning real radiation doses of daily radiological

  4. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  6. Partners in Science: A Suggested Framework for Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Public participation in scientific research, also known as citizen science, is effective on many levels: it produces sound, publishable science and data, helps participants gain scientific knowledge and learn about the methods and practices of modern science, and can help communities advance their own priorities. Unfortunately, the demographics of citizen science programs do not reflect the demographics of the US; in general people of color and less affluent members of society are under-represented. To understand the reasons for this disparity, it is useful to look to the broader research about participation in science in a variety of informal and formal settings. From this research, the causes for unequal participation in science can be grouped into three broad categories: accessibility challenges, cultural differences, and a gap between scientific goals and community priorities. Many of these challenges are addressed in working with communities to develop an integrated program of scientific research, education, and community action that addresses community priorities and invites community participation at every stage of the process from defining the question to applying the results. In the spectrum of ways to engage the public in scientific research, this approach of "co-creation" is the most intensive. This talk will explore several examples of co-creation of science, including collaborations with tribal communities around climate change adaptation, work in the Louisiana Delta concerning land loss, and the link between weather and disease in Africa. We will articulate some of the challenges of working this intensively with communities, and suggest a general framework for guiding this kind of work with communities. This model of intensive collaboration at every stage is a promising one for adding to the diversity of citizen science efforts. It also provides a powerful strategy for science more generally, and may help us diversify our field, ensure the use and

  7. Clarification of the memory artefact in the assessment of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P

    2008-04-01

    effect on either of these measures; multiple presentation of the GSS2 produced a modest increase in recognition memory and a modest decrease in suggestibility; and replacing the GSS with the ASS3 produced a large increase in recognition memory and a large decrease in suggestibility. The results support earlier findings that the GSS is likely to overestimate how suggestible a person will be in relation to a personally significant event. This reflects poor recognition memory for the material being tested, rather than increased suggestibility per se. People with ID may in fact be relatively non-suggestible for well-remembered events, which would include personally significant events, particularly those witnessed recently.

  8. Belief in the paranormal and suggestion in the seance room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma; Smith, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    In Experiment 1, participants took part in a fake seance. An actor suggested that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. Results also showed a significant relationship between the reported movement of the table and belief in the paranormal, with a greater percentage of believers than disbelievers, reporting that the table had moved. Experiment 2 varied whether the suggestion was consistent, or inconsistent, with participants' belief in the paranormal. Results again showed that believers were more susceptible to suggestion than disbelievers, but only when the suggestion was consistent with their belief in the paranormal. Approximately one fifth of participants believed that the fake seances contained genuine paranormal phenomena.

  9. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  10. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  11. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  12. Results of the Safety probabilistic analysis of Level 2 of the CNSNS; Resultados del analisis probabilista de seguridad de nivel 2 de la CNSNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, R.; Godinez S, V. [CNSNS, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: rlopezm@cnsns.gob.mx

    2004-07-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) it has concluded the one develop of their Probabilistic Analysis of Safety (APS) of Level 2. The reach of the study it considers internal events to full power and it was developed on the base of the methodology of the NUREG-1150, for what you it was built an Event Tree of the Progression of the Accident (APET) to analyze the 25 States of Damage to the Plant (PDS) obtained of the APS Nl of the CNSNS. In the APET are considered the phenomenology of severe accidents, the performance of mitigation systems and actions of the operator that could modify the evolution of a severe accident in the CNLV, as well as the diverse modes of failure of the primary container and it identifies the trajectories of liberation of radioactive material to the exterior. The conditional probabilities of failure of the primary container were obtained and it was characterized the time so much to which happens the liberation of radioactive material as the quantity of the term liberated source. Also, to establish the times and parameters of the evolution of accidents were selected representative accident sequences of the diverse accident types and their conditions were simulated by means of the MELCOR computer code. Also it was developed a code of parametric compute type XSOR, specific for Laguna Verde, with which it was carried out the estimate of the term source in each one of the release trajectories. In this work the main characteristic ones are presented and results of the APS N2 developed in the CNSNS and they are compared against the model and results of the EIP of the CNLV. (Author)

  13. Suggested instructions for the completion of delivery commitment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the Delivery Commitment Schedule form contained in Appendix C of the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (the Standard Contract). In particular, the presentation describes some preliminary suggested instructions for completing the form in a manner that may aid the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the development of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS)

  14. Analysis of existing risk assessments, and list of suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Heimsch, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this project was to analyse risk assessments made at CERN and extracting some crucial information about the different methodologies used, profiles of people who make the risk assessments, and gathering information of whether the risk matrix was used and if the acceptable level of risk was defined. Second step of the project was to trigger discussion inside HSE about risk assessment by suggesting a risk matrix and a risk assessment template.

  15. Effect of a multi-level intervention on nurse—patient communication in the intensive care unit: Results of the SPEACS trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Mary Beth; Garrett, Kathryn L.; Tate, Judith A.; DiVirgilio, Dana; Houze, Martin P.; Demirci, Jill R.; George, Elisabeth; Sereika, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the impact of two levels of intervention on communication frequency, quality, success, and ease between nurses and intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Design Quasi-experimental, 3-phase sequential cohort study: (1) usual care, (2) basic communication skills training (BCST) for nurses, (3) additional training in augmentative and alternative communication devices and speech language pathologist consultation (AAC + SLP). Trained observers rated four 3-min video-recordings for each nurseepatient dyad for communication frequency, quality and success. Patients self-rated communication ease. Setting Two ICUs in a university-affiliated medical center. Participants 89 intubated patients awake, responsive and unable to speak and 30 ICU nurses. Main results Communication frequency (mean number of communication acts within a communication exchange) and positive nurse communication behaviors increased significantly in one ICU only. Percentage of successful communication exchanges about pain were greater for the two intervention groups than the usual care/control group across both ICUs (p = .03) with more successful sessions about pain and other symptoms in the AAC + SLP group (p = .07). Patients in the AAC SLP intervention group used significantly more AAC methods (p = .002) and rated communication at high difficulty less often (p communication skills training, materials and SLP consultation intervention in the ICU. PMID:24495519

  16. Pilot-Scale Test Results Of A Thin Film Evaporator System For Management Of Liquid High-Level Wastes At The Hanford Site Washington USA -11364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.; Tedesch, A.R.; Wilson, R.A.; Beck, T.H.; Larkin, J.

    2011-01-01

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  17. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of endostatin in vivo results in high level of transgene expression and inhibition of tumor growth and metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Bernhard V.; Martinet, Olivier; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Mandeli, John; Woo, Savio L. C.

    2000-04-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to be an effective strategy in cancer therapy in mice. However, its widespread application has been hampered by difficulties in the large-scale production of the antiangiogenic proteins. This limitation may be resolved by in vivo delivery and expression of the antiangiogenic genes. We have constructed a recombinant adenovirus that expresses murine endostatin that is biologically active both in vitro, as determined in endothelial cell proliferation assays, and in vivo, by suppression of angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor 165. Persistent high serum levels of endostatin (605-1740 ng/ml; mean, 936 ng/ml) were achieved after systemic administration of the vector to nude mice, which resulted in significant reduction of the growth rates and the volumes of JC breast carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). In addition, the endostatin vector treatment completely prevented the formation of pulmonary micrometastases in Lewis lung carcinoma (P = 0.0001). Immunohistochemical staining of the tumors demonstrated a decreased number of blood vessels in the treatment group versus the controls. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates the potential of vector-mediated antiangiogenic gene therapy as a component in cancer therapy.

  18. Providing critical laboratory results on time, every time to help reduce emergency department length of stay: how our laboratory achieved a Six Sigma level of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Kenneth E

    2013-08-01

    To develop a fully automated core laboratory, handling samples on a "first in, first out" real-time basis with Lean/Six Sigma management tools. Our primary goal was to provide services to critical care areas, eliminating turnaround time outlier percentage (TAT-OP) as a factor in patient length of stay (LOS). A secondary goal was to achieve a better laboratory return on investment. In 2011, we reached our primary goal when we calculated the TAT-OP distribution and found we had achieved a Six Sigma level of performance, ensuring that our laboratory service can be essentially eliminated as a factor in emergency department patient LOS. We also measured return on investment, showing a productivity improvement of 35%, keeping pace with our increased testing volume. As a result of our Lean process improvements and Six Sigma initiatives, in part through (1) strategic deployment of point-of-care testing and (2) core laboratory total automation with robotics, middleware, and expert system technology, physicians and nurses at the Oklahoma University Medical Center can more effectively deliver lifesaving health care using evidence-based protocols that depend heavily on "on time, every time" laboratory services.

  19. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  20. Assessing Ecosystem Drought Response in CLM 4.5 Using Site-Level Flux and Carbon-Isotope Measurements: Results From a Pacific Northwest Coniferous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, H.; Raczka, B. M.; Koven, C. D.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Lin, J. C.; Bowling, D. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The frequency, extent, and severity of droughts are expected to increase in the western United States as climate changes occur. The combination of warmer temperature, larger vapor pressure deficit, reduced snowfall and snow pack, earlier snow melt, and extended growing seasons is expected to lead to an intensification of summer droughts, with a direct impact on ecosystem productivity and therefore on the carbon budget of the region. In this scenario, an accurate representation of ecosystem drought response in land models becomes fundamental, but the task is challenging, especially in regards to stomatal response to drought. In this study we used the most recent release of the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5), which now includes photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and revised photosynthesis and hydrology schemes, among an extensive list of updates. We evaluated the model's performance at a coniferous forest site in the Pacific northwest (Wind River AmeriFlux Site), characterized by a climate that has a strong winter precipitation component followed by a summer drought. We ran the model in offline mode (i.e., decoupled from an atmospheric model), forced by observed meteorological data, and used site observations (e.g., surface fluxes, biomass values, and carbon isotope data) to assess the model. Previous field observations indicated a significant negative correlation between soil water content and the carbon isotope ratio of ecosystem respiration (δ13CR), suggesting that δ13CR was closely related to the photosynthetic discrimination against 13CO2 as controlled by stomatal conductance. We used these observations and latent-heat flux measurements to assess the modeled stomatal conductance values and their responses to extended summer drought. We first present the model results, followed by a discussion of potential CLM model improvements in stomatal conductance responses and in the representation of soil water stress (parameter βt) that would more precisely

  1. Work stress and hair cortisol levels among workers in a Bangladeshi ready-made garment factory - Results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinisch, Maria; Yusuf, Rita; Li, Jian; Stalder, Tobias; Bosch, Jos A; Rahman, Omar; Strümpell, Christian; Ashraf, Hasan; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Evidence on the association of work stress with cortisol levels is inconsistent and mostly stems from Western countries, with limited generalizability to other regions of the world. These inconsistencies may partly be due to methodological limitations associated with the measurement of cortisol secretion in saliva, serum or urine. The present study set out to explore associations of work stress with long-term integrated cortisol levels in hair among 175 workers of an export oriented ready-made garment (RMG) factory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Work-related demands (WD), interpersonal resources (IR) and work-related values (WV) were assessed using a psychometrically evaluated interview. WD consisted of four items on physical demands, time pressure, worries about mistakes and exposure to abusive language. IR comprised five items addressing support, recognition, adequate payment, workers' trust in the management, and the management's trust in workers, as perceived by the workers. WV captured job security, promotion prospects and job latitude by three items. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Stepwise multivariable linear regression models (backward elimination of predictors) were used to estimate associations of HCC with the three work stress components. For significant work stress component(s), further multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to explore whether, and if so, which individual item(s) contributed most. The mean HCC equaled 3.27 (SD 2.58) pg/mg. HCC were found to be significantly associated with WV (beta=0.209, p=0.021). Additional analyses of the three WV items revealed that this association was largely driven the item on "promotion prospects" (beta=0.230, p=0.007) implying that the perception of good promotion prospects was associated with higher HCC. The finding of elevated HCC with good promotion prospects may initially seem counter-intuitive, but is supported by research documenting

  2. Cholecalciferol 20 000 IU Once Weekly in HIV-Positive Patients with Low Vitamin D Levels: Result from a Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Sebastian; Heldwein, Silke; Pascucchi, Rita; Oldenbüttel, Celia; Wiese, C; von Krosigk, Ariane; Jägel-Guedes, Eva; Jäger, Hans; Mayer, Wolfgang; Spinner, Christoph D; Wolf, Eva

    To evaluate efficacy and safety of 20 000 IU cholecalciferol weekly in HIV-infected patients. Longitudinal data for 243 HIV-infected patients with paired 25-OH-vitamin D3 values for the same month in 2 consecutive years were stratified by the initiation of supplementation in this retrospective study. After 1 year of administration of